WorldWideScience

Sample records for clean gasoline reforming

  1. Performance comparison of autothermal reforming for liquid hydrocarbons, gasoline and diesel for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Inyong; Bae, Joongmyeon; Bae, Gyujong

    This paper discusses the reforming of liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for fuel cell applications, focusing on gasoline and diesel due to their high hydrogen density and well-established infrastructures. Gasoline and diesel are composed of numerous hydrocarbon species including paraffins, olefins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics. We have investigated the reforming characteristics of several representative liquid hydrocarbons. In the case of paraffin reforming, H 2 yield and reforming efficiency were close to thermodynamic equilibrium status (TES), although heavier hydrocarbons required slightly higher temperatures than lighter hydrocarbons. However, the conversion efficiency was much lower for aromatics than paraffins with similar carbon number. We have also investigated the reforming performance of simulated commercial diesel and gasoline using simple synthetic diesel and gasoline compositions. Reforming performances of our formulations were in good agreement with those of commercial fuels. In addition, the reforming of gas to liquid (GTL) resulted in high H 2 yield and reforming efficiency showing promise for possible fuel cell applications.

  2. Efficiency enhancement in gasoline reforming through the recirculation of reformate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, J. [DaimlerChrysler AG, RBP/AS, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Sommer, M. [DaimlerChrysler AG, RTC/A, 70567 Stuttgart (Germany); Diezinger, S.; Trimis, D.; Durst, F. [FAU Erlangen-Nurnberg, LSTM, 91031 Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-03-21

    Fuel processors for on-board hydrogen production have to meet numerous technical demands. They should be efficient, compact and lightweight, capable of different loads and able to perform cold start ups. In this paper, the recirculation of reformate is proposed as a means of efficiency enhancement. Different system configurations based on this idea are introduced and simulated. The resulting effect on the system's efficiency, the water balance as well as the impact of recirculation on the system's volume and weight are discussed. (author)

  3. A scenario-based clean gasoline production strategy for China National Petroleum Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Haiyan; Yu Jianning; Fan Yu; Shi Gang; Bao Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    Facing increasingly strict environmental regulations on transportation fuels,China National Petroleum Corp.(CNPC),the second largest supplier of petroleum products in China,needs to upgrade its transportation fuels.Using the scenario-based analysis method,this paper analyzes how the emission related properties,including antiknock index,and sulfur,olefin,benzene and aromatics contents of gasoline produced by CNPC,vary with the change in the configuration of gasoline production units in the future 5-15 years.The results showed that for CNPC to upgrade its gasoline,the share of fluid catalytic cracking(FCC)naphtha must be reduced,but just increasing reformate or alkylate and isomerate will result in excessive increase in benzene and aromatics contents or a great loss of gasoline octane number.Therefore,CNPC should suitably control the capacity of its FCC units and increase the capacity of reformer,alkylation and isomerization units.Most importantly,CNPC should dramatically expand the capacity of its hydrotreating or non-hydrotreating gasoline upgrading units to decrease the olefin and sulfur contents in FCC gasoline that takes a dominant share of about 80% in the gasoline pool of China.

  4. HYDROGENATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PROD—UCTION OF CLEAN GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUEL IN RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIEHong; SHIYa-hua; SHIYu-lin; KANGXiao-hong; LIDa-dong

    2003-01-01

    It is necessary to produce low sulfur /low olefin gasoline and low sulfur /low aromatics diesel fuel for reducing the air pollution from automobile exhausted gas.Major component in gasoline pool in China is from FCCU,resulting in higher olefin content in product gasoline.The difficult point in producing clean gasoline is to lower down the olefin content while retaining RON of gasoline as much as possible.Based on the properties of gasoline,RIPP has developed technology(RIDOS) for reducing both sulfur and olefin contents by the same process.The technology shows that its hy-dro-iso-cracking performance to some extent can reduce the olefin content from 50%-60% to less than 20%,and road octane loss is less than 2.In deep hydro-desulfurization of diesel fuel,the key than 20%,and road octane loss is less than 2.In deep hydro-desulfurization of diesel fuel,the key point is to remove dibenzhothiophen(DBT)with methyl substitute in 4 and 6 positions.To solve this problem,RN-10 catalyst with high hydrogenation activity was developed by reinforcing the hydrogenation function.The catalyst featured with less spatial hindrance effect after the DMDBT was hydrogenated,meanwhile ,it has high activity in aromatics saturation.Diesel fuel with low sulfur and low aromatics content can be manufactured from SRGO or FCC diesel fraction.RIPP has developed more technologies such as MHUG,RMC and RICH for production of clean diesel fuel with low sulfur/aromatics and low density with increased cetane number.

  5. Gasoline compression ignition approach to efficient, clean and affordable future engines

    KAUST Repository

    Kalghatgi, Gautam

    2017-04-03

    The worldwide demand for transport fuels will increase significantly but will still be met substantially (a share of around 90%) from petroleum-based fuels. This increase in demand will be significantly skewed towards commercial vehicles and hence towards diesel and jet fuels, leading to a probable surplus of lighter low-octane fuels. Current diesel engines are efficient but expensive and complicated because they try to reduce the nitrogen oxide and soot emissions simultaneously while using conventional diesel fuels which ignite very easily. Gasoline compression ignition engines can be run on gasoline-like fuels with a long ignition delay to make low-nitrogen-oxide low-soot combustion very much easier. Moreover, the research octane number of the optimum fuel for gasoline compression ignition engines is likely to be around 70 and hence the surplus low-octane components could be used without much further processing. Also, the final boiling point can be higher than those of current gasolines. The potential advantages of gasoline compression ignition engines are as follows. First, the engine is at least as efficient and clean as current diesel engines but is less complicated and hence could be cheaper (lower injection pressure and after-treatment focus on control of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions rather than on soot and nitrogen oxide emissions). Second, the optimum fuel requires less processing and hence would be easier to make in comparison with current gasoline or diesel fuel and will have a lower greenhouse-gas footprint. Third, it provides a path to mitigate the global demand imbalance between heavier fuels and lighter fuels that is otherwise projected and improve the sustainability of refineries. The concept has been well demonstrated in research engines but development work is needed to make it feasible on practical vehicles, e.g. on cold start, adequate control of exhaust carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and control of noise at medium to high loads

  6. Reformulated Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reformulated gasoline (RFG) is gasoline blended to burn cleaner and reduce smog-forming and toxic pollutants in the air we breathe. The Clean Air Act requires that RFG be used to reduce harmful emissions of ozone.

  7. Skin cleaning with kerosene facilitates passage of carcinogens to the lungs of animals treated with used gasoline engine oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Roh, J H; Burks, D; Warshawsky, D; Talaska, G

    2000-04-01

    Solvents such as kerosene or gasoline may be used by workers to clean their skin following contact with oily materials. This practice is not recommended, as it is well known that the solvent will defat the skin. Many also suspect that solvent washing may increase exposure by carrying materials through the skin; however, there is little documentation of this. Auto mechanics may be exposed to used gasoline engine oil (UGEO), an animal carcinogen which forms carcinogen-DNA adducts in skin and lung following topical application. This study was designed to determine if cleaning with kerosene following exposure to UGEO altered absorption of carcinogens from this material. UGEO or new oil (NO) was applied to the shaved skins of groups of HSD-ICR mice for five days. At 1 or 8 hours after application, the treated skins were cleaned with either kerosene or a commercial cleaner, or were not cleaned. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last application, skins and lungs harvested, and DNA analyzed for carcinogen-DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling. Five applications of UGEO significantly increased carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in both lungs and skin compared to animals treated with NO. DNA adduct levels in the skin were reduced significantly in groups washed with kerosene or commercial cleaner. Washing at one as opposed to eight hours after UGEO application resulted in lower adduct levels regardless of cleaner. DNA adduct levels in the lung were reduced when the commercial cleaner was used, again in a time-related fashion. However, cleaning with kerosene resulted in mean carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in the lung which were significantly higher than even the positive controls, regardless of cleaning time. This is the first demonstration that kerosene cleaning facilitates passage of carcinogens through the skin, resulting in higher levels of genetic damage in a critical internal organ.

  8. Rh-Ni and Rh-Co Catalysts for Autothermal Reforming of Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yeongyu; Lee, Daehyung; Kim, Yongmin; Lee, Jinhee; Nam, Sukwoo; Choi, Daeki; Yoon, Chang Won [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Rh doped Ni and Co catalysts, Rh-M/CeO{sub 2}(20 wt %)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.2 wt % of Rh; M = Ni or Co, 20 wt %) were synthesized to produce hydrogen via autothermal reforming (ATR) of commercial gasoline at 700 .deg. C under the conditions of a S/C ratio of 2.0, an O/C ratio of 0.84, and a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 20,000 h{sup -1}. The Rh-Ni/CeO{sub 2}(20 wt %)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (1) exhibited excellent activities, with H{sub 2} and (H{sub 2}+CO) yields of 2.04 and 2.58 mol/mol C, respectively. In addition, this catalyst proved to be highly stable over 100 h without catalyst deactivation, as evidenced by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and elemental analyses. Compared to 1, Rh-Co/CeO{sub 2}(20 wt %)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (2) exhibited relatively low stability, and its activity decreased after 57 h. In line with this observation, elemental analyses confirmed that nearly no carbon species were formed at 1 while carbon deposits (10 wt %) were found at 2 following the reaction, which suggests that carbon coking is the main process for catalyst deactivation.

  9. Petroleum refining. Catalytic reforming to produce high octane gasoline; Le raffinage du petrole brut. Produire de l'essence grace au reformage catalytique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travers, Ch.; Clause, O. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2002-06-01

    Most refineries are equipped with catalytic reforming units. This process serves to produce high octane gasoline from naphtha cuts consisting mainly of straight-run gasolines. In addition it provides the hydrogen required by the refinery for hydro-treatment reactions.The integration of this unit in the global refining scheme is first presented and then the mechanism of the different reactions, the different existing catalysts and their use in different processes are considered. (authors)

  10. HYDROGENATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCTION OF CLEAN GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUEL IN RIPP%生产清洁汽柴油的加氢技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂红; 石亚华; 石玉林; 康小洪; 李大东

    2003-01-01

    It is necessary to produce low sulfur /low olefin gasoline and low sulfur /low aromatics diesel fuel for reducing the air pollution from automobile exhausted gas. Major component in gasoline pool in China is from FCCU, resulting in higher olefin content in product gasoline. The difficult point in producing clean gasoline is to lower down the olefin content while retaining RON of gasoline as much as possible. Based on the properties of gasoline, RIPP has developed technology (RIDOS) for reducing both sulfur and olefin contents by the same process. The technology shows that its hydro-iso-cracking performance to some extent can reduce the olefin content from 50%~60% to less than 20%, and road octane loss is less than 2. In deep hydro-desulfurization of diesel fuel, the key point is to remove dibenzhothiophen (DBT) with methyl substitute in 4 and 6 positions. To solve this problem, RN-10 catalyst with high hydrogenation activity was developed by reinforcing the hydrogenation function. The catalyst featured with less spatial hindrance effect after the DMDBT was hydrogenated, meanwhile, it has high activity in aromatics saturation. Diesel fuel with low sulfur and low aromatics content can be manufactured from SRGO or FCC diesel fraction. RIPP has deve-loped more technologies such as MHUG, RMC and RICH for production of clean diesel fuel with low sulfur/aromatics and low density with increased cetane number.

  11. New Catalytic Materials for Meeting the Challenge of Clean Gasoline & Diesel Fuel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Baoning; Min Enze; He Mingyuan; Li Dadong

    2000-01-01

    New catalytic materials, which may bring important improvement or technical breakthrough to the petroleum refining technology for producing reformulated gasoline and low sulfur and aromatics diesel fuel, are discussed. For the purpose of producing high octane number gasoline and light olefins for etherification and alkylation processes, major improvements are achieved by the use of high reactivity-stability MFI type ZRP and low cost beta zeolites. A solid P-W heteropolyacid supported on SiO2 for replacing currently used HF and H2SO4 in alkylation process of isobutane with butenes, is under the pilot trial. For the production of low sulfur and aromatics diesel fuel, high surface area supported metallic nitrides are under extensive studies.

  12. California Tribal Gasoline Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing a draft general permit under the Clean Air Act Federal Indian Country Minor NSR program for gasoline dispensing facilities, such as gas stations, located in Indian country within the geographical boundaries of California.

  13. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  14. Leaded gasoline to Be Phased out in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China is taking measures to phase out leaded gasoline and ensure less emission from motor vehicles. The government will implement pricing reforms so that unleaded gasoline costs less than leaded fuel.

  15. 蜡油加氢处理技术在清洁汽油生产中的应用%APPLICATION OF RVHT TECHNOLOGY FOR CLEAN GASOLINE PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关志鹏

    2012-01-01

    中国石化茂名分公司1.8 Mt/a蜡油加氢处理装置采用中国石化石油化工科学研究院开发的劣质蜡油加氢处理RVHT技术及配套催化剂,以劣质蜡油为原料,在适宜的操作条件下可生产硫质量分数小于0.1%的精制蜡油作为后续催化裂化装置的优质原料.实践证明,采用蜡油加氢处理-催化裂化组合技术可生产满足粤Ⅳ排放标准的清洁汽油调合组分,带来良好的经济和社会效益.%Vacuum gas oil (VGO) hydrotreating technology (RVHT) and relative catalyst series developed by Research Institute of Petroleum Processing was applied in the 1. 8 Mt/a VGO hydrotreating unit of Maoming Company, SINOPEC, by which using inferior feedstocks under mild reaction conditions, hydrotreated VGO with sulfur content less than 0. 1% could be obtained for FCC units. Operation results showed that with the integrated process of VGO hydrotreating and FCC using the hydrotreated VGO as feed, clean gasoline blending components meeting the requirements of Guangdong exhaust emission standard IV could be produced, and good social and economic benefits were achieved.

  16. 微库仑法测定重整汽油中氯含量%Determination of chlorine content in reformed gasoline by microcoulometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘轶群; 吴慧玲

    2000-01-01

    The chlorine content in reformed gasoline was determined by microcoulometry, and the main factors influenced the conversion of chlorine were discussed. The results showed that the conversion of chlorine increased with the increase of sampling resistance, gain, gas flow and heater temperature of middle section, the conversion of chlorine decreased with the increase of integral gate, potential and heater temperature of inlet. The conversion of chlorine decreased when the feeding speed of sample was too high or too low.%采用微库仑法对重整汽油中的氯含量进行了测定,探讨了影响氯转化率的主要因素。结果表明:随着采样电阻、增益、气体流量、加热炉中间段炉温的提高,氯转化率随之提高;随着积分门坎、偏压、加热炉入口段炉温的提高,氯转化率随之降低;进样速度过高或过低,都会使氯转化率降低。

  17. Model biogas steam reforming in a thin Pd-supported membrane reactor to generate clean hydrogen for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iulianelli, A.; Liguori, S.; Huang, Y.; Basile, A.

    2015-01-01

    Steam reforming of a model biogas mixture is studied for generating clean hydrogen by using an inorganic membrane reactor, in which a composite Pd/Al2O3 membrane separates part of the produced hydrogen through its selective permeation. The characteristics of H2 perm-selectivity of the fresh membrane is expressed in terms of H2/N2 ideal selectivity, in this case equal to 4300. Concerning biogas steam reforming reaction, at 380 °C, 2.0 bar H2O:CH4 = 3:1, GHSV = 9000 h-1 the permeate purity of the recovered hydrogen is around 96%, although the conversion (15%) and hydrogen recovery (>20%) are relatively low; on the contrary, at 450 °C, 3.5 bar H2O:CH4 = 4:1, GHSV = 11000 h-1 the conversion is increased up to more than 30% and the recovery of hydrogen to about 70%. This novel work constitutes a reference study for new developments on biogas steam reforming reaction in membrane reactors.

  18. Green Gasoline from Wood using Carbona Gasification and Topsoe TIGAS Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udengaard, Niels [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Knight, Richard [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Wendt, Jesper [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Patel, Jim [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Walston, Kip [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Jokela, Pekka [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Adams, Cheryl [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-02-19

    This final report presents the results of a four-year technology demonstration project carried out by a consortium of companies sponsored in part by a $25 million funding by the Department of Energy (DOE) under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a new, economical technology for the thermochemical conversion of woody biomass into gasoline and to demonstrate that the gasoline produced in this way is suitable for direct inclusion in the already existing gasoline pool. The process that was demonstrated uses the Andritz-Carbona fluidized-bed steam-oxygen gasification technology and advanced tar reforming catalytic systems to produce a clean syngas from waste wood, integrated conventional gas cleanup steps, and finally utilizes Haldor Topsoe’s (Topsoe) innovative Topsoe Improved Gasoline Synthesis (TIGASTM) syngas-to-gasoline process. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out the bulk of the testing work at their Flex Fuel development facility in Des Plaines, Illinois; UPM in Minnesota supplied and prepared the feedstocks, and characterization of liquid products was conducted in Phillips 66 labs in Oklahoma. The produced gasoline was used for a single-engine emission test at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI®) in San Antonio, TX, as well as in a fleet test at Transportation Research Center, Inc. (TRC Inc.) in East Liberty, Ohio. The project benefited from the use of existing pilot plant equipment at GTI, including a 21.6 bone dry short ton/day gasifier, tar reformer, Morphysorb® acid gas removal, associated syngas cleanup and gasifier feeding and oxygen systems.

  19. Self-cleaning perovskite type catalysts for the dry reforming of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jehad Abu-Dahrieh a; Alexandre Goguet a; Kening Sun b; David Rooney a

    2014-01-01

    Gas-to-liquid processes are generally used to convert natural gas or other gaseous hydrocarbons into liquid fuels via an intermediate syngas stream. This includes the production of liquid fuels from biomass-derived sources such as biogas. For example, the dry reforming of methane is done by reacting CH4 and CO2, the two main components of natural biogas, into more valuable products, i.e., CO and H2. Nickel containing perovskite type catalysts can promote this reaction, yielding good conversions and selectivities; however, they are prone to coke laydown under certain operating conditions. We investigated the addition of high oxygen mobility dopants such as CeO2, ZrO2, or YSZ to reduce carbon laydown, particularly using reaction conditions that normally result in rapid cok-ing. While doping with YSZ, YDC, GDC, and SDC did not result in any improvement, we show that a Ni perovskite catalyst (Na0.5La0.5Ni0.3Al0.7O2.5) doped with 80.9 ZrO2 15.2 CeO2 gave the lowest amount of carbon formation at 800 °C and activity was maintained over the operating time.

  20. Gasoline toxicology: overview of regulatory and product stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    Significant efforts have been made to characterize the toxicological properties of gasoline. There have been both mandatory and voluntary toxicology testing programs to generate hazard characterization data for gasoline, the refinery process streams used to blend gasoline, and individual chemical constituents found in gasoline. The Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) is the primary tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate gasoline and this supplement presents the results of the Section 211(b) Alternative Tier 2 studies required for CAA Fuel and Fuel Additive registration. Gasoline blending streams have also been evaluated by EPA under the voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program through which the petroleum industry provide data on over 80 refinery streams used in gasoline. Product stewardship efforts by companies and associations such as the American Petroleum Institute (API), Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (CONCAWE), and the Petroleum Product Stewardship Council (PPSC) have contributed a significant amount of hazard characterization data on gasoline and related substances. The hazard of gasoline and anticipated exposure to gasoline vapor has been well characterized for risk assessment purposes.

  1. Producer gas cleaning in a dual fluidized bed reformer - a comparative study of performance with ilmenite and a manganese oxide as catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berguerand, Nicolas; Lind, Fredrik; Seemann, Martin; Thunman, Henrik [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    Secondary catalytic gas conditioning is one strategy to eliminate tars formed in a producer gas during biomass gasification. However, most catalysts tend to lose their tar reforming activity after a short period of operation due to carbon formation. A novel technique for catalytic gas cleaning based on two interconnected fluidized beds has been investigated; this technique can be applied to all types of gasifiers. The idea is to reform the tar components into useful molecules - even at high tar contents - by means of a circulating catalyst. More precisely, the producer gas is cleaned with catalyst in one of the reactors, referred to as the fuel reactor, while the catalyst is continuously regenerated in another reactor, the air reactor (AR). The system described here is coupled with the Chalmers 2-4 MW{sub th} biomass gasifier while the AR is fed with nitrogen-diluted air. The effect of different catalysts on both the tar content and the gas composition was investigated. Some of the tested materials do not only reform tars, they also influence the H{sub 2}/CO ratio in a beneficial manner; in particular, ratios closer to 3 in the reformed gas are favorable if subsequent methanation is implemented. In this paper, comparative results based on testing with manganese- and iron-based catalysts are presented. The former is a manufactured catalyst while the latter is a natural ore. Results suggest that both show satisfying ability for regeneration from carbon deposits. Higher temperature enhances tar decomposition during the experiment with both catalysts. Moreover, the iron-based catalyst enhances the water-gas shift activity, which in turn impacts the total amount of produced gas. On the other hand, the manganese-based catalyst seems to display a higher propensity for tar conversion. (orig.)

  2. Hydrogen Production with Steam Reforming of Dimethyl Ether

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaoru TAKEISHI; Akane ARASE

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Steam reforming of methanol and gasoline is actively researched and developed as hydrogen supply methods for the fuel cells of vehicles and so on. However, these materials have the problems such as the infrastructure, toxicity, difficulty of the reforming, and so forth. Dimethyl ether (DME) does not contain the poisonous substances, and is expected as a clean fuel of the next generation. DME is able to take the place of light oil and LPG, and its physical properties are similar to those of LPG. There is possibility that DME infrastructures will be settled more rapidly than those of hydrogen and methanol, because LPG infrastructures existing are able to use for DME. Then, we have been studying on steam reforming of DME for the hydrogen production.

  3. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  4. Research guidance studies to assess gasoline from coal by methanol-to-gasoline and sasol-type Fischer--Tropsch technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, M.

    1978-08-01

    This study provides a technical and economic comparison between the new Mobil methanol-to-gasoline technology under development and the commercially available Fischer--Tropsch technology for the production of motor gasoline meeting U.S. quality standards. Conceptual plant complexes, sited in Wyoming, are complete grass-roots facilities. The Lurgi dry-ash, pressure technology is used to gasify sub-bituminous strip coal. Except for the Mobil process, processes used are commercially available. Coproduction of products, namely SNG, LPG and gasoline, is practiced. Four sensitivity cases have also been developed in less detail from the two base cases. In all areas, the Mobil technology is superior to Fischer--Tropsch: process complexity, energy usage, thermal efficiency, gasoline selectivity, gasoline quality, investment and gasoline selectivity, gasoline quality, investment and gasoline cost. Principal advantages of the Mobil process are its selective yield of excellent quality gasoline with minimum ancillary processing. Fischer--Tropsch not only yields a spectrum of products, but the production of a gasoline meeting U.S. specifications is difficult and complex. This superiority results in about a 25% reduction in the gasoline cost. Sensitivity study conclusions include: (1) the conversion of methanol into gasoline over the Mobil catalyst is highly efficient, (2) if SNG is a valuable product, increased gasoline yield via the reforming of SNG is uneconomical, and (3) fluid-bed operation is somewhat superior to fixed-bed operation for the Mobil methanol conversion technology.

  5. Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, R F

    1993-01-01

    The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations. PMID:7517353

  6. Analysis of Measures and Effect on Reducing Olefin Content in Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article refers to major measures for reducing olefin content of automotive gasoline and the effect after adoption of these measures. The key for reducing olefin content in China's automotive gasoline pool is to reduce the olefin content of FCC naphtha. The domestic refiners apply the olefinreducing catalyst to decrease the olefin content of FCC gasoline as a convenient and cheap means to meet the national standard for automotive gasoline at the present phase. Furthermore, the novel domestic FCC reaction processes, such as the MIP, MGD, FDFCC and other processes can also apparently reduce olefin content in FCC gasoline. In order to further reduce the olefin content in gasoline to meet more stringent standard for automotive gasoline, Chinese refiners should optimize the processing scheme while aggressively disseminating hydrogenation process along with development of catalytic reforming,alkylation, etherification and other processes to completely change the simplistic composition of domestic gasoline pool.

  7. Governing China’s Clean Energy Transition: Policy Reforms, Flexible Implementation and the Need for Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the ten years since committing to clean energy transition, China has formulated a large number of policies and programs to achieve some very ambitious targets. This paper argues that the dearth of empirical studies concerning the implementation of these new policies and programs has created a knowledge gap between official policy documents, which are vague and lacking in specifics, and official policy outcomes, which are unreliable. In particular, the merits and limitations of flexible implementation with regard to desirable outcomes need to be debated and clarified. This paper calls for more empirical investigation in four areas as a starting point: (1 the nature and extent of flexibility in the implementation; (2 implementation strategies and their impacts; (3 factors that shape the behavior of local officials responsible for implementation; and (4 the relationship between the central-local relation and policy implementation.

  8. Global progress and backsliding on gasoline taxes and subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael L.; Hazlett, Chad; Mahdavi, Paasha

    2017-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades, many governments will have to reform their energy policies. These policies are difficult to measure with any precision. As a result, it is unclear whether progress has been made towards important energy policy reforms, such as reducing fossil fuel subsidies. We use new data to measure net taxes and subsidies for gasoline in almost all countries at the monthly level and find evidence of both progress and backsliding. From 2003 to 2015, gasoline taxes rose in 83 states but fell in 46 states. During the same period, the global mean gasoline tax fell by 13.3% due to faster consumption growth in countries with lower taxes. Our results suggest that global progress towards fossil fuel price reform has been mixed, and that many governments are failing to exploit one of the most cost-effective policy tools for limiting greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. [Effect of ethanol gasoline and unleaded gasoline on exhaust emissions of EFI vehicles with TWC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-jie; Wang, Wei; Tang, Da-gang; Cui, Ping

    2004-07-01

    The injectors' flow-rate of all test vehicles that each was fixed with a three-way catalytic converter (TWC) and Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI) was tested including before and after vehicles operated on unleaded and ethanol gasoline respectively running for a long time on real road. The three main engine-out exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) from vehicles operating on different fuels were also analyzed by exhaust testing procedure for the whole light-duty vehicle. Test results showed that comparing with unleaded gasoline and ethanol gasoline has a remarkable effect on decreasing engine-out exhaust emissions of CO and HC (both at about ten percent) and the exhaust emissions of CO, HC and NOx from vehicles with TWC respectively. When burning with unleaded gasoline the three main pollutants from vehicles with TWC have already or nearly reached Europe Exhaust First Standard, after changing to ethanol gasoline CO has drastically decreased at about thirty percent, while HC and NOx decreased at about eighteen and ten percent respectively, at this time which they were all above Europe Exhaust Standard First or nearly reached Europe Exhaust Second Standard; ethanol gasoline has also other better performance such as a slight cleaning function on injectors, a slower deteriorative trend of engine-out CO and HC and a longer operating life-span of TWC.

  10. Measures for Optimization of Aromatic-type and Gasoline-type CCR Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Wei

    2006-01-01

    This article based on the target products manufactured by the gasoline-type and aromatic-type continuous catalytic reforming (CCR) units makes an assessment on the technical indicators of these catalytic reforming units. This article also explores the technical measures for maximizing the target products delivered by the gasoline-type and aromatic-type CCR units with respect to the selection of catalysts, the optimization of feedstock and the optimized operating regime.

  11. Determination of trace Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in diesel and gasoline by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after sample clean up with hollow fiber solid phase microextraction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomngongo, Philiswa N.; Ngila, J. Catherine, E-mail: jcngila@uj.ac.za

    2014-08-01

    This study reports a simple and efficient method for the determination of trace Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in diesel and gasoline samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after matrix removal and analyte pre-concentration using hollow fiber-solid phase microextraction (HF–SPME). The optimization of HF-SPME procedure was carried out using two-level full factorial and central composite designs. Four factors (variables), that are, sample solution pH, acceptor phase amount, extraction time and eluent concentration were optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the precision was ≤ 3% (C = 10 μg L{sup −1}, n = 15), limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 μg L{sup −1} and 0.3–0.9 μg L{sup −1}, respectively, and the maximum preconcentration factor was 30. The HF-SPME method was applied for the determination of trace metals in real gasoline and diesel samples. - Highlights: • Hollow fiber solid phase microextraction of metal ions in diesel and gasoline • Use of hollow fiber-supported sol–gel combined with cation exchange resin • Optimization of HF-SPME using multivariate techniques • Determination of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn using ICP–MS • Relatively low LOD and LOQ.

  12. Deleading of gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Choudhuri

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available : Gasoline as normally supplied for running internal combustion engines contain added twtraethy lead for improving anti-knock properties. Due to the presence of lead, burning of the gasoline (for heating and illuminating purposes results in complete choking of the orifice at which it is burnt by thedeposition of lead in a short time and secondly fouls the environment with poisonous lead vapour. Two new methods based on chemical reaction and absorption to remove lead from gasoline have been discussed. The methods are simple, rapid and adaptable universally for running burner stoves, mantle lanterns and similar equipments.

  13. Alcohols as gasoline additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1982-12-01

    This paper showed that, when using alcohol octane-boosting additives to gasoline, one attains several goals at the same time: (a) there is an increased saving in petroleum crude, since the alcohol is not merely a substitute for gasoline but rather a substitute for the octane-boosting additives used in the manufacture of unleaded gasoline; and (b) the production of fermentation ethanol for a fuel purpose can help revitalize the agricultural sector in different economics systems, thus becoming a road to economic development.

  14. Gasoline Taxes and Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanjun; Linn, Joshua; Muehlegger, Erich J.

    2012-01-01

    Gasoline taxes can be employed to correct externalities associated with automobile use, to reduce dependency on foreign oil, and to raise government revenue. Our understanding of the optimal gasoline tax and the efficacy of existing taxes is largely based on empirical analysis of consumer responses to gasoline price changes. In this paper, we directly examine how gasoline taxes affect consumer behavior as distinct from tax-exclusive gasoline prices. Our analysis shows that a 5-cent tax increa...

  15. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  16. Major Problems Related with Operation of Catalytic Reforming Units and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    @@ Currently the catalytic reforming units are playing an increasingly important role for gasoline quality upgrading, increased production of high add-value aromatic compounds and supply of cheap hydrogen resources. The high proportion of FCC gasoline in China' s automotive gasoline pool has led to a quite significant gap in gasoline quality as compared to the demand of World Fuel Charter and even to the new Chinese standards for unleaded automotive gasoline. According to the statistical data, the ratio of FCC naphtha in the gasoline pool is 35% in the US and 27% in EU, whereas that number is 75% in China's gasoline pool. The share of reformate and other high-quality gasoline components in the gasoline pool is 65% in the US and 73% in EU, whereas that number is merely 14% in China's gasoline pool along with a definite share of low-octane (straight-run) gasoline. Therefore, devoting major efforts to the development of catalytic reforming technology to increase the output of high-octane, lowolefin and low-sulfur reformer gasoline component is an effective avenue for gasoline quality upgrading along with increased production of high add-value aromatics and cheap hydrogen.

  17. Global gasoline prices: The need to raise gasoline taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin Lawell, C.-Y. Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Gasoline taxes are considered to be a cost-effective policy instrument for reducing carbon emissions. A study finds that while gasoline taxes rose in 83 countries between 2003 and 2015, the global mean fell by 13.3% due to a shift in consumption towards countries that maintain gasoline subsidies or that have low taxes.

  18. Desulfurization of gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J E

    1975-04-01

    Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures.

  19. Who Pays the Gasoline Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Chernick, Howard; Reschovsky, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes panel data over 11 years (both backward from 1982 and forward from 1982) to determine the average gasoline tax burden. Considers links between economic mobility, gasoline consumption, and excise tax increases.

  20. Butanol / Gasoline Mercury CRADA Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Butanol / Gasoline Mercury CRADA Report Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release; distribution is unlimited. February 2015...Report No. CG-D-11-15 Butanol / Gasoline Mercury CRADA Report UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | M. Wiggins et al. Public | February 2015 ii...States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Butanol / Gasoline Mercury CRADA Report

  1. Emissions and Total Energy Consumption of a Multicylinder Piston Engine Running on Gasoline and a Hydrogen-gasoline Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    A multicylinder reciprocating engine was used to extend the efficient lean operating range of gasoline by adding hydrogen. Both bottled hydrogen and hydrogen produced by a research methanol steam reformer were used. These results were compared with results for all gasoline. A high-compression-ratio, displacement production engine was used. Apparent flame speed was used to describe the differences in emissions and performance. Therefore, engine emissions and performance, including apparent flame speed and energy lost to the cooling system and the exhaust gas, were measured over a range of equivalence ratios for each fuel. All emission levels decreased at the leaner conditions. Adding hydrogen significantly increased flame speed over all equivalence ratios.

  2. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  3. Gasoline risk management: a compendium of regulations, standards, and industry practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    This paper is part of a special series of publications regarding gasoline toxicology testing and gasoline risk management; this article covers regulations, standards, and industry practices concerning gasoline risk management. Gasoline is one of the highest volume liquid fuel products produced globally. In the U.S., gasoline production in 2013 was the highest on record (API, 2013). Regulations such as those pursuant to the Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) and many others provide the U.S. federal government with extensive authority to regulate gasoline composition, manufacture, storage, transportation and distribution practices, worker and consumer exposure, product labeling, and emissions from engines and other sources designed to operate on this fuel. The entire gasoline lifecycle-from manufacture, through distribution, to end-use-is subject to detailed, complex, and overlapping regulatory schemes intended to protect human health, welfare, and the environment. In addition to these legal requirements, industry has implemented a broad array of voluntary standards and best management practices to ensure that risks from gasoline manufacturing, distribution, and use are minimized.

