WorldWideScience

Sample records for clean fossil fuels

  1. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the 'Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.' Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the 'low emission sources' and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

  2. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  3. Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled ``Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.`` was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

  4. Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Jr., Lee T.; Boggess, Ronald J.; Carson, Ronald J.; Falkenberg, Virginia P.; Flanagan, Patrick; Hettinger, Jr., William P.; Kimel, Kris; Kupchella, Charles E.; Magid, Lee J.; McLaughlin, Barbara; Royster, Wimberly C.; Streepey, Judi L.; Wells, James H.; Stencel, John; Derbyshire, Frank J.; Hanley, Thomas R.; Magid, Lee J.; McEllistrem, Marc T.; Riley, John T.; Steffen, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.'' was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

  5. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  6. Power Gas and Combined Cycles: Clean Power From Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, William D.

    1973-01-01

    The combined-cycle system is currently regarded as a useful procedure for producing electricity. This system can burn natural gas and oil distillates in addition to coal. In the future when natural gas stocks will be low, coal may become an important fuel for such systems. Considerable effort must be made for research on coal gasification and…

  7. The climate penalty for clean fossil fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Junkermann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To cope with the world's growing demand for energy, a large number of coal-fired power plants are currently in operation or under construction. To prevent environmental damage from acidic sulphur and particulate emissions, many such installations are equipped with flue gas cleaning technology that reduces the emitted amounts of sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. However, the consequences of this technology for aerosol emissions, and in particular the regional scale impact on cloud microphysics, have not been studied until now. We performed airborne investigations to measure aerosol size distributions in the air masses downwind of coal-fired power installations. We show how the current generation of clean technology reduces the emission of sulphur and fine particulate matter, but leads to an unanticipated increase in the direct emission of ultrafine particles (1–10 nm median diameter which are highly effective precursors of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Our analysis shows how these additional ultrafine particles modify cloud microphysics, as well as precipitation intensity and distribution on a regional scale downwind of emission sources. Effectively, the number of small water droplets is increased, thus reducing the water available for large droplets and rain formation. The corresponding changes in the precipitation budget with a shift from more frequent steady rain to occasionally more vigorous rain events, or even a significant regional reduction of annual precipitation, introduce an unanticipated risk for regional climate and agricultural production, especially in semi-arid climate zones.

  8. The climate penalty for clean fossil fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Junkermann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To cope with the world's growing demand for energy, a large number of coal-fired power plants are currently in operation or under construction. To prevent environmental damage from acidic sulphur and particulate emissions, many such installations are equipped with flue gas cleaning technology that reduces the emitted amounts of sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. However, the consequences of this technology for aerosol emissions, and in particular the regional scale impact on cloud microphysics, have not been studied until now. We performed airborne investigations to measure aerosol size distributions in the air masses downwind of coal-fired power installations. We show how the current generation of clean technology reduces the emission of sulphur and fine particulate matter, but leads to an unanticipated increase in the direct emission of ultrafine particles (1–10 nm median diameter which are highly effective precursors of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Our analysis shows how these additional ultrafine particles probably modify cloud microphysics, as well as precipitation intensity and distribution on a regional scale downwind of emission sources. Effectively, the number of small water droplets might be increased, thus reducing the water available for large droplets and rain formation. The possible corresponding changes in the precipitation budget with a shift from more frequent steady rain to occasionally more vigorous rain events, or even a significant regional reduction of annual precipitation, introduce an unanticipated risk for regional climate and agricultural production, especially in semi-arid climate zones.

  9. The Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feibus, H.

    1995-12-31

    The joint effort by Polish and American organizations in Krakow has accomplished a great deal in just a few years. In particular, the low emission sources program has had major successes. Poland and America have a lot to learn from each other in the clean and economical use of coal. Both our countries are major producers and users of coal. Both have had to deal with the emissions of particulate and organics from coal combustion. We were fortunate, since our free market economy and democratic government helped us deal with a lot of these problems in the 1950s. In Poland, the freedom to solve these problems has evolved only in the last few years. In the first phase of the program, Polish and American engineers ran combustion tests on boilers and stoves in Krakow. They also performed analyses on the cost and feasibility of various equipment changes. The results of the first phase were used in refining the spreadsheet model to give better estimates of costs emissions. The first phase also included analyses of incentives for proceeding with needed changes. These analyses identified actions needed to create a market for the goods and services which control pollution. Such actions could include privatization, regulation, or financial incentives. The second phase of the program consisted of public meetings in Chicago, Washington, and Krakow. The purpose of the meetings was to inform U.S. and Polish firms about the results of phase 1 and to encourage them to compete to take part in phase 3. The third phase currently underway consists of the commercial ventures that were competitively selected. These ventures were consistent with recommendations unanimously made by the BSC. The three phases of the Polish-American program are discussed.

  10. Fossil fuels and clean, plentiful energy in the 21st century: the example of coal

    OpenAIRE

    Jaccard, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Many people believe we must quickly wean ourselves from fossil fuels to save the planet from environmental catastrophe, wars and economic collapse. However, we have the technological capability to use fossil fuels without emitting climate-threatening greenhouse gases or other pollutants. The natural transition from conventional oil and gas to unconventional oil, unconventional gas and coal for producing electricity, hydrogen and cleaner-burning fuels will decrease energy dependence on politic...

  11. Fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 required the Secretary of Energy to cooperate with Polish officials to retrofit a coal-fired powerplant in Poland with advanced clean coal technology that has been successfully demonstrated in the United States. The project's goal is to demonstrate a cost-effective technique to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions that can be used at other powerplants in Poland. The act required that the retrofit be carried out by United States companies using United States technology and equipment manufactured in the United States. Questions were raised about changes the Department of Energy (DOE) made to its original definition of a United States firm, and about reductions DOE made to its original SO2 emission requirements for the project. Such changes might result in foreign-owned rather than American-owned firms providing the technology and that the technology might not be the best this country could offer to the Polish people. This paper reviews the reasons for these changes

  12. Challenges of efficient and clean use of fossil fuels for power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vortmeyer, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Gerhard

    2010-09-15

    Constantly increasing resource efficiency together with the broad introduction of CCS technologies is fundamental for a continuous use of fossil fuels in power generation against the background of up-coming requirements for CO2 emission reduction. In principle, CCS means up-grading conventional power plant technology with proven CO2 removal processes. However, this leads to additional losses, auxiliary power demand and cost. System integration, development or at least adaption of components and processes are the main requirements in this context. Different technology solutions and recent developments will be addressed as well as challenges when implementing in demonstration projects.

  13. Conclusions drawn from actions implemented within the first stage of the Cracow program of energy conservation and clean fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Pierce, B.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1992 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), acting on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, executed the first stage of the Cracow Program of Energy Conservation and Clean Fossil Fuels, called also American-Polish Program of Actions for Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. The main contractor for BNL and PNL was the Cracow Development Office (BRK). The interest in improving the condition of Cracow air results from the fact that the standard for permissible air pollution was exceeded several times in Cracow and especially within the central part of the town. Therefore, air pollution appeared one of the most important problems that faced the municipal authorities. It followed from monitoring investigations that the high level of air pollutant concentration is caused by in-home coal-fired tile stoves operated in winter seasons and by coal- and coke-fired boiler houses simulated mainly in the central part of the town. The results obtained in first stage are presented. This paper is an attempt to formulate conclusions drawn from these works and recommendations with regard to the future policy of the town authorities; selected results are presented to clarify or illustrate the conclusions.

  14. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.; Pierce, B. [eds.

    1995-06-01

    Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

  15. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  16. How polygeneration schemes may develop under an advanced clean fossil fuel strategy under a joint sino-European initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the prospect of emerging co-production and polygeneration schemes based on pre-combustion decarbonisation and options for geological storage of the CO2 are discussed in a European and Chinese setting. Reference is made to European and Chinese undertakings - especially the COACH project that is being conducted under the auspices of the European Commission. COACH is based on principles lined up by the EU-based DYNAMIS project with reference to options for decarbonising fossil fuels within a more sustainable framework. (author)

  17. Biodesulfurization of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin A; Mrachko, Gregory T; Squires, Charles H

    2003-06-01

    Biotechnological techniques enabling the specific removal of sulfur from fossil fuels have been developed. In the past three years there have been important advances in the elucidation of the mechanisms of biodesulfurization; some of the most significant relate to the role of a flavin reductase, DszD, in the enzymology of desulfurization, and to the use of new tools that enable enzyme enhancement via DNA manipulation to influence both the rate and the substrate range of Dsz. Also, a clearer understanding of the unique desulfinase step in the pathway has begun to emerge.

  18. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production.

  19. Pipeline transport of fossile fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with hydraulic pipeline transport of fossil fuels. A general analysis of coal and heavy viscous oil pipelining systems is introduced and pipeline transport of concentrated coal-water slurry, coal-water fuel, coal pipelining in other than water carrier liquid (e.g. methanol) and capsule pipeline transport (coal-log pipelining) is described.

  20. Analysis of Fossil Fuel Subsidies in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Nugumanova, Lyazzat

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades the topic of fossil fuel subsidies has been gaining importance in the policy discussion. International Energy Agency (IEA) (2011) estimates that the total global fossil fuel subsidies in 2010 amounted to $409 billion. Kazakhstan is energy-rich country with significantly high subsidies on fossil fuels. Fossil fuel subsidies are a distortion which causes inefficient use of energy and natural resources, high CO2 emissions, distort the energy markets, put pressure on the s...

  1. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  2. Fuel assemblies chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP Paks found a thermal-hydraulic anomaly in the reactor core during cycle 14 that was caused by corrosion product deposits on fuel assemblies (FAs) that increased the hydraulic resistance of the FAs. Consequently, the coolant flow through the FAs was insufficient resulting in a temperature asymmetry inside the reactor core. Based on this fact NPP Paks performed differential pressure measurements of all fuel assemblies in order to determine the hydraulic resistance and subsequently the limit values for the hydraulic acceptance of FAs to be used. Based on the hydraulic investigations a total number of 170 FAs was selected for cleaning. The necessity for cleaning the FAs was explained by the fact that the FAs were subjected to a short term usage in the reactor core only maximum of 1,5 years and had still a capacity for additional 2 fuel cycles. (authors)

  3. Clean fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  4. On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey Jin Pin; Nora Muda

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel w...

  5. Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2013-10-15

    Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

  6. Fossil Fuels, Alternative Energy and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Barreto

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework that incorporates energy within an endogenous growth model. The model explicitly allows for the interaction and substitution between fossil fuels, defined as a non-renewable resource derived from some fixed initial stock, and alternative energy, defined as renewable resource whose production requires capital input. The dynamics of the model depict a unique balance growth to a saddle point. The consumption path temporarily peaks, when fossil fuels are plentif...

  7. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  8. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  9. Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO2 levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 deg. C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts.

  10. The Fascinating Story of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1973-01-01

    How this energy source was created, its meaning to mankind, our drastically reduced supply, and why we cannot wait for nature to make more are considered. Today fossil fuels supply 96 percent of the energy used but we must find alternate energy options if we are to combat the energy crisis. (BL)

  11. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  12. Diatoms: a fossil fuel of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Orly; Dinamarca, Jorge; Hochman, Gal; Falkowski, Paul G

    2014-03-01

    Long-term global climate change, caused by burning petroleum and other fossil fuels, has motivated an urgent need to develop renewable, carbon-neutral, economically viable alternatives to displace petroleum using existing infrastructure. Algal feedstocks are promising candidate replacements as a 'drop-in' fuel. Here, we focus on a specific algal taxon, diatoms, to become the fossil fuel of the future. We summarize past attempts to obtain suitable diatom strains, propose future directions for their genetic manipulation, and offer biotechnological pathways to improve yield. We calculate that the yields obtained by using diatoms as a production platform are theoretically sufficient to satisfy the total oil consumption of the US, using between 3 and 5% of its land area.

  13. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique

  14. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-10-27

    During the past century, fossil fuels--petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal--were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85-93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per capita production again after 2000. During the past half century, growth in fossil fuel production was essentially limited by energy demand. During the next half century, fossil fuel production will be limited primarily by the amount and characteristics of remaining fossil fuel resources. Three possible scenarios--low, medium and high--are developed for the production of each of the fossil fuels to 2050. These scenarios differ primarily by the amount of ultimate resources estimated for each fossil fuel. Total fossil fuel production will continue to grow, but only slowly for the next 15-30 years. The subsequent peak plateau will last for 10-15 years. These production peaks are robust; none of the fossil fuels, even with highly optimistic resource estimates, is projected to keep growing beyond 2050. World fossil fuel production per capita will thus begin an irreversible decline between 2020 and 2030.

  15. Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, John J

    2006-06-01

    Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts.

  16. Recent developments in biodesulfurization of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Feng, Jinhui; Yu, Bo; Li, Fuli; Ma, Cuiqing

    2009-01-01

    The emission of sulfur oxides can have adverse effects on the environment. Biodesulfurization of fossil fuels is attracting more and more attention because such a bioprocess is environmentally friendly. Some techniques of desulfurization have been used or studied to meet the stricter limitation on sulfur content in China. Recent advances have demonstrated the mechanism and developments for biodesulfurization of gasoline, diesel and crude oils by free cells or immobilized cells. Genetic technology was also used to improve sulfur removal efficiencies. In this review, we summarize recent progress mainly in China on petroleum biodesulfurization.

  17. The environmental dilemma of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide poses an environmental dilemma for fossil fuel energy generation that, unlike other related emissions, cannot be resolved by control technologies alone. Although fossil fuels presently provide the most cost-effective global energy source, and model projections suggest that their use is initiating climatic changes which, while quite uncertain, may induce significant, counter-balancing impacts to water resources, coastal resources, ecological systems, and possibly agricultural production. The climate model indicate that the warming should have begun, and there is some evidence for this occurring, but at a less rapid and more uneven rate than projected. In addition, different climate models are not yet in agreement in their latitudinal or regional predictions, and it will likely require a decade or more for such agreement to develop as high performance computers become available for addressing this ''grand challenge'' problem. Thus, in addition to the prospect for climatic change, the uncertainties of the changes and associated impacts contribute to the dilemma of dealing with the issue. Further, the problem is pervasive and international scope, with different countries and peoples having differing perspectives of technology, development, and environmental responsibility. Dealing with this issue will thus require creativity, commitment, and flexibility

  18. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcik, Michal; Kolkova, Zuzana; Jandacka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  19. Estimates of seasonal variation in fossil fuel CO2emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Rotty, Ralph M.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variations are evident in the atmospheric CO2 concentration, and attempts to understand the causes of the variations require an estimate of the seasonal pattern of the fossil fuel CO2 source term. Estimates were made of CO2 emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion on a month-to-month basis for a recent typical year (1982). Twenty-one countries account for over 86% of the fossil fuel emissions. Monthly fuel consumption was used directly for those countries where such fuel data ...

  20. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

    2006-02-28

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also

  1. Economic comparison of hydrogen and fossil fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuels most considered for the post petroleum and natural gas era, hydrogen (gaseous and liquid), and coal and coal derived synthetic fluid fossil fuels, have been compared by taking into account production costs, external costs and utilization efficiencies. The results show that hydrogen is a much more cost effective energy carrier than coal and synthetic fossil fuels, as well as being the environmentally most compatible fuel. 4 figs., 12 tabs., 21 refs

  2. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  3. Divesting from Fossil Fuels Makes Sense Morally… and Financially

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Reibstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Should university endowments divest from fossil fuels? A public discussion of this question has seen some university presidents issuing statements that they would not divest--that investments should not be used for "political action." Many universities hold large endowments that have significant positions in fossil fuel companies or…

  4. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Reijnders

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, s

  5. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-01-01

    During the past century, fossil fuels—petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal—were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85–93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per ...

  6. On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tey Jin Pin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel will be used. The prediction of fossil fuel reserves were estimated using ratio of fossil fuel reserve versus consumption, Klass Model and Modified Klass Model. The prediction time will give us the opportunity to prepare for the coming energy crisis and discover new energy sources. The results from the analysis will be concluded alongside with the Olduvai Theory and Hubbert Peak Theory. Both of the theories are highly related to the energy crisis. The Olduvai Theory states that the industrial civilization will last for approximately 100 year: circa 1930-2030. As for Hubbert Peak Theory, it can estimate the total amount of fossil fuels available based on the production rate from time to time. Results: Due to the vast usage of petroleum, it will be depleted faster than natural gas and coal. After 14 years, natural gas and coal will replace petroleum as a fossil fuel and coal would then be the major fossil fuels. Based on the results from Hubbert Peak Theory, the rate of production of petroleum has reached the maximum level in 2004 and started to decline since that time; while in the Olduvai theory, it has explained that the life expectancy of the industrial civilization was found to be ended in 2030. Petroleum will be spent over in 2020, followed by natural gas in 2058 and coal around the year 2066. Conclusion: So far, Malaysia has not facing disconnection of electricity as other developed countries. When this happens, it gives the meaning of the end of the

  7. Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-11-06

    Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

  8. Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil fuel which include natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat and electrical energy. All these fuels contain beside major constituents (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) other materials as metal, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. During the combustion process different pollutants as fly ash, sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3), nitrogen oxides (NOx NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds are emitted. Fly ash contain different trace elements (heavy metals). Gross emission of pollutants is tremendous all over the world. These pollutants are present in the atmosphere in such conditions that they can affect man and his environment. Air pollution caused by the particulate matter and other pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of environment. These phenomena affect health of the people, increase corrosion, destroy cultivated soil and forests. Most of the plants, especially coniferous trees are not resistant to sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Following longer exposure leaves wither and fall. Widespread forest damage has been reported in Europe and North America regions. Many cultivated plants are not resistant to these pollutants either especially in the early period vegetation. The mechanisms of pollutants transformation in atmosphere are described by environmental chemistry. An important role in these transformations plays photochemistry. SO2 and NOx are oxidized and sulfuric and nitric acids are formed in presence of water vapours, fog and droplets. Other problem discussed connected with human activities is emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. These emissions cause stratospheric ozone depletion, ground level photochemical ozone formation, toxic or carcinogenic human health effects, enhancing the global greenhouse effect, accumulation and persistence in environment. Wet flue gas

  9. Status of fossil fuel reserves; Etat des reserves des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laherrere, J

    2005-07-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  10. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  11. Foresight Study on Advanced Conversion Technologies of Fossil Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Observatorio de Prospectiva Tecnologica Industrial (OPTI) is a Foundation supported by the Ministry of Industry and Energy, (MINER) and has as main objective to provide a basic information and knowledge on technology evolution. This information will be accessible to the Administration and to the Companies and can be taking into account in planning and decision making of technology policies. Ciemat is member of OPTI and is the organism in charge of the actions in the Energy sector. CIEMAT has the responsibility on the realisation of the sector studies to get in three years (1998 to 2001) a foresight vision of the critical technology topics. The OPTI integrated strategic plan undertake the analysis of other seven technology sectors, with the same criteria on methodological aspects. Delphi method was used for the realization of the studies. It consisted of a survey conducted in two rounds using a questionnaire to check the experts opinion. The time frame of the studies was defined from 1999 to 2015. The study presented in this document has been performed by CIEMAT in the second stage of the OPTI activities. The main goal behind this study is to identify the advanced clean and efficient technologies for the conversion of fossil fuels to promote in our country. The questionnaire was addressed to 250 experts and the response rate was about the 37%, ratifying the final results. The spanish position and the barriers for the development of each technology has been determined and also the recommended measures to facilitate their performance in the future. This basic information is consider of main interest, taking in account the actual energetic situation with a foreseeable demand increase and fossil fuels dependence. (Author) 17 refs

  12. Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This

  13. The financial impact of divestment from fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Auke; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Divesting from fossil companies has been put forward as a means to address climate change. We study the impact of such divesting on investment portfolio performance. To this extent, we systematically investigate the investment performance of portfolios with and without fossil fuel company stocks. We

  14. Fossil fuels in a sustainable energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, T.F. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The coal industry in the United States has become a world leader in safety, productivity, and environmental protection in the mining of coal. The {open_quotes}pick-and-shovel{close_quotes} miner with mangled limbs and black lung disease has been replaced by the highly skilled technicians that lead the world in tons per man-hour. The gob piles, polluted streams, and scared land are a thing of the past. The complementary efforts of the DOE and EPRI-funded programs in coal utilization R&D and the Clean Coal Technology Program commercial demonstrations, have positioned the power generation industry to utilize coal in a way that doesn`t pollute the air or water, keeps electrical power costs low, and avoids the mountains of waste material. This paper reviews the potential for advanced coal utilization technologies in new power generation applications as well as the repowering of existing plants to increase their output, raise their efficiency, and reduce pollution. It demonstrates the potential for these advanced coal-fueled plants to play a complementary role in future planning with the natural gas and oil fired units currently favored in the market place. The status of the US program to demonstrate these technologies at commercial scale is reviewed in some detail.

  15. Fossil fuel sustainability index: An application of resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review on use of fossil fuel resources and sustainability is given in this paper. A sustainability index for fossil fuels is developed, which aims to determine the most efficient management of fossil fuel resources for the energy system. The study is conducted for 62 countries, in the presence of independence, lifetime and environmental constraints. The effect of these indicators are then integrated into a single index for oil, natural gas, and coal. Two approaches have been taken. The first one employs equally weighing of each index, where the second one weighs the indices by using principle component analysis. It is concluded that Fossil Fuel Sustainability Index (FFSI) values indicate that countries supporting oil as the one and only major player are condemned to suffer due to incompetent energy policies

  16. Geological setting of U.S. fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, C.D.; Mast, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The USA has a special position in terms of fossil fuel development. Not only is it one of the most important nations in terms of resources of oil, gas and coal, but it has also been by far the dominant producer and consumer. In this thorough review of the regional geological environments in which fossil fuels formed in the USA, the authors point to a variety of models of resource occurrence of global interest.-Authors

  17. Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

  18. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel... government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities....

  19. The Influence of Economic Growth, Population, and Fossil Fuel Scarcity on Energy Investments

    OpenAIRE

    De Cian, Enrica; Sferra, Fabio; Tavoni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamics of energy investments and clean energy Research and Development (R&D) using a scenario-based modeling approach. Starting from the global scenarios proposed in the RoSE model ensemble experiment, we analyze the dynamics of investments under different assumptions regarding economic and population growth as well as availability of fossil fuel resources, in the absence of a climate policy. Our analysis indicates that economic growth and the speed of income converg...

  20. Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO2 emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO2 concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: → CO2 and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. → Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. → Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. → Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

  1. Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle

  2. Too much petroleum. Fossil fuels and climatic change; Trop de petrole. Energie fossile et rechauffement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, H

    2007-01-15

    In the framework of the global warming, the author forecasts on the consequences of fossil fuels use, taking into account that the problem of the fossil energies is not a problem of shortage but a problem of environmental pollution. He proposes then radical and original solutions where a change of life attitudes, the necessity of the nuclear energy and a beginning of actions even without a world cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  3. Can UK fossil fuel emissions be determined by radiocarbon measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Angelina; O'Doherty, Simon; Rigby, Matthew; Manning, Alistair; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The GAUGE project evaluates different methods to estimate UK emissions. However, estimating carbon dioxide emissions as a result of fossil fuel burning is challenging as natural fluxes in and out of the atmosphere are very large. Radiocarbon (14C) measurements offer a way to specifically measure the amount of recently added carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning. This is possible as, due to their age, all the radiocarbon in fossil fuels has decayed. Hence the amount of recently added CO2 from fossil fuel burning can be measured as a depletion of the 14C content in air. While this method has been successfully applied by several groups on a city or a regional scale, this is the first attempt at using the technique for a national emission estimate. Geographically the UK, being an island, is a good location for such an experiment. But are 14CO2 measurements the ideal solution for estimating fossil fuel emissions as they are heralded to be? Previous studies have shown that 14CO2emissions from the nuclear industry mask the 14C depletion caused by fossil fuel burning and result in an underestimation of the fossil fuel CO2. While this might not be a problem in certain regions around the world, many countries like the UK have a substantial nuclear industry. A correction for this enhancement from the nuclear industry can be applied but are invariably difficult as 14CO2emissions from nuclear power plants have a high temporal variability. We will explain how our sampling strategy was chosen to minimize the influence form the nuclear industry and why this proved to be challenging. In addition we present the results from our ground based measurements to show why trying to estimate national emissions using radiocarbon measurements was overambitious, and how practical the technique is for the UK in general.

  4. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of remotely sensed data from orbital satellites to the exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels. Geological applications of Landsat data are described including map editing, lithologic identification, structural geology, and mineral exploration. Specific results in fuel exploration are reviewed and a series of related Landsat images is included.

  5. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  6. Untapped Fossil Fuel and the Green Paradox: A classroom calibration of the optimal carbon tax

    OpenAIRE

    Rick van der Ploeg

    2013-01-01

    A classroom model of global warming, fossil fuel depletion and the optimal carbon tax is formulated and calibrated. It features iso-elastic fossil fuel demand, stock-dependent fossil fuel extraction costs, an exogenous interest rate and no decay of the atmospheric stock of carbon. The optimal carbon tax reduces emissions from burning fossil fuel, both in the short and medium run. Furthermore, it brings forward the date that renewables take over from fossil fuel and encourages the market to ke...

  7. Can Geothermal Power Replace Fossil Fuels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    is scaled up to produce power in the MW range. Values needed for these systems are temperatures of 92+ °C and flow rates of 140-1000 gpm. In a detailed analysis of the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin, we used heat flow, bottom-hole temperatures, and measured temperature gradients to calculate the energy contained within specific formations having temperatures in the range of 100 °C to 150 °C. We find that at a 2% recovery factor, approximately 4500 MW/hr can be recovered at depths of 3-4 km. North Dakota currently produces approximately 3100 MW/hr from non-renewable sources such as coal and petroleum. We conclude that the geothermal resource in the Williston Basin could completely replace fossil fuels as an electrical power supply for North Dakota.

  8. Assessing global fossil fuel availability in a scenario framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Nico; Hilaire, Jerome; Brecha, Robert J.; Edmonds, James A.; Jiang, Kejun; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogner, Hans-Holger; Sferra, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    This study assesses global, long-term economic availability of coal, oil and gas within the Shared Socio-economic Pathway (SSP) scenario framework considering alternative assumptions as to highly uncertain future developments of technology, policy and the economy. Diverse sets of trajectories are formulated varying the challenges to mitigation and adaptation of climate change. The potential CO2 emissions from fossil fuels make it a crucial element subject to deep uncertainties. The analysis is based on a well-established data set of cost-quantity combinations that assumes favorable techno-economic developments, but ignores additional constraints on the extraction sector. This study significantly extends that analysis to include alternative assumptions for the fossil fuel sector consistent with the SSP scenario families and applies these filters to the original data set, thus resulting in alternative cumulative fossil fuel availability curves. In a Middle-of-the-Road scenario, low cost fossil fuels embody carbon consistent with a RCP6.0 emission profile, if all the CO2 were emitted freely during the 21st century. In scenarios with high challenges to mitigation, the assumed embodied carbon in low-cost fossil fuels can trigger a RCP8.5 scenario; low mitigation challenges scenarios are still consistent with a RCP4.5 scenario.

  9. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  10. Carbon monoxide: A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    OpenAIRE

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf; Meijer, Harro; Schroeder, Hartwig; LEVIN Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon (14CO2) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The observations were compared with model estimates simulated with the regional transport model REMO at 0.5°x0.5° resolution in Europe for 2002. These estimates are based on two available emissions inventories...

  11. The cognitive surplus is made of fossil fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Bill; Silberman, M. Six

    2012-01-01

    People in the industrial world have a great deal of free time. Clay Shirky has described this free time, considered as a whole, as a vast “cognitive surplus,” and presents many efforts currently under way to use the cognitive surplus for prosocial ends. However, the cognitive surplus came to exist largely as a result of labor–saving devices that run on fossil fuels. Many problems relating to fossil fuels constrain how people can responsibly use the cognitive surplus to addre...

  12. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 85 and 86 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions; Proposed Rule...; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 85 and 86 RIN 2060-AP64 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine... tampering for the conversion of vehicles and engines to operate on a clean alternative fuel. Under...

  13. Fossil fuel combined cycle power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinov, Solomon Davidovich; Armstrong, Timothy Robert; Judkins, Roddie Reagan

    2006-10-10

    A system for converting fuel energy to electricity includes a reformer for converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one lower molecular weight gas, at least one turbine to produce electricity from expansion of at least one of the lower molecular weight gases, and at least one fuel cell. The system can further include at least one separation device for substantially dividing the lower molecular weight gases into at least two gas streams prior to the electrochemical oxidization step. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  14. The future of oil: unconventional fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Kenneth J

    2014-01-13

    Unconventional fossil hydrocarbons fall into two categories: resource plays and conversion-sourced hydrocarbons. Resource plays involve the production of accumulations of solid, liquid or gaseous hydro-carbons that have been generated over geological time from organic matter in source rocks. The character of these hydrocarbons may have been modified subsequently, especially in the case of solids and extra-heavy liquids. These unconventional hydrocarbons therefore comprise accumulations of hydrocarbons that are trapped in an unconventional manner and/or whose economic exploitation requires complex and technically advanced production methods. This review focuses primarily on unconventional liquid hydro-carbons. The future potential of unconventional gas, especially shale gas, is also discussed, as it is revolutionizing the energy outlook in North America and elsewhere.

  15. Environmental impacts of fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large power plants burning fossil fuels generate emissions with a high content of sulphur dioxide and a content of noxious aerosols and radioisotopes whose radioactivity exceeds the limits set for nuclear power plants. The main problem of nuclear power plants is to secure radiation safety namely in case of an accident even though the probability of such an event is very small. The most complicated problems are related to the treatment of spent fuel, its transport, processing and storage. (B.H.)

  16. New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

    2007-12-31

    Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

  17. Hydrogen as alternative clean fuel: Economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In analogy to biofuel production from biomasses, the electrolytic conversion of other renewable energies into hydrogen as an alternative clean fuel is considered. This solution allows the intermittent renewable energy sources, as photovoltaics and wind energy, to enhance their development and enlarge the role into conventional fuel market. A rough economic analysis of hydrogen production line shows the costs, added by electrolysis and storage stages, can be recovered by properly accounting for social and environmental costs due to whole cycle of conventional fuels, from production to use. So, in a perspective of attaining the economic competitiveness of renewable energy, the hydrogen, arising from intermittent renewable energy sources, will be able to compete in the energy market with conventional fuels, making sure that their substitution will occur in a significant amount and the corresponding environment

  18. Political determinants of fossil fuel pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beers, C.P.; Strand, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of economic and political determinants of gasoline and diesel prices for about 200 countries over the period 1991–2010. A range of both political and economic variables are found to systematically influence fuel prices, and in ways that differ systematically

  19. Rationale of Early Adopters of Fossil Fuel Divestment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christopher Todd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This research uses the social science perspectives of institutions, ecological modernization and social movements to analyze the rationale used by the early-adopting universities of fossil fuel divestment in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Through analysis of qualitative data from interviews with key actors at the universities that…

  20. Changing Biomass, Fossil, and Nuclear Fuel Cycles for Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy and chemical industries face two great sustainability challenges: the need to avoid climate change and the need to replace crude oil as the basis of our transport and chemical industries. These challenges can be met by changing and synergistically combining the fossil, biomass, and nuclear fuel cycles.

  1. Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-21

    A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  2. Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Andres, R. J.; Blasing, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production at global, regional, and national spatial scales. The CDIAC emission time series estimates are based largely on annual energy statistics published at the national level by the United Nations (UN). CDIAC has developed a relational database to house collected data and information and a web-based interface to help users worldwide identify, explore and download desired emission data. The available information is divided in two major group: time series and gridded data. The time series data is offered for global, regional and national scales. Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751. Etemad et al. (1991) published a summary compilation that tabulates coal, brown coal, peat, and crude oil production by nation and year. Footnotes in the Etemad et al.(1991) publication extend the energy statistics time series back to 1751. Summary compilations of fossil fuel trade were published by Mitchell (1983, 1992, 1993, 1995). Mitchell's work tabulates solid and liquid fuel imports and exports by nation and year. These pre-1950 production and trade data were digitized and CO2 emission calculations were made following the procedures discussed in Marland and Rotty (1984) and Boden et al. (1995). The gridded data presents annual and monthly estimates. Annual data presents a time series recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2008. The monthly, fossil-fuel CO2 emissions estimates from 1950-2008 provided in this database are derived from time series of global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (Boden et al. 2011), the references therein, and the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011). The data accessible here take these

  3. Hydrogenation Technology for Producing Clean Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shuiyin; Xiong Zhenlin; Gao Xiaodong; Nie Hong

    2004-01-01

    With the standard of environmental protection becoming increasingly strict, it is required to remove sulfur and aromatics in diesel deeply. RIPP has developed several new hydrogenation catalysts and flexible processes, by means of which clean diesel fuel with low sulfur and low aromatic contents can be produced. From SRGO (Straight Run Gas Oil), which has an aromatic content of less than 30m%, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel or ultra-low sulfur diesel can be obtained by adopting a new process operating on highly active RN-series catalysts. From a feed with higher aromatic content (A=30~80m%),such as FCC-LCO, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel can be obtained by the SSHT, MHUG and DDA processes.

  4. Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +∞) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases

  5. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AB96 Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal... proposed rulemaking (NOPR) regarding the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption ] requirements for new... regarding the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption requirements for new Federal buildings and...

  6. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... limited to, the following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired...

  7. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, Igor [The University of Manchester, Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, Manchester (United Kingdom); Klemes, Jiri Jaromir [University of Pannonia, Centre for Process Integration and Intensification (CPI2), Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprem (Hungary)

    2011-08-15

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  8. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO2 reduction.

  9. US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V. [and others

    1995-06-01

    In the fundamental biological process of photosynthesis, atmospheric carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrate using water as the source of electrons with simultaneous evolution of molecular oxygen: H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + light {yields} O{sub 2} + (CH{sub 2}O). It is well established that two light reactions, Photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) working in series, are required to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Experimental data supporting the two-light reaction model are based on the quantum requirement for complete photosynthesis, spectroscopy, and direct biochemical analysis. Some algae also have the capability to evolve molecular hydrogen in a reaction energized by the light reactions of photosynthesis. This process, now known as biophotolysis, can use water as the electron donor and lead to simultaneous evolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. In green algae, hydrogen evolution requires prior incubation under anaerobic conditions. Atmospheric oxygen inhibits hydrogen evolution and also represses the synthesis of hydrogenase enzyme. CO{sub 2} fixation competes with proton reduction for electrons relased from the photosystems. Interest in biophotolysis arises from both the questions that it raises concerning photosynthesis and its potential practical application as a process for converting solar energy to a non-carbon-based fuel. Prior data supported the requirement for both Photosystem I and Photosystem II in spanning the energy gap necessary for biophotolysis of water to oxygen and hydrogen. In this paper we report the at PSII alone is capable of driving sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen in an anaerobically adapted PSI-deficient strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutant B4, and that CO{sub 2} competes as an electron acceptor.

  11. Oceanic methane hydrates: untapped fossil-fuel reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Years ago, oil explorers had only a superficial idea about the existence of a solid form of natural gas known as methane hydrate, and much less, about its geological mode of occurrence. Intensive explorations undertaken by oceanographers and oil geologists, during the last ten years, many occurrences around the world have come to light. Today, hydrate reserves are supposed to hold more fossil fuel energy than is present in conventional oil, gas and coal deposits

  12. Microbial Biotechnology 2020; microbiology of fossil fuel resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2016-09-01

    This roadmap examines the future of microbiology research and technology in fossil fuel energy recovery. Globally, the human population will be reliant on fossil fuels for energy and chemical feedstocks for at least the medium term. Microbiology is already important in many areas relevant to both upstream and downstream activities in the oil industry. However, the discipline has struggled for recognition in a world dominated by geophysicists and engineers despite widely known but still poorly understood microbially mediated processes e.g. reservoir biodegradation, reservoir souring and control, microbial enhanced oil recovery. The role of microbiology is even less understood in developing industries such as shale gas recovery by fracking or carbon capture by geological storage. In the future, innovative biotechnologies may offer new routes to reduced emissions pathways especially when applied to the vast unconventional heavy oil resources formed, paradoxically, from microbial activities in the geological past. However, despite this potential, recent low oil prices may make industry funding hard to come by and recruitment of microbiologists by the oil and gas industry may not be a high priority. With regards to public funded research and the imperative for cheap secure energy for economic growth in a growing world population, there are signs of inherent conflicts between policies aimed at a low carbon future using renewable technologies and policies which encourage technologies which maximize recovery from our conventional and unconventional fossil fuel assets. PMID:27506422

  13. Emission scenarios in the face of fossil-fuel peaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions scenarios used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. We propose in this paper that it is useful to look at a qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, to gain a sense of carbon emission bounds. Here we look at what may be considered a lower bound for 21st century emissions given two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the trends assumed by 'peak oil' adherents, and second, that no climate mitigation policies are put in place to limit emissions. If resources, and more importantly, extraction rates, of fossil fuels are more limited than posited in full energy-system models, a supply-driven emissions scenario results; however, we show that even in this 'peak fossil-fuel' limit, carbon emissions are high enough to surpass 550 ppm or 2 C climate protection guardrails. Some indicators are presented that the scenario presented here should not be disregarded, and comparisons are made to the outputs of emission scenarios used for the IPCC reports. (author)

  14. The long-term legacy of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, Toby; Shepherd, John G.; Castle, Stephanie [National Oceanography Centre Southampton, Southampton Univ., European Way, Southampton (United Kingdom)]. e-mail: tt@noc.soton.ac.uk

    2007-09-15

    Fossil fuels will have large impacts on ocean chemistry and climate during the period while they are being burnt (and carbon dioxide emitted) in large amounts. It is frequently assumed that these impacts will fade away soon thereafter. Recent model results, by contrast, suggest that significant impacts will persist for hundreds of thousands of years after emissions cease. We present a new analysis that supports these model findings by elucidating the cause of this 'fossil fuel hangover' phenomenon. We explain why the carbonate compensation feedback is atypical, compared to other feedbacks, in the sense that convergence is back towards a new steady-state that is distinct from the starting state. We also calculate in greater detail the predicted implications for the future ocean and atmosphere. The post-fossil fuel long-term equilibrium state could differ from the pre-anthropogenic state by as much as 50% for total dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity and 100% for atmospheric pCO{sub 2}, depending on the total amount of future emissions.

  15. The long-term legacy of fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Toby; Shepherd, John G.; Castle, Stephanie

    2007-09-01

    Fossil fuels will have large impacts on ocean chemistry and climate during the period while they are being burnt (and carbon dioxide emitted) in large amounts. It is frequently assumed that these impacts will fade away soon thereafter. Recent model results, by contrast, suggest that significant impacts will persist for hundreds of thousands of years after emissions cease. We present a new analysis that supports these model findings by elucidating the cause of this `fossil fuel hangover' phenomenon. We explain why the carbonate compensation feedback is atypical, compared to other feedbacks, in the sense that convergence is back towards a new steady-state that is distinct from the starting state. We also calculate in greater detail the predicted implications for the future ocean and atmosphere. The post-fossil fuel long-term equilibrium state could differ from the pre-anthropogenic state by as much as 50% for total dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity and 100% for atmospheric pCO2, depending on the total amount of future emissions.

  16. Causal relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan: a multivariate approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hazuki Ishida

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether Japanese economy can continue to grow without extensive dependence on fossil fuels. The paper conducts time series analysis using a multivariate model of fossil fuels, non-fossil energy, labor, stock and GDP to investigate the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan. The results of cointegration tests indicate long-run relationships among the variables. Using a vector error-correction model, the study reveals bidirectional causalit...

  17. How do the stock prices of new energy and fossil fuel companies correlate? Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study documents the return and volatility spillover effect between the stock prices of Chinese new energy and fossil fuel companies using the asymmetric BEKK model. Based on daily samples taken from August 30, 2006 to September 11, 2012, the dynamics of new energy/fossil fuel stock spillover are found to be significant and asymmetric. Compared with positive news, negative news about new energy and fossil fuel stock returns leads to larger return changes in their counter assets. News about both new energy and fossil fuel stock returns spills over into variances of their counter assets, and the volatility spillovers depend complexly on the respective signs of the return shocks of each asset. The empirical results demonstrate that new energy and fossil fuel stocks are generally viewed as competing assets, that positive news about new energy stocks could affect the attractiveness of fossil fuel stocks and that new energy stock investment is more speculative and riskier than fossil fuel stock investment. These results have potential implications for asset allocation, financial risk management and energy policymaking. - Highlights: • The dynamics of Chinese new energy/fossil fuel stock spillover are significant and asymmetric. • New energy and fossil fuel stocks are generally viewed as competing assets. • Positive news about new energy stocks affects the attractiveness of fossil fuel stocks. • New energy stock investment is more speculative and riskier than fossil fuel stock investment

  18. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  19. Dependence of the radiative forcing of the climate system on fossil fuel type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change mitigation strategies are greatly directed towards the reduction of CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion to limit warming to 2º C in this century. For example, the Clean Power Plan aims to reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector by 32% of 2005 levels by 2030 by increasing power plant efficiency but also by switching from coal-fired power plants to natural gas-fired power plants. It is important to understand the impact of such fuel switching on climate change. While all fossil fuels emit CO2, they also emit other pollutants with varying effects on climate, health and agriculture. First, The emission of CO2 per joule of energy produced varies significantly between coal, oil and natural gas. Second, the complexity that the co-emitted pollutants add to the perturbations in the climate system necessitates the detangling of radiative forcing for each type of fossil fuel. The historical (1850-2011) net radiative forcing of climate as a function of fuel type (coal, oil, natural gas and biofuel) is reconstructed. The results reveal the significant dependence of the CO2 and the non-CO2 forcing on fuel type. The CO2 forcing per joule of energy is largest for coal. Radiative forcing from the co-emitted pollutants (black carbon, methane, nitrogen oxides, organic carbon, sulfate aerosols) changes the global mean CO2 forcing attributed to coal and oil significantly. For natural gas, the CO2-only radiative forcing from gas is increased by about 60% when the co-emitted pollutants are included.

  20. Evaluation of conventional power systems. [emphasizing fossil fuels and nuclear energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. R.; Weyant, J.; Holdren, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental characteristics of (thermal, nonsolar) electric power plants are reviewed. The fuel cycle, from extraction of new fuel to final waste management, is included. Emphasis is placed on the fossil fuel and nuclear technologies.

  1. Experimental Study of the Combustion Dynamics of Renewable & Fossil Fuel Co-Fire in Swirling Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaķe, M.; Barmina, I.; Kriško, V.; Gedrovičs, M.; Descņickis, A.

    2009-01-01

    The complex experimental research into the combustion dynamics of rene-wable (wood biomass) and fossil (propane) fuel co-fire in a swirling flame flow has been carried out with the aim to achieve clean and effective heat production with reduced carbon emissions. The effect of propane co-fire on the formation of the swirling flame velocity, temperature and composition fields as well as on the combustion efficiency and heat output has been analysed. The results of experimental study show that the propane supply into the wood biomass gasifier provides faster wood fuel gasification with active release of volatiles at the primary stage of swirling flame flow formation, while the swirl-induced recirculation with enhanced mixing of the flame components results in a more complete burnout of wood volatiles downstream of the combustor with reduced mass fraction of polluting impurities in the emissions.

