WorldWideScience

Sample records for clean energy skin

  1. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  2. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  3. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  4. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  5. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  6. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  7. 2012 Clean Energy: Project Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2012, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.

  8. Tracking Clean Energy Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Global demand for energy shows no signs of slowing; carbon dioxide emissions keep surging to new records; and political uprisings, natural disasters and volatile energy markets put the security of energy supplies to the test. More than ever, the need for a fundamental shift to a cleaner and more reliable energy system is clear. What technologies can make that transition happen? How do they work? And how much will it all cost?.

  9. Sociology: Clean-energy conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCright, Aaron M.

    2017-03-01

    US conservatives receive a steady stream of anti-environmental messaging from Republican politicians. However, clean-energy conservatives sending strong counter-messages on energy issues could mobilize moderate conservatives to break away from the dominant right-wing defence of fossil fuels.

  10. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify

  11. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  12. Teaming up for Clean Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On October 22, the China Institute of Strategy and Management and the U.S. Brookings Institution jointly held the China-U.S. Strategic Forum on Clean Energy Cooperation. At the opening session of the forum, Zheng Bijian, Chairman of the China Institute of Strategy and Management, gave a keynote speech. Edited excerpts follow:

  13. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  14. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert

    2013-09-30

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  15. Sensitive skin and stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    1996-02-01

    Products intended for individuals with sensitive skin are being increasingly developed by formulators of household cleaning products. However, there is currently no consensus about the definition and recognition of the biological basis of sensitive skin. We sought to determine the relation between the nature of environmental threat perceived as aggressive by panelists, and the stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products as measured by the corneosurfametry test. Results indicate substantial differences in irritancy potential between proprietary products. Corneosurfametry data show significant differences in stratum corneum reactivity between, on the one hand, individuals with either non-sensitive skin or skin sensitive to climate/fabrics, and, on the other hand, individuals with detergent-sensitive skin. It is concluded that sensitive skin is not one single condition. Sound information in rating detergent-sensitive skin may be gained by corneosurfametry.

  16. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  17. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  19. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  20. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  1. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  2. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  3. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Energy Rebates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-03-01

    This report functions as a primer for renewable energy rebate programs. It highlights the impacts of specific renewable energy rebate programs on renewable energy markets around the country, as well as rebate program impacts on overarching energy policy drivers. It also discusses lessons learned, challenges, ideal applications, keys to success, and complementary and alternative policies. Results indicate that rebate programs can have a strong deployment impact on emerging renewable energy markets. This report focuses on renewable energy rebate programs, which are being analyzed as part of the State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project. SCEPA is being used to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states.

  4. State Clean Energy Practices. Renewable Energy Rebates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This report functions as a primer for renewable energy rebate programs. It highlights the impacts of specific renewable energy rebate programs on renewable energy markets around the country, as well as rebate program impacts on overarching energy policy drivers. It also discusses lessons learned, challenges, ideal applications, keys to success, and complementary and alternative policies. Results indicate that rebate programs can have a strong deployment impact on emerging renewable energy markets. This report focuses on renewable energy rebate programs, which are being analyzed as part of the State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project. SCEPA is being used to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states.

  5. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  6. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  7. Supporting Clean Energy Development in Swaziland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Swaziland, a country largely dependent on regional fossil fuel imports to meet power needs, is vulnerable to supply changes and price shocks. To address this challenge, the country's National Energy Policy and Implementation Strategy prioritizes actions to enhance energy independence through scaling up renewable energy and energy efficiency. With approximately 70 percent of the country lacking electricity, Swaziland is also strongly committed to expanding energy access to support key economic and social development goals. Within this context, energy security and energy access are two foundational objectives for clean energy development in Swaziland. The partnership between the Swaziland Energy Regulatory Authority and the Clean Energy Solutions Center led to concrete outcomes to support clean energy development in Swaziland. Improving renewable energy project licensing processes will enable Swaziland to achieve key national objectives to expand clean energy access and transition to greater energy independence.

  8. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  9. State Grid Contributes to Clean Energy Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao

    2010-01-01

    The development of clean energy is an inevitable choice for China to achieve sustainable development.The article presents the strategic thinking and measures for the promotion of clean energy development in grids, which shows that the company will bear its responsibilities for the development as a large state-owned enterprise.