  4. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  5. Hydrogen Generation from Plasmatron Reforming Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Fu-bing; HU You-ping; LI Ge-sheng; GAO Xiao-hong

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen generation through plasmatron reforming of ethanol has been carried out in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The reforming of pure ethanol and mixtures of ethanol-water have been studied. The gas chromatography (GC) analysis has shown that in all conditions the reforming yield was H2, CO, CH4 and CO2 as the main products, and with little C2* . The hydrogen-rich gas can be used as fuel for gasoline engine and other applications.

  6. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline...

  7. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  8. Study on the Reform of Internal Governance Structure in Univer-sities and the Construction of a Clean Government%大学内部治理结构改革与党风廉政建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪保安; 吴忠宁

    2015-01-01

    In universities, to deepen the reform of the internal governance structure and strengthen the cultivation of the Party’s conduct and a clean government are not only the core content of modern university system with Chinese characteristics, but also an important guarantee to promote a comprehensive reform of universities. The underlying causes of the frequent occurrence of corruption include unclear power and responsibility, imperfect power constraint mechanism, and weakened power supervision. To formulate and implement the university statutes and promote the modernization of university governance, we can standardize, balance and supervise public power, which will fundamentally promote the construction of the Party conduct and the clean gov-ernment. It is the mark of the maturity and the inevitable choice of modern universities with Chinese characteristics.%深化内部治理结构、加强党风廉政建设,既是中国特色现代大学制度的核心内容,也是全面推进高校综合改革的重要保障。高校腐败现象发生的根源在于权力配置和责任不清晰、权力约束机制不健全、权力监督问责弱化等问题。制定和实施大学章程,推动大学治理现代化,从源头上规范、制衡、监督权力,从根本上促进高校党风廉政建设,这也是中国特色现代大学走向成熟的标志和必然选择。

  9. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  10. Data on Ethanol in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

  11. Selective Hydrodesulfurization of FCC Gasoline Using LH-07 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Jianwen; Han Xinzhu; Liu Aihua; Xu Xinzhong

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1.Introduction Since the environmental regulations are increasingly strin gent than ever, the production of clean automobile fuel is a vital target in China, especially after China has become a WTO member. However, the sulfur content in gasoline pool of China is still very high. Over 95% of the sulfur in gaso line pool comes from FCC naphtha. It is necessary to remove sulfur in FCC naphtha.

  12. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: generation and characterization of test materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Michael; Letinski, Daniel J; Carr, John; Caro, Mario L; Daughtrey, Wayne; White, Russell

    2014-11-01

    In compliance with the Clean Air Act regulations for fuel and fuel additive registration, the petroleum industry, additive manufacturers, and oxygenate manufacturers have conducted comparative toxicology testing on evaporative emissions of gasoline alone and gasoline containing fuel oxygenates. To mimic real world exposures, a generation method was developed that produced test material similar in composition to the re-fueling vapor from an automotive fuel tank at near maximum in-use temperatures. Gasoline vapor was generated by a single-step distillation from a 1000-gallon glass-lined kettle wherein approximately 15-23% of the starting material was slowly vaporized, separated, condensed and recovered as test article. This fraction was termed vapor condensate (VC) and was prepared for each of the seven test materials, namely: baseline gasoline alone (BGVC), or gasoline plus an ether (G/MTBE, G/ETBE, G/TAME, or G/DIPE), or gasoline plus an alcohol (G/EtOH or G/TBA). The VC test articles were used for the inhalation toxicology studies described in the accompanying series of papers in this journal. These studies included evaluations of subchronic toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity. Results of these studies will be used for comparative risk assessments of gasoline and gasoline/oxygenate blends by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  13. Autoignition characteristics of oxygenated gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changyoul

    2017-08-14

    Gasoline anti-knock quality, defined by the research and motor octane numbers (RON and MON), is important for increasing spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency. Gasoline knock resistance can be increased using a number of blending components. For over two decades, ethanol has become a popular anti-knock blending agent with gasoline fuels due to its production from bio-derived resources. This work explores the oxidation behavior of two oxygenated certification gasoline fuels and the variation of fuel reactivity with molecular composition. Ignition delay times of Haltermann (RON = 91) and Coryton (RON = 97.5) gasolines have been measured in a high-pressure shock tube and in a rapid compression machine at three pressures of 10, 20 and 40 bar, at equivalence ratios of φ = 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8, and in the temperature range of 650–1250 K. The results indicate that the effects of fuel octane number and fuel composition on ignition characteristics are strongest in the intermediate temperature (negative temperature coefficient) region. To simulate the reactivity of these gasolines, three kinds of surrogates, consisting of three, four and eight components, are proposed and compared with the gasoline ignition delay times. It is shown that more complex surrogate mixtures are needed to emulate the reactivity of gasoline with higher octane sensitivity (S = RON–MON). Detailed kinetic analyses are performed to illustrate the dependence of gasoline ignition delay times on fuel composition and, in particular, on ethanol content.

  14. Borehole induction logging for the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project LLNL gasoline spill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, S.; Newmark, R.; Wilt, M.

    1994-01-21

    Borehole induction logs were acquired for the purpose of characterizing subsurface physical properties and monitoring steam clean up activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This work was part of the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project`s demonstrated clean up of a gasoline spin. The site is composed of unconsolidated days, sands and gravels which contain gasoline both above and below the water table. Induction logs were used to characterize lithology, to provide ``ground truth`` resistivity values for electrical resistance tomography (ERT), and to monitor the movement of an underground steam plume used to heat the soil and drive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the extraction wells.

  15. Butanol/Gasoline Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    or diesel) is loaded into tanks previously containing low flash point products (such gasoline or naphtha ). (3) Storage tank level floats must be...Benzene (CAS-No.: 71-43-2) IARC: Gasoline, natural; Low boiling point naphtha (CAS-No.: 8006-61-9) Naphthalene (CAS-No.: 91-20-3) Benzene (CAS...Component: Gasoline, natural; Low boiling point naphtha Acute oral toxicity: LD50 rat (8006-61-9) Dose: 18.8 mg/kg Acute inhalation toxicity: LC50

  16. Federal Gasoline Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to regulate fuels and fuel additives for use in mobile sources if such fuel, fuel additive or any emission products causes or contributes to air or water pollution that may endanger the public health or welfare.

  17. COMMERCIAL TEST OF OLEFIN REDUCTION CATALYST AND NEW STANDARD GASOLINE PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To minimize air pollution, Beijing began to use new gasoline standard from July 1, 2000. To meet market need, the refinery of Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical Group Co. Ltd. performed the first commercial test of olefin reduction catalyst in 3# FCC unit. The test result shows that catalyst GOR-DQ can obviously reduce olefin content of FCC gasoline. With the test going on, olefin content in products decreased by 10%, little change in total liquid yield, but yield of gasoline and LCO slightly decreased, octane number, yields of LPG and coke increased. With FCC gesoline olefin reduction and the start up of CCR reforming unit, supply of qualified new standard gasoline has grown in this refinery.

  18. Biomass compounds converted to gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-08

    It is claimed that corn, castor, and jojoba oils as well as Hevea latex can be converted in high yields to gasoline by passage over zeolite catalysts at 450 degrees to 500 degrees centigrade. Gasoline yields are 60% from corn oil (essentially tristearin), compared with 50% yields from methanol. Latex depolymerizes before conversion. Fat and oil molecules adopt conformations that enable them to enter zeolite interstices, resulting in high yields of C6 to C9 aromatics.

  19. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  20. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro, E-mail: okamoto@nrips.go.jp [National Research Institute of Police Science, 6-3-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Muneyuki [Yamanashi Prefectural Police H.Q., 312-4 Kubonakajima, Isawa-cho, Usui, Yamanashi 406-0036 (Japan); Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma [Metropolitan Police Department, 2-1-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8929 (Japan); Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi [National Research Institute of Police Science, 6-3-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882 (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the molar mass of gasoline. • We proposed an evaporation model assuming a 2-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE. • We predicted the change in the vapor pressure of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation. • The vapor pressures were measured and compared as a means of verifying the model. • We presented the method for predicting flash points of the ETBE-blended gasoline. - Abstract: To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were

  1. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  2. Biofiltration of gasoline and ethanol-amended gasoline vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marlene; Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Kozliak, Evguenii I; Paca, Jan; Soccol, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the projected increase in use of ethanol as a biofuel, the current study was conducted to compare the biofiltration efficiencies for plain and 25% ethanol-containing gasoline. Two biofilters were operated in a downflow mode for 7 months, one of them being compost-based whereas the other using a synthetic packing material, granulated tire rubber, inoculated with gasoline-degrading microorganisms. Inlet concentrations measured as total hydrocarbon (TH) ranged from 1.9 to 5.8 g m(-3) at a constant empty bed retention time of 6.84 min. Contrary to the expectations based on microbiological considerations, ethanol-amended gasoline was more readily biodegraded than plain hydrocarbons, with the respective steady state elimination capacities of 26-43 and 14-18 gTH m(-3) h(-1) for the compost biofilter. The efficiency of both biofilters significantly declined upon the application of higher loads of plain gasoline, yet immediately recovering when switched back to ethanol-blended gasoline. The unexpected effect of ethanol in promoting gasoline biodegradation was explained by increasing hydrocarbon partitioning into the aqueous phase, with mass transfer being rate limiting for the bulk of components. The tire rubber biofilter, after a long acclimation, surpassed the compost biofilter in performance, presumably due to the 'buffering' effect of this packing material increasing the accessibility of gasoline hydrocarbons to the biofilm. With improved substrate mass transfer, biodegradable hydrocarbons were removed in the tire rubber biofilter's first reactor stage, with most of the remaining poorly degradable smaller-size hydrocarbons being degraded in the second stage.

  3. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro; Hiramatsu, Muneyuki; Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi

    2015-04-28

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were developed.

  4. Making Clean Gasoline: The Effect on Jet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Mass. (CMSA) Missoula County, Mont. (non-MSA) Chico, Cal. Modesto , Cal. Cleveland, Ohio (CMSA) Philadelphia, Pa./N.J./Del. (CMSA) Colorado Springs, Col...urban with high population concentrations. That is hardly surprising because large numbers of motor vehicles produce a lot of pollution, specifically

  5. Standby gasoline rationing plan: narrative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The objectives of the rationing plan are to provide a mechanism capable of maintaining an orderly and equitable market for gasoline in a severe supply shortfall, and capable of rapid implementation; and to comply with requirements of EPCA, which mandates the development of a contingency rationing plan. Eligibility for ration allotments will be based principally on motor vehicle registration records, maintained in a national vehicle registration file. Supplemental allotments will be granted for certain priority activities to ensure the maintenance of essential public services. Supplemental allotments will also be granted to businesses and government organizations with significant off-highway gasoline requirements. Local rationing boards or other offices will be established by states, to provide special allotments to hardship applicants, within DOE guidelines. The background and history of the plan are described. The gasoline rationing plan operations, government operations, program costs, staffing, and funding are also detailed in this report. (MCW)

  6. Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    The federal specific gasoline tax falls equally on consumers and wholesalers; whereas state specific taxes fall almost entirely on consumers. The consumer incidence of state taxes is greater in states that use relatively little gasoline.

  7. CleanFleet. Volume 2, Project Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motorfuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eight-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

  8. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  9. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the “seasonal and geographical” volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline. 1065.710 Section 1065.710... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.710 Gasoline. (a) Gasoline for testing must have octane values that represent commercially available fuels for...

  11. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90...

  12. Evaluation of Anti-Knock Quality of Dicyclopentadiene-Gasoline Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khodaier, Mohannad

    2017-03-28

    Increasing the anti-knock quality of gasoline fuels can enable higher efficiency in spark ignition engines. In this study, the blending anti-knock quality of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), a by-product of ethylene production from naphtha cracking, with various gasoline fuels is explored. The blends were tested in an ignition quality tester (IQT) and a modified cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine operating under homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and knock limited spark advance (KLSA) conditions. Due to current fuel regulations, ethanol is widely used as a gasoline blending component in many markets. In addition, ethanol is widely used as a fuel and literature verifying its performance. Moreover, because ethanol exhibits synergistic effects, the test results of DCPD-gasoline blends were compared to those of ethanol-gasoline blends. The experiments conducted in this work enabled the screening of DCPD auto-ignition characteristics across a range of combustion modes. The synergistic blending nature of DCPD was apparent and appeared to be greater than that of ethanol. The data presented suggests that DCPD has the potential to be a high octane blending component in gasoline; one which can substitute alkylates, isomerates, reformates, and oxygenates.

  13. Toxicological assessments of rats exposed prenatally to inhaled vapors of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Philip J; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Copeland, Carey B; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Lonneman, William A; Rogers, John M

    2015-01-01

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which may be blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol and the lack of information about the neurodevelopmental toxicity of ethanol-blended fuels prompted the present work. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or vapors of gasoline containing no ethanol (E0) or gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) or 85% ethanol (E85) at nominal concentrations of 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm. Estimated maternal peak blood ethanol concentrations were less than 5mg/dL for all exposures. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed, although pregnant dams exposed to 9000 ppm of E0 or E85 gained more weight per gram of food consumed during the 12 days of exposure than did controls. Fuel vapors did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the offspring. Tests of motor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) administered to the offspring between post-natal day (PND) 27-29 and PND 56-63 revealed an increase in vertical activity counts in the 3000- and 9000-ppm groups in the E85 experiment on PND 63 and a few small changes in sensorimotor responses in the FOB that were not monotonically related to exposure concentration in any experiment. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity were affected in a concentration-related manner by exposure to any of the vapors in 6-week-old male or female offspring. Systematic concentration-related differences in systolic blood pressure were not observed in rats tested at 3 and 6 months of age in any experiment. No systematic differences were observed in serum glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c (a marker of long-term glucose

  14. Fuel consumption of gasoline ethanol blends at different engine rotational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Barakat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel consumption (mf kg/h was estimated for two hydrocarbon gasolines (BG1-OE and BG2-OE and their ethanol blends which contain from 4 to 20 vol.% of ethanol. Fuel consumption experiments for sixteen fuel samples (5 L each, were conducted on a four cylinder, four stroke spark ignition test vehicle Sahin car, Type 1.45, model 2001. The engine has a swept volume of 1400 c.c., a compression ratio of 8.3:1 and a maximum power of 78 HP at 5500 rpm. The obtained data reveal that the relation between fuel consumption and ethanol concentration is linear. Six linear equations for BG1-ethanol blends and BG2-ethanol ones at the investigated rotational speeds, were developed. Fuel consumption values of the first set of gasoline-ethanol blends are lower than that of the second set. This may be attributed to the difference in the chemical composition of base gasolines BG1 in the first set which is enriched in the less volatile reformate if compared with the second set which is more enriched in isomerate, the more volatile refinery stream.

  15. Selective Additives for Improvement of Gasoline Octane Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Sharif

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available  High octane blend base gasoline stocks are reformulated from 30% LSRN, 45% Reformate and 25% Powerformate on volume basis. ASTM standard and IROX 2000 analysis are performed to test blend stocks sample. Different additive types are used to improve octane number. These additives are tetraethyl lead, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl; methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, iso-propanol, n-butanol, sec-butanol, tertiary butyl alcohol, tert-amyl alcohol, active amyl alcohol, iso-pentyl alcohol, isobutyl carbinol, benzol ,telone, xylene, amino benzene, N-N-dimethyl aniline, dimethyl ketone, and ethyl methyl ketone.     Comparison is made between significant individual RON gains measured by standard CFR test-engine. The results indicated that the combined iso-propanol, oxinol (50/50 blend of methanol and TBA, aniline, and xylene with hydrocarbons fraction content in the gasoline base pool is better to ensure high RON. The results showed that a mixture of 20/54/10/16 of blend aniline/ iso-propanol/ oxinol/ xylene respectively, led to an increase in RON of gasoline blend pool from 84.5 to 96 RON, or 11.5% RON gain.

  16. Effect of ethanol denaturant on gasoline RVP (revised). Topical report, June 21, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 require further reduction in gasoline Reid vapor pressure (RVP) to reduce pollution. This research focused on characterizing the effect of ethanol denaturant and water on the RVP of the final ethanol-blended fuel. Anectdotal stories tell of up to a 0.5-psi effect of ethanol denaturant on the RVP of the finished ethanol-blended gasoline. Additionally, earlier Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) data indicated water could have a significant effect on the RVP. It was necessary to scientifically verify these effects using acceptable laboratory protocols.

  17. Study of the refractive index of gasoline+alcohol pseudo-binary mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Irina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The properties of gasoline change as a result of blending with a bioalcohol, affecting the behavior of the pseudo-binary system. The aim of this paper is to present experimental data of the refractive index for pseudobinary mixtures of a reformate gasoline with ethanol, isopropanol and n-butanol over the entire composition range and for temperature ranging from 293.15 K to 313.15 K. The accuracy of different equations to predict the refractive index of the mixtures was tested. The best prediction accuracy (the lower AAD corresponded to Eykman and Lorentz-Lorenz mixing rules. A logarithmic equation proposed to correlate the refractive index with composition and temperature of gasoline+alcohol mixtures showed a good accuracy (the absolute average deviation AAD < 0.052%. The deviations in refractive index for investigated systems are negative over the entire composition range and at all investigated temperatures.

  18. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.141 Interim detergent gasoline... apply to: (i) All gasoline sold or transferred to a party who sells or transfers gasoline to...

  19. Future production of gasoline in Brazil; Producao futura de gasolina no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perisse, Juarez B.; Oddone, Maria Regina R.; Lemos, Solange S.F.; Lucena, Sergio Cunha de; Gomes, Hedemir F. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Faced with the challenge of making 2014 gasoline, PETROBRAS established the planning of a new refining park that made possible this production. The proposal comprised new process units with hydrotreating and conversion. These units have the function to work synergistically, according to the needs and characteristics of each refinery. The large reduction in the sulfur content generated the need to use cracked naphtha hydrodesulfurization units (HDS) in the refining scheme. However, these units, in addition to removing sulfur, reduce octane number due to saturation of some olefins, which would imply a drop in gasoline production. The reduction of the content of olefins in the specification led the need to dilute the produced olefins in the blend, as PETROBRAS gasoline is composed on average of 70% cracked naphtha. Catalytic Reforming Units (CCR) will become part of the refining scheme with two main functions, dilute olefins and restore the octane number loss in the hydrodesulfurization process. This is possible because reformed naphtha has no olefins and a high octane index. The feedstock must be hydrotreated to remove contaminants, and such units become even more severe if the feedstock is combined with naphtha from Delayed coking units (DCU). As a result, new hydrotreatment of naphtha (distillation and DCU) were also included in the new refinery schemes. All this new refining structure, focusing on the new gasoline specification, is being implemented. Each refinery has a new scheme of its own, according to its characteristics. (author)

  20. 75 FR 20863 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on April 16, 2010, a... complaint filed together with the Consent Decree that Defendants violated the Clean Air Act and regulations... bringing storage tanks and loading racks at their bulk gasoline terminals into compliance with the NSPS...

  1. Gasoline engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The call for environmentally compatible and economical vehicles necessitates immense efforts to develop innovative engine concepts. Technical concepts such as gasoline direct injection helped to save fuel up to 20 % and reduce CO2-emissions. Descriptions of the cylinder-charge control, fuel injection, ignition and catalytic emission-control systems provides comprehensive overview of today´s gasoline engines. This book also describes emission-control systems and explains the diagnostic systems. The publication provides information on engine-management-systems and emission-control regulations. Contents History of the automobile.- Basics of the gasoline engine.- Fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Gasoline injection systems over the years.- Fuel supply.- Manifold fuel injection.- Gasoline direct injection.- Operation of gasoline engines on natural gas.- Ignition systems over the years.- Inductive ignition systems.- Ignition coils.- Spark plugs.- Electronic control.- Sensors.- Electronic control unit.- Exh...

  2. 降低FCC汽油烯烃的措施%MEASURES FOR DECREASING OLEFINE OF FCC GASOLINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝代军

    2001-01-01

    The measures for decreasing olefin of FCC gasoline were introduced. Selecting FCC feed stock, improving FCCU process schemes, using FCC catalyst or co-catalyst which have function for decreasing FCC gasoline olefin are the effective measure to decrease olefin of FCC gasoline. Etherification of FCC light gasoline and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of FCC heave gasoline , or hydrodesulfurization of FCC gasoline are also the effective measures for producing clean gasoline.%介绍了降低催化裂化(FCC)汽油烯烃的几项措施。从FCC技术自身来讲,优化原料结构、改善装置操作条件、选择降烯烃催化剂和使用降烯烃助剂等方法是简单易行的。如洛阳石油化工工程公司开发的LAP降低烯烃助剂可降低烯烃10个百分点,且辛烷值略有提高。另外,对FCC轻汽油进行醚化并对重汽油加氢脱硫,或者FCC汽油全馏分加氢脱硫降烯烃,也是降低FCC汽油烯烃的有效措施。

  3. Changes in Chinese Standard for Ethanol Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xin; Zhang Yongguang

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the tests on application of ethanol gasoline in 2001, Chinese government promulgated a national standard, GB 18351-2001 "Ethanol Gasoline for Motor Vehicles". The standard specifies three kinds of ethanol gasoline, namely E10 (90 RON), E 10 (93 RON) and E10(95RON). There were ethanol gasoline grades (90 RON and 93 RON) and conventional unleaded gasoline(97 RON) available in the areas where tests were carried out. Vehicle owners were worried about the harmful action of ethanol to their vehicles because of lack of knowledge regarding ethanol fuel,and they only refueled their cars with conventional 97 RON unleaded gasoline. This idea might cause unnecessary costs to customers and could bring about difficulty to the tests as well. Besides, some other technical questions emerged during the experimental application of ethanol gasoline, such as water content, ethanol content in gasoline, etc. Based on the experiences accumulated during the application tests, the national standard GB 18351-2001 "Ethanol Gasoline for Motor Vehicles" was revised. The revised edition is designated as GB 18351-2004.

  4. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35...

  5. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, E. C. D.; Talmadge, M.; Dutta, A.; Hensley, J.; Schaidle, J.; Biddy, M.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to

  6. Anticipation, tax avoidance, and the price elasticity of gasoline demand

    OpenAIRE

    Coglianese, John; Davis, Lucas W.; KILIAN, Lutz; Stock, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional least squares estimates of the responsiveness of gasoline consumption to changes in gasoline prices are biased toward zero, given the endogeneity of gasoline prices. A seemingly natural solution to this problem is to instrument for gasoline prices using gasoline taxes, but this approach tends to yield implausibly large price elasticities. We demonstrate that anticipatory behavior provides an important explanation for this result. We provide evidence that gasoline buyers increase g...

  7. Spark Ignition Engine Combustion, Performance and Emission Products from Hydrous Ethanol and Its Blends with Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaab O. El-Faroug

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the serviceability of hydrous ethanol as a clean, cheap and green renewable substitute fuel for spark ignition engines and discusses the comparative chemical and physical properties of hydrous ethanol and gasoline fuels. The significant differences in the properties of hydrous ethanol and gasoline fuels are sufficient to create a significant change during the combustion phase of engine operation and consequently affect the performance of spark-ignition (SI engines. The stability of ethanol-gasoline-water blends is also discussed. Furthermore, the effects of hydrous ethanol, and its blends with gasoline fuel on SI engine combustion characteristics, cycle-to-cycle variations, engine performance parameters, and emission characteristics have been highlighted. Higher water solubility in ethanol‑gasoline blends may be obviously useful and suitable; nevertheless, the continuous ability of water to remain soluble in the blend is significantly affected by temperature. Nearly all published engine experimental results showed a significant improvement in combustion characteristics and enhanced engine performance for the use of hydrous ethanol as fuel. Moreover, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen emissions were also significantly decreased. It is also worth pointing out that unburned hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide emissions were also reduced for the use of hydrous ethanol. However, unregulated emissions such as acetaldehyde and formaldehyde were significantly increased.

  8. New Gasoline Standard in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Chinese government will reduce sulfur levels of lead-free gasoline to 150 parts per million (ppm) in the revised gas standard for the purpose to help improve air quality. The revised lead-free gas standard, to be announced by the end of this year, will drive gas with sulfur levels of 500 ppm out of market on Dec. 31,2009, said Li Xinmin, deputy director of the pollution control department of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), at a recent symposium on automobile pollution control. The new standard would meet the Euro-Ⅲ emission norm, which constrained sulfur levels to 150 ppm maximum.

  9. Oil Products Pricing Criterion Needs Reforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On January 11th, 2007 the price of WTI (West Texas intermediate) crude oil futures dropped to the lowest point of US$51.9 per barrel since June 2005. The National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC) issued a notice on January14th, 2007 deciding to reduce the price of gasoline by RMB220 per ton to RMB4 980 per ton from the same day.

  10. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the vola

  11. Do daily retail gasoline prices adjust asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, L.; van der Geest, S. A.; Kuper, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004, taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out that the volatility

  12. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the vola

  13. Inventories and upstream gasoline price dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper sheds new light on the asymmetric dynamics in upstream U.S. gasoline prices. The model is based on Pindyck's inventory model of commodity price dynamics. We show that asymmetry in gasoline price dynamics is caused by changes in the net marginal convenience yield: higher costs of marketing

  14. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  15. Combustion Kinetic Studies of Gasolines and Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-11-01

    Future thrusts for gasoline engine development can be broadly summarized into two categories: (i) efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines, and (ii) development of advance compression ignition (ACI) concepts. Efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines requires downsizing (and turbocharging) which may be achieved by using high octane gasolines, whereas, low octane gasolines fuels are anticipated for ACI concepts. The current work provides the essential combustion kinetic data, targeting both thrusts, that is needed to develop high fidelity gasoline surrogate mechanisms and surrogate complexity guidelines. Ignition delay times of a wide range of certified gasolines and surrogates are reported here. These measurements were performed in shock tubes and rapid compression machines over a wide range of experimental conditions (650 – 1250 K, 10 – 40 bar) relevant to internal combustion engines. Using the measured the data and chemical kinetic analyses, the surrogate complexity requirements for these gasolines in homogeneous environments are specified. For the discussions presented here, gasolines are classified into three categories: (i)\\tLow octane gasolines including Saudi Aramco’s light naphtha fuel (anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2 = 64; Sensitivity (S) = RON – MON = 1), certified FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline I and J (AKI ~ 70, S = 0.7 and 3 respectively), and their Primary Reference Fuels (PRF, mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane) and multi-component surrogates. (ii)\\t Mid octane gasolines including FACE A and C (AKI ~ 84, S ~ 0 and 1 respectively) and their PRF surrogates. Laser absorption measurements of intermediate and product species formed during gasoline/surrogate oxidation are also reported. (iii)\\t A wide range of n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene (TPRF) blends to adequately represent the octane and sensitivity requirements of high octane gasolines including FACE gasoline F and G

  16. Evaluating the effect of methanol-unleaded gasoline blends on SI engine performance

    OpenAIRE

    B Sabahi; M.J Sheikhdavoodi; Bahrami, H.; D Baveli Bahmaei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Today, all kinds of vehicle engines work with fossil fuels. The limited fossil fuel resources and the negative effects of their consumption on the environment have led researchers to focus on clean, renewable and sustainable energy systems. In all of the fuels being considered as an alternativefor gasoline, methanol is one of the more promising ones and it has experienced major research and development. Methanol can be obtained from many sources, both fossil and renewable; these...

  17. Clean Energy—The Ultimate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Major economies in the world have raised various proposals to reduce carbon emissions by applying clean energies in a bid to tackle climate change. As a major consumer of coal, China is facing mounting pressure, and experts are wrangling about which clean energy should come first on the government agenda. To get a closer look at the current situation in China, Beijing Review reporter Liu Yunyun sat down with Zhou Dadi, Director General Emeritus of the Energy Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission, who shared his insights on clean energy. Edited excerpts follow:

  18. Investigation of Aerogel/Xerogel Catalysts for Autothermal Reforming of JP-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    supercritical conditions, where CO2 is typically used as the supercritical fluid. This conventional approach has proven to be costly as well as time...reforming catalysts for hydrogen production . Conversion of hydrocarbon fuels, such as gasoline, methanol , diesel, JP-8 and isobutanol by reforming is an...and Ar analysis (Carboxen 1000). The fractional conversion of n-Dodecane resulting from reforming (Xref) and the product yields of H2, CO, CO2 , and C1

  19. Dynamic behavior of gasoline fuel cell electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, William; Bowers, Brian J.; Garnier, Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien

    As we begin the 21st century, society is continuing efforts towards finding clean power sources and alternative forms of energy. In the automotive sector, reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plant is one of the main objectives of car manufacturers and innovative technologies are under active consideration to achieve this goal. One technology that has been proposed and vigorously pursued in the past decade is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an electrochemical device that reacts hydrogen with oxygen to produce water, electricity and heat. Since today there is no existing extensive hydrogen infrastructure and no commercially viable hydrogen storage technology for vehicles, there is a continuing debate as to how the hydrogen for these advanced vehicles will be supplied. In order to circumvent the above issues, power systems based on PEM fuel cells can employ an on-board fuel processor that has the ability to convert conventional fuels such as gasoline into hydrogen for the fuel cell. This option could thereby remove the fuel infrastructure and storage issues. However, for these fuel processor/fuel cell vehicles to be commercially successful, issues such as start time and transient response must be addressed. This paper discusses the role of transient response of the fuel processor power plant and how it relates to the battery sizing for a gasoline fuel cell vehicle. In addition, results of fuel processor testing from a current Renault/Nuvera Fuel Cells project are presented to show the progress in transient performance.

  20. Demand for Gasoline: Effects of a Durable Good

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Alfredo S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper estimates empirical demand functions for premium gasoline. Specifically, it determines the effectiveness of policies designed to conserve gasoline by considering the effects of changes in gasoline prices on the demand for premium gasoline and by accounting for the differential effect of these changes on the size and composition of the existing stock of automobiles. Regression estimate is conducted.

  1. 75 FR 68094 - Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the Allowable... AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0211; FRL-9215-5] Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the Allowable Ethanol Content of Gasoline to 15 Percent...

  2. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC, Table 2 Table 2...

  4. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 7, vehicle emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from Clean Fleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenhouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicle/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

  5. Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation: Sharing New Ideas for Asia Clean Energy Future

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2010-01-01

    In response to the growing demand of energy policy makers and regulators in the Asia and Pacific region for additional knowledge support on clean energy, this publication—prepared under the Law and Policy Reform Program of the Office of the General Counsel—presents lessons learned from countries’ clean energy policy and regulatory measures and approaches discussed during the Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation held on 21–22 June 2010 at the Asian...

  6. COMPOSITIVE EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM OF GASOLINE VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Ruibin; CHEN Zijian

    2006-01-01

    The working principle of a kind of compositive emission control system is inquired into,which includes exhaust heater, secondary air supplement, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), thermal reactor and catalytic converter, etc. The purification effect of CO, HC and NOx emission of the gasoline spark ignite (S.I.) engine is studied. The entire vehicle driving cycle tests based on the national emission standard and a series of the gasoline engine-testing bench tests including full load characteristic experiment, load characteristic experiment and idle speed experiment are done. The results show that the system has a very good emission control effect to CO, HC and NOx of gasoline engine. The construction of the system is very simple and can be mounted on the exhaust pipe conveniently without any alteration of the vehicle-use gasoline engine.

  7. Chemical fingerprinting of unevaporated automotive gasoline samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, P M L; Du Pasquier, E

    2003-06-24

    The comparison of two or more samples of liquid gasoline (petrol) to establish a common origin is a difficult problem in the forensic investigation of arsons and suspicious fires. A total of 35 randomly collected samples of unevaporated gasoline, covering three different grades (regular unleaded, premium unleaded and lead replacement), were examined. The high-boiling fraction of the gasoline was targeted with a view to apply the techniques described herein to evaporated gasoline samples in the future.A novel micro solid phase extraction (SPE) technique using activated alumina was developed to isolate the polar compounds and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a 200microl sample of gasoline. Samples were analysed using full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and potential target compounds identified. Samples were then re-analysed directly, without prior treatment, using GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode for target compounds that exhibited variation between gasoline samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the chromatographic data. The first two principal components (PCs) accounted for 91.5% of the variation in the data. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) performed on the PCA results showed that the 35 samples tested could be classified into 32 different groups.

  8. Evaporative gasoline emissions and asthma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordian, Mary Ellen; Stewart, Alistair W; Morris, Stephen S

    2010-08-01

    Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences with attached garages exposing people to benzene at levels above ATSDR's minimal risk level. Residents reported more severe symptoms of asthma in the homes with high gasoline exposure (16%) where benzene levels exceeded the 9 ppb.

  9. The roles of aromatics and catalytic reforming in the 2000+ refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genis, O.; Simpson, S.G. [UOP Limited, Guildford (United Kingdom); Penner, D.W.; Gautam, R.; Glover, B.K. [UOPLLC, Des Plaines, IL (United Kingdom)

    2000-10-01

    Upcoming European environmental legislation will restrict the concentration of benzene and other aromatics in gasoline. Because catalytic reforming units are the major source of benzene and aromatics in gasoline as well as refinery hydrogen, the new fuel regulations have the potential to significantly affect refinery operation. The manner in which the new benzene and aromatics limits are met will be critical to refinery profitability and may change the availability of refinery-derived aromatics for petrochemical applications. This paper analyzes the refining and petrochemical market factors and technology options that will influence the way refiners and petrochemical producers respond to the new fuels legislation. Shortages of benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) in Europe for petrochemical production will provide refiners with an outlet for excess gasoline benzene and aromatics and allow them to improve refinery profitability. Instead of turning down catalytic reforming units to meet gasoline aromatics limits, refiners can increase BTX production by using the proper feedstock and reforming catalysts, thereby improving refinery margins by helping to satisfy the petrochemical market demand for aromatics. Catalytic reforming will continue to be an important process unit in the 2000+ refinery not only for gasoline production but also for further linking of refinery and petrochemical operations. (orig.)