  2. Energy Efficiency Indicators for Public Electricity Production from Fossil Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a set of indicators that are used to analyse the energy efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels on a global level and for a number of key countries and regions. The analysis is based on IEA statistics and includes public electricity plants and public CHP plants. Electricity production by autoproducers is not included and represents less than 6% of global electricity production. However, the share of autoproducers is significant in certain countries, particularly in Europe. Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Spain all have a share of electricity production from autoproducers that is more than twice the global average.

  3. Burning Fossil Fuels: Impact of Climate Change on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    A recent, sophisticated granular analysis of climate change in the United States related to burning fossil fuels indicates a high likelihood of dramatic increases in temperature, wet-bulb temperature, and precipitation, which will dramatically impact the health and well-being of many Americans, particularly the young, the elderly, and the poor and marginalized. Other areas of the world, where they lack the resources to remediate these weather impacts, will be even more greatly affected. Too little attention is being paid to the impending health impact of accumulating greenhouse gases. PMID:26721565

  4. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Losey, L.;

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950–2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80...... reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined...... with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models....

  5. Burning Fossil Fuels: Impact of Climate Change on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    A recent, sophisticated granular analysis of climate change in the United States related to burning fossil fuels indicates a high likelihood of dramatic increases in temperature, wet-bulb temperature, and precipitation, which will dramatically impact the health and well-being of many Americans, particularly the young, the elderly, and the poor and marginalized. Other areas of the world, where they lack the resources to remediate these weather impacts, will be even more greatly affected. Too little attention is being paid to the impending health impact of accumulating greenhouse gases.

  6. 26 CFR 1.179A-1 - Recapture of deduction for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recapture of deduction for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle refueling property. 1.179A-1 Section 1.179A-1 Internal... for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle refueling property. (a)...

  7. A comparative study among fossil fuel power plants in PJM and California ISO by DEA environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares among fossil fuel power plants in PJM and California ISO by their unified (operational and environmental) performance. DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) is used as a methodology. For comparative analysis, DEA incorporates strategic concepts such as natural and managerial disposability into the computational process. This study explores both how to measure Returns to Scale (RTS) under natural disposability and how to measure Damages to Scale (DTS) under managerial disposability. This empirical study obtains two implications on US energy policy. One of the two policy implications is that California ISO outperforms PJM in terms of the three unified efficiency measures. The result implies that strict regulation on undesirable outputs, as found in California, is important in enhancing the performance of US fossil fuel power plants. Thus, it is necessary for federal and local governments to regulate the fossil fuel power plants under the strict implementation of environmental protection. Under such a policy direction, it is possible for US fossil fuel power plants to attain economic prosperity (by enhancing their operational efficiencies) and to satisfy environmental regulation (by enhancing their environmental efficiencies). The other policy implication is that coal-fired and gas-fired power plants in PJM and California ISO need to reduce their operational sizes or introduce technology innovation on desirable and undesirable outputs and/or new management for environmental protection within their operations. Meanwhile, oil-fired power plants may increase their operational sizes if they can introduce technology innovation and new management on undesirable outputs. - Highlights: • This study compares fossil fuel power plants in PJM and California ISO. • California ISO outperforms PJM in terms of their unified efficiency measures. • Regulation by Clean Air Act is important for environmental protection. • Fossil fuel power plants need technology

  8. Comparing the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels: A case study of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, le L.; Ierland, van E.C.; Zhu, X.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Ngo, G.

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel substitution for fossil fuels has been recommended in the literature and promoted in many countries; however, there are concerns about its economic viability. In this paper we focus on the cost-effectiveness of fuels, i.e., we compare the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels for a funct

  9. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant

  10. Geochemical controls of vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  11. Geochemical controls on vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  12. OVERVIEW OF THE ROMANIAN FOSSIL FUEL MARKET BETWEEN 2002 AND 2012

    OpenAIRE

    ALINA ZAHARIA

    2015-01-01

    In a context in which the energy needs seems to increase fast and the limited stocks of fossil fuels can generate negative impacts on human society, biodiversity and environment, the policy makers proposed several economic models for achieving sustainable development, like green economy, which appears to promote the necessity of decreasing fossil fuel consumption and of increasing energy savings. This paper aims to emphasize the evolution of fossil fuel market, and the electricity...

  13. Substitution between Biofuels and Fossil Fuels: Is There a Green Paradox?

    OpenAIRE

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Kompas, Tom; Long, Ngo Van

    2011-01-01

    We show that (i) subsidies for renewable energy policies with the intention of encouraging substitution away from fossil fuels may accentuate climate change damages by hastening fossil fuel extraction, and that (ii) the opposite result holds under some specified conditions. We focus on the case of subsidies for renewable resources produced under increasing marginal costs, and assume that both the renewable resources and the fossil fuels are currently in use. Such subsidies have a direct effec...

  14. Direct and Indirect Use of Fossil Fuels in Farming: Cost of Fuel-price Rise for Indian Agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, Mukesh

    2014-01-01

    A hornet's nest could be an apt simile for fossil fuel prices in India. Over years a policy maze has evolved around it, with sharply diverging influence on disparate constituencies. We estimate the increase in total cost of farming as a multiple of direct input costs of fossil fuels in farming. Over the period between 1990-1 and 2010-1, direct use of fossil fuels on farms has risen and there is also increasing indirect use of fossil fuels for non-energy purposes. Consequently, for Indian agri...

  15. An econometrics view of worldwide fossil fuel consumption and the role of US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oil, coal and gas, known as fossil fuels, play a crucial role in the global economy. This paper proposes new econometrics modelling to demonstrate the trend of fossil fuels consumption. The main variables affecting consumption trends are: world reserves, the price of fossil fuels, US production and US net imports. All variables have been analysed individually for more than half a century. The research found that while the consumption of fossil fuels worldwide has increased trends in the US production and net imports have been dependent on the type of fossil fuels. Most of the US coal and gas production has been for domestic use, which is why it does not have a strong influence on worldwide fossil fuel prices. Moreover, the reserves of fossil fuels have not shown any diminution during the last couple of decades and predictions that they were about to run out are not substantiated. The nominal and real price of fossil fuels was found to change depending on the type. Finally, estimates of three econometric models for the consumption of fossil fuels from 1949 to 2006 are presented which identify the effects of significant variables

  16. Quantifying Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Space: Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System and Global Urban Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Song, Y.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Rayner, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) quantifies fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the planet at a scale of 10 km hourly for the time period 1997-2012. FFDAS is based on the Kaya identity constrained by multiple ground and space-based observations. Among these are the DMSP nightlights, Landscan population, and the Ventus power plant database. We have recently downscaled the FFDAS version 2.0 to 1 km x 1 km resolution using nighlights. The finer spatial resolution allows for the examination of urban emissions across the planet. We take two approaches to examination of urban FFCO2 emissions. The first, utilizes named administrative boundaries combined with manual GIS identification (supported by LandSat and ISA) to identify the top emitting urban areas of the planet. We also utilize an urban land mask, without governmental boundary identification, to analyze all urban area by country across the planet. We perform multiple regression to identify key drivers and patterns. The results demonstrate the change in urban emissions during the last decade and assess the question of whether urban areas exhibit scaling properties vis a vis FFCO2 emissions.

  17. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ...-AP64 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... fuel conversion systems may demonstrate compliance with vehicle and engine emissions requirements... Engineering Judgment C. Vehicle/Engine Groupings and Emission Data Vehicle/Engine Selection D. Mixed-Fuel...

  18. Crud Cleaning for Reloaded PLUS7 Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crud which is made in reactor system as a corrosion product stains high burnup nuclear fuel cladding while flowing with a fluid in nuclear system. AOA(Axial Offset Anomaly) which is define as a significant negative axial offset deviation from the predicted nuclear design value was resulted from deposition of Crud. For solving AOA, there are several methods to solve it like improving nuclear fuel design, reactor-operating and water hydrochemistry. However, the most effective method is cleaning Crud directly on nuclear fuel cladding by ultrasonic waves which are effective and safety means. Hereupon, KNF developed Crud cleaning technique some years ago, and apply it in domestic reloaded nuclear fuel. For this time, Crud cleaning was performed about PLUS7 fuel designed in-country. Reloaded 108 PLUS7 fuels were cleaned and the result of visual inspection showed first burned fuel was 20% cleaned a Crud, and second burned fuel was 80%. The outcome was as same as other plants in abroad since the quantity of collecting Crud was 269g. By accomplishing the project, KNF was able to gather data about different type of fuel and nuclear plant can produce electricity stably

  19. Possible future environmental issues for fossil fuel technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaway, L.D.

    1979-07-01

    The work reported here was carried out for the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy to identify and assess 15 to 20 major environmental issues likely to affect the implementation of fossil energy technologies between 1985 and 2000. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; and true and modified in situ oil shale retorting. Environmental analysis of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. The 16 environmental issues identified as those most likely for future regulatory actions and the main features of, and the possible regulatory actions associated with, each are as follows: disposal of solid waste from coal conversion and combustion technologies; water consumption by coal and oil shale conversion technologies; siting of coal conversion facilities; the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect; emission of polycyclic organic matter (POM); impacts of outer continental shelf (OCS) oil development; emission of trace elements; groundwater contamination; liquefied natural gas (LNG), safety and environmental factors; underground coal mining - health and safety; fugitive emissions from coal gasification and liquefaction - health and safety; boomtown effects; emission of fine particulates from coal, oil and oil shale technologies; emission of radioactivity from the mining and conversion of coal; emission of nitrogn oxides; and land disturbance from surface mining. (LTN)

  20. Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)

  1. On Corporate Accountability: Lead, Asbestos, and Fossil Fuel Lawsuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Christine

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the use of lawsuits against three industries that were eventually found to be selling products damaging to human heath and the environment: lead paint, asbestos, and fossil fuels. These industries are similar in that some companies tried to hide or distort information showing their products were harmful. Common law claims were eventually filed to hold the corporations accountable and compensate the injured. This paper considers the important role the lawsuits played in helping establish some accountability for the industries while also noting the limitations of the lawsuits. It will be argued that the lawsuits helped create pressure for government regulation of the industries' products but were less successful at securing compensation for the injured. Thus, the common law claims strengthened and supported administrative regulation and the adoption of industry alternatives more than they provided a means of legal redress.

  2. Biodesulfurization of refractory organic sulfur compounds in fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Mehran; Bassi, Amarjeet; Margaritis, Argyrios

    2007-01-01

    The stringent new regulations to lower sulfur content in fossil fuels require new economic and efficient methods for desulfurization of recalcitrant organic sulfur. Hydrodesulfurization of such compounds is very costly and requires high operating temperature and pressure. Biodesulfurization is a non-invasive approach that can specifically remove sulfur from refractory hydrocarbons under mild conditions and it can be potentially used in industrial desulfurization. Intensive research has been conducted in microbiology and molecular biology of the competent strains to increase their desulfurization activity; however, even the highest activity obtained is still insufficient to fulfill the industrial requirements. To improve the biodesulfurization efficiency, more work is needed in areas such as increasing specific desulfurization activity, hydrocarbon phase tolerance, sulfur removal at higher temperature, and isolating new strains for desulfurizing a broader range of sulfur compounds. This article comprehensively reviews and discusses key issues, advances and challenges for a competitive biodesulfurization process.

  3. New Optimal Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Coggin; Jonas Ivasauskas; Russell G. May; Michael B. Miller; Rena Wilson

    2006-09-30

    Accomplishments during Phase II of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring. During this program work period, major progress has been experienced in the development of the sensor hardware, and the planning of the system installation and operation. The major focus of the next work period will be the installation of sensors in the Hamilton, Ohio power plant, and demonstration of high-temperature strain gages during mechanical testing of SOFC components.

  4. Atmospheric Verification of Point Source Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Keller, E. D.; Norris, M. W.; Wiltshire, R.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G. W.; Bromley, T.

    2015-12-01

    Large point sources (electricity generation and large-scale industry) make up roughly one third of all fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. Currently, these emissions are determined from self-reported inventory data, and sometimes from smokestack emissions monitoring, and the uncertainty in emissions from individual power plants is about 20%. We examine the utility of atmospheric 14C measurements combined with atmospheric transport modelling as a tool for independently quantifying point source CO2ff emissions, to both improve the accuracy of the reported emissions and for verification as we move towards a regulatory environment. We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Facility as a test case. It is located in rural New Zealand with no other significant fossil fuel CO2 sources nearby, and emits CO2ff at ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. We use several different sampling methods to determine the 14C and hence the CO2ff content downwind of the emission source: grab flask samples of whole air; absorption of CO2 into sodium hydroxide integrated over many hours; and plant material which faithfully records the 14C content of assimilated CO2. We use a plume dispersion model to compare the reported emissions with our observed CO2ff mole fractions. We show that the short-term variability in plume dispersion makes it difficult to interpret the grab flask sample results, whereas the variability is averaged out in the integrated samples and we obtain excellent agreement between the reported and observed emissions, indicating that the 14C method can reliably be used to evaluated point source emissions.

  5. Nuclear power as a substitute for fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenge in energy policy is to reduce CO2 emissions and the worlds dependence on oil while satisfying a substantially increased demand for energy. Putting aside the still-speculative possibility of sequestering carbon dioxide, this challenge reduces to that of using energy more efficiently and finding substitutes for fossil fuels. Alternatives to fossil fuels fall into two broad categories: Renewable sources. Most of these sources-including hydroelectric power, wind power, direct solar heating, photovoltaic power, and biomass-derive their energy ultimately from the Sun and will not be exhausted during the next billion years. Geothermal energy and tidal energy are also renewable, in this sense, although they do not rely on the sun. However, there is almost an inverse correlation between the extent to which the source b now being used and the size of the potentially trap able resource. Thus, expansion of hydroelectric power (which is substantially used) is constricted by limited sites and environmental objections, whereas wind (for which the resource is large) is as yet less used and thus is not fully proven as a large-scale contributor. Nuclear sources. The two nuclear possibilities are fission and fusion. The latter would be inexhaustible for all practical purposes, but developing an effective fusion system remains an uncertain hope. Fission energy would also have an extremely long time span if breeder reactors arc employed, but with present-day reactors limits on uranium (or thorium) resources could be an eventual problem. At present, fission power faces problems of public acceptance and economic competitiveness. The broad alternatives of renewable energy and nuclear energy can be considered as being in competition, with one or the other to be the dominant choice, or complementary, with both being extensively employed

  6. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Hanne Østergård; Mads V. Markussen

    2013-01-01

    Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing a...

  7. A Demand Forecasting System for Clean-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Brownstone, David; Bunch, David S.; Golob, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing project to develop a demand forecasting model for clean-fuel vehicles in California. Large-scale surveys of both households and commercial fleet operators have been carried out. These data are being used to calibrate a new micro-simulation based vehicle demand forecasting system. Based on pre-specified attributes of future vehicles (including specified clean-fueled vehicle incentives), the system will produce annual forecasts of new and used vehicle demand by t...

  8. Ecological consequences of elevated total dissolved solids associated with fossil fuel extraction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossil fuel burning is considered a major contributor to global climate change. The outlook for production and consumption of fossil fuels int he US indicates continued growth to support growing energy demands. For example, coal-generated electricity is projected ot increase from...

  9. Fossil Fuels. A Supplement to the "Science 100, 101" Curriculum Guide. Curriculum Support Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soprovich, William, Comp.

    When the fossil fuels unit was first designed for Science 101 (the currently approved provincial guide for grade 10 science in Manitoba), Canadian support materials were very limited. Since students are asked to interpret data concerning energy consumption and sources for certain fossil fuels, the need for appropriate Canadian data became obvious.…

  10. Cracow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.

  11. Characteristics of the Three-Dimensional Fluorescence pectra of Fossil Fuels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    We have found some fluorescence characteristics of fossil fuels based on the contour maps of the tlhree-dimensional fluorescence spectra of their non-quenching samples. The common fluorescence characteristic is that themain peaks of various fossil fuels are located in the vicinity of excitation/emission wavelength pair 228nm/340nm.The diversity of fluorescence characteristics can be represented with several indexes α, K, F and R, and these index-es provide measurable parameters for division of fluorescence fingerprints of fossil fuels. The fluorescence fingerprintsof fossil fuels can be divided into five models named O,B,Q,P and G that are corresponding to condensate oil, lightoil, heavy oil, coal and natural gas, respectively. The technique has a potential application in study of environmentpollution on crude oil and geochemical exploration of fossil fuels.

  12. Disaggregating Fossil Fuel Emissions from Biospheric Fluxes: Methodological Improvements for Inverse Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, V.; Shiga, Y. P.; Michalak, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The accurate spatio-temporal quantification of fossil fuel emissions is a scientific challenge. Atmospheric inverse models have the capability to overcome this challenge and provide estimates of fossil fuel emissions. Observational and computational limitations limit current analyses to the estimations of a combined "biospheric flux and fossil-fuel emissions" carbon dioxide (CO2) signal, at coarse spatial and temporal resolution. Even in these coarse resolution inverse models, the disaggregation of a strong biospheric signal form a weaker fossil-fuel signal has proven difficult. The use of multiple tracers (delta 14C, CO, CH4, etc.) has provided a potential path forward, but challenges remain. In this study, we attempt to disaggregate biospheric fluxes and fossil-fuel emissions on the basis of error covariance models rather through tracer based CO2 inversions. The goal is to more accurately define the underlying structure of the two processes by using a stationary exponential covariance model for the biospheric fluxes, in conjunction with a semi-stationary covariance model derived from nightlights for fossil fuel emissions. A non-negativity constraint on fossil fuel emissions is imposed using a data transformation approach embedded in an iterative quasi-linear inverse modeling algorithm. The study is performed for January and June 2008, using the ground-based CO2 measurement network over North America. The quality of disaggregation is examined by comparing the inferred spatial distribution of biospheric fluxes and fossil-fuel emissions in a synthetic-data inversion. In addition to disaggregation of fluxes, the ability of the covariance models derived from nightlights to explain the fossil-fuel emissions over North America is also examined. The simple covariance model proposed in this study is found to improve estimation and disaggregation of fossil-fuel emissions from biospheric fluxes in the tracer-based inverse models.

  13. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contained in 40 CFR part 88, subpart A. (b) Program administration. (1)(i) Each state in which there is all... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel...

  14. Criteria for solid recovered fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Michael; Pohl, Martin; Bernhardt, Daniel; Gebauer, Kathrin

    2012-04-01

    The waste treatment, particularly the thermal treatment of waste has changed fundamentally in the last 20 years, i.e. from facilities solely dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste to facilities, which in addition to that ensure the safe plant operation and fulfill very ambitious criteria regarding emission reduction, resource recovery and energy efficiency as well. Therefore this contributes to the economic use of raw materials and due to the energy recovered from waste also to the energy provision. The development described had the consequence that waste and solid recovered fuels (SRF) has to be evaluated based on fuel criteria as well. Fossil fuels - coal, crude oil, natural gas etc. have been extensively investigated due to their application in plants for energy conversion and also due to their use in the primary industry. Thereby depending on the respective processes, criteria on fuel technical properties can be derived. The methods for engineering analysis of regular fuels (fossil fuels) can be transferred only partially to SRF. For this reason methods are being developed or adapted to current analytical methods for the characterization of SRF. In this paper the possibilities of the energetic utilization of SRF and the characterization of SRF before and during the energetic utilization will be discussed.

  15. Prevent the risk of climate change by taxing fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of all the greenhouse gases, it is emissions of CO2 which most urgently require reduction. On the one hand, given the very long lifetime of this gas, its emissions are almost irreversible in character. On the other hand, the measures to be taken concern technological choices, and choices in matters of planning and land use, which are not easily reversible either. It would be very costly, later on, to go back on decisions we make in the coming years without taking into account the risk of climate change. We will only be able to stabilize the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere if we are able to reduce present emissions by 60 per cent. The challenge to humanity is considerable, since this reduction in emissions has to be achieved despite the forecast doubling of the world's population. We must organize ourselves both to stabilize the world's forests (reforestation in certain regions compensating for the inevitable deforestation elsewhere), and to reduce by 25 per cent the average consumption of fossil fuel per inhabitant. Such a radical reorientation of our habits in the consumption of fossil energy does not seem to me technically unreachable, and it will not cause widespread ruin if we manage to optimize its organization. Preventive work will only be effective if it is made on a planetary scale. It will only be undertaken if we are able to share the burden fairly between the various countries; and it will not be ruinous if we manage to decentralize necessary initiatives, so that the least costly methods are undertaken everywhere from the outset. (author)

  16. Identifying the European fossil fuel plumes in the atmosphere over the Northeast Atlantic Region through isotopic observations and numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.;

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August......Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August...

  17. The demand for clean-fuel vehicles by Dutch local authorities. A stated choice analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, P.

    2012-08-15

    Previous research showed that the era of cheap fossil fuels is over. Also, 23% of the worldwide emission of CO2 is produced by road transport. These problems demand a change in the propulsion of vehicles. Because the diffusion of clean-fuel vehicles is not happening at this moment, something has to change. Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory is used to state that a critical mass of vehicles is needed to stimulate the diffusion of these vehicles. Due to public procurement Dutch local authorities (DLA's) can help stimulating this diffusion. Unfortunately these DLA's are not purchasing clean-fuel vehicles yet. To gain insight in what is hampering the diffusion of these vehicles by DLA's, a discrete choice experiment was created about the preferences by these DLA's. Six vehicle attributes were used to describe each vehicle. The results showed that the initial purchase price and the amount of local emission were experienced as the most important attributes by DLA's, where initial purchase price has a negative influence and local emission a positive influence in the choice for a new vehicle. Next, fuel price, range and availability of the fuel were found evenly important. Fuel price had a negative influence and both range and availability of fuel had a positive influence on the choice for a new vehicle. Finally, time to refuel/recharge was found least important and also negatively influencing the choice.

  18. PERSPECTIVE: Keeping a closer eye on fossil fuel CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter F.

    2009-12-01

    all have a major influence on progress to an international agreement. It is important that the political challenges are not underestimated. Long-term observers of the negotiations necessary for global agreements (Inman 2009) are pessimistic about the chances for success at COP15, and argue that agreements between smaller groups of countries may be more effective. China and other developing countries clearly expect greater emission cuts by developed nations as a condition for a successful deal (Pan 2009). Conversely, the constraints on US climate policies are considerable, notably those imposed by fears that an international agreement that does not include equitable emission control measures for developing countries like China and India, will compromise the agreement and reduce its effectiveness (Skodvin and Andresen 2009). In this context the need for earlier, and more reliable, information on emissions is a high priority. Myhre and coworkers (Myhre et al 2009) provide an efficient method for calculating global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion by combining industry statistics with data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC; http://cdiac.ornl.gov/). Recent analyses of carbon dioxide emission data show a worrying acceleration in emissions, beyond even the most extreme IPCC projections, but are based largely on the CDIAC which gives information about emissions released two to three years before real time (Canadell et al 2007, Raupach et al 2007). The approach used by Myhre et al (2009) uses BP annual statistics of fossil fuel consumption and has a much shorter lag, of the order of six months. Of significant concern is that their analysis of the data also reveals that the recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 is largely driven by an increase in emissions from coal, most significantly in China. By contrast, emissions from oil and gas continue to follow longer-term historical trends. Earlier and accurate data on CO2 emissions is

  19. Fossil Fuel Producing Economies Have Greater Potential for Industrial Interfuel Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Narayanan, Badri G.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes industrial interfuel substitution in an international context using a large unbalanced panel dataset of 63 countries. We find that compared to other countries fossil fuel producing economies have higher short-term interfuel substitution elasticities. This difference increases further in the long run as fossil fuel producing countries have a considerably longer adjustment of their fuel-using capital stock. These results imply lower economic cost for policies aimed at climat...

  20. Clean energy from a carbon fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Andrzej; Kobyłecki, Rafał; Bis, Zbigniew

    2011-12-01

    The direct carbon fuel cell technology provides excellent conditions for conversion of chemical energy of carbon-containing solid fuels directly into electricity. The technology is very promising since it is relatively simple compared to other fuel cell technologies and accepts all carbon-reach substances as possible fuels. Furthermore, it makes possible to use atmospheric oxygen as the oxidizer. In this paper the results of authors' recent investigations focused on analysis of the performance of a direct carbon fuel cell supplied with graphite, granulated carbonized biomass (biocarbon), and granulated hard coal are presented. The comparison of the voltage-current characteristics indicated that the results obtained for the case when the cell was operated with carbonized biomass and hard coal were much more promising than those obtained for graphite. The effects of fuel type and the surface area of the cathode on operation performance of the fuel cell were also discussed.

  1. MEDIUM PRESSURE HYDROUPGRADING PROCESS (MHUG) AND PRODUCTION OF CLEAN FUELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The medium pressure hydroupgrading process (MHUG) unit with an 800 kt/a processing capacity of Jinzhou Petrochemical Company is used to hydroupgrade the mixture of FCC LCO fuel and straight-run diesel fuel in the presence of RN/RT series catalysts for improvement of the quality of the diesel fuel. Meanwhile, catalytic reforming feedstock is also obtained. The sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics contained in the hydroupgraded diesel fuel products can be minimized and the cetane number can be heightened. The produced clean fuels can meet the requirements of environmental protection.

  2. Development of an ultrasonic cleaning method for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost all radiation buildup in light water reactors is the result of the deposition of activated corrosion and wear products in out-of-core areas. After operation, a significant quantity of corrosion and wear products is deposited on the fuel rods as crud. At refueling shutdowns, these activation products are available for removal. If they can be quickly and easily removed, buildup of radioactivity on out-of-core surfaces and individual exposure dose can be greatly reduced. After studying various physical cleaning methods (e.g., water jet and ultrasonic), the ultrasonic cleaning method was selected as the most effective for fuel assembly cleaning. The ultrasonic cleaning method is especially able to efficiently clean the fuel without removing the channel box. The removed crud in the channel box would be swept out to the filtration unit. Parameter survey tests were carried out to evaluate the optimum conditions for ultrasonic cleaning using a mock-up of a short section of fuel assembly with the channel box. The ultrasonic device used was a 600-W ultrasonic transducer operating at 26-kHz ultrasonic frequency

  3. Development of an ultrasonic cleaning method for fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heki, H.; Komura, S.; Kato, H.; Sakai, H. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki City (Japan)); Hattori, T. (Tokyo Electric Power Co., Kashiwazaki-shi (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    Almost all radiation buildup in light water reactors is the result of the deposition of activated corrosion and wear products in out-of-core areas. After operation, a significant quantity of corrosion and wear products is deposited on the fuel rods as crud. At refueling shutdowns, these activation products are available for removal. If they can be quickly and easily removed, buildup of radioactivity on out-of-core surfaces and individual exposure dose can be greatly reduced. After studying various physical cleaning methods (e.g., water jet and ultrasonic), the ultrasonic cleaning method was selected as the most effective for fuel assembly cleaning. The ultrasonic cleaning method is especially able to efficiently clean the fuel without removing the channel box. The removed crud in the channel box would be swept out to the filtration unit. Parameter survey tests were carried out to evaluate the optimum conditions for ultrasonic cleaning using a mock-up of a short section of fuel assembly with the channel box. The ultrasonic device used was a 600-W ultrasonic transducer operating at 26-kHz ultrasonic frequency.

  4. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUELS PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart Schesnack; Scott Morrison; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2003-07-31

    Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This report presents hydrogen permeation data during long term tests and tests at high pressure in addition to progress with cermet, ceramic/ceramic, and thin film membranes.

  5. Infrared imaging of fossil fuel power plant boiler interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, James W.; Cranton, Brian W.; Armstrong, Karen L.; Hammaker, Robert G.

    1997-08-01

    Fossil fuel power plant boilers operate continuously for months at a time, typically shutting down only for routine maintenance or to address serious equipment failures. These shutdowns are very costly, and diagnostic tools and techniques which could be used to minimize shutdown duration and frequency are highly desirable. Due to the extremely hostile environment in these boilers, few tools exist to inspect and monitor operating boiler interiors. This paper presents the design of a passively cooled, infrared borescope used to inspect the interior of operating boilers. The borescope operates at 3.9 micrometer, where flame is partially transparent. The primary obstacles overcome in the instrument design were the harsh industrial environment surrounding the boilers and the high temperatures encountered inside the boilers. A portable yet durable lens system and enclosure was developed to work with a scanning radiometer to address these two problems by both shielding the radiometer from the environment and by extending the optical train into a snout designed to be inserted into access ports on the sides of the boiler. In this manner, interior images of the boiler can be made while keeping the radiometer safely outside the boiler. The lens views a 40 degree field of view through any 2.5' or larger opening in a foot thick boiler wall. Three of these borescopes have been built, and high resolution images of boiler interiors have been obtained.

  6. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design

  7. The Fossil Fuel Divestment Movement: An Ethical Dilemma for the Geosciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, C. H.; Kammen, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    For over 200 years, fossil fuels have been the basis for an industrial revolution that has delivered a level of prosperity to modern society unimaginable during the previous 5000 years of human civilization. However, society's dependence on fossil fuels is coming to an end for two reasons. The first reason is because our fossil fuel reserves are running out, oil in this century, natural gas during the next century, and coal a few centuries later. The second reason is because fossil fuels are having a devastating impact on the habitability of our planet, disrupting our climate system and acidifying our oceans. So the question is not whether we will discontinue using fossil fuels, but rather whether we will stop using them before they do irreparable damage to the Earth's life-support systems. Within our geoscience community, climate scientists have determined that a majority of existing fossil fuel reserves must remain unburned if dangerous climate change and ocean acidification are to be avoided. In contrast, Exxon-Mobil, Shell, and other members of the fossil fuel industry are pursuing a business model that assumes all of their reserves will be burned and will not become stranded assets. Since the geosciences have had a long and mutually beneficial relationship with the fossil fuel industry, this inherent conflict between climate science and industrial interests presents an ethical dilemma for many geoscientists. This conflict is further heightened by the fossil fuel divestment movement, which is underway at over 400 college and university campuses around the world. This presentation will explore some of the ethical and financial issues being raised by the divestment movement from a geoscientist's perspective.

  8. Effects of New Fossil Fuel Developments on the Possibilities of Meeting 2C Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meindertsma, W.; Blok, K.

    2012-12-15

    Recent years have seen an increasing activity in developing new fossil fuel production capacity. This includes unconventional fossil fuels, such as tar sands and shale gas, fossil fuels from remote locations, and fossil fuels with a very large increase in production in the near future. In this report, the impact of such developments on our ability to mitigate climate change is investigated. Our inventory shows that the new fossil fuel developments currently underway consist of 29,400 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 260,000 million barrels of oil and 49,600 million tonnes of coal. The development of these new fossil fuels would result in emissions of 300 billion tonnes of CO2 -equivalent (CO2e) from 2012 until 2050. Until 2050, a 'carbon budget' of 1550 billion tonnes CO2e is still available if we want to of keep global warming below 2C with a 50% probability. For a 75% probability to stay below 2C this budget is only 1050 billion tonnes CO2e. So, the new fossil fuel developments identified in this report consume 20-33% of the remaining carbon budget until 2050. In a scenario where the new fossil fuels are developed, we need to embark on a rapid emission reductions pathway at the latest in 2019 in order to meet the 50% probability carbon budget. Avoiding the development of new fossil fuels will give us until 2025 to start further rapid emission reductions. These calculations are based on the assumption that the maximum emission reduction rate is 4% per year and that the maximum change in emission trend is 0.5 percentage point per year. The starting year for rapid emission reductions depends on the choice of these parameters. A sensitivity analysis shows that, in all cases, refraining from new fossil fuel development allows for a delay of 5 to 8 years before we should embark on a rapid emission reduction pathway. The high investments required for developing new fossil fuels lead to a lock in effect; once developed, these fossil fuels need to be

  9. Ninth international conference on CANDU fuel, 'fuelling a clean future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Society's 9th International Conference on CANDU fuel took place in Belleville, Ontario on September 18-21, 2005. The theme for this year's conference was 'Fuelling a Clean Future' bringing together over 80 delegates ranging from: designers, engineers, manufacturers, researchers, modellers, safety specialists and managers to share the wealth of their knowledge and experience. This international event took place at an important turning point of the CANDU technology when new fuel design is being developed for commercial application, the Advanced CANDU Reactor is being considered for projects and nuclear power is enjoying a renaissance as the source energy for our future. Most of the conference was devoted to the presentation of technical papers in four parallel sessions. The topics of these sessions were: Design and Development; Fuel Safety; Fuel Modelling; Fuel Performance; Fuel Manufacturing; Fuel Management; Thermalhydraulics; and, Spent Fuel Management and Criticalty

  10. A demand forecasting system for clean-fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownstone, D.; Bunch, D.S.; Golob, T.F.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes an ongoing project to develop a demand forecasting model for clean-fuel vehicles in California. Large-scale surveys of both households and commercial fleet operators have been carried out. These data are being used to calibrate a new micro-simulation based vehicle demand forecasting system. Based on pre-specified attributes of future vehicles (including specified clean-fueled vehicle incentives), the system will produce annual forecasts of new and used vehicle demand by type of vehicle and geographic region. The system will also forecast annual vehicle miles traveled for all vehicles and recharging demand by time of day for electric vehicles. These results are potentially useful to utility companies in their demand-side management planning, to public agencies in their evaluation incentive schemes, and to manufacturers faced with designing and marketing clean-fuel vehicles.

  11. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy

  12. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  13. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  14. A Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis of Chinese fossil-fuel electricity generation companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the technical efficiency of Chinese fossil-fuel electricity generation companies from 1999 to 2011, using a Bayesian stochastic frontier model. The results reveal that efficiency varies among the fossil-fuel electricity generation companies that were analysed. We also focus on the factors of size, location, government ownership and mixed sources of electricity generation for the fossil-fuel electricity generation companies, and also examine their effects on the efficiency of these companies. Policy implications are derived. - Highlights: • We analyze the efficiency of 27 quoted Chinese fossil-fuel electricity generation companies during 1999–2011. • We adopt a Bayesian stochastic frontier model taking into consideration the identified heterogeneity. • With reform background in Chinese energy industry, we propose four hypotheses and check their influence on efficiency. • Big size, coastal location, government control and hydro energy sources all have increased costs

  15. The Government’s financial support for fossil fuel companies is being overlooked

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Bob Ward explores the subsidies currently doled out by the government to fossil fuel companies and asks why it has not attracted the same degree of criticism as subsidies for the renewable energy industry.

  16. Hydrogen movement and the next action: fossil fuels industry and sustainability economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the hydrogen movement started in 1974, there has been progress in research, development, demonstration and commercialization activities, covering all aspects of the hydrogen energy system. In order to solve the interrelated problems of depletion of fossil fuels and the environmental impact of the combustion products of fossil fuels, it is desirable to speed up the conversion to the hydrogen energy system. Most established industries have joined the hydrogen movement. There is one exception: the fossil fuel industry. A call is made to the fossil fuel industry to join the hydrogen movement. It is also proposed to change the present economic system with a sustainability economics in order to account for environmental damage, recyclability and decommissioning, and thus, ensure a sustainable future. (Author)

  17. Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2013-10-01

    People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver

  18. Screening potential social impacts of fossil fuels and biofuels for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generic social and socioeconomic impacts of various biofuels and fossil fuels were screened by applying Social Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Data were taken from the Social Hotspots Database on all categories for all the related themes and all indicators available. To limit the amount of data, only high and very high risk indicators were considered for each combination. The risks identified per life cycle phase were listed for each fuel assessed and the results were then aggregated by counting the number of high and very high risk indicators for that fuel. All the fossil fuels and biofuels analysed were found to display high or very high risks of negative impacts. Country of origin seemed to be of greater importance for risks than fuel type, as the most risk-related and least risk-related product systems referred to the same type of fuel, fossil oil from Russia/Nigeria and fossil oil from Norway, respectively. These results suggest that in developing policy, strict procurement requirements on social performance should be set for both fossil fuel and biofuel. However, the results must be interpreted with care owing to some limitations in the assessment, such as simplifications to life cycles, method used and data collection. - Highlights: • Both fossil and biofuels displayed high or very high risks of negative social impacts. • Social procurement requirements should be applied on all vehicle fuels. • Applying social criteria only on biofuels may be unfairly benefiting fossil fuels. • Social LCA can identify severe social impacts and influence policies accordingly. • Schemes can be adapted to include relevant criteria for specific fuels and/or origins

  19. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-fuel fleet vehicles. 88.308-94 Section 88.308-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  20. Destabilizing Investment in the Americas. Public Funding for Fossil Fuels After Rio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of ongoing research by the Sustainable Energy and Economy Network into the financing of fossil fuel and renewables/energy efficiency by U.S. institutions and multilateral development banks in the Americas since 1992, the year of the last Earth Summit. These institutions have been key financers of many of the region's most destructive fossil fuel projects over the past decade

  1. A revisit of fossil-fuel subsidies in China: Challenges and opportunities for energy price reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We measure fossil-fuel subsidies and effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010. • Fossil-fuel subsidies scale of China was CNY 881.94 billion in 2010, equivalent to 2.59% of GDP. • Impacts of removing subsidies on macroeconomic variables are examined by the CGE model. • Future policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies. - Abstract: Fossil-fuel subsidies contribute to the extensive growth of energy demand and the related carbon dioxide emissions in China. However, the process of energy price reform is slow, even though China faces increasing problems of energy scarcity and environmental deterioration. This paper focuses on analyzing fossil fuel subsidies in China by estimating subsidies scale and the implications for future reform. We begin by measuring fossil-fuel subsidies and the effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010 using a price-gap approach. Results indicate that the oil price reform in 2009 significantly reduced China’s fossil-fuel subsidies and modified the subsidy structure. Fossil-fuel subsidies scale in China was 881.94 billion CNY in 2010, which was lower than the amount in 2006, equivalent to 2.59% of the GDP. The macro-economic impacts of removing fossil-fuel subsidies are then evaluated by the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Results demonstrate that the economic growth and employment will be negatively affected as well as energy demand, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions. Finally, policy implications are suggested: first, risks of government pricing of energy are far from negligible; second, an acceptable macroeconomic impact is a criterion for energy price reform in China; third, the future energy policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies

  2. Harnessing Solar Energy for the Production of Clean Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit, A.; A. Holzwarth; Groot, H.J.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The European Union and its member states are being urged by leading scientists to make a major multi million Euro commitment to solar driven production of environmentally clean electricity, hydrogen and other fuels, as the only sustainable long-term solution for global energy needs. The most promising routes to eventual full-scale commercial solar energy conversion directly into fuels were identified at a recent international meeting in Regensburg, sponsored by the European Science Foundation...

  3. Material Flow Analysis of Fossil Fuels in China during 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the relationship between the supply and demand of fossil fuels is on edge in the long run, the contradiction between the economic growth and limited resources will hinder the sustainable development of the Chinese society. This paper aims to analyze the input of fossil fuels in China during 2000–2010 via the material flow analysis (MFA that takes hidden flows into account. With coal, oil, and natural gas quantified by MFA, three indexes, consumption and supply ratio (C/S ratio, resource consumption intensity (RCI, and fossil fuels productivity (FFP, are proposed to reflect the interactions between population, GDP, and fossil fuels. The results indicated that in the past 11 years, China’s requirement for fossil fuels has been increasing continuously because of the growing mine productivity in domestic areas, which also leads to a single energy consumption structure as well as excessive dependence on the domestic exploitation. It is advisable to control the fossil fuels consumption by energy recycling and new energy facilities’ popularization in order to lead a sustainable access to nonrenewable resources and decrease the soaring carbon emissions.

  4. Recent decreases in fossil-fuel emissions of ethane and methane derived from firn air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Murat; Verhulst, Kristal R; Saltzman, Eric S; Battle, Mark O; Montzka, Stephen A; Blake, Donald R; Tang, Qi; Prather, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    Methane and ethane are the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere and they affect both atmospheric chemistry and climate. Both gases are emitted from fossil fuels and biomass burning, whereas methane (CH(4)) alone has large sources from wetlands, agriculture, landfills and waste water. Here we use measurements in firn (perennial snowpack) air from Greenland and Antarctica to reconstruct the atmospheric variability of ethane (C(2)H(6)) during the twentieth century. Ethane levels rose from early in the century until the 1980s, when the trend reversed, with a period of decline over the next 20 years. We find that this variability was primarily driven by changes in ethane emissions from fossil fuels; these emissions peaked in the 1960s and 1970s at 14-16 teragrams per year (1 Tg = 10(12) g) and dropped to 8-10 Tg  yr(-1) by the turn of the century. The reduction in fossil-fuel sources is probably related to changes in light hydrocarbon emissions associated with petroleum production and use. The ethane-based fossil-fuel emission history is strikingly different from bottom-up estimates of methane emissions from fossil-fuel use, and implies that the fossil-fuel source of methane started to decline in the 1980s and probably caused the late twentieth century slow-down in the growth rate of atmospheric methane.

  5. Material flow analysis of fossil fuels in China during 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Dai, Jing; Su, Meirong

    2012-01-01

    Since the relationship between the supply and demand of fossil fuels is on edge in the long run, the contradiction between the economic growth and limited resources will hinder the sustainable development of the Chinese society. This paper aims to analyze the input of fossil fuels in China during 2000-2010 via the material flow analysis (MFA) that takes hidden flows into account. With coal, oil, and natural gas quantified by MFA, three indexes, consumption and supply ratio (C/S ratio), resource consumption intensity (RCI), and fossil fuels productivity (FFP), are proposed to reflect the interactions between population, GDP, and fossil fuels. The results indicated that in the past 11 years, China's requirement for fossil fuels has been increasing continuously because of the growing mine productivity in domestic areas, which also leads to a single energy consumption structure as well as excessive dependence on the domestic exploitation. It is advisable to control the fossil fuels consumption by energy recycling and new energy facilities' popularization in order to lead a sustainable access to nonrenewable resources and decrease the soaring carbon emissions.

  6. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 4: Energy from fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The conversion of fossil-fired power plants now burning oil or gas to burn coal is discussed along with the relaxation of air quality standards and the development of coal gasification processes to insure a continued supply of gas from coal. The location of oil fields, refining areas, natural gas fields, and pipelines in the U.S. is shown. The technologies of modern fossil-fired boilers and gas turbines are defined along with the new technologies of fluid-bed boilers and MHD generators.

  7. 14C of grasses as an indicator of fossil fuel CO2 pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Lichtfouse, Michel; Kashgarian, Michaele; Bol, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Submitted version International audience Measuring the amount of fossil fuel carbon stored in the vegetation is now crucial to understand the mechanisms ruling climate changes. In this respect, highly polluted areas such as major towns represent "natural" laboratories because fossil fuel CO2 (14C-free) is isotopically distinct from mean atmospheric CO2 (14C-labeled). Here, a 14C study of urban grasses near a major highway in Paris, France, shows that plants store up to 13% of fossil fue...