  10. Toxicological Assessments of Rats Exposed Prenatally to Inhaled Vapors of Gasoline and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which is blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ...

  11. Motor gasolines, winter 1981-1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, E M

    1982-07-01

    Analytical data for 905 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 30 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.9 for leaded below 93.0. Only one sample was reported as 93.0 for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above.

  12. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  13. Analysis of Mtbe as an Oxygenate Additive to Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.AnishRaman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major drawbacks of IC engines is low efficiency and pollution resulting from incomplete combustion. In order to improve the emission properties and performance an oxygenated additive MTBE (Methyl tertiary butyl ether, is blended with gasoline. A four cylinder, 1817 cc engine was used for analysing both emission and performance characteristics. Tests were carried out with 100% pure gasoline and MTBE – blended gasoline (M5, M10. The BSFC and BTE of MTBE blended gasoline were observed to increase when compared to pure gasoline. Significant reduction in HC and CO emissions were observed with MTBE blended gasoline; however, CO2 and NOX emissions were increased. Keywords:

  14. Improving Stability of Gasoline by Using Ionic Liquid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhirong; Liu Daosheng; Liao Kejian; Jian Heng

    2003-01-01

    The composition, characteristics and preparation of ionic liquids are presented. The factors influencing the stability of gasoline and the significance of improving gasoline stability are discussed. A novel way to improve the stability of gasoline by using ionic liquid catalyst is developed. The contents of olefin, basic nitrogen and sulfur in gasoline are determined and the optimal experimental conditions for improving gasoline stability are established.The ionic liquid catalyst, which is environmentally friendly, can reduce the olefin content in gasoline, and such process is noted for mild reaction conditions, simple operation, short reaction time, easy recycling of the ionic liquid catalyst and ready separation of products and catalyst.

  15. Chemical fingerprinting of gasoline. 2. Comparison of unevaporated and evaporated automotive gasoline samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, P M L; Du Pasquier, E

    2004-02-10

    Analysis of the C(0)- to C(2)-naphthalene compounds present in automotive gasoline using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC-MS (SIM)) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate between different samples of gasoline. Phase one of this study explored the ability of this method to differentiate gasoline samples at different levels of evaporation. A total of 35 random samples of unevaporated gasoline, covering three different grades (regular unleaded, premium unleaded and lead replacement), were collected in Sydney, Australia and examined. The high-boiling C(0)- to C(2)-naphthalene compounds present in the gasoline were used to chemically fingerprint each sample at different levels of evaporation. Samples of 25, 50, 75 and 90% evaporated gasoline (by weight) were generated from the 35 samples of unevaporated gasoline. Analysis of the data by PCA followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that the 35 samples formed 18 unique groups, irrespective of the level of evaporation. Good discrimination between gasoline samples that were collected on the same day was obtained. Phase two of this study examined the change in gasoline samples over time. The C(0)- to C(2)-naphthalene composition in 96 samples of gasoline collected from three service stations over a 16-week period was examined using the method described. In most cases, it was found that the C(0)- to C(2)-naphthalene profile changed from week to week, and from station to station. In a comparison of all 96 samples together it was found that the majority could be differentiated from one another. The application of the method to forensic casework is discussed.

  16. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  17. Upgrading of reformate gas for different applications with focus on small-scale hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannasch, Anna-Karin; Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Hydrogen gas or hydrogen rich gas is today used in many different applications, i.e. as fuel in fuel cells or additive in vehicle fuel (i.e. hythane) and as reagent or reducing agent in different industrial product lines. The majority of the hydrogen is produced either via electrolysis or reformation, where this work has entirely been focused on the latter alternative. The overarching aims of this project have been to demonstrate the need for reformate purification for different applications, and then, to investigate different available methods that can be used in order to enable the requested gas clean-up. The different purification methods have been examined with respect to parameters such as operating conditions (temperature, pressure), impurity tolerance, size, weight and cost. Another goal of the project has been to investigate how the reformer fuel type used influences the reformate gas quality and hence, the need for gas purification before the reformate can be fed to e.g. a low temperature polymer membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). For this reason, some experimental work has been performed. First, analysis of the reformate gas composition when natural gas, LPG, gasoline, diesel, kerosene (low and high S-concentration (i.e. JP8)) and ethanol have been processed. The reformation tests were carried out in a small scale reformer unit ({approx} 1 kW H{sub 2}) including Catator's catalyst formulations developed for the steam reforming, the water gas shift and the preferential oxidation reaction, respectively. Verification tests, with synthetic gas blends, including different potential reformate impurities, and with real reformate gas were thereafter performed with a commercial 4-cell PEMFC stack (3-5 W). Finally, some examination and also to some extent further development of Catator's existing gas purification units were made, i.e. chemical (WGS, PROX) and physical (regenerative adsorption). The Pd-alloy membrane seems to be the obvious choice of purification

  18. Development and Perfection of the Anti-Corruption and Clean Government Promotion Theories with Chinese Characteristics since the Reform and Opening%改革开放以来中国特色反腐倡廉理论的发展和完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅永春

    2011-01-01

    改革开放以来,中国共产党走出了一条有中国特色反腐倡廉道路,作为中国特色社会主义理论体系重要组成部分的中国特色反腐倡廉理论是邓小平理论、"三个代表"重要思想和科学发展观的重要成果,是党的反腐败工作理论武器,思想和实践基础。%Since the reform and opening,CPC has found the way to fight against corruption and to promote clean government with Chinese characteristics.As an important component of the socialist theoretical system with Chinese characteristics,the anti-corruption and clean government promotion theory with Chinese characteristics is the important fruits of Deng Xiaoping theory,the Three Represents and the outlook of scientific development.It is the theoretical weapon as well as the ideological and practical foundation for the anti-corruption of our party.

  19. The Value of Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  20. STUDY ON GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS AND BLENDING FEATURES%汽油调合组分性质及其调合特点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 郭莘; 陶志平

    2015-01-01

    Gasoline is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons composed by a variety of different mono-mer composition.Monomer hydrocarbon compositions of the main gasoline blending components in gas-oline pool as well as alkylation gasoline alone are discussed. The octane number distribution of three gasoline blending components,i.e.S Zorb gasoline,reformate and alkylate,and the monomer hydro-carbons making a larger contribution to the octane number are also analyzed.The regularity of gasoline blending is analyzed in detail.It follows that the gasoline formulations with different monomer hydro-carbon composition can be made at the same octane number and total aromatic content.In addition,the gasoline with different boiling range can also be blended on the premise of equal vapor pressure.%分析了汽油池的主要调合组分以及作为清洁燃料组分的烷基化汽油的单体烃组成特点,探讨了S Zorb汽油、催化重整汽油、烷基化汽油3种汽油调合组分的辛烷值分布规律及对辛烷值贡献较大的单体烃组成,并对汽油调合规律进行了较为深入的分析。结果表明:在相同辛烷值、相同芳烃含量的情况下,可以调合出单体烃组成不同的汽油;在保证相同蒸气压的前提下可以调合出馏程分布不同的汽油。

  1. 75 FR 74044 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Gasoline Volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Gasoline Volatility AGENCY... entities: Entities potentially affected by this action are those who produce or import gasoline containing...: Gasoline Volatility, Reporting Requirements for Parties Which Produce of Import Gasoline Containing...

  2. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  3. On-board measurement of emissions from liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline and diesel powered passenger cars in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhi, Saâdane; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

    2014-08-01

    On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO₂ were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most efficient pollutant reduction device for all of the pollutants, with the exception of the NOx. Specific test results for a sub-group of LPG vehicles revealed that LPG-fueled engines with no catalyst cannot compete with catalyzed gasoline and diesel engines. Vehicle age does not appear to be a determining parameter with regard to vehicle pollutant emissions. A fuel switch to LPG offers many advantages as far as pollutant emissions are concerned, due to LPG's intrinsic characteristics. However, these advantages are being rapidly offset by the strong development of both gasoline and diesel engine technologies and catalyst converters. The LPG's performance on a chassis dynamometer under real driving conditions was better than expected. The enforcement of pollutant emission standards in developing countries is an important step towards introducing clean technology and reducing vehicle emissions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  5. A Review of Centrifugal Testing of Gasoline Contamination and Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Jay N. Meegoda; Liming Hu

    2011-01-01

    Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) containing gasoline represent a significant public health hazard. Virtually undetectable to the UST owner, gasoline leaks can contaminate groundwater supplies. In order to develop remediation plans one must know the extent of gasoline contamination. Centrifugal simulations showed that in silty and sandy soils gasoline moved due to the physical process of advection and was retained as a pool of free products above the water table. However, in clayey soi...

  6. Turbocharging the DA465 gasoline engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng-qi; ZONG Li-jun; WANG Yin-yan

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve performance of the DA465Q gasoline engine,a substantial amount of research was done to optimize its turbocharging system.The research led to the GT12 turbocharger being selected and its turbocharging parameters being settled.Based on these tests,rational matching was worked out for respective components of the turbocharging system.Results show that this turbocharger allows the engine to easily meet the proposed requirements for power and economic performance,giving insight into further performance improvements for gasoline engines.

  7. Prospect for Upgrading China's Gasoline Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Guangming

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's economy has maintained a steady and rapid development,the growth rate of automobiles and gasoline output and sales volume is far beyond the national economic growth rate over the same period,and much higher than that in developed countries.According to the State's"Petrochemical Industrial Restructuring and Revitalization Plan",vehicle using gasoline in 2009 should agree with the national Ⅲ standard,vehicle using diesel in 2010 should meet the national Ⅲ standard,and light oil yield in 2011 will reach 75%,high-end self-sufficiency rate of petrochemical products will increase remarkably.

  8. NAFTA and gasoline: Canada, U. S. , Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-31

    The North American Free Trade Agreement has become a hotly debated topic all over the world, but especially in the countries involved: Mexico, United States, and Canada. Comments made by high ranking officials imply there are differences to reconcile before the agreement is passed. Toward seeing these countries in trio, this issue compares gasoline markets and some energy perspectives. The purpose of this article is to contribute to understanding of the three countries through their petroleum industry structure. Gasoline consumption and retail delivery infrastructure are compared and contrasted to illustrate the differences among the NAFTA countries.

  9. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  10. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a... gasoline volume of the facility, per § 80.91. (b) Baseline exhaust benzene emissions—simple model. (1) Simple model exhaust benzene emissions of conventional gasoline shall be determined using the following...

  11. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are...

  12. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section 58.10-5... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine... drained by a device for automatic return of all drip to engine air intakes. (2) All gasoline engines...

  13. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements of subparts D, E, F, and J of this part...

  14. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or...

  15. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON PHASE STABILITY OF ETHANOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  16. 46 CFR 58.50-5 - Gasoline fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline fuel tanks. 58.50-5 Section 58.50-5 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Independent Fuel Tanks § 58.50-5 Gasoline fuel tanks. (a) Construction—(1) Shape...) Installation. (1) Gasoline fuel tanks used for propulsion shall be located in water-tight compartments...

  17. 40 CFR 63.650 - Gasoline loading rack provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline loading rack provisions. 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.650 Gasoline... or operator of a Group 1 gasoline loading rack classified under Standard Industrial...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gasoline; gasohol. 48.4081-6 Section 48.4081-6... Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-6 Gasoline; gasohol. (a) Overview. This section provides rules for determining the applicability of reduced rates of tax on a removal or entry of gasohol or of gasoline used...

  19. Upgrading of reformate gas for different applications with focus on small-scale hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannasch, Anna-Karin; Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Hydrogen gas or hydrogen rich gas is today used in many different applications, i.e. as fuel in fuel cells or additive in vehicle fuel (i.e. hythane) and as reagent or reducing agent in different industrial product lines. The majority of the hydrogen is produced either via electrolysis or reformation, where this work has entirely been focused on the latter alternative. The overarching aims of this project have been to demonstrate the need for reformate purification for different applications, and then, to investigate different available methods that can be used in order to enable the requested gas clean-up. The different purification methods have been examined with respect to parameters such as operating conditions (temperature, pressure), impurity tolerance, size, weight and cost. Another goal of the project has been to investigate how the reformer fuel type used influences the reformate gas quality and hence, the need for gas purification before the reformate can be fed to e.g. a low temperature polymer membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). For this reason, some experimental work has been performed. First, analysis of the reformate gas composition when natural gas, LPG, gasoline, diesel, kerosene (low and high S-concentration (i.e. JP8)) and ethanol have been processed. The reformation tests were carried out in a small scale reformer unit ({approx} 1 kW H{sub 2}) including Catator's catalyst formulations developed for the steam reforming, the water gas shift and the preferential oxidation reaction, respectively. Verification tests, with synthetic gas blends, including different potential reformate impurities, and with real reformate gas were thereafter performed with a commercial 4-cell PEMFC stack (3-5 W). Finally, some examination and also to some extent further development of Catator's existing gas purification units were made, i.e. chemical (WGS, PROX) and physical (regenerative adsorption). The Pd-alloy membrane seems to be the obvious choice of purification

  20. Gasoline Distribution Facilities (Bulk Gasoline Terminals and Pipeline Breakout Stations) Air Toxics Rule Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a November 1994 fact sheet for the final NESHAP for Gasoline Distribution Facilities. This page also contains a December fact sheet with information regarding the final amendments to the 2003 final rule for the NESHAP.

  1. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  2. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in gasoline engine mechanics in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of small-engine mechanics; program content (curriculum framework and student performance…

  3. Phase Partitioning from Theanol Blend Gasolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the use of ethanol and other alcohols as motor fuel additives has increased. Additionally, ethanol production has expanded due to the potential use of ethanol as a primary fuel source. Historical patterns of gasoline composition show strong dependency on regulato...

  4. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan: public comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Under the proposed plan, DOE would allocate ration rights (rights to purchase gasoline) to owners of registered vehicles. All vehicles in a given class would receive the same entitlement. Essential services would receive supplemental allotments of ration rights as pririty firms. Once every 3 months, ration checks would be mailed out to all vehicle registrants, allotting them a certain amount of ration rights. These checks would then be cashed at Coupon Issuance Points, where the bearer would receive ration coupons to be used at gasoline stations. Large users of gasoline could deposit their allotment checks in accounts at ration banks. Coupons or checks would be freely exchangeable in a white market. A certain percentage of the gasoline supply would be set aside in reserve for use in national emergencies. When the plan was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested. DOE also solicited comments from private citizens, public interest groups, business and industry, state and local governments. A total of 1126 responses were reveived and these are analyzed in this paper. The second part of the report describes how the comments were classified, and gives a statistical breakdown of the major responses. The last section is a discussion and analysis of theissue raised by commenting agencies, firms, associations, and individuals. (MCW)

  5. Competition in the retail gasoline industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jedidiah

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers

  6. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience...

  7. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40{degrees}C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54{degrees}C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  8. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40[degrees]C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54[degrees]C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  9. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor...

  10. Investigation into introduction and promotion of clean energy cars; Clean energy jidosha no donyu sokushin ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Gazing the introduction target for fiscal 2000 and 2010, the paper arranged comprehensively and systematically the trend in Japan and overseas of clean energy cars and described subjects. Themes of the study to be promoted in terms of electric cars are: Li secondary batteries, heightening of performance of batteries such as Ni-hydrogen, power generation/power storage hybridization to make the long-distance travel possible. For the price reduction, the body is so made as to make it possible to select three kinds of power unit, that is, gasoline, hybrid, and electricity. Low noise and easy operation are also important. As to natural gas vehicles, the price is more than three times as high as that of gasoline vehicles, and relaxation of the related regulations on metal tanks, the Road Traffic Act, etc. is necessary. It is indispensable to establish quantity production and technical standards and reduce cost by the remodeling for bi-fueling with gasoline engines, development of FRP tanks, etc. Methanol vehicles are the closest to gasoline vehicles, but the introduction is delayed having no groups for generalization. Solar and hydrogen cars are promising, but are on a stage of developing the basic technology. 43 figs., 104 tabs.

  11. Misunderstood markets: The case of California gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer Ruth

    In 1996, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) implemented a new benchmark for cleaner burning gasoline that is unique to California. Since then, government officials have often expressed concern that the uniqueness of petroleum products in California segregates the industry, allowing for gasoline prices in the State that are too high and too volatile. The growing concern about the segmentation of the California markets lends itself to analysis of spatial pricing. Spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline within the state exhibit some characteristics that seem, on the surface, inconsistent with spatial price theory. Particularly, some spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline appear larger than accepted transportation rates and other spreads are negative, giving a price signal for transportation against the physical flow of product. Both characteristics suggest some limitation in the arbitrage process. Proprietary data, consisting of daily product prices for the years 2000 through 2002, disaggregated by company, product, grade, and location is used to examine more closely spatial price patterns. My discussion of institutional and physical infrastructure outlines two features of the industry that limit, but do not prohibit, arbitrage. First, a look into branding and wholesale contracting shows that contract terms, specifically branding agreements, reduces the price-responsiveness of would-be arbitrageurs. Second, review of maps and documents illustrating the layout of physical infrastructure, namely petroleum pipelines, confirms the existence of some connections among markets. My analysis of the day-of-the-week effects on wholesale prices demonstrates how the logistics of the use of transportation infrastructure affect market prices. Further examination of spatial price relationships shows that diesel prices follow closely the Augmented Law of One Price (ALOP), and that branding agreements cause gasoline prices to deviate substantially ALOP. Without branding

  12. Evaluating the effect of methanol-unleaded gasoline blends on SI engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sabahi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, all kinds of vehicle engines work with fossil fuels. The limited fossil fuel resources and the negative effects of their consumption on the environment have led researchers to focus on clean, renewable and sustainable energy systems. In all of the fuels being considered as an alternativefor gasoline, methanol is one of the more promising ones and it has experienced major research and development. Methanol can be obtained from many sources, both fossil and renewable; these include coal, natural gas, food industry and municipal waste, wood and agricultural waste. In this study, the effect of using methanol–unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance characteristics has been experimentally investigated. The main objective of the study was to determine engine performance parameters using unleaded gasoline and methanol-unleaded gasoline blends at various engine speeds and loads, and finally achieving an optimal blend of unleaded gasoline and methanol. Materials and Methods: The experimental apparatus consists of an engine test bed with a hydraulic dynamometer which is coupled with a four cylinder, four-stroke, spark ignition engine that is equipped with the carbureted fuel system. The engine has a cylinder bore of 81.5 mm, a stroke of 82.5 mm, and a compression ratio of 7.5:1 with maximum power output of 41.8 kW. The engine speed was monitored continuously by a tachometer, and the engine torque was measured with a hydraulic dynamometer. Fuel consumption was measured by using a calibrated burette (50cc and a stopwatch with an accuracy of 0.01s. In all tests, the cooling water temperature was kept at 82±3˚C. The test room temperature was kept at 29±3˚C during performing the tests. The experiments were performed with three replications. The factors in the experiments were four methanol- unleaded gasoline blends (M0, M10, M20 and M30 and six engine speeds (2000, 2500. 3000, 3500, 4000 and 4500 rpm. Methanol with a purity of

  13. Gasoline surrogate modeling of gasoline ignition in a rapid compression machine and comparison to experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehl, M; Kukkadapu, G; Kumar, K; Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Sung, S J

    2011-09-15

    The use of gasoline in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) and in duel fuel diesel - gasoline engines, has increased the need to understand its compression ignition processes under engine-like conditions. These processes need to be studied under well-controlled conditions in order to quantify low temperature heat release and to provide fundamental validation data for chemical kinetic models. With this in mind, an experimental campaign has been undertaken in a rapid compression machine (RCM) to measure the ignition of gasoline mixtures over a wide range of compression temperatures and for different compression pressures. By measuring the pressure history during ignition, information on the first stage ignition (when observed) and second stage ignition are captured along with information on the phasing of the heat release. Heat release processes during ignition are important because gasoline is known to exhibit low temperature heat release, intermediate temperature heat release and high temperature heat release. In an HCCI engine, the occurrence of low-temperature and intermediate-temperature heat release can be exploited to obtain higher load operation and has become a topic of much interest for engine researchers. Consequently, it is important to understand these processes under well-controlled conditions. A four-component gasoline surrogate model (including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and 2-pentene) has been developed to simulate real gasolines. An appropriate surrogate mixture of the four components has been developed to simulate the specific gasoline used in the RCM experiments. This chemical kinetic surrogate model was then used to simulate the RCM experimental results for real gasoline. The experimental and modeling results covered ultra-lean to stoichiometric mixtures, compressed temperatures of 640-950 K, and compression pressures of 20 and 40 bar. The agreement between the experiments and model is encouraging in terms of first

  14. Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

    2002-08-25

    Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase.

  16. Non-Gasoline Alternative Fueling Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Through a nationwide network of local coalitions, Clean Citiesprovides project assistance to help stakeholders in the public and private sectors deploy alternative...

  17. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part I. Black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Xu, Hui; Du, Ke

    2016-12-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered to be a "cleaner" fuel compared to other fossil fuels. Therefore, it is used as an alternative fuel in motor vehicles to reduce emissions of air pollutants in transportation. To quantify "how clean" burning CNG is compared to burning gasoline, quantification of pollutant emissions under the same driving conditions for motor vehicles with different fuels is needed. In this study, a fleet of bi-fuel vehicles was selected to measure the emissions of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) for driving in CNG mode and gasoline mode respectively under the same set of constant speeds and accelerations. Comparison of emission factors (EFs) for the vehicles burning CNG and gasoline are discussed. This part of the paper series reports BC EFs for bi-fuel vehicles driving on the real road, which were measured using an in situ method. Our results show that burning CNG will lead to 54%-83% reduction in BC emissions per kilometer, depending on actual driving conditions. These comparisons show that CNG is a cleaner fuel than gasoline for motor vehicles in terms of BC emissions and provide a viable option for reducing BC emissions cause by transportation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 77 FR 35279 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program; Change in the Definition of ``Gasoline'' To Exclude ``E85'' AGENCY... of gasoline from storage tanks to motor vehicle fuel tanks at gasoline dispensing sites, i.e., stage II vapor recovery. The revisions also amend the definition of ``gasoline'' to explicitly exclude...

  19. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2017-03-01

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  20. NEW REFORMING CATALYST DEVELOPED BY RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PUZhong-ying

    2003-01-01

    To meet the demands for high-octane gasoline and aromatics,catalytic reforming process has been advancing quickly in China.The reforming catalysts developed by RIPP have been used in more than 80% capacity of domestic CCR and SR units.This paper introduces the properties of PSVI CCR catalyst developed by RIPP in recent years and also the result from commercial units.The PS-VI catalyst has high activity and good selectivity,under the same reaction conditions,the carbon on catalyst was lowered by 26% in mass as compared with that of the reference catalyst.Among the SR reforming catalysts,the new type of PRT series catalysts have excellent performance at low reaction pressure compared with the ref.Cat A.The aromatics and reformate mass yields of PRT catalyst were 2%-3% and 3%,respectively ,higher than those of Cat A,and the run length was 30%-40% longer as well,which exhibits good prospect of application.

  1. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Gasoline Consumption Dynamics in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    OpenAIRE

    Fullerton, Thomas M., Jr.; Munoz Sapien, Gabriel; Barraza de Anda, Martha P.; Dominguez Ruvalcaba, Lisbeily

    2011-01-01

    This research analyzes short-run gasoline consumption dynamics in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Parameter estimation is carried out using linear transfer function ARIMA analysis. This market is of interest because it is influenced by regional, national, and international economic conditions due to its location on the border with the United States. Explanatory variables that satisfy the significance criterion include the real price of gasoline in Ciudad Juárez, the price of gasoline in Ciu...

  4. Study on Disproportionation Reaction of FCC Gasoline on Acid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Youhao; Wang Xieqing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the experimental data relating to the reaction of FCC gasoline on acid catalyst the analysis of product distribution, and composition of gasoline and diesel fractions have been analyzed. The occurrence of disproportionation reaction of FCC gasoline on acid catalyst and the network of disproportionation reaction have been identified. Study has also shown that different reaction temperatures can result in different pathways of disproportionation reactions on acid catalyst.

  5. Comparison of alcogas aviation fuel with export aviation gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W; Harper, D R

    1921-01-01

    Mixtures of gasoline and alcohol when used in internal combustion engines designed for gasoline have been found to possess the advantage of alcohol in withstanding high compression without "knock" while retaining advantages of gasoline with regard to starting characteristics. Test of such fuels for maximum power-producing ability and fuel economy at various rates of consumption are thus of practical importance, with especial reference to high-compression engine development. This report discusses the results of tests which compares the performance of alcogas with x gasoline (export grade) as a standard.

  6. [Analysis of sulfur compounds in residue fluid catalytic cracking gasoline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yong-mei; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yao-fang

    2002-05-01

    Sulfur compounds in residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) gasolines from Refinery of SINOPEC Beijing Yanshan Company and Refinery of Shijiazhuang were analyzed by gas chromatograph connected with flame photometric detector (FPD) and atomic emission detector (AED). Twelve and 26 kinds of sulfur compounds were detected by AED in RFCC gasolines from Yanshan and Shijiazhuang respectively. Only 0 and 19 kinds of sulfur compounds were found by FPD in these two gasolines respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that AED is more sensitive and selective to sulfur compounds than FPD. It also indicated that thiophenes were the major sulfur compounds in the RFCC gasoline. In addition, mercaptan, sulfoether and disulfide species were found.

  7. Case study: flame arresters and exploding gasoline containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbring, Lori C

    2006-03-17

    This paper describes the case study of a portable plastic gasoline container explosion and fire. While working at home on a science project to determine the burn rates of different types of wood fuel, a 14-year-old boy was severely burned after flames traveled back up into the portable gasoline container and exploded. A witness heard the explosion and reports that the flames went perhaps 10 ft in the air. It is shown by experimentation that a flame arrester installed in the pour opening of the portable gasoline container would have prevented an explosion inside the gasoline container.

  8. Arbitration Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Stepurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.

  9. 40 CFR 88.306-94 - Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle is converted or is expected to be operated. (A) For dual-fuel vehicles, a separate test is... section. (A) For dual and flexible fuel vehicles, a separate test is required for each certification test... conversion from an engine or vehicle capable of operating on gasoline or diesel fuel only to a clean-fuel...

  10. Gasoline prices, gasoline consumption, and new-vehicle fuel economy: Evidence for a large sample of countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J Burke; Shuhei Nishitateno

    2011-01-01

    Countries differ considerably in terms of the price drivers pay for gasoline. This paper uses data for a large sample of countries to provide new evidence on the implications of these differences for the consumption of gasoline for road transport and the fuel economy of new vehicles. To address the potential for simultaneity bias in ordinary least squares estimation, we use a country's oil reserves as an instrument for its average gasoline pump price. We obtain estimates of the long-run price...

  11. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline... § 63.11087 What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11088 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline... § 63.11088 What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk...

  13. 78 FR 72033 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Florida: General Requirements and Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... and Gasoline Vapor Control; Correcting Amendment AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... ] Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), related to the State's gasoline vapor recovery program. This... related to Florida's gasoline vapor recovery program SIP provision. In summary, this action corrects...

  14. Interaction between Titles 2 and 3 of the Clean Air Act as amended, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1996-02-01

    This report examines Some issues that would I affect the refining industry if the requirements for hazardous air pollutants set out in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments were to impede the market entrance of oxygenated fuels, as me; required by Title II. It describes the mandate for reformulated gasoline; considers gasoline characteristics in light of component shifts in refining; examines the supply of, demand for, and cost of various feedstocks and blendstocks; and identifies the emissions and atmospheric impacts that might result from the production and use of reformulated gasoline. Attention is focused on methanol and MTBE, two potential blendstocks that are also hazardous air pollutants, and on maximum achievable control technology standards, which might be applied to the stationary sources that produce them.

  15. Cleaning and surface properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  16. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  17. Hydrogen generation from biogenic and fossil fuels by autothermal reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, Thomas; Heinzel, Angelika; Vogel, Bernhard

    Hydrogen generation for fuel cell systems by reforming technologies from various fuels is one of the main fields of investigation of the Fraunhofer ISE. Suitable fuels are, on the one hand, gaseous hydrocarbons like methane, propane but also, on the other hand, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline and alcohols, e.g., ethanol as biogenic fuel. The goal is to develop compact systems for generation of hydrogen from fuel being suitable for small-scale membrane fuel cells. The most recent work is related to reforming according to the autothermal principle — fuel, air and steam is supplied to the reactor. Possible applications of such small-scale autothermal reformers are mobile systems and also miniature fuel cell as co-generation plant for decentralised electricity and heat generation. For small stand-alone systems without a connection to the natural gas grid liquid gas, a mixture of propane and butane is an appropriate fuel.

  18. Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

    Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used for the fuel cell system, thus, gasoline or diesel has to be reformed on board. This makes the auxiliary power unit a complex integrated system of stack, air supply, fuel processor, electrics as well as heat and water management. Aside from proving the technical feasibility of such a system, the development has to address three major barriers:start-up time, costs, and size/weight of the systems. In this paper a packaging concept for an auxiliary power unit is presented. The main emphasis is placed on the fuel processor, as good packaging of this large subsystem has the strongest impact on overall size. The fuel processor system consists of an autothermal reformer in combination with water-gas shift and selective oxidation stages, based on adiabatic reactors with inter-cooling. The configuration was realized in a laboratory set-up and experimentally investigated. The results gained from this confirm a general suitability for mobile applications. A start-up time of 30 min was measured, while a potential reduction to 10 min seems feasible. An overall fuel processor efficiency of about 77% was measured. On the basis of the know-how gained by the experimental investigation of the laboratory set-up a packaging concept was developed. Using state-of-the-art catalyst and heat exchanger technology, the volumes of these components are fixed. However, the overall volume is higher mainly due to mixing zones and flow ducts, which do not contribute to the chemical or thermal function of the system. Thus, the concept developed mainly focuses on minimization of those

  19. Laminar burning velocities at elevated pressures for gasoline and gasoline surrogates associated with RON

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama

    2015-06-01

    The development and validation of a new gasoline surrogate using laminar flame speed as a target parameter is presented. Laminar burning velocities were measured using a constant-volume spherical vessel with ignition at the center of the vessel. Tested fuels included iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, various mixtures of primary reference fuels (PRFs) and toluene reference fuels (TRFs) and three gasoline fuels of 70, 85 and 95 RON (FACE J, C and F) at the initial temperature of 358K and pressures up to 0.6MPa in the equivalence ratio ranging from 0.8 to 1.6. Normalized laminar burning velocity data were mapped into a tri-component mixture space at different experimental conditions to allocate different gasoline surrogates for different gasoline fuels, having RON of 70, 85 and 95. The surrogates of TRF-70-4 (17.94% iso-C8H18 +42.06% n-C7H16 +40% C7H8), TRF-85-1 (77.4% iso-C8H18 +17.6% n-C7H16 +5% C7H8), and TRF-95-1 (88.47% iso-C8H18 +6.53% n-C7H16 +5% C7H8) of RON 70, 85 and 95, respectively, are shown to successfully emulate the burning rate characteristics of the gasoline fuels associated with these RONs under the various experimental conditions investigated. An empirical correlation was derived to obtain laminar burning velocities at pressures that are experimentally unattainable as high as 3.0MPa. Laminar burning velocities were comparable to the simulated values for lean and stoichiometric flames but they were relatively higher than the simulated values for rich flames. A flame instability assessment was conducted by determining Markstein length, critical Pecklet number, and critical Karlovitz number at the onset of flame instability.

  20. Determination of Ethanol in Gasoline by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Alfred, Jr.; Goldcamp, Michael J.; Barrett, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the primary oxygenate in gasoline in the United States. Gasoline containing various percentages of ethanol is readily available in the market place. A laboratory experiment has been developed in which the percentage of ethanol in hexanes can easily be determined using the O-H and alkane C-H absorptions in an infrared spectrum. Standard…

  1. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire... underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  2. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or...

  3. ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER PREFERENCES ON THE MARKET AUTOMOBILE GASOLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Safina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the statistical analysis based on results of selective investigation of customers in the market of automobile gasoline is offered. The analysis makes the possibility for finding preferences of respondents in choices of gasoline brand depending of social and economics status of customers.

  4. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352 Section 185.352 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  5. Mechanical cleaning of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.; Calado, V.E.; Barreiro, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of graphene due to residues from nanofabrication often introduces background doping and reduces electron mobility. For samples of high electronic quality, post-lithography cleaning treatments are therefore needed. We report that mechanical cleaning based on contact mode atomic force mi

  6. Study on Reduction of Sulfur Content in FCC Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Dianguo

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of sulfur content in FCC gasoline was studied in a fixed fluid bed (FFB) unit by using metal-modified LV-23 FCC catalyst. The results showed that the sulfur content in FCC gasoline could be reduced with LV-23 catalyst modified with zinc, palladium, zinc-palladium, zinc-cobalt, and zinc-nickel. Among these metals or metal combinations, palladium-containing catalyst was the most effective. Desulfurization of the heavy fraction of FCC gasoline was more effective than full-range gasoline under the same conditions with palladium-containing catalysts. A high reaction temperature was favorable to desulfurization, but it would reduce the yield of liquid product. After desulfurization reaction, the olefin content of product gasoline decreased while the aromatic and iso-alkane contents increased. Removal of thiophene and benzothiophene is higher.

  7. REACTION CHEMISTRY RELATED TO FCC GASOLINE QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    About 80% of the gasoline pool as a whole in China for supplying the domestic market at current stage directly originates from FCC units. Obviously, FCC gasoline quality is critical for refiners to meet the nations more and more stringent gasoline specifications. FCC process is expected to produce gasoline with reduced contents of olefins, aromatics, benzene, sulfur, and, contradictorily, still with high octane number.   Catalytic cracking process involves a series of acid catalyzed reactions. Bronsted acid sites dominate the surface of the catalyst used for FCC process. All the reactions of hydrocarbons in FCC process are based on carbonium ions of penta-coordinated, or carbenium ions of tri-coordinated. The monomolecular beta scission mechanism for alkane cracking explains that the cracking of carbon-carbon bonding occurs at the beta position to the carbon atom bearing positive charge, and hence forms two small hydrocarbon molecules: one alkane molecule and one olefin molecule. The molar ratio of alkane to olefin for the primary cracking product will be 1 and it will be less than 1 if the cracking reaction proceeds.   However, it is proved that bimolecular reaction pathways exist between surface carbenium ions and the feed molecules. The products of this bimolecular disproportionation reaction could be an alkane molecule and a newly formed carbenium ion. The better understanding of the reaction chemistry of FCC process based on monomolecular pathways and bimolecular pathways should be the basis for searching approaches to the improvement of FCC gasoline quality. In the complicated reaction scheme of the FCC process, the isomerization reaction leading to the formation of iso-alkanes is obviously a target reaction, which favors both olefin reduction and octane enhancement.   The cracking of small paraffin molecules, due to its limited number of reaction pathways and products, has been used to investigate cracking mechanism. In the present work the

  8. [Unregulated emissions from the gasoline vehicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qiu-Wen; Ge, Ytun-Shan; You, Ke-Wei; Wang, Jun-Fang; He, Chao

    2009-02-15

    Based on the emission test cycle of China National Regulation Stage III, the aldehyde and alkone emissions and VOCs emissions of three typical gasoline cars were studied with HPLC and TD-GC/MS and the exhausted particulates number and mass concentration were researched using ELPI. The results indicate that the unregulated emissions of different cars is diverse changed, the brake specific emission of the carbonyls in three cars are 36.44, 16.71 and 10.43 mg/km respectively and TVOC are 155.39, 103.75 and 42.29 mg/km respectively. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone and cyclohexanone are the main compounds in gasoline cars exhaust, which accounted for 77.9%-89.7% of total carbonyl compounds. Aromatic hydrocarbons and alkane are the main part of VOCs, the detected number of which is occupied 31.6%-39.2% and 23.1%-27.9% of VOCs. Toluene, xylene and benzene have high concentration, which are occupied 16.68%, 16.87% and 5.23% of TVOC in average. Ultra-fine particles (emission. Exhausted particulate number of high speeds is higher than that of slow and medium speeds.

  9. Biofiltration of gasoline and diesel aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halecky, Martin; Rousova, Jana; Paca, Jan; Kozliak, Evguenii; Seames, Wayne; Jones, Kim

    2015-02-01

    The ability of a biofilm to switch between the mixtures of mostly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated to assess biofiltration efficiency and potential substrate interactions. A switch from gasoline, which consisted of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, to a mixture of volatile diesel n-alkanes resulted in a significant increase in biofiltration efficiency, despite the lack of readily biodegradable aromatic hydrocarbons in the diesel mixture. This improved biofilter performance was shown to be the result of the presence of larger size (C₉-C(12)) linear alkanes in diesel, which turned out to be more degradable than their shorter-chain (C₆-C₈) homologues in gasoline. The evidence obtained from both biofiltration-based and independent microbiological tests indicated that the rate was limited by biochemical reactions, with the inhibition of shorter chain alkane biodegradation by their larger size homologues as corroborated by a significant substrate specialization along the biofilter bed. These observations were explained by the lack of specific enzymes designed for the oxidation of short-chain alkanes as opposed to their longer carbon chain homologues.

  10. Ignition studies of two low-octane gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2017-07-24

    Low-octane gasolines (RON ∼ 50–70 range) are prospective fuels for gasoline compression ignition (GCI) internal combustion engines. GCI technology utilizing low-octane fuels has the potential to significantly improve well-to-wheel efficiency and reduce the transportation sector\\'s environmental footprint by offsetting diesel fuel usage in compression ignition engines. In this study, ignition delay times of two low-octane FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, FACE I and FACE J, were measured in a shock tube and a rapid compression machine over a broad range of engine-relevant conditions (650–1200 K, 20 and 40 bar and ϕ = 0.5 and 1). The two gasolines are of similar octane ratings with anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2, of ∼ 70 and sensitivity, S = RON–MON, of ∼ 3. However, the molecular compositions of the two gasolines are notably different. Experimental ignition delay time results showed that the two gasolines exhibited similar reactivity over a wide range of test conditions. Furthermore, ignition delay times of a primary reference fuel (PRF) surrogate (n-heptane/iso-octane blend), having the same AKI as the FACE gasolines, captured the ignition behavior of these gasolines with some minor discrepancies at low temperatures (T < 700 K). Multi-component surrogates, formulated by matching the octane ratings and compositions of the two gasolines, emulated the autoignition behavior of gasolines from high to low temperatures. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine simulations were used to show that the PRF and multi-component surrogates exhibited similar combustion phasing over a wide range of engine operating conditions.

  11. Assessment of Summer 1997 motor gasoline price increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Gasoline markets in 1996 and 1997 provided several spectacular examples of petroleum market dynamics. The first occurred in spring 1996, when tight markets, following a long winter of high demand, resulted in rising crude oil prices just when gasoline prices exhibit their normal spring rise ahead of the summer driving season. Rising crude oil prices again pushed gasoline prices up at the end of 1996, but a warm winter and growing supplies weakened world crude oil markets, pushing down crude oil and gasoline prices during spring 1997. The 1996 and 1997 spring markets provided good examples of how crude oil prices can move gasoline prices both up and down, regardless of the state of the gasoline market in the United States. Both of these spring events were covered in prior Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports. As the summer of 1997 was coming to a close, consumers experienced yet another surge in gasoline prices. Unlike the previous increase in spring 1996, crude oil was not a factor. The late summer 1997 price increase was brought about by the supply/demand fundamentals in the gasoline markets, rather than the crude oil markets. The nature of the summer 1997 gasoline price increase raised questions regarding production and imports. Given very strong demand in July and August, the seemingly limited supply response required examination. In addition, the price increase that occurred on the West Coast during late summer exhibited behavior different than the increase east of the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5 region needed additional analysis (Appendix A). This report is a study of this late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  12. Study on biomass catalytic pyrolysis for production of bio-gasoline by on-line FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Bo Lu; Jian Zhong Yao; Wei Gang Lin; Wen Li Song

    2007-01-01

    The pyrolysis of biomass is a promising way for production of bio-gasoline if the stability and quality problems of the bio-crudeoil can be solved by catalytic cracking and reforming. In this paper, an on-line infrared spectrum was used to study the characteristics of catalytic pyrolysis with the following preliminary results. The removal of C=O of organic acid is more difficult than that of aldehydes and ketones. HUSY/γ-Al2O3 and REY/γ-Al2O3 catalysts exhibited better deoxygenating activities while HZSM-5/γ-Al2O3 catalyst exhibited preferred selectivities for production of iso-alkanes and aromatics. Finally, possible mechanisms of biomass catalytic pyrolysis are discussed as well.

  13. Catalytic plastics cracking for recovery of gasoline-range hydrocarbons from municipal plastic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekens, A.G.; Huang, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry - CHIS 2, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050 (Belgium)

    1998-08-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in plastics cracking, a process developed to recycle plastic wastes into useful petrochemical materials. Under thermal cracking conditions, plastic wastes can be decomposed into three fractions: gas, liquid and solid residue. The liquid products are usually composed of higher boiling point hydrocarbons. By adopting customary fluid cracking catalysts and reforming catalysts, more aromatics and naphthenes in the C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} range can be produced, which are valuable gasoline-range hydrocarbons. More tests are, however, needed to verify the pyrolysis process in a pilot scale particularly for treatment of mixtures of bulk plastics. Plastics cracking is only an elementary conversion technology; its application has to be combined with other technologies such as municipal solid waste collection, classification and pretreatment at the front end, as well as hydrocarbon distillation and purification at the back end. Social, environmental and economic factors are also important in industrial implementation of the technology

  14. Chemical fingerprinting of gasoline. Part 3. Comparison of unevaporated automotive gasoline samples from Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, P M L; Du Pasquier, E

    2004-02-10

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC-MS (SIM)) method was used to discriminate samples of unevaporated gasoline collected from Auckland, New Zealand and Sydney, Australia. This method was applied to 28 samples of unevaporated gasoline, covering three different grades (regular unleaded, premium unleaded and premium plus unleaded), that were collected from service stations in Auckland, New Zealand in summer (February) and winter (August). The 14 samples of summer gasoline collected in New Zealand could be divided into seven unique groups. The 14 samples of winter gasoline from New Zealand could be divided into 14 unique groups. The 14 samples collected in New Zealand during February 2002 were then compared to 24 samples of unevaporated gasoline collected from service stations in Sydney, Australia during the same month. Most of the samples could be differentiated based on their country of origin.

  15. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

  16. Reducing Olefins in FCC Gasoline by Isomerization and Aromatization over Modified Nano-ZSM-5%在改性纳米ZSM-5上通过异构化和芳构化减少FCC汽油中的烯烃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培青; 王祥生; 郭洪臣

    2003-01-01

    @@ The rapid development of automobile and the greatly increased consumption of fuel have caused more and more serious air-pollution by the emission of tail gas[1,2]. To reduce the emission of tail gas from gasoline-powered engines, governments all over the world have tightened regulations on the composition of gasoline and required the production and use of clean fuels via the reduction of sulfur and olefins in gasoline. A new standard of the composition of gasoline will soon become effective in our country in which the content of olefins must be under 35% (volume fraction, the same below)[3]. However, approximately 80% of gasoline used in our country comes from FCC gasoline which contains olefins more than 50%. To decrease the content of olefins in gasoline, several measures have been developed, such as optimization of the FCC process, use of new FCC catalysts (GOR, LBO, RFG), hydrogenation, and so on. But the degree of reduction of olefins is not high (only by 6%~13%), and always accompanied by octane value decreasing. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a novel technique that can maintain the octane value while reducing the olefins in gasoline.

  17. Hydrogen generation from 2,2,4-trimethyl pentane reforming over molybdenum carbide at low steam-to-carbon ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheekatamarla, Praveen K.; Thomson, William J.

    Because of the need for an efficient and inexpensive reforming catalyst, the objective of this work is to determine the feasibility of employing Mo 2C catalyst for the steam reforming and oxy-steam reforming of the higher hydrocarbons typical of transportation fuels such as gasoline. It is shown that bulk Mo 2C catalysts can successfully reform 2,2,4-trimethyl pentane (isooctane) to generate H 2, CO and CO 2 at very low steam/carbon ratios, without coke formation, eliminating the need for pre-reforming. Maximum hydrogen generation was observed at a S/C ratio of 1.3 and 1000 °C during SR reactions and S/C of 0.71, O 2/C of 0.12 at 900 °C during oxidative steam reforming reactions.

  18. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  19. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  20. CFD Simulation of Gasoline Compression Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavasal, Janardhan; Kolodziej, Christopher P.; Ciatti, Stephen A.; Som, Sibendu

    2015-05-01

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is a low temperature combustion (LTC) concept that has been gaining increasing interest over the recent years owing to its potential to achieve diesel-like thermal efficiencies with significantly reduced engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions compared to diesel engines. In this work, closed-cycle computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed of this combustion mode using a sector mesh in an effort to understand effects of model settings on simulation results. One goal of this work is to provide recommendations for grid resolution, combustion model, chemical kinetic mechanism, and turbulence model to accurately capture experimental combustion characteristics. Grid resolutions ranging from 0.7 mm to 0.1 mm minimum cell sizes were evaluated in conjunction with both Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) based turbulence models. Solution of chemical kinetics using the multi-zone approach is evaluated against the detailed approach of solving chemistry in every cell. The relatively small primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism (48 species) used in this study is also evaluated against a larger 312-species gasoline mechanism. Based on these studies the following model settings are chosen keeping in mind both accuracy and computation costs – 0.175 mm minimum cell size grid, RANS turbulence model, 48-species PRF mechanism, and multi-zone chemistry solution with bin limits of 5 K in temperature and 0.05 in equivalence ratio. With these settings, the performance of the CFD model is evaluated against experimental results corresponding to a low load start of injection (SOI) timing sweep. The model is then exercised to investigate the effect of SOI on combustion phasing with constant intake valve closing (IVC) conditions and fueling over a range of SOI timings to isolate the impact of SOI on charge preparation and ignition. Simulation results indicate that there is an optimum SOI

  1. Study of methanol-to-gasoline process for production of gasoline from coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Tian-cai; CHENG Xiao-han; LI Ling; MENG Guo-ying

    2009-01-01

    The methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process is an efficient way to produce liquid fuel.The academic basis of the coal-to-liquid process is described and two different syn-thesis processes are focused on: Fixed MTG process and Fluid Bed MTG process.Then,the superiority of the Fluid Bed MTG Process is pointed out relative to the Fixed MTG Process.In addition,the development of the coal-to-liquid technique in China is briefly summarized.

  2. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a Catalytic naphtha reformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Lid

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending components to high-octane components for use in high-performance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has an important function as the producer of hydrogen to the refinery hydrotreaters. A process model based on a unit model structure, is used for estimation of the process condition using data reconciliation. Measurements are classified as redundant or non redundant and the model variables are classified as observable, barely observable or unobservable. The computed uncertainty of the measured and unmeasured variables shows that even if a variable is observable it may have a very large uncertainty and may thereby be practically unobservable. The process condition at 21 data points, sampled from two years of operation, was reconciled and used to optimize the process operation. There are large seasonal variations in the reformer product price and two operational cases are studied. In case 1, the product price is high and throughput is maximized with respect to process and product quality constraints. In case 2, the product price is low and the throughput is minimized with respect to a low constraint on the hydrogen production. Based on the characteristics of the optimal operation, a "self optimizing" control structure is suggested for each of the two operational cases.

  3. Gasoline prices and their relationship to drunk-driving crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guangqing; Zhou, Xuan; McClure, Timothy E; Gilbert, Paul A; Cosby, Arthur G; Zhang, Li; Robertson, Angela A; Levinson, David

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between changing gasoline prices and drunk-driving crashes. Specifically, we examine the effects of gasoline prices on drunk-driving crashes in Mississippi by several crash types and demographic groups at the monthly level from 2004 to 2008, a period experiencing great fluctuation in gasoline prices. An exploratory visualization by graphs shows that higher gasoline prices are generally associated with fewer drunk-driving crashes. Higher gasoline prices depress drunk-driving crashes among young and adult drivers, among male and female drivers, and among white and black drivers. Results from negative binomial regression models show that when gas prices are higher, there are fewer drunk-driving crashes, particularly among property-damage-only crashes. When alcohol consumption levels are higher, there are more drunk-driving crashes, particularly fatal and injury crashes. The effects of gasoline prices and alcohol consumption are stronger on drunk-driving crashes than on all crashes. The findings do not vary much across different demographic groups. Overall, gasoline prices have greater effects on less severe crashes and alcohol consumption has greater effects on more severe crashes.

  4. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jo, Young Suk [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lewis, Raymond [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bromberg, Leslie [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-29

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  5. A New FCC Process MIP for Production of Clean Gasoline Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Youhao; Zhang Jiushun; Long Jun; Wang Xieqing

    2001-01-01

    A concept of two different reaction zones was proposed based on the FCC reaction mechanism,and verified by the experimental results of a fixed fluidized bed reactor. The concept was used to design a novel reactor with corresponding operation measures. Further experiments were conducted on the newly designed pilot scale riser reactor. In comparison with the conventional FCC at relatively equivalent conversion,the pilot test results had shown that the olefin content in the cracked naphtha dropped by 12.4%, and both of iso-paraffin and aromatics increased by 6%, and its MON increased by 1.3 units while maintaining the RON of the naphtha unchanged, and its sulfur content was reduced by 15% with a significant extension of its induction period for Shengli VGO + VR.

  6. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this

  7. Method of removing sulphur and acid compounds from gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilokur, V.F.; Selezhev, N.I.; Starkov, N.M.; Zhordochkin, N.A.

    1980-02-12

    A method of removing sulphur and acid compounds from gasoline is proposed. In order to increase the degree of purification, maintain continuity of the process and eliminate production waste, the gasoline is washed with water with subsequent treatment with 25 percent aqueous solution of monoethanol amine (I). With rewashing using water, the relative ratios are for gasoline (solution I 0.5:1-1:1 and gasoline) and water 1:0.8-1:1. After purification I is regenerated and circulated, and gasoline impurities not removed in the regeneration process are adsorbed by activated charcoal from a flow of regenerated I. The base gasoline is sent to a washing column where continuous removal of hydrogen soluble impurities takes place. It is settled in a settling tank and sent to the pump absorber intake line. Solution I is sent there. The mixture is sent to the absorber (temperature 35-45 degrees C, pressure 4-6 atm) where a process of absorption of sulphur and acid compounds takes place and is then sent to the settling tank in which rapid separation of phases occurs to the bottom the saturated absorbent, to the top the purified gasoline. The latter is sent to be washed by water, and the absorbent is sent for desorption to the desorber (temperature towards the top 102-105 degrees C, bottom 112-115 degrees C, pressure 0.7 atm). The temperature of water washing is 30-50 degrees C. After purification this method the gasoline contains 0.2-0.25 percent total S, does not contain H/sub 2/S and features a K. Ch. (mg KON/100 ml gasoline) of approximately 0.04-0.05.

  8. Optimization of the octane response of gasoline/ethanol blends

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2017-07-04

    The octane responses of gasoline/ethanol mixtures are not well understood because of the unidentified intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase or decrease, and the non-linearity is determined by the composition of the base gasoline and the amount of added ethanol. The complexity of commercial gasolines, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates is critical to acquire knowledge about ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. In this study, the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol blends with five relevant gasoline surrogate molecules were measured. The molecules investigated in this study include: n-pentane, iso-pentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, cyclopentane and 1-hexene. These new measurements along with the available data of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, various primary reference fuels (PRF) and toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF) with ethanol are used to develop a blending rule for the octane response (RON and MON) of multi-component blends with ethanol. In addition, new ON data are collected for six Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) with ethanol. The relatively simple volume based model successfully predicts the octane numbers (ON) of the various ethanol/PRF and ethanol/TPRF blends with the majority of predictions being within the ASTM D2699 (RON) and D2700 (MON) reproducibility limits. The model is also successfully validated against the ON of the FACE gasolines blended with ethanol with the majority of predictions being within the reproducibility limits. Finally, insights into the possible causes of the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different molecules with ethanol are provided.

  9. Bioventing of gasoline-contaminated soil: some questions to be answered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, S.M.C.; Zytner, R.G. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: sbezerra@uoguelph.ca; rzytner@uoguelph.ca

    2002-06-15

    Underground storage tank (UST) leakage is a big concern in the USA and Canada because gasoline-contaminated soil is a significant source of groundwater contamination. This threat is not confined to North America as locations like Sao Paulo (Brazil) have leakage rates similar to the North American average. The typical in-situ remediation technology used to remediate the contaminated soil is soil vapour extraction (SVE), but once tailing occurs, where the residual gasoline concentration still exceeds clean up levels, SVE becomes ineffective. Bioventing has emerged as one of the most cost-effective technologies currently available to address this tailing in the remediation of petroleum-contaminated sites. Bioventing is a source control treatment, which delivers air and nutrients through injection wells placed in contaminated areas, in order to stimulate the activity of the indigenous microorganisms. However, encouraging laboratory results have not always translated into similar outcomes when implemented in the field. A reason for this inconsistency is the scale-dependent phenomena that influence the bioventing process at the microscale, mesoscale, and macroscale. This paper intends to provide some insights about various research needs in order to improve the bioventing process, specifically related to predicting the time to reach site closure. (author)

  10. 40 CFR 80.220 - What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GPA gasoline? 80.220 Section 80.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-in Program § 80.220 What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline? (a) GPA gasoline. (1) During the period February 1, 2004 through January 31, 2005, the sulfur content of GPA gasoline at any...

  11. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of...

  12. 76 FR 61062 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program; Change in the Definition of ``Gasoline'' To Exclude... emissions from the transfer of gasoline from storage tanks to motor vehicle fuel tanks at gasoline dispensing sites, i.e., stage II vapor recovery. The revisions would also amend the definition of...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1235 - What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1235 What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements...

  14. 40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements? For the purpose...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.1236 Section 80.1236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1236 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this...

  16. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  17. Effective Cleaning Radius Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churnetski, B.V.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses results of testing done in the Savannah River Laboratory half tank and full tank mockup facilities using kaolin clay slurries and the relationship between cleaning radius and pump and slurry characteristics.

  18. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool is for state and local governments interested in developing a financing program to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  19. Clean Power Plan Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are resources to help states as they develop state implementation plans under section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act to meet EPA's carbon pollution standards for existing power plants. Supplements www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards.

  20. Gasoline: An adaptable implementation of TreeSPH

    CERN Document Server

    Wadsley, J; Quinn, T; Wadsley, James; Stadel, Joachim; Quinn, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The key algorithms and features of the Gasoline code for parallel hydrodynamics with self-gravity are described. Gasoline is an extension of the efficient Pkdgrav parallel N-body code using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Accuracy measurements, performance analysis and tests of the code are presented. Recent successful Gasoline applications are summarized. These cover a diverse set of areas in astrophysics including galaxy clusters, galaxy formation and gas-giant planets. Future directions for gasdynamical simulations in astrophysics and code development strategies for tackling cutting edge problems are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

    2006-01-06

    In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

  2. Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act) outlined a national energy strategy that called for reducing the nation's dependency on petroleum imports. The Act directed the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to promote and expand the use of renewable fuels. The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has evaluated a wide range of potential fuels and has concluded that cellulosic ethanol is one of the most promising near-term prospects. Ethanol is widely recognized as a clean fuel that helps reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants. Furthermore, cellulosic ethanol produces less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or any of the other alternative transportation fuels being considered by DOE.

  3. Effects of gasoline and ethanol-gasoline exhaust exposure on human bronchial epithelial and natural killer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michèle; Usemann, Jakob; Bisig, Christoph; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas C R; Beier, Konstantin; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Latzin, Philipp; Müller, Loretta

    2017-08-24

    Air pollution exposure, including passenger car emissions, may cause substantial respiratory health effects and cancer death. In western countries, the majority of passenger cars are driven by gasoline fuel. Recently, new motor technologies and ethanol fuels have been introduced to the market, but potential health effects have not been thoroughly investigated. We developed and verified a coculture model composed of bronchial epithelial cells (ECs) and natural killer cells (NKs) mimicking the human airways to compare toxic effects between pure gasoline (E0) and ethanol-gasoline-blend (E85, 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline) exhaust emitted from a flexfuel gasoline car. We drove a steady state cycle, exposed ECs for 6h and added NKs. We assessed exhaust effects in ECs alone and in cocultures by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and oxidative stress assay. We found no toxic effects after exposure to E0 or E85 compared to air controls. Comparison between E0 and E85 exposure showed a weak association for less oxidative DNA damage after E85 exposure compared to E0. Our results indicate that short-term exposure to gasoline exhaust may have no major toxic effects in ECs and NKs and that ethanol as part of fuel for gasoline cars may be favorable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  5. Examining the impacts of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline photochemical production of smog in a fog using near-explicit gas- and aqueous-chemistry mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginnebaugh, Diana L.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates the air quality impacts of using a high-blend ethanol fuel (E85) instead of gasoline in vehicles in an urban setting when a morning fog is present under summer and winter conditions. The model couples the near-explicit gas-phase Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v. 3.1) with the extensive aqueous-phase Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism (CAPRAM 3.0i) in SMVGEAR II, a fast and accurate ordinary differential equation solver. Summer and winter scenarios are investigated during a two day period in the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) with all gasoline vehicles replaced by flex-fuel vehicles running on E85 in 2020. We find that E85 slightly increases ozone compared with gasoline in the presence or absence of a fog under summer conditions but increases ozone significantly relative to gasoline during winter conditions, although winter ozone is always lower than summer ozone. A new finding here is that a fog during summer may increase ozone after the fog disappears, due to chemistry alone. Temperatures were high enough in the summer to increase peroxy radical (RO2) production with the morning fog, which led to the higher ozone after fog dissipation. A fog on a winter day decreases ozone after the fog. Within a fog, ozone is always lower than if no fog occurs. The sensitivity of the results to fog parameters like droplet size, liquid water content, fog duration and photolysis are investigated and discussed. The results support previous work suggesting that E85 and gasoline both enhance pollution with E85 enhancing pollution significantly more at low temperatures. Thus, neither E85 nor gasoline is a ‘clean-burning’ fuel.

  6. nigeria's banking sector reforms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NESG PUBLICATIONS

    sector reforms to enthrone sound financial practices and good corporate governance ... April - June 2009 . 9. NIGERIA'S BANKING SECTOR REFORMS: THE JOURNEY SO FAR ..... implementation of a code of sound corporate governance in ...

  7. Biochemical responses in freshwater fish after exposure to water-soluble fraction of gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettim, Franciele Lima; Galvan, Gabrieli Limberger; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; de Assis, Helena Cristina Silva

    2016-02-01

    The water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG) is a complex mixture of mono-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of WSFG diluted 1.5% on freshwater fish. Astyanax altiparanae were exposed to the WSFG for 96 h, under a semi-static system, with renewal of 25% of the gasoline test solution every 24 h. In addition, a decay of the contamination (DC) was carried out. During DC, the fish was exposed to the WSFG for 8 d, followed by another 7 d with renewal of 25% of volume aquaria with clean water every 24 h. For depuration, fish were transferred to aquaria with clean water, and in addition, 25% of the water was replaced every 24 h. The liver and kidney biotransformation, antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were evaluated. In the liver, the WSFG 1.5% caused reduction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) after 96 h and DC. In the kidney, only in depuration an increased GST activity was observed, and after DC a higher LPO levels. An increase of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity occurred at 96 h in both tissues; however, in the liver was also observed during the depuration. In WSFG 96 h, the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the kidney increased. As biomarkers of neurotoxicity, the brain and muscle acetylcholinesterase activities were measured, but the WSFG 1.5% did not change them. Therefore, this study brought forth more data about WSFG effects on freshwater fish after lower concentrations exposure and a DC, simulating an environmental contamination.

  8. Price discrimination and tax incidence: Evidence from gasoline and diesel cars

    OpenAIRE

    Verboven, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The existing tax policies towards gasoline and diesel cars in European countries provide a unique opportunity to analyze quality-based price discrimination and implied tax incidence. We develop an econometric framework for the demand and pricing of gasoline and diesel cars. Consumers choose a gasoline or a diesel car based on their annual mileage. Manufacturers set gasoline and diesel car prices. Our empirical results show that the relative pricing of gasoline and diesel cars is consistent wi...

  9. Reforming Organizational Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Steven

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with regard to organizational structures. It provides readers a fairly comprehensive overview of the key reforms that have taken place in Western public sectors. Structural reforms in the public sector show ...

  10. Rising gasoline prices increase new motorcycle sales and fatalities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Hilsenrath, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    ...) and new motorcycle fatalities (r = 0.92). ARIMA analysis estimated that a US$1 increase in gasoline prices would result in 295,000 new motorcycle sales and, consequently, 233 new motorcycle fatalities...

  11. THE EFFECT OF GASOLINE PRICE ON ECONOMIC SECTORS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Ifeakachukwu Nwosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the long-run and short-run relationship between gasoline price and sectoral output in Nigeria for the period from 1980 to 2010. Six sectors (agriculture; manufacturing; building and construction; wholesale and retail; transportation and communication of the economy were examined. The long run regression estimate showed that gasoline price is a significant determinant output in all sectors examined with exception to the building and construction sector while the short run error correction estimate revealed that only output of the agriculture and the manufacturing sectors of the Nigerian economy is affect by gasoline price increase in the short run. The study recommended among others the need for the government to ensure adequate power supply in order to reduce the over reliance of economics sectors on gasoline as a prime source of power.

  12. A new kind of Molotov? Gasoline-pool chlorinator mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutches, Katherine; Lord, James

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the reaction between pool chlorinators and gasoline. In particular, the propensity for self-ignition and the resulting chemical products were studied. An organic pool chlorinator was combined with gasoline in varying proportions in an attempt to form a hypergolic mixture. None of the combinations resulted in self-ignition, but larger quantities of chlorinator produced vigorous light-colored smoke and a solid mass containing isocyanuric acid and copper chloride. Additionally, the chlorinating abilities of different commercially available pool chlorinators were explored. When Ca(ClO)(2) and sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinators were used, the presence of gasoline was still visible after 10 days, despite limited chlorination. The trichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinator, however, caused efficient chlorination of the C(2)- and C(3)-alkylbenzenes, making gasoline no longer identifiable.

  13. A Novel Catalyst for Isobutene Oligomerization to High Quality Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周硼; 安增建; 蔡天锡; 蹇锡高

    2003-01-01

    Dimerization of isobutene in liquid state to form high-octane value gasoline components was investigated over a homemade novel ion exchange resin,SPPESK,which shows high activity and selectivity in isobutene dimerization under mild conditions.

  14. Experimental investigation of ethanol blends with gasoline on SI engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav tiwari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Automobile have become a very important part of our modern life style. But the future of automobile based on internal combustion engines has been badly affected by two major problems. That is less availability of fuel and environmental degradation. So it is very important to found some new renewable non polluting alternative fuels to ensure the proper and safe survival of internal combustion engines. In present study we evaluate the performance of two stroke single cylinder spark ignition engine with ratio of 10% 20% and 30% of ethanol and gasoline by volume. Performance parameters (brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption and brake specific fuel consumption were determined at various loads on engine with ethanol blended gasoline. The comparison was made on performance of conventional SI engine with pure gasoline operation. As a result, brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and brake specific fuel consumption showed comparable performance when compared with pure gasoline performances.

  15. Recent Trends and Patterns of Gasoline Consumption in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... distribution de de l''essence indique que les plus grands centres de ... to national development, the environmental and social costs of transport are .... for gasoline, the impact of inefficient pricing policy on the macro-economy,.

  16. the reproductive dysfunction effects of gasoline inhalation in albino

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    hormones of reproduction in both the male and female test animals. The results ... additive of gasoline) in humans are thought to be lower than levels ... In developing countries such as Nigeria .... functions. We had used animal models as part.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH CARBON MONOXIDE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Recommendations NIOSH Publications Worker Notification Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many ...

  18. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  19. Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: Source behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana G.; Barker, James F.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~ 1 m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times.

  20. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline.

  1. Three studies of retail gasoline pricing dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Benjamin James

    In many Canadian cities, retail gasoline prices appear to cycle, rising by large amounts in one or two days followed by several days of small consecutive price decreases. While many empirical studies examine such markets, certain questions cannot b e properly answered without high frequency, station-specific price data for an entire market. Thus, the first paper in this thesis uses bi-hourly price data collected for 27 stations in Guelph, Ontario, eight tunes per day for 103 days to examine several basic predictions of the Edgeworth cycle theory. The results are largely consistent with this theory. However, most independent firms do not tend to undercut their rivals' prices, contrary to previous findings. Furthermore, the tuning, sizes and leaders of price increases appear to be very predictable, and a specific pattern of price movements has been detected on days when prices increase. These findings suggest that leading a price increase might not be as risky as one may expect. The second paper uses these same data to examine the implications o f an informal theory of competitive gasoline pricing, as advanced by industry and government. Consistent with this theory, stations do tend to set prices to match (or set a small positive or negative differential with) a small number of other stations, which are not necessarily the closest stations. Also, while retailers frequently respond to price changes within two hours, many take considerably longer to respond than is predicted by the theory. Finally, while price decreases do ripple across the market like falling dominos, increases appear to propagate based more on geographic location and source of price control than proximity to the leaders. The third paper uses both these data and Guelph price data collected every 12 hours during the same 103 days from OntarioGasPrices.com to examine the sample selection biases that might exist in such Internet price data, as well as their implications for empirical research. It is

  2.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth;

    -directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear......This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi...... empirical evidence that accounting separation is important for improving operating efficiency for both material and staff costs, whereas other reforms only influenced one of these factors...

  3. RIPP开发的催化重整技术%NEW REFORMING CATALYST DEVELOPED BY RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮仲英

    2003-01-01

    To meet the demands for high-octane gasoline and aromatics, catalytic reforming process has been advancing quickly in China. The reforming catalysts developed by RIPP have been used in more than 80% capacity of domestic CCR and SR units. This paper introduces the properties of PS-VI CCR catalyst developed by RIPP in recent years and also the result from commercial units. The PS-VI catalyst has high activity and good selectivity, under the same reaction conditions, the carbon on catalyst was lowered by 26% in mass as compared with that of the reference catalyst. Among the SR reforming catalysts, the new type of PRT series catalysts have excellent performance at low reaction pressure compared with the ref. Cat A. The aromatics and reformate mass yields of PRT catalyst were 2%~3% and 3%, respectively, higher than those of Cat A, and the run length was 30%~40% longer as well, which exhibits good prospect of application.

  4. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  5. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane

  6. Internal combustion engine with thermochemical recuperation fed by ethanol steam reforming products - feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, O.; Gutman, M.; Shapiro, M.; Tartakovsky, L.

    2016-08-01

    This research analyses the performance of a spark ignition engine fueled by ethanol steam reforming products. The basic concept involves the use of the internal combustion engine's (ICE) waste heat to promote onboard reforming of ethanol. The reformer and the engine performance were simulated and analyzed using GT-Suite, Chem CAD and Matlab software. The engine performance with different compositions of ethanol reforming products was analyzed, in order to find the optimal working conditions of the ICE - reformer system. The analysis performed demonstrated the capability to sustain the endothermic reactions in the reformer and to reform the liquid ethanol to hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel using the heat of the exhaust gases. However, the required reformer's size is quite large: 39 x 89 x 73 cm, which makes a feasibility of its mounting on board a vehicle questionable. A comparison with ICE fed by gasoline or liquid ethanol doesn't show a potential of efficiency improvement, but can be considered as a tool of additional emissions reduction.