  8. Harnessing Solar Energy for the Production of Clean Fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, A.; Holzwarth, A.; de Groot, H.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union and its member states are being urged by leading scientists to make a major multi million Euro commitment to solar driven production of environmentally clean electricity, hydrogen and other fuels, as the only sustainable long-term solution for global energy needs. The most promisi

  9. Environmental analysis of a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant hybridised with different fossil and renewable fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Corona Bellostas, Blanca; San Miguel Alfaro, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The environmental performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant hybridised with different fuels was determined using a Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Six different scenarios were investigated, half of which involved hybridisation with fossil fuels (natural gas, coal and fuel oil), and the other three involved hybridisation with renewable fuels (wheat straw, wood pellets and biogas). Each scenario was compared to a solar-only operation. Nine different environ...

  10. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart R. Schesnack; Scott R. Morrison; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2003-10-30

    Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and NORAM are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Over the past 12 months, this project has focused on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. The ceramic/ceramic composites demonstrate the lowest hydrogen permeation rates, with a maximum of approximately 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2} for 0.5-mm thick membranes at 800 to 950 C. Under equivalent conditions, cermets achieve a hydrogen permeation rate near 1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, and the metal phase also improves structural stability and surface catalysis for hydrogen dissociation. Furthermore, if metals with high hydrogen permeability are used in cermets, permeation rates near 4 mL/min/cm{sup 2} are achievable with relatively thick membranes. Layered composite membranes have by far the highest permeation rates with a maximum flux in excess of 200 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2}. Moreover, these permeation rates were achieved at a total pressure differential across the membrane of 450 psi. Based on these results, effort during the next year will focus on this category of membranes. This report contains long-term hydrogen permeation data over eight

  11. The element technology of clean fuel alcohol plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S; Lee, D.S. [Sam-Sung Engineering Technical Institute (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C.Y [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    The fuel alcohol has been highlighted as a clean energy among new renewable energy sources. However, the production of the fuel alcohol has following problems; (i)bulk distillate remains is generated and (ii) benzene to be used as a entertainer in the azeotropic distillation causes the environmental problem. Thus, we started this research on the ground of preserving the cleanness in the production of fuel alcohol, a clean energy. We examined the schemes of replacing the azotropic distillation column which causes the problems with MSDP(Molecular Sieve Dehydration Process) system using adsorption technology and of treating the bulk distillate remains to be generated as by-products. In addition, we need to develop the continuous yea station technology for the continuous operation of fuel alcohol plant as a side goal. Thus, we try to develop a continuous ethanol fermentation process by high-density cell culture from tapioca, a industrial substrate, using cohesive yeast. For this purpose, we intend to examine the problem of tapioca, a industrial substrate, where a solid is existed and develop a new process which can solve the problem. Ultimately, the object of this project is to develop each element technology for the construction of fuel alcohol plant and obtain the ability to design the whole plant. (author) 54 refs., 143 figs., 34 tabs.

  12. Global combustion: the connection between fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions (1997-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Jennifer K; Nagy, R Chelsea; Archibald, Sally; Bowman, David M J S; Moritz, Max A; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Williamson, Grant J

    2016-06-01

    Humans use combustion for heating and cooking, managing lands, and, more recently, for fuelling the industrial economy. As a shift to fossil-fuel-based energy occurs, we expect that anthropogenic biomass burning in open landscapes will decline as it becomes less fundamental to energy acquisition and livelihoods. Using global data on both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, we tested this relationship over a 14 year period (1997-2010). The global average annual carbon emissions from biomass burning during this time were 2.2 Pg C per year (±0.3 s.d.), approximately one-third of fossil fuel emissions over the same period (7.3 Pg C, ±0.8 s.d.). There was a significant inverse relationship between average annual fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. Fossil fuel emissions explained 8% of the variation in biomass burning emissions at a global scale, but this varied substantially by land cover. For example, fossil fuel burning explained 31% of the variation in biomass burning in woody savannas, but was a non-significant predictor for evergreen needleleaf forests. In the land covers most dominated by human use, croplands and urban areas, fossil fuel emissions were more than 30- and 500-fold greater than biomass burning emissions. This relationship suggests that combustion practices may be shifting from open landscape burning to contained combustion for industrial purposes, and highlights the need to take into account how humans appropriate combustion in global modelling of contemporary fire. Industrialized combustion is not only an important driver of atmospheric change, but also an important driver of landscape change through companion declines in human-started fires.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216509

  13. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  14. Assessing European potential for geological storage of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion. The Gestco Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total EU (and Norway) emissions of CO2 from thermal power generation were some 950 million tonnes in 1990, the Kyoto agreement reference level. An ongoing research project, the GESTCO project, will provide the first documentation that, for the emission sources within the selected key areas, sufficient geological storage capacity is available for at least 30 years and possibly much longer. Cost of energy will obviously increase, but it is anticipated that electricity production cost price will be comparable to that of renewables. It would further have major implications for the European power generating industry which today is totally dominated by fossil fuel combustion with enormous emissions problems. The identification and siting of subsurface CO2 storage capability can be expected to have considerable effect on the planning for and future siting of fossil fuel plants. In Norway there are plans to build several major, coastally sited, natural gas-fed electricity generating plants. It is obvious that their siting should be, in part, based on the availability of a suitable subsurface CO2 storage facility. Hydrogen power plants, using natural gas as a feed stock, are being considered as a viable future option in a number of countries with natural gas supply systems. In such plants separation of the natural gas into hydrogen and CO2 will take place prior to combustion of the hydrogen. Emissions will be water vapour and the concept includes geological storage of the considerable volumes of clean, separated CO2 in saline aquifers or in (heavy) oil fields, using the CO2 to enhance oil recovery. Such power plants would also be able to supply hydrogen or methanol for automotive transport powered by fuels cells. The siting of such plants will again be dependent on the availability of subsurface CO2 storage facilities. As the search for oil and gas proceeds into geographically more remote areas the widespread transport of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will become commonplace

  15. TOWARDS A RESILIENT ENERGY SYSTEM IN EASTERN ROMANIA – FROM FOSSIL FUELS TO RENEWABLE SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂNICĂ Alexandru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into account the two Romanian Eastern regions (North East and South East trying to emphasize the post-communist dynamics of the energy sector in order to draw a general perspective for the future evolution towards both energy security and a clean environment. Before 1989, the energy sector, that had to sustain not only the population needs, but also an oversized manufacturing industry, was based on big power plants usually using coal and oil and highly polluting the environment. The hydropower had a rather small share in the total energy production. This inherited system was very much resistant after the end of the centralized political system, therefore after the general industrial decline the energy sector remained the main source of air pollution in many towns and cities from Romania. Meanwhile, in the last 6-7 years, due to a favourable national political context, we assisted, especially in the analysed area, to an important emergence of renewable energy investments (mainly wind and solar energy, but also biomass or hydro-energy. Our purpose is to evaluate, from a geographical point of view, the extent and the implications of a desirable progressive shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy that could radically change the territorial relations and sustain development on the long term.

  16. Co-combustion of Fossil Fuels and Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao

    The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw...

  17. Clean coal combustion: development of clean combustion technologies for residual fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, M.F. [Electric Research Institute, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Most of the large quantities of heavy fuel oil (about 4% sulphur-content) produced in Mexican refineries are burned in power plants. More natural gas is being used, and it is estimated that by 2010, about one-third of Mexico's electricity will be produced from natural gas. As petroleum and gas reserves are depleted, power plants will consume more imported coal. To continue combustion of dirty fuels, advanced clean combustion technologies must be developed. Two feasibility projects were conducted over the period 1989-1995 on combustion of Mexican fuels in a bubbling fluidized combustor and in IGCC power plants. More recent feasibility studies for cogeneration plants in refineries are outlined. Solid fuels for IGCC and CFB are among the most important developments. Over the period 2004-2008, projects to study clean combustion of Mexican fuels will be conducted in the following areas: operational problems in IGCC plants, construction of an entrained flow gasifier for synthesis gas production and for feeding of heavy fuels and coal emulsions, and development of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models.

  18. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues.

  19. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues. PMID:21942396

  20. Zooplankton fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.G.; Robbins, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    Fossil zooplankton fecal pellets found in thinly bedded marine and lacustrine black shales associated with phosphate, oil, and coal deposits, link the deposition of organic matter and biologically associated minerals with planktonic ecosystems. The black shales were probably formed in the anoxic basins of coastal marine waters, inland seas, and rift valley lakes where high productivity was supported by runoff, upwelling, and outwelling. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  1. Fossil fuel biomarkers in plant waxes as pollution parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bryselbout, Carine; Henner, Pascale; Lichtfouse, Eric

    1998-01-01

    International audience; Hopane and sterane derivatives typical of highly mature sedimentary organic matter, e.g. petroleum, have been identified in several plant species growing near Nancy, France. Analyses of plant waxes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over a restricted mass interval (m/z 185-195) allows definition of pollution parameters based on the relative concentration of fossil hopanes versus modern plant n alkanes. Indeed, such parameters are higher for Pinus nigra growing alo...

  2. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Bréon, F.-M.;

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms......, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossilfuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon...... dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed...

  3. Long-term ocean oxygen depletion in response to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaffer, G.; Olsen, S.M.; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing global warming could persist far into the future, because natural processes require decades to hundreds of thousands of years to remove carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel burning from the atmosphere(1-3). Future warming may have large global impacts including ocean oxygen depletion and assoc......Ongoing global warming could persist far into the future, because natural processes require decades to hundreds of thousands of years to remove carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel burning from the atmosphere(1-3). Future warming may have large global impacts including ocean oxygen depletion...... solubility from surface-layer warming accounts for most of the enhanced oxygen depletion in the upper 500 m of the ocean. Possible weakening of ocean overturning and convection lead to further oxygen depletion, also in the deep ocean. We conclude that substantial reductions in fossil-fuel use over the next...

  4. Material Flow Analysis of Fossil Fuels in China during 2000–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng Wang; Jing Dai; Meirong Su

    2012-01-01

    Since the relationship between the supply and demand of fossil fuels is on edge in the long run, the contradiction between the economic growth and limited resources will hinder the sustainable development of the Chinese society. This paper aims to analyze the input of fossil fuels in China during 2000–2010 via the material flow analysis (MFA) that takes hidden flows into account. With coal, oil, and natural gas quantified by MFA, three indexes, consumption and supply ratio (C/S ratio), resour...

  5. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  6. Co-combustion of Fossil Fuels and Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Hao WU; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw and the utilization of a waste-derived material as an additive; 3) the combustion of a biomass residue rich in phosphorus. Co-combustion of coal and SRF was conducted in an entrained flow reactor (EFR)...

  7. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer

  8. Trend of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and cement production in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nganga, J.K. [University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. Meteorology

    2000-07-01

    The data on annual consumption of fossil fuels and cement production in Kenya was used to carry out an inventory of carbon dioxide emissions from 1966 to 1993 using emission guidelines proposed by the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development. The results show an increasing trend of emissions from the two sources in association with increasing fossil fuel consumption and cement production in the country. Transport sector takes the largest share of fossil fuel consumption making the increasing vehicle population in the country a significant influencing factor in the observed trend. The demand for motor fuel in turn seems to be influenced by the economic performance and is indicated by periods of decline in the consumption of fossil fuels and resultant emissions. If the trend continues there will be an increase of about 46% by the next 20 years. However, Kenya's contribution of carbon dioxide emissions into the global atmosphere through these two sources is small and is consistent with treads observed in other developing parts of the world.

  9. CO2 emissions mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wada, Kenichi; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher and decrease with mitigation. A first deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes global emission targets until 2030, in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges and regionally-specific low-carbon technology targets. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger - twice and more - than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because leakage and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  10. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  11. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Østergård

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy. Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus nutrient constraints may develop in the coming decades, the current system may need to adapt by reducing use of fossil energy at the farm and for transportation of food and feed. An operational strategy may be to relocalise the supply of energy, nutrients, feed and food.

  12. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane

  13. Aluminum-26 in the early solar system - Fossil or fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Mg was measured in different phases of a Ca-Al-rich inclusion in the Allende meteorite. Large excesses of Mg-26 of up to 10% were found. These excesses correlate strictly with the Al-27/Mg-24 ratio for four coexisting phases with distinctive chemical compositions. Models of in situ decay of Al-26 within the solar system and of mixing of interstellar dust grains containing fossil Al-26 with normal solar system material are presented. The observed correlation provides definitive evidence for the presence of Al-26 in the early solar system. This requires either injection of freshly synthesized nucleosynthetic material into the solar system immediately before condensation and planet formation, or local production within the solar system by intense activity of the early sun. Planets promptly produced from material with the inferred Al-26/Al-27 would melt within about 300,000 years.

  14. Environmental policy and invention crowding out. Unlocking the automotive industry from fossil fuel path dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolò Barbieri

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to shed light on the drivers that encourage a shift from incumbent internal combustion engine technologies towards low-emission vehicle technologies. We emphasise the role of fuel prices, one of the main drivers of environmental innovation, and other features of the technology space (such as technological proximity), in impacting technological dynamics and fossil fuel technological lock-ins. Specifically, we investigate whether green technological efforts come at the expense o...

  15. Use of Chia Plant to Monitor Urban Fossil Fuel CO2 Emission: An Example From Irvine, CA in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Stills, A.; Trumbore, S.; Randerson, J. T.; Yi, J.

    2011-12-01

    Δ14CO2 is a unique tracer for quantifying anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, monitoring 14CO2 change and distribution in an urban environment is challenging because of its large spatial and temporal variations. We have tested the potential use of a chia plant (Salvia hispanica) as an alternative way to collect a time-integrated CO2 sample for radiocarbon analysis. The results show that Δ14C of the new growth of chia sprouts and chia leaves are consistent with the Δ14C of air samples collected during the growing period, indicating the new growth has no inherited C from seeds and thus records atmospheric 14CO2. Time-integrated air samples and chia leaf samples significantly reduced the noises of Δ14CO2 in an urban environment. We report here an example of monitoring 14CO2 change in Irvine, CA from Mar 2010 to Mar 2011 utilizing such a method. The results showed a clear seasonal cycle with high (close to remote air background level) Δ14C in summer and low Δ14C in winter months in this urban area. Excess (above remote air background) fossil fuel CO2 was calculated to be closed to 0 ppm in June to about 16 ppm from November 2010 to February 2011. Monthly mean Δ14CO2 was anti-correlated with monthly mean CO mixing ratio, indicating Δ14CO2 is mainly controlled by fossil fuel CO2 mixing with clean on-shore marine air. In summary, this study has shown encouraging result that chia plant can be potentially used as a convenient and inexpensive sampling method for time-integrated atmospheric 14CO2. Combined with other annual plants this provides the opportunity to map out time-integrated fossil fuel-derived CO2 in major cities at low cost. This in turn can be used to: 1) establish a baseline for fossil fuel emissions reductions in cities in the future; 2) provide invaluable information for validating emission models.

  16. Towards a Future of District Heating Systems with Low-Temperature Operation together with Non-Fossil Fuel Heat Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Dinçer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigation of non-fossil fuel heat sources to be supplied to low-energy district heating systems operating in low temperature such as 55 C and 25 C in terms of, respectively, supply and return. Vast variety of heat sources classed in categories such as fossil fuel...

  17. Divest from the Carbon Bubble? Reviewing the Implications and Limitations of Fossil Fuel Divestment for Institutional Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Ritchie; Hadi Dowlatabadi

    2015-01-01

    Climate change policies that rapidly curtail fossil fuel consumption will lead to structural adjustments in the business operations of the energy industry. Due to an uncertain global climate and energy policy framework, it is difficult to determine the magnitude of fossil energy reserves that could remain unused. This ambiguity has the potential to create losses for investors holding securities associated with any aspects of the fossil fuel industry. Carbon bubble risk is understood as financ...

  18. Relative importance of thermal versus carbon dioxide induced warming from fossil-fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth is heated both when reduced carbon is oxidized to carbon dioxide and when outgoing longwave radiation is trapped by carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (CO2 greenhouse effect). The purpose of this study is to improve our understanding of time scales and relative magnitudes of climate forcing increase over time from pulse, continuous, and historical CO2 and thermal emissions. To estimate the amount of global warming that would be produced by thermal and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, we calculate thermal emissions with thermal contents of fossil fuels and estimate CO2 emissions with emission factors from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. We then use a schematic climate model mimicking Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 to investigate the climate forcing and the time-integrated climate forcing. We show that, considered globally, direct thermal forcing from fossil fuel combustion is about 1.71% the radiative forcing from CO2 that has accumulated in the atmosphere from past fossil fuel combustion. When a new power plant comes on line, the radiative forcing from the accumulation of released CO2 exceeds the thermal emissions from the power plant in less than half a year (and about 3 months for coal plants). Due to the long lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere, CO2 radiative forcing greatly overwhelms direct thermal forcing on longer time scales. Ultimately, the cumulative radiative forcing from the CO2 exceeds the direct thermal forcing by a factor of ~100,000.

  19. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. (ed.)

    1982-10-01

    This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

  20. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  1. Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Agan, D.; Lefton, S.

    2012-08-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power will impact the operations of the remaining generators on the power system. Regional integration studies have shown that wind and solar may cause fossil-fueled generators to cycle on and off and ramp down to part load more frequently and potentially more rapidly. Increased cycling, deeper load following, and rapid ramping may result in wear-and-tear impacts on fossil-fueled generators that lead to increased capital and maintenance costs, increased equivalent forced outage rates, and degraded performance over time. Heat rates and emissions from fossil-fueled generators may be higher during cycling and ramping than during steady-state operation. Many wind and solar integration studies have not taken these increased cost and emissions impacts into account because data have not been available. This analysis considers the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generation to refine assessments of wind and solar impacts on the power system.

  2. CO2 emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets : Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Méjean, Aurélie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine; Wada, Kenichi; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use

  3. Climate Policy and the Optimal Extraction of High- and Low-Carbon Fossil Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, J.A.; van der Werf, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    We study how restricting CO2 emissions affcts resource prices and depletion over time.We use a Hotelling-style model with two nonrenewable fossil fuels that differ in their carbon content (e.g. coal and natural gas) and that are imperfect substitutes in final good production.We study both an unexpec

  4. Quality assurance systems for fossil-fuel power plants. Qualitaetssicherungssysteme fuer konventionelle Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, H.W.; Haker, W. (Dr. Adams und Partner Unternehmensberatung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-11-19

    Quality assurance systems are obviously successful in the service industry (e.g. software) and in the producing industry. In fossil-fuel power plants, they are still sceptically compared with the systems used in nuclear power plants. However, quality assurance systems, if rightly understood, can contribute to a better transparency of organization. (orig.).

  5. Emissions and their drivers: sensitivity to economic growth and fossil fuel availability across world regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Luderer, Gunnar; Bauer, Nico; Kriegler, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which uncertainty on regional patterns of economic growth and fossil fuel availability impacts regional emission patterns, emission drivers, and regional mitigation potentials and strategies, through an analysis across five key world regions in different stages

  6. Review of NO/sub x/ emission factors for stationary fossil fuel combustion sources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, R.J.; Sailor, W.C.; Wasilewski, J.; Kuby, W.C.

    1979-09-01

    A review of recent NOx test data was performed, and summaries of emission factors presented for various types of stationary source combustion and for various fossil fuels. The effects of combustion modifications on NOx emissions are quantified. Background data are given to help the user determine the reliability of each factor in particular applications.

  7. Impact of fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric radiocarbon and various applications of radiocarbon over this century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, Heather D

    2015-08-01

    Radiocarbon analyses are commonly used in a broad range of fields, including earth science, archaeology, forgery detection, isotope forensics, and physiology. Many applications are sensitive to the radiocarbon ((14)C) content of atmospheric CO2, which has varied since 1890 as a result of nuclear weapons testing, fossil fuel emissions, and CO2 cycling between atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Over this century, the ratio (14)C/C in atmospheric CO2 (Δ(14)CO2) will be determined by the amount of fossil fuel combustion, which decreases Δ(14)CO2 because fossil fuels have lost all (14)C from radioactive decay. Simulations of Δ(14)CO2 using the emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report, the Representative Concentration Pathways, indicate that ambitious emission reductions could sustain Δ(14)CO2 near the preindustrial level of 0‰ through 2100, whereas "business-as-usual" emissions will reduce Δ(14)CO2 to -250‰, equivalent to the depletion expected from over 2,000 y of radioactive decay. Given current emissions trends, fossil fuel emission-driven artificial "aging" of the atmosphere is likely to occur much faster and with a larger magnitude than previously expected. This finding has strong and as yet unrecognized implications for many applications of radiocarbon in various fields, and it implies that radiocarbon dating may no longer provide definitive ages for samples up to 2,000 y old.

  8. Nitrogen compounds in pressurised fluidised bed gasification of biomass and fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, W.

    2005-01-01

    Fossil fuels still dominate the energy supply in modern societies. The resources, however, are depleting. Therefore, other energy sources are to be exploited further within this century. Biomass is one of the practically CO2 neutral, renewable contributors to the future energy production. Nowadays m

  9. Reducing the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plans by exhaust gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the short term, at least for the next 10-20 years, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil the fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO2 and remove the other pollutants such as SOx and NOx which are released into the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this type of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies need to be developed to allow their large-scale use. (author)

  10. Applications of biotechnology in the fossil fuel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the effects of micoorganisms on petroleum industry operations and on the potentially significant applications of biotechnology in that sector. Detrimental aspects of microbial activity include the biodegradation of petroleum products and petrochemical products, microbially influenced corrosion, and microbial souring of oil reservoirs by sulfate reducing bacteria. Beneficial aspects include microbially enhanced oil recovery, the mapping of the presence of ethane oxidizing bacteria as an exploration tool, the use of bacterial systems for plugging during hydraulic fracturing, microbially stimulated oil production, microbial dewaxing, use of biopolymers such as xanthan in drilling muds, microbial surfactants and emulsifiers for use in pipelining of viscous oils, microbial upgrading of oil, manufacture of biodegradable products, and bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially enhanced oil recovery technologies, well and tank cleaning operations based on microbial formulations, and microbial-based well stimulation and cleaning operations have already reached field trial success, with commercial success in several cases. The hottest area of application in the 1990s will undoubtedly be in the area of biological remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites and emissions. 39 refs

  11. Quantifying fossil fuel CO2 from continuous measurements of APO: a novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickers, Penelope; Manning, Andrew C.; Forster, Grant L.; van der Laan, Sander; Wilson, Phil A.; Wenger, Angelina; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Oram, David E.; Sturges, William T.

    2016-04-01

    Using atmospheric measurements to accurately quantify CO2 emissions from fossil fuel sources requires the separation of biospheric and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes. The ability to quantify the fossil fuel component of CO2 (ffCO2) from atmospheric measurements enables more accurate 'top-down' verification of CO2 emissions inventories, which frequently have large uncertainty. Typically, ffCO2 is quantified (in ppm units) from discrete atmospheric measurements of Δ14CO2, combined with higher resolution atmospheric CO measurements, and with knowledge of CO:ffCO2 ratios. In the United Kingdom (UK), however, measurements of Δ14CO2 are often significantly biased by nuclear power plant influences, which limit the use of this approach. We present a novel approach for quantifying ffCO2 using measurements of APO (Atmospheric Potential Oxygen; a tracer derived from concurrent measurements of CO2 and O2) from two measurement sites in Norfolk, UK. Our approach is similar to that used for quantifying ffCO2 from CO measurements (ffCO2(CO)), whereby ffCO2(APO) = (APOmeas - APObg)/RAPO, where (APOmeas - APObg) is the APO deviation from the background, and RAPO is the APO:CO2 combustion ratio for fossil fuel. Time varying values of RAPO are calculated from the global gridded COFFEE (CO2 release and Oxygen uptake from Fossil Fuel Emission Estimate) dataset, combined with NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) transport model footprints. We compare our ffCO2(APO) results to results obtained using the ffCO2(CO) method, using CO:CO2 fossil fuel emission ratios (RCO) from the EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research) database. We find that the APO ffCO2 quantification method is more precise than the CO method, owing primarily to a smaller range of possible APO:CO2 fossil fuel emission ratios, compared to the CO:CO2 emission ratio range. Using a long-term dataset of atmospheric O2, CO2, CO and Δ14CO2 from Lutjewad, The Netherlands, we examine the

  12. Economic value of U.S. fossil fuel electricity health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machol, Ben; Rizk, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    Fossil fuel energy has several externalities not accounted for in the retail price, including associated adverse human health impacts, future costs from climate change, and other environmental damages. Here, we quantify the economic value of health impacts associated with PM(2.5) and PM(2.5) precursors (NO(x) and SO(2)) on a per kilowatt hour basis. We provide figures based on state electricity profiles, national averages and fossil fuel type. We find that the economic value of improved human health associated with avoiding emissions from fossil fuel electricity in the United States ranges from a low of $0.005-$0.013/kWh in California to a high of $0.41-$1.01/kWh in Maryland. When accounting for the adverse health impacts of imported electricity, the California figure increases to $0.03-$0.07/kWh. Nationally, the average economic value of health impacts associated with fossil fuel usage is $0.14-$0.35/kWh. For coal, oil, and natural gas, respectively, associated economic values of health impacts are $0.19-$0.45/kWh, $0.08-$0.19/kWh, and $0.01-$0.02/kWh. For coal and oil, these costs are larger than the typical retail price of electricity, demonstrating the magnitude of the externality. When the economic value of health impacts resulting from air emissions is considered, our analysis suggests that on average, U.S. consumers of electricity should be willing to pay $0.24-$0.45/kWh for alternatives such as energy efficiency investments or emission-free renewable sources that avoid fossil fuel combustion. The economic value of health impacts is approximately an order of magnitude larger than estimates of the social cost of carbon for fossil fuel electricity. In total, we estimate that the economic value of health impacts from fossil fuel electricity in the United States is $361.7-886.5 billion annually, representing 2.5-6.0% of the national GDP.

  13. Decadal trends in fossil fuel energy consumption and related air pollutant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar Reddy, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2003-04-01

    The economic liberalization in the early 1990s in India fuelled the industrial production, enabled the decadal annual average rate of 5.9% in the gross domestic product (GDP) during 1990-2000. This resulted in a steady increase of fossil fuels energy consumption throughout the decade. This paper investigates the trends in the GDP growth rate, sectoral fossil fuels consumption and resultant atmospheric air pollutant emissions during the above period. The fossil fuels energy consumption in the 1990 was 6875 PJ, and increased to 10801 PJ in 2000, with a decadal annual average growth rate of 5.7%. Share of the coal and petroleum fuels are 52% and 35%, respectively during 2000. The relative share contribution of power, industrial, transport, and domestic sectors are 40%, 48%, 5% and 7%, respectively. The contribution of various sectors to fossil fuels energy consumption, and the relative distribution of the different fuels within each sector will be discussed. The annual sulfur dioxide (SO_2) and aerosols (particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon) emissions are estimated using sector and fuel specific average emission factors (mass of pollutant per unit mass of fuel burnt). The estimates take into account the changes in the fuel characteristics and technology during the study period. The estimated SO_2 emissions are 1.7 Tg S yr-1 in 1990 and increased to 2.5 Tg S yr-1 in 2000, with an annual average increase of 5%. Majority of the SO_2 emissions are from coal consumption accounting 62%, predominantly from the power plants. Trends in fuel and sectoral contributions to SO2 emissions over the decade will be presented. In the transportation sector, diesels contribute significantly to BC. Notably, in India, two-stroke engines account for 78% of total vehicle fleet, and contribute significantly to organic carbon emissions. An analysis of available SO_2 and aerosols concentration measurements will be made to explore the possible correlations between trends in the

  14. The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Christophe; Ekins, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers have generally agreed that the average global temperature rise caused by greenhouse gas emissions should not exceed 2 °C above the average global temperature of pre-industrial times. It has been estimated that to have at least a 50 per cent chance of keeping warming below 2 °C throughout the twenty-first century, the cumulative carbon emissions between 2011 and 2050 need to be limited to around 1,100 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (Gt CO2). However, the greenhouse gas emissions contained in present estimates of global fossil fuel reserves are around three times higher than this, and so the unabated use of all current fossil fuel reserves is incompatible with a warming limit of 2 °C. Here we use a single integrated assessment model that contains estimates of the quantities, locations and nature of the world's oil, gas and coal reserves and resources, and which is shown to be consistent with a wide variety of modelling approaches with different assumptions, to explore the implications of this emissions limit for fossil fuel production in different regions. Our results suggest that, globally, a third of oil reserves, half of gas reserves and over 80 per cent of current coal reserves should remain unused from 2010 to 2050 in order to meet the target of 2 °C. We show that development of resources in the Arctic and any increase in unconventional oil production are incommensurate with efforts to limit average global warming to 2 °C. Our results show that policy makers' instincts to exploit rapidly and completely their territorial fossil fuels are, in aggregate, inconsistent with their commitments to this temperature limit. Implementation of this policy commitment would also render unnecessary continued substantial expenditure on fossil fuel exploration, because any new discoveries could not lead to increased aggregate production.

  15. Long-term climate policy implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is often argued that fossil fuel subsidies hamper the transition towards a sustainable energy supply as they incentivize wasteful consumption. We assess implications of a subsidy phase-out for the mitigation of climate change and the low-carbon transformation of the energy system, using the global energy–economy model REMIND. We compare our results with those obtained by the International Energy Agency (based on the World Energy Model) and by the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD-Model ENV-Linkages), providing the long-term perspective of an intertemporal optimization model. The results are analyzed in the two dimensions of subsidy phase-out and climate policy scenarios. We confirm short-term benefits of phasing-out fossil fuel subsidies as found in prior studies. However, these benefits are only sustained to a small extent in the long term, if dedicated climate policies are weak or nonexistent. Most remarkably we find that a removal of fossil fuel subsidies, if not complemented by other policies, can slow down a global transition towards a renewable based energy system. The reason is that world market prices for fossil fuels may drop due to a removal of subsidies. Thus, low carbon alternatives would encounter comparative disadvantages. - Highlights: • We assess implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies on the mitigation of climate change. • The removal of subsidies leads to a net-reduction in the use of energy. • Emission reductions contribute little to stabilize greenhouse gases at 450 ppm if not combined with climate policies. • Low carbon alternatives may encounter comparative disadvantages due to relative price changes at world markets

  16. ``Clean`` fuels: Does the new direction make environmental sense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saricks, C.L.; Wang, M.Q.

    1996-05-01

    This paper examines the ramifications of this a three-pronged energy philosophy, with special reference to its expected environmental impact if it is fully implemented as policy. To recapitulate, the three prongs are to rely on a free energy market to determine winners and losers, which could certainly include Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) if it remains relatively cheap and clean; refocus the bulk of government-sponsored transportation energy research toward a ``great leap ahead`` to fully renewable and essentially pollution-free fuels such as hydrogen and fuel cells; and discontinue AFV pump priming. Of special interest is a premise that appears common to all prongs--that none of these measures represents a retreat from environmental goals or accomplishments on record since the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was passed.

  17. Technical considerations in repowering a nuclear plant for fossil fueled operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repowering involves replacement of the reactor by a fossil fuel source of steam. This source can be a conventional fossil fueled boiler or the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) on a gas turbine exhaust. The existing steam turbine plant is used to the extent possible. Alternative fuels for repowering a nuclear plant are coal, natural gas and oil. In today's world oil is not usually an alternative. Selection of coal or natural gas is largely a matter of availability of the fuel near the location of the plant. Both the fossil boiler and the HRSG produce steam at higher pressures and temperatures than the throttle conditions for a saturated steam nuclear turbine. It is necessary to match the steam conditions from the new source to the existing turbine as closely as possible. Technical approaches to achieve a match range from using a topping turbine at the front end of the cycle to attemperation of the throttle steam with feedwater. The electrical output from the repowered plant is usually greater than that of the original nuclear fueled design. This requires consideration of the ability to use the excess electricity. Interfacing of the new facility with the existing turbine plant requires consideration of facility layout and design. Site factors must also be considered, especially for a coal fired boiler, since rail and coal handling facilities must be added to a site for which these were not considered. Additional site factors that require consideration are ash handling and disposal

  18. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore to combat chloride corrosion problems co-firing of biomass with a fossil fuel has been undertaken...... significant corrosion attack was due to sulphidation attack at the grain boundaries of 18-8 steel after 3 years exposure. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion rates are compared with biomass firing and coal firing. Potential corrosion problems due to co-firing biomass and fossil fuels are discussed....... appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 hours using 0-20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel of 10% straw + coal. After three years exposure in this environment...

  19. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore, to combat chloride corrosion problems cofiring of biomass with a fossil fuel has been....... However, the most significant corrosion attack was sulphidation attack at the grain boundaries of 18-8 steel after 3 years exposure. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion rates are compared with biomass firing and coal firing. Potential corrosion problems due to co-firing biomass and fossil fuels...... corrosion mechanisms appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 h using 0–20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel mix of 10% strawþcoal. Based on results from a 3 years exposure...

  20. Determination of fossil carbon content in Swedish waste fuel by four different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Frida C; Blomqvist, Evalena W; Bisaillon, Mattias; Lindberg, Daniel K; Hupa, Mikko

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the content of fossil carbon in waste combusted in Sweden by using four different methods at seven geographically spread combustion plants. In total, the measurement campaign included 42 solid samples, 21 flue gas samples, 3 sorting analyses and 2 investigations using the balance method. The fossil carbon content in the solid samples and in the flue gas samples was determined using (14)C-analysis. From the analyses it was concluded that about a third of the carbon in mixed Swedish waste (municipal solid waste and industrial waste collected at Swedish industry sites) is fossil. The two other methods (the balance method and calculations from sorting analyses), based on assumptions and calculations, gave similar results in the plants in which they were used. Furthermore, the results indicate that the difference between samples containing as much as 80% industrial waste and samples consisting of solely municipal solid waste was not as large as expected. Besides investigating the fossil content of the waste, the project was also established to investigate the usability of various methods. However, it is difficult to directly compare the different methods used in this project because besides the estimation of emitted fossil carbon the methods provide other information, which is valuable to the plant owner. Therefore, the choice of method can also be controlled by factors other than direct determination of the fossil fuel emissions when considering implementation in the combustion plants.

  1. Best mix of primary energy resources by renewable energy and fossil fuel with CCS in view of security,stability and sustainability——A vision on hydrogen supply chain by organic chemical hydride method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junichi; SAKAGUCHI

    2010-01-01

    The best mix scenario by renewable energy and fossil fuel with or without CCS(Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage) would be a solution to compromise Greenhouse Gases emission issue caused by carbon dioxide(CO2),and depletion of crude oil and natural gas reserves.As fossil fuel with pre-combustion CCS means hydrogen manufacturing and also hydrogen can be produced via electrolysis with renewable energy,it is desirable to establish transportation and storage systems of hydrogen as a clean energy.In this paper a vision on Hydrogen Supply Chain by Organic Chemical Hydride(OCH) Method as well as comparison of CCS configuration are discussed.

  2. Clean air: Level the NOX playing field for all fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Northeast and other non attainment areas, a level playing field NOx standard that applies to electric utilities and other major sources would offer numerous benefits, including: (1) Lower the risk of having to expend billions of dollars of refinery retrofit costs which will lead to much higher gasoline prices at the pump, in order to comply with a California Fuel VOC standard or other very expensive VOC strategy; (2) Establish a new market potential of 1 tcf for natural gas as a generating fuel in the summertime when pipeline capacity is available, which may also lead to a higher values for natural gas, reflecting its inherently cleaner nature; (3) Provide an opportunity for the environmental community, and the natural gas, refining and utility industries, as well as the State Air and PUC regulators, to work together to demonstrate environment leadership and promote a cost-effective clean air attainment strategy; and (4) Achieve cleaner air, sooner, at a lower cost. Support of this cost effective Clean Air solution will pay big dividends. This reformulation of State ozone strategies by adopting a level playing field NOx standard is both environmentally effective to attain the air quality health standards, and a least cost compliance strategy for regional economies

  3. Sources of variation in δ13C of fossil fuel emissions in Salt Lake City, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic composition of fossil fuels is an important component of many studies of C sources and sinks based on atmospheric measurements of CO2. In C budget studies, the isotopic composition of crude petroleum and CH4 are often used as a proxy for the isotopic composition of CO2 emissions from combustion. In this study, the C isotope composition (δ13C) of exhaust from the major fossil fuel emission sources in Salt Lake City, USA, was characterized with 159 measurements of vehicle exhaust of various types and eight measurements of residential furnace exhaust. These two sources were found to be isotopically distinct, and differed from global-scale estimates based on average values for crude petroleum and CH4. Vehicle-specific factors such as engine load and operation time had no effect on δ13C of vehicle exhaust. A small difference was found between the mean δ13C of vehicle exhaust collected randomly from different vehicles and the mean δ13C of gasoline collected from multiple fueling stations representing major gasoline distributors in Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. However, a paired comparison of δ13C of exhaust and gasoline for six different vehicles did not show any consistent C isotope fractionation during vehicle combustion. The mean δ13C of crude petroleum processed for local distribution differed slightly from refined gasoline collected at multiple fueling stations, but time lags between processing and transportation cannot be ruled out as an uncontrollable contributing factor. Measured isotope ratios were then combined with fuel consumption statistics to predict the annual cycle of δ13C of fossil fuel emissions for the Salt Lake City metropolitan area. The results showed that the isotopic composition of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion varied by almost 3 per mille over the course of the 2002 calendar year. This study illustrates that on a regional scale, the isotopic composition of fossil fuel emissions shows a high degree of

  4. The fossil trace of CO2 emissions in multi-fuel energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for sustainability in energy systems has increased the concern to reduce pollutant emissions and waste. Among the several strategies that help in this task are increased energy efficiency, carbon capture and storage, hybrid renewable-fossil systems, and system integration. All of them often result in complex multi-fuel multi-product systems. Conventional thermoeconomic analysis of such systems does not give information related to the type of energy source used, nor to the emissions generated. The aim of this work is to provide a method to reveal the fate of energy resources inside a system. We present a methodology to decompose exergy flows into as many parts as different types of external resources a system has. The proposed method was applied to a cogeneration system, showing to be a powerful tool to analyze multi-fuel systems, especially hybrid fossil-renewable plants, since the evolution of fossil resources can be tracked through the entire system. It also presents an answer to the unsolved problem of discriminated conversion efficiency, fuel impact and CO2 emissions impact when different fuels are used, which allows an extended analysis of energy systems, by taking into account the existence of a carbon tax. - Highlights: • Every exergy stream of a system is decomposed according to the different origins of external resources. • The conversion efficiency of each type of resource into every product of the system is determined. • Discriminated fuel impact of every type of fuel is determined. • The impact on CO2 emissions for multi-fuel energy systems is defined. • A carbon tax is taken into account to define de operation cost impact of the system

  5. Analysis of the uncertainty associated with national fossil fuel CO2 emissions datasets for use in the global Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) and carbon budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P. J.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.

    2012-12-01

    High resolution quantification of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions has become essential in research aimed at understanding the global carbon cycle and supporting the verification of international agreements on greenhouse gas emission reductions. The Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) was used to estimate global fossil fuel carbon emissions at 0.25 degree from 1992 to 2010. FFDAS quantifies CO2 emissions based on areal population density, per capita economic activity, energy intensity and carbon intensity. A critical constraint to this system is the estimation of national-scale fossil fuel CO2 emissions disaggregated into economic sectors. Furthermore, prior uncertainty estimation is an important aspect of the FFDAS. Objective techniques to quantify uncertainty for the national emissions are essential. There are several institutional datasets that quantify national carbon emissions, including British Petroleum (BP), the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC). These four datasets have been "harmonized" by Jordan Macknick for inter-comparison purposes (Macknick, Carbon Management, 2011). The harmonization attempted to generate consistency among the different institutional datasets via a variety of techniques such as reclassifying into consistent emitting categories, recalculating based on consistent emission factors, and converting into consistent units. These harmonized data form the basis of our uncertainty estimation. We summarized the maximum, minimum and mean national carbon emissions for all the datasets from 1992 to 2010. We calculated key statistics highlighting the remaining differences among the harmonized datasets. We combine the span (max - min) of datasets for each country and year with the standard deviation of the national spans over time. We utilize the economic sectoral definitions from IEA to disaggregate the national total emission into

  6. COPROCESSING OF FOSSIL FUELS AND BIOMASS FOR CO2 EMISSION REDUCTION IN THE TRANSPORTATION SECTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses an evaluation of the Hydrocarb process for conversion of carbonaceous raw material to clean carbon and methanol products. As fuel, methanol and carbon can be used economically, either independently or in slurry form, in efficient heat engines (turbines and int...

  7. A novel CO2 sequestration system for environmentally producing hydrogen from fossil-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbers are currently used to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gases in various fossil-fuel based energy production systems. MEA is a highly volatile, corrosive, physiologically toxic, and foul-smelling chemical that requires replacement after 1000 operational hours. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), a novel class of materials with negligible vapor pressures and potentiality as benign solvents, may be the ideal replacement for MEA. Ab initio computational modeling was used to investigate the molecular interactions of ILs with CO2. The energetic and thermodynamic parameters of the RTILs as CO2 solvents are on par with MEA. As viable competitors to the present CO2 separation technology, RTILs may economize the fossil-fuel decarbonization process with the ultimate aim of realizing a green hydrogen economy

  8. Opportunities and insights for reducing fossil fuel consumption by households and organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Paul C.; Janda, Kathryn B.; Brown, Marilyn A.; Steg, Linda; Vine, Edward L.; Lutzenhiser, Loren

    2016-05-01

    Realizing the ambitious commitments of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) will require new ways of meeting human needs previously met by burning fossil fuels. Technological developments will be critical, but so will accelerated adoption of promising low-emission technologies and practices. National commitments will be more achievable if interventions take into account key psychological, social, cultural and organizational factors that influence energy choices, along with factors of an infrastructural, technical and economic nature. Broader engagement of social and behavioural science is needed to identify promising opportunities for reducing fossil fuel consumption. Here we discuss opportunities for change in households and organizations, primarily at short and intermediate timescales, and identify opportunities that have been underused in much of energy policy. Based on this survey, we suggest design principles for interventions by governments and other organizations, and identify areas of emphasis for future social science and interdisciplinary research.

  9. Toxicity evaluation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and other compounds involved in studies of fossil fuels biodesulphurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L; Paixão, S M

    2011-10-01

    The acute toxicity of some compounds used in fossil fuels biodesulphurisation studies, on the respiration activity, was evaluated by Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Moreover, the effect of 2-hydroxybiphenyl on cell growth of both strains was also determined, using batch (chronic bioassays) and continuous cultures. The IC₅₀ values obtained showed the toxicity of all the compounds tested to both strains, specially the high toxicity of 2-HBP. These results were confirmed by the chronic toxicity data. The toxicity data sets highlight for a higher sensitivity to the toxicant by the strain presenting a lower growth rate, due to a lower cells number in contact with the toxicant. Thus, microorganisms exhibiting faster generation times could be more resistant to 2-HBP accumulation during a BDS process. The physiological response of both strains to 2-HBP pulse in a steady-state continuous culture shows their potential to be used in a future fossil fuel BDS process.

  10. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  11. Combustion of available fossil-fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, R.; Levermann, A.; Ridgwell, A.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 meters in global sea-level rise. Here we show in simulations with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil-fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil-fuel emissions of 10 000 GtC, Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 meters per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West- and East Antarctica results in a threshold-increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources.