  7. Prospect of Mid-long Term Oil & Gas System Reform in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    International oil keeps low-price running after crash, and China deepens reform domestically. Using this opportunity, China lays the same emphasis on investment and trade, on onshore and offshore transportation, gives full play to the important role of market in resource distribution, speeds up oil and gas system reform to guarantee clean, efficient, safe and steady energy supply and long-term demand for energy. We systematically and thoroughly established legal system for oil and gas domains, reformed management system for energy domain, reformed regulatory domain, built modern market entity and multi-level market system, and improved oil and gas pricing mechanism, etc.

  8. Rising gasoline prices increase new motorcycle sales and fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Hilsenrath, Peter E

    2015-12-01

    We examined whether sales of new motorcycles was a mechanism to explain the relationship between motorcycle fatalities and gasoline prices. The data came from the Motorcycle Industry Council, Energy Information Administration and Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1984-2009. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions estimated the effect of inflation-adjusted gasoline price on motorcycle sales and logistic regressions estimated odds ratios (ORs) between new and old motorcycle fatalities when gasoline prices increase. New motorcycle sales were positively correlated with gasoline prices (r = 0.78) and new motorcycle fatalities (r = 0.92). ARIMA analysis estimated that a US$1 increase in gasoline prices would result in 295,000 new motorcycle sales and, consequently, 233 new motorcycle fatalities. Compared to crashes on older motorcycle models, those on new motorcycles were more likely to be young riders, occur in the afternoon, in clear weather, with a large engine displacement, and without alcohol involvement. Riders on new motorcycles were more likely to be in fatal crashes relative to older motorcycles (OR 1.14, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.28) when gasoline prices increase. Our findings suggest that, in response to increasing gasoline prices, people tend to purchase new motorcycles, and this is accompanied with significantly increased crash risk. There are several policy mechanisms that can be used to lower the risk of motorcycle crash injuries through the mechanism of gas prices and motorcycle sales such as raising awareness of motorcycling risks, enhancing licensing and testing requirements, limiting motorcycle power-to-weight ratios for inexperienced riders, and developing mandatory training programs for new riders.

  9. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  10. On the Basic Content of Anti-corruption and Clean Government Promotion Theory with Chinese Characteristics since the Reform and Opening from the Report of Party Congress and the Revised Party Constitution%从党代会报告和党章修订看改革开放以来所形成的中国特色反腐倡廉理论基本内容

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白宝成

    2011-01-01

    改革开放以来,中国共产党经受住执政和改革开放的双重考验,从执政兴国的长远大计和提高党的执政能力、巩固党的执政地位的战略高度规划党风廉政建设和反腐败决策,深入探索在改革开放和社会主义市场经济条件下党风廉政建设和反腐败工作的基本特点和规律,结合新的形势提出新的要求,逐步发展党的反腐倡廉理论,走出了一条有中国特色反腐倡廉道路。中国特色反腐倡廉理论是中国特色社会主义理论体系的重要组成部分。中国特色反腐倡廉理论基本内容的形成,都通过党代会报告和党章修订中得到集中体现。%Since the reform and opening,the CPC has undergone the test of both governing and the reform and opening.It makes a plan of the anti-corruption and clean government promotion policies to enhance the governing ability and to strengthen the governing position of our party.It explores the basic characteristics and laws of party construction and anti-corruption in the conditions of the reform and opening and market economy,and puts forward new requirements and develops the anti-corruption theory with Chinese characteristics.Such an anti-corruption theory with Chinese characteristics is an important component of the socialist theory with Chinese characteristics.Its formation is embodied in the report of party congress and the revision of the party constitution.

  11. Strategy on Development of Gasoline and Diesel Standards in China with Reference to Overseas Practice for Upgrading Gasoline and Diesel Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhe; Yang Guoxun

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the standards for car exhaust emissions and gasoline and diesel quality in Europe and the US. As revealed by the evolution of gasoline and diesel standards in China, the gasoline and diesel compositions of China and the exhaust gas emissions standard are closely related with the specifics of the petroleum refining industry and automotive industry in China. After studying the current situations of gasoline and diesel quality in China while taking into account the commonly accepted practice in the overseas this article raises some suggestions on development of gasoline and diesel standards in compliance with the actual conditions of China.

  12. Neutrino Detection With CLEAN

    CERN Document Server

    McKinsey, D N

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...

  13. Clean energy microgrids

    CERN Document Server

    Obara, Shin'ya

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest technology in microgrids and economic, environmental and policy aspects of their implementation, including microgrids for cold regions, and future trends. The aim of this work is to give this complete overview of the latest technology around the world, and the interrelation with clean energy systems.

  14. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    are exacerbated by a poor personal trash management culture. In this paper we present Cleanly, an urban trashducation system aimed at creating awareness of garbage production and management, which may serve as an educational plat-form in the urban environment. We report on data collected from an online survey...

  15. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  16. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  17. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  18. Gasoline prices and traffic crashes in Alabama, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guangqing; McClure, Timothy E; Brown, David B

    2012-09-01

    The price of gasoline has been found to be negatively associated with traffic crashes in a limited number of studies. However, most of the studies have focused either on fatal crashes only or on all crashes but measured over a very short time period. In this study, we examine gasoline price effects on all traffic crashes by demographic groups in the state of Alabama from 1999 to 2009. Using negative binomial regression techniques to examine monthly data from 1999 to 2009 in the state of Alabama, we estimate the effects of changes in gasoline price on changes in automobile crashes. We also examine how these effects differ by age group (16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-64, and 65+), gender (male and female), and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic). The results show that gasoline prices have both short-term and long-term effects on reducing total traffic crashes and crashes of each age, gender, and race/ethnicity group (except Hispanic due to data limitations). The short-term and long-term effects are not statistically different for each individual demographic group. Gasoline prices have a stronger effect in reducing crashes involving drivers aged 16 to 20 than crashes involving drivers aged 31 to 64 and 65+ in the short term; the effects, however, are not statistically different across other demographic groups. Although gasoline price increases are not favored, our findings show that gasoline price increases (or decreases) are associated with reductions (or increases) in the incidence of traffic crashes. If gasoline prices had remained at the 1999 level of $1.41 from 1999 to 2009, applying the estimated elasticities would result in a predicted increase in total crashes of 169,492 (or 11.3%) from the actual number of crashes. If decision makers wish to reduce traffic crashes, increasing gasoline taxes is a possible option-however, doing so would increase travel costs and lead to equity concerns. These findings may help to shape transportation

  19. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... existing reforms are locally optimal, provide geometric illustrations and compare welfare effectiveness of reforms using numerical examples. Moreover, being a general concept, we apply it to the issue of market access and examine its implications. Overall, the paper's contribution lies in presenting...

  20. Compatibility Studies on Elastomers and Polymers with Ethanol Blended Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Dhaliwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the compatibility studies of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 with four types of elastomer materials, namely, Neoprene rubber, Nitrile rubber, hydrogenated Nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR, and Polyvinyl chloride/Nitrile butadiene rubber blend (PVC/NBR, and two types of plastic materials, namely, Nylon-66 and Polyoxymethylene (Delrin. These materials have applications in automotives as engine seals, gaskets, fuel system seals and hoses, and so forth. Two types of the ethanol blended gasoline mixtures were used: (a gasoline containing 5% ethanol (E5, which is commercial form of gasoline available in India, and (b gasoline containing 10% ethanol (E10. The above materials were immersed in E5 and E10 for 500 hrs at 55°C. A set of eight different properties in E5 and E10 (visual inspection, weight change, volume change, tensile strength, percent elongation, flexural strength, impact strength, and hardness were measured after completion of 500 hrs and compared with reference specimens (specimens at 55°C without fuel and specimens at ambient conditions. Variation observed in different materials with respect to the above eight properties has been used to draw inference about the compatibility of these elastomeric/polymer materials with E10 fuel vis-à-vis E5 fuels. The data presented in this study is comparative in nature between the results of E10 and E5.

  1. Comparison of hecter fuel with export aviation gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, H C; Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W

    1921-01-01

    Among the fuels which will operate at compression ratios up to at least 8.0 without preignition or "pinking" is hecter fuel, whence a careful determination of its performance is of importance. For the test data presented in this report the hecter fuel used was a mixture of 30 per cent benzol and 70 per cent cyclohexane, having a low freezing point, and distilling from first drop to 90 per cent at nearly a constant temperature, about 20 degrees c. below the average distillation temperature ("mean volatility") of the x gasoline (export grade). The results of these experiments show that the power developed by hecter fuel is the same as that developed by export aviation gasoline at about 1,800 r.p.m. at all altitudes. At lower speeds differences in the power developed by the fuels become evident. Comparisons at ground level were omitted to avoid any possibility of damaging the engine by operating with open throttle on gasoline at so high a compression. The fuel consumption per unit power based on weight, not volume, averaged more than 10 per cent greater with hecter than with x gasoline. The thermal efficiency of the engine when using hecter is less than when using gasoline, particularly at higher speeds. A generalization of the difference for all altitudes and speeds being 8 per cent. A general deduction from these facts is that more hecter is exhausted unburnt. Hecter can withstand high compression pressures and temperature without preignition. (author)

  2. Investigations on the effects of ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: Performance and emissions analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses performance and exhaust emissions from spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. The test results obtained with the use of low content rates of ethanol–methanol blends (3–10 vol.%) in gasoline were compared to ethanol–gasoline blends, methanol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline test results. Combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol, methanol and gasoline and their blends were evaluated. Results showed that when the vehicle was fueled wit...

  3. Investigations on the effects of ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: Performance and emissions analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses performance and exhaust emissions from spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. The test results obtained with the use of low content rates of ethanol–methanol blends (3–10 vol.%) in gasoline were compared to ethanol–gasoline blends, methanol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline test results. Combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol, methanol and gasoline and their blends were evaluated. Results showed that when the vehicle was fueled wit...

  4. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  5. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  6. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  7. Multi-stage cleaning plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1980-12-09

    A cleaning plant positioned within an annular fluidized bed combustion chamber is divided into a plurality of separate cleaning stages, wherein a first stage is located adjacent the fluidized bed and additional stages are arranged within the first stage. Each stage comprises a plurality of separate cleaning devices which act in parallel, while cleaning devices of different stages act in series to remove debris from the combustion gases that exit from the fluidized bed combustion chamber.

  8. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  9. The effects of hydrous ethanol gasoline on combustion and emission characteristics of a port injection gasoline engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative experiments were conducted on a port injection gasoline engine fueled with hydrous ethanol gasoline (E10W, ethanol gasoline (E10 and pure gasoline (E0. The effects of the engine loads and the additions of ethanol and water on combustion and emission characteristics were analyzed deeply. According to the experimental results, compared with E0, E10W showed higher peak in-cylinder pressure at high load. Increases in peak heat release rates were observed for E10W fuel at all the operating conditions. The usage of E10W increased NOX emissions at a wide load range. However, at low load conditions, E10W reduced HC, CO and CO2 emissions significantly. E10W also produced slightly less HC and CO emissions, while CO2 emissions were not significantly affected at higher operating points. Compared with E10, E10W showed higher peak in-cylinder pressures and peak heat release rates at the tested operating conditions. In addition, decreases in NOX emissions were observed for E10W from 5 Nm to 100 Nm, while HC, CO and CO2 emissions were slightly higher at low and medium load conditions. From the results, it can be concluded that E10W fuel can be regarded as a potential alternative fuel for gasoline engine applications.

  10. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  11. CO2 emission benefit of diesel (versus gasoline) powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J L; Baker, R E; Boyer, B A; Hammerle, R H; Kenney, T E; Muniz, L; Wallington, T J

    2004-06-15

    Concerns regarding global warming have increased the pressure on automobile manufacturers to decrease emissions of CO2 from vehicles. Diesel vehicles have higher fuel economy and lower CO2 emissions than their gasoline counterparts. Increased penetration of diesel powered vehicles into the market is a possible transition strategy toward a more sustainable transportation system. To facilitate discussions regarding the relative merits of diesel vehicles it is important to have a clear understanding of their CO2 emission benefits. Based on European diesel and gasoline certification data, this report quantifies such CO2 reduction opportunities for cars and light duty trucks in today's vehicles and those in the year 2015. Overall, on a well-to-wheels per vehicle per mile basis, the CO2 reduction opportunity for today's vehicles is approximately 24-33%. We anticipate that the gap between diesel and gasoline well-to-wheel vehicle CO2 emissions will decrease to approximately 14-27% by the year 2015.

  12. Innovation in energy systems: a case study of gasoline rationing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop a theoretical understanding of the implementation of new programs (innovations) by organizations, verify concepts with a case study of gasoline rationing, and apply knowledge gained to an analysis of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Major hypotheses of the study are: (1) Role specialization is required during the initial stage of implementation. (2) Decentralization is required during the initial stage of implementation. (3) Role specialization hinders implementation during the later stage. (4) Centralization is required during the later stage of implementation. The concept of technology delivery system is employed to demonstrate how organizational structure (degree of specialization centralization, etc.) is related to technological requirements and social need. The four major hypotheses were verified with the innovation theory as well as the case study of rationing. Application to the Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan leads to the conclusion that major problems would occur with plan implementation.

  13. Electrical impedance tomography of the 1995 OGI gasoline release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.

    1996-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) was used to image the plume resulting from a release of 378 liters (100 gallons) of gasoline into a sandy acquifer. Images were made in 5 planes before and 5 times during the release, to generate a detailed picture of the spatial as well as the temporal development of the plume as it spread at the water table. Information of the electrical impedance (both in phase and out of phase voltages) was used or several different frequencies to produce images. We observed little dispersion in the images either before or after the gasoline entered the acquifer. Likewise, despite some laboratory measurements of impedances, there was no evidence of a change in the reactance in the soil because of the gasoline.

  14. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  15. A Clean Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAGGIECHEN

    2004-01-01

    If you have US$1 million, do you invest in car production or cleaning car emissions? More cars than ever are hitting the roads and demand is rising.Cleaner cars are being called for, as the government strives to reduce car emission. So there is an obvious market both for cars and for new emission control technologies.Theoretically, you should make money by investing in either of them in China today.

  16. Clean Power on Tap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adopts the most advanced nuclear power technologies to meet long-term energy needs Nuclear power has taken center stage in China’s nationwide cam-paign to develop new and clean energy sources. In the latest effort, Chinese state-owned nuclear power giants invested over 40 billion yuan ($5.86 billion) as an initial funding injection to build a new plant under the

  17. CLEAN: CLustering Enrichment ANalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedovic Mario

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of biological knowledge encoded in various lists of functionally related genes has become one of the most important aspects of analyzing genome-wide functional genomics data. In the context of cluster analysis, functional coherence of clusters established through such analyses have been used to identify biologically meaningful clusters, compare clustering algorithms and identify biological pathways associated with the biological process under investigation. Results We developed a computational framework for analytically and visually integrating knowledge-based functional categories with the cluster analysis of genomics data. The framework is based on the simple, conceptually appealing, and biologically interpretable gene-specific functional coherence score (CLEAN score. The score is derived by correlating the clustering structure as a whole with functional categories of interest. We directly demonstrate that integrating biological knowledge in this way improves the reproducibility of conclusions derived from cluster analysis. The CLEAN score differentiates between the levels of functional coherence for genes within the same cluster based on their membership in enriched functional categories. We show that this aspect results in higher reproducibility across independent datasets and produces more informative genes for distinguishing different sample types than the scores based on the traditional cluster-wide analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of the CLEAN framework in comparing clusterings produced by different algorithms. CLEAN was implemented as an add-on R package and can be downloaded at http://Clusteranalysis.org. The package integrates routines for calculating gene specific functional coherence scores and the open source interactive Java-based viewer Functional TreeView (FTreeView. Conclusion Our results indicate that using the gene-specific functional coherence score improves the reproducibility of the

  18. Clean steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels.

  19. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  20. Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2016-08-16

    This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline mixtures in future engines. The optimal fuel blend (lowest CO2 emitting fuel) is identified. A range of gasoline fuels is studied, containing different ethanol volume percentages (E0–E40), research octane numbers (RON, 92–105), and octane sensitivities (8.5–15.5). Sugarcane-based and cellulosic ethanol-blended gasolines are shown to be effective in reducing lifecycle CO2 emission, while corn-based ethanol is not as effective. A refinery simulation of production emission was utilized, and combined with vehicle fuel consumption modeling to determine the lifecycle CO2 emissions associated with ethanol-blended gasoline in turbocharged engines. The critical parameters studied, and related to blended fuel lifecycle CO2 emissions, are ethanol content, research octane number, and octane sensitivity. The lowest-emitting blended fuel had an ethanol content of 32 vol%, RON of 105, and octane sensitivity of 15.5; resulting in a CO2 reduction of 7.1%, compared to the reference gasoline fuel and engine technology. The advantage of ethanol addition is greatest on a per unit basis at low concentrations. Finally, this study shows that engine-downsizing technology can yield an additional CO2 reduction of up to 25.5% in a two-stage downsized turbocharged engine burning the optimum sugarcane-based fuel blend. The social cost savings in the USA, from the CO2 reduction, is estimated to be as much as $187 billion/year. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  1. An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguiberry, Florencia

    This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

  2. 3rd Conference on Ignition Systems for Gasoline Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Sens, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the 3rd Conference on Ignition Systems for Gasoline Engines in Berlin in November 2016. Experts from industry and universities discuss in their papers the challenges to ignition systems in providing reliable, precise ignition in the light of a wide spread in mixture quality, high exhaust gas recirculation rates and high cylinder pressures. Classic spark plug ignition as well as alternative ignition systems are assessed, the ignition system being one of the key technologies to further optimizing the gasoline engine.

  3. Hydrocarbon Ultrasonic Cleaning Test for Bearings%碳氢超声波清洗轴承试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢阳; 李泽强; 王玉良; 刘扬

    2015-01-01

    基于对汽油、煤油和碳氢清洗剂在性能、价格及环保性等方面的对比分析,通过小批量碳氢超声波清洗与汽油人工清洗成品轴承的振动性能对比试验,验证了碳氢超声波替代汽油清洗成品轴承的可行性,为精密轴承采用碳氢超声波清洗技术提供了数据支持。%Based on comparative analysis of performance,price and environmental protection aspects for gasoline,kero-sene and hydrocarbon cleaner,the small batch finished bearings are cleaned by hydrocarbon ultrasonic and gasoline.The vibration performance contrast test verifies feasibility of hydrocarbon ultrasonic substituting for gasoline to clean finished bearings,which provides data support for hydrocarbon ultrasonic cleaning technology for precision bearings.

  4. Catalytic hot gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification gas that contains particulates can be purified from tars and ammonia by using nickel monolith catalysts. Temperatures over 900 deg C are required at 20 bar pressure to avoid deactivation by H{sub 2}S and carbon. Dolomites and limestones are effective tar decomposing catalysts only when calcined. Tar decomposition in gasification conditions can take place by steam or dry (CO{sub 2}) reforming reactions. These reactions follow apparent first order kinetics with respect to hydrocarbons in gasification conditions. (author) (16 refs.)

  5. Educational Reform in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Bertha Orozco; Elizando Y Carr, Sandra

    1993-01-01

    Since the 1970s, each presidential regime has presented an educational modernization reform program for Mexico. Although the various reforms have widened educational opportunities, the quality of education has continued to deteriorate because of student and teacher desertion, a low scholastic progress index, accessibility problems, lack of an…

  6. Comments on UN Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangHongxi; ZhangYaowu

    2004-01-01

    On October 9-13 2004, United Nations SecretaryGeneral Kofi Annan paid an official visit to China.During his stay, he had discussions with Chinese leaders on UN reform and changes in the international situation and etc. In recent 59th UN General Assembly Session, UN reform was also one of the hot topics.

  7. Reforming Organizational Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with

  8. Comparative Effects of Ethanol (E85), Gasoline, and Wind-Powered Electric Vehicles on Cancer, Mortality, Climate-Relevant Emissions, and Land requirements in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, a nested global-through-urban air pollution/weather forecast model is combined with high- resolution future emission inventories, population data, and health effects data to examine the effect of converting from gasoline to a high-ethanol blend (E85) on cancer, mortality, and hospitalization in the U.S. as a whole and Los Angeles in particular. The effects of both are then compared with those from converting to wind-powered battery-electric vehicles (WBEVs). Under the base-case emission scenario, which accounted for projected improvements in gasoline and E85 vehicle emission controls, complete conversion to E85, which is unlikely due to land-use constraints, was found to increase ozone-related mortality, hospitalization, and asthma by about 9 percent in Los Angeles and 4 percent in the U.S. as a whole relative to 100 percent gasoline. Ozone increases in Los Angeles and the northeast U.S. were partially offset by decreases in the southeast. E85 also increased PAN in the U.S. but was estimated to cause little change in cancer risk relative to gasoline. Both gasoline and ethanol are anticipated to cause at least 10,000-20,000 premature deaths in the U.S. in 2020, which would be eliminated upon conversion to WBEVs. WBEVs require 30 times less land area than corn ethanol and 20 times less land area than cellulosic ethanol for powering the same vehicle fleet. About 70,000-120,000 5 MW wind turbines in average wind speeds exceeding 8 m/s could power all U.S. onroad vehicles, eliminating up to 26 percent of U.S. carbon, compared with a best-case carbon reduction of 0.2 percent for corn-ethanol and 4 percent for cellulosic ethanol, based on recent lifecycle emission data and landuse constraints. In sum, both gasoline and E85 pose public health risks, with E85 causing equal or possibly more damage. The conversion to battery-electric vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles powered by wind or another clean renewable, is a significantly superior solution to

  9. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  10. 40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for GPA gasoline. 80.219 Section 80.219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-in Program § 80.219 Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline. The requirements and... standards under § 80.216 as “GPA” gasoline. (b) Product transfer documents. (1) On each occasion that any...

  11. Is There an Association between Gasoline Prices and Physical Activity? Evidence from American Time Use Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Bisakha

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is epidemic in the United States, and there is an imperative need to identify policy tools that may help fight this epidemic. A recent paper in the economics literature finds an inverse relationship between gasoline prices and obesity risk--suggesting that increased gasoline prices via higher gasoline taxes may have the effect of reducing…

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 80 - Test for the Determination of Phosphorus in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Phosphorus in Gasoline A Appendix A to Part 80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 80—Test for the Determination of Phosphorus in Gasoline 1. Scope. 1.1 This method was developed for..., in gasoline. This method is applicable for the determination of phosphorus in the range from...

  13. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... method for olefin content in gasoline. This proposed rule will provide flexibility to the regulated... A. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews...

  14. 76 FR 9013 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline... this action are those who (1) Manufacture gasoline, post-refinery component, or detergent additives, (2) blend detergent additives into gasoline or post-refinery component, or (3) transport or receive...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1348 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements § 80.1348 What gasoline sample retention...

  16. 78 FR 58184 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... requirement contingency measures for new and upgraded gasoline dispensing facilities in the State. The..., for all new or improved gasoline tanks, and 15A NCAC 02D.0954 (hereafter referred to as rule...

  17. 78 FR 34966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... of Gasoline Vapor Recovery From Southeast Wisconsin AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.... Stage II systems are specifically installed at gasoline dispensing facilities (GDF) and capture the refueling fuel vapors at the gasoline pump nozzle. The system carries the vapors back to the...

  18. 40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reformulated gasoline. 80.78 Section 80.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.78 Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline. (a) Prohibited activities. (1) No person may...

  19. 40 CFR 80.335 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements for Refiners and Importers § 80.335 What gasoline...

  20. 40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.340-79 Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to...

  1. 78 FR 34303 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed... for new and upgraded gasoline dispensing facilities in the State. The September 18, 2009, SIP revision... Piping for Stage II Vapor Recovery, for all new or improved gasoline tanks. In addition, rule...

  2. 76 FR 40246 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Gasoline Volatility; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... Implementation Plan. This revision is for the purpose of establishing a gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) limit of 7.8 pounds per square inch (psi) for gasoline sold in the Cincinnati and ] Dayton areas...

  3. 26 CFR 1.164-5 - Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. 1....164-5 Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. For taxable years beginning before January 1...) and tax on the sale of gasoline, diesel fuel or other motor fuel paid by the consumer (other than...

  4. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... alternative test method for olefin content in gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility to the... to me? II. Rule Change A. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory...

  5. 40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.375 Section 80.375 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California...

  6. 40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80.255 Section 80.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur... gasoline. The requirements of this section apply to any refiner approved for small refiner standards...

  7. 40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80.73 Section 80.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. In...

  8. 40 CFR 80.385 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ethanol violation. Blend into gasoline denatured ethanol with a sulfur content higher than 30 ppm. (f) GPA... gasoline sulfur program? 80.385 Section 80.385 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur...

  9. Carbonaceous Aerosols Emitted from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the chemical properties of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from three light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDVs) operating on gasoline (e0) and ethanol-gasoline fuel blends (e10 and e85). Vehicle road load simulations were performed on a chassis dynamometer using the t...

  10. The Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the United States today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% of the total U.S. gasoline consumption).

  11. Is There an Association between Gasoline Prices and Physical Activity? Evidence from American Time Use Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Bisakha

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is epidemic in the United States, and there is an imperative need to identify policy tools that may help fight this epidemic. A recent paper in the economics literature finds an inverse relationship between gasoline prices and obesity risk--suggesting that increased gasoline prices via higher gasoline taxes may have the effect of reducing…

  12. A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

  13. A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

  14. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have...

  15. Optimizing the Heat Exchanger Network of a Steam Reforming System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Korsgaard, Anders Risum; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    gas steam reformer along with gas purification reactors to generate clean hydrogen suited for a PEM stack. The temperatures in the various reactors in the fuel processing system vary from around 1000°C to the stack temperature at 80°C. Furthermore, external heating must be supplied to the endothermic...... steam reforming reaction and steam must be generated. The dependence of the temperature profiles on conversion in shift reactors for gas purification is also significant. The optimum heat integration in the system is thus imperative in order to minimize the need for hot and cold utilities. A rigorous 1D...

  16. An African Reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Oliver

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 is the year in which the Reformation, started by Martin Luther, is celebrating its 500th birthday. This depicts a milestone in the life of the Church of the Reformation and also in the life of Christians worldwide. This is a good time to ponder on the epistemological question of the validity and necessity of the (European Reformation (i.e. improvement, renovation or change. If this question is answered in a positive way, then it could bring us to the realisation that the time is ripe for an African Reformation. This article will argue that this is indeed the case. A reformation, transformation and change is needed for the African Christian context. However, the question could well be asked: Who will be the ‘second Luther?’

  17. 46 CFR 56.50-70 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... opening on top for cleaning screens. A drip pan shall be fitted under the strainer. (e) Outlets and drains... cleaning purposes. (f) Fuel suction connections. All fuel suction and return lines shall enter the top...

  18. A micro-structured 5kW complete fuel processor for iso-octane as hydrogen supply system for mobile auxiliary power units Part I. Development of autothermal reforming catalyst and reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Gunther; Baier, Tobias; Schürer, Jochen; Tiemann, David; Ziogas, Athanassios; Ehwald, Hermann; Alphonse, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    A micro-structured autothermal reformer was developed for a fuel processing/fuel cell system running on iso-octane and designed for an electrical power output of 5kWel. The target application was an automotive auxiliary power unit (APU). The work covered both catalyst and reactor development. In fixed bed screening, nickel and rhodium were identified as the best candidates for autothermal reforming of gasoline. Under higher feed flow rates applied in microchannel testing, a catalyst formul...

  19. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  20. Clean Room Apparel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    American Hospital Supply Corporation (AHSC), Baxter Healthcare Corporation's predecessor, used the NASA informational base on contamination control technology to improve industrial contamination control technology. When a study determined that microscopic body particles escaping through tiny "windows" in woven garments worn by workers were the greatest source of contamination, AHSC developed TYVEK. This non-woven material filters 99% of all particulate matter larger than half a micron. Baxter Healthcare added a polyimide coating which seals and ties down any loose fibers, providing greater durability. Stress points along seams have been minimized to make the garment almost tearproof. Micro-Clean 212 garments are individually packaged and disposable.

  1. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere causing precipitation of acid rain resulting in death of forests and destruction of buildings and monuments in addition to human health problems. The most common state-of-the-art methods applied today industrially for cleaning of flue gases will be addressed, including wet......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  2. Reducing secondary organic aerosol formation from gasoline vehicle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Saleh, Rawad; Saliba, Georges; Presto, Albert A; Gordon, Timothy D; Drozd, Greg T; Goldstein, Allen H; Donahue, Neil M; Robinson, Allen L

    2017-07-03

    On-road gasoline vehicles are a major source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in urban areas. We investigated SOA formation by oxidizing dilute, ambient-level exhaust concentrations from a fleet of on-road gasoline vehicles in a smog chamber. We measured less SOA formation from newer vehicles meeting more stringent emissions standards. This suggests that the natural replacement of older vehicles with newer ones that meet more stringent emissions standards should reduce SOA levels in urban environments. However, SOA production depends on both precursor concentrations (emissions) and atmospheric chemistry (SOA yields). We found a strongly nonlinear relationship between SOA formation and the ratio of nonmethane organic gas to oxides of nitrogen (NOx) (NMOG:NOx), which affects the fate of peroxy radicals. For example, changing the NMOG:NOx from 4 to 10 ppbC/ppbNOx increased the SOA yield from dilute gasoline vehicle exhaust by a factor of 8. We investigated the implications of this relationship for the Los Angeles area. Although organic gas emissions from gasoline vehicles in Los Angeles are expected to fall by almost 80% over the next two decades, we predict no reduction in SOA production from these emissions due to the effects of rising NMOG:NOx on SOA yields. This highlights the importance of integrated emission control policies for NOx and organic gases.

  3. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m(-1) for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m(-1) for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model.

  4. Improving gasoline quality produced from MIDOR light naphtha isomerization unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Isomerization process became one of the best gasoline production sources, as it gives a high octane product while saving environment from pollution impacts. This paper presents a practical study that aims to improve the gasoline quality and economic income of an existing light naphtha isomerization unit used for octane improvement. The study included selecting the optimum combination of isomerization unit equipment that gives better product specifications for a specified feed. Eight scenarios were studied and simulated to predict the product specs. The original studied unit is MIDOR light naphtha isomerization unit at Alexandria-Egypt that recycles the unconverted hexane (C6. The other studied scenarios were adding fractionators for separating feed iso-pentanes, and recycling unconverted pentanes, hexanes and/or combinations of these fractionators. The results show a change in octane number of gasoline product for a specific feed. Once through process with no extra fractionators has lower octane number of 81 while that with de-iso-pentanizer–de-pentanizer and de-hexanizer produces gasoline with 92.3 octane number. Detailed economic study was done to calculate the return on investment “ROI” for each process option based on equipment, utilities, feed and product prices. Once through simple isomerization unit had the lowest ROI of 14.3% per year while the combination of De-iso-pentanizer with the De-hexanizer had the best ROI of 26.6% per year.

  5. Experimental investigation of Methanol blends with gasoline on SI engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav tiwari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Automobile have become a very important part of our modern life style. And it runs on fossil fuel. But the excessive use of fossil fuels will very soon leads to the energy crises so the future of automobile based on fossil fuels has been badly affected by two major problems. That is less availability of fuel and environmental degradation. So it is very important to found some new renewable non polluting alternative fuels to ensure the proper and safe survival of internal combustion engines. In present study we evaluate the performance of two stroke single cylinder spark ignition engine with ratio of 10%, 20% and 30% of methanol and gasoline by volume. Performance parameters (brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption and brake specific fuel consumption were determined at various loads on engine with methanol blended gasoline. The comparison was made on performance of conventional SI engine with pure gasoline operation. As a result, brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption showed improved performance when compared with pure gasoline performances.

  6. Properties, performance and emissions of biofuels in blends with gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Farshad

    The emission performance of fuels and their blends in modern combustion systems have been studied with the purpose of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions, understanding of exhaust products of fuels such as gasoline, ethanol and 2,5-dimethylfuran and comparison of results. A quantitative analysis of individual hydrocarbon species from exhaust emissions of these three fuels were carried out with direct injects spark ignition (DISI) single cylinder engine. The analysis of hydrocarbon species were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) connected on-line to SI engine. During this project, novel works have been done including the set up of on-line exhaust emission measurement device for detection and quantification of individual volatile hydrocarbons. Setting of a reliable gas chromatography mass spectrometry measurement system required definition and development of a precise method. Lubricity characteristics of biofuels and gasoline were investigated using High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). Results showed great enhancing lubricity characteristics of biofuels when added to conventional gasoline. 2,5-dimenthylfuran was found to be the best among the fuels used, addition of this fuel to gasoline also showed better result compared with ethanol addition.

  7. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Esther S.; Kline, Keith L.; Dale, Virginia H.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; McBride, Allen C.; Johnson, Timothy L.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the spatial extent and temporal duration of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol-supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  8. Reformulated gasolines: The experience of Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Jardon, R.T.; Echeverria, R.S. [Centro de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    The introduction of several reformulated gasolines into the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) in the middle 1986 is an example of using fuel composition to improve, in theory, the air quality. However, although these changes have resulted in an important reduction of lead airborne concentrations, a worsened situation has been created. Ozone levels in the atmosphere MCMZ have presented a sudden rise since the introduction of the first reformulated gasoline, reaching in the 1990`s an annual average of 1,700 exceedances to the Mexican Ozone Air Quality Standard (0.11 ppm not to be exceeded 1 hr. a day one day a year). The authors examine the tendency on ozone air quality in MCMZ in relation with the changes in gasoline composition since 1986. The authors also discuss the importance to perform an air quality impact analysis before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in countries where the local economy do not allow to change the old car fleet not fitted with exhaust treatment devices.