  12. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  13. A multiyear, global gridded fossil fuel CO2 emission data product: Evaluation and analysis of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Gurney, K. R.; McRobert, A.; Song, Y.; Coltin, K.; Huang, J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution, global quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle science and climate policy. We build upon a previously developed fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating global high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions. We have improved the underlying observationally based data sources, expanded the approach through treatment of separate emitting sectors including a new pointwise database of global power plants, and extended the results to cover a 1997 to 2010 time series at a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Long-term trend analysis of the resulting global emissions shows subnational spatial structure in large active economies such as the United States, China, and India. These three countries, in particular, show different long-term trends and exploration of the trends in nighttime lights, and population reveal a decoupling of population and emissions at the subnational level. Analysis of shorter-term variations reveals the impact of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis with widespread negative emission anomalies across the U.S. and Europe. We have used a center of mass (CM) calculation as a compact metric to express the time evolution of spatial patterns in fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The global emission CM has moved toward the east and somewhat south between 1997 and 2010, driven by the increase in emissions in China and South Asia over this time period. Analysis at the level of individual countries reveals per capita CO2 emission migration in both Russia and India. The per capita emission CM holds potential as a way to succinctly analyze subnational shifts in carbon intensity over time. Uncertainties are generally lower than the previous version of FFDAS due mainly to an improved nightlight data set.

  14. The Kyoto Protocol and the fossil fuel markets under different emission trading regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Mæstad, Ottar

    2000-01-01

    The consequences of the Kyoto Protocol for the fossil fuel markets depend on which policy instruments that are used in order to reach the emission targets. This paper uses a numerical model to assess the significance of international emission trading for the oil, coal and gas markets. Three different trading regimes are compared. Particular attention is devoted to the EU proposal about limits on acquisitions and transfers of emission permits. We find that the EU proposal will be non-binding f...

  15. From the Kyoto Protocol to the fossil fuel market: A model analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Holtsmark, Bjart

    1998-01-01

    Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol will change the energy markets. The resulting price shifts will represent important terms-of-trade changes. The paper explores how the different countries’ relationship to the fossil fuel markets will cause variations in the costs from implementation of Kyoto Protocol. The paper furthermore analyses how the geographical distribution of abatement efforts will be altered if emission trading is allowed. According to the presented analysis Russia and the ...

  16. Interaction of Carbon Reduction and Green Energy Promotion in a Small Fossil-Fuel Importing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pethig, Rüdiger; Wittlich, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in a general equilibrium small open economy that depends on imports of fossil fuels. The focus is on mixed policies that are either price based (emissions taxes and producer price subsidies for green energy) or quantity based (schemes of trading emissions and green certificates). Policy instruments directed head-on toward promoting green energy are shown to also reduce carbon emissions and vice versa but the direct...

  17. Forecasting Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption for Power Generation Using QHSA-Based LSSVM Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Sun; Yujun He; Hong Chang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate forecasting of fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation is important and fundamental for rational power energy planning in the electricity industry. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is a powerful methodology for solving nonlinear forecasting issues with small samples. The key point is how to determine the appropriate parameters which have great effect on the performance of LSSVM model. In this paper, a novel hybrid quantum harmony search algorithm-based L...

  18. Efficient Management of Insecure Fossil Fuel Imports through Taxing (!) Domestic Green Energy?

    OpenAIRE

    Eichner, Thomas; Pethig, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    A small open economy produces a consumer good, green and black energy, and imports fossil fuel at an uncertain price. Unregulated competitive markets are shown to be inefficient. The implied market failures are due to the agents' attitudes toward risk, to risk shifting and the uniform price for both types of energy. Under the plausible assumptions that consumers are prudent and at least as risk averse as the producers of black energy, the risk can be efficiently managed by taxing emissions an...

  19. Decomposition analysis of industry sector CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Almaz Akhmetov

    2015-01-01

    The changes in industrial structure of Kazakhstan resulted in significant transformation on its CO2 emissions profile. Understanding the driving factors in CO2 emissions profile is essential given the emissions reduction targets committed by Kazakhstan. The study applies Index Decomposition Analysis to identify factors affecting industrial CO2 emissions caused by fossil fuel combustion for the period 1990-2011. The results of the analysis indicated that the main factor affecting increase in t...

  20. Carbon price and optimal extraction of a polluting fossil fuel with restricted carbon capture

    OpenAIRE

    Coulomb, Renaud; Henriet, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    Among technological options to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Carbon Capture and Storage technology (CCS) seems particularly promising. This technology allows to keep on extracting polluting fossil fuels without drastically increasing CO2 atmospheric concentration. We examine here a two-sector model with two primary energy resources, a polluting exhaustible resource and an expensive carbon-free renewable resource, in which an environmental regulation is imposed through a cap on the ...

  1. The long-term carbon cycle, fossil fuels and atmospheric composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Robert A

    2003-11-20

    The long-term carbon cycle operates over millions of years and involves the exchange of carbon between rocks and the Earth's surface. There are many complex feedback pathways between carbon burial, nutrient cycling, atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen, and climate. New calculations of carbon fluxes during the Phanerozoic eon (the past 550 million years) illustrate how the long-term carbon cycle has affected the burial of organic matter and fossil-fuel formation, as well as the evolution of atmospheric composition.

  2. Trees and biomass energy: carbon storage and/or fossil fuel substitution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on climate change and energy production increasingly recognise the crucial role of biological systems. Carbon sinks in forests (above and below ground), CO2 emissions from deforestation, planting trees for carbon storage, and biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels are some key issues which arise. This paper assesses various forestry strategies and examines land availability, forest management, environmental sustainability, social and political factors, infrastructure and organisation, economic feasibility, and ancillary benefits associated with biomass for energy. (author)

  3. Nitrogen Isotope Composition of Thermally Produced NOx from Various Fossil-Fuel Combustion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Wendell W; Tharp, Bruce D; Fang, Huan; Kozak, Brian J; Michalski, Greg

    2015-10-01

    The nitrogen stable isotope composition of NOx (δ(15)N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning, which would help constrain NOx source contributions in nitrogen deposition studies. However, there is large uncertainty in the δ(15)N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources other than on-road vehicles and coal-fired energy generating units. To this end, this study presents a broad analysis of δ(15)N-NOx from several fossil-fuel combustion sources that includes: airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a three-way catalytic converter, lawn equipment, utility vehicles, urban buses, semitrucks, residential gas furnaces, and natural-gas-fired power plants. A relatively large range of δ(15)N-NOx values was measured from -28.1‰ to 8.5‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples that generally tended to be negative due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with thermal NOx production. A negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ(15)N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with selective catalytic reducers was observed, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx increases δ(15)N-NOx values relative to the NOx produced through fossil-fuel combustion processes. Combining the δ(15)N-NOx measured in this study with previous published values, a δ(15)N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous U.S., which demonstrates seasonal and regional importance of various NOx sources.

  4. Evaluation of sustainability by a population living near fossil fuel resources in Northwestern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatalis, Konstantinos I

    2010-12-01

    The emergence of sustainability as a goal in the management of fossil fuel resources is a result of the growing global environmental concern, and highlights some of the issues expected to be significant in coming years. In order to secure social acceptance, the mining industry has to face these challenges by engaging its many different stakeholders and examining their sustainability concerns. For this reason a questionnaire was conducted involving a simple random sampling of inhabitants near an area rich in fossil fuel resources, in order to gather respondents' views on social, economic and environmental benefits. The study discusses new subnational findings on public attitudes to regional sustainability, based on a quantitative research design. The site of the study was the energy-rich Greek region of Kozani, Western Macedonia, one of the country's energy hubs. The paper examines the future perspectives of the area. The conclusions can form a useful framework for energy policy in the wider Balkan area, which contains important fossil fuel resources. PMID:20801577

  5. Health effects of air pollution in Japan and comparison of hazard indices of effluents from fossil fuel and nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose-response relationship between prevalence rates of chronic bronchitis and sulphur dioxide are introduced. Based on the Air Quality Standards, various efforts have been made to reduce the concentrations of sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere. Consequently, the sulphur dioxide concentrations decreased. However, the atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide tended to increase gradually. It was therefore considered important to study the health effects of nitrogen dioxide. In six different areas in Japan with varying atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, an extensive epidemiological survey was conducted with over 10.000 schoolchildren 6 to 15 years old during the period 1979 to 1981. The prevalence rate of asthma was estimated to be 4.7 % for males and 2.1 % for females in the high NO2 concentration area, and 1.9 % for males and 0.9% for females in the low NO2 concentration area. For asthma-like symptoms, 12.2 % for males and 11.9 % for females was observed at the high NO2 concentration area, and 7.1 % for males and 5.9 % for females in the low NO2 concentration area. The natural radioactivity from fossil-fuel power plants is also discussed. From the comparison of hazard indices of effluents from fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, the hazard indices of air pollution by SO2 and NO2 may be considered most significant. In decision-making on environmental protection and safety, it should be carefully considered whether a reduction of one type of risk might increase another type of risk. In order to ensure clean environment and to prevent acid rain disaster on forest it may be important to encourage development of cleaner nuclear power plants with smaller hazard indices. (Author)

  6. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the...

  7. Multiregional environmental comparison of fossil fuel power generation-Assessment of the contribution of fugitive emissions from conventional and unconventional fossil resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Evert A.; Ramirez, Andrea; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of fugitive methane emissions from coal, natural gas, and shale gas extraction on the greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of fossil fuel power generation through its life cycle. A multiregional hybridized life cycle assessment (LCA) model is used to evaluate sever

  8. Contributions of Fossil Fuel Combustion to Winter-time Arctic Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, T. E.; Usenko, S.; Robinson, E.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last century, the Arctic has been warming at a rate almost twice the global average. Aerosols both directly and indirectly affect the radiative balance of the Arctic through the absorption and scattering of sunlight and by providing a source of cloud and ice condensation nuclei. Global climate models currently have difficulty reproducing the observed warming in the Arctic but could be improved through high temporal resolution measurements of aerosols and their sources. This study focuses on the quantification of fossil fuel and biomass combustion contributions to particulate organic carbon (OC) collected during a winter sampling campaign in the North Slope Alaska. Samples were collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Barrow, AK, USA. Particulate matter (PM10) samples collected from December 2012 to March 2013 were analyzed for organic tracer analysis combined with radiocarbon of elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC). Organic tracers, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkanes, hopanes and levoglucosan, were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). These tracers, commonly used as molecular markers for anthropogenic combustion sources, were then used in a molecular-marker chemical mass balance (CMB) model. Results from the CMB were then combined with radiocarbon (14C) abundance measurements. Radiocarbon analysis differentiates between fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning based on the large difference in end members between fossil and contemporary carbon. Radiocarbon results show an average fossil contribution of 44% to Arctic OC from with spark ignition (gasoline) and compression ignition (diesel) engines being implicated as major sources of fossil OC to Arctic aerosols. The 14C analysis and CMB source apportionment will be combined with back trajectory (BT) to assess the impact of geographic source regions on carbonaceous aerosol burden in the

  9. Challenges faced when using radiocarbon measurements to estimate fossil fuel emissions in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Rigby, M. L.; Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; Allen, G.

    2015-12-01

    Estimating the anthropogenic component of carbon dioxide emissions from direct atmospheric measurements is difficult, due to the large natural carbon dioxide fluxes. One way of determining the fossil fuel component of atmospheric carbon dioxide is the use of radiocarbon measurements. Whilst carbon reservoirs with a reasonably fast carbon exchange rate all have a similar radiocarbon content, fossil fuels are completely devoid of radiocarbon due to their age. Previous studies have 14CO2 (UK) this approach is compromised by the high density of 14CO2 emitting nuclear power plants. Of the 16 nuclear reactors in the UK, 14 are advanced gas cooled reactors, which have one of the highest 14CO2 emission rates of all reactor types. These radiocarbon emissions not only lead to a serious underestimation of the recently added fossil fuel CO2, by masking the depletion of 14C in CO2, but can in fact overshadow the depletion by a factor of 2 or more. While a correction for this enhancement can be applied, the emissions from the nuclear power plants are highly variable, and an accurate correction is therefore not straightforward. We present the first attempt to quantify UK fossil fuel CO2 emissions through the use of 14CO2. We employ a sampling strategy that makes use of a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, in combination with nuclear industry emission estimates, to forecast "good" sampling times, in an attempt to minimize the correction due to emissions from the nuclear industry. As part of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project, 14CO2measurements are performed at two measurement sites in the UK and Ireland, as well as during science flights around the UK. The measurement locations have been chosen with a focus on high emitting regions such as London and the Midlands. We discuss the unique challenges that face the determination of fossil fuel emissions through radiocarbon measurements in the UK and our sampling strategy to deal with them. In addition we

  10. DuPont IsoTherming clean fuel technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinski, E. [E.I. DuPont Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This poster described a hydroprocessing technology that DuPont has acquired from Process Dynamics, Inc. The IsoTherming clean fuel technology significantly reduces sulphur in motor fuels. The technology provides petroleum refiners the solution for meeting ultra low sulphur diesel requirements, at much lower costs than conventional technologies. IsoTherming hydroprocessing operates in a kinetically limited mode, with no mass transfer limitation. Hydrogen is delivered to the reactor in the liquid phase as soluble hydrogen, allowing for much higher space velocities than conventional hydrotreating reactors. Treated diesel is recycled back to the inlet of the reactor, generating less heat and more hydrogen into the reactor. The process results in a more isothermal reactor operation that allows for better yields, fewer light ends and greater catalyst life. The technology reduces coking, because the process provides enough hydrogen in the solution when cracking reactions take place. As a result, the process yields longer catalyst life. Other advantages for refiners include lower total investment; reduced equipment delivery lead times; reduced maintenance and operating costs; and configuration flexibility. tabs., figs.

  11. A novel approach for independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO2 over Europe by 14CO2 observations

    OpenAIRE

    LEVIN Ingeborg; Kromer, Bernd; Schmidt, Martina; Sartorius, Hartmut

    2003-01-01

    Long-term atmospheric 14CO2 observations are deployed to quantify fossil fuel derived CO2 concentrations at a regional polluted site, and at a continental mountain station in south-west Germany. Fossil fuel CO2 emission rates for the relevant catchment areas are obtained by applying the Radon-Tracer-Method. They are shown to compare well with statistical emissions inventories but reveal a larger seasonality than assumed earlier, thus contributing significantly to the observed CO2 seasonal cyc...

  12. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY, FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION, CO2 EMISSIONS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: IMPLICATIONS AND POLICY OPTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Chibueze Eze Nnaji; Jude O. Chukwu; Moses Nnaji

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship among electricity supply, fossil fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1971-2009, in a multivariate framework.Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and statistically significant relationship between CO2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. The findings also indicate that economic growth is associated wit...

  13. Climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. An RETD position paper on the costs of inaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katofsky, Ryan; Stanberry, Matt; Hagenstad, Marca; Frantzis, Lisa

    2011-07-15

    The Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (RETD) agreement initiated this project to advance the understanding of the ''Costs of Inaction'', i.e. the costs of climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. A quantitative estimate was developed as well as a better understanding of the knowledge gaps and research needs. The project also included some conceptual work on how to better integrate the analyses of mitigation, adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence in energy scenario modelling.

  14. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  15. GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUELS AND BIOMASS COMBUSTION IN SMALL HEATING APPLIANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Dell'Antonia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of emission control has increased sharply due to the increased need of energy from combustion. However, biomass utilization in energy production is not free from problems because of physical and chemical characteristics which are substantially different from conventional energy sources. In this situation, the quantity and quality of emissions as well as used renewable sources as wood or corn grain are often unknown. To assess this problem the paper addresses the objectives to quantify the amount of greenhouse gases during the combustion of corn as compared to the emissions in fossil combustion (natural gas, LPG and diesel boiler. The test was carried out in Friuli Venezia Giulia in 2006-2008 to determine the air pollution (CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2 and CO2 from fuel combustion in family boilers with a power between 20-30 kWt. The flue gas emission was measured with a professional semi-continuous multi-gas analyzer, (Vario plus industrial, MRU air Neckarsulm-Obereisesheim. Data showed a lower emission of fossil fuel compared to corn in family boilers in reference to pollutants in the flue gas (NOx, SO2 and CO. In a particular way the biomass combustion makes a higher concentration of carbon monoxide (for an incomplete combustion because there is not a good mixing between fuel and air and nitrogen oxides (in relation at a higher content of nitrogen in herbaceous biomass in comparison to another fuel.

  16. Seasonal Variations in Fossil Fuel Emissions in the Los Angeles Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S.; Xu, X.; Kort, E. A.; Miller, C. E.; Sander, S.; Duren, R. M.; Eldering, A.; Yung, Y. L.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the effects of global warming resulting from increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere requires understanding the sources and trends of emissions in urban regions, which contribute disproportionately relative to their spatial extent. We report the carbon isotopic composition of CO2 in air collected during mid-afternoon in two locations within the Los Angeles basin of California, Pasadena and Palos Verdes peninsula, for the past 3 (Palos Verdes) - 6.5 (Pasadena) years. Radiocarbon (Δ14C) is the gold standard for distinguishing between CO2 produced by terrestrial biosphere processes and fossil fuel combustion, since the latter contains virtually no 14C, whereas photosynthesis and respiration reflect the modern atmosphere. The stable isotopic composition of carbon in CO2 (δ13C) can be useful in distinguishing petroleum (higher δ13C) from natural gas (lower δ13C) combustion. We observe a significant inverse correlation between the fraction of CO2 from fossil sources at the receptor site of Pasadena, as determined by Δ14C, and the δ13C of the pollutant end member, determined from the Keeling plot intercept. This indicates that the fraction of CO2 emitted by natural gas combustion increases as the fraction of CO2 contributed locally by all fossil fuel burning increases. The proportion of CO2 emitted by fossil fuel combustion was never less than 80% during the study period, and it was occasionally above 100% when the biosphere was a local sink for CO2 during the second quarter of the year. In Palos Verdes, the proportion of fossil fuel combustion in the local emissions was much more varied, ranging from 25 to >100%. The local emissions are inversely correlated at the two sites, reflecting the importance of transport in controlling the signals detected. During the summer, air travels from the ocean over the Los Angles basin to Pasadena, whereas during the winter, wind directions are much more varied, with frequent events from the northeast bringing air of

  17. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-20

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon). PMID:26289204

  18. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-01

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = +/-7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  19. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-20

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  20. Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.; Lehman, Scott J.;

    2011-01-01

    Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2(CO(2)ff, derived from Delta(CO2)-C-14 observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO(2)ff when local air comes from...... the Korean Peninsula. Most samples, however, reflect air masses from Northeastern China with lower CO(2)ff. Our small set of SDZ samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO(2)ff. Biospheric CO2 contributes substantially to total CO2 variability at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2...

  1. Final report spent nuclear fuel retrieval system primary cleaning development testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketner, G.L.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1997-09-01

    Developmental testing of the primary cleaning station for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and canisters is reported. A primary clean machine will be used to remove the gross sludge from canisters and fuel while maintaining water quality in the downstream process area. To facilitate SNF separation from canisters and minimize the impact to water quality, all canisters will be subjected to mechanical agitation and flushing with the Primary Clean Station. The Primary Clean Station consists of an outer containment box with an internally mounted, perforated wash basket. A single canister containing up to 14 fuel assemblies will be loaded into the wash basket, the confinement box lid closed, and the wash basket rotated for a fixed cycle time. During this cycle, basin water will be flushed through the wash basket and containment box to remove and entrain the sludge and carry it out of the box. Primary cleaning tests were performed to provide information concerning the removal of sludge from the fuel assemblies while in the basin canisters. The testing was also used to determine if additional fuel cleaning is required outside of the fuel canisters. Hydraulic performance and water demand requirements of the cleaning station were also evaluated. Thirty tests are reported in this document. Tests demonstrated that sludge can be dislodged and suspended sufficiently to remove it from the canister. Examination of fuel elements after cleaning suggested that more than 95% of the exposed fuel surfaces were cleaned so that no visual evidence of remained. As a result of testing, recommendations are made for the cleaning cycle. 3 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Environmental benchmarking of the largest fossil-fueled electricity generating plants in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Joseph

    2004-02-01

    Environmental management, to be effective, requires performance evaluation and process improvement. This is especially the case in fossil-fueled electricity generating plants. Although eco-efficient management of these types of organizations are critical to local, national and global environmental issues, few studies have focused on performance measurement and eco-efficiency improvements in this industry. This study evaluates the eco-efficiencies of the top 100 major U.S. fossil-fueled electricity generating plants from 1998 data. Using a multi-criteria non-parametric productivity model (data envelopment analysis) efficiency scores are determined. These efficiency scores are treated by a clustering method in identifying benchmarks for improving poorly performing plants. Efficiency measures are based on three resource input measures including boiler generating capacity, total fuel heat used, and total generator capacity, and four output measures including actual energy generated, SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions. The purpose of this paper is two-fold, to introduce the methodology"s application to eco-efficiency performance measurement and show some characteristics of the benchmarked plants and groups.

  3. Nitrogen Isotope Composition of Thermally Produced NOx from Various Fossil-Fuel Combustion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Wendell W; Tharp, Bruce D; Fang, Huan; Kozak, Brian J; Michalski, Greg

    2015-10-01

    The nitrogen stable isotope composition of NOx (δ(15)N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning, which would help constrain NOx source contributions in nitrogen deposition studies. However, there is large uncertainty in the δ(15)N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources other than on-road vehicles and coal-fired energy generating units. To this end, this study presents a broad analysis of δ(15)N-NOx from several fossil-fuel combustion sources that includes: airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a three-way catalytic converter, lawn equipment, utility vehicles, urban buses, semitrucks, residential gas furnaces, and natural-gas-fired power plants. A relatively large range of δ(15)N-NOx values was measured from -28.1‰ to 8.5‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples that generally tended to be negative due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with thermal NOx production. A negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ(15)N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with selective catalytic reducers was observed, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx increases δ(15)N-NOx values relative to the NOx produced through fossil-fuel combustion processes. Combining the δ(15)N-NOx measured in this study with previous published values, a δ(15)N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous U.S., which demonstrates seasonal and regional importance of various NOx sources. PMID:26332865

  4. Historic Patterns of CO{sub 2} Emissions from Fossil Fuels: Implications for Stabilization of Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, R. J.; Marland, G.

    1994-06-01

    This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

  5. Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to regridding of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Errors in the specification or utilization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions within carbon budget or atmospheric CO2 inverse studies can alias the estimation of biospheric and oceanic carbon exchange. A key component in the simulation of CO2 concentrations arising from fossil fuel emissions is the spatial distribution of the emission near coastlines. Finite grid resolution can give rise to mismatches between the emissions and simulated atmospheric dynamics which differ over land or water. We test these mismatches by examining simulated global atmospheric CO2 concentration driven by two different approaches to regridding fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The two approaches are: (1 a commonly-used method that allocates emissions to gridcells with no attempt to ensure dynamical consistency with atmospheric transport; (2 an improved method that reallocates emissions to gridcells to ensure dynamically consistent results. Results show large spatial and temporal differences in the simulated CO2 concentration when comparing these two approaches. The emissions difference ranges from −30.3 Tg C gridcell−1 yr−1 (−3.39 kg C m−2 yr−1 to +30.0 Tg C gridcell−1 yr−1 (+2.6 kg C m−2 yr−1 along coastal margins. Maximum simulated annual mean CO2 concentration differences at the surface exceed ±6 ppm at various locations and times. Examination of the current CO2 monitoring locations during the local afternoon, consistent with inversion modeling system sampling and measurement protocols, finds maximum hourly differences at 38 stations exceed ±0.10 ppm with individual station differences exceeding −32 ppm. The differences implied by not accounting for this dynamical consistency problem are largest at monitoring sites proximal to large coastal urban areas and point sources. These results suggest that studies comparing simulated to observed atmospheric CO2 concentration, such as atmospheric CO2 inversions, must take measures to correct for this potential

  6. Historic patterns of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels: Implications for stabilization of emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

  7. Tracing fossil fuel CO2 using Δ14C in Xi'an City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weijian; Wu, Shugang; Huo, Wenwen; Xiong, Xiaohu; Cheng, Peng; Lu, Xuefeng; Niu, Zhenchuan

    2014-09-01

    Radiocarbon can be used to trace fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) in the atmosphere, because radiocarbon has been depleted in fossil fuels. Here we present our study on the spatial distribution and temporal variations of CO2ff in Xi'an City, China using Δ14C of both green foxtail (Setaria viridis, L. Beauv.) leaf samples and urban air samples collected in the recent years. Our results show that the CO2ff indicated by green foxtail ranged from 14.7 ± 1.7 to 52.6 ± 1.7 ppm, reflecting high CO2ff mole fractions in downtown, industrial areas, and at road sites, and low CO2ff mole fractions in public parks. Meanwhile, the monthly CO2ff reflected by air samples showed higher value in winter (57.8 ± 17.1 ppm) than that in summer (20.2 ± 9.8 ppm) due to the enhancement usage of coal burning and the poor dispersion condition of atmosphere. This study displays that the increased fossil fuel emission is associated with the fast development of Xi'an City in China. It is worth mentioning that the green foxtail samples can be used to map out the CO2ff spatial distribution on large scale quickly and conveniently, while the air samples can be used to trace the CO2ff temporal variations with high resolution effectively. Therefore the Δ14C of both green foxtail and air samples is a good indicator of CO2ff emission.

  8. Importance of fossil fuel emission uncertainties over Europe for CO2 modeling: model intercomparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Delage

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Inverse modeling techniques used to quantify surface carbon fluxes commonly assume that the uncertainty of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2 emissions is negligible and that intra-annual variations can be neglected. To investigate these assumptions, we analyzed the differences between four fossil fuel emission maps with spatial and temporal differences over Europe and their impact on the model simulated CO2 concentration. Large temporal flux variations characterize the hourly fields (~40% and ~80% for the seasonal and diurnal cycles, peak-to-peak and annual country totals differ by 10% on average and up to 40% for some countries (i.e., The Netherlands. These emissions have been prescribed to seven different transport models, resulting in 28 different FFCO2 concentrations fields. The modeled FFCO2 concentration time series at surface sites using time-varying emissions show larger seasonal cycles (+2 ppm at the Hungarian tall tower (HUN and smaller diurnal cycles in summer (−1 ppm at HUN than when using constant emissions. The concentration range spanned by all simulations varies between stations, and is generally larger in winter (up to ~10 ppm peak-to-peak at HUN than in summer (~5 ppm. The contribution of transport model differences to the simulated concentration std-dev is 2–3 times larger than the contribution of emission differences only, at typical European sites used in global inversions. These contributions to the hourly (monthly std-dev's amount to ~1.2 (0.8 ppm and ~0.4 (0.3 ppm for transport and emissions, respectively. First comparisons of the modeled concentrations with 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 observations show that the large transport differences still hamper a quantitative evaluation/validation of the emission inventories. Changes in the estimated monthly biosphere flux (Fbio over Europe, using two inverse modeling approaches, are relatively small (less that 5% while changes in annual Fbio (up to ~0.15 Gt C/yr are only slightly smaller

  9. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. (ed.)

    1983-07-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: (1) abandoned oil field reports issued; (2) oilfield water data bank report published; (3) microbial enhanced recovery report issued; (4) polymer-augmented project could be economic today; (5) carbon dioxide EOR estimates given; (6) BETC passes 65th milestone; and (7) fifty achievements for fifty years (1918-1968). BETC publications are also listed. (ATT)

  10. A Vulnerability-Benefit Analysis of Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delman, E. M.; Stephenson, S. R.; Davis, S. J.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although we can anticipate continued improvements in our understanding of future climate impacts, the central challenge of climate change is not scientific, but rather political and economic. In particular, international climate negotiations center on how to share the burden of uncertain mitigation and adaptation costs. We expose the relative economic interests of different countries by assessing and comparing their vulnerability to climate impacts and the economic benefits they derive from the fossil fuel-based energy system. Vulnerability refers to the propensity of humans and their assets to suffer when impacted by hazards, and we draw upon the results from a number of prior studies that have quantified vulnerability using multivariate indices. As a proxy for benefit, we average CO2 related to each country's extraction of fossil fuels, production of CO2 emissions, and consumption of goods and services (Davis et al., 2011), which should reflect benefits accrued in proportion to national economic dependence on fossil fuels. We define a nondimensional vulnerability-benefit ratio for each nation and find a large range across countries. In general, we confirm that developed and emerging economies such as the U.S., Western Europe, and China rely heavily on fossil fuels and have substantial resources to respond to the impacts of climate change, while smaller, less-developed economies such as Sierra Leone and Vanuatu benefit little from current CO2 emissions and are much more vulnerable to adverse climate impacts. In addition, we identify some countries with a high vulnerability and benefit, such as Iraq and Nigeria; conversely, some nations exhibit both a low vulnerability and benefit, such as New Zealand. In most cases, the ratios reflect the nature of energy-climate policies in each country, although certain nations - such as the United Kingdom and France - assume a level of responsibility incongruous with their ratio and commit to mitigation policy despite

  11. Carbon sequestration from fossil fuels and biomass - long-term potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon sequestration and disposal from fossil fuels combustion is gaining attraction as a means to deal with climate change. However, CO2 emissions from biomass combustion can also be sequestered. If that is done, biomass energy with carbon sequestration (BECS) would become a net negative carbon sink that would at the same time deliver carbon free energy (heat, electricity or hydrogen) to society. Here we estimate some global technoeconomical potentials for BECS, and we also present some rough economics of electricity generation with carbon sequestration

  12. Market Barriers to Clean Cooking Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlag, Nicolai; Zuzarte, Fiona

    2008-04-15

    In the developing nations of sub-Saharan Africa, providing households with modern energy services is a critical step towards development. A large majority of households in the region rely on traditional biomass fuels for cooking, which represent a significant proportion of energy used in the domestic setting. The disadvantages of these fuels are many: they are inefficient energy carriers and their heat is difficult to control; they produce dangerous emissions; and their current rate of extraction is not sustainable for forests. Transition to clean cooking fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or ethanol would resolve many of these issues as they do not produce dangerous particulate emissions, and are commercially viable, offering a number of socio-economic advantages over traditional options. Despite the benefits of fuel switching, clean cooking fuels are rarely used in households in sub-Saharan Africa. Their failure to attain widespread use can be attributed to a number of market barriers. One of the major issues is cost: clean cooking fuels are prohibitively expensive for many households, and the high price of compatible stoves further discourages their use. Besides the expense, many consumers are hesitant to adopt the new technology, reflecting the lack of public awareness of the relevant issues. At the same time, Africa's underdeveloped infrastructure prevents these fuels from being made available in many local marketplaces. To date, this combination of factors has largely stifled the transition to clean cooking fuels. National governments can adopt a number of strategies to address these issues. The creation of clean cooking-fuel initiatives at the national level would be an important first step, after which governments can begin to address the issues more effectively. The introduction of relevant financial instruments would help to tackle the economic barriers to clean cooking fuels, and public outreach and education could overcome socio

  13. A technical and environmental comparison between hydrogen and some fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hydrogen as new non-conventional energy system. • Technical and environmental comparison between different type of fuels. • Combustion products analysis. • Technical and environmental quality indexes for investigated fuels. • Proposal of a suitable new energy scenario supplied by hydrogen. - Abstract: The exploitation of some fossil fuels such as oil, intended as gasoline or diesel fuel, natural gas and coal, currently satisfy the majority of the growing world energy demand, but they are destined to run out relatively quickly. Beyond this point, their combustion products are the main cause of some global problems such as the greenhouse effect, the hole in the ozone layer, acid rains and generalized environment pollution, so their impact is extremely harmful. Therefore, it is clear that a solution to the energy problem can be obtained only through the use of renewable sources and by means of the exploitation of new low-polluting fuels. In this scenario an important role might be played by hydrogen, which is able to define a new energy system that is more sustainable and cleaner than current systems. For the comparison of the different fuels investigated in this paper, a methodology, which defines appropriate technical and environmental quality indexes, has been developed. These indexes are connected to the pollution produced by combustion reactions and to their intrinsic characteristics of flammability and expansiveness linked to the use of the considered fuels. An appropriate combination of these indexes, in the specific sector of utilization, allows to evaluate a global environmental index for the investigated fuels, highlighting that hydrogen reaches the highest score. In the final part of the paper, a new hydrogen energy economy that would lead to solving the serious environmental problems that damages all the ecosystems of the planet earth, is presented

  14. Reducing global warming through the provision of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern has increased in recent years regarding the rising atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and its potential effect on future global climate. One element of strategies for the reduction of CO2 emissions would be to increase the proportion of energy derived from non-fossil energy sources. This option has led to renewed interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy vector which could facilitate the transfer of non-fossil energy into a wider range of end-use sectors. To assess, in this context, the potential role of non-fossil-fuel hydrogen (NFFH), published information on the costs and performance of technologies for the production, storage, distribution and utilisation of hydrogen has been reviewed in this study. These data have been used in a model of the UK energy system to investigate the potential contributions of the various hydrogen technologies, over a 50 year timeframe, and with different levels of constraint imposed on the rate of CO2 release. Finally, to set these reduced CO2 release rates in the context of the resultant reduction in global warming commitment, a further modelling study has been made to estimate the residual transient warming to 2050, assuming the world as a whole follows the same CO2 emission profiles as modelled for the UK. This 259 page report of the study contains extensive tables of data and references, and a glossary of terms, units and conversion factors. (author)

  15. The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy Stationary Fuel Cell Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark C.; Strakey, Joseph P.; Surdoval, Wayne A.

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), in partnership with private industries, is leading a program for the development and demonstration of high efficiency solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and fuel cell/turbine hybrid power generation systems for near-term distributed generation markets, with emphasis on premium power and high reliability. NETL is partnering with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in developing new directions for research under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) initiative to develop and commercialize modular, low cost, and fuel flexible SOFC systems. Through advanced materials, processing and system integration research and development (R&D), the SECA initiative will reduce the fuel cell cost to $400 kW -1 for stationary and auxiliary power unit markets. The SECA industry teams and core program have made significant progress in scale-up and performance. Presidential initiatives are focusing research toward a new hydrogen economy. The movement to a hydrogen economy would accomplish several strategic goals, namely that SOFCs have no emissions, and hence figure significantly in DOE strategies. The SOFC hybrid is a key part of the FutureGen plant, a major new DOE FE initiative to produce hydrogen from coal. The highly efficient SOFC hybrid plant will produce electric power while other parts of the plant could produce hydrogen and sequester CO 2. The produced hydrogen can be used in fuel cell cars and for SOFC distributed generation applications.

  16. Fossil fuels: technical, economical and political challenges for 2030-2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This panorama takes stock on the international energy actuality in 2003 and discusses the instability of the geo-political context of the energy and the part of the fossil fuels for the future years 2030-2050. The following topics were presented: activities and market for the exploration-production, refining and petrochemistry, the world gas trade situation, the petroleum supply and demand, the Iraq, the diesel in the USA, the investments and the depletion, long-dated evolutions of motors and fuels, implementing of the european directive concerning the market of tradable permits of CO2, the carbon sequestration, hydrogen the energy of the future and the biofuels in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  17. High-resolution simulations of the Δ14CO2 gradients from fossil fuels and nuclear power plants over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhinova, D.; van der Molen, M. K.; Palstra, S. W.; Meijer, H. A.; Krol, M. C.; Peters, W.

    2012-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14CO2) can be used to quantify fossil fuel CO2 addition to the atmosphere, since fossil CO2 is void of 14C. However, the current observational network is not dense enough to constrain regional emissions in most parts of the world. Furthermore, most sampling sites are not as informative for the regional anthropogenic emissions because they are located outside polluted regions. High resolution modeling of regional fossil fuel CO2 dispersion can help to define sampling locations at which Δ14CO2 gradients will be strong enough to estimate regional fossil fuel emissions. However, an important consideration should be the 14CO2 enrichment due to nuclear power plant 14CO2 production. These point sources contribute little to the global radiocarbon budget, but on a regional scale their importance for the atmospheric Δ14CO2 signature can be considerable. We therefore simulate the fossil fuel CO2 and nuclear 14CO2 transport for Western Europe using the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF-Chem) and evaluate the gradients and resulting Δ14CO2. We verify our modeling framework with integrated 14CO2, CO2, and meteorological observations. We find that the gradients in daytime fossil fuel CO2 addition can be as high as 10 ppm. Additionally, the effects of the nuclear 14CO2 emitted from the strongest source in the region can be traced to sites more than 500 km away, and their impact on the atmospheric Δ14CO2 signature can sometimes be of the same magnitude as the regional fossil fuel CO2 addition. We will present our findings and possible implications for sampling campaigns and observational sites.lt;img border=0 src="images/A33P-06_B.jpg">

  18. Survey of population health in towns with nuclear and fossil fuel power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, E.; Shubik, V. M.

    2004-07-01

    Comparative assessment of population health in Sosnovy Bor with nuclear power plant and Kirovsk with fossil fuel power station was made for public and administration information. Both towns are located in Leningrad administrative region at 150 km distance from each other. In nuclear power town radiological situation was assessed as normal and in Kirovsk up to 1995 yr. with coal fuel, maximum permissible levels of suspended particle of sulfur oxide in atmosphere were exceeded in 6-9% of samples. After 1995 yr. the natural gas was used as fuel. Demographic data for 1991-2000 yrs indicate that mortality including infants mortality and stillborns was lower in Sosnovy Bor (NOS) then in Kirovsk (fossil fuel) and on average Leningrad administrative region. Birth rate and population growth was higher in Sosnovy Bor at the same time surprisingly the recorded morbidity was higher in Sosnovy Bor which might be explained by extensive medical supervision and improved diagnostics. However, cancer and tuberculosis morbidity was lower in Sosnovy Bor. In Kirovsk in 1997-2000 yrs. oncological morbidity was higher on average comparing to Leningrad administrative region. Oncological mortality in Sosnovy Bor in 1997-2000 yrs. was lower than in Kirovsk and Leningrad region Standardized annual mortality in Sosnovy Bor, Kirovsk and Leningrad administrative region was 128.3, 209.6 and 211.7 on 100 000 respectively. Health state of pregnant women, deliveries, new-born condition were all in normal range in Sosnovy Bor, contrary to higher increased abortion rate and pregnancy complications in Kirovsk. These findings need further studies. (Author)

  19. Implications of fossil fuel constraints on economic growth and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Security and Global Warming are analysed as 21st century sustainability threats. Best estimates of future energy availability are derived as an Energy Reference Case (ERC). An explicit economic growth model is used to interpret the impact of the ERC on economic growth. The model predicts a divergence from 20th century equilibrium conditions in economic growth and socio-economic welfare is only stabilised under optimistic assumptions that demands a paradigm shift in contemporary economic thought and focused attention from policy makers. Fossil fuel depletion also constrains the maximum extent of Global Warming. Carbon emissions from the ERC comply nominally with the B1 scenario, which is the lowest emissions case considered by the IPCC. The IPCC predicts a temperature response within acceptance limits of the Global Warming debate for the B1 scenario. The carbon feedback cycle, used in the IPCC models, is shown as invalid for low-emissions scenarios and an alternative carbon cycle reduces the temperature response for the ERC considerably compared to the IPCC predictions. Our analysis proposes that the extent of Global Warming may be acceptable and preferable compared to the socio-economic consequences of not exploiting fossil fuel reserves to their full technical potential. (author)

  20. Implications of fossil fuel constraints on economic growth and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Security and Global Warming are analysed as 21st century sustainability threats. Best estimates of future energy availability are derived as an Energy Reference Case (ERC). An explicit economic growth model is used to interpret the impact of the ERC on economic growth. The model predicts a divergence from 20th century equilibrium conditions in economic growth and socio-economic welfare is only stabilised under optimistic assumptions that demands a paradigm shift in contemporary economic thought and focused attention from policy makers. Fossil fuel depletion also constrains the maximum extent of Global Warming. Carbon emissions from the ERC comply nominally with the B1 scenario, which is the lowest emissions case considered by the IPCC. The IPCC predicts a temperature response within acceptance limits of the Global Warming debate for the B1 scenario. The carbon feedback cycle, used in the IPCC models, is shown as invalid for low-emissions scenarios and an alternative carbon cycle reduces the temperature response for the ERC considerably compared to the IPCC predictions. Our analysis proposes that the extent of Global Warming may be acceptable and preferable compared to the socio-economic consequences of not exploiting fossil fuel reserves to their full technical potential

  1. The effect of retrofitting Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with CCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A map of mainland Portugal with potential CO2 source-sink matching was created. ► Four existing Portuguese power plants were simulated with and without CCS. ► Effect of CCS retrofit on performance and costs at each power plant was studied. ► The incremental COE was estimated at around 46 $/MW h for NGCC plants. ► The incremental COE was estimated at around 61 $/MW h for PC plants. -- Abstract: This work assesses the retrofit potential of existing Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with post-combustion CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology. The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was used to provide a systematic techno-economic analysis of the cost of emission control equipment, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and other key parameters which may change when CCS is implemented at a fossil fuel power plant. The results indicate that CCS requires a large capital investment and significantly increases the levelized cost of electricity. However, the economic viability of CCS increases with higher CO2 prices. The breakeven CO2 price for plants with and without CCS was estimated at $85–$140/t of CO2 depending on the technical parameters of the individual plants.

  2. Clean Cities Strategic Planning White Paper: Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hopson, Dr Janet L [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Greene, David [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Gibson, Robert [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of motor vehicles is critical to achieving national energy goals of reduced petroleum dependence, protecting the global climate, and promoting continued economic prosperity. Even with fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards and various economic incentives for clean and efficient vehicles, providing reliable and accurate fuel economy information to the public is important to achieving these goals. This white paper reviews the current status of light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States and the role of the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program in disseminating fuel economy information to the public.

  3. On the environmental, economic and budgetary impacts of fossil fuel prices: A dynamic general equilibrium analysis of the Portuguese case

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Marvão Pereira; Pereira, Rui M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental, economic and budgetary impacts of fuel prices using a dynamic general equilibrium model of the Portuguese economy which highlights the mechanisms of endogenous growth and includes a detailed modeling of the public sector. The fuel price scenarios are based on forecasts by the DOE-US, the IEA-OECD and IHS Global Insight Inc., and represent a wide range of projections for absolute and relative fossil fuel prices. The dramatic differences in relative prices...

  4. Health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants. Volume 6 of health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. [In California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, G.D.; Bertolli, T.A.; Bodington, J.C.; Choy, T.A.; Nero, A.V.

    1977-01-01

    This report reviews health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants, emphasizing impacts which may occur through emissions into the atmosphere, and treating other impacts briefly. Federal regulations as well as California state and local regulations are reviewed. Emissions are characterized by power plant type, including: coal-fired, oil-fired, gas-fired, combined cycle and advanced fossil-fuel plants; and liquid and vapor geothermal systems. Dispersion and transformation of emissions are treated. The state of knowledge of health effects, based on epidemiological, physiological, and biomedical studies, is reviewed.

  5. Low energy buildings – the basis for realizing the strategy for independency of fossil fuels in 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces how low energy buildings can be developed, designed, optimized, constructed and operated in the future and thereby make a significant contribution to the realization of aim of the energy policy of EU: to become independent of fossil fuels in 2050. The paper describes how low...... energy buildings can become independent of fossil fuels in 2020 based on the following activities. Innovation of building components and systems with improved energy performance. Heating of low energy building with low temperature district heating based on renewable heat. Integrated design...... without use of fossil fuels can be accomplished by the building sector by 2020. The building sector may in the process be transformed from an experience based sector to knowledge and research based sector with high quality sustainable products and very good business....

  6. Heat planning for fossil-fuel-free district heating areas with extensive end-use heat savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, S.

    2014-01-01

    the energy consumption of the existing building stock, increase energy efficiency, and convert the present heat supply from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. District heating is a sustainable way of providing space heating and domestic hot water to buildings in densely populated areas. This paper...... is a theoretical investigation of the district heating system in the Copenhagen area, in which heat conservation is related to the heat supply in buildings from an economic perspective. Supplying the existing building stock from low-temperature energy resources, e.g. geothermal heat, might lead to oversized......The Danish government plans to make the Danish energy system to be completely free of fossil fuels by 2050 and that by 2035 the energy supply for buildings and electricity should be entirely based on renewable energy sources. To become independent from fossil fuels, it is necessary to reduce...

  7. The Solodamu Surveys: determining fossil fuel use and sea transport need in a coastal village in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Patricia Newell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Domestic sea transport is critical to all aspects of life in the Pacific, providing access to markets and health and education services, as well as enabling cultural and social connectivity. Current sea transport services are entirely dependent upon use of increasingly expensive fossil fuels. Whilst there has been increasing research on international shipping, very little focus has been given to date to domestic shipping in the Pacific, and in particular at the local, village level. Recent studies have highlighted lack of data, particularly at a village level, as being a major impediment to progressing a shift to more sustainable transport.The importance of transport in achieving sustainable development and green growth is being increasingly highlighted by Pacific Leaders as a key priority, and particularly the need to find alternatives to reduce the region’s crippling dependency on imported fossil fuels. Small Island Developing States (SIDS in other regions also face similar challenges.This paper provides a summary of the findings of a village-based assessment of transport and fossil fuel use in Solodamu Village, Kadavu, Fiji carried out in 2009 and 2011. The objectives of the surveys were to gauge the overall sea, land and air transport use by the village and the fossil fuel footprint of the village by collecting data on a household by household basis. We then go on to outline how this assessment methodology has been expanded for an island group and highlight the potential of using this in other SIDS, so building the data sets available for more accurate analysis of both transport need and fossil fuel use to better address the issues of fossil fuel dependency and sustainable transport for the Pacific.

  8. Inferring high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 records at continental sites from combined 14CO2 and CO observations

    OpenAIRE

    LEVIN Ingeborg; Karstens, Ute

    2011-01-01

    An uncertainty estimate of a purely observational approach to derive hourly regional fossil fuel CO2 offsets (ΔCO2(foss)) at continental CO2 monitoring sites is presented. Weekly mean 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 mixing ratios and corresponding regional CO offsets (ΔCO) are proposed to determine weekly mean ΔCO/ΔCO2(foss) ratios in order to derive hourly ΔCO2(foss) mixing ratios from hourly ΔCO measurements. Respective regional model estimates of CO and CO2(foss) are applied to test this approac...

  9. Alternative bio-based fuels for aviation: the clean airports program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has been designated as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. The U.S. Dept. of Energy (US DOE) conferred this designation in March 1996. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. The two major fuels used in aviation are the current piston engine aviation gasoline and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation gasoline (100LL), currently used in the general aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the U.S. today. Turbine engine fuel (jet fuel) produces two major environmental impacts: a local one, in the vicinity of the airports, and a global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinity of airports, through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles. (author)

  10. Technological research and development of fossil fuels; Ricerca e sviluppo tecnologico per lo sfruttamento ottimale dei combustibili fossili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minghetti, E.; Palazzi, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-05-01

    The aim of the present document is to supply general information concerning fossil fuels that represent, today and for the near future, the main energy source of our planet. New fossil fuel technologies are in continual development with two principal goals: to decrease environmental impact and increase transformation process efficiency. Examples of this effort are: (1) gas-steam combined cycles integrated with coal gasification plants, or with pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors; (2) new cycles with humid air or coal direct fired turbine, now under development. In the first part of this document the international and national energy situations and trends are shown. After some brief notes on environment problems and alternative fuels, such as biomasses and municipal wastes, technological aspects, mainly relevant to increasing fossil-fueled power plant performances, are examined in greater depth. Finally the research and technological development activities of ENEA (National Agency for New technologies, Energy and the Environment) Engineering Branch in order to improve fossil fuels energy and environmental use are presented.

  11. Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrik, Michael [Technology Management Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Ruhl, Robert [Technology Management Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels. Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

  12. Pollutant Emissions and Lean Blowoff Limits of Fuel Flexible Burners Operating on Gaseous Renewable and Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado, Andres

    This study provides an experimental and numerical examination of pollutant emissions and stability of gaseous fueled reactions stabilized with two premixed-fuel-flexible and ultra-low NOx burner technologies. Both burners feature lean combustion technology to control the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The first fuel--flexible burner is the low-swirl burner (LSB), which features aerodynamic stabilization of the reactions with a divergent flow-field; the second burner is the surface stabilized combustion burner (SSCB), which features the stabilization of the reactions on surface patterns. For combustion applications the most commonly studied species are: NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). However these are not the only pollutants emitted when burning fossil fuels; other species such as nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3) and formaldehyde (CH2O) can be directly emitted from the oxidation reactions. Yet the conditions that favor the emission of these pollutants are not completely understood and require further insight. The results of this dissertation close the gap existing regarding the relations between emission of pollutants species and stability when burning variable gaseous fuels. The results of this study are applicable to current issues such as: 1. Current combustion systems operating at low temperatures to control formation of NOx. 2. Increased use of alternative fuels such as hydrogen, synthetic gas and biogas. 3. Increasing recognition of the need/desire to operate combustion systems in a transient manner to follow load and to offset the intermittency of renewable power. 4. The recent advances in measurement methods allow us to quantify other pollutants, such as N 2O, NH3 and CH2O. Hence in this study, these pollutant species are assessed when burning natural gas (NG) and its binary mixtures with other gaseous fuels such as hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), ethane (C 2H6) and propane (C3H8) at variable operation modes including

  13. Fossil fuel-fired power generation. Case studies of recently constructed coal- and gas-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-23

    To meet future energy demand growth and replace older or inefficient units, a large number of fossil fuel-fired plants will be required to be built worldwide in the next decade. Yet CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fired power generation are a major contributor to climate change. As a result, new plants must be designed and operated at highest efficiency both to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to facilitate deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future. The series of case studies in this report, which respond to a request to the IEA from the G8 Summit in July 2005, were conducted to illustrate what efficiency is achieved now in modern plants in different parts of the world using different grades of fossil fuels. The plants were selected from different geographical areas, because local factors influence attainable efficiency. The case studies include pulverized coal combustion (PCC) with both subcritical and supercritical (very high pressure and temperature) steam turbine cycles, a review of current and future applications of coal-fuelled integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), and a case study of a natural gas fired combined cycle plant to facilitate comparisons. The results of these analyses show that the technologies for high efficiency (low CO{sub 2} emission) and very low conventional pollutant emissions (particulates, SO{sub 2}, NOx) from fossil fuel-fired power generation are available now through PCC, IGCC or NGCC at commercially acceptable cost. This report contains comprehensive technical and indicative cost information for modern fossil fuel-fired plants that was previously unavailable. It serves as a valuable sourcebook for policy makers and technical decision makers contemplating decisions to build new fossil fuel-fired power generation plants.

  14. The Kyoto Protocol and the fossil fuel markets under different emission trading regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the Kyoto Protocol for the fossil fuel markets depend on which policy instruments that are used in order to reach the emission targets. This paper uses a numerical model to assess the significance of international emission trading for the oil, coal and gas markets. Three different trading regimes are compared. Particular attention is devoted to the EU proposal about limits on acquisitions and transfers of emission permits. We find that the EU proposal will be non-binding for buyers of emission permits but will significantly constrain the sale of emission permits from Eastern Europe. The EU proposal will increase the level of abatement in Annex B countries and will cause a sharp increase in the price of permits compared to the free trade equilibrium. (author)

  15. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Gerdemann, Steve; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul; Patrick, Brian R.

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  16. Heterogeneity in rebound effects: Estimated results and impact of China’s fossil-fuel subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Rebound effects for China’s sectors are estimated. • The input–output model is a suitable model to analysis energy rebound effects across sectors. • The impacts of fossil-fuel subsidies on rebound effects are evaluated. • Technological progress has varies impactions on energy conservation, thereby rebound effects. - Abstract: Improving energy efficiency through technological advancement has become a primary measure to achieve energy conservation targets in China. However, the existence of energy rebound effects may completely or partially offset energy savings associated with technological advancement. From sectors perspective, technological advancement is not a necessary condition for energy conservation for a given sector because of varied rates of technological advancement and dependence among sectors. Adopting the input–output model, this article presents a detailed analysis of energy rebound effects in China’s economy at the aggregate and sectoral level over 2006–2010. The results show that the aggregate sectors’ rebound effect is about 11.31%, which is larger than without considering the interaction among sectors (11.25%); and strongly suggests that technological advancement has varied impacts on energy conservation and rebound effects. Thus various strategies of technological advancement and incorporated mitigation measures are necessary for energy conservation across sectors. Furthermore, the current study confirms that China’s total value of fossil-fuel subsidies reached 160.23 billion US$ (constant 2005 price) in 2006–2010; and after removal of subsidies, the energy use is expected to save 411.35 million toe and the rebound effects for aggregate sectors become 10.64%. Finally, some relevant policy issues are discussed in depth

  17. What Geological, Economic, or Policy Forces Might Limit Fossil Fuel Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    In order to ensure a 50% chance of keeping global temperatures from exceeding 2°C above pre-industrial levels, it has been estimated that total carbon dioxide emissions between 2011-2050 must be capped at roughly 1,100 gigatons.[1] However, some estimates calculate that global fossil fuel reserves—including unconventional oil and gas—hold at least three times this amount of potential greenhouse gas emissions.[2]What socio-political, technological, or economic forces are most likely to keep these energy resources from being burned? While it is difficult to predict with specificity what combination of technological, geological, or human factors will significantly minimize global fossil fuel production, there are at least four key potential drivers: 1. Under-investment and the economics of unconventional oil and natural gas; 2. International policy, driven by citizen demand and leadership from key nations; 3. Massive deployment of renewable energy sources and other technological solutions; and 4. Large-scale energy curtailment resulting from global economic contraction. We will explore the implications, viability, and consequences of each of these potential factors. [1] [1]United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Fifteenth Session, held in Copenhagen from 7 to 19 December 2009. Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its Fifteenth Session. United Nations Climate Change Conf. Report 43 http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/cop15/eng/11a01.pdf (UNFCC, 2009) [2] Raupach, M. R. et al. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions. Nature Clim. Chang. 4, 873-879 (2014)

  18. Studies on the effects of atmospheric contamination due to fossil-fuel combustion in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies have been conducted since 1961 to investigate health effects of sulphur dioxide in industrial areas of Japan where fossil-fuel power stations are located. The dose-response relationship between prevalence rates of chronic bronchitis and sulphur dioxide was established. The annual value of sulphur dioxide concentrations estimated by the national network of air pollutant measurements decreased from the peak value of 0.059 ppm in 1967 to 0.017 ppm in 1978. However, the atmospheric concentration of nitrogen dioxide estimated by the national network indicated an annual value of 0.022 ppm in 1968, but the annual value in 1978 was slightly increased to 0.027 ppm. It was therefore considered important to study the health effects of nitrogen dioxide. In six different areas in Japan with varying atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, an extensive epidemiological survey was conducted with 12,717 school-children 6 to 12 years old during the period 1979 to 1981. The prevalence rate of asthma was estimated to be 4.7% for males and 2.1% for females in the high NO2 concentration area, and 1.9% for males and 0.9% for females in the low NO2 concentration area. For asthmalike symptoms, 12.2% for males and 11.9% for females was observed at the high NO2 concentration area, and 7.1% for males and 5.9% for females in the low NO2 concentration area. The natural radioactivity from fossil-fuel power plants as well as risk/benefit comparisons are also discussed. In decision-making on environmental protection and safety, it should be carefully considered whether a reduction of one type of risk might increase another type of risk. Not only the risk-reduction industries but also the construction and operation of the risk-reduction system may not be completely riskless

  19. Having a Son Promotes Clean Cooking Fuel Use in Urban India: Women's Status and Son Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Kishore; Dean Spears

    2014-01-01

    Urban Indian households with a male first child are approximately 2 percentage points more likely to use clean cooking fuel than comparable households with a female first child. Given Indian son preference, there are at least two mechanisms by which child sex could affect fuel choice: by improving the intrahousehold status of women, who bear more of the costs of traditional fuels, or by presenting an opportunity to invest in children's health, in the context of a preference for healthier boys...

  20. Detecting the influence of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosols on near surface temperature changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Jones

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Past research has shown that the dominant influence on recent global climate changes is from anthropogenic greenhouse gas increases with implications for future increases in global temperatures. One mitigation proposal is to reduce black carbon aerosol emissions. How much warming can be offset by the aerosol's control is unclear, especially as its influence on past climate has not been previously unambiguously detected. In this study observations of near-surface warming over the last century are compared with simulations using a climate model, HadGEM1. In the simulations black carbon, from fossil fuel and bio-fuel sources (fBC, produces a positive radiative forcing of about + 0.25 Wm−2 over the 20th century, compared with a little under + 2.5 Wm−2 for well mixed greenhouse gases. A simulated warming of global mean near-surface temperatures over the twentieth century from fBC of 0.14 ± 0.1 K compares with 1.06 ± 0.07 K from greenhouse gases, -0.58 ± 0.10 K from anthropogenic aerosols, ozone and land use changes and 0.09 ± 0.09 K from natural influences. Using a detection and attribution methodology, the observed warming since 1900 has detectable influences from anthropogenic and natural factors. Fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon is found to have a detectable contribution to the warming over the last 50 years of the 20th century, although the results are sensitive to a number of analysis choices, and fBC is not detected for the later fifty year period ending in 2006. The attributed warming of fBC was found to be consistent with the warming from the unscaled simulation. This study suggests that there is a possible significant influence from fBC on global temperatures, but its influence is small compared to that from greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Detecting the influence of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosols on near surface temperature changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Past research has shown that the dominant influence on recent global climate changes is from anthropogenic greenhouse gas increases with implications for future increases in global temperatures. One mitigation proposal is to reduce black carbon aerosol emissions. How much warming can be offset by controlling black carbon is unclear, especially as its influence on past climate has not been previously unambiguously detected. In this study observations of near-surface warming over the last century are compared with simulations using a climate model, HadGEM1. In the simulations black carbon, from fossil fuel and bio-fuel sources (fBC, produces a positive radiative forcing of about +0.25 Wm−2 over the 20th century, compared with +2.52 Wm−2 for well mixed greenhouse gases. A simulated warming of global mean near-surface temperatures over the twentieth century from fBC of 0.14 ± 0.1 K compares with 1.06 ± 0.07 K from greenhouse gases, −0.58 ± 0.10 K from anthropogenic aerosols, ozone and land use changes and 0.09 ± 0.09 K from natural influences. Using a detection and attribution methodology, the observed warming since 1900 has detectable influences from anthropogenic and natural factors. Fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon is found to have a detectable contribution to the warming over the last 50 yr of the 20th century, although the results are sensitive to the period being examined as fBC is not detected for the later fifty year period ending in 2006. The attributed warming of fBC was found to be consistent with the warming from fBC unscaled by the detection analysis. This study suggests that there is a possible significant influence from fBC on global temperatures, but its influence is small compared to that from greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Critical Resources for Emerging Clean Technologies: Case study of Wind Turbines. World Resource Forum 2012; 21-23 October, 2012; Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Wenzel, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The dilemma of resource scarcity is not new but its focus has changed from fossil fuels depletion to the mineral resource constraints of clean energy technologies. In order to be independent of fossil fuels we need broad implementation of clean technologies such as wind turbines, photovoltaic...

  3. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

  5. Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985 and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands are forecast as well as the impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

  6. Chemical biorefinery perspectives : the valorisation of functionalised chemicals from biomass resources compared to the conventional fossil fuel production route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the impending problems related to fossil fuels (continued supply, price, and regional and global pollution) alternative feedstocks are gaining interest as possible solutions. Biomass, considered sustainable and renewable, is an option with the potential to replace a wide diversity

  7. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions on the building/street scale for a large U.S. city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Kevin R; Razlivanov, Igor; Song, Yang; Zhou, Yuyu; Benes, Bedrich; Abdul-Massih, Michel

    2012-11-01

    In order to advance the scientific understanding of carbon exchange with the land surface, build an effective carbon monitoring system, and contribute to quantitatively based U.S. climate change policy interests, fine spatial and temporal quantification of fossil fuel CO(2) emissions, the primary greenhouse gas, is essential. Called the "Hestia Project", this research effort is the first to use bottom-up methods to quantify all fossil fuel CO(2) emissions down to the scale of individual buildings, road segments, and industrial/electricity production facilities on an hourly basis for an entire urban landscape. Here, we describe the methods used to quantify the on-site fossil fuel CO(2) emissions across the city of Indianapolis, IN. This effort combines a series of data sets and simulation tools such as a building energy simulation model, traffic data, power production reporting, and local air pollution reporting. The system is general enough to be applied to any large U.S. city and holds tremendous potential as a key component of a carbon-monitoring system in addition to enabling efficient greenhouse gas mitigation and planning. We compare the natural gas component of our fossil fuel CO(2) emissions estimate to consumption data provided by the local gas utility. At the zip code level, we achieve a bias-adjusted Pearson r correlation value of 0.92 (p < 0.001).

  8. Are forestation, bio-char and landfilled biomass adequate offsets for the climate effects of burning fossil fuels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Reijnders

    2009-01-01

    Forestation and landfilling purpose-grown biomass are not adequate offsets for the CO2 emission from burning fossil fuels. Their permanence is insufficiently guaranteed and landfilling purpose-grown biomass may even be counterproductive. As to permanence, bio-char may do better than forests or landf

  9. The California fuel cell partnership: an avenue to clean air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alan C.

    The California Fuel Cell Partnership presently consists of eight private companies, two state agencies and a federal government representative that will attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cell cars and buses. California has attempted to advance the commercialization of zero-emission vehicles for much of the past decade to help the state reduce its high levels of air pollution. A special advisory panel convened by the California Air Resources Board concluded last year that fuel cell technology could meet the key requirements for automobiles. The successful commercialization of fuel cell vehicles would help to reduce the levels of ozone, fine particles and toxic air contaminants that pose health risks to California's population. This technology can also help to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. California regulations now encourage the development of zero and near-zero emission vehicle technologies, including fuel cells. The Fuel Cell Partnership will operate approximately 50 fuel cell cars and buses until the year 2003 in order to produce important information on the vehicles and fueling infrastructure needed to support them.

  10. An assessment of econometric models applied to fossil fuel power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this report is to provide a general view of those studies, in which the econometric approach is applied to the selection of fuel in fossil fired power generation, focusing the attention to the key role played by the fuel prices. The report consists of a methodological analysis and a survey of the studies available in literature. The methodological analysis allows to assess the adequateness of the econometric approach, in the electrical power utilities policy. With this purpose, the fundamentals of microeconomics, which are the basis of the econometric models, are pointed out and discussed, and then the hypotheses, which are needed to be assumed for complying the economic theory, are verified in their actual implementation in the power generation sector. The survey of the available studies provides a detailed description of the Translog and Logit models, and the results achieved with their application. From these results, the estimated models show to fit the data with good approximation, a certain degree of interfuel substitution and a meaningful reaction to prices on demand side

  11. Impact on food productivity by fossil fuel independence - A case study of a Swedish small-scale integrated organic farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Sheshti [Dept. of Energy and Technology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Belfrage, Kristina [Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Mats [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    The large-scale industrial agriculture that provides the majority of food at present is dependent upon fossil fuels in the form of tractor fuel, mineral fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. Yet, the age of cheap and abundant fossil fuels will likely come to an end within the coming decades. In this case study, the productivity of a small-scale farm (8 ha arable land, 5.5 ha meadow, 3.5 ha pasture and 18 ha forest) independent on fossil fuels by using organic methods and draught horse power was investigated. The aim was to quantify its productivity when the animal composition and possible alternatives to tractive power were varied. After an analysis of possible solutions, three scenarios for tractive power were selected: draught horse power, diesel tractor, and combination of draught horse power and rapeseed oil fueled tractor. A model that calculates the amount of food available at the farm in terms of meat, milk egg, and crops, converts it into energy units and calculates how many people can be supplied from the farm was developed. The most reasonable of the scenarios studied was when draught horse power was combined with tractor (and combine harvester) driven on locally produced rapeseed oil. Then the farm will have access to all advantages with the tractor and harvester, e.g., timeliness in harvest and lifting heavy loads, and the renewability and efficiency of draught horse power on smaller fields, and lighter operations. This system was able to support between 66 and 82 persons depending on crop yields, milk yields, meat production, fuel demand for the tractor, and availability of forest grazing. Most likely the production capacity lands on ability to support approximately 68 - 70 persons, and the farm may require fossil fuels to support more than 80 persons. If all farmland globally was to be operated with the same productivity, this would be enough for supplying the global population with food at present.

  12. The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Christophe; Ekins, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers have generally agreed that the average global temperature rise caused by greenhouse gas emissions should not exceed 2 °C above the average global temperature of pre-industrial times. It has been estimated that to have at least a 50 per cent chance of keeping warming below 2 °C throughout the twenty-first century, the cumulative carbon emissions between 2011 and 2050 need to be limited to around 1,100 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (Gt CO2). However, the greenhouse gas emissions contained in present estimates of global fossil fuel reserves are around three times higher than this, and so the unabated use of all current fossil fuel reserves is incompatible with a warming limit of 2 °C. Here we use a single integrated assessment model that contains estimates of the quantities, locations and nature of the world's oil, gas and coal reserves and resources, and which is shown to be consistent with a wide variety of modelling approaches with different assumptions, to explore the implications of this emissions limit for fossil fuel production in different regions. Our results suggest that, globally, a third of oil reserves, half of gas reserves and over 80 per cent of current coal reserves should remain unused from 2010 to 2050 in order to meet the target of 2 °C. We show that development of resources in the Arctic and any increase in unconventional oil production are incommensurate with efforts to limit average global warming to 2 °C. Our results show that policy makers' instincts to exploit rapidly and completely their territorial fossil fuels are, in aggregate, inconsistent with their commitments to this temperature limit. Implementation of this policy commitment would also render unnecessary continued substantial expenditure on fossil fuel exploration, because any new discoveries could not lead to increased aggregate production.

  13. Fossil fuels: technical, economical and political challenges for 2030-2050; Combustibles fossiles: enjeux techniques, economiques et politiques a l'horizon 2030-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This panorama takes stock on the international energy actuality in 2003 and discusses the instability of the geo-political context of the energy and the part of the fossil fuels for the future years 2030-2050. The following topics were presented: activities and market for the exploration-production, refining and petrochemistry, the world gas trade situation, the petroleum supply and demand, the Iraq, the diesel in the USA, the investments and the depletion, long-dated evolutions of motors and fuels, implementing of the european directive concerning the market of tradable permits of CO{sub 2}, the carbon sequestration, hydrogen the energy of the future and the biofuels in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  14. Towards Robust Energy Systems Modeling: Examinging Uncertainty in Fossil Fuel-Based Life Cycle Assessment Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Aranya

    Increasing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels used in the U.S. transportation and electricity sectors have spurred interest in alternate energy sources, such as natural gas and biofuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate the environmental impacts of incumbent energy sources and potential impact reductions achievable through the use of alternate energy sources. Some recent U.S. climate policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S. However, the LCA methods used to estimate potential reductions in environmental impact have some drawbacks. First, the LCAs are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty inherent in life cycle data and methods. Such methods overstate the accuracy of the point estimate results, which could in turn lead to incorrect and (consequent) expensive decision-making. Second, system boundaries considered by most LCA studies tend to be limited (considered a manifestation of uncertainty in LCA). Although LCAs can estimate the benefits of transitioning to energy systems of lower environmental impact, they may not be able to characterize real world systems perfectly. Improved modeling of energy systems mechanisms can provide more accurate representations of reality and define more likely limits on potential environmental impact reductions. This dissertation quantitatively and qualitatively examines the limitations in LCA studies outlined previously. The first three research chapters address the uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels, natural gas and coal consumed in the U.S. The uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions from fossil fuels was found to range between 13 and 18% of their respective mean values. For instance, the 90% confidence interval of the life cycle GHG emissions of average natural gas consumed in the U.S was found to

  15. Uncertainty in projected climate change caused by methodological discrepancy in estimating CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilcaille, Yann; Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe; Lecocq, Franck; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Mohr, Steve; Andres, Robert J.; Bopp, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    There are different methodologies to estimate CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The term "methodology" refers to the way subtypes of fossil fuels are aggregated and their implied emissions factors. This study investigates how the choice of a methodology impacts historical and future CO2 emissions, and ensuing climate change projections. First, we use fossil fuel extraction data from the Geologic Resources Supply-Demand model of Mohr et al. (2015). We compare four different methodologies to transform amounts of fossil fuel extracted into CO2 emissions based on the methodologies used by Mohr et al. (2015), CDIAC, EDGARv4.3, and IPCC 1996. We thus obtain 4 emissions pathways, for the historical period 1750-2012, that we compare to the emissions timeseries from EDGARv4.3 (1970-2012) and CDIACv2015 (1751-2011). Using the 3 scenarios by Mohr et al. (2015) for projections till 2300 under the assumption of an Early (Low emission), Best Guess or Late (High emission) extraction peaking, we obtain 12 different pathways of CO2 emissions over 1750-2300. Second, we extend these CO2-only pathways to all co-emitted and climatically active species. Co-emission ratios for CH4, CO, BC, OC, SO2, VOC, N2O, NH3, NOx are calculated on the basis of the EDGAR v4.3 dataset, and are then used to produce complementary pathways of non-CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion only. Finally, the 12 emissions scenarios are integrated using the compact Earth system model OSCAR v2.2, in order to quantify the impact of the selected driver onto climate change projections. We find historical cumulative fossil fuel CO2 emissions from 1750 to 2012 ranging from 365 GtC to 392 GtC depending upon the methodology used to convert fossil fuel into CO2 emissions. We notice a drastic increase of the impact of the methodology in the projections. For the High emission scenario with Late fuel extraction peaking, cumulated CO2 emissions from 1700 to 2100 range from 1505 GtC to 1685 GtC; this corresponds

  16. Atmospheric Modeling and Verification of Point Source Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E. D.; Turnbull, J. C.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G. W.; Bromley, T.; Norris, M. W.; Zondervan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions from large point sources (electricity generation and large-scale industry) of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are currently determined from self-reported "bottom-up" inventory data, with an uncertainty of about 20% for individual power plants. As the world moves towards a regulatory environment, there is a need for independent, objective measurements of these emissions both to improve the accuracy of and to verify the reported amounts. "Top-down" atmospheric methods have the potential to independently constrain point source emissions, combining observations with atmospheric transport modeling to derive emission estimates. We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant to examine methodologies and model sensitivities for atmospheric monitoring of point source fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. The Kapuni plant, located in rural New Zealand, removes and vents CO2 from locally extracted natural gas at a rate of ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. We measured the CO2ff content in three different types of observations: air samples collected in flasks over a period of a few minutes, sodium hydroxide solution exposed the atmosphere, and grass samples from the surrounding farmland, the latter two representing ~1 week integrated averages. We use the WindTrax Lagrangian plume dispersion model to compare these atmospheric observations with "expected" values given the emissions reported by the Kapuni plant. The model has difficulty accurately capturing the short-term variability in the flask samples but does well in representing the longer-term averages from grass samples, suggesting that passive integrated-sampling methods have the potential to monitor long-term emissions. Our results indicate that using this method, point source emissions can be verified to within about 30%. Further improvements in atmospheric transport modelling are needed to reduce uncertainties. In view of this, we discuss model strengths and weaknesses and explore model sensitivity to meteorological conditions

  17. Quantification of space/time explicit fossil fuel CO2 emissions in urban domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Song, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in development of a carbon monitoring system. A space/time explicit emissions data product can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements and offer practical information to authorities in order to optimize mitigation efforts. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product for the urban domain. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and work is ongoing in Los Angeles. The work in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort, INFLUX, aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions. The work in Los Angeles with JPL colleagues is aimed at building an operational carbon monitoring system with focus on global megacities. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate using Hestia to distribute emissions in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. For the buildings, we utilize an energy building model constrained with multiple local data streams. For onroad emissions, we use a combination of traffic data and GIS road layers maintaining vehicle class information. In collaboration with our INFLUX colleagues, we are transporting these high resolution emissions through an atmospheric transport model for a forward comparison of the Hestia data product with atmospheric measurements, collected on aircraft and cell towers. In collaboration with our JPL colleagues, we are testing the feasibility of quantifying a megacity domain and how it might integrate with remote sensing and in situ measurement systems. The Hestia effort also holds promise for a useable policy tool at the city scale. With detailed information on energy consumption and emissions with process

  18. Determination of fossil fraction of refuse derived fuel by the selective dissolution method in calorific value basis: Development of simplified method.

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, Hiromi Wijesinghe; Asgautsen, Øyvind; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Eine, Kristin; Tokheim, Lars Andre

    2012-01-01

    Determination of net CO2 emissions from combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is not straight forward due to the heterogeneous nature of the fuel. The fossil fraction of the fuel is an essential parameter for the determination of net CO2 emissions. In the present study, the fossil fraction of RDF is determined by means of the Selective Dissolution Method (SDM) in calorific value basis. Seven artificially made RDF mixtures were tested using this method. The mixtures were prepa...

  19. Approach for Emissions Compliance in the Fossil-Fuel Based Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alain, Bill; Bitran, Guillaume; Basler, Benno; Hess, Stephan

    2007-07-01

    Most of today's air pollution legislation varies from country to country depending on factors such as the economy, fuel supply, fuel dependency and specific local pollution problems. At the same time, in a growing number of countries, the energy sector is going through privatisation, deregulation and globalisation process which is affecting energy demand and fuel selection, driving gradual integration of energy markets and requiring new solutions. Today it is also well recognized that pollution is often not a localized problem and that gaseous air pollutants can cross great distances. This has led to the cooperation between countries to control transboundary pollution, under bilateral or multilateral agreements. Similarly as for the energy sector, countries are not only becoming increasingly linked to each other in political, economic and social terms but also in environmental terms. Power generators and equipment manufacturers have been developing technologies and business agreements in countries with respective legislation constraints over many years and take this trend of interdependence into account. The equipment manufacturers and global solution providers such as Alstom have become the focal point driving the development of new environmental compliance products and solutions within the fossil fuel based energy sector. Technological progress achieved in many fields over recent years in different areas of the world according to the different legislations allows the power generators to meet these increasingly stringent emissions reduction requirements while extending the plant lifetime of existing power plants, and keeping them competitive. This paper gives an overview and outlook of environmental regulations, air pollution control technologies and some experience in pioneering environmental long-term service agreements. Obviously, the most immediately effective way to ensure emissions compliance of existing power plant is to professionally maintain and

  20. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia during the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Michael; Rap, Alex; Reddington, Carly; Spracklen, Dominick; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of rapidly growing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning have increased the diffuse fraction of incoming solar radiation and the efficiency of photosynthesis leading to increased plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of atmospheric and biospheric models, we find that changes in diffuse light associated with fossil fuel aerosol emission accounts for only 2.8% of the increase in global net primary production (1.221 PgC/yr) over the study period 1998 to 2007. This relatively small global signal is however a result of large regional compensations. Over East Asia, the strong increase in fossil fuel emissions contributed nearly 70% of the increased plant carbon uptake (21 TgC/yr), whereas the declining fossil fuel aerosol emissions in Europe and North America contributed negatively (-16% and -54%, respectively) to increased plant carbon uptake. At global scale, we also find the CO2 fertilization effect on photosynthesis to be the dominant driver of increased plant carbon uptake, in line with previous studies. These results suggest that further research into alternative mechanisms by which fossil fuel emissions could increase carbon uptake, such as nitrogen deposition and carbon-nitrogen interactions, is required to better understand a potential link between the recent changes in fossil fuel emissions and terrestrial carbon uptake.

  1. Fossil fuel depletion and socio-economic scenarios: An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progressive reduction of high-quality-easy-to-extract energy is a widely recognized and already ongoing process. Although depletion studies for individual fuels are relatively abundant, few of them offer a global perspective of all energy sources and their potential future developments, and even fewer include the demand of the socio-economic system. This paper presents an Economy-Energy-Environment model based on System Dynamics which integrates all those aspects: the physical restrictions (with peak estimations for oil, gas, coal and uranium), the techno-sustainable potential of renewable energy estimated by a novel top-down methodology, the socio-economic energy demands, the development of alternative technologies and the net CO2 emissions. We confront our model with the basic assumptions of previous Global Environmental Assessment (GEA) studies. The results show that demand-driven evolution, as performed in the past, might be unfeasible: strong energy-supply scarcity is found in the next two decades, especially in the transportation sector before 2020. Electricity generation is unable to fulfill its demand in 2025–2040, and a large expansion of electric renewable energies move us close to their limits. In order to find achievable scenarios, we are obliged to set hypotheses which are hardly used in GEA scenarios, such as zero or negative economic growth. - Highlights: • The paper presents and describes a new Energy–Economy–Environment global model. • GEA scenario dynamics have the potential to lead us to energy resource scarcity in the next 2 decades. • Global forecasts of international agencies show inconsistency in energy constraints. • Renewable energies are only partially able to replace fossil fuels depletion. • Climate change still reaches dangerous dimensions

  2. Cleaning of porous filters in fossilized bed reactors; Estudio de limpieza de filtros porosos en reactores de lecho fluidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo Otero, A.; Sancho Rod, J.

    1965-07-01

    In this report are established the optimum working conditions of a filter cleaning system by blow back. For this purpose it was determined in the first place the blow back air rate necessary to have a good cleaning. The reasons for which it was not possible until now to control the pressure in a fluidized bed calcination reactor are analyzed and a criteria is established to calculate the optimum floe necessary to clean efficiently a porous by this procedures. (Author)

  3. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  4. Efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation: Data selection and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies patenting dynamics in efficiency improving electricity generation technologies as an important indicator of innovation activity. We build a novel database of worldwide patent applications in efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation and then analyse patenting trends over time and across countries. We find that patenting has mostly been stable over time, with a recent decreasing trend. OECD countries represent the top innovators and the top markets for technology. Some non-OECD countries, and particularly China, are also very active in terms of patenting activity in this sector. The majority of patents are first filed in OECD countries and only then in BRIC and other non-OECD countries. BRIC and other non-OECD countries apply for patents that are mostly marketed domestically, but BRIC countries represent important markets for patent duplication of OECD inventions. These results are indicative of significant technology transfer in the field of efficiency-improving technologies for electricity production. - Highlights: → We study innovation in efficiency-improving electricity generation technologies. → Relevant patents are identified and used as an indicator of innovation. → We show that there is significant technology transfer in this field. → Most patents are first filed in OECD countries and then in non-OECD countries. → Patents in non-OECD countries are mostly marketed domestically.

  5. On-line elemental analysis of fossil fuel process streams by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, W.P.

    1995-06-01

    METC is continuing development of a real-time, multi-element plasma based spectrometer system for application to high temperature and high pressure fossil fuel process streams. Two versions are under consideration for development. One is an Inductively Coupled Plasma system that has been described previously, and the other is a high power microwave system. The ICP torch operates on a mixture of argon and helium with a conventional annular swirl flow plasma gas, no auxiliary gas, and a conventional sample stream injection through the base of the plasma plume. A new, demountable torch design comprising three ceramic sections allows bolts passing the length of the torch to compress a double O-ring seal. This improves the reliability of the torch. The microwave system will use the same data acquisition and reduction components as the ICP system; only the plasma source itself is different. It will operate with a 750-Watt, 2.45 gigahertz microwave generator. The plasma discharge will be contained within a narrow quartz tube one quarter wavelength from a shorted waveguide termination. The plasma source will be observed via fiber optics and a battery of computer controlled monochromators. To extract more information from the raw spectral data, a neural net computer program is being developed. This program will calculate analyte concentrations from data that includes analyte and interferant spectral emission intensity. Matrix effects and spectral overlaps can be treated more effectively by this method than by conventional spectral analysis.

  6. Electrical discharge phenomena application for solid fossil fuels in-situ conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of high voltage to oil shale initiates partial discharges (PDs) with the following treeing like in insulating dielectrics. Critical PDs and treeing with a high propagation rate occur under the low electrical intensity ∼102 V/cm due to oil shale's high porosity, heterogeneity and anisotropy. The completed discharge occurs as a result of these phenomena. Carbonization is initiated around a plasma channel at the treeing stage and extended during electromagnetic action time. Carbonized rock electrical resistance decreases by 8÷10 degrees to 10 ohm·cm, and shale and coal could be heated by Joule heat in carbonized volume and discharge plasma. A high-current supply is necessary for this heating stage. Also, a high- voltage supply with steep-grade characteristics can be used for PDs and treeing initiating and heating the carbonized rock with low resistance. Thus, these phenomena allow in-situ processing in order to produce a flammable gas and synthetic oil from inferior solid fossil fuels by pyrolytic conversion. Computations show that the ratio between energy derived from gas flaming and energy for shale conversion is more than fifty. Therefore, oil shale conversion with the help of electrical discharge phenomena application can be very efficient, as it needs little energy

  7. Integral power evaluation in fossil fuel power plants; Evaluacion energetica integral en unidades de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa I, Luis R; Sanchez H, Laura E; Rodriguez M, Jose H [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Nebradt G, Jesus [Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Subdireccion de Generacion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this occasion, a methodology is presented that carries out an integral energy evaluation of fossil fuel power plants units (FFPPU) with the purpose of determining the root of the significant decrements of power produced soon after the annual maintenance service. This proposal, besides identifying the origin of the energy efficiency problems, offers information about the contributions of each one of the involved equipment in the total decrement of the unit. With this methodology, the maintenance focuses in the equipment that contributes to the greater energy loss. This document presents such methodology along with its application in a real case, results and necessary remedial actions, demonstrating that its application offers bases for the investment in corrective measures. [Spanish] En esta ocasion se presenta una metodologia que efectua una evaluacion energetica integral de las unidades de centrales termoelectricas (UCT) con el fin de determinar la raiz de los decrementos de potencia significativos producidos luego del servicio anual de mantenimiento. Dicha propuesta, ademas de identificar el origen de los problemas de eficiencia energetica, brinda informacion acerca de las aportaciones de cada uno de los equipos involucrados al decremento total de la unidad. Con esta metodologia, el mantenimiento se enfoca a los equipos que contribuyen a la mayor perdida de potencia. Este documento exhibe tal metodologia junto con su aplicacion en un caso real, resultados y las acciones correctivas necesarias, demostrando que su aplicacion ofrece bases para una inversion futura en medidas correctivas.

  8. Response of the global climate to changes in atmospheric chemical composition due to fossil fuel burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, S.; Cess, R. D.; Hogan, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent modeling of atmospheric chemical processes (Logan et al, 1978; Hameed et al, 1979) suggests that tropospheric ozone and methane might significantly increase in the future as the result of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NO(x), and CH4 due to fossil fuel burning. Since O3 and CH4 are both greenhouse gases, increases in their concentrations could augment global warming due to larger future amounts of atmospheric CO2. To test the possible climatic impact of changes in tropospheric chemical composition, a zonal energy-balance climate model has been combined with a vertically averaged tropospheric chemical model. The latter model includes all relevant chemical reactions which affect species derived from H2O, O2, CH4, and NO(x). The climate model correspondingly incorporates changes in the infrared heating of the surface-troposphere system resulting from chemically induced changes in tropospheric ozone and methane. This coupled climate-chemical model indicates that global climate is sensitive to changes in emissions of CO, NO(x) and CH4, and that future increases in these emissions could augment global warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2.

  9. Accumulation of fossil fuels and metallic minerals in active and ancient rift lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A study of active and ancient rift systems around the world suggests that accumulations of fossil fuels and metallic minerals are related to the interactions of processes that form rift valleys with those that take place in and around rift lakes. The deposition of the precursors of petroleum, gas, oil shale, coal, phosphate, barite, Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides, and uranium begins with erosion of uplifted areas, and the consequent input of abundant nutrients and solute loads into swamps and tectonic lakes. Hot springs and volcanism add other nutrients and solutes. The resulting high biological productivity creates oxidized/reduced interfaces, and anoxic and H2S-rich bottom waters which preserves metal-bearing organic tissues and horizons. In the depositional phases, the fine-grained lake deposits are in contact with coarse-grained beach, delta, river, talus, and alluvial fan deposits. Earthquake-induced turbidites also are common coarse-grained deposits of rift lakes. Postdepositional processes in rifts include high heat flow and a resulting concentration of the organic and metallic components that were dispersed throughout the lakebeds. Postdepositional faulting brings organic- and metal-rich sourcebeds in contact with coarse-grained host and reservoir rocks. A suite of potentially economic deposits is therefore a characteristic of rift valleys. ?? 1983.

  10. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design.

  11. Decomposition analysis of industry sector CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaz Akhmetov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in industrial structure of Kazakhstan resulted in significant transformation on its CO2 emissions profile. Understanding the driving factors in CO2 emissions profile is essential given the emissions reduction targets committed by Kazakhstan. The study applies Index Decomposition Analysis to identify factors affecting industrial CO2 emissions caused by fossil fuel combustion for the period 1990-2011. The results of the analysis indicated that the main factor affecting increase in total industrial emissions was the change in the industrial activity, while improvements in energy intensity helped to reduce the emissions. Analysis of six subsectors was used to define the main reasons underlying changes in CO2 emissions. The study underlines policy contradictions between national plans on expansion of carbon intense commodity based industries and Kazakhstan’s international commitments on CO2 reduction. Furthermore, the changes in structure of industrial output towards overreliance on commodity based industries and decline of manufacturing could indicate that Kazakhstan is vulnerable to resource curse.

  12. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. SUMMARY REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem

  13. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  14. Is the fossil fuel hangover going to last for hundreds of thousands of years? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Paleorecords show that the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Ma) was associated with massive carbon release and global warming >5 K. The PETM is considered the best paleo-analog for massive carbon release and may provide insight into future changes in climate and ocean chemistry. Surprisingly, the paleorecords indicate little, if any decline in, for instance, stable carbon isotope values after 50 kyr. Similar durations of the PETM main phase can be inferred from oxygen isotope records (indicating temperature) and surface ocean carbonate chemistry proxies. The inferred main phase duration of > 50 kyr is also independent of the age model applied. Conventional carbon-cycle/climate models forced with an initial carbon input pulse over ~10 kyr fail to reproduce the long duration of the PETM without invoking additional, slow carbon release over more than 50 kyr. However, potential carbon sources and climate feedbacks that could amplify and prolong the warming have hitherto remained elusive. In this presentation, I will suggest plausible mechanisms for the long duration of the PETM based on first-principle calculations. If such mechanisms are also applicable to the future, the fossil fuel hangover (i.e. magnitude and duration of future warming), could last for hundreds of thousands of years.