  9. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; McBride, Allen [ORNL; Johnson, Timothy L [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Raleigh, North Carolina; Hilliard, Michael R [ORNL; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M [University of Minnesota

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  10. Neurobehavioral evaluations of rats gestationally exposed to gasoline vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the US fuel supply is moving towards blends with higher ethanol levels, there are questions regarding effects of these fuel vapors in the developing fetus. As part of a project evaluating gasoline-ethanol blends of different proportions. we included an evaluation of inhaled pu...

  11. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may ei

  12. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: neurotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, James P; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; White, Russell

    2014-11-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess potential neurotoxicity of evaporative emissions. Test articles included vapor condensates prepared from "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/mg(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. The functional observation battery (FOB) with the addition of motor activity (MA) testing, hematoxylin and eosin staining of brain tissue sections, and brain regional analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were used to assess behavioral changes, traditional neuropathology and astrogliosis, respectively. FOB and MA data for all agents, except G/TBA, were negative. G/TBA behavioral effects resolved during recovery. Neuropathology was negative for all groups. Analyses of GFAP revealed increases in multiplebrain regions largely limited to males of the G/EtOH group, findings indicative of minor gliosis, most significantly in the cerebellum. Small changes (both increases and decreases) in GFAP were observed for other test agents but effects were not consistent across sex, brain region or exposure concentration.

  13. Basic Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This packet contains a program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for the implementation of a basic gasoline engine mechanics program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, lists job titles under the program, and includes a…

  14. An on-line gasoline blending system put into production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Anew system for online gasoline blending, which was developed by researchers from the CAS Institute of Automation (CASIA), has been put into production at China Petrochemical Corporation (SINOPEC) and PetroChina Corporation. It is expected to thoroughly renovate the technology in this regard and achieve maximal economic benefits in oil production stage.

  15. Price assymetry in the Dutch retail gasoline market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); M. Varkevisser (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses retail price adjustments in the Dutch gasoline market. We estimate an asymmetric error correction model on weekly price changes for the years 1996 to 2001. We construct five datasets, one for each working day. The conclusions on asymmetric pricing are shown to differ

  16. Modeling Gasoline Demand with Structural Breaks: New Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Akin Omisakin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends previous studies in modeling and estimating demand for gasoline for Nigeria from 1977 to 2008. The ingenious attempt of this study, contrast to earlier studies on Nigeria and other developing countries, lies in its assumption of structural breaks in the long run relationship among the variables employed. The study tests for the possibility of structural breaks/regime shifts and parameter instability in the gasoline demand function in Nigeria using more recent and robust techniques. While the conventional residual-based cointegration tests employed fail to identify any meaningful long-run relationship in the gasoline function, the Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration approach confirms the cointegration relationships despite the breakpoints. The elasticity estimates also follow the a priori expectations being inelastic both in the long- and short-run for both price and income. Having identified plausible breaks in the systems, the test does suggest that a structural break in the cointegration vector is important and needs to be taken care of in the specification of gasoline demand functions in Nigeria. It is envisaged, therefore, that substantial policy lessons would be drawn from the findings of this study especially in the current phase of energy industry deregulation in Nigeria.

  17. MOBILIZATION OF AVIATION GASOLINE FROM A RESIDUAL SOURCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple one-dimensional model describes the mobilization of 90 m3 of residual aviation gasoline from an 80-m diameter, O.3O6-m thick contaminated soil mass at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station in Traverse City, Michigan. riginally deposited under a paved ground surface in Decembe...

  18. The Determination of Lead in Gasoline by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M. F. M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves the extraction of lead from gasoline into an aqueous solvent using iodine monochloride reagent. This method (which avoids the aspiration of organic solvents) also illustrates the use of wavelengths other than the most sensitive wavelength and effects of flame stoichiometry and burner height upon absorbance.…

  19. Assessment of the risk of transporting gasoline by truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    Based on shipping assumptions and the current accident rate of 2.5 x 10/sup -6/ per mile, it is estimated that gasoline tank trucks will be involved in 1,781 accidents in 1980, and that 110 of the accidents (about one in 15) will result in a release of 3,000 gallons of gasoline or more from the tank truck. About one in four of the releases are expected to result in a large fire. The estimated number of fatalities from the gasoline releases in 1980 is 29, with 12 of these fatalities being drivers of gasoline tank trucks, and the other 17 being occupants of other vehicles involved in the accident. Fatalities of other members of the public were found to occur infrequently. An additional 26 persons are expected to be fatally injured from the accident forces, regardless of the hazardous nature of the cargo. These total fatality figures (55) were compared to the prediction of 43 deaths of the Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety.

  20. The Systemic, Long-run Relation among Gasoline Demand, Gasoline Price, Income, and Vehicle Ownership in OECD Countries: Evidence from Panel Cointegration and Causality Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Liddle, Brantley

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes gasoline consumption per capita, income (GDP per capita), gasoline price, and car ownership per capita for a panel of OECD countries by employing panel unit root and cointegration testing, panel Dynamic and Fully Modified OLS estimations, and panel Granger-causality tests. The four variables are determined to be panel I(1) and cointegrated. Estimated long-run and short-run income elasticities are smaller than what typically had been found previously. Lastly, gasoline consu...

  1. Additional human exposure information for gasoline substance risk assessment (period 2002-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomer, R.; Carter, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Mulari, M.; Pizzella, G.; Roth, S.; Van de Sandt, P.

    2009-06-15

    This report provides an update on human exposure information for gasoline-related activities for which previous assessments had suggested that exposure was either elevated or highly variable or available data were considered out-of-date. In addition data are presented for several activities for which no information had been available previously. The occupational exposures activities described in this report include railcar loading, refinery maintenance, laboratory operations, aviation gasoline refuelling, gasoline pump maintenance and repair, gasoline pump calibration, and the operation of gasoline-powered gardening equipment. In addition, general public exposure levels are described, particularly relating to residency near service stations.

  2. Enhancement of Sudan Gasoline Octane Number by Natural and Synthetic Zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *M. A. M. El Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sample of natural zeolite is collected from the Sudan area, (scolecite from Buda desert. And the other one is synthetic zeolite (Y. The study characterized the natural zeolite (scolecite and synthetic (Y. Using thin sections for natural zeolite to recognize it. Beside different techniques as follow: Atomic absorption, x- ray diffraction (XRD, inferared spectroscopy (FTIR, acidity measured by pyridine FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The study was carried out for selected natural zeolite (scolecite and synthetic zeolite (Y they are modification by two methods impregnation and ion exchange using ammonium chloride and platinum hydrochloride H2PtCl6 The Naphtha was obtained from the refinery of Khartoum Company (it has octane number40. Piona of naphtha was studied by GC. The natural and synthetic zeolites modification was applied on reforming process to increase the gasoline octane number. The study carried out fourteen experiments for each kind of zeolite with a variety of reactions conditions like liquid hour space velocity (LHSV, pressure and temperature, the optimal experiments with suitable conditions gave good results. Octane number increased in pressure rang 8-12 bar, liquid hour space velocity 2 and temperature 480- 5000C. The synthetic zeolite (Y raised the octane number from (40 to 93.5. The natural zeolite (scolecite also showed good properties and increased the octane number from (40 to 87.9. It needs more purification and modification to reach the synthetic. The study explained that the two zeolites (natural, synthetic are successful for application in reforming process.

  3. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  4. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  5. Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  6. Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

    2013-01-02

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

  7. Compositional effects on the ignition of FACE gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-05-08

    As regulatory measures for improved fuel economy and decreased emissions are pushing gasoline engine combustion technologies towards extreme conditions (i.e., boosted and intercooled intake with exhaust gas recirculation), fuel ignition characteristics become increasingly important for enabling stable operation. This study explores the effects of chemical composition on the fundamental ignition behavior of gasoline fuels. Two well-characterized, high-octane, non-oxygenated FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, FACE F and FACE G, having similar antiknock indices but different octane sensitivities and chemical compositions are studied. Ignition experiments were conducted in shock tubes and a rapid compression machine (RCM) at nominal pressures of 20 and 40. atm, equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 1.0, and temperatures ranging from 650 to 1270. K. Results at temperatures above 900. K indicate that ignition delay time is similar for these fuels. However, RCM measurements below 900. K demonstrate a stronger negative temperature coefficient behavior for FACE F gasoline having lower octane sensitivity. In addition, RCM pressure profiles under two-stage ignition conditions illustrate that the magnitude of low-temperature heat release (LTHR) increases with decreasing fuel octane sensitivity. However, intermediate-temperature heat release is shown to increase as fuel octane sensitivity increases. Various surrogate fuel mixtures were formulated to conduct chemical kinetic modeling, and complex multicomponent surrogate mixtures were shown to reproduce experimentally observed trends better than simpler two- and three-component mixtures composed of n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene. Measurements in a Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine demonstrated that the multicomponent surrogates accurately captured the antiknock quality of the FACE gasolines. Simulations were performed using multicomponent surrogates for FACE F and G to reveal the underlying chemical

  8. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: immunotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kimber L; Peachee, Vanessa L; Armstrong, Sarah R; Twerdok, Lorraine E; Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A

    2014-11-01

    Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess potential immunotoxicity of evaporative emissions. Test articles included vapor condensates prepared from "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/mg(3) administered for 6h/day, 5days/week for 4weeks. The antibody-forming cell (AFC) response to the T-dependent antigen, sheep erythrocyte (sRBC), was used to determine the effects of the gasoline vapor condensates on the humoral components of the immune system. Exposure to BGVC, G/MTBE, G/TAME, and G/TBA did not result in significant changes in the IgM AFC response to sRBC, when evaluated as either specific activity (AFC/10(6) spleen cells) or as total spleen activity (AFC/spleen). Exposure to G/EtOH and G/DIPE resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the AFC response, reaching the level of statistical significance only at the high 20,000mg/m(3) level. Exposure to G/ETBE resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the AFC response at the middle (10,000mg/m(3)) and high (20,000mg/m(3)) exposure concentrations.

  9. Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  10. Investigations on the effects of ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: Performance and emissions analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses performance and exhaust emissions from spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. The test results obtained with the use of low content rates of ethanol–methanol blends (3–10 vol.% in gasoline were compared to ethanol–gasoline blends, methanol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline test results. Combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol, methanol and gasoline and their blends were evaluated. Results showed that when the vehicle was fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends, the concentrations of CO and UHC (unburnt hydrocarbons emissions were significantly decreased, compared to the neat gasoline. Methanol–gasoline blends presented the lowest emissions of CO and UHC among all test fuels. Ethanol–gasoline blends showed a moderate emission level between the neat gasoline and ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends, e.g., ethanol–gasoline blends presented lower CO and UHC emissions than those of the neat gasoline but higher emissions than those of the ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. In addition, the CO and UHC decreased and CO2 increased when ethanol and/or methanol contents increased in the fuel blends. Furthermore, the effects of blended fuels on engine performance were investigated and results showed that methanol–gasoline blends presents the highest volumetric efficiency and torque; ethanol–gasoline blends provides the highest brake power, while ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends showed a moderate level of volumetric efficiency, torque and brake power between both methanol–gasoline and ethanol–gasoline blends; gasoline, on the other hand, showed the lowest volumetric efficiency, torque and brake power among all test fuels.

  11. Steam Reforming on Transition-metal Carbides from Density-functional Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2012-05-11

    A screening study of the steam reforming reaction on clean and oxygen covered early transition-metal carbides surfaces is performed by means of density-functional theory calculations. It is found that carbides provide a wide spectrum of reactivities, from too reactive via suitable to too inert. Several molybdenum-based systems are identified as possible steam reforming catalysts. The findings suggest that carbides provide a playground for reactivity tuning, comparable to the one for pure metals.

  12. Quantification of personal exposure concentrations to gasoline vehicle emissions in high-end exposure microenvironments: effects of fuel and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, B; Fujita, E; Ollison, W; Campbell, D; Sagebiel, J

    2012-11-01

    Mobile-source air toxic (MSAT) levels increase in confining microenvironments (MEs) with numerous emission sources of vehicle exhaust or evaporative emissions or during high-load and cold-start conditions. Reformulated fuels are expected to reduce MSAT and ozone precursor emissions. This study, required under the Clean Air Act Section 211b, evaluated high-end exposures in cities using reformulated (methyl tertiary-butyl ether [MTBE] or ethanol [EtOH]) fuels and conventional gasoline blends. The study investigates 13 high-end MEs, sampling under enhanced exposure conditions expected to result in maximal fuel and exhaust component exposures to carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), MTBE, 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD), EtOH,formaldehyde (HCHO), and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO). The authors found that day-to-day ME variations in high-end benzene, 1,3-BD, HCHO, and CO concentrations are substantial, but independent of gasoline composition and season, and related to the activity and emission rates of ME sources, which differ from day to day.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Injection Strategies on Low Temperature Combustion Fuelled with Gasoline in a Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the experimental investigation on the effect of fuel injection strategies on LTC with gasoline on a single-cylinder CI engine. Firstly, the engine performance and emissions have been explored by sweeping SOI1 and split percentage for the load of 0.9 MPa IMEP at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. Then, the double-injection strategy has been tested for load expansion compared with single-injection. The results indicate that, with the fixed CA50, the peak HRR is reduced by advancing SOI1 and increasing split percentage gradually. Higher indicated thermal efficiency, as well as lower MPRR and COV, can be achieved simultaneously with later SOI1 and higher split percentage. As split percentage increases, NOX emission decreases but soot emission increases. CO and THC emissions are increased by earlier SOI1, resulting in a slight decrease in combustion efficiency. Compared with single-injection, the double-injection strategy enables successful expansion of high-efficiency and clean combustion region, with increasing soot, CO, and THC emissions at high loads and slightly declining combustion efficiency and indicated thermal efficiency, however. MPRR and soot emission are considered to be the predominant constraints to the load expansion of gasoline LTC, and they are related to their trade-off relationship.

  14. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100,...

  15. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What gasoline is subject to the toxics...

  16. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gallons of gasoline. (a) You must not allow gasoline to be handled in a manner that would result in...

  17. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  18. Clean coal technologies market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  19. Back to Basics: Instrument Cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    Adequately cleaning and processing surgical instruments may be challenging for perioperative team members; however, the cleaning and processing of instruments are critical steps in making instruments safe to use on patients and achieving an appropriately safe OR environment. Instruments that are cleaned properly have had organic debris and soil removed, rendering them ready for sterilization or disinfection. This Back to Basics article covers the basic steps and considerations for cleaning and processing instruments before sterilization. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  1. Reformer Fuel Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's form of jet engine power comes from what is called a gas turbine engine. This engine is on average 14% efficient and emits great quantities of green house gas carbon dioxide and air pollutants, Le. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The alternate method being researched involves a reformer and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Reformers are becoming a popular area of research within the industry scale. NASA Glenn Research Center's approach is based on modifying the large aspects of industry reforming processes into a smaller jet fuel reformer. This process must not only be scaled down in size, but also decrease in weight and increase in efficiency. In comparison to today's method, the Jet A fuel reformer will be more efficient as well as reduce the amount of air pollutants discharged. The intent is to develop a 10kW process that can be used to satisfy the needs of commercial jet engines. Presently, commercial jets use Jet-A fuel, which is a kerosene based hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrocarbon fuels cannot be directly fed into a SOFC for the reason that the high temperature causes it to decompose into solid carbon and Hz. A reforming process converts fuel into hydrogen and supplies it to a fuel cell for power, as well as eliminating sulfur compounds. The SOFC produces electricity by converting H2 and CO2. The reformer contains a catalyst which is used to speed up the reaction rate and overall conversion. An outside company will perform a catalyst screening with our baseline Jet-A fuel to determine the most durable catalyst for this application. Our project team is focusing on the overall research of the reforming process. Eventually we will do a component evaluation on the different reformer designs and catalysts. The current status of the project is the completion of buildup in the test rig and check outs on all equipment and electronic signals to our data system. The objective is to test various reformer designs and catalysts in our test rig to determine the most

  2. REFORMING UNIT USING PINCH ANALYSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production cost even for energy intensive industry like refineries in Nigeria. The improvement of ... opportunities to modify the core process to improve heat integration: this is possible because wherever ... of high octane gasoline. Basically the ...

  3. Communicating with clean technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, S.

    1996-09-01

    The potential role of computer-based communications on energy consumption, sustainable development, and the environment were discussed. Various potential benefits derivable from applications such as teleconferencing, videoconferencing, distance-learning, and teleworking as alternatives to travel by car or plane, data transmission by telefax, e-mail, or the Internet, and the resulting effect on paper consumption were cited as examples of how clean computer technology will have significant impact on energy policy and behaviour. It was contended that even if the environmental benefits are not yet promoted as widely as they should be, the increasing danger of air pollution and ozone depletion, combined with the falling cost of telecommunications, productivity gains and improved bottom lines will force the adoption of computer-based communication by mainstream society. 8 refs.

  4. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while others...... filters were damaged. The results of the laboratory experiments formed background for the final design of an ultrasound transducer module for use by foodstuff filtration plants. [This work was financed by the EU Project WAMBIO PL96-3257 (FAIR Programme).]...

  5. Vigor Clean Tech Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubacher-Cressman, Dale [Vigor Clean Tech Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    On May 5, 2011, the Ontario Waterpower Association hosted the emergent hydro workshop in Peterborough. The first technology presented by Vigor Clean Tech Inc. was a system with a vertical axis which is supported by a floating structure and can provide 10's of kWs. The second one is the PowerPipe, an in-conduit system which can be implemented in existing or new conduits and that generates electricity from excess head pressure in rapidly flowing water transmission pipelines; the PowerPipe can be used in low head or incremental sites. With Vigor's technology it is possible to generate renewable energy economically on a small scale and to leverage under-utilized infrastructures. However, to date, few field applications have been carried out. This presentation provided information on a technology which has the potential to produce a steady supply of reliable renewable energy on a small scale.

  6. Quick and clean cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Frank; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

    2014-01-01

    Identification of unknown sequences that flank known sequences of interest requires PCR amplification of DNA fragments that contain the junction between the known and unknown flanking sequences. Since amplified products often contain a mixture of specific and nonspecific products, the quick and clean (QC) cloning procedure was developed to clone specific products only. QC cloning is a ligation-independent cloning procedure that relies on the exonuclease activity of T4 DNA polymerase to generate single-stranded extensions at the ends of the vector and insert. A specific feature of QC cloning is the use of vectors that contain a sequence called catching sequence that allows cloning specific products only. QC cloning is performed by a one-pot incubation of insert and vector in the presence of T4 DNA polymerase at room temperature for 10 min followed by direct transformation of the incubation mix in chemo-competent Escherichia coli cells.

  7. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  8. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  9. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  10. Preparation and performance of rare earth Zr catalyst for reforming waste plastics cracking product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁兴中; 曾光明; 陈晓青; 陈志勇; 鄢钢

    2003-01-01

    The rare earth Zr catalyst, whose carrier was Al2O3, was prepared by co-precipitation with Zr(NO3)2,Al(NO3 )3, and(NH2)2CO as the raw materials. The obtained catalyst was used to reform the waste plastic crackingproduct. As the Zr content in the catalyst increases, the yields of gasoline, gas, and the rate of carbon deposition in-crease, but the yields of diesel and heavy oil decrease. The optimum Zr content of the catalyst is 5%. At 290 ℃,with this most suitable catalyst, the yield of liquid fuel oil is the highest, about 86.10%, and research octance num-ber(RON) of the gasoline is 92.15.

  11. Energy sector reform, energy transitions and the poor in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Gisela [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2008-08-15

    There is little systematic information about the impact of energy sector reform on all sources and methods of energy utilised or potentially utilised by the poor. It is not sufficiently known what fuels the poor use, if a larger range of fuels becomes available and affordable and if barriers to access and consumption are reduced. A detailed assessment is presented for four countries, three in Africa (Botswana, Ghana and Senegal) and for comparison one in Latin America (Honduras), of steps taken to reform the energy sector and their effect on various groups of poor households. The paper analyses the pattern of energy supply to, and use by, poor households and explores the link - or its absence - to energy policy. We investigate what works for the poor and which type of reforms and implementation are effective and lead to a transition to more efficient and clean fuels from which the poor benefit. Energy sector reforms when adjusted to the specific conditions of the poor have a positive impact on access and use of clean, safe and efficient fuels. The poor are using gradually less wood as cooking fuel. Gas and kerosene are made more widely available through market liberalisation and subsidy in the particular case of Senegal. Electricity access and use is generally promoted or subsidised through changes in payment conditions and lifeline tariffs. (author)

  12. Summary of the LLNL gasoline spill demonstration - dynamic underground stripping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, R.L.; Aines, R.D.

    1995-04-03

    Underground spills of volatile hydrocarbons (solvents or fuels) can be difficult to clean up when the hydrocarbons are present both above and below the water table and are found in relatively impermeable clays. Years of groundwater pumping may not completely remove the contamination. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the College of Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) have collaborated to develop a technique called Dynamic Underground Stripping to remove localized underground spills in a relatively short time. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has sponsored a full-scale demonstration of this technique at the LLNL gasoline spill site. When highly concentrated contamination is found above the standing water table, vacuum extraction has been very effective at both removing the contaminant and enhancing biological remediation through the addition of oxygen. Below the water table, however, these advantages cannot be obtained. For such sites where the contamination is too deep for excavation, there are currently no widely applicable cleanup methods. Dynamic Underground Stripping removes separate-phase organic contaminants below the water table by heating the subsurface above the boiling point of water, and then removing both contaminant and water by vacuum extraction. The high temperatures both convert the organic to vapor and enhance other removal paths by increasing diffusion and eliminating sorption. Because this method uses rapid, high-energy techniques in cleaning the soil, it requires an integrated system of underground monitoring and imaging methods to control and evaluate the process in real time.

  13. MEDIUM PRESSURE HYDROUPGRADING PROCESS (MHUG) AND PRODUCTION OF CLEAN FUELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The medium pressure hydroupgrading process (MHUG) unit with an 800 kt/a processing capacity of Jinzhou Petrochemical Company is used to hydroupgrade the mixture of FCC LCO fuel and straight-run diesel fuel in the presence of RN/RT series catalysts for improvement of the quality of the diesel fuel. Meanwhile, catalytic reforming feedstock is also obtained. The sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics contained in the hydroupgraded diesel fuel products can be minimized and the cetane number can be heightened. The produced clean fuels can meet the requirements of environmental protection.

  14. Microchennel development for autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, J.-M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doss, E.

    Fuel-processing is a bridging technology to assist the commercialization of fuel cell systems in the absence of a hydrogen infrastructure. The Argonne National Laboratory has been developing fuel-processing technologies for fuel cells, and has reported the development of novel catalysts that are active and selective for hydrocarbon-reforming reactions. It has been realized, however, that with pellets or conventional honeycomb catalysts, the reforming process is mass-transport limited. This study addresses the development of catalysts structures with microchannels that are able to reduce the diffusion resistance and, thereby, achieve the same production rate within a smaller reactor bed. The microchannel reforming catalysts are prepared and tested with natural gas and gasoline-type fuels in a microreactor (diameter: 1 cm) at space velocities of up to 250 000 h -1. The catalysts have also been used in engineering-scale reactors (10 kWe; diameter: 7 cm) with similar product qualities. Compared with pellet catalysts, the microchannel catalysts offer a nearly five-fold reduction in catalyst weight and volume.

  15. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  16. Terpineol as a novel octane booster for extending the knock limit of gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2016-09-16

    Improving the octane number of gasoline offers the potential of improved engine combustion, as it permits spark timing advancement without engine knock. This study proposes the use of terpineol as an octane booster for gasoline in a spark ignited (SI) engine. Terpineol is a bio-derived oxygenated fuel obtained from pine tree resin, and has the advantage of higher calorific value than ethanol. The ignition delay time (IDT) of terpineol was first investigated in an ignition quality tester (IQT). The IQT results demonstrated a long ignition delay of 24.7 ms for terpineol and an estimated research octane number (RON) of 104, which was higher than commercial European (Euro V) gasoline. The octane boosting potential of terpineol was further investigated by blending it with a non-oxygenated gasoline (FACE F), which has a RON (94) lower than Euro V gasoline (RON = 97). The operation of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) SI engine fueled with terpineol-blended FACE F gasoline enabled spark timing advancement and improved engine combustion. The knock intensity of FACE F + 30% terpineol was lower than FACE F gasoline at both maximum brake torque (MBT) and knock limited spark advance (KLSA) operating points. Increasing proportions of terpineol in the blend caused peak heat release rate, in-cylinder pressure, CA50, and combustion duration to be closer to those of Euro V gasoline. Furthermore, FACE F + 30% terpineol displayed improved combustion characteristics when compared to Euro V gasoline. © 2016

  17. A Note on Clean Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Wang; Jianlong Chen

    2007-01-01

    Let R be a ring and g(x) a polynomial in C[x],where C=C(R) denotes the center of R.Camillo and Sim6n called the ring g(x)-clean if every element of R can be written as the sum of a unit and a root of g(x).In this paper,we prove that for a,b (E) C,the ring R is clean and b - a is invertible in R if and only if R is g1(x)-clean,where gl(x) = (x - a)(x - b).This implies that in some sense the notion of g(x)-clean rings in the Nicholson-Zhou Theorem and in the Camillo-Sim6n Theorem is indeed equivalent to the notion of clean rings.

  18. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  19. GC/MS Analysis of the Aromatic Composition of Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecka, Keith S.; Rabah, Ashraf; Palmer, Charles F., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of three brands of regular unleaded gasoline was conducted as part of the independent project of an undergraduate journalism major. In his work, samples of each gasoline were diluted down to part per million (ppm) levels with dichloromethane and then one microliter injections were made onto a Hewlett-Packard GC (5890 Series II unit). Mass spectra were also obtained on each sample through use of a 5971A mass selective detector (MSD). Subsequent characterization was consequently effected through utilization of the standard mass spectra available in a 49,000 compound National Bureau of Standards reference library. Comparison of the obtained and standard spectra revealed that the same aromatic hydrocarbons (including, in part: benzene, the xylenes, naphthalene, and methylated naphthalenes) were present in all three samples. Percentage values for these and other aromatic hydrocarbons were then generated and tabulated.

  20. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  1. Assessment of Gasoline Additive Containing Ditert-butoxypropanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lewis, Samuel Arthur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center completed analysis and testing of the CPS Powershot gasoline additive under the auspices of the Department of Energy’s Technical Assistance for US Small Businesses in Vehicle Technologies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify the makeup of the additive, finding a predominance of 2,3-Ditert-Butoxypropanol, also known as Glyceryl Di-Tert-Butyl Ether (GTBE). Blends of the additive at 2 and 4 volume percent were subjected to a number of standard ASTM tests, including Research Octane Number, Motor Octane Number, distillation, and vapor pressure. Results show a high boiling range and low vapor pressure for the additive, and a very modest octane boosting effect in gasoline with and without ethanol.

  2. MODELLING GASOLINE DEMAND IN GHANA: A STRUCTURAL TIME SERIES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishmael Ackah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the role of energy consumption in global warming have led to policy designs that seek to reduce fossil fuel consumption or find a less polluting alternative especiallyfor the transport sector. This study seeks to estimate the elasticities of price, income, education and technology on transport gasoline demand sector inGhana. The Structural Time Series Model reports a short-run price and income elasticities of -0.0088 and 0.713. Total factor productivity is -0.408 whilstthe elasticity for education is 2.33. In the long run, the reported price and income elasticities are -0.065 and 5.129 respectively. The long run elasticityfor productivity is -2.935. The study recommends that in order to enhanceefficiency in gasoline consumption in the transport sector, there should beinvestment in productivity.

  3. Treatment of gasoline-contaminated waters by advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiburtius, Elaine Regina Lopes [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Peralta-Zamora, Patricio [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: zamora@quimica.ufpr.br; Emmel, Alexandre [Centro Integrado de Tecnologia e Educacao Profissional, 81310-010 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-11-11

    In this study, the efficiency of advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) was investigated toward the degradation of aqueous solutions containing benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) and gasoline-contaminated waters. The results indicated that BTX can be effectively oxidized by near UV-assisted photo-Fenton process. The treatment permits almost total degradation of BTX and removal of more than 80% of the phenolic intermediates at reaction times of about 30 min. Preliminary investigations using water contaminated by gasoline suggest a good potentiality of the process for the treatment of large volumes of aqueous samples containing these polluting species. Heterogeneous photocatalysis and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system show lower degradation efficiency, probably due to the heterogeneous character of the TiO{sub 2}-mediated system and lost of photonic efficiency of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system in the presence of highly colored intermediated.

  4. Gasoline hybrid pneumatic engine for efficient vehicle powertrain hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The largest applied convertors in passenger cars are the internal combustion engines – gasoline, diesel, adapted also for operating on alternative fuels and hybrid modes. The number of components that are necessary to realize modern future propulsion system is inexorably increasing. The need for efficiency improvement of the vehicle energy system induces the search for an innovative methodology during the design process. In this article the compressed air is investigated as an innovative solu...

  5. ELF magnetic fields in electric and gasoline-powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Sias, G; Smith, J; Sahl, J; Kavet, R

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a pilot study to assess magnetic field levels in electric compared to gasoline-powered vehicles, and established a methodology that would provide valid data for further assessments. The sample consisted of 14 vehicles, all manufactured between January 2000 and April 2009; 6 were gasoline-powered vehicles and 8 were electric vehicles of various types. Of the eight models available, three were represented by a gasoline-powered vehicle and at least one electric vehicle, enabling intra-model comparisons. Vehicles were driven over a 16.3 km test route. Each vehicle was equipped with six EMDEX Lite broadband meters with a 40-1,000 Hz bandwidth programmed to sample every 4 s. Standard statistical testing was based on the fact that the autocorrelation statistic damped quickly with time. For seven electric cars, the geometric mean (GM) of all measurements (N = 18,318) was 0.095 µT with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.66, compared to 0.051 µT (N = 9,301; GSD = 2.11) for four gasoline-powered cars (P electric vehicles covered the same range as personal exposure levels recorded in that study. All fields measured in all vehicles were much less than the exposure limits published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Future studies should include larger sample sizes representative of a greater cross-section of electric-type vehicles. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Rent seeking oligopolistic behaviour in European gasoline markets

    OpenAIRE

    Michael L. Polemis; Panagiotis N Fotis

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the asymmetric adjustment speed of gasoline price in twelve European Union (EU) countries transmitted directly in a single stage formulation. The empirical results shed new light on the taxation effect and its role to the price asymmetry nexus, pointing that in many EU countries a crude oil price increase is passed through more forcefully than a price decrease revealing a rent-seeking oligopolistic behaviour by the marketers.

  7. Product Differentiation and Market Power in the California Gasoline Market

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Coloma

    1999-01-01

    This paper applies a model of market power measurement under product differentiation to the case of the gasoline market in California, using data for the period 1983-1989. Our results show that there is a considerable degree of product differentiation among major brands. This allows firms to exercise local market power over their own specific products, but there are also signals of an important degree of global market power. However, none of the four pure market structures analyzed (price tak...

  8. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GASOLINE AND ALCOHOL BIOFUEL MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Povar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of added alcohols, ethanol and butanol, on the main biofuel properties, such as the specific gravity, Reid saturated vapour pressure and distillation curves have been investigated. These properties are intimately related to the fuel composition and their prediction relies on the knowledge of its components characteristics. This research proves the possibility of obtaining fuels with different levels of resistance to detonation, using gasoline with different chemical components and various fractions of alcohols.

  9. The new Mazda gasoline engine Skyactiv-G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Isobe, Ritarou; Yamakawa, Masahisa; Nishida, Masami [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Skyactiv is a generic term for Mazda's next-generation technologies being developed to achieve both driving pleasure and environmental and safety performance. It is a contribution to the company's long- term vision for technology development. Of these technologies, this article describes the development of Mazda's new highly-efficient direct-injection gasoline engine that achieves a compression ratio of 14.0 to 1. (orig.)

  10. A Review of Centrifugal Testing of Gasoline Contamination and Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay N. Meegoda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs containing gasoline represent a significant public health hazard. Virtually undetectable to the UST owner, gasoline leaks can contaminate groundwater supplies. In order to develop remediation plans one must know the extent of gasoline contamination. Centrifugal simulations showed that in silty and sandy soils gasoline moved due to the physical process of advection and was retained as a pool of free products above the water table. However, in clayey soils there was a limited leak with lateral spreading and without pooling of free products above the water table. Amount leaked depends on both the type of soil underneath the USTs and the amount of corrosion. The soil vapor extraction (SVE technology seems to be an effective method to remove contaminants from above the water table in contaminated sites. In-situ air sparging (IAS is a groundwater remediation technology for contamination below the water table, which involves the injection of air under pressure into a well installed into the saturated zone. However, current state of the art is not adequate to develop a design guide for site implementation. New information is being currently generated by both centrifugal tests as well as theoretical models to develop a design guide for IAS. The petroleum contaminated soils excavated from leaking UST sites can be used for construction of highway pavements, specifically as sub-base material or blended and used as hot or cold mix asphalt concrete. Cost analysis shows that 5% petroleum contaminated soils is included in hot or cold mix asphalt concrete can save US$5.00 production cost per ton of asphalt produced.

  11. Monitoring of Gasoline-ethanol Degradation In Undisturbed Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österreicher-Cunha, P.; Nunes, C. M. F.; Vargas, E. A.; Guimarães, J. R. D.; Costa, A.