  15. Sun, Ocean, Nuclear Bombs, and Fossil Fuels: Radiocarbon Variations and Implications for High-Resolution Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Koushik

    2016-06-01

    Radiocarbon, or 14C, is a radiometric dating method ideally suited for providing a chronological framework in archaeology and geosciences for timescales spanning the last 50,000 years. 14C is easily detectable in most common natural organic materials and has a half-life (5,730±40 years) relevant to these timescales. 14C produced from large-scale detonations of nuclear bombs between the 1950s and the early 1960s can be used for dating modern organic materials formed after the 1950s. Often these studies demand high-resolution chronology to resolve ages within a few decades to less than a few years. Despite developments in modern, high-precision 14C analytical methods, the applicability of 14C in high-resolution chronology is limited by short-term variations in atmospheric 14C in the past. This article reviews the roles of the principal natural drivers (e.g., solar magnetic activity and ocean circulation) and the anthropogenic perturbations (e.g., fossil fuel CO2 and 14C from nuclear and thermonuclear bombs) that are responsible for short-term 14C variations in the environment. Methods and challenges of high-resolution 14C dating are discussed.

  16. Hydrogen Storage Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course--Clean Energy: Hydrogen/Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alla; Andrews, Lisa; Khot, Ameya; Rubin, Lea; Young, Jun; Allston, Thomas D.; Takacs, Gerald A.

    2015-01-01

    Global interest in both renewable energies and reduction in emission levels has placed increasing attention on hydrogen-based fuel cells that avoid harm to the environment by releasing only water as a byproduct. Therefore, there is a critical need for education and workforce development in clean energy technologies. A new undergraduate laboratory…

  17. CRACOW CLEAN FOSSIL FUELS AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM. PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIERCE,B.

    1998-10-01

    Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.

  18. Fossil-energy program. Progress report for June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    This report - the eighty-third of series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component development and process evaluation, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process analysis and engineering evaluations, fossil energy environmental analysis, flue gas desulfurization, coal preparation waste utilization, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, TVA FBC demonstration plant program technical support, PFBC systems analysis, fossil fuel applications assessments, performance assurance system support for fossil energy projects, international energy technology assessment, generalized equilibrium models for liquid and gaseous fuel supplies, analyses of coal production goals, and fossil energy information center.

  19. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since aged carbon in fossil fuel contains no 14C, 14C/C ratios (Δ14C measured in atmospheric CO2 can be used to estimate CO2 added by combustion and, potentially, provide verification of fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. Sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract dilution by fossil CO2. Therefore, these nuclear sources can bias observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if they are not correctly accounted for or included as a source of uncertainty. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of Δ14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset 0–260 % of the fossil fuel dilution in Δ14C, corresponding to potential biases of 0 to −8 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from respiration in some areas. Growth of 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985–2005. The magnitude of this potential bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

  20. The potential of PVs in developing countries: maintaining an equitable society in the face of fossil fuel depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The availability of an adequate electrical supply to the whole population is essential for the wellbeing and equity of a society. However, for those countries that are largely dependent on fossil fuels for generating electricity, peak oil and gas threaten energy security and the ability to provide an uninterrupted supply of electricity on an equitable basis. This paper will review future energy demand and supply in Malaysia and implications for its electricity supply. It will demonstrate ...

  1. Documented international enquiry on solid sedimentary fossil fuels; Coal: definitions, classifications, reserves-resources and energy potential

    OpenAIRE

    Alpern, B; M.J. Lemos de Sousa

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with all solid sedimentary fossil fuels, i.e. coal, the main one for geological reserves and resources, peat, and oil shales. Definitions of coal ( < 50% ash) and coal seam (thickness and depth limits) are examined in view of an international agreement regarding new concepts for a common reserves and resources evaluation using the same nomenclature. The 50% ash limit, already adopted by UN-ECE for coal definition, allows the creation of a new category—the organic ...

  2. Optimal Design of a Fossil Fuel-Based Hydrogen Infrastructure with Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Case Study in Ohio

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ni, Jason; Johnson, Joshua; Lin, Zhenhong; Ogden, Joan M

    2005-01-01

    Presented at the National Hydrogen Association Annual Hydrogen Conference (NHA 2005), Washington, DC, March 29 - April 1, 2005 The use of hydrogen as a light-duty transportation fuel requires the development of a widespread regional hydrogen infrastructure, including production facilities, a distribution network, and refueling stations. In the case of fossil-based hydrogen production with carbon capture and sequestration, additional infrastructure is needed for CO2 disposal. If const...

  3. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R; Martinez, Andrew S; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L; Wingen, Lisa M; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-11-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine-California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs.

  4. Nitrogen oxide formation from chemically-bound nitrogen during the combustion of fossil fuels. [Extended Zeldovich reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.E.

    1976-06-01

    One of the many problems associated with the firing of fossil fuels is the impact on the ambient levels of nitrogen oxides. Since the use of coals, oils and coal-derived fuels is expected to triple by 1985, it is urgent that the formation of nitrogen oxides from molecular nitrogen and organo-nitrogen species be fully characterized so that emission abatement strategies can be formulated. The thermal fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and the free radical reactions of nitrogenous species are the sources of NO/sub x/. The fixation reactions can be described by the extended Zeldovich mechanism, and techniques such as staged combustion and flue gas recirculation have been employed to reduce combustion temperatures and, hence, thermally formed NO. These techniques have had little effect, however, on the conversion of chemically-bound nitrogen to NO/sub x/. The fate of chemically-bound nitrogen depends upon such factors as the nitrogen content of the fuel and the equivalence ratio and upon the physical processes governing combustion. Research is proposed to establish the kinetic processes involved in the conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO and N/sub 2/ in environments characteristic of fossil fuel combustion and to identify those conditions which favor the reduction of NO to N/sub 2/.

  5. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy...

  6. ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Bergin

    2004-10-18

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: SFP Construction and Fuel Production, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Fleet Testing at WMATA and Denali National Park, Demonstration of Clean Diesel Fuels in Diesel Electric Generators in Alaska, and Economic Analysis. ICRC provided overall project organization and budget management for the project. ICRC held meetings with various project participants. ICRC presented at the Department of Energy's annual project review meeting. The plant began producing fuel in October 2004. The first delivery of finished fuel was made in March of 2004 after the initial start-up period.

  7. Transcontinental methane measurements: Part 2. Mobile surface investigation of fossil fuel industrial fugitive emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel; Schneising, Oliver; Farrell, Paige; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.

    2013-08-01

    The potent greenhouse gas, methane, CH4, has a wide variety of anthropogenic and natural sources. Fall, continental-scale (Florida to California) surface CH4 data were collected to investigate the importance of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) emissions in the South US. A total of 6600 measurements along 7020-km of roadways were made by flame ion detection gas chromatography onboard a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle in 2010. A second, winter survey in Southern California measured CH4 at 2 Hz with a cavity ring-down spectrometer in 2012. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI CH4 sources associated with refining, oil/gas production, a presumed major pipeline leak, and a coal loading plant. Nocturnal CH4 mixing ratios tended to be higher than daytime values for similar sources, sometimes significantly, which was attributed to day/night meteorological differences, primarily changes in the boundary layer height. The highest CH4 mixing ratio (39 ppm) was observed near the Kern River Oil Field, California, which uses steam reinjection. FFI CH4 plume signatures were distinguished as stronger than other sources on local scales. On large (4°) scales, the CH4 trend was better matched spatially with FFI activity than wetland spatial patterns. Qualitative comparison of surface data with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite retrievals showed agreement of the large-scale CH4 spatial patterns. Comparison with inventory models and seasonal winds suggests for some seasons and some portions of the Gulf of Mexico a non-negligible underestimation of FFI emissions. For other seasons and locations, qualitative interpretation is not feasible. Unambiguous quantitative source attribution is more complex, requiring transport modeling.

  8. Sedimentary records of spheroidal carbonaceous particles from fossil-fuel combustion in western Lake Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Y.L.; Breslin, V.T. [Syracuse University, Stony Brook, NY (USA). Marine Science Research Center

    1999-07-01

    Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) were quantified in three sediment cores collected in the western basin of Lake Ontario to examine the impact of fossil-fuel combustion on sediment metal concentrations. SCP profiles were similar for the three cores showing the initiation of the SCP record deep in the core, followed by a rapid increase to a sub-surface maximum, and a subsequent decrease towards the sediment surface. Subsurface maximum SCP concentrations ranged from 1.97 to 5.61 x 10{sup 5} per gram dry matter/gDM. For Pb-210 dated cores, dates for the initiation of the SCP record (1850 {+-} 10 years), the initiation of the rapid rise in SCPs (1880 {+-} 13 years), and the SCP subsurface maximum (1961 {+-} 3 years) agree well. The rapid increase in sediment SCPs also agrees well with the US bituminous coal consumption during this same period (1880 to 1980). SCPs in surface sediments decreased between 55 to 83% from the subsurface maximum (1961 to 1996) in these cores while US coal usage continued to increase. SCP decreases were attributed to the increased use and efficiency of particle collection devices by utilities and industry. Lead, Cr, Cu, and Zn showed significant correlations with SCPs within each respective sediment core. Calculations show that although SCPs are not the major source of anthropogenic metals in Lake Ontario sediments, they may account for between 4 to 55% of the Zn, 1 to 12% of the Cu, 2 to 22% of the Pb and 1 to 18% of the Cr in these sediments.

  9. Independent evaluation of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions to better than 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Jocelyn Christine; Keller, Elizabeth D; Norris, Margaret W; Wiltshire, Rachael M

    2016-09-13

    Independent estimates of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are key to ensuring that emission reductions and regulations are effective and provide needed transparency and trust. Point source emissions are a key target because a small number of power plants represent a large portion of total global emissions. Currently, emission rates are known only from self-reported data. Atmospheric observations have the potential to meet the need for independent evaluation, but useful results from this method have been elusive, due to challenges in distinguishing CO2ff emissions from the large and varying CO2 background and in relating atmospheric observations to emission flux rates with high accuracy. Here we use time-integrated observations of the radiocarbon content of CO2 ((14)CO2) to quantify the recently added CO2ff mole fraction at surface sites surrounding a point source. We demonstrate that both fast-growing plant material (grass) and CO2 collected by absorption into sodium hydroxide solution provide excellent time-integrated records of atmospheric (14)CO2 These time-integrated samples allow us to evaluate emissions over a period of days to weeks with only a modest number of measurements. Applying the same time integration in an atmospheric transport model eliminates the need to resolve highly variable short-term turbulence. Together these techniques allow us to independently evaluate point source CO2ff emission rates from atmospheric observations with uncertainties of better than 10%. This uncertainty represents an improvement by a factor of 2 over current bottom-up inventory estimates and previous atmospheric observation estimates and allows reliable independent evaluation of emissions. PMID:27573818

  10. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology

  11. Compound-specific hydrogen isotope composition of n-alkanes in combustion residuals of fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Huiling; Peng, Lin; Li, Zhongping; Liu, Xiaofeng; Song, Chongfang; Mu, Ling

    2014-11-01

    The hydrogen isotope compositions (δD) of n-alkanes present in the combustion residuals of fossil fuels (coal, gasoline, and diesel) were measured using GC-IRMS to distinguish between coal soot and vehicle exhaust. The n-alkane δD values of industrial and domestic coal soot ranged from -95.3‰ to -219.6‰ and -128.1‰ to -188.6‰, respectively, exhibiting similar tendencies. The δD values of the C15-C18n-alkanes in both types of coal soot were nearly consistent, and the δD values of the C19-C24n-alkanes exhibited a zigzag profile. The δD values of C16-C22n-alkanes in gasoline exhaust exhibited a saw-tooth distribution, decreased with the carbon number, and were more positive than the δD values of C16-C22n-alkanes in diesel exhaust, which increased with the carbon number. However, the δD values of the C23-C29n-alkanes in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust were mostly consistent. The weighted average δD values of the C16-C19n-alkanes in industrial and domestic coal soot were similar to the average δD values in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhausts; however, the average δD values of the C21-C29n-alkanes in vehicle exhausts were richer in D than those in coal soot.

  12. SET-Plan - Scientific Assessment in Support of the Materials Roadmap Enabling Low Carbon Energy Technologies - Fossil Fuel Energies Sector, Including Carbon Capture and Storage

    OpenAIRE

    GOMEZ-BRICEÑO Dolores; Jong, Martin; DRAGE Trevor; Falzetti, Marco; Hedin, Niklas; Snijkers, Frans

    2011-01-01

    This document is part of a series of Scientific Assessment reports that underpin the Materials Roadmap enabling Low Carbon Energy Technologies. This report deals with the Fossil Fuel Energies Sector, including Carbon Capture and Storage.

  13. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  14. Carbon storage versus fossil fuel substitution: a climate change mitigation option for two different land use categories based on short and long rotation forestry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, M; Mohren, G.M.J.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    Short rotation bioenergy crops for energy production are considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to their ability to substitute fossil fuels. Alternatively, carbon can be sequestered and stored in the living biomass. This paper compares the two land use categories (forest land and non-forest land) for two management practices (short rotation vs. long rotation) to study mitigation potential of afforestation and fossil fuel substitution as compared to carbon ...

  15. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  16. Design, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels for the substitution of fossil feedstock in the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E; Pomberger, R; Rogetzer, M; Sipple, E M

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the requirements for the production, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels (SRF) that are increasingly used in the cement industry. Different aspects have to be considered before using SRF as an alternative fuel. Here, a study on the quality of SRF used in the cement industry is presented. This overview is completed by an investigation of type and properties of input materials used at waste splitting and SRF production plants in Austria. As a simplified classification, SRF can be divided into two classes: a fine, high-calorific SRF for the main burner, or coarser SRF material with low calorific value for secondary firing systems, such as precombustion chambers or similar systems. In the present study, SRFs coming from various sources that fall under these two different waste fuel classes are discussed. Both SRFs are actually fired in the grey clinker kiln of the Holcim (Slovensko) plant in Rohožnik (Slovakia). The fine premium-quality material is used in the main burner and the coarse regular-quality material is fed to a FLS Hotdisc combustion device. In general, the alternative fuels are used instead of their substituted fossil fuels. For this, chemical compositions and other properties of SRF were compared to hard coal as one of the most common conventional fuels in Europe. This approach allows to compare the heavy metal input from traditional and alternative fuels and to comment on the legal requirements on SRF that, at the moment, are under development in Europe.

  17. The energy demand and the impact by fossil fuels use in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, from 1988 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporary variation for the demand of refining products which are used in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is presented. Its consequent energy contribution is evaluated from 1988 to 2000. The annual estimation was integrated from a detailed inventory of fuels volume, so as the calculus of its respective energy equivalence. The fuel quality specifications, which have been required by regional Air Quality authority for controlling emissions to the atmosphere, are also presented for the same period. The evolution demand of fuels, in term of volume, quality and its energy contribution for this area, is compared with the national demand. On this regard, fuel pool differs in each bound and the demand along the same period has been increasing on both regions but at different rates, with 21% at MCMA and 31% countrywide. In 2000, the MCMA demanded 14% of the internal refining products volume sales, which represented 17% of the energy contribution to the country for those fuels. Likewise, the energy use coefficient (GJ per capita) was applied to compare this region with country trends. During 1996 and up to 2000, the MCMA presented slightly minor energy use per capita, than the rest of the country, and this period was distinguished also for using cleaner fuels and for obtaining improvements in air quality. On the other hand, MCMA and country greenhouse gases emissions will increase because of their fossil fuel dependence, so several mitigation measures must be implemented in the next decades

  18. Governmental interventions in the energy market. Study of the Dutch level playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has made an inventory of 53 governmental interventions in the Dutch energy market. Moreover, the consequences for the playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy saving have been quantified. It shows that the government still stimulates the use of energy and fossil fuels more than it stimulates use of renewable energy sources. Policy that focuses on decreasing the price differences between sustainable and fossil should therefore focus on the phase-out of this support and subsequently on bridging the remaining financial gap.

  19. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.

    2011-01-01

    The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (Δ14C), potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influenc...

  20. Partial replacement of fossil fuel in a cement plant: risk assessment for the population living in the neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Mari, Montse; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2010-10-15

    In cement plants, the substitution of traditional fossil fuels not only allows a reduction of CO(2), but it also means to check-out residual materials, such as sewage sludge or municipal solid wastes (MSW), which should otherwise be disposed somehow/somewhere. In recent months, a cement plant placed in Alcanar (Catalonia, Spain) has been conducting tests to replace fossil fuel by refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from MSW. In July 2009, an operational test was progressively initiated by reaching a maximum of partial substitution of 20% of the required energy. In order to study the influence of the new process, environmental monitoring surveys were performed before and after the RDF implementation. Metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in soil, herbage, and air samples collected around the facility. In soils, significant decreases of PCDD/F levels, as well as in some metal concentrations were found, while no significant increases in the concentrations of these pollutants were observed. In turn, PM(10) levels remained constant, with a value of 16μgm(-3). In both surveys, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks derived from exposure to metals and PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of the facility were within the ranges considered as acceptable according to national and international standards. This means that RDF may be a successful choice in front of classical fossil fuels, being in accordance with the new EU environmental policies, which entail the reduction of CO(2) emissions and the energetic valorization of MSW. However, further long-term environmental studies are necessary to corroborate the harmlessness of RDF, in terms of human health risks. PMID:20709362

  1. Partial replacement of fossil fuel in a cement plant: risk assessment for the population living in the neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Mari, Montse; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2010-10-15

    In cement plants, the substitution of traditional fossil fuels not only allows a reduction of CO(2), but it also means to check-out residual materials, such as sewage sludge or municipal solid wastes (MSW), which should otherwise be disposed somehow/somewhere. In recent months, a cement plant placed in Alcanar (Catalonia, Spain) has been conducting tests to replace fossil fuel by refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from MSW. In July 2009, an operational test was progressively initiated by reaching a maximum of partial substitution of 20% of the required energy. In order to study the influence of the new process, environmental monitoring surveys were performed before and after the RDF implementation. Metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in soil, herbage, and air samples collected around the facility. In soils, significant decreases of PCDD/F levels, as well as in some metal concentrations were found, while no significant increases in the concentrations of these pollutants were observed. In turn, PM(10) levels remained constant, with a value of 16μgm(-3). In both surveys, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks derived from exposure to metals and PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of the facility were within the ranges considered as acceptable according to national and international standards. This means that RDF may be a successful choice in front of classical fossil fuels, being in accordance with the new EU environmental policies, which entail the reduction of CO(2) emissions and the energetic valorization of MSW. However, further long-term environmental studies are necessary to corroborate the harmlessness of RDF, in terms of human health risks.

  2. Ultra-Clean Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Bergin

    2005-10-14

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: Dynamometer Durability Testing, the Denali Bus Fleet Demonstration, Bus Fleet Demonstrations Emissions Analysis, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Emissions Analysis, Feasibility Study of SFPs for Rural Alaska, and Cold Weather Testing of Ultra Clean Fuel.

  3. Overall intelligent hybrid control system for a fossil-fuel power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduno-Ramirez, Raul

    2000-10-01

    In response to the multiple and tighter operation requirements already placed on power plants, and anticipating everyday variations on their quantity and relevance due to competition on deregulated energy markets, this dissertation contributes the Intelligent Coordinated Control System (ICCS) paradigm that establishes a reference framework for the design of overall control systems for fossil-fuel power units, and develops a minimum prototype (ICCS-MP) to show its feasibility. The ICCS consists of a multiagent system organization structured as an open set of functionally grouped agent clusters in a two-level hierarchy. The upper level performs the supervisory functions needed to produce self-governing system behavior, while the lower level performs the fast reactive functions necessary for real-time control and protection. The ICCS-MP greatly extends the concept of current coordinated control schemes and embraces a minimum set of ICCS functions for the power unit to participate in load-frequency control in deregulated power systems; provides the means to achieve optimal wide-range load-tracking in multiobjective operating scenarios. The ICCS-MP preserves the ICCS structure. Supervisory functions include optimization and command generation, learning and control tuning, and performance and state monitoring. Direct level control functions realize a nonlinear multivariable feedforward-feedback scheme. These functions are implemented in three modules: reference governor, feedforward control processor (FFCP), and feedback control processor (FBCP). The reference governor provides set-point trajectories for the control loops by solving a multiobjective optimization problem that accommodates the operating scenario at hand. The FFCP facilitates achievement of wide-range operation; it is implemented as a fuzzy system that emulates the inverse static behavior of the power unit, and it is designed using neural networks. The FBCP provides disturbance and uncertainty compensation

  4. Summary of research on hydrogen production from fossil fuels conducted at NETL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsi, Abolghasem

    2008-03-30

    In this presentation we will summarize the work performed at NETL on the production of hydrogen via partial oxidation/dry reforming of methane and catalytic decomposition of hydrogen sulfide. We have determined that high pressure resulted in greater carbon formation on the reforming catalysts, lower methane and CO2 conversions, as well as a H2/CO ratio. The results also showed that Rh/alumina catalyst is the most resistant toward carbon deposition both at lower and at higher pressures. We studied the catalytic partial oxidation of methane over Ni-MgO solid solutions supported on metal foams and the results showed that the foam-supported catalysts reach near-equilibrium conversions of methane and H2/CO selectivities. The rates of carbon deposition differ greatly among the catalysts, varying from 0.24 mg C/g cat h for the dipped foams to 7.0 mg C/g cat h for the powder-coated foams, suggesting that the exposed Cr on all of the foam samples may interact with the Ni-MgO catalyst to kinetically limit carbon formation. Effects of sulfur poisoning on reforming catalysts were studies and pulse sulfidation of catalyst appeared to be reversible for some of the catalysts but not for all. Under pulse sulfidation conditions, the 0.5%Rh/alumina and NiMg2Ox-1100ºC (solid solution) catalysts were fully regenerated after reduction with hydrogen. Rh catalyst showed the best overall activity, less carbon deposition, both fresh and when it was exposed to pulses of H2S. Sulfidation under steady state conditions significantly reduced catalyst activity. Decomposition of hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and sulfur was studied over several supported metal oxides and metal oxide catalysts at a temperature range of 650-850°C. H2S conversions and effective activation energies were estimated using Arrhenius plots. The results of these studies will further our understanding of catalytic reactions and may help in developing better and robust catalysts for the production of hydrogen from fossil

  5. The influence of weather and environment on pulmonary embolism: pollutants and fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Ralf; Mayes, Julian; Hilton, Paul; Lawrenson, Ross

    2005-01-01

    Previous publications have highlighted seasonal variations in the incidence of thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and that weather patterns can influence these. While medical risk factors for pulmonary thrombo-embolism such as age, obesity, hypercoagulable states, cancer, previous thrombo-embolism, immobility, limb paralysis, surgery, major illness, trauma, hypotension, tachypnoea and right ventricular hypokinesis are not directly implicated regarding environmental factors such as weather, they could be influenced indirectly by these. This would be especially relevant in polluted areas that are associated with a higher pulmonary embolism risk. Routine nuclear medicine lung ventilation/perfusion studies (V/Q scans) of 2071 adult patients referred to the nuclear medicine department of the Royal Surrey County Hospital in Guildford, UK, between January 1998 and October 2002 were reviewed and 316 of these patients were classified as positive for pulmonary embolism with high probability scan on PIOPED criteria. The occurrence of positive scans was compared to environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, vapour pressure, air pressure and rainfall. Multiple linear regression was used to establish the significance of these relations. The incidence of pulmonary embolism was positively related to vapour pressure and rainfall. The most significant relation was to vapour pressure (p=0.010) while rainfall was less significant (p=0.017). There was no significant relation between pulmonary embolism and air pressure, humidity or temperature. It is postulated that rainfall and water vapour may be contributary factors in thrombosis and pulmonary embolism by way of pollutants that are carried as condensation nuclei in micro-droplets of water. In particular, fossil fuel pollutants are implicated as these condensation nuclei. Pollutants may be inhaled by populations exposed to windborne vapour droplets in cities or airports. Polluted vapour droplets may be absorbed by the lung

  6. Fossil fuel consumption and heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades more and more attention has been paid to the problem of ecosystem pollution by heavy metals. Many trace elements are registered now as a global pollutant due to their toxic nature. Their negative influence on the environment is caused by accumulation in different ecosystem components and increased involvement in biochemical cycles. The atmosphere is the main medium through which pollutants transported from emission sources to background territories where heavy metals are deposited into water and on plants. Heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere cause certain global environmental problems due to their long lifetime and the long-term transport of these elements in the atmosphere, as well as the increasing rate of their accumulation in the environment even at most remote territories. Moreover, heavy metals have evidently entered human food chains. The influence of global ecosystem pollution by heavy metals on human health is not well known as yet. Most trace elements comes into the atmosphere with natural and man-made aerosols. The main sources of natural aerosols in the atmosphere are soil erosion and weathering of mountain rocks, volcanic and space dust, forest firing smoke, and others. Major anthropogenic sources of toxic elements are fossil fuel combustion, mining, industrial processes, and waste incineration. The anthropogenic flow of heavy metals to the atmosphere is about 94-97 per cent of the total. An inventory of emission sources should be the first step in developing a control strategy and modelling global and regional cycles of trace elements. In this article the situation with lead, cadmium and mercury emissions from coal combustion of power plants and gasoline combustion by road transport is discussed. Pollutant amounts released into the atmosphere in industrial regions induce not only local deterioration of air, but they also affect on remote areas, and areas sensitive to contamination, such as the Arctic region. Problems on the

  7. Field Observations of Methane Emissions from Unconventional and Conventional Fossil Fuel Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M.; Lindenmaier, R.; Arata, C.; Costigan, K. R.; Frankenberg, C.; Kort, E. A.; Rahn, T. A.; Henderson, B. G.; Love, S. P.; Aubrey, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Energy from methane (CH4) has lower carbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions per unit energy produced than coal or oil making it a desirable fossil fuel. Hydraulic fracturing is allowing United States to harvest the nation's abundant domestic shale gas reservoirs to achieve energy independence. However, CH4 is a gas that is hard to contain during mining, processing, transport and end-use. Therefore fugitive CH4 leaks occur that are reported in bottom up inventories by the EPA. Recent targeted field observations at selected plays have provided top down CH4 leak estimates that are larger than the reported EPA inventories. Furthermore, no long-term regional baselines are available to delineate leaks from unconventional mining operations from historical conventional mining. We will report and compare observations of fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional and unconventional mining to understand changes from technology shifts. We will report in situ and regional column measurements of CH4, its isotopologue 13CH4 and ethane (C2H6) at our Four Corners site near Farmington, NM. The region has substantial coal bed methane, conventional oil and gas production, processing and distribution with minimal hydraulic fracturing activity. We observe large enhancements in in situ and regional column CH4 with distinct time dependence. Our in situ 13CH4 observations and remote C2H6/CH4 provide strong evidence of thermogenic sources. Comparisons of WRF-simulations with emissions inventory (Edgar) with our observations show that the fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional mining are 3 times greater than reported. We also compare in situ mobile surveys of fugitive CH4 and 13CH4 leak signals in basins with conventional (San Juan) mining and unconventional (Permian and Powder River) mining. A large number of active and closed wells were sampled in these regions. Furthermore, play scale surveys on public roads allowed us to gain a regional perspective. The composition of atmospheric 13CH4

  8. Vertical profiles of biospheric and fossil fuel-derived CO2 and fossil fuel CO2 : CO ratios from airborne measurements of Δ14C, CO2 and CO above Colorado, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Graven, Heather D.; Stephens, Britton B.; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Campos, Teresa L.; Schimel, David S.; Campbell, J. Elliott; Keeling, Ralph F.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of Δ14C in atmospheric CO2 are an effective method of separating CO2 additions from fossil fuel and biospheric sources or sinks of CO2. We illustrate this technique with vertical profiles of CO2 and Δ14C analysed in whole air flask samples collected above Colorado, USA in May and July 2004. Comparison of lower tropospheric composition to cleaner air at higher altitudes (>5 km) revealed considerable additions from respiration in the morning in both urban and rural locations. Af...

  9. Non-deforestation fire vs. fossil fuel combustion: the source of CO2 emissions affects the global carbon cycle and climate responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-04-01

    Non-deforestation fire - i.e., fire that is typically followed by the recovery of natural vegetation - is arguably the most influential disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby playing a major role in carbon exchanges and affecting many climatic processes. The radiative effect from a given atmospheric CO2 perturbation is the same for fire and fossil fuel combustion. However, major differences exist per unit of CO2 emitted between the effects of non-deforestation fire vs. fossil fuel combustion on the global carbon cycle and climate, because (1) fossil fuel combustion implies a net transfer of carbon from geological reservoirs to the atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial pools, whereas fire occurring in terrestrial ecosystems does not; (2) the average lifetime of the atmospheric CO2 increase is longer when originating from fossil fuel combustion compared to fire, due to the strong vegetation regrowth following fire disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems; and (3) other impacts, for example on land surface albedo, also differ between fire and fossil fuel combustion. The main purpose of this study is to illustrate the consequences from these fundamental differences between fossil fuel combustion and non-deforestation fires using 1000-year simulations of a coupled climate-carbon model with interactive vegetation. We assessed emissions from both pulse and stable fire regime changes, considering both the gross (carbon released from combustion) and net (fire-caused change in land carbon, also accounting for vegetation decomposition and regrowth, as well as climate-carbon feedbacks) fire CO2 emissions. In all cases, we found substantial differences from equivalent amounts of emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion. These findings suggest that side-by-side comparisons of non-deforestation fire and fossil fuel CO2 emissions - implicitly implying that they have similar effects per unit of CO2 emitted - should therefore be avoided, particularly when these comparisons

  10. The flexfuel tractor. Invesigations on the combustion behaviour of vegetable oil fuels and on the discernability of fossil and biogenic fuels; Der Flexfuel Traktor. Untersuchungen zum Verbrennungsverhalten von Pflanzenoelkraftstoffen und zur Unterscheidbarkeit fossiler und biogener Kraftstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieringer, Stefanie

    2012-07-01

    Increasing energy prices, especially for fossil fuels, as well as the necessity to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions are emphasizing the advantages of self-produced vegetable oil fuels in agriculture. Monetary advantages are depending on basic conditions like farm size or tax legislation, which can be changing locally as well as temporarily. Due to the differing properties of diesel and vegetable oil fuel, engines have to be adapted to each fuel to fulfil performance requirements as well as emission limits and reliability. Knowing that there are advantages of vegetable oil compared to diesel fuel, though not always and everywhere present, it becomes obvious that the well known flexible fuel concept of passenger cars should be adapted for diesel engines of agricultural machines. So called flexfuel engines imply the detection of the fuel type and an automated adjustment of the engine control parameters without any manual action of an operator. Therefore, the first step consists of the evaluation of the combustion properties of rapeseed, sunflower, jatropha and false flax oil compared to diesel fuel. The tested vegetable oils showed very similar behaviour in the tested common rail diesel engine. Especially the limited emissions were met with the same engine control software with all vegetable oils. In consequence it is possible to realize a flexfuel engine using the two engine control maps available at the moment, one for diesel and the other one for vegetable oil fuels. For further investigations one oil type, namely rapeseed oil was selected to test the combustion behaviour of fuel blends made of diesel and vegetable oil. The goal was to determine the blend ratio of vegetable oil and diesel fuel at which the engine control software has to be changed from the diesel to the vegetable oil map automatically. If the fuel consists of 40% or more vegetable oil, the vegetable oil engine control map has to be selected in order to fulfil legal emission limits. Finally the

  11. The CO2 release and Oxygen uptake from Fossil Fuel Emission Estimate (COFFEE dataset: effects from varying oxidative ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mukai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a global dataset of CO2 emissions and O2 uptake associated with the combustion of different fossil fuel types. To derive spatial and temporal patterns of oxygen uptake, we combined high-resolution CO2 emissions from the EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research inventory with country level information on oxidative ratios, based on fossil fuel consumption data from the UN energy statistics database. The results are hourly global maps with a spatial resolution of 1° × 1° for the years 1996–2008. The potential influence of spatial patterns and temporal trends in the resulting O2/CO2 emission ratios on the atmospheric oxygen signal is examined for different stations in the global measurement network, using model simulations from the global TM3 and the regional REMO transport model. For the station Hateruma Island (Japan, 24° 03' N, 123° 48' E, the simulated results are also compared to observations. In addition, the possibility of signals caused by variations in fuel use to be mistaken for oceanic signals is investigated using a global APO inversion.

  12. The CO2 release and Oxygen uptake from Fossil Fuel Emission Estimate (COFFEE dataset: effects from varying oxidative ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Minejima

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a global dataset of CO2 emissions and O2 uptake associated with the combustion of different fossil fuel types. To derive spatial and temporal patterns of oxygen uptake, we combined high-resolution CO2 emissions from the EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research inventory with country level information on oxidative ratios, based on fossil fuel consumption data from the UN energy statistics database. The results are hourly global maps with a spatial resolution of 1°×1° for the years 1996–2008. The potential influence of spatial patterns and temporal trends in the resulting O2/CO2 emission ratios on the atmospheric oxygen signal is examined for different stations in the global measurement network, using model simulations from the global TM3 and the regional REMO transport model. For the station Hateruma Island (Japan, 24°03' N, 123°48' E, the simulated results are also compared to observations. In addition, the possibility of signals caused by variations in fuel use to be mistaken for oceanic signals is investigated using a global APO inversion.

  13. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Mosier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O, has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. The relationship, in both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production and deforestation, is consistent, showing an overall conversion factor of 3–5%. This factor is covered only in part by the ~1% of "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands estimated by IPCC (2006, or the "indirect" emissions cited therein. This means that the extra N2O entering the atmosphere as a result of using N to produce crops for biofuels will also be correspondingly greater than that estimated just on the basis of IPCC (2006. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate each other. This needs to be analyzed in a full life cycle assessment.

  14. A comparative study of dynamic changes in CO2 emission performance of fossil fuel power plants in China and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to conduct a comparative study of the changes in CO2 emission performance of state-owned fossil fuel power plants between China and Korea. For this purpose, we combine the concept of the metafrontier Malmquist productivity index and the non-radial directional distance function to develop a new index called the non-radial metafrontier Malmquist CO2 emission performance index (NMMCPI). This new methodology allows for the incorporation of technological heterogeneities and slack variables into the previously introduced Malmquist CO2 emission performance index (MCPI). The NMMCPI can be derived by solving several non-radial data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. The NMMCPI can be decomposed into an efficiency change (EC) index, a best-practice gap change (BPC) index, and a technology gap change (TGC) index. By fixing the non-energy inputs, we measure the pure CO2 emission performance change. Based on the proposed indices, the comparative study between Chinese and Korean fossil fuel power industries is conducted for the 2005–2010 period. Empirical results indicate significant differences in terms of various decomposed CO2 emission performance changes between China and Korea. Korean power plants demonstrate improvements in innovation, while Chinese power plants demonstrate a higher ability for technological leadership. Some related policy implications are also proposed based on the empirical results. -- Highlights: •The non-radial metafrontier Malmquist CO2 emission performance index (NMMCPI) is proposed. •It allows for the incorporation of group heterogeneity and non-radial slack. •The changes in CO2 emission performance and its decomposition of fossil fuel power plants in China and Korea are compared

  15. The Fossil Fueled Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Emergence of Oil-Based Energy in North America, 1865--1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jason Arthur

    Beginning with coal in the nineteenth century, the mass production and intensive consumption of fossil fuel energy fundamentally changed patterns of urban and industrial development in North America. Focusing on the metropolitan development of Los Angeles, this dissertation examines how the emergence of oil-based capitalism in the first three decades of the twentieth century was sustained and made increasingly resilient through the production of urban and industrial space. In a region where coal was scarce, the development of oil-based energy was predicated on long-term investments into conversion technologies, storage systems and distribution networks that facilitated the efficient and economical flow of liquefied fossil fuel. In this dissertation, I argue that the historical and geographical significance of the Southern California petroleum industry is derived from how its distinctive market expansion in the first three decades of the twentieth century helped establish the dominance of oil-based energy as the primary fuel for transportation in capitalist society. In North America, the origins of oil-based capitalism can be traced to the turn of the twentieth century when California was the largest oil-producing economy in the United States and Los Angeles was the fastest growing metropolitan region. This dissertation traces how Los Angeles became the first city in North America where oil became a formative element of urban and industrial development: not only as fuel for transportation, but also in the infrastructures, landscapes and networks that sustain a critical dependence on oil-based energy. With a distinctive metropolitan geography, decentralized and automobile-dependent, Los Angeles became the first oil-based city in North America and thus provides an ideal case study for examining the regional dynamics of energy transition, establishment and dependence. Interwoven with the production of urban and industrial space, oil remains the primary fuel that

  16. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (Δ14C), potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on Δ14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of Δ14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in Δ14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than -0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.8°×1.8°. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985-2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of Δ14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

  17. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gruber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (Δ14C, potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on Δ14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of Δ14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in Δ14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than −0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.8°×1.8°. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985–2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of Δ14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

  18. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. General informations: The predominance of fossil fuels until 2020 strengthens the primordial list of Middle-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giving a summary of results of study headed: Energy for tomorrow world, realized by experts of International Council of Energy, Mr P. Gadonneix ( President of the french commission of this council and General Manager of ' Gaz de France') noticed that predominance of fossil fuels in international balance of energy until the year 2020 would strengthen the part of Middle East in world-wide provisioning and do unrealistic the objects of stabilization of carbon dioxides emissions as defined at the United Nations conference at Rio de Janeiro in 1992

  20. Analysis of river Jiu water pollution due to operation of Rovinari, Turceni and Paroseni fossil fuel power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important quantities of ash and breeze resulting from combustion of fossil fuels used in Rovinari, Turceni and Paroseni power plants were evacuated by hydraulic transport into decant ponds for the primary treatment. Waste waters resulting from hydrotransport have large suspension concentrations and, occasionally, strong alkaline pH values. Periodically, accidental pollutions affected the river Jiu and large areas of agricultural lands. The paper presents the analysis results of waste water pH, suspensions and fixed residue. The causes of river Jiu pollution are discussed and measures to reduce its effects are suggested. (authors)

  1. Wine ethanol C-14 as a tracer for fossil fuel CO2 emissions in Europe: Measurements and model comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Palstra, Sanne W. L.; Karstens, Ute; Streurman, Harm-Jan; Meijer, Harro A.J.

    2008-01-01

    C-14 (radiocarbon) in atmospheric CO2 is the most direct tracer for the presence of fossil-fuel-derived CO2 (CO2-ff). We demonstrate the C-14 measurement of wine ethanol as a way to determine the relative regional atmospheric CO2-ff concentration compared to a background site ("regional CO2-ff excess'') for specific harvest years. The carbon in wine ethanol is directly back traceable to the atmospheric CO2 that the plants assimilate. An important advantage of using wine is that the atmosphere...

  2. Fossil fuel based CO2 emissions, economic growth, and world crude oil price nexus in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Shanthini, Rajaratnam

    2007-01-01

    With the prime objective of learning from the fossil fuel based CO2 emissions-economic growth-world crude price nexus of a leading economy, the underpinning nature of the relationship among them is investigated for the United States (US). Autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach to cointegration provides empirical evidence for the existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship with 1% growth in GDP being tied up with 3.2% growth in CO2 emissions in the US. Increase in crude pr...

  3. Proceedings of the US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Plenary session and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    Volume one of the proceedings (Plenary Session and Fossil Fuels) contains papers on environmental pollution control which resulted mainly from US DOE's research programs in coal (preparation, desulfurization, gasification, liquefaction, combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, and pollution control methods with respect to SO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, and CO/sub 2/ (global effects and feasibility studies); a few papers deal with oil shale operations and the enhanced recovery of petroleum. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA, with 3 also into EAPA; six papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  4. Cancer-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul, E-mail: paulg@iastate.ed [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Duffield, James [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm. 4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, WA, DC 20250 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the lung cancer mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-section regressions of the mortality rate due to lung cancer against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cancer rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 10 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $5.7 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated value of statistical life (VSL) benefit is $27.2 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations mandated reduction in specific carcinogenic chemicals or smog components. Second, technologies such as the catalytic converter (CC) and low-particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  5. Cancer-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Duffield, James [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW Rm. 4059 So. Bldg, United States Department of Agriculture, WA, DC 20250 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the lung cancer mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-section regressions of the mortality rate due to lung cancer against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cancer rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 10 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about USD 5.7 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated value of statistical life (VSL) benefit is USD 27.2 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations mandated reduction in specific carcinogenic chemicals or smog components. Second, technologies such as the catalytic converter (CC) and low-particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels. (author)

  6. Cardiovascular disease-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul, E-mail: paulg@iastate.ed [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm.4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 (United States); Bachewe, Fantu [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Fischer, Amelia [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  7. Cardiovascular disease - risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul; Fischer, Amelia [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William; Bachewe, Fantu [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm.4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels. (author)

  8. Resource Usage Strategies and Trade-Offs between Cropland Demand, Fossil Fuel Consumption, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions—Building Insulation as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hansen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioresources are used in different production systems as materials as well as energy carriers. The same is true for fossil fuel resources. This study explored whether preferential resource usages exist, using a building insulation system as an example, with regard to the following sustainability criteria: climate impact, land, and fossil fuel demand. We considered the complete life cycle in a life cycle assessment-based approach. The criteria were compared for two strategies: one used natural fibers as material and generated production energies from fossil fuels; the other generated production energies from bioenergy carriers and transformed fossil resources into the insulation material. Both strategies finally yielded the same insulation effect. Hence, the energy demand for heating the building was ignored. None of the strategies operated best in all three criteria: While cropland demand was lower in the bioenergy than in the biomaterial system, its fossil fuel demand was higher. Net contribution to climate change was in the same range for both strategies if we considered no indirect changes in land use. Provided that effective recycling concepts for fossil-derived insulations are in place, using bioresources for energy generation was identified as a promising way to mitigate climate change along with efficient resource use.

  9. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  10. Fossil Fuel Combustion-Related Emissions Dominate Atmospheric Ammonia Sources during Severe Haze Episodes: Evidence from (15)N-Stable Isotope in Size-Resolved Aerosol Ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Zhu, Xiaying; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Bo; Michalski, Greg; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-08-01

    The reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions is urgently needed due to its role in aerosol nucleation and growth causing haze formation during its conversion into ammonium (NH4(+)). However, the relative contributions of individual NH3 sources are unclear, and debate remains over whether agricultural emissions dominate atmospheric NH3 in urban areas. Based on the chemical and isotopic measurements of size-resolved aerosols in urban Beijing, China, we find that the natural abundance of (15)N (expressed using δ(15)N values) of NH4(+) in fine particles varies with the development of haze episodes, ranging from -37.1‰ to -21.7‰ during clean/dusty days (relative humidity: ∼ 40%), to -13.1‰ to +5.8‰ during hazy days (relative humidity: 70-90%). After accounting for the isotope exchange between NH3 gas and aerosol NH4(+), the δ(15)N value of the initial NH3 during hazy days is found to be -14.5‰ to -1.6‰, which indicates fossil fuel-based emissions. These emissions contribute 90% of the total NH3 during hazy days in urban Beijing. This work demonstrates the analysis of δ(15)N values of aerosol NH4(+) to be a promising new tool for partitioning atmospheric NH3 sources, providing policy makers with insights into NH3 emissions and secondary aerosols for regulation in urban environments. PMID:27359161

  11. Fossil Fuel Combustion-Related Emissions Dominate Atmospheric Ammonia Sources during Severe Haze Episodes: Evidence from (15)N-Stable Isotope in Size-Resolved Aerosol Ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Zhu, Xiaying; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Bo; Michalski, Greg; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-08-01

    The reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions is urgently needed due to its role in aerosol nucleation and growth causing haze formation during its conversion into ammonium (NH4(+)). However, the relative contributions of individual NH3 sources are unclear, and debate remains over whether agricultural emissions dominate atmospheric NH3 in urban areas. Based on the chemical and isotopic measurements of size-resolved aerosols in urban Beijing, China, we find that the natural abundance of (15)N (expressed using δ(15)N values) of NH4(+) in fine particles varies with the development of haze episodes, ranging from -37.1‰ to -21.7‰ during clean/dusty days (relative humidity: ∼ 40%), to -13.1‰ to +5.8‰ during hazy days (relative humidity: 70-90%). After accounting for the isotope exchange between NH3 gas and aerosol NH4(+), the δ(15)N value of the initial NH3 during hazy days is found to be -14.5‰ to -1.6‰, which indicates fossil fuel-based emissions. These emissions contribute 90% of the total NH3 during hazy days in urban Beijing. This work demonstrates the analysis of δ(15)N values of aerosol NH4(+) to be a promising new tool for partitioning atmospheric NH3 sources, providing policy makers with insights into NH3 emissions and secondary aerosols for regulation in urban environments.

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R ampersand D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications, (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at

  13. The substitutive effect of biofuels on fossil fuels in the lower and higher crude oil price periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ting-Huan [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu County 310 (China); Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China); Su, Hsin-Mei [Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Various biofuels, including bioethanol and biodiesel are technologically being considered replacements for fossil fuels, such as the conventional gasoline and diesel. This paper aims to measure whether economic substitutability can be generated during periods of higher and/or lower prices of crude oil. The empirical results of the bivariate EGARCH model prove that this substitutive effect was occurred during the higher crude oil price period due to the significant price spillover effects from crude oil futures to corn and soybean futures, indicating that the increase in food prices can be attributed to more consumption of biofuels. We suggest more extensive research in the search for fuel alternatives from inedible feedstock such as pongamia, jojoba, jatropha, especially the 2nd generation biofuel technologies such as algae-based biofuels. (author)

  14. Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, James, P.

    2010-05-26

    Funding from DoE grant # FG0204-ER63721, Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2, supposed several postdoctoral fellows and research activities at MBARI related to ocean CO2 disposal and the biological consequences of high ocean CO2 levels on marine organisms. Postdocs supported on the project included Brad Seibel, now an associate professor at the University of Rhode Island, Jeff Drazen, now an associate professor at the University of Hawaii, and Eric Pane, who continues as a research associate at MBARI. Thus, the project contributed significantly to the professional development of young scientists. In addition, we made significant progress in several research areas. We continued several deep-sea CO2 release experiments using support from DoE and MBARI, along with several collaborators. These CO2 release studies had the goal of broadening our understanding of the effects of high ocean CO2 levels on deep sea animals in the vicinity of potential release sites for direct deep-ocean carbon dioxide sequestration. Using MBARI ships and ROVs, we performed these experiments at depths of 3000 to 3600 m, where liquid CO2 is heavier than seawater. CO2 was released into small pools (sections of PVC pipe) on the seabed, where it dissolved and drifted downstream, bathing any caged animals and sediments in a CO2-rich, low-pH plume. We assessed the survival of organisms nearby. Several publications arose from these studies (Barry et al. 2004, 2005; Carman et al. 2004; Thistle et al. 2005, 2006, 2007; Fleeger et al. 2006, 2010; Barry and Drazen 2007; Bernhard et al. 2009; Sedlacek et al. 2009; Ricketts et al. in press; Barry et al, in revision) concerning the sensitivity of animals to low pH waters. Using funds from DoE and MBARI, we designed and fabricated a hyperbaric trap-respirometer to study metabolic rates of deep-sea fishes under high CO2 conditions (Drazen et al, 2005), as well as a gas-control aquarium system to support laboratory studies of the

  15. Future climate trends from a first-difference atmospheric carbon dioxide regression model involving emissions scenarios for business as usual and for peak fossil fuel

    CERN Document Server

    Leggett, L M W

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the implications of the future continuation of the demonstrated past (1960-2012) strong correlation between first-difference atmospheric CO2 and global surface temperature. It does this, for the period from the present to 2050, for a comprehensive range of future global fossil fuel energy use scenarios. The results show that even for a business-as-usual (the mid-level IPCC) fossil fuel use estimate, global surface temperature will rise at a slower rate than for the recent period 1960-2000. Concerning peak fossil fuel, for the most common scenario the currently observed (1998-2013)temperature plateau will turn into a decrease. The observed trend to date for temperature is compared with that for global climate disasters: these peaked in 2005 and are notably decreasing. The temperature and disaster results taken together are consistent with either a reduced business-as-usual fossil fuel use scenario into the future, or a peak fossil fuel scenario, but not with the standard business-as-usu...

  16. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for October 1991--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1992, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Topics discussed are under the following projects: materials research and developments; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; and fossil fuels supplies modeling and research.

  17. Diagnosis of Heat Exchanger Tube Failure in Fossil Fuel Boilers Through Estimation of Steady State Operating Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of operating conditions for fossil fuel boiler heat exchangers is often required due to changes in working conditions, design modifications and especially for monitoring performance and failure diagnosis. Regular heat exchangers in fossil fuel boilers are composed of tube banks through which water or steam flow, while hot combustion (flue) gases flow outside the tubes. This work presents a top-down approach to operating conditions estimation based on field measurements. An example for a 350 MW unit superheater is thoroughly discussed. Integral calculations based on measurements for all unit heat exchangers (reheaters, superheaters) were performed first. Based on these calculations a scheme of integral conservation equations (lumped parameter) was then formulated at the single tube level. Steady state temperatures of superheater tube walls were obtained as a main output, and were compared to the maximum allowable operating temperatures of the tubes material. A combined lumped parameter - CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics, FLUENT code) approach constitutes an efficient tool in certain cases. A brief report of such a case is given for another unit superheater. We conclude that steady state evaluations based on both integral and detailed simulations are a valuable monitoring and diagnosis tool for the power generation industry

  18. Public support for reducing US reliance on fossil fuels. Investigating household willingness-to-pay for energy research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Department of Economics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL (United States); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.; Herron, Kerry G. [Center for Applied Social Research and Department of Political Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Berrens, Robert P. [Department of Economics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-01-15

    In order to reduce future dependence on foreign oil and emissions of CO{sub 2}, how much would US households be willing to pay annually to support increased energy research and development (R and D) activities designed to replace fossil fuels? Does it matter whether the R and D includes nuclear energy options? We explore these questions using data from a unique set of national telephone and Internet surveys. Using a national advisory referendum format, the contingent valuation method is applied to estimate annual household willingness-to-pay (WTP) for US household support of a national Energy Research and Development Fund (ERDF) for investments in energy sources not reliant on fossil fuels. While accounting for the level of (un)certainty in voting responses, the WTP modeling includes a comparison of both classic maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and Bayesian analysis. Evidence indicates that MLE and Bayesian analysis achieve similar statistical inference, while the Bayesian analysis provides a narrower confidence interval around estimated WTP. (author)

  19. Prospects for enhancing carbon sequestration and reclamation of degraded lands with fossil-fuel combustion by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern for the potential global change consequences of increasing atmospheric CO2 has prompted interest in the development of mechanisms to reduce or stabilize atmospheric CO2. During the next several decades, a program focused on terrestrial sequestration processes could make a significant contribution to abating CO2 increases. The reclamation of degraded lands, such as mine-spoil sites, highway rights-of-way, and poorly managed lands, represents an opportunity to couple C sequestration with the use of fossil-fuel and energy by-products and other waste material, such as biosolids and organic wastes from human and animal sewage treatment facilities, to improve soil quality. Degraded lands are often characterized by acidic pH, low levels of key nutrients, poor soil structure, and limited moisture-retention capacity. Much is known about the methods to improve these soils, but the cost of implementation is often a limiting factor. However, the additional financial and environmental benefits of C sequestration may change the economics of land reclamation activities. The addition of energy-related by-products can address the adverse conditions of these degraded lands through a variety of mechanisms, such as enhancing plant growth and capturing of organic C in long-lived soil C pools. This review examines the use of fossil-fuel combustion by-products and organic amendments to enhance C sequestration and identifies the key gaps in information that still must be addressed before these methods can be implemented on an environmentally meaningful scale. (author)

  20. Fossil fuel and CO2 emissions savings on a high renewable electricity system – A single year case study for Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several electricity systems supply significant proportions of electricity from weather dependent renewable sources. Different quantification methods have estimated the associated historical savings of fuel and CO2 emissions. Primary energy equivalent and econometric methods do not readily quantify factors like operational changes to fossil fuel generation arising from the integration renewable energy. Dispatch models can overcome these limitations, but are generally applied to future scenarios. A dispatch model is applied to ex-post data for the 2012 All Island system in Ireland. Renewable electricity accounted for 20.4% of total generation, 15.8% from wind. The results show renewable generation averted a 26% increase in fossil fuels (valued at €297 million) and avoided an 18% increase in CO2 emissions (2.85 MtCO2), as compared to the simulated 2012 system without renewable generation. Wind averted 20% increase in fossil fuel generation and a 14% increase in CO2 emissions (2.33 MtCO2). Each MWh of renewable electricity avoided on average 0.43 tCO2 with wind avoiding 0.46 tCO2/MWh. Additional renewable related balancing requirements had minor impacts on fossil fuel generation efficiency; CO2 production rates increased by <2%. Policy measures to alleviate network congestion, increase system flexibility and increase financial penalties on emissions can increase savings from renewable generation. -- Highlights: •We applied a dispatch model to ex-post data for the All-Island system on in 2012. •Influential factors for reductions in fossil fuel and CO2 are considered. •Each MWh of renewable electricity is found to save 0.43 tCO2. •Changes to CO2 production rates of fossil fuel generation were minor (<2%). •Policy can effect several influential factors to maximise savings achieved

  1. HYDROGENATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PROD—UCTION OF CLEAN GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUEL IN RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIEHong; SHIYa-hua; SHIYu-lin; KANGXiao-hong; LIDa-dong

    2003-01-01

    It is necessary to produce low sulfur /low olefin gasoline and low sulfur /low aromatics diesel fuel for reducing the air pollution from automobile exhausted gas.Major component in gasoline pool in China is from FCCU,resulting in higher olefin content in product gasoline.The difficult point in producing clean gasoline is to lower down the olefin content while retaining RON of gasoline as much as possible.Based on the properties of gasoline,RIPP has developed technology(RIDOS) for reducing both sulfur and olefin contents by the same process.The technology shows that its hy-dro-iso-cracking performance to some extent can reduce the olefin content from 50%-60% to less than 20%,and road octane loss is less than 2.In deep hydro-desulfurization of diesel fuel,the key than 20%,and road octane loss is less than 2.In deep hydro-desulfurization of diesel fuel,the key point is to remove dibenzhothiophen(DBT)with methyl substitute in 4 and 6 positions.To solve this problem,RN-10 catalyst with high hydrogenation activity was developed by reinforcing the hydrogenation function.The catalyst featured with less spatial hindrance effect after the DMDBT was hydrogenated,meanwhile ,it has high activity in aromatics saturation.Diesel fuel with low sulfur and low aromatics content can be manufactured from SRGO or FCC diesel fraction.RIPP has developed more technologies such as MHUG,RMC and RICH for production of clean diesel fuel with low sulfur/aromatics and low density with increased cetane number.

  2. On the road : non-fossil fuel deployment for the public bus fleet of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The public transport sector in Sweden has set a target to run 90% of its total vehicle-kilometers on renewable fuels by 2020, and double its market share in the long term. The focus of this paper is the adoption of renewable fuels in public bus fleets. Data for all 21 Swedish counties were gathered and analyzed, mapping the bus fleets’ condition in relation to renewable fuel deployment, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The main factors affecting fuel choices in the bus fleets were investi...

  3. Impacts of a 32-billion-gallon bioenergy landscape on land and fossil fuel use in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Wang, Weiwei; Khanna, Madhu; Long, Stephen P.; Dwivedi, Puneet; Parton, William J.; Hartman, Melannie; Delucia, Evan H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable transportation biofuels may require considerable changes in land use to meet mandated targets. Understanding the possible impact of different policies on land use and greenhouse gas emissions has typically proceeded by exploring either ecosystem or economic modelling. Here we integrate such models to assess the potential for the US Renewable Fuel Standard to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector through the use of cellulosic biofuels. We find that 2022 US emissions are decreased by 7.0 ± 2.5% largely through gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage by perennial grasses. If the Renewable Fuel Standard is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, these emissions could be reduced by 12.3 ± 3.4%. Our integrated approach indicates that transitioning to cellulosic biofuels can meet a 32-billion-gallon Renewable Fuel Standard target with negligible effects on food crop production, while reducing fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. However, emissions savings are lower than previous estimates that did not account for economic constraints.

  4. Prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels in long-run relationships: a comparative study for the USA and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Tanja; Bentzen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Time-series data for the USA and Europe representing prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels are used for a comparative analysis of long-run price relationships. There is some evidence for cointegration between ethanol and gasoline, especially for the USA, and in the case of...... of biodiesel, stronger evidence of cointegration between biodiesel, diesel and soya oil for both the USA and Europe. Finally, biofuel prices do not seem to influence agricultural commodity prices or fossil fuel prices.......Time-series data for the USA and Europe representing prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels are used for a comparative analysis of long-run price relationships. There is some evidence for cointegration between ethanol and gasoline, especially for the USA, and in the case...

  5. Carbon as Investment Risk—The Influence of Fossil Fuel Divestment on Decision Making at Germany’s Main Power Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kiyar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available German electricity giants have recently taken high-level decisions to remove selected fossil fuel operations from their company portfolio. This new corporate strategy could be seen as a direct response to the growing global influence of the fossil fuel divestment campaign. In this paper we ask whether the divestment movement currently exerts significant influence on decision-making at the top four German energy giants—E.On, RWE, Vattenfall and EnBW. We find that this is not yet the case. After describing the trajectory of the global fossil fuel divestment campaign, we outline four alternative influences on corporate strategy that, currently, are having a greater impact than the divestment movement on Germany’s power sector. In time, however, clear political decisions and strong civil support may increase the significance of climate change concerns in the strategic management of the German electricity giants.

  6. Overall intelligent hybrid control system for a fossil-fuel power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garduno-Ramirez, Raul

    2000-08-01

    This research present a methodology to design a generalized overall unit control system for a fossil fuel power unit (FFPU), and develops a minimum prototype to demonstrate its feasibility. Toward the above goal, the associated research project was undertaken as a technology innovation process with its two ends identified as follows. First, it is recognized that the coordinated control strategies constitute the uppermost control level in current FFPUs, and so, are responsible for driving the boiler-turbine-generator set as a single entity. Second, a FFPU is envisioned as a complex process, subject to multiple changing operating conditions, that should perform as an intelligent system, for which an advanced integral control concept is needed. Therefore, as an outcome of the innovation process, a generalized unit control concept that extends the capabilities of current coordinated control schemes is proposed. This concept is presented as the Intelligent Coordinated Control System (ICCS) paradigm, which establishes an open reference framework for the development of overall unit control schemes. The ICCS's system goals are identified using power plant process engineering concepts, and intelligent control systems engineering concepts are used to identify main tasks and to achieve system functional decomposition. A software engineering agency concept is used to identify and group agents according to their knowledge and purpose interactions. The resultant ICCS structure is an open set of functionally grouped agent clusters in a two-level hierarchical system. The upper level, mainly characterized for knowledge-driven processes, performs the supervisory functions needed to provide self governing operation characteristics, while the lower level, mainly characterized for data-driven processes, performs the fast reactive behavior functions necessary for hybrid real-time control and protection. Developed through several stages, the ICCS-MP finally implements a two

  7. Suitability of thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detection with regard to quantitative characterization of different fossil fuel products. 1. FID performances and response of pure compounds related to fossil fuel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebolla, V.L.; Vela, J.; Membrado, L.; Ferrando, A.C. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica, Dept. de Procesos Quimicos

    1998-10-01

    The performance of a modern TLC-FID system (which includes the newest detector configuration) was tested on polycyclic aromatic compound standards and related compounds as a preliminary step to evaluate its suitability for quantitative hydrocarbon group type analysis of different coal and petroleum products. FID linearity was evaluated as a function of sample load and scan speed for high-molecular-weight and semi-volatile standards. TLC-FID response factors for compounds of several homologous series were studied in order to differentiate effects of volatility from those exclusively due to the chemical nature concerning FID response. Criteria are developed for the accurate application of TLC-FID to fossil fuel samples. Measurements of chromarod temperatures were carried out in order to evaluate whether an evaporation of compounds outside the H{sub 2} flame might take place. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 9. Methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report sets forth methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities for electric power generation. The review is divided into a Notice of Intention process and an Application for Certification process, in accordance with the structure to be used by the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, the first emphasizing site-specific considerations, the second examining the detailed facility design as well. The Notice of Intention review is divided into three possible stages: an examination of emissions and site characteristics, a basic impact analysis, and an assessment of public impacts. The Application for Certification review is divided into five possible stages: a review of the Notice of Intention treatment, review of the emission control equipment, review of the safety design, review of the general facility design, and an overall assessment of site and facility acceptability

  9. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 9. Methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report sets forth methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities for electric power generation. The review is divided into a Notice of Intention process and an Application for Certification process, in accordance with the structure to be used by the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, the first emphasizing site-specific considerations, the second examining the detailed facility design as well. The Notice of Intention review is divided into three possible stages: an examination of emissions and site characteristics, a basic impact analysis, and an assessment of public impacts. The Application for Certification review is divided into five possible stages: a review of the Notice of Intention treatment, review of the emission control equipment, review of the safety design, review of the general facility design, and an overall assessment of site and facility acceptability.

  10. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 1. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents an overview of a project on the health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. In addition to presenting an executive summary of the project, it sets forth the main results of the four tasks of the project: to review the health impacts (and related standards) of these forms of power generation, to review the status of standards related to plant safety (with an emphasis on nuclear power), to consider the role of the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission in selection of standards, and to set forth methodologies whereby that Commission may review the health and safety aspects of proposed sites and facilities.

  11. Development of Nano-crystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Hai [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Dong, Junhang [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lin, Jerry [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Romero, Van [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This is a final technical report for the first project year from July 1, 2005 to Jan 31, 2012 for DoE/NETL funded project DE-FC26-05NT42439: Development of Nanocrystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases. This report summarizes the technical progresses and achievements towards the development of novel nanocrystalline doped ceramic material-enabled optical fiber sensors for in situ and real time monitoring the gas composition of flue or hot gas streams involved in fossil-fuel based power generation and hydrogen production.

  12. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, P. J.; Mosier, A. R.; Smith, K. A.; Winiwarter, W.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. For both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production, we find an overall conversion factor of 3-5% from newly fixed N to N2O-N. We assume the same factor to be valid for biofuel production systems. It is covered only in part by the default conversion factor for "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands (1%) estimated by IPCC (2006), and the default factors for the "indirect" emissions (following volatilization/deposition and leaching/runoff of N: 0.35-0.45%) cited therein. However, as we show in the paper, when additional emissions included in the IPCC methodology, e.g. those from livestock production, are included, the total may not be inconsistent with that given by our "top-down" method. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize), depending on N fertilizer uptake efficiency by the plants, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species, have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate

  13. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Mosier

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O, has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. For both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production, we find an overall conversion factor of 3–5% from newly fixed N to N2O-N. We assume the same factor to be valid for biofuel production systems. It is covered only in part by the default conversion factor for "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands (1% estimated by IPCC (2006, and the default factors for the "indirect" emissions (following volatilization/deposition and leaching/runoff of N: 0.35–0.45% cited therein. However, as we show in the paper, when additional emissions included in the IPCC methodology, e.g. those from livestock production, are included, the total may not be inconsistent with that given by our "top-down" method. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize, depending on N fertilizer uptake efficiency by the plants, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species, have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors

  14. Surrogate gas prediction model as a proxy for Δ14C-based measurements of fossil fuel CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Kevin J.; Miller, John B.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Ben R.

    2016-06-01

    The measured 14C:12C isotopic ratio of atmospheric CO2 (and its associated derived Δ14C value) is an ideal tracer for determination of the fossil fuel derived CO2 enhancement contributing to any atmospheric CO2 measurement (Cff). Given enough such measurements, independent top-down estimation of U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions should be possible. However, the number of Δ14C measurements is presently constrained by cost, available sample volume, and availability of mass spectrometer measurement facilities. Δ14C is therefore measured in just a small fraction of samples obtained by flask air sampling networks around the world. Here we develop a projection pursuit regression (PPR) model to predict Cff as a function of multiple surrogate gases acquired within the NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network (GGGRN). The surrogates consist of measured enhancements of various anthropogenic trace gases, including CO, SF6, and halocarbon and hydrocarbon acquired in vertical airborne sampling profiles near Cape May, NJ and Portsmouth, NH from 2005 to 2010. Model performance for these sites is quantified based on predicted values corresponding to test data excluded from the model building process. Chi-square hypothesis test analysis indicates that these predictions and corresponding observations are consistent given our uncertainty budget which accounts for random effects and one particular systematic effect. However, quantification of the combined uncertainty of the prediction due to all relevant systematic effects is difficult because of the limited range of the observations and their relatively high fractional uncertainties at the sampling sites considered here. To account for the possibility of additional systematic effects, we incorporate another component of uncertainty into our budget. Expanding the number of Δ14C measurements in the NOAA GGGRN and building new PPR models at additional sites would improve our understanding of

  15. Effect of fossil fuels on the parameters of CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Tibor; Mizsey, Peter

    2013-08-01

    The carbon dioxide capture is a more and more important issue in the design and operation of boilers and/or power stations because of increasing environmental considerations. Such processes, absorber desorber should be able to cope with flue gases from the use of different fossil primary energy sources, in order to guarantee a flexible, stable, and secure energy supply operation. The changing flue gases have significant influence on the optimal operation of the capture process, that is, where the required heating of the desorber is the minimal. Therefore special considerations are devoted to the proper design and control of such boiler and/or power stations equipped with CO2 capture process.

  16. Chemistry of fossil fuels and biofuels (cambridge series in chemical engineering)

    CERN Document Server

    Schobert, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on today's major fuel resources - ethanol, biodiesel, wood, natural gas, petroleum products and coal - this book discusses the formation, composition and properties of the fuels, and the ways in which they are processed for commercial use. The book examines the origin of fuels through natural processes such as photosynthesis and the geological transformation of ancient plant material; the relationships between their composition, molecular structures, and physical properties; and the various processes by which they are converted or refined into the fuel products appearing on today's market. Fundamental chemical aspects such as catalysis and the behaviour of reactive intermediates are presented, and global warming and anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are also discussed. The book is suitable for graduate students in energy engineering, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering and chemistry, as well as professional scientists and engineers.

  17. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes. [results of ERTS program for oil exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results from the ERTS program pertinent to exploration for oil, gas, and uranium are discussed. A review of achievements in relevant geological studies from ERTS, and a survey of accomplishments oriented towards exploration for energy sources are presented along with an evaluation of the prospects and limitations of the space platform approach to fuel exploration, and an examination of continuing programs designed to prove out the use of ERTS and other space system in exploring for fuel resources.

  18. Co-firing fossil fuels and biomass: combustion, deposition and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Khodier, Ala H. M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of advanced technologies employing combustion/co-firing of coal and biomass is seen as a promising approach to minimising the environmental impact and reducing CO2 emissions of heat/power production. The existing uncertainties in the combustion behaviour of such fuel mixes and the release of alkali metals with other elements during the combustion (or co-firing) of many bio-fuels are some of the main issues that are hindering its application. The potential presen...

  19. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.; Anderson, A.D.

    1977-12-01

    This is the first annual report issued under a project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in-situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. Briefly, the goals of the project are to: evaluate the toxicity of process water effluents on aquatic biota; recommend maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents; and assist DOE in using project data and recommendations to design control technologies and to assess environmental impacts. The project objectives for Year 1 were pursued through the following five tasks: a literature review on process water constituents; toxicity studies on the effect of process waters and six process water constituents on aquatic biota; degradation rate studies on four to six process water constituents; bioaccumulation studies on four to six process water constituents; and recommendations on maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents based on data from the project and from the literature. Progress toward completion of these goals is presented.

  20. Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors A Key to Define, Analyze and Design Energy Systems Beyond Fossil Fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Orecchini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    What lies beyond the era of fossil fuels? While most answers focus on different primary energy resources, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors provides a completely new approach. Instead of providing a traditional consumption analysis of classical primary energy resources such as oil, coal, nuclear power and gas, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors describes and assesses energy technologies, markets and future strategies, focusing on their capacity to produce, exchange, and use energy vectors. Special attention is given to the renewable energy resources available in different areas of the world and made exploitable by the integration of energy vectors in the global energy system. Clear definitions of energy vectors and energy systems are used as the basis for a complete explanation and assessment of up-to-date, available technologies for energy resources, transport and storage systems, conversion and use. The energy vectors scheme allows the potential realisation of a worldwide sustainable ener...

  1. Determination of wood burning and fossil fuel contribution of black carbon at Delhi, India using aerosol light absorption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Pipal, A S; Srivastava, A K; Bisht, D S; Pandithurai, G

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive measurement program of effective black carbon (eBC), fine particle (PM2.5), and carbon monoxide (CO) was undertaken during 1 December 2011 to 31 March 2012 (winter period) in Delhi, India. The mean mass concentrations of eBC, PM2.5, and CO were recorded as 12.1 ± 8.7 μg/m(3), 182.75 ± 114.5 μg/m(3), and 3.41 ± 1.6 ppm, respectively, during the study period. Also, the absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) was estimated from eBC and varied from 0.38 to 1.29 with a mean value of 1.09 ± 0.11. The frequency of occurrence of AAE was ~17 % less than unity whereas ~83 % greater than unity was observed during the winter period in Delhi. The mass concentrations of eBC were found to be higher by ~34 % of the average value of eBC (12.1 μg/m(3)) during the study period. Sources of eBC were estimated, and they were ~94 % from fossil fuel (eBCff) combustion whereas only 6 % was from wood burning (eBCwb). The ratio between eBCff and eBCwb was 15, which indicates a higher impact from fossil fuels compared to biomass burning. When comparing eBCff during day and night, a factor of three higher concentrations was observed in nighttime than daytime, and it is due to combustion of fossil fuel (diesel vehicle emission) and shallow boundary layer conditions. The contribution of eBCwb in eBC was higher between 1800 and 2100 hours due to burning of wood/biomass. A significant correlation between eBC and PM2.5 (r = 0.78) and eBC and CO (r = 0.46) indicates the similarity in location sources. The mass concentration of eBC was highest (23.4 μg/m(3)) during the month of December when the mean visibility (VIS) was lowest (1.31 km). Regression analysis among wind speed (WS), VIS, soot particles, and CO was studied, and significant negative relationships were seen between VIS and eBC (-0.65), eBCff (-0.66), eBCwb (-0.34), and CO (-0.65); however, between WS and eBC (-0.68), eBCff (-0.67), eBCwb (-0.28), and CO (-0.53). The regression analysis indicated

  2. A 21st-century shift from fossil-fuel to biogenic methane emissions indicated by 13CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hinrich; Fletcher, Sara E. Mikaloff; Veidt, Cordelia; Lassey, Keith R.; Brailsford, Gordon W.; Bromley, Tony M.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Michel, Sylvia E.; Miller, John B.; Levin, Ingeborg; Lowe, Dave C.; Martin, Ross J.; Vaughn, Bruce H.; White, James W. C.

    2016-04-01

    Between 1999 and 2006, a plateau interrupted the otherwise continuous increase of atmospheric methane concentration [CH4] since preindustrial times. Causes could be sink variability or a temporary reduction in industrial or climate-sensitive sources. We reconstructed the global history of [CH4] and its stable carbon isotopes from ice cores, archived air, and a global network of monitoring stations. A box-model analysis suggests that diminishing thermogenic emissions, probably from the fossil-fuel industry, and/or variations in the hydroxyl CH4 sink caused the [CH4] plateau. Thermogenic emissions did not resume to cause the renewed [CH4] rise after 2006, which contradicts emission inventories. Post-2006 source increases are predominantly biogenic, outside the Arctic, and arguably more consistent with agriculture than wetlands. If so, mitigating CH4 emissions must be balanced with the need for food production.

  3. A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

    2013-04-01

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

  4. The study of PAH's in aerosols produced from combustion processes of coal and other fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald J. Pugmire; Mark S. Solum; Y.J. Jiang; S. Yan; A.F. Sarofim; Randy Winans [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Institute for Combustion and Energy Sciences

    2005-07-01

    In combustion systems PAH formation plays a key role not only in environmental and health related affects but also in heat transfer processes. The latter is particularly important with regard to the optical constants of the gas phase PAHs that not only control the radiative heat transfer but also produce spectral signatures that are integral to certain types of weapons systems. A resurgence of interest in polyarenes has been stimulated by growing awareness that compounds of this class, including a number of relatively potent carcinogens, are prevalent in the human environment and may play an important role in the causation of cancer. Research interest has focused on the polyarenes because of their widespread environmental prevalence and the high carcinogenic potency of some members of this class. Polyarenes are formed as products of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic matter. Over the past five years we have studied the source and formation mechanisms of PAH's from various fossil fuels. Various types of data obtained on selected coal samples were instrumental in the analysis both structure and pyrolysis. Utilizing NMR, ESR and mass spectroscopy data, the reaction mechanisms for PAH formation have been formulated as well as the amount of stable free radicals that are ever present in combustion products. Conductivity measurements in anthracite coals as well as combustion aerosol samples have proven to be an interesting factor in determining the extend of turbostratic structure present in soot structures. The details of these experiments and the body of data will be summarized. (Abstract only)

  5. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, N.; Graven, H. D.

    2011-01-01

    Since aged carbon in fossil fuel contains no 14C, 14C/C ratios (Δ14C) measured in atmospheric CO2 can be used to estimate CO2 added by combustion and, potentially, provide verification of fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. Sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract dilution by fossil CO2. Therefore, these nuclear sources can bias observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if they are not correctly ...

  6. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  7. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin of the modelled particulate matter distributions thoughout a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated for 2007-2009. These maps were combined with a health impact calculation to estimate Lost of Life Expectancy for each fuel categories. An user friendly web client was generated to access the results and use the web mapping service in an easy manner. (orig.)

  8. INVESTIGATION OF FOSSIL FUEL AND LIQUID BIOFUEL BLEND PROPERTIES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Najafi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gasoline fuel is the baseline fuel in this research, to which bioethanol, biodiesel and diesel are additives. The fuel blends were prepared based on different volumes and following which, ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials test methods analysed some of the important properties of the blends, such as: density, dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity and water and sediment. Experimental data were analysed by means of Matlab software. The results obtained from artificial neural network analysis of the data showed that the network with feed forward back propagation of the Levenberg-Marquardt train LM function with 10 neurons in the hidden layer was the best for predicting the parameters, including: Water and sediment (W, dynamic viscosity (DV, kinematic viscosity (KV and density (De. The experimental data had a good correlation with ANN-predicted values according to 0.96448 for regression.

  9. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude

  10. Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land and Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert McCormack

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for human consumption. Using corn for ethanol increases the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk more than 10% to 30%.

  11. Microscale In Vitro Assays for the Investigation of Neutral Red Retention and Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylase of Biofuels and Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Brendt, Julia; Mayer, Philipp; Anders, Nico; Schäffer, Andreas; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Hollert, Henner

    2016-01-01

    Only few information on the potential toxic effectiveness of biofuels are available. Due to increasing worldwide demand for energy and fuels during the past decades, biofuels are considered as a promising alternative for fossil fuels in the transport sector. Hence, more information on their hazard potentials are required to understand the toxicological impact of biofuels on the environment. In the German Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-made Fuels from Biomass” design processes for economical, sustainable and environmentally friendly biofuels are investigated. In an unique and interdisciplinary approach, ecotoxicological methods are applied to gain information on potential adverse environmental effects of biofuels at an early phase of their development. In the present study, three potential biofuels, ethyl levulinate, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and 2-methylfuran were tested. Furthermore, we investigated a fossil gasoline fuel, a fossil diesel fuel and an established biodiesel. Two in vitro bioassays, one for assessing cytotoxicity and one for aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonism, so called dioxin-like activity, as measured by Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylase, were applied using the permanent fish liver cell line RTL-W1 (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The special properties of these fuel samples required modifications of the test design. Points that had to be addressed were high substance volatility, material compatibility and low solubility. For testing of gasoline, diesel and biodiesel, water accommodated fractions and a passive dosing approach were tested to address the high hydrophobicity and low solubility of these complex mixtures. Further work has to focus on an improvement of the chemical analyses of the fuel samples to allow a better comparison of any effects of fossil fuels and biofuels. PMID:27684069

  12. To break away from fossil fuels : a contribution to solve climatic change and energy security for Quebec; S'affranchir des carburants fossiles : une contribution a la lutte aux changements climatiques et a la securite energetique du Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, P.; Seguin, H.; Waridel, L.

    2006-06-15

    In response to growing energy demands, Quebec has proposed the construction of 3 deep water terminals to accommodate methane tankers which transport liquefied natural gas (LNG). This paper focused on the proposed Gros Cacouna Port project in the St. Lawrence Seaway which is currently under study and subject to approval. Equiterre, questioned the energy security aspect of the proposal and argued that increasing Quebec's reliance on increasingly expensive energy would decrease energy security. In addition, importation of LNG would bring a clear exit of capital outside the province. Equiterre also argued that reliance on fossil fuels should be decreased in order to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions which contribute to climate change. The organization questioned whether the economic and social need for the proposed project justifies a greater dependency on fossil fuels and the associated impact on the environment and fragile ecosystems of the St. Lawrence. It was suggested that alternative solutions such as renewable energy sources and energy efficiency should be explored in order to promote sustainable development, increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gases. Equiterre argued that Quebec can and must decrease, and even eliminate, its dependence on fossil fuels, including natural gas, for Quebec's economic, social and environmental well-being. For these reasons, Equiterre recommended that the proposed project be rejected, particularly since the project proponents failed to show the real impact that the project would have on Quebec markets. 72 refs., 10 tabs., 21 figs.

  13. Global Partitioning of NOx Sources Using Satellite Observations: Relative Roles of Fossil Fuel Combustion, Biomass Burning and Soil Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegle, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the following abstract for the paper "Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions." Satellite observations have been used to provide important new information about emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are significant in atmospheric chemistry, having a role in ozone air pollution, acid deposition and climate change. We know that human activities have led to a three- to six-fold increase in NOx emissions since pre-industrial times, and that there are three main surface sources of NOx: fuel combustion, large-scale fires, and microbial soil processes. How each of these sources contributes to the total NOx emissions is subject to some doubt, however. The problem is that current NOx emission inventories rely on bottom-up approaches, compiling large quantities of statistical information from diverse sources such as fuel and land use, agricultural data, and estimates of burned areas. This results in inherently large uncertainties. To overcome this, Lyatt Jaegle and colleagues from the University of Washington, USA, used new satellite observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. As the spatial and seasonal distribution of each of the sources of NOx can be clearly mapped from space, the team could provide independent topdown constraints on the individual strengths of NOx sources, and thus help resolve discrepancies in existing inventories. Jaegle's analysis of the satellite observations, presented at the recent Faraday Discussion on "Atmospheric Chemistry", shows that fuel combustion dominates emissions at northern mid-latitudes, while fires are a significant source in the Tropics. Additionally, she discovered a larger than expected role for soil emissions, especially over agricultural regions with heavy fertilizer use. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  14. Model-based Fuel Flow Control for Fossil-fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemczyk, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    -fired power plants represent the largest reserve of such controllable power sources in several countries. However, their production take-up rates are limited, mainly due to poor fuel flow control. The thesis presents analysis of difficulties and potential improvements in the control of the coal grinding...

  15. Emission factors for vehicles propelled by fossil or alternative fuels. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the project was to develop emission factors for commercial and alternative fuels such as alcohols and methane. The background to the decision to carry out the project was that there was a need for emission factors for some other KFB projects organized within the 'system study' carried out by KFB. The method used for the project was to use the today's emission levels and the knowledge about the emission control technology as a base for the estimation of future emission levels and the coming development of vehicles and the emission control technology. The results of the analysis and the estimation show that there exists a positive development concerning emission control technology and emission levels. However, the future positive development for alternative fuels strongly depends on the possibility of these fuels to capture a market which will have certain impact on the willingness and the economic possibilities of the car manufacturers to also invest in the development of alternative fuels. 70 refs

  16. Scenarios for the environmental impact of fossil fuel power: Co-benefits and trade-offs of carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study uses a hybrid Life Cycle Assessment approach to evaluate the environmental impacts of large-scale deployment of Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) in coal and natural gas based electricity generation, based on IEA scenarios. For the Baseline scenario, all impact categories would increase 2–3-fold in 2050 from 2005 levels. Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are found to decrease by ∼40% in ACTmap scenario and by ∼75% in more CCS-intensive BLUEmap scenario. These climate mitigation scenarios also show significantly reduced impacts of acidification, particulate matter formation and human toxicity, suggesting the existence of co-benefits. For eutrophication, all scenarios indicate substantial increases, but the increases are largest in the Baseline scenario. For photochemical oxidant formation, only the mitigation scenarios manage to stabilize this impact from fossil fuel based power production. This study does not assess the impact of alternative power generation or energy efficiency technology that replaces part of the fossil fuel power in the mitigation scenarios. -- Highlights: ► We perform Life Cycle Assessment of IEA scenarios for fossil fuel power and CCS. ► Used LCA framework incorporates future technical developments and CCS diffusion. ► Significant impact reductions in CCS scenarios compared to Baseline 2050. ► Compared to 2005, modest non-GWP impact reductions in CCS scenarios. ► GWP intensity of fossil fuel power declines by 65 80% in CCS scenarios.

  17. Carbon storage versus fossil fuel substitution: a climate change mitigation option for two different land use categories based on short and long rotation forestry in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaul, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    Short rotation bioenergy crops for energy production are considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to their ability to substitute fossil fuels. Alternatively, carbon can be sequestered and stored in the living biomass. This paper compares the two land use categories

  18. Fossil Fuels, Let’s Leave Them under Earth. Four Reasons to Vote “Yes” at the Italian Referendum on Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASPO Italy Association for the Study of PeakOil And Gas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The referendum that will be held on 17 April 2016 is calling Italians to express their willingness on an aspect of licensing the sea drilling activities: The end of the licenses to the offshore exploitation of fossil fuel resources within the 12 miles from the coast.

  19. GNOCIS - an on-line NO{sub X} emission and plant performance optimizer for fossil fuel-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, J.N.; Stallings, J.W.; Smouse, S.M. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Generic NO{sub x} Control Intelligent System (GNOCIS) is an on-line enhancement to existing digital control systems (DCS) designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from fossil fuel-fired boilers while meeting other operational constraints on the unit (principally heat rate and other regulated emissions). Using artificial intelligence techniques, GNOCIS utilizes a model of the combustion characteristics of the boiler that includes NO{sub x} emissions and boiler efficiency. The software applies an optimizing procedure to identify the best set points for the plant, which can be implemented automatically without operator intervention in a closed-loop mode, or at the plant`s discretion, conveyed to the plant operators for implementation in an open-loop mode. GNOCIS can be viewed as a low-cost long-term means to maintain short-term optimized plant performance. Development of GNOCIS was funded by a consortium consisting of the Electric Power Research Institute, PowerGen, Radian International, Southern Company, U.K. Department of Trade and Industry, and U.S. Department of Energy. The first commercial installation of GNOCIS was at Georgia Power`s Hammond Unit 4, a 500 MW opposed wallfired boiler. Hammond Unit 4 serves as the host site of a U.S. Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program project, wherein a stepwise long-term evaluation of three technologies to reduce NO{sub x} emissions was conducted: (1) Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA), (2) Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB), and (3) LNB + AOFA. A general overview of the CCT project and GNOCIS technology is presented along with performance results from Plant Hammond. Preliminary GNOCIS data from Hammond Unit 4 show an efficiency gain of 0.5 percent, a reduction in fly ash loss-on-ignition of 1-3 percentage points, and NO{sub x} reduction of 10-15 percent at full load. 7 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  1. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  2. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  3. Separation of biospheric and fossil fuel fluxes of CO2 by atmospheric inversion of CO2 and 14CO2 measurements: Observation System Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sourish; Bharat Miller, John; Lehman, Scott

    2016-05-01

    National annual total CO2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels are likely known to within 5-10 % for most developed countries. However, uncertainties are inevitably larger (by unknown amounts) for emission estimates at regional and monthly scales, or for developing countries. Given recent international efforts to establish emission reduction targets, independent determination and verification of regional and national scale fossil fuel CO2 emissions are likely to become increasingly important. Here, we take advantage of the fact that precise measurements of 14C in CO2 provide a largely unbiased tracer for recently added fossil-fuel-derived CO2 in the atmosphere and present an atmospheric inversion technique to jointly assimilate observations of CO2 and 14CO2 in order to simultaneously estimate fossil fuel emissions and biospheric exchange fluxes of CO2. Using this method in a set of Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), we show that given the coverage of 14CO2 measurements available in 2010 (969 over North America, 1063 globally), we can recover the US national total fossil fuel emission to better than 1 % for the year and to within 5 % for most months. Increasing the number of 14CO2 observations to ˜ 5000 per year over North America, as recently recommended by the National Academy of Science (NAS) (Pacala et al., 2010), we recover monthly emissions to within 5 % for all months for the US as a whole and also for smaller, highly emissive regions over which the specified data coverage is relatively dense, such as for the New England states or the NY-NJ-PA tri-state area. This result suggests that, given continued improvement in state-of-the art transport models, a measurement program similar in scale to that recommended by the NAS can provide for independent verification of bottom-up inventories of fossil fuel CO2 at the regional and national scale. In addition, we show that the dual tracer inversion framework can detect and minimize biases in

  4. Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels combustion in the main sectors of selected countries 1971-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of sectoral CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning in the period 1971-1990 were done for the 15 countries at the top of the list of nations ordered by decreasing contribution to global emissions, namely: United States of America, Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom, India, Poland, Canada, France, Italy, German Democratic Republic, South Africa, Mexico and Czechoslovakia. In addition, the CO2 emission of two groups of industrialized countries, namely the OECD and the European Economic Community (EEC) were calculated. The main recommendations of the IPCC/OECD current methodology have been adopted for the calculations, with the principal exception that CO2 emissions from the use of bunker fuels have not been included in the national estimates. The sectors are: 1. Transformations. Total emissions and the part stemming from power plants 2. Industry (excluding Feedstocks) 3. Transportation 4. Agriculture 5. Residential 6. Commerce and Public Services 7. Non-specified Other 8. Non-Energy Use 9. Feedstocks (in Industry). Data are presented in tables and diagrams. (orig./KW)

  5. The Estonian national program for sustainable resource development and its connection with teaching about fossil fuels in chemistry courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conception of sustainable resource development worked out under the initiative of the United Nations (UN) actualizes ideas for improving the health of people and the environment. The needs of people are to he addressed and, simultaneously, natural resources preserved. That is ,why ecological and economic expenses are to he integrated and flow sheets of industrial plants are to be reorganized in order to utilize natural resources in a rational way. The association of Estonia with the resolution of the UN Conference on Environmental Development held in Rio de Janeiro and the resolution of the Estonian Parliament concerning The National Program of Sustainable Development require changes in our lifestyle. Chemical education in schools has to support a change in the way of thinking and many concrete subjects can be connected with the problems of sustainable development. Metallic elements get into the environment mostly with fuel combustion ashes. According to various prognoses, fossil fuel resources will last for a thousand years. This means that more and more metallic compounds are thrown into the environment. Dispersion of metals in the air, water bodies and soil is continuously increasing. Finally, they reach the food chain and to the human body. As a result, toxicosis, illnesses, and inadvisable dislocations in organic life may occur. The trend to use ash as a raw material for metal production is considered to have some prospective economically attractive application. This would be one possible way of sustainable resource development to avoid the increase of environmental pollution and increase production of the corresponding metals

  6. Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the baseline case of a pulverised coal, steam cycle power plant. Nuclear, hydro, wind, bioenergy and solar generating plants were also evaluated. The objectives were to assess the comparative costs of mitigation per tonne of carbon emissions avoided, and to estimate the total amount of carbon mitigation that could result from the global electricity sector by 2010 and 2020 as a result of fuel switching, carbon dioxide sequestration and the greater uptake of renewable energy. Most technologies showed potential to reduce both generating costs and carbon emission avoidance by 2020 with the exception of solar power and carbon dioxide sequestration. The global electricity industry has potential to reduce its carbon emissions by over 15% by 2020 together with cost saving benefits compared with existing generation

  7. Biofuels that cause land-use change may have much larger non-GHG air quality emissions than fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C-C; Campbell, J E; Mena-Carrasco, M; Spak, S N; Carmichael, G R; Chen, Y

    2012-10-01

    Although biofuels present an opportunity for renewable energy production, significant land-use change resulting from biofuels may contribute to negative environmental, economic, and social impacts. Here we examined non-GHG air pollution impacts from both indirect and direct land-use change caused by the anticipated expansion of Brazilian biofuels production. We synthesized information on fuel loading, combustion completeness, and emission factors, and developed a spatially explicit approach with uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to estimate air pollution emissions. The land-use change emissions, ranging from 6.7 to 26.4 Tg PM(2.5), were dominated by deforestation burning practices associated with indirect land-use change. We also found Brazilian sugar cane ethanol and soybean biodiesel including direct and indirect land-use change effects have much larger life-cycle emissions than conventional fossil fuels for six regulated air pollutants. The emissions magnitude and uncertainty decrease with longer life-cycle integration periods. Results are conditional to the single LUC scenario employed here. After LUC uncertainty, the largest source of uncertainty in LUC emissions stems from the combustion completeness during deforestation. While current biofuels cropland burning policies in Brazil seek to reduce life-cycle emissions, these policies do not address the large emissions caused by indirect land-use change.