    Environmental contamination problems are greatly emphasised nowadays because of the direct threat they represent for human health. Traditional remediation methods fre- quently present low efficiency and high costs; therefore, biological treatment is being considered as an accessible and efficient alternative for soil and water remediation. Bioventing, commonly used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon spills, stimulates the degradation capacity of indigenous microorganisms by providing better subsur- face oxygenation. In Brazil, gasoline and ethanol are mixed (78:22 v/v); some authors indicate that despite gasoline high degradability, its degradation in subsurface is hin- dered by the presence of much more rapidly degrading ethanol. Contaminant distribu- tion and degradation in the subsurface can be monitored by several physical, chemical and microbiological methodologies. This study aims to evaluate and follow the degra- dation of a gasoline-ethanol mixture in a residual undisturbed tropical soil from Rio de Janeiro. Bioventing was used to enhance microbial degradation. Shifts in bacte- rial culturable populations due to contamination and treatment effects were followed by conventional microbiology methods. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measure- ments, which consist of the emission of electro-magnetic waves into the soil, yield a visualisation of contaminant degradation because of changes in soil conductivity due to microbial action on the pollutants. Chemical analyses will measure contaminant residue in soil. Our results disclosed contamination impact as well as bioventing stim- ulation on soil culturable heterotrophic bacterial populations. This multidisciplinary approach allows for a wider evaluation of processes occurring in soil.

  12. Gasoline and gaseous hydrocarbons from fatty acids via catalytic cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielansky, Peter; Weinert, Alexander; Schoenberger, Christoph; Reichhold, Alexander [Institute for Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    The conversion of palmitic and oleic acid as well as tall oil fatty acid was investigated in a fully continuous small scale fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) pilot plant. A conventional FCC zeolite catalyst was used. Experiments were performed in the range of 485-550 C. The highest gasoline yield of 44 wt.% was obtained from oleic acid at 550 C. Palmitic acid yielded the most cracking gas at 550 C with 43.9 wt.%. The obtained gasoline was practically oxygen-free at high octane numbers. Oxygen contained in the feed was mainly converted to water and small amounts of CO{sub 2}. Gasoline aromaticity clearly increased with temperature. The formation of high boiling products was enhanced by the number of C=C double bonds in the fatty acids. Large amounts of propene and ethene were formed which are valuable reactants for the polymer industry. The lower price of fatty acids in comparison with fresh vegetable oils makes them an interesting feedstock for the FCC process. (orig.)

  13. Dielectric Properties of Diesel and Gasoline by Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Enis; Altan, Hakan; Esenturk, Okan

    2014-09-01

    In this study we have investigated the dielectric properties of diesel and gasoline in the Terahertz (THz) spectral region. We present frequency dependent absorption coefficients, refractive indices, and dielectric constants calculated from the transient measurements of the fuel oils between 0.1 and 1.1 THz. Observed weak absorption coefficient of fuel oils is explained by transient dipole moments induced by collisions between individual molecules. Fuel oils were modeled successfully with Debye model to investigate the relaxation dynamics after interaction with the electric field. Significant differences in relaxation times of molecules in diesel and gasoline are attributed to the differences in their intermolecular forces. Dispersion forces are much greater in diesel due to the longer hydrocarbon chains (C8-C40) compared to that (C4-C12) of the gasoline. This leads to a comparably faster relaxation right after THz electric field is applied. Clear differences in optical properties offer a simple yet effective way to discriminate fuel oils from each other by using THz spectroscopy without any danger of combustion or decomposition of the samples. Such an approach may also be used for the quality determination of either fuels. The study presents the great potential of THz spectroscopy to study very complex mixtures like fuel oils by the use of instantaneous THz wave/matter interactions and relaxation dynamics of the constituent molecules.

  14. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  15. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  16. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  17. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  18. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...... and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline......The described investigation was carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from...

  19. Application of High Shear Agitation for Desulfurization of Gasoline Using Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Dishun; ZhangZhigang; Wang Jialei; Wang Na; Li Xiangyu

    2006-01-01

    The high shear agitation device was first adopted for gasoline desulfurization by ionic liquids. The effect of benzylimidazol fluoborate in desulfurization of gasoline and the influence of moisture on deuslfurization rate were investigated. The experimental results showed that the ionic liquid could effectively decrease the sulfur content of gasoline and the optimal conditions were as follows: The reaction could be carried out at room temperature, a volumetric ratio between oil and the liquid of 2∶1, a volumetric ratio between water and ionic liquid of 0.04∶1, a rotational speed of 5 krad/s, and a reaction time of 1 minute. The desulfurization rate of gasoline reached 53.6%, and the gasoline yield was up to 97.3%. The ionic liquid could be recycled for repeated use, and the use of high shear agitation for gasoline would have good prospects.

  20. Study on reformulation of fluid catalytic cracking gasoline and increasing production of light olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingxiang YAN; Xianghai MENG; Jinsen GAO; Chunmin XU; Zhiyu SUI

    2008-01-01

    The effects of reaction temperature, mass ratio of catalyst to oil, space velocity, and mass ratio of water to oil on the product distribution, the yields of light olefins (light olefins including ethylene, propylene and butylene) and the composition of the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline upgraded over the self-made catalyst GL in a confined fluidized bed reactor were investigated. The experimental results showed that FCC gasoline was obviously reformulated under appropriate reaction con-ditions. The olefins (olefins with C atom number above 4) content of FCC gasoline was markedly reduced, and the aromatics content and octane number were increased. The upgraded gasoline met the new standard of gasoline, and meanwhile, higher yields of light olefins were obtained. Furthermore, higher reaction temperature, higher mass ratio of catalyst to oil, higher mass ratio of water to oil, and lower space velocity were found to be beneficial to FCC gasoline reformulation and light olefins production.

  1. Biomass to Gasoline and Diesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, Terry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Roberts, Michael [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Linck, Martin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Felix, Larry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Ortiz-Toral, Pedro [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Wangerow, Jim [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kraus, Larry [CRI-Criterion, Houston, TX (United States); McLeod, Celeste [CRI-Criterion, Houston, TX (United States); DelPaggio, Alan [CRI-Criterion, Houston, TX (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gephart, John [Johnson Timber, Hayward, WI (United States); Gromov, Dmitri [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Purtle, Ian [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Starr, Jack [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Hahn, John [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Dorrington, Paul [Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation, Nelson (New Zealand); Stevens, James [Blue Marble Biomaterials, Missoula, MT (United States); Shonnard, David [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Maleche, Edwin [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

  2. Rorty the Reformer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Cormier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Rorty should be read as a reformer, rather than a revolutionary transformer. While the reformer aims to improve what is already good, the revolutionary transformer seeks to dispense with the merely good in a quest for the absolutely best. For Rorty this choice was a bad choice. In order to make the case that Rorty was a reformer,we explicate Rorty’s views on truth. These views argue that we can obtain consensus about what is worth preserving and improving without reference to either rightness, truth, or objectivity. For after all, there is no way for philosophers to get outside the circle of language within which we debate about what we take to be authoritative and aceptable.

  3. Health care reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušič Dorjan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  4. Health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  5. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  6. Intermediate Volatility Organic Compound Emissions from On-Road Gasoline Vehicles and Small Off-Road Gasoline Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Presto, Albert A; Hennigan, Christopher J; May, Andrew A; Robinson, Allen L

    2016-04-19

    Dynamometer experiments were conducted to characterize the intermediate volatility organic compound (IVOC) emissions from a fleet of on-road gasoline vehicles and small off-road gasoline engines. IVOCs were quantified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of adsorbent samples collected from a constant volume sampler. The dominant fraction (>80%, on average) of IVOCs could not be resolved on a molecular level. These unspeciated IVOCs were quantified as two chemical classes (unspeciated branched alkanes and cyclic compounds) in 11 retention-time-based bins. IVOC emission factors (mg kg-fuel(-1)) from on-road vehicles varied widely from vehicle to vehicle, but showed a general trend of lower emissions for newer vehicles that met more stringent emission standards. IVOC emission factors for 2-stroke off-road engines were substantially higher than 4-stroke off-road engines and on-road vehicles. Despite large variations in the magnitude of emissions, the IVOC volatility distribution and chemical characteristics were consistent across all tests and IVOC emissions were strongly correlated with nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), primary organic aerosol and speciated IVOCs. Although IVOC emissions only correspond to approximately 4% of NMHC emissions from on-road vehicles over the cold-start unified cycle, they are estimated to produce as much or more SOA than single-ring aromatics. Our results clearly demonstrate that IVOCs from gasoline engines are an important class of SOA precursors and provide observational constraints on IVOC emission factors and chemical composition to facilitate their inclusion into atmospheric chemistry models.

  7. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  8. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  9. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martorella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  10. Developing a Steady-state Kinetic Model for Industrial Scale Semi-Regenerative Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif Mohaddecy, R.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the demand for high octane gasoline as a transportation fuel, the catalytic naphtha reformer has become one of the most important processes in petroleum refineries. In this research, the steady-state modelling of a catalytic fixed-bed naphtha reforming process to predict the momentous output variables was studied. These variables were octane number, yield, hydrogen purity, and temperature of all reforming reactors. To do such a task, an industrial scale semi-regenerative catalytic naphtha reforming unit was studied and modelled. In addition, to evaluate the developed model, the predicted variables i.e. outlet temperatures of reactors, research octane number, yield of gasoline and hydrogen purity were compared against actual data. The results showed that there is a close mapping between the actual and predicted variables, and the mean relative absolute deviation of the mentioned process variables were 0.38 %, 0.52 %, 0.54 %, 0.32 %, 4.8 % and 3.2 %, respectively.

  11. A REVIEW ON CONCEPT OF CLEANING VALIDATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shashikant; Prashar Bharat; Kumar Satinder

    2012-01-01

    .... This article provide introduction on cleaning validation and the associated regulations, level/degree of cleaning, approaches to cleaning validation, elements of cleaning validation, validation...

  12. Development of a methanol reformer for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, Baard

    2003-03-01

    Vehicles powered by fuel cells are from an environmental aspect superior to the traditional automobile using internal combustion of gasoline. Power systems which are based upon fuel cell technology require hydrogen for operation. The ideal fuel cell vehicle would operate on pure hydrogen stored on-board. However, storing hydrogen on-board the vehicle is currently not feasible for technical reasons. The hydrogen can be generated on-board using a liquid hydrogen carrier such as methanol and gasoline. The objective of the work presented in this thesis was to develop a catalytic hydrogen generator for automotive applications using methanol as the hydrogen carrier. The first part of this work gives an introduction to the field of methanol reforming and the properties of a fuel cell based power system. Paper I reviews the catalytic materials and processes available for producing hydrogen from methanol. The second part of this thesis consists of an experimental investigation of the influence of the catalyst composition, materials and process parameters on the activity and selectivity for the production of hydrogen from methanol. In Papers II-IV the influence of the support, carrier and operational parameters is studied. In Paper V an investigation of the catalytic properties is performed in an attempt to correlate material properties with performance of different catalysts. In the third part of the thesis an investigation is performed to elucidate whether it is possible to utilize oxidation of liquid methanol as a heat source for an automotive reformer. In the study which is presented in Paper VI a large series of catalytic materials are tested and we were able to minimize the noble metal content making the system more cost efficient. In the final part of this thesis the reformer prototype developed in the project is evaluated. The reformer which was constructed for serving a 5 k W{sub e} fuel cell had a high performance with near 100 % methanol conversion and CO

  13. Tailor-made Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Few people imagined how China would change when the country initiated its reform and opening-up policies almost 28 years ago. Without previous experience, the Chinese are following a trial-and-error approach in pressing ahead with the reform process, exploiting a method of development that seemed suitable to national conditions at the time. In an article published in the 21st Century Business Herald,Lou Jiwei, Vice Minister of Finance, looks back at China's path to revitalize its long-isolated economy. E...

  14. Stepping Forward In Political Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    It seems that the bulk of foreign media reports about China's reforms have limited their focus to changes in China's economic setup with little mention paid to its political reform.Actually,since China carried out the reform and opening-up policy in 1978,it has not only made fundamental changes to its economic system but also implemented a series of important reforms to its political institutions.

  15. Stepping Forward In Political Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It seems that the bulk of foreign media reports about China’s reforms have limited their focus to changes in China’s economic setup with little mention paid to its political reform.Actually,since China carried out the reform and opening-up policy in 1978,it has not only made fundamental changes to its economic system but also implemented a series of important reforms to its political institutions

  16. Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on air pollutant emissions from motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-09-15

    The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on criteria air pollutant emissions was investigated in a four-stroke motorcycle. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in four percentages (3, 10, 15, and 20% v/v) and controlled at a constant research octane number, RON (95), to accurately represent commercial gasoline. CO, THC, and NOx emissions were evaluated using the Economic Commission for Europe cycle on the chassis dynamometers. The results of the ethanol-gasoline blends were compared to those of commercial unleaded gasoline with methyl tert-butyl ether as the oxygenated additive. In general, the exhaust CO and NOx emissions decreased with increasing oxygen content in fuels. In contrast, ethanol added in the gasoline did not reduce the THC emissions for a constant RON gasoline. The 15% ethanol blend had the highest emission reductions relative to the reference fuel. The high ethanol-gasoline blend ratio (20%) resulted in a less emission reduction than those of low ratio blends (gasoline blends on the reduction of exhaust emissions was observed at different driving modes, especially at 15km/h cruising speed for CO and THC and acceleration stages for NOx.

  17. Polycaprolactone-Polydiacetylene Electrospun Fibers for Colorimetric Detection of Fake Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad Ali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available PCDA (Pentacosadiynoic Acid monomers were successfully embedded in PCL (Poly ?-Caprolactone polymer matrix by electrospinning process for the first time. The resultant EFM (Electrospun Fibers Mat was photo-polymerized under 254 nm UV light that enables colorimetric detection of fake gasoline. Results revealed that the fake gasoline develops a red color mat within 5 sec. FE-SEM images showed that the fake gasoline treatment dissolved the PCL EFM that give access to interact with PDA polymer. The proposed litmus-type sensor based on PCL-PDA EFM is highly sensitive to fake gasoline and can be fabricated easily

  18. A tiered approach to distinguish sources of gasoline and diesel spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenhui; Bernesky, Ryan; Bechard, Robert; Michaud, Guy; Lang, Jeremy

    2014-07-15

    Approximately 11% and 25% of annual Canadian oil spill accidents are gasoline and diesel spills, respectively. Gasoline and diesel spills are a challenge to conventional environmental forensic techniques because refinery processes remove most of the higher molecular weight biomarkers. This study presents a tiered environmental forensics strategy that includes such information as site operational history, geology/hydrogeology, GC/FID pre-screening, volatile GC/MS, semi-volatile GC/MS, and GC/MS selected ion monitoring (SIM) chromatograms for fingerprinting of gasoline and diesel spills. GC/FID pre-screening analysis identified the presence of two individual gasoline and diesel plumes at a fuel service station (study site). The gasoline plume is present between the upgradient fuel underground storage tanks (USTs) and the downgradient diesel plume, suggesting that the diesel impacts to groundwater may not be originated from the current UST leakage. Similar distribution of C3-alkylbenzenes (the most stable chemicals in gasoline) and the consistent diagnostic ratios of the analyte pairs with similar solubility indicate that the source for the dissolved gasoline constituents in the gasoline impacted zone likely originated from a gasoline leakage from the current USTs on the study site. In the diesel impacted zone, the distinct distribution and diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes (biomarkers for diesel) and alkylated PAHs confirm that the diesel plume originate from different crude oil sources than the current USTs.

  19. Dangerous properties of petroleum-refining products: carcinogenicity of motor fuels (gasoline).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlman, M A

    1990-01-01

    Gasoline contains large numbers of dangerous and cancer-causing chemicals such as benzene, butadiene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trimethyl pentane, methyltertbutylether (MTBE) and many others. For the U.S. alone approximately 140 billion gallons of gasoline were consumed in 1989. An increase in only ten cents per gallon in price of gasoline generates 14 billion dollars in extra profit per year for oil industry cartel. Laboratory animals exposed to gasoline developed cancers in different tissues and organs. A number of epidemiological studies in humans provide evidence of increased cancer risk of leukemia, kidney, liver, brain, lymphosarcoma, lymphatic tissue pancreas and other tissues and organs.

  20. PetroChina and Sinopec Release High-grade Gasoline into Beijing Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Oil Products Marketing Company, a branch of PetroChina Refining and Marketing Company, held a ceremony to release 98-octane gasoline, the highest grade of gasoline in China's domestic market, at PetroChina's Youanmen Petrol Station in Beijing on June 3 at the price of 4.2 yuan per liter. This high-graded gasoline is also provided at other three petrol stations of PetroChina in the city: Nanhu, Liuyin and Guangtie. Several days earlier, PetroChina announced the first batch of 98-octane gasoline, more than 3000 tons, was carried into Beijing from PetroChina Fushun Petrochemical Company.

  1. The Empirical Analysis of The Deregulation in Oil Products Prices - Gasoline Prices and Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, I.G. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    The deregulation in oil product prices started in 1997. This empirical study examines the effects of the deregulation on gasoline prices and gasoline demand. Major findings of this study are summarized as follows. First of all, no significant empirical evidence is found to support that the deregulation affects the determination of gasoline prices. Secondly, the effects of CIF crude oil price and exchange rate on gasoline prices seem to be consistent across different econometric models. The short-term CIF elasticity is estimated to be 0.13, while the short-term exchange rate elasticity is estimated to be 0.43. This finding implies that if CIF increases 10%, the gasoline prices increase 1.3%. For example, gasoline prices of 1,200won/liter increase 15.6 won/liter with 2$/bbl increase of 20$/bbl crude price. Thirdly, the hypothesis of asymmetric response to CIF rises and falls is examined. No evidence of asymmetric response is found. Finally, the effect of deregulation on gasoline demand is estimated. It is found that the elasticities of gasoline prices and income (GDP) were dramatically changed into elastic response between pre-deregulation period and post-deregulation period. The short-term gasoline price elasticity increases from -0.18 in pre-deregulation period to -0.99 in post-deregulation period while the short-term income elasticity changes from 0.15 to 0.39 over the same period. (author). 40 refs., 36 figs., 34 tabs.

  2. The Reform Years at "Hampton's": The Magazine Journalism of Rheta Childe Dorr, 1909-1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Agnes Hooper

    1994-01-01

    Examines the writings of Rheta Childe Dorr for "Hampton's" magazine from 1909-12, in which she promoted "municipal housekeeping" (in which a woman's home extended beyond her own four walls and included keeping her city safe, clean, and uncorrupt). Shows how she publicized the plight of the poor, promoted educational reforms,…

  3. Globalization, Citizenship and Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been…

  4. Investigating the Effect of Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl on the Properties of Unleaded Motor Gasoline (1):Induction Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Changbo; Xiong Chunhua; Liu Huiying; Wei Rui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of MMT on the induction period of unleaded motor gasoline was studied, the manganese concentration, storage period of MMT-blended gasoline and environmental variables such as temperature and radiation intensity were considered to be main factors affecting the induction period of gasoline,when MMT-blended gasoline was exposed to light. It is found from experiments that the addition of MMT can improve the induction period of gasoline that is shielded from light, and reduce the induction period remarkably,when the gasoline is exposed to light. However, the radiation intensity is proved to be the leading influencing factor among all the environmental variables investigated.

  5. Gasoline, Ethanol and Methanol (GEM Ternary Blends utilization as an Alternative to Conventional Iraqi Gasoline to Suppress Emitted Sulfur and Lead Components to Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi conventional gasoline characterized by its low octane number not exceed 82 and high lead and sulfur content. In this paper tri-component or ternary, blends of gasoline, ethanol, and methanol presented as an alternative fuel for Iraqi conventional gasoline. The study conducted by using GEM blend that equals E85 blend in octane rating. The used GEM selected from Turner, 2010 collection. G37 E20 M43 (37% gasoline + 20% ethanol+ 43% methanol was chosen as GEM in present study. This blend used in multi-cylinder Mercedes engine, and the engine performance, and emitted emissions compared with that produced by a gasoline engine. The results show that this blend can formulate with available Iraqi produced materials. GEM ternary blend offers significant advantages in terms of engine performance compared to gasoline. Also, GEM higher useful compression ratio (HUCR = 9.25 while gasoline HUCR=7.5. The increment in engine bp was 24.12%, BSFC reduced by 13.9% and brake thermal efficiency increased by 19.59%. The volumetric efficiency increased by 8.06%. Also, CO, HC concentrations were reduced by 30.5%, 25.16% respectively. Smoke opacity reduced by 46.49% and CO2 concentrations reduced by 5% as well as NOx concentrations that reduced by 1.75%.

  6. Clean coal - a national urgency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.M.; Sahai, R. [Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur (India). Technical Consultancy Division

    2000-07-01

    India is the third largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Coal generally has a high ash content, thereby requiring that it be cleaned for proper use. Technological advances now make it possible to reduce pollution considerably, even as energy use increases. However, to reduce environmental impacts, technologies for cleaning coal before combustion need to be developed. The paper focuses on the need for clean coal production and the benefits associated with it. Although the country is rich in coal reserves, the generally inferior quality of coal will lead to its depletion if it is not used cleanly. Increasing the proportion of prepared coal from the current level of less than 5% (i.e. 10-11 million tonnes per annum) of all coal consumed will lead to a massive saving. This can be achieved if new washeries are set up, preferably near the coalfields. 2 figs.

  7. First cleaning with LHC collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Wollmann, D; Arnau-Izquiedo, G; Assmann, R; Bacher, J P; Baglin, V; Bellodi, G; Bertarelli, A; Bouzoud, A; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Brugger, M; Calatroni, S; Cerruti, F; Chamizo, R; Cherif, A; Chiaveri, E; Chiggiato, P; Dallochio, A; Dehning, B; Donze, M; Ferrari, A; Folch, R; Francon, P; Gander, P; Geisser, J M; Grudiev, A; Holzer, EB; Jacquet, D; Jeanneret, J B; Jimenez, J M; Jonker, M; Jowett, J; Kershaw, K; Lari, L; Lendaro, J; Loprete, F; Losito, R; Magistris, M; Malabaila, M; Mayer, M; Marsili, A; Masi, A; Mathot, S; Métral, E; Mitifiot, C; Mounet, N; de Morais Amaral, R; Nordt, A; Perret, R; Perrollaz, S; Rathjen, C; Redaelli, S; Robert-Demolaize, G; Roesler, S; Rossi, A; Salvant, B; Santana, M; Sexton, I; Sievers, P; Tardy, T; Timmins, M; Tsoulou, K; Veyrunes, E; Vincke, H; Vlachoudis, V; Vuillemin, V; Weiler, T; Zimmermann, F; Baishev, I; Kurochkin, I; Kaltchev, D; Caspers, F; Kadi, Y

    2010-01-01

    The LHC has two dedicated cleaning insertions: IR3 for momentum cleaning and IR7 for betatron cleaning. The collimation system has been specified and built with tight mechanical tolerances (e.g. jaw flatness ~ 40 μm ) and is designed to achieve a high accuracy and reproducibility of the jaw positions (~ 20 μm). The practically achievable cleaning efficiency of the present Phase-I system depends on the precision of the jaw centering around the beam, the accuracy of the gap size and the jaw parallelism against the beam. The reproducibility and stability of the collimation system is important to avoid the frequent repetition of beam based alignment which is currently a lengthy procedure. Within this paper we describe the method used for the beam based alignment of the LHC collimation system, its achieved accuracy and stability and its performance at 450GeV.

  8. Ultrasonic cleaning in the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detwiler, M S

    1989-04-01

    Ultrasonic cleaning can prolong the life of expensive instruments. In the past, many fine instruments were discarded due to stiffening hinges and box locks, or sticking plungers. Hand scrubbing and spray washing could not thoroughly clean these areas. Ultrasonic cleaners effectively remove dried and baked blood, serums and medications from these instruments. Also, hinged instruments and syringes operate more smoothly during use in surgery when cleaned using ultrasonics. In addition, the use of ultrasonics alleviates the necessity for hand scrubbing of contaminated surgical instruments and laboratory apparatus, a procedure which could lead to injury or infection. The superb cleaning powers of ultrasonic cleaners, their speed and simplicity of operation, and their ability to remove blood, tissue, bacteria and microorganisms within minutes, makes them a valuable addition to any operating room suite, central service department, or emergency room. Their cost-effectiveness is considerable for the small hospital, and compelling for the large hospital.

  9. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline  precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015. We plan to develop  a new...

  10. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  11. Genetic and Hematologic Endpoints in Astyanax altiparanae (Characidae) After Exposure and Recovery to Water-Soluble Fraction of Gasoline (WSFG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Gabrieli L; Lirola, Juliana R; Felisbino, Karoline; Vicari, Taynah; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Cestari, Marta M

    2016-07-01

    The sublethal effects of water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG, 1.5 % v/v) were evaluated in the freshwater fish, Astynax altiparanae, after acute exposure (96 h) under a semi-static system. In addition, the recovery process was assessed in the fish following contaminant depuration. Recovery treatments were carried out with gradual depuration (GD), consisting of 7 days in the WSFG, followed by 8 days in clean water; and treatments with total depuration in clean water for 15 (DEP 15) and 30 days (DEP 30). The effects were evaluated through the piscine micronucleus test and by differential counting of organic defense cells. Acute exposure increased the frequency of neutrophils. In the GD treatment, the thrombocyte count and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) increased. In the DEP 15 treatment, there was a reduction of ENA; and following 30 days of depuration (i.e., DEP 30), the number of lymphocytes increased and the thrombocyte count remained high. These results indicate a long-term response to a condition of stress from WSFG.

  12. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  13. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  14. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna

    2014-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  15. A Commercial IOTV Cleaning Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    with Spot Cleaning. Page 46 of 118 3.2.5 Water/Oil Repellency Water repellency of the Cordura® fabrics cut from the vests and from new...combined with cleaning have contributed to the deterioration of the Cordura® material on water repellency . 2) The effects of laundering alone on the spray...repellency attribute appears to be more sensitive to the vest’s prior use history and laundering than water - repellency . Many unwashed vest samples

  16. 2012 Clean Energy: Project Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2012, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.

  17. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  18. The Stuttgart Reform Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, F.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews curriculum reform being implemented at the Library School of Stuttgart for students planning to work in public libraries. Components of the new curriculum include core courses in library science, electives in special areas of librarianship, seminars in chosen subject disciplines, and field work in libraries and government agencies. (LRW)

  19. The buzz on reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, E A

    1994-01-01

    Mr. Bouchard bravely travels through the maze of lingo and anagrams spawned by recent attempts at healthcare reform. This comprehensive list of terminology and definitions, which provides considerable detail and analysis, will be invaluable to anyone trying to understand current trends.

  20. Reforming Rights Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For China, the recently established UN Human Rights Council is a victory of multilateralism This spring witnessed a significant reform in the United Nations human rights protection mechanism. On March 15, the UN General Assembly approved a draft resolution, with a 170 to 4 vote and 3 abstentions, to create a Human Rights Council (HRC). Then, March 23, the UN Economic and

  1. Reforming Rail Freight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Xinzhen

    2013-01-01

    Market-oriented reforms have come to one of China's last major monopoly industries Freight Train No.82410 from Beijing to southwest China's Chengdu departed from Dahongmen Station at 4 p.m.on June 26.The departure was a special one because it was the first container train of the Beijing Railway Bureau to depart following

  2. Telecommunication reform in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Haggarty, Luke; Mary M. Shirley; Wallsten, Scott

    2003-01-01

    In 1996 Ghana privatized its incumbent telecommunications firm by selling 30 percent of Ghana Telecom to Telekom Malaysia, licensing a second network operator, and allowing multiple mobile firms to enter the market. The reforms yielded mixed results. Landline telephone penetration increased dramatically while the number of mobile subscribers surpassed even this higher level of fixed line s...

  3. Educational Reforms in Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzer, Frederick C.

    1978-01-01

    Yugoslavia's educational system had to be completely rebuilt after World War II to ensure the nation's full and rapid competition in the postwar world. The reforms are discussed in light of the political, social, and economic structure of Yugoslavia. (Author/LBH)

  4. Reformer Takes French Reins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The painful reforms chosen by French voters to rejuvenate their sluggish economy have smoothed the way for Nicolas Sarkozy to take up France’s top political job.The 52-year-old leader of the ruling right-wing Union

  5. China Launched VAT Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ In order to boost domestic demand,reduce the tax burden on companies,encourage technological upgrades and push for industrial restructuring,China decided to extend its value-added tax(VAT) reform to all industries nationwide beginning January 1,2009.

  6. Clean Restructuring: Design Elements for Low Carbon Wholesale Markets and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    Countries around the world are in various stages of power system reform and restructuring to more effectively meet development goals and decarbonization commitments. Changes in social dynamics, technology, business models, and environmental goals are increasing pressure for countries to consider improvements to their power systems. This brochure overviews the 21st Century Power Partnerships thought leadership report that explores the clean restructuring pathway in depth, envisions an end state, and articulates three main areas of consideration for decision makers embarking on a clean restructuring process. The report also details case studies from Germany, Denmark, and Mexico.

  7. Energy Price Reform in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Market-based reform of energy prices is the most effective approach to enhancing energy efficiency. The policies of energy conservation and enhancing energy efficiency in the 1 lth Five-year Plan period (2006-2010) work directly to set up a series of reform measures related to energy pricing by market mechanism. Energy price reform will deeply influence China's industrial interest pattern, and its development in the next five years and even 10 or 20 years.This paper analyzes the significance, timing, present status and problems related to energy price reform, and discusses the goal, principle and measures of coal, electricity, oil and gas price reform separately.

  8. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  9. Reactors. Industrial processes in chemistry/petrochemistry. Catalytic reforming; Reacteurs. Procedes industriels chimie/petrochimie. Reformage catalytique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, G. [AXENS-IFP, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Joly, J.F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2001-12-01

    The new regulatory constraints (pollution regulations: decrease of lead amount in gasolines, and energy savings) have led the industrialists to better valorize their petroleum cuts. More specific and adapted processes have then been perfected, for instance for the refining. After having recalled what types of reactions are to be promoted, how to obtain them with a good yield (thermodynamic and kinetic considerations), the authors describe 1)what types of catalysts are used for these reactions, what their activities are and how they are prepared 2)the industrial implementation of the catalytic reforming (main types of units, experimental conditions, equipments, main processes of reforming and pretreatment) and then give the performances of the catalytic reforming. (O.M.)

  10. The 'reformation' of counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Lotter

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the Reformation took place some four hundred years ago, one area in which reformation is really needed today is the counselling of people. Since Wilhelm Wundt started the “study of the mind” in 1879, William James and Sigmund Freud followed and secular psychology gradually has developed to take the “front seat”; hence moving Biblical counselling, which has been practised since the times of the New Testament, to the “back burner”. This development had been going on for the greater part of the 20th century, up to the publication of Competent to Counsel by Jay E. Adams in 1970. In the model for counselling suggested by Adams, the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century, Soli Deo Gloria, Soli Scriptura, Soli Fidei, Sola Gratia, etc. were again implemented in assisting and counselling people with personal and interpersonal problems. The epistomological and anthropological approach of secular psychology differs radically from that of Biblical principles, thus necessitating a new “reformation” of counselling. Within this new form counselling, inter alia, implies the following: the Word of God has its rightful place, sin has to be taken seriously and the work of the Holy Spirit should be recognised. In this article it is proposed that the “reformation” of counselling was started by scholars with a Biblical Reformational approach and that this method of counselling followed the parameters of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. This “reformation” developed into a new direction in counselling and still continues today with fascinating new frontiers opening up for Biblical counselling.

  11. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γsubstrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1substrate, but acts with cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by the jet flow and the flow induced by the bubble wall oscillation. Furthermore, the observations reveal that the extent of direct bubble gas phase contact to the solid is partially smaller than the

  12. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    the main process leading to the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential. While for Hyundai ICEV, gasoline production and tailpipe emission were the primary sources of environmental impact in the use phase. Tailpipe emission was a significant cause for increase in Eutrophication Potential and Global Warming Potential, and so forth. On the basis of inventory data analysis and 2010 Beijing electricity mix, the comparative results of haze-induced pollutants emissions showed that the full life cycle emissions of PM2.5, NO(x), SO(x), VOCs of Midi EV were higher than those of Hyundai ICEV, but the emission of NH3 was lower than that of Hyundai ICEV. Different emissions in use phase were the chief reason leading to this trend. In addition, by sensitivity analysis the results indicated that with the increase of lifetime mileage and proportion of cleaning energy, the rate of GHG( Green House Gas) emission reduction per kilometer of Midi EV became higher with respect to Hyundai ICEV. Haze-induced pollutants emission from EV could be significantly reduced using cleaner power energy. According to the assessment results, some management strategies aiming at electric car promotion were proposed.

  13. Megasonic cleaning: effect of dissolved gas properties on cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Hrishi; Singh, Sherjang; Baugh, James; Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current and future lithography techniques require complex imaging improvement strategies. These imaging improvement strategies require printing of sub-resolution assist-features (SRAF) on photomasks. The size of SRAF's has proven to be the main limiting factor in using high power Megasonic cleaning process on photomasks. These features, due to high aspect ratio are more prone to damage at low Megasonic frequencies and at high Megasonic powers. Additionally the non-uniformity of energy dissipated during Megasonic cleaning is a concern for exceeding the damage threshold of the SRAFs. If the cavitation events during Megasonic cleaning are controlled in way to dissipate uniform energy, better process control can be achieved to clean without damage. The amount and type of gas dissolved in the cleaning liquid defines the cavitation behavior. Some of the gases possess favourable solubility and adiabatic properties for stable and controlled cavitation behaviour. This paper particularly discusses the effects of dissolved Ar gas on Megasonic characteristics. The effect of Ar Gas is characterized by measuring acoustic energy and Sonoluminscense. The phenomenon is further verified with pattern damage studies.