  8. Scenario Development for the City of Stockholm Towards a Fossil Fuel Free City by 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Giagkalos, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    The City of Stockholm’s energy and climate goals are analyzed and projected in several scenarios. Using the year 2015 as the baseline year, a database covering the energy performance and fuel use within the City is created. This starting point is used to project the performance of the City until the year 2050. The projection is made with the use of scenarios and the simulation software LEAP by formulating scenarios that combine ongoing, planned and conceivable measures. All these scenarios ai...

  9. Nanotechnology Role for the Production of Clean Fuel E-85 and Petrochemical Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskander K. Basily

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of substantive technical changes that can be described as revolutionary process and evolutionary process. One of these approaches is the use of nanotechnology in the two-stage pyrolysis of petroleum residues of the heavy distillates separated from the Arabian crude oil. Two-stage catalytic pyrolysis technique proved to be an excellent method for the production of unsaturated hydrocarbons (which easily can be converted to alcohol, by addition of H2O, for the production of E-85, i.e., clean fuel regardless the type of feed stocks used. Basically, the catalysts are arranged into three large groups; amorphous and crystalline alumino-silicates, alkaline or alkaline earth alumino compounds, and different metal oxides on different catalyst carriers such as Zeolites. The high yield of ethylene (30–40% brought by different catalysts at temperatures of 700–750°C appear to justify the intensive research work in this field.

  10. Adiabatic flame temperature from biofuels and fossil fuels and derived effect on NOx emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Fournet, Rene; Bounaceur, Roda (DCPR, Nancy-Universite, CNRS, 1, rue Grandville - BP 20451 - 54001 NANCY Cedex - France); Moliere, Michel [GE Energy Product-Europe, 20 avenue de Marechal Juin, BP 379, 90007 Belfort (France)

    2010-02-15

    There is currently a sustained interest in biofuels as they represent a potential alternative to petroleum derived fuels. Biofuels are likely to help decrease greenhouse gas emissions and the dependence on oil resources. Biodiesels are Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) that are mainly derived from vegetable oils; their compositions depend on the parent vegetables: rapeseed (''RME''), soybean (''SME''), sunflower, palm etc. A fraction of biodiesel has also an animal origin (''tallow''). A key factor for the use of biofuels in gas turbines is their emission indices (NOx, CO, VOC, and PM) in comparison with those of conventional ''petroleum gasoils''. While biodiesels reduce carbon-containing pollutants, experimental data from diesel engines show a slight increase in NOx. The literature relating to gas turbines is very scarce. Two recent, independent field tests carried out in Europe (RME) and in the USA (SME) showed slightly lower NOx while a lab test on a microturbine showed the opposite effect. To clarify the NOx index of biodiesels in gas turbines, a study has been undertaken, taking gasoil and natural gas (NG) as reference fuels. In this study, a calculation of the flame temperature developed by the 3 classes of fuels has been performed and the effect of their respective compositions has been investigated. The five FAMEs studied were RME, SME and methyl esters of sunflower, palm and tallow; these are representative of most widespread vegetable and animal oil bases worldwide. The software THERGAS has been used to calculate the enthalpy and free energy properties of the fuels and GASEQ for the flame temperature (T{sub f}), acknowledging the fact that ''thermal NOx'' represents the predominant form of NOx in gas turbines. To complete the approach to structural effects, we have modeled two NG compositions (rich and weak gases) and three types of gasoil using variable

  11. Ventilation and air cleaning plant experience in fast reactor fuel cycle facilities at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about work to measure the quantity and quality of aerosols created in Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facilities. Such facilities typically contain large amounts of Pu, Actinides, Fission Products often in a dispersable form, which pose varied challenges to ventilation systems in general and clean up devices in particular. Fluidic (no moving part) devices have been used intensively for the past 5 years at Dounreay and their performance will be discussed. Of particular importance has been their use on small enclosures such as gloveboxes, where they have made an important contribution in minimising activity escape. A large amount of data on HEPA filter performance in various parts of the facility has now been accumulated. Testing experience, particularly in situ of HEPAs will be presented and the problems encountered discussed. Factors affecting HEPA life will be discussed. In the past the development of new filter housing and changing systems have been presented to the US ERDA Air Cleaning Conference. The performance of these devices under active conditions will be reported. Considerable work has been done on the estimation of residual alpha activity on used HEPAs by neutron counting and equipment developed to allow alpha activity to be detected down to very low levels. This can also be done for high gamma active filters inside lead shielding. System failures are discussed together with performance of safety equipment. (author)

  12. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L. [AMAX R& D Center/ENTECH Global Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  13. The Role of Nuclear Power in Reducing Risk of the Fossil Fuel Prices and Diversity of Electricity Generation in Tunisia: A Portfolio Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Mohamed Ben; Aloui, Chaker; Chaton, Corinne; Souissi, Jomâa

    2010-04-01

    This paper applies real options and mean-variance portfolio theories to analyze the electricity generation planning into presence of nuclear power plant for the Tunisian case. First, we analyze the choice between fossil fuel and nuclear production. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the impact of fossil fuel cost uncertainty on the optimal timing to switch from gas to nuclear. Next, we use the portfolio theory to manage risk of the electricity generation portfolio and to determine the optimal fuel mix with the nuclear alternative. Based on portfolio theory, the results show that there is other optimal mix than the mix fixed for the Tunisian mix for the horizon 2010-2020, with lower cost for the same risk degree. In the presence of nuclear technology, we found that the optimal generating portfolio must include 13% of nuclear power technology share.

  14. Toxic compounds emission from fossil fuels in compression with alternative energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halek, F.; Kavousi, A. [Dept. of Energy (Iran). Materials and Energy Resesarch Center

    2008-09-30

    Transportation sources are one of the leading contributors to hazardous air pollutants. The internal combustion engine emits a large percentage of pollutants, but gasoline and diesel in the liquid form also contribute chemical pollution in the form of vaporization of the fuel as it heats and cools within the gas tank. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic compounts made up of two or more fused benzene rings in linear, angular or cluster arrangements. PAHs are considered highly toxic for human beings and several of these compounts are carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic. A major source of PAH in Tehran is related to traffic and the number of gasoline and diesel vehicles. During nearly a 1-year period (throughout 2005) a comprehensive study was done in the Tehran area in 21 stations. Results of PAHs analysis indicated that existence of several low molecular weights, like Fluoranthene, Fluorene and Phenantherene confirm the role of diesel oil emissions in Tehran's atmosphere. Biodiesel, a renewable energy source, is the name for a variety of ester-based oxygenated fuels (11% oxygen by weight) made from vegetable oils: sunflower, safflower, soybean, palm, cottonseed, rapeseed or peanut. The lifecycle production and use of biodiesel produces approximately 80% less carbon dioxide emissions, and almost 100% less sulfur dioxide. Combustion of biodiesel alone provides over a 90% reduction in total unburned hydrocarbons, and a 75-90% reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons. Biodiesel further provides significant reductions in particulates and carbon monoxide than petroleum diesel fuel. Based on mutagenicity tests, biodiesel provides a 90% reduction in cancer risks.

  15. Effective utilization of fossil fuels for low carbon world -- IGCC and high performance gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Takao; Sakamoto, Koichi; Komori, Toyoaki; Kishine, Takashi; Shiozaki, Shigehiro

    2010-09-15

    The reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions is required to minimize the effect of hydrocarbon based power generation on global warming. In pursue of this objective, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries is dedicating considerable efforts on two different ways to reduce the environmental impact. The first one involves gas turbine performance improvement by raising firing temperature for Natural-gas and LNG applications. In this regard, the latest J class gas turbine was designed to operate at 1600 deg C and expected combined cycle efficiency in excess of 60%. The other approach involves the use of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants to burn solid fuel like coal.

  16. Substitutability of Electricity and Renewable Materials for Fossil Fuels in a Post-Carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio García-Olivares

    2015-01-01

    A feasible way to avoid the risk of energy decline and combat climate change is to build a 100% renewable global energy mix. However, a globally electrified economy cannot grow much above 12 electric terawatts without putting pressure on the limits of finite mineral reserves. Here we analyze whether 12 TW of electricity and 1 TW of biomass (final) power will be able to fuel a future post-carbon economy that can provide similar services to those of a contemporary economy. Contrarily to some pe...

  17. A power generator associated with a heat accumulator and with a device using fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides improvements in motive power installations with a heat accumulator. The exhaust gases of a gas turbine give up their heat to a coolant fluid prior to being evacuated through a chimney. The heat thus transferred is stored in a liquid medium in a tank and is used by a steam cycle expansion engine according to requirements. The turbine combustion chamber is fed with fuel at least partly from said tank, which permits to renew the contents thereof. This can be applied to thermal power stations supplying a network with variable requirements

  18. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1997 through March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    This report covers progress made on research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies, covering the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing research; fossil fuels supplies modeling and research; and oil and gas production.

  19. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... clean-fuel fleet vehicles not regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall have a permanent legible label...-duty engines and vehicles used as LEVs, ULEVs, and ZEVs that are also regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall comply with the labeling requirements of 40 CFR 86.095-35 (or later applicable sections),...

  20. DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility: fossil fuel processing technical/professional services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefferan, J.K.; Lee, G.Y.; Boesch, L.P.; James, R.B.; Rode, R.R.; Walters, A.B.

    1979-07-13

    A conceptual design, including process descriptions, heat and material balances, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, schedule, capital and operating cost estimate, and alternative design considerations, is presented for the DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility (GMTF). The GMTF, an engineering scale facility, is to provide a complete plant into which different types of gasifiers and conversion/synthesis equipment can be readily integrated for testing in an operational environment at relatively low cost. The design allows for operation of several gasifiers simultaneously at a total coal throughput of 2500 tons/day; individual gasifiers operate at up to 1200 tons/day and 600 psig using air or oxygen. Ten different test gasifiers can be in place at the facility, but only three can be operated at one time. The GMTF can produce a spectrum of saleable products, including low Btu, synthesis and pipeline gases, hydrogen (for fuel cells or hydrogasification), methanol, gasoline, diesel and fuel oils, organic chemicals, and electrical power (potentially). In 1979 dollars, the base facility requires a $288 million capital investment for common-use units, $193 million for four gasification units and four synthesis units, and $305 million for six years of operation. Critical reviews of detailed vendor designs are appended for a methanol synthesis unit, three entrained flow gasifiers, a fluidized bed gasifier, and a hydrogasifier/slag-bath gasifier.

  1. Building-specific quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain: the case of Indianapolis, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razlivanov, I.; Gurney, K. R.; Zhou, Y.; Turnbull, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Guenther, D.; Karion, A.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Lehman, S. J.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in interpreting atmospheric CO2 measurements in addition to providing critical emissions mitigation information. Recent research and decision-support has placed emphasis on quantification of emissions for urban domes with sector specificity. Here we present results of the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at quantifying fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the building and road segment scale for the city of Indianapolis as part of the INFLUX experiment. To calculate CO2 emissions for buildings, we use a combination of county-level estimation from the Vulcan Project and distribute those emissions via an allocation method that utilizes a building energy simulation tool - eQuest (DOE). eQUEST is based on a series of building typologies and has a large number of input variables in order to quantify energy consumption. The simulation process uses default values when the actual data are inaccessible or non-existent. Our method is based on the construction of 22 commercial, 18 industrial, and 8 residential building types. This classification requires specification of building vintages and sizes. To calculate the total floor area of buildings from building heights, remote sensing data are used. The DOEs regional energy surveys, CBECS, RECS and MECS data for the East North Central Census Division, are used to calibrate hourly profiles for different building types. Previous published results for Indianapolis have been substantially updated by using additional data on natural gas pipelines. A more accurate, statistically-based building height assessment has been made using improved lidar data. The reclassification procedure converting Assessor's parcel types into Hestia prototypes, has been revised and improved. More accurate statistics have been calculated and corresponding diagrams and thematic maps have been prepared. Development of a powerful user-friendly information system for

  2. Hydroprocessing and premium II refinery: a new refining philosophy for an era of clean fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgaudio, Caio Veiga Penna; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a brief history of Brazilian's emission and fuel specifications, since the appearance of PROCONVE until the late stages of the program for vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel. The development of the Brazilian refining is analyzed taking into account the emission and specification evolutions, and it can be perceived that the system's complexity increases while new constraints are imposed by the regulator. This aspect is even more apparent when the detailed scheme of the Premium II refinery and its main unit, the catalytic hydrocracker (HCC, which has not yet been part of PETROBRAS' refining park and will appear in three of the four new refineries of the company) is described. The new projects represent the culmination of the intensive use of energy and raw material for obtaining the products with the new specifications. There is a price for this development, both in investments and increased operating costs due to greater complexity of the system. To adapt to the era of clean fuels, refiners will present a series of challenges that will lead them to seek for more efficient processes and operational excellence (and ongoing efforts to reduce their emissions) in order to ensure positive refining margins. (author)

  3. Surface characterization of adsorbents in ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization process of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Omid; Yen, Teh Fu

    2007-09-01

    Surface properties of two different phases of alumina were studied through SEM images. Characterization of amorphous acidic alumina and crystalline boehmite by XRD explains the differences in adsorption capacities of each sample. Data from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) provide further results regarding the ordering in amorphous and crystalline samples of alumina. Quantitative measurements from SANS are used for pore size calculations. Higher disorder provides more topological traps, irregularities, and hidden grooves for higher adsorption capacity. An isotherm model was derived for adsorption of dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO) by amorphous acidic alumina to predict and calculate the adsorption of sulfur compounds. The Langmuir-Freundlich model covers a wide range of sulfur concentrations. Experiments prove that amorphous acidic alumina is the adsorbent of choice for selective adsorption in the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process to produce ultra-low-sulfur fuel (ULSF). PMID:17543320

  4. Surface characterization of adsorbents in ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization process of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Omid; Yen, Teh Fu

    2007-09-01

    Surface properties of two different phases of alumina were studied through SEM images. Characterization of amorphous acidic alumina and crystalline boehmite by XRD explains the differences in adsorption capacities of each sample. Data from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) provide further results regarding the ordering in amorphous and crystalline samples of alumina. Quantitative measurements from SANS are used for pore size calculations. Higher disorder provides more topological traps, irregularities, and hidden grooves for higher adsorption capacity. An isotherm model was derived for adsorption of dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO) by amorphous acidic alumina to predict and calculate the adsorption of sulfur compounds. The Langmuir-Freundlich model covers a wide range of sulfur concentrations. Experiments prove that amorphous acidic alumina is the adsorbent of choice for selective adsorption in the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process to produce ultra-low-sulfur fuel (ULSF).

  5. TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

    2001-08-01

    With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined

  6. Impacts from a fossil fuel power plant on ozone levels in Memphis, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Allen power plant is located on the Mississippi River in the southwest corner of Memphis, Tennessee. Allen has three coal-fired cyclone boilers with a rated capacity of 272 MW each. It is a Phase 2 plant under Title IV of the Clean Air Act and is the largest single source of NOx in the Memphis area. TVA plans to reduce Allen NOx emissions through a combination of burning low-sulfur coal (which has the benefit of reducing NOx emissions while also reducing SO2 emissions) and installing gas re-burn technology. A modeling study using the SAI, Inc., UAM-V photochemical model was conducted to examine the potential impacts of NOx reductions on ozone levels in the Memphis area. A series of four model simulations were made in which different Allen emissions scenarios were examined. The focus period of the photochemical modeling was 11--14 July 1995 when measurements in and near Memphis indicated peak hourly ozone levels of 135--140 ppb. This analysis primarily examined computed impacts within 50 km of Memphis. Allen was computed to contribute as much as 20--30 ppb to ground ozone levels 20-50 km downwind using its NOx emission rate before Title IV compliance. After compliance it was computed to contribute only about 10--20 ppb. At the same time, maximum daily ozone reductions due to Allen NOx titration of ozone were between 30 and 60 ppb. These benefits will be reduced by 30--50% after Title IV compliance, and are expected to occur within 30 km of the plant. More model grid cells indicated dis-benefits (net ground-level ozone increases) than benefits on three of the four episode days using the Title IV compliance emission rate. Significant ozone dis-benefits were expected because of the well-documented NO titration of ozone within plumes having a high ratio of NO to volatile organic compounds

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-11-04

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the 4th quarter of the project from July 1 to September 30, 1993.

  8. TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

    2001-08-01

    With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined

  9. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by

  10. Measurement of fossil fuel derived carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic trace gases above Sacramento, California in Spring 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Turnbull

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct quantification of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff in atmospheric samples can be used to examine several carbon cycle and air quality questions. We collected in-situ CO2, CO, and CH4 measurements and flask samples in the boundary layer and free troposphere over Sacramento, California, USA, during two aircraft flights over and downwind of this urban area during spring of 2009. The flask samples were analyzed for Δ14CO2 and CO2 to determine the recently added CO2ff mole fraction. A suite of additional greenhouse gases including hydrocarbons and halocarbons were measured in the same samples. Strong correlations were observed between CO2ff and numerous trace gases associated with urban emissions. From these correlations we estimate emission ratios between CO2ff and these species, and compare these with bottom-up inventory-derived estimates. Recent county level inventory estimates for carbon monoxide (CO and benzene from the California Air Resources Board CEPAM database are in good agreement with our measured emission ratios, whereas older emissions inventories appear to overestimate emissions of these gases. For most other trace species, there are substantial differences between our measured emission ratios and those derived from available emission inventories. For the first flight, we combine in situ CO measurements with the measured CO:CO2ff emission ratio of 14±2 ppbCO/ppmCO2 to derive an estimate of CO2ff mole fraction throughout this flight, and also estimate the biospheric CO2 mixing ratio (CO2bio from the difference of total and fossil CO2. The resulting CO2bio varies substantially between air in the urban plume and the surrounding boundary layer air. Finally, we use the in situ estimates of CO2ff mole fraction to infer total fossil fuel CO2

  11. Substitutability of Electricity and Renewable Materials for Fossil Fuels in a Post-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Olivares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A feasible way to avoid the risk of energy decline and combat climate change is to build a 100% renewable global energy mix. However, a globally electrified economy cannot grow much above 12 electric terawatts without putting pressure on the limits of finite mineral reserves. Here we analyze whether 12 TW of electricity and 1 TW of biomass (final power will be able to fuel a future post-carbon economy that can provide similar services to those of a contemporary economy. Contrarily to some pessimistic expectations, this analysis shows that the principle economic processes can be replaced with sustainable alternatives based on electricity, charcoal, biogas and hydrogen. Furthermore, those services that cannot be replaced are not as crucial so as to cause a return to a pre-industrial society. Even so, land transport and aviation are at the limit of what is sustainable, outdoor work should be reorganized, metal primary production should be based on hydrogen reduction when possible, mineral production should be increasingly based on recycling, the petrochemical industry should shrink to a size of 40%–43% of the 2012 petrochemical sector, i.e., a size similar to that the sector had in 1985–1986, and agriculture may require organic farming methods to be sustainable.

  12. Fractionation and identification of organic matter in natural and fossil-fuel contaminated aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation, fractionation and identification of organic matter in ground water and subsurface solids have most often been done to identify selected, regulated aromatic compounds. In most cases exhaustive and costly analytical determinations result in the identification of less than 5% of the total dissolved or particle-associated organic matter. Work has been in progress to identify specific organic metabolites or transformation products of fuels which provide indications of oxidation-reduction reactions and major transformation pathways. Based on the development of an improved procedure for organic carbon determination in volatile and non-volatile fractions, the authors have determined specific organic compounds in ''leachability'' classes which include regulated compounds and novel metabolites/transformation products. Surprising similarities exist between the hydrocarbon, fatty acid and phenolic compounds from uncontaminated and contaminated glacial aquifer settings. Comparisons of selected compounds in various leachability fractions from aquifer materials and in the corresponding ground water from these sites provide substantial detail useful to those involved in remedial treatment design, operation and performance evaluation

  13. System design methodology of non-fossil fuel fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most thermal system designs, economic and thermodynamic aspects of the design are not studied simultaneously early on in the design process. As a result, the economic ramification of thermodynamic changes to the system configuration, and vice versa, are not immediately apparent to the designer or the performance, involving both thermal and economic aspects of the plant. In this study, a rational approach is presented to formalize the design process of small power plants, typically, burning non-conventional fuel sources such as wood residues, tires, biofuels, etc. The method presented in this paper allows for handling of process information, both qualitative and quantitative, to enable the designer to change his design in an optimal manner. A two-level design structure (macro-level and micro-level), is introduced to enable the designer to adapt his design in an efficient manner to the available (or required) technology-level, type of application, economic factors, O and M requirements, etc. At the macro-level of design, economic feasibility (business) decisions are made, while at the micro-level of design, technical feasibility (engineering) decisions are made

  14. Analysis of derived optical parameters of atmospheric particles during a biomass burning event. Comparison with fossil fuel burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A.; Mogo, S.; Cachorro, V.; de Frutos, A.; Medeiros, M.; Martins, R.; López, J. F.; Marcos, A.; Marcos, N.; Bizarro, S.; Mano, F.

    2015-12-01

    During the day November 26, 2014, a scheduled cleanup of the woods took place around the GOA-UVa aerosol measurement station located at the campus of the University of Beira Interior (40° 16’30”N, 7°30’35”W, 704m a.s.l.), Covilhã, Portugal. This cleanup included excessive vegetation removal during the morning, using fossil fuel-burning machinery, and burning of the vegetation during the afternoon. In situ measurements of aerosol optical properties were made and this study aims the characterization of the evolution of aerosol properties during the day. The optical parameters were monitored using a 3-wavelength nephelometer and a 3-wavelength particle soot absorption photometer. Selective sampling/exclusion of the coarse particles was done each 5 minutes. The scattering and absorption Ångström exponents as well as the single scattering albedo were derived and fully analyzed. The scattering and absorption coefficients increased dramatically during the event, reaching values as high as 720.3 Mm-1 and 181.9 Mm-1, respectively, for the green wavelength and PM10 size fraction. The spectral behavior of these parameters also changed wildly along the day and an inversion of the slope from positive to negative in the case of the single scattering albedo was observed.

  15. Assessing the potential long-term increase of oceanic fossil fuel CO2 uptake due to CO2-calcification feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Lenton

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Plankton manipulation experiments exhibit a wide range of sensitivities of biogenic calcification to simulated anthropogenic acidification of the ocean, with the "lab rat" of planktic calcifiers, Emiliania huxleyi apparently not representative of calcification generally. We assess the implications of this observational uncertainty by creating an ensemble of realizations of an Earth system model that encapsulates a comparable range of uncertainty in calcification response to ocean acidification. We predict that a substantial reduction in marine carbonate production is possible in the future, with enhanced ocean CO2 sequestration across the model ensemble driving a 4–13% reduction in the year 3000 atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 burden. Concurrent changes in ocean circulation and surface temperatures in the model contribute about one third to the increase in CO2 uptake. We find that uncertainty in the predicted strength of CO2-calcification feedback seems to be dominated by the assumption as to which species of calcifier contribute most to carbonate production in the open ocean.

  16. Fossil fuel savings, carbon emission reduction and economic attractiveness of medium-scale integrated biomass gasification combined cycle cogeneration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper theoretically investigates the system made up of fluidized bed gasifier, SGT-100 gas turbine and bottoming steam cycle. Different configurations of the combined cycle plant are examined. A comparison is made between systems with producer gas (PG and natural gas (NG fired turbine. Supplementary firing of the PG in a heat recovery steam generator is also taken into account. The performance of the gas turbine is investigated using in-house built Engineering Equation Solver model. Steam cycle is modeled using GateCycleTM simulation software. The results are compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency, CO2 emission and fossil fuel energy savings. Finally there is performed an economic analysis of a sample project. The results show relatively good performance in the both alternative configurations at different rates of supplementary firing. Furthermore, positive values of economic indices were obtained. [Acknowledgements. This work was carried out within the frame of research project no. N N513 004036, titled: Analysis and optimization of distributed energy conversion plants integrated with gasification of biomass. The project is financed by the Polish Ministry of Science.

  17. Year-round Source Contributions of Fossil Fuel and Biomass Combustion to Elemental Carbon on the North Slope Alaska Utilizing Radiocarbon Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, T. E.; Gustafsson, O.; Winiger, P.; Moffett, C.; Back, J.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well documented that the Arctic has undergone rapid warming at an alarming rate over the past century. Black carbon (BC) affects the radiative balance of the Arctic directly and indirectly through the absorption of incoming solar radiation and by providing a source of cloud and ice condensation nuclei. Among atmospheric aerosols, BC is the most efficient absorber of light in the visible spectrum. The solar absorbing efficiency of BC is amplified when it is internally mixed with sulfates. Furthermore, BC plumes that are fossil fuel dominated have been shown to be approximately 100% more efficient warming agents than biomass burning dominated plumes. The renewal of offshore oil and gas exploration in the Arctic, specifically in the Chukchi Sea, will introduce new BC sources to the region. This study focuses on the quantification of fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources to atmospheric elemental carbon (EC) during a year-long sampling campaign in the North Slope Alaska. Samples were collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Barrow, AK, USA. Particulate matter (PM10) samples collected from July 2012 to June 2013 were analyzed for EC and sulfate concentrations combined with radiocarbon (14C) analysis of the EC fraction. Radiocarbon analysis distinguishes fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions based on large differences in end members between fossil and contemporary carbon. To perform isotope analysis on EC, it must be separated from the organic carbon fraction of the sample. Separation was achieved by trapping evolved CO2 produced during EC combustion in a cryo-trap utilizing liquid nitrogen. Radiocarbon results show an average fossil contribution of 85% to atmospheric EC, with individual samples ranging from 47% to 95%. Source apportionment results will be combined with back trajectory (BT) analysis to assess geographic source region impacts on the EC burden in the western Arctic.

  18. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang

    Full Text Available Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA, a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive

  19. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a

  20. Cleaning residual NaK in the fast flux test facility fuel storage cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation, is a liquid metal-cooled test reactor. The FFTF was constructed to support the U.S. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. The bulk of the alkali metal (sodium and NaK) has been drained and will be stored onsite prior to final disposition. Residual NaK needed to be removed from the pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, tanks, and vessels in the Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) cooling system. The cooling system was drained in 2004 leaving residual NaK in the pipes and equipment. The estimated residual NaK volume was 76 liters in the storage tank, 1.9 liters in the expansion tank, and 19-39 liters in the heat transfer loop. The residual NaK volume in the remainder of the system was expected to be very small, consisting of films, droplets, and very small pools. The NaK in the FSF Cooling System was not radiologically contaminated. The portions of the cooling system to be cleaned were divided into four groups: 1. The storage tank, filter, pump, and associated piping; 2. The heat exchanger, expansion tank, and associated piping; 3. Argon supply piping; 4. In-vessel heat transfer loop. The cleaning was contracted to Creative Engineers, Inc. (CEI) and they used their superheated steam process to clean the cooling system. It has been concluded that during the modification activities (prior to CEI coming onsite) to prepare the NaK Cooling System for cleaning, tank T-914 was pressurized relative to the In-Vessel NaK Cooler and NaK was pushed from the tank back into the Cooler and that on November 6, 2005, when the gas purge through the In-Vessel NaK Cooler was increased from 141.6 slm to 283.2 slm, NaK was forced from the In-Vessel NaK Cooler and it contacted water in the vent line and/or scrubber. The gases from the reaction then traveled back through the vent line coating the internal surface of the vent line with NaK and NaK reaction products. The hot gases also exited the

  1. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1993 through March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1993, through March 31, 1994, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Bartlesville Project Office, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The five areas of research covered in this report are: Materials research and development; Environmental analysis and support; Bioprocessing; Coal combustion; and Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1994 through March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1994, through March 31, 1995, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, and DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Bartlesville Project Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The following research areas are covered in this report: Materials research and development; Environmental analysis support; Bioprocessing research; Coal combustion research; and Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science an Technology database.

  3. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by

  4. Thermochemistry of the HOSO radical, a key intermediate in fossil fuel combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Steven E; Schaefer, Henry F

    2009-06-18

    Despite the key role of the HOSO radical in the combustion of sulfur-rich fuels, the thermochemistry of this simple species is not well-established. Due to the extraordinary sensitivity of the potential energy surface to basis set and electron correlation methods in ab initio computations, there is no consensus in the literature regarding the structure of the global minimum syn-HOSO. A definitive enthalpy of formation for HOSO is presented, based on systematically extrapolated ab initio energies, accounting for electron correlation primarily through coupled cluster theory, including up to single, double, and triple excitations with a perturbative correction for connected quadruple excitations [CCSDT(Q)]. These extrapolated valence electronic energies have been corrected for core-electron correlation, harmonic and anharmonic zero-point vibrational energy, and non-Born-Oppenheimer and scalar relativistic effects. Our final recommended enthalpy of formation is Delta(f)H(0)(o)(syn-HOSO) = -58.0 kcal mol(-1). The planar anti-HOSO transition state lies 2.28 kcal mol(-1) above the syn-HOSO minimum, while predicted reaction enthalpies for H + SO(2) --> HOSO, HOSO --> OH + SO, HOSO + H --> H(2) + SO(2), and OH + HOSO --> SO(2) + H(2)O are -38.6, 68.0, -64.4, and -80.1 kcal mol(-1), respectively. We provide incontrovertible evidence for a quasi-planar structure of the syn-HOSO radical, with a remarkably flat torsional energy surface, based on CCSD(T) geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies energies with up to quintuple-zeta quality basis sets. The energy separation between planar syn-HOSO and the nonplanar global minimum is a mere 5 cm(-1) at the cc-pV(T+D)Z CCSD(T) level of theory. Computed fundamental vibrational frequencies for syn-HOSO and syn-DOSO based on a full quartic force-field evaluated at the cc-pV(T+d)Z CCSD(T) level of theory are in agreement with available experimental data. The present results confirm a previously tentative assignment of a band at

  5. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Andres, R.J. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  6. The space and time impacts on U.S. regional atmospheric CO2 concentrations from a high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine D. Corbin; Denning, A Scott; Gurney, Kevin R

    2011-01-01

    To improve fossil fuel CO2 emissions estimates, high spatial and temporal resolution inventories are replacing coarse resolution, annual-mean estimates distributed by population density. Because altering the emissions changes a key boundary condition to inverse-estimated CO2 fluxes, it is essential to analyse the atmospheric impacts of redistributing anthropogenic emissions. Using a coupled ecosystem–atmosphere model, we compare 2004 atmospheric CO2 concentrations resulting from coarse and hi...

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

    1994-10-01

    This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

  8. Decrease of regression slope between CO2 latitudinal gradients and fossil fuel emissions during 1996-2008: implications for hemispheric carbon sink efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    While the long term increasing trend of interhemispheric CO2 gradient is mainly driven by fossil fuel emissions, the regression slope between this gradient and fossil fuel emissions is expected to vary with interhemispheric gradient of carbon fluxes and interhemispheric exchange. Given the increased NPP over NH and decreased NPP over SH in the past decade suggested by a few previous studies, one would expect to see a decrease in the regression slope. We apply a series of linear regressions between latitudinal CO2 gradients for 17 GLOBALVIEW-CO2 sites in NH (gradient defined as the difference between each site and SPO) and fossil fuel emissions over 1982-2008 to detect any significant slope change. We find that the difference between the mean slopes for 1982-1991 and 1996-2008 is the largest, especially in the growing seasons. The latitudinal regression slope for 1982-1991 is consistent with an earlier regression study for 1957-2003, indicating a decrease of regression slope for 1996-2008 compared with the long-term mean. We further apply a 30-year SF6 simulation and find no interdecadal or intradecadal trend for interhemispheric exchange time over the whole study period. Using a 2-box model calculation and accounting for the ENSO-Volcano related interannual variation component in carbon fluxes for both hemispheres, we derive that the mean growth rate of NH carbon sink during 1996-2008 (-0.093±0.017 Pg/yr) is about a factor of three larger than that during 1982-1991 (-0.028±0.012 Pg/yr), exceeding the percentage increase of fossil fuel emissions, while the growth rate of SH carbon sink shows a decrease of 62% between the two periods. We thus conclude that the changes in hemispheric carbon sink efficiency associated with the terrestrial biosphere are responsible for the decrease of the regression slope during 1996-2008.

  9. Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels. Ansatzpunkte und Potentiale zur Minderung des Treibhauseffektes aus Sicht der fossilen Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, A.; Schlemm, F.; Cremer, G.; Fabri, J.; Grosser, A.; Wiegand, D.; Engelhard, J.; Altmann, B.R.

    1992-02-01

    On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs.

  10. Non-deforestation fire vs. fossil fuel combustion: the source of CO2 emissions affects the global carbon cycle and climate responses

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Matthews, H. Damon

    2016-01-01

    Non-deforestation fire – i.e., fire that is typically followed by the recovery of natural vegetation – is arguably the most influential disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby playing a major role in carbon exchanges and affecting many climatic processes. The radiative effect from a given atmospheric CO2 perturbation is the same for fire and fossil fuel combustion. However, major differences exist per unit of CO2 emitted between the effects of non-defor...

  11. Sustainability Impact Assessment on the Production and Use of Different Wood and Fossil Fuels Employed for Energy Production in North Karelia, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Matias Pekkanen; Diana Tuomasjukka; Michael den Herder; Tommi Suominen; Marcus Lindner; Marja Kolström

    2012-01-01

    The utilization rate of woody biomass in eastern Finland is high and expected to increase further in the near future as set out in several regional, national and European policies and strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the sustainability impacts of changes in fuel consumption patterns. We investigated fossil and woody biomass-based energy production chains in the region of North Karelia, focusing on some economic, environmental and social indicators. Indicators were selected base...

  12. Heat planning for fossil-fuel-free district heating areas with extensive end-use heat savings: A case study of the Copenhagen district heating area in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Danish government plans to make the Danish energy system to be completely free of fossil fuels by 2050 and that by 2035 the energy supply for buildings and electricity should be entirely based on renewable energy sources. To become independent from fossil fuels, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of the existing building stock, increase energy efficiency, and convert the present heat supply from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. District heating is a sustainable way of providing space heating and domestic hot water to buildings in densely populated areas. This paper is a theoretical investigation of the district heating system in the Copenhagen area, in which heat conservation is related to the heat supply in buildings from an economic perspective. Supplying the existing building stock from low-temperature energy resources, e.g. geothermal heat, might lead to oversized heating plants that are too expensive to build in comparison with the potential energy savings in buildings. Long-term strategies for the existing building stock must ensure that costs are minimized and that investments in energy savings and new heating capacity are optimized and carried out at the right time. - Highlights: • We investigate how much heating consumption needs to be reduced in a district heating area. • We examine fossil-fuel-free supply vs. energy conservations in the building stock. • It is slightly cost-beneficial to invest in energy renovation from today for a societal point of view. • It is economically beneficial for district heating companies to invest in energy renovations from today. • The cost per delivered heat unit is lower when energy renovations are carried out from today

  13. Intelligent system of aid for the starting of fossil fuel units; Sistema inteligente de ayuda para el arranque de unidades termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Cerda, Dionisio A; Ibargueengoytia Gonzalez, Pablo H; Villavicencio Ramirez, Alejandro [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article the aid system for the starting of fossil fuel units is described (SIAAT) based on techniques of artificial intelligence, that the Management of Supervision of Processes of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) develops. It analyzes the problem of the starting of fossil fuel units, which sets out to solve through computer techniques based on artificial intelligence. The system architecture is proposed and the challenges that are due to face are mentioned so that the system works in line with the process and along with it. In addition to the technical aspects covered in the project, the more relevant results that make an impact in the expectations of application of the system are mentioned, as well as the expected benefits of its use in fossil fuel power stations. [Spanish] En este articulo se describe el Sistema de ayuda para el Arranque de Unidades Termoelectricas (SIAAT) basado en tecnicas de inteligencia artificial, que desarrolla la Gerencia de Supervision de Procesos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Se analiza el problema del arranque de unidades termoelectricas, el cual se propone resolver a traves de tecnicas computacionales basadas en inteligencia artificial. Se presenta la arquitectura del sistema y se mencionan los retos que se deben enfrentar para que el sistema funcione en linea junto con el proceso. Ademas de los aspectos tecnicos abordados en el proyecto, se mencionan los resultados mas relevantes que impactan en las expectativas de aplicacion del sistema, asi como los beneficios esperados de su uso en centrales termoelectricas.

  14. Potential for worldwide displacement of fossil-fuel electricity by nuclear energy in three decades based on extrapolation of regional deployment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Staffan A; Brook, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25-34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets. PMID:25970621

  15. Determination of oil/water and octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous solutions from four fossil fuels. [MS thesis; in oil-water and octanol-water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B.L.

    1984-07-01

    Liquid fossil fuels, both petroleum and synthetically derived oils, are exceedingly complex mixtures of thousands of components. The effect of many of these energy-related components on the environment is largely unknown. Octanol/water distribution coefficients relate both to toxicity and to the bioaccumulation potential of chemical components. Use of these partition data in conjunction with component concentrations in the oils in environmental models provides important information on the fate of fossil fuel components when released to the environment. Octanol/water distribution data are not available for many energy-related organic compounds, and those data that are available have been determined for individual components in simple, one-component octanol/water equilibrium mixtures. In this study, methods for determining many octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous extracts of oil products were developed. Sample aqueous mixtures were made by equilibrating liquid fossil fuels with distilled water. This approach has the advantage of detecting interactions between components of interest and other sample components. Compound types studied included phenols, nitrogen bases, hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocyclic compounds, and carboxylic acids. Octanol/water distribution coefficients that were determined in this study ranged from 9.12 for aniline to 67,600 for 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene. Within a compound type, distribution coefficients increased logarithmically with increasing alkyl substitution and molecular weight. Additionally, oil/water distribution data were determined for oil components. These data are useful in predicting maximum environmental concentrations in water columns. 96 references, 26 figures, and 40 tables.

  16. Potential for worldwide displacement of fossil-fuel electricity by nuclear energy in three decades based on extrapolation of regional deployment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Staffan A; Brook, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25-34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets.

  17. Potential for worldwide displacement of fossil-fuel electricity by nuclear energy in three decades based on extrapolation of regional deployment data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan A Qvist

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25-34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets.

  18. Efficient production and economics of the clean fuel hydrogen. Paper no. IGEC-1-Keynote-Elnashaie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnashaie, S. [Auburn Univ., Chemical Engineering Dept., Auburn, Alabama (United States)]|[Univ. of British Columbia, Chemical and Biological Engineering Dept., Vancouver, British Columbia, (Canada)]. E-mail: nashaie@eng.auburn.edu.; nashaie@chml.ubc.ca

    2005-07-01

    This paper/plenary lecture to this green energy conference briefly discusses six main issues: 1) The future of hydrogen economy; 2) Thermo-chemistry of hydrogen production for different techniques of autothermic operation using different feedstocks; 3) Improvement of the hydrogen yield and minimization of reformer size through combining fast fluidization with hydrogen and oxygen membranes together with CO{sub 2} sequestration; 4) Efficient production of hydrogen using novel Autothermal Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformer (ACFBMR); 5) Economics of hydrogen production; and, 6) Novel gasification process for hydrogen production from biomass. It is shown that hydrogen economy is not a Myth as some people advocate, and that with well-directed research it will represent a bright future for humanity utilizing such a clean, everlasting fuel, which is also free of deadly conflicts for the control of energy sources. It is shown that autothermic production of hydrogen using novel reformers configurations and wide range of feedstocks is a very promising route towards achieving a successful hydrogen economy. A novel process for the production of hydrogen from different renewable biomass sources is presented and discussed. The process combines the principles of pyrolysis with the simultaneous use of catalyst, membranes and CO{sub 2} sequestration to produce pure hydrogen directly from the unit. Some of the novel processes presented are essential components of modern bio-refineries. (author)

  19. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  20. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)