  14. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  15. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, S W; Alvarez, R; Vollmer, M K; Steinbacher, M; Weilenmann, M; Reimann, S

    2010-08-01

    This study assesses individual-vehicle molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions in exhaust gas from current gasoline and diesel vehicles measured on a chassis dynamometer. Absolute H2 emissions were found to be highest for motorcycles and scooters (141+/-38.6 mg km(-1)), approximately 5 times higher than for gasoline-powered automobiles (26.5+/-12.1 mg km(-1)). All diesel-powered vehicles emitted marginal amounts of H2 ( approximately 0.1 mg km(-1)). For automobiles, the highest emission factors were observed for sub-cycles subject to a cold-start (mean of 53.1+/-17.0 mg km(-1)). High speeds also caused elevated H2 emission factors for sub-cycles reaching at least 150 km h(-1) (mean of 40.4+/-7.1 mg km(-1)). We show that H2/CO ratios (mol mol(-1)) from gasoline-powered vehicles are variable (sub-cycle means of 0.44-5.69) and are typically higher (mean for automobiles 1.02, for 2-wheelers 0.59) than previous atmospheric ratios characteristic of traffic-influenced measurements. The lowest mean individual sub-cycle ratios, which correspond to high absolute emissions of both H2 and CO, were observed during cold starts (for automobiles 0.48, for 2-wheelers 0.44) and at high vehicle speeds (for automobiles 0.73, for 2-wheelers 0.45). This finding illustrates the importance of these conditions to observed H2/CO ratios in ambient air. Overall, 2-wheelers displayed lower H2/CO ratios (0.48-0.69) than those from gasoline-powered automobiles (0.75-3.18). This observation, along with the lower H2/CO ratios observed through studies without catalytic converters, suggests that less developed (e.g. 2-wheelers) and older vehicle technologies are largely responsible for the atmospheric H2/CO ratios reported in past literature. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy and labor cost of gasoline engine remanufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venta, E.R.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1978-09-01

    This report presents a detailed estimate of the labor and energy, by fuel type, required by the U.S. economy to remanufacture gasoline-fueled automobile and truck engines. Th estimate was obtained by combining data provided by several remanufacturers with the results of input--output analysis. A rough estimate of the labor and energy required to manufacture new engines is also given. These estimates suggest that remanufactured engines require 50% of the energy and 67% of the labor that new engines require.

  17. Assessing the Macroeconomic Importance of Gasoline and Vehicle Spending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Danilo J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poyer, David A. [Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Vector error correction (VEC) was used to test the importance of a theoretical causal chain from transportation fuel cost to vehicle sales to macroeconomic activity. Real transportation fuel cost was broken into two cost components: real gasoline price (rpgas) and real personal consumption of gasoline and other goods (gas). Real personal consumption expenditure on vehicles (RMVE) represented vehicle sales. Real gross domestic product (rGDP) was used as the measure of macroeconomic activity. The VEC estimates used quarterly data from the third quarter of 1952 to the first quarter of 2014. Controlling for the financial causes of the recent Great Recession, real homeowners’ equity (equity) and real credit market instruments liability (real consumer debt, rcmdebt) were included. Results supported the primary hypothesis of the research, but also introduced evidence that another financial path through equity is important, and that use of the existing fleet of vehicles (not just sales of vehicles) is an important transport-related contributor to macroeconomic activity. Consumer debt reduction is estimated to be a powerful short-run force reducing vehicle sales. Findings are interpreted in the context of the recent Greene, Lee, and Hopson (2012) (hereafter GLH) estimation of the magnitude of three distinct macroeconomic damage effects that result from dependence on imported oil, the price of which is manipulated by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The three negative macroeconomic impacts are due to (1) dislocation (positive oil price shock), (2) high oil price levels, and (3) a high value of the quantity of oil imports times an oil price delta (cartel price less competitive price). The third of these is the wealth effect. The VEC model addresses the first two, but the software output from the model (impulse response plots) does not isolate them. Nearly all prior statistical tests in the literature have used vector autoregression (VAR) and

  18. Technical comparison between Hythane, GNG and gasoline fueled vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This interim report documents progress on this 2-year Alternative Fuel project, scheduled to end early 1993. Hythane is 85 vol% compressed natural gas (CNG) and 15 vol% hydrogen; it has the potential to meet or exceed the California Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard. Three USA trucks (3/4 ton pickup) were operated on single fuel (unleaded gasoline, CNG, Hythane) in Denver. The report includes emission testing, fueling facility, hazard and operability study, and a framework for a national hythane strategy.

  19. A method and device for cleaning air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments.......The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments....

  20. Are Breast Surgical Operations Clean or Clean Contaminated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Kamal; Bagdia, Amit; Srivastava, Anurag

    2015-12-01

    The breast surgeries are classically taught as clean surgical procedures. The infection rates following breast surgery ranges from 3 to 15 %, which is much higher than infection rates after clean surgery (ranging from 1.5 to 3 %). This high infection rate following breast surgery can be explained by opening of the ductal system to outside world through nipple similar to the gastrointestinal and genitourinary system. We conducted a systematic review of infection following breast surgeries. We searched various randomized controlled trials, meta-analysis, and Cochrane Reviews over PubMed and Medline via the Internet. These evidences were found to support the thesis, "Breast surgeries need to be reclassified as clean-contaminated". We recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics in breast surgery.

  1. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... promulgated National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline.... Total gasoline consumption is the total used nationwide, so the emission inventory includes emissions... January 24, 2011 Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 9 and 63 National Emission Standards...

  2. A Study of the Relationship between Ambient Lead and Blood Bead among Gasoline-Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Bahrami

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of leaded gasoline in Iran cause to emit lead compounds in ambient air of gasoline stations and is known to effect on workers health in these locations. The objectives of this study were assessment of ambient lead levels and blood lead levels of gasoline station workers in Hamadan city, Iran. For this purpose, 82 samples were obtained in ambient air of gasoline station locations. Serum samples from 44 workers and 44 unexposed people were collected to determine blood lead levels. Samples were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood lead levels in workers and control group were 30.05 and 17.31 µg/dl, respectively. The correlation coefficient between blood lead level and ambient lead level, age as well as duration of employment were 0.44, 0.66 and 0.81, correspondingly. The highest concentration of lead was recorded at the gasoline station in the city center. A high correlation between vehicle numbers in gasoline station locations and lead concentration was determined in the city center, but with a poor correlation in the suburb of the city. 48% of exposed workers had blood lead levels more than the biological exposure limit recommended by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene (ACGIH. Using unleaded gasoline and liquefied gas together with a health program education are importance factors to reduce blood lead level in workers of gasoline stations.

  3. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-02

    This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 (gasoline blended with 10.5 percent - 15 percent ethanol), E85 (marketing term for ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51 percent - 83 percent ethanol, depending on geography and season), and other ethanol blends.

  4. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 (gasoline blended with 10.5 percent - 15 percent ethanol), E85 (marketing term for ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51 percent - 83 percent ethanol, depending on geography and season), and other ethanol blends.

  5. Commercial Test of Multi-functional Desulfurizing Agent TS-01 for Gasoline in FCC Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Zhi; Wu Yingjian; Yu Weisheng

    2003-01-01

    Experimental use of multi-functional desulfurizing agent TS-01 for FCC gasoline in the FCC unitof SINOPEC Jiujiang Company shows that the multi-functional desulfurizing agent can effectivelyremove various kinds of sulfur in FCC gasoline and diesel fuel and fulfill passivation on heavy metals.

  6. Stable carbon isotopic composition of gasolines determined by isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, B.J.; Philp, R.P.; Allen, J.D. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    2002-07-01

    A large number of underground gasoline storage facilities in the United States continuously leak gasoline into the subsurface, which makes gasoline a major groundwater contaminant. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are used currently to characterize contaminated groundwater and soils. Correlations of contaminants with suspected source(s) are extremely difficult by these techniques because many gasolines have similar hydrocarbon distributions. The present study applied the technique of isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (irmGC-MS) to 19 gasoline samples from different areas of the USA. This allows a much better correlation of gasoline contaminants to source. Data obtained indicate a wide range of {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C values for 16 ubiquitous compounds in the gasolines. The majority of samples could be distinguished from each other on the basis of {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C hydrocarbon composition. The oxygenated additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was present in ten of the gasolines analyzed, and had a relatively narrow range of {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C values (-30.4 to -28.3 per mille). Preliminary investigations were also made to determine the extent of carbon isotopic fractionation after simple water washing and evaporation experiments. Results indicate that the majority of compounds did not undergo significant carbon isotopic fractionation as a result of these processes. (author)

  7. PHASE STABILITY OF MONOATOMIC ALCOHOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES FOR DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONS AND HYDRODYNAMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability for the mixtures of monoatomic alcohols (ethanol, butanol with gasoline in the presence of water. There have been determined the optimal storage conditions of mixtures depending on their composition and mixing conditions. The positive influence of butanol on the phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures was detected.

  8. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  9. Neurodevelopmental effects of inhaled vapors of gasoline and ethanol in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasoline-ethanol blends comprise the major fraction of the fuel used in the US automotive fleet. To address uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to gasoline with more than 10% ethanol, we are assessing the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapor...

  10. Density, Viscosity and Water Phase Stability of 1-Butanol-Gasoline Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Mužíková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to describe the density and viscosity and water tolerance of 1-butanol-gasoline blends. Density and viscosity of 1-butanol are higher than that for gasoline and they can affect these parameters in the final gasoline blend. Density increases linearly and viscosity exponentially with the content of 1-butanol. Water solubility in 1-butanol-gasoline blend was determined as the temperature of a phase separation. The water was separated in the solid form at negative temperature and the phase separation point was determined as the temperature of crystallization. Influence of ethanol and ethers used for gasoline blending on water phase stability of 1-butanol-gasoline blend was studied. Ethers are slightly miscible with water and they improve the phase stability. While ethanol is completely miscible water and increases the water solubility in the blends. Finally, water extractions of both alcohols from gasoline were done. In contrast to the ethanol-gasoline blends, 1-butanol remained in the hydrocarbon phase.

  11. 40 CFR 80.8 - Sampling methods for gasoline and diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling methods for gasoline and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.8 Sampling methods for gasoline and diesel fuel. The sampling methods specified in this section shall be used to collect...

  12. How Well Does the Price of Unleaded Gasoline Predict the Price of Ethanol?

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, David A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the historical relationship of unleaded gasoline prices relative to ethanol prices. It uses several basic measures to determine the usefulness of wholesale unleaded gasoline price as a determinant of ethanol price, and it looks at the stability of that simple model over this decade.

  13. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  14. Phytotoxicity of fresh and weathered diesel and gasoline to willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Köhler, A.; Larsen, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of fresh and weathered gasoline and diesel fuel to willow and poplar trees was studied using a tree transpiration toxicity test. Soils were taken from an abandoned filling station. Concentrations in the samples were measured as the sum of hydrocarbons from C5 to C10 (gasoline) and C1...

  15. Commonised diesel and gasoline catalyst architecture; Standardisierte Katalysatorarchitektur fuer Diesel- und Ottomotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurell, Mats; Sjoers, Johan; Wernlund, Bjoern [Volvo Car Corporation, Goeteborg (Sweden); Brueck, Rolf [Emitec Gesellschaft fuer Emissionstechnologie mbH, Lohmar (Germany). Forschung, Entwicklung und Applikation

    2013-11-01

    Volvo Cars has developed a standardised catalytic converter architecture for diesel and gasoline engines - the scalable so-called Compact Cat. The system covers both Euro 6 and SULEV applications for gasoline engines as well as Euro 6 applications for diesel engines. The standardised design using shared parts results in a considerable reduction in unit costs and tooling requirements. (orig.)

  16. Cleaning properties of dry adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.; P.; DíAZ; TéLLEZ; D.; SAMEOTO; C.; MENON

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a study into the cleaning properties of synthetic dry adhesives. We have manufactured the adhesive micro-fibres through a low-cost, high yield fabrication method using Sylgard 184 Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the structural material. We deliberately contaminated the adhesive samples with different sized particles in the micro and macro scales and tested different cleaning methods for their efficacy with respect to each particle size. We investigated different cleaning methods, which included the use of wax moulding, vibration and pressure sensitive adhesives. For adhesion testing we used a custom system with a linear stage and a force sensor indenting a hemispherical probe into the adhesive surface and measuring the pull-off force. To characterize the cleaning efficacy we visually inspected each sample in a microscope and weighed the samples with a microgram-accuracy analytical balance. Results showed that the moulding method induced adhesion recovery in a greater percentage than the other cleaning methods and even helped with the recovery of collapsed posts in some cases. On the other hand pressure sensitive adhesives seem to have the upper hand with regards to certain particle sizes that can potentially pose problems with the moulding method.

  17. Energy-Efficient Routes for the Production of Gasoline from Biogas and Pyrolysis Oil-Process Design and Life-Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Smitha; Kolb, Gunther; Hessel, Volker; Wang, Qi

    2017-03-29

    Two novel routes for the production of gasoline from pyrolysis oil (from timber pine) and biogas (from ley grass) are simulated, followed by a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of the two production routes. The main aim of this work is to conduct a holistic evaluation of the proposed routes and benchmark them against the conventional route of producing gasoline from natural gas. A previously commercialized method of synthesizing gasoline involves conversion of natural gas to syngas, which is further converted to methanol, and then as a last step, the methanol is converted to gasoline. In the new proposed routes, the syngas production step is different; syngas is produced from a mixture of pyrolysis oil and biogas in the following two ways: (i) autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil and biogas, in which there are two reactions in one reactor (ATR) and (ii) steam reforming of pyrolysis oil and catalytic partial oxidation of biogas, in which there are separated but thermally coupled reactions and reactors (CR). The other two steps to produce methanol from syngas, and gasoline from methanol, remain the same. The purpose of this simulation is to have an ex-ante comparison of the performance of the new routes against a reference, in terms of energy and sustainability. Thus, at this stage of simulations, nonrigorous, equilibrium-based models have been used for reactors, which will give the best case conversions for each step. For the conventional production route, conversion and yield data available in the literature have been used, wherever available.The results of the process design showed that the second method (separate, but thermally coupled reforming) has a carbon efficiency of 0.53, compared to the conventional route (0.48), as well as the first route (0.40). The life-cycle assessment results revealed that the newly proposed processes have a clear advantage over the conventional process in some categories, particularly the global warming potential and primary

  18. Energy-Efficient Routes for the Production of Gasoline from Biogas and Pyrolysis Oil—Process Design and Life-Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Two novel routes for the production of gasoline from pyrolysis oil (from timber pine) and biogas (from ley grass) are simulated, followed by a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of the two production routes. The main aim of this work is to conduct a holistic evaluation of the proposed routes and benchmark them against the conventional route of producing gasoline from natural gas. A previously commercialized method of synthesizing gasoline involves conversion of natural gas to syngas, which is further converted to methanol, and then as a last step, the methanol is converted to gasoline. In the new proposed routes, the syngas production step is different; syngas is produced from a mixture of pyrolysis oil and biogas in the following two ways: (i) autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil and biogas, in which there are two reactions in one reactor (ATR) and (ii) steam reforming of pyrolysis oil and catalytic partial oxidation of biogas, in which there are separated but thermally coupled reactions and reactors (CR). The other two steps to produce methanol from syngas, and gasoline from methanol, remain the same. The purpose of this simulation is to have an ex-ante comparison of the performance of the new routes against a reference, in terms of energy and sustainability. Thus, at this stage of simulations, nonrigorous, equilibrium-based models have been used for reactors, which will give the best case conversions for each step. For the conventional production route, conversion and yield data available in the literature have been used, wherever available.The results of the process design showed that the second method (separate, but thermally coupled reforming) has a carbon efficiency of 0.53, compared to the conventional route (0.48), as well as the first route (0.40). The life-cycle assessment results revealed that the newly proposed processes have a clear advantage over the conventional process in some categories, particularly the global warming potential and primary

  19. Climate and health relevant emissions from in-use Indian three-wheelers fueled by natural gas and gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Conor C O; Grieshop, Andrew P; Kandlikar, Milind

    2011-03-15

    Auto-rickshaws in India use different fuels and engine technologies, with varying emissions and implications for air quality and climate change. Chassis dynamometer emission testing was conducted on 30 in-use auto-rickshaws to quantify the impact of switching from gasoline to compressed natural gas (CNG) in spark-ignition engines. Thirteen test vehicles had two-stroke CNG engines (CNG-2S) and 17 had four-stroke CNG engines (CNG-4S), of which 11 were dual-fuel and operable on a back-up gasoline (petrol) system (PET-4S). Fuel-based emission factors were determined for gaseous pollutants (CO(2), CH(4), NO(X), THC, and CO) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). Intervehicle variability was high, and for most pollutants there was no significant difference (95% confidence level) between "old" (1998-2001) and "new" (2007-2009) age-groups within a given fuel-technology class. Mean fuel-based PM(2.5) emission factor (mean (95% confidence interval)) for CNG-2S (14.2 g kg(-1) (6.2-26.7)) was almost 30 times higher than for CNG-4S (0.5 g kg(-1) (0.3-0.9)) and 12 times higher than for PET-4S (1.2 g kg(-1) (0.8-1.7)). Global warming commitment associated with emissions from CNG-2S was more than twice that from CNG-4S or PET-4S, due mostly to CH(4) emissions. Comprehensive measurements and data should drive policy interventions rather than assumptions about the impacts of clean fuels.

  20. Effects of fuel and air mixing on WOT output in direct injection gasoline engine; Chokufun gasoline kikan ni okeru nenryo to kuki no kongo to shutsuryoku seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T.; Iriya, Y.; Naito, K.; Mitsumoto, H.; Iiyama, A. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of in-cylinder charge motion and the characteristics of the fuel spray and piston crown shape on WOT output in a direct injection gasoline engine are investigated. The fuel and air mixing process in a cylinder is analyzed by computer simulation and LIF method visualization. As a result, the technical factors to achieve enough mixing in a DI gasoline engine equipped with bowl in piston optimized for stratified combustion are clarified. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Effects of gasoline properties on exhaust emission and photochemical reactivity; Gasoline seijo ga haiki gas sosei, kokagaku hannosei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, R.; Usui, K.; Moriya, A.; Sato, M.; Nomura, T.; Sue, H. [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to investigate the effects of fuel properties on emissions, four passenger cars were tested under Japanese 11 and 10-15 modes using two series gasoline fuels. The test results suggest that the distillation property (T90) affects A/F ratio which in turn influences exhaust emissions. The results of regression analysis show that both ozone forming potential and air toxics are highly corrected with the composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline. 3 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Analysis of mixture formation of direct injection gasoline engine; Tonai funsha gasoline engine no kongoki keisei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, M.; Saito, K.; Basaki, M. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Matsushita, S.; Gono, T. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    On direct injection gasoline engine, in order to achieve good stratified combustion, the extremely advanced control of air-fuel mixture is required. For this purpose, the method of diagnosing the quality of the state of mixture formation in combustion chambers becomes necessary. In this research, the state of air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber of a TOYOTA D-4 was analyzed in space and time by visualization, A/F multi-point measurement and A/F high response measurement, thus the effects that injection timing, swirl and fuel pressure exerted to mixture formation were elucidated. 3 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Study of nozzle deposit formation mechanism for direct injection gasoline engines; Chokufun gasoline engine yo nozzle no deposit seisei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, M.; Saito, A. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Shibata, H. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Niwa, Y. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nozzles in fuel injectors for direct injection gasoline engines are exposed to high temperature combustion gases and soot. In such a rigorous environment, it is a fear that fuel flow rate changes in injectors by deposit formation on nozzles. Fundamental factors of nozzle deposit formation were investigated through injector bench tests and engine dynamometer tests. Deposit formation processes were observed by SEM through engine dynamometer tests. The investigation results reveal nozzle deposit formation mechanism and how to suppress the deposit. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Emission consequences of introducing bio ethanol as a fuel for gasoline cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten Mentz; Møller, Flemming; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the direct vehicle emission impact of the future use of bio ethanol as a fuel for gasoline cars in Denmark arising from the vehicle specific fuel consumption and emission differences between neat gasoline (E0) and E5/E85 gasoline-ethanol fuel blends derived from emission...... tests using primarily the European NEDC and ARTEMIS driving cycles. The E0-E5 test vehicles (nine cars) represent today’s gasoline car traffic well where most of the driving is being made with cars certified as Euro 3+. The FFV test cars (25 cars) are all certified according to the Euro 4 emission......% in 2030. As predicted by the vehicle specific emission differences the calculated emission impacts of using bio ethanol are small for NOx, VOC and CO. Instead, for FS, BS1 and BS2 large emission reductions are due to the gradually cleaner new sold gasoline cars and the decline in total mileage until...

  5. A Survey of Novel Processes to Produce Ultra Low Sulfur Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yun; Long Jun; Shao Xinjun

    2003-01-01

    The restriction on sulfur level in gasoline has been increasingly tightened. The U.S.Tier Ⅱ regulation requires a reduction from average 340ppm to 30ppm from 2004 to 2008. Recently significant progress has been made in effective high sulfur removal, such as post treatment of FCC gasoline by selective hydrotreating, S Zorb sulfur removal technology, OATS process etc. The sulfur content of FCC gasoline can be deceased to less than 10ppm. With regard to gasoline pool composition in China, it is very important to look for effective desulfurization processes that are simple, straightforward, with less hydrogen consumption. Post-treatment of FCC gasoline is a preferred option. From the point of view of comprehensive utilization, alkylation, polymerization, isomerisation etc. can be added to desulfurization process to meet the requirement of ultra low sulfur, premium.

  6. Identifying combustion intermediates in premixed MTBE/gasoline/oxygen flame probed via synchrotron radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Chunde; QI Fei; LI Jing; LI Qi; JI Qing; HUANG Chaoqun; WEI Lixia; WANG Jing; TIAN Zhenyu; LI Yuyang

    2007-01-01

    Molecular-beam sampling mass spectrometry (MBMS) combined with tunable synchrotron radiation photoionization technique offers obvious advantages for the study of flame chemistry over other techniques because of the precision measurement of the combustion intermediates and products in flame.In this paper,the results to identify combustion intermediates in low-pressure premixed gasoline/oxygen flame with the synchrotron radiation were reported.Based on the results obtained,the formation process of five products and the difference between gasoline/oxygen and MTBE/gasoline/oxygen flame were emphatically analyzed.The results achieved provide data basis for the analysis of intermediates and radicals in flame,and are helpful to establish the kinetic modeling of gasoline/oxygen and MTBE/gasoline/oxygen flames.

  7. Exhaust emissions of methanol and ethanol-unleaded gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altun Şehmus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of unleaded gasoline and unleaded gasoline blended with 5% and 10% of ethanol or methanol on the performance and exhaust emissions of a spark-ignition engine were experimentally investigated. The engine tests were performed by varying the engine speed between 1000 and 4000 rpm with 500 rpm period at threefourth throttle opening position. The results showed that brakespecific fuel consumption increased while brake thermal efficiency, emissions of carbon monoxide (CO and hydrocarbon (HCs decreased with methanol-unleaded gasoline and ethanol-unleaded gasoline blends. It was found that a 10% blend of ethanol or methanol with unleaded gasoline works well in the existing design of engine and parameters at which engines are operating.

  8. Comparison of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by the extracts of methanol and gasoline engine exhausts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zunzhen; Che, Wangjun; Liang, Ying; Wu, Mei; Li, Na; Shu, Ya; Liu, Fang; Wu, Desheng

    2007-09-01

    Gasoline engine exhaust has been considered a major source of air pollution in China, and methanol is considered as a potential substitute for gasoline fuel. In this study, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of organic extracts of condensate, particulate matters (PM) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) of gasoline and absolute methanol engine exhaust were examined by using MTT assay, micronucleus assay, comet assay and Ames test. The results have showed that gasoline engine exhaust exhibited stronger cytotoxicity to human lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 cell) than methanol engine exhaust. Furthermore, gasoline engine exhaust increased micronucleus formation, induced DNA damage in A549 cells and increased TA98 revertants in the presence of metabolic activating enzymes in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, methanol engine exhaust failed to exhibit these adverse effects. The results suggest methanol may be used as a cleaner fuel for automobile.

  9. Directly converting CO2 into a gasoline fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian; Ge, Qingjie; Yao, Ruwei; Wen, Zhiyong; Fang, Chuanyan; Guo, Lisheng; Xu, Hengyong; Sun, Jian

    2017-05-01

    The direct production of liquid fuels from CO2 hydrogenation has attracted enormous interest for its significant roles in mitigating CO2 emissions and reducing dependence on petrochemicals. Here we report a highly efficient, stable and multifunctional Na-Fe3O4/HZSM-5 catalyst, which can directly convert CO2 to gasoline-range (C5-C11) hydrocarbons with selectivity up to 78% of all hydrocarbons while only 4% methane at a CO2 conversion of 22% under industrial relevant conditions. It is achieved by a multifunctional catalyst providing three types of active sites (Fe3O4, Fe5C2 and acid sites), which cooperatively catalyse a tandem reaction. More significantly, the appropriate proximity of three types of active sites plays a crucial role in the successive and synergetic catalytic conversion of CO2 to gasoline. The multifunctional catalyst, exhibiting a remarkable stability for 1,000 h on stream, definitely has the potential to be a promising industrial catalyst for CO2 utilization to liquid fuels.

  10. Quinone emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakober, Chris A; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M Judith; Green, Peter G; Kleeman, Michael J

    2007-07-01

    Gas- and particle-phase emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers were collected using annular denuders, quartz filters, and PUF substrates. Quinone species were measured using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine quinones were observed, ranging from C6 to C16. New species identified in motor vehicle exhaust include methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQN), and aceanthrenequinone. Gas-phase motor vehicle emissions of quinones are also reported for the first time. Six gas-phase quinones were quantified with emission rates of 2-28 000 microg L(-1) fuel consumed. The most abundant gas-phase quinones were 1,4-benzoquinone (BON) and MNQN. The gas-phase fraction was > or = 69% of quinone mass for light-duty gasoline emissions, and > or = 84% for heavy-duty diesel emissions. Eight particle-phase quinones were observed between 2 and 1600 microg L(-1), with BQN the most abundant species followed by 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 1,2-naphthoquinone. Current particle-phase quinone measurements agree well with the few available previous results. Further research is needed concerning the gas-particle partitioning behavior of quinones in ambient and combustion source conditions.

  11. Optimization of gasoline hydrocarbon compositions for reducing exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yitao; Shuai, Shijin; Wang, Jianxin; Xiao, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon compositions on raw exhaust emissions and combustion processes were studied on an engine test bench. The optimization of gasoline hydrocarbon composition was discussed. As olefins content increased from 10.0% to 25.0% in volume, the combustion duration was shortened by about 2 degree crank angle (degrees CA), and the engine-out THC emission was reduced by about 15%. On the other hand, as aromatics content changed from 35.0% to 45.0%, the engine-out NOx emissions increased by 4%. An increment in olefins content resulted in a slight increase in engine-out CO emission, while the aromatics content had little effect on engine-out total hydrocarbon (THC) and CO emissions. Over the new European driving cycle (NEDC), the THC, NOx and CO emissions of fuel with 25.0% olefins and 35.0% aromatics were about 45%, 21% and 19% lower than those of fuel with 10.0% olefins and 40.0% aromatics, respectively. The optimized gasoline compositions for new engines and new vehicles have low aromatics and high olefins contents.

  12. Premixed flame chemistry of a gasoline primary reference fuel surrogate

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem

    2017-03-10

    Investigating the combustion chemistry of gasoline surrogate fuels promises to improve detailed reaction mechanisms used for simulating their combustion. In this work, the combustion chemistry of one of the simplest, but most frequently used gasoline surrogates – primary reference fuel 84 (PRF 84, 84 vol% iso-octane and 16 vol% n-heptane), has been examined in a stoichiometric premixed laminar flame. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron light source for species photoionization was used. Reactants, major end-products, stable intermediates, free radicals, and isomeric species were detected and quantified. Numerical simulations were conducted using a detailed chemical kinetic model with the most recently available high temperature sub-mechanisms for iso-octane and heptane, built on the top of an updated pentane isomers model and AramcoMech 2.0 (C0C4) base chemistry. A detailed interpretation of the major differences between the mechanistic pathways of both fuel components is given. A comparison between the experimental and numerical results is depicted and rate of production and sensitivity analyses are shown for the species with considerable disagreement between the experimental and numerical findings.

  13. Study on Desulfurization of Gasoline by Electrochemical Oxidation and Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenbo; Wang Shujun; Liu Hongyan; Wang Zhenxin

    2006-01-01

    In order to further reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, a new desulfurization process was proposed by using catalytic oxidation and extraction realized in an electrochemical fluidized reactor. The fluidized layer of loaded catalyst particles consisted of lead dioxide (PbO2) supported on activated carbon particles (PbO2/C) and the electrolyte was aqueous NaOH solution. The PbO2/C particle anodes could remarkably accelerate the electrochemical reaction rate and promote the electrochemical catalysis of sulfur compounds. The sulfur compounds were at first oxidized to sulfones or sulfoxides, which were then removed after extraction. The experimental results indicated that the optimal desulfurization conditions were as follows: The cell voltage was 3.2 V, the concentration of hydroxyl ions in electrolyte was 0.12 mol/L, and the feed rate was 300 mL/min. Under these conditions the concentration of sulfur in gasoline was reduced from 310 ppm to 70 ppm. Based on these experimental results, a mechanism of indirect electrochemically catalytic oxidation was proposed.

  14. APPLIED RESEARCH ON NEW MULTI-FUNCTION GASOLINE ADDITIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Ruibin; MING Caibing; GAO Zhiwen

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess the performance of a new cleansing and combustion-improving gasoline additive (MAZ), and to explore the evaluation methods of additives, two engines with the same model number and performance indices, fueled with and without the MAZ gasoline additive respectively, are carried through 100 h strenuous tests on a bench. The results obtained in full load characteristic and load characteristics of different operational modes are compared. It indicates that the power, economy and emission of the engine fueled with the MAZ additive all have obvious improvement in comparison with the engine without adding the additive: the power increasing by 16.43%, specific fuel consumption (SFC) decreasing 5.39%, and the emission of CO, HC and NOx falling by 28.61%, 54.38%and 10.1% respectively. Wear and tear of the engine cylinder is weakened, and sediment of combustion chamber inner side is reduced. In addition, no negative effect on the catalytic conversion device is found.

  15. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan. Economic and regulatory analysis draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This economic and regulatory analysis meets the requirements of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, which calls for an evaluation of the potential economic impacts of the gasoline rationing contingency plan. In addition, this analysis is intended to satisfy the requirements of the President's Executive Order No. 12044 of March 23, 1978, regarding government regulations, and provides an inflationary impact statement for the proposed rationing plan. To perform the analysis of rationing program impacts on the total national economy, three separate projections were required. First, a projection is made of the ''normal'' U.S. economy for a future period--the last quarter of 1980 through the third quarter of 1981 in this analysis. Second, a projection is made of the impacts which a petroleum supply interruption would have on the U.S. economy during this future period, assuming that DOE's standby allocation and price control regulations were implemented for crude oil and products. Third, and most significant, an estimate is made of the incremental impacts of the gasoline rationing program on this already-perturbed future U.S. economy.

  16. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  17. The Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann; Mølholm, Martin; Horsbøl, Anders

    (Latour), e.g. civil service and municipal practices and texts, into the organizational practices of two local schools. On the basis of these analyses, we will establish a participatory process in which local actors are involved in the co-creation of new plurivocal and egalitarian dialogue designs......The paper presents a methodological framework for the study of the discursive emergence of the recent Danish School reform (2014). The framework will enable discourse scholars to hold an actively involved position in changing and furthering plurivocal processes of translations, negotiations...... and implementation of the reform. The framework is operationalized through research-based participatory collaborative processes involving local actors in two Danish public schools. It interlinks diverse discourse strategies and perceptive distances that traditionally belong to separate branches within discourse...

  18. U.S. Department of Energy clean cities five-year strategic plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambridge Concord Associates

    2011-02-15

    Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program, which is part of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Working with its network of about 100 local coalitions and more than 6,500 stakeholders across the country, Clean Cities delivers on its mission to reduce petroleum consumption in on-road transportation. In its work to reduce petroleum use, Clean Cities focuses on a portfolio of technologies that includes electric drive, propane, natural gas, renewable natural gas/biomethane, ethanol/E85, biodiesel/B20 and higher-level blends, fuel economy, and idle reduction. Over the past 17 years, Clean Cities coalitions have displaced more than 2.4 billion gallons of petroleum; they are on track to displace 2.5 billion gallons of gasoline per year by 2020. This Clean Cities Strategic Plan lays out an aggressive five-year agenda to help DOE Clean Cities and its network of coalitions and stakeholders accelerate the deployment of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles, while also expanding the supporting infrastructure to reduce petroleum use. Today, Clean Cities has a far larger opportunity to make an impact than at any time in its history because of its unprecedented $300 million allocation for community-based deployment projects from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) (see box below). Moreover, the Clean Cities annual budget has risen to $25 million for FY2010 and $35 million has been requested for FY2011. Designed as a living document, this strategic plan is grounded in the understanding that priorities will change annually as evolving technical, political, economic, business, and social considerations are woven into project decisions and funding allocations. The plan does not intend to lock Clean Cities into pathways that cannot change. Instead, with technology deployment at its core, the plan serves as a guide for decision-making at both the

  19. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Aniruddha, E-mail: nontee65@rediffmail.com [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Sonar, V.R.; Das, D.K.; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Nilaya, J.P.; Biswas, D.J. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, 400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  20. Clean Air OnLine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, D. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Air Pollution Prevention Directorate

    2004-04-07

    This presentation describes Clean Air OnLine, a multi-tiered website dedicated to providing Canadians with information on air quality. The website is under development to support action to reduce air emissions, demonstrate the links between air emissions and environmental impacts, and enhance the understanding of sustainable community development issues such as health, energy, and urban sprawl. Partners in the Clean Air OnLine (CAOL) initiative include Environment Canada and the Clean Air Partnership which includes the Greater Toronto Area pilot project. The audience for CAOL includes municipal decision makers, local decision makers, community leaders, and the general public. The project provides Canadians with air pollution contextual information on pollution sources, pollutants, and related issues. It also provides information on health, environmental and economic impacts and the interrelationships with climate change issues and energy use. tabs., figs.