  10. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  11. China Leading in Clean Energy Spending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhenjun

    2010-01-01

    @@ China has taken the lead in investments in clean energy,spending nearly double what the US did in 2009,as it ramps up projects in both renewable and traditional energy.China's investment and financing for clean energy rose to US$34.6 billion in 2009,out of US$162 billion invested globally,according to the report by the nonprofit Pew Charitable Trusts.US spending ranked second,at US$18.6 billion,with European nations also recording strong growth.

  12. Applying Physics to Clean Energy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Solar and ocean thermal energy sources offer real potential for an environmentally clean fuel by the year 2000. A review of current research contracts relating to ocean-thermal energy, cost requirements of plant construction and uses of the electricity produced, such as synthesizing ammonia and synthetic fuels, are discussed. (BT)

  13. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  14. Clean Processing and Utilization of Coal Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如清; 王海峰

    2006-01-01

    The dominant status of coal on the energy production and consumption structure of China will not be changed in the middle period of this century. To realize highly efficient utilization of coal, low pollution and low cost are great and impendent tasks. These difficult problems can be almost resolved through establishing large-scale pithead power stations using two-stage highly efficient dry coal-cleaning system before coal burning, which is a highly efficient, clean and economical strategy considering the current energy and environmental status of China. All these will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  15. Clean Energy Works Oregon Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Andria [City of Portland; Cyr, Shirley [Clean Energy Works

    2013-12-31

    In April 2010, the City of Portland received a $20 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy, as part of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program. This award was appropriated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), passed by President Obama in 2009. DOE’s program became known as the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The BBNP grant objectives directed the City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) as the primary grantee to expand the BPS-led pilot program, Clean Energy Works Portland, into Clean Energy Works Oregon (CEWO), with the mission to deliver thousands of home energy retrofits, create jobs, save energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.The Final Technical Report explores the successes and lessons learned from the first 3 years of program implementation.

  16. Clean Energy Cooperation Steering in Fast Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rose Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cooperation, it is a win-win choice for China and the US. Cooperation has almost become the hottest buzz word in the energy sector globally. During the US President Obama's visit to China recently, China and the US made agreement on the climate change, energy and environment sectors and put forward specific measures for jointly promoting development in these fields, further heating the cooperation between China and the US in the clean energy sector.

  17. 76 FR 16646 - Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc... concerning the securities of Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems,...

  18. Clean energy scenarios for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saddler, H. [Energy Strategies Pty Ltd., Manuka (Australia); Diesendorf, M. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Institute of Environmental Studies; Denniss, R. [Parliament House, Canberra (Australia). Office of Senator Bob Brown

    2007-02-15

    Australia, a major producer and user of coal, has the highest per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the industrialised world. This study investigates whether in theory such a 'fossil-fuel dependent' country could achieve a 50% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from stationary energy by 2040, compared with its 2001 emissions. To do this scenarios are developed, using a combination of forecasting and backcasting methods, under conditions of continuing economic growth and a restriction to the use of existing commercial technologies with small improvements. The principal scenario achieves the above target by implementing on the demand-side a medium-level of efficient energy use and substantial solar hot water together with a supply side combination of mainly natural gas, bioenergy and wind power. In doing so the scenario also achieves a 78% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity. Within the large uncertainties in future prices, it is possible that the economic savings from efficient energy use could pay for all or a large part of the additional costs of renewable energy. (author)

  19. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  20. Advanced materials for clean energy

    CERN Document Server

    Xu (Kyo Jo), Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Arylamine-Based Photosensitizing Metal Complexes for Dye-Sensitized Solar CellsCheuk-Lam Ho and Wai-Yeung Wongp-Type Small Electron-Donating Molecules for Organic Heterojunction Solar CellsZhijun Ning and He TianInorganic Materials for Solar Cell ApplicationsYasutake ToyoshimaDevelopment of Thermoelectric Technology from Materials to GeneratorsRyoji Funahashi, Chunlei Wan, Feng Dang, Hiroaki Anno, Ryosuke O. Suzuki, Takeyuki Fujisaka, and Kunihito KoumotoPiezoelectric Materials for Energy HarvestingDeepam Maurya, Yongke Yan, and Shashank PriyaAdvanced Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Ca

  1. The Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Can; Bao, Xinhe

    2012-05-01

    The Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences conducts fundamental and applied research towards chemistry and chemical engineering, with strong competence in the development of new technologies. The research in this special issue, containing 19 papers, features some of the DICP's best work on sustainable energy, use of environmental resources, and advanced materials within the framework of the Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy (DNL).

  2. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davies, Lincoln [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, JoAnn [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reitze, Arnold [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Silcox, Geoffrey [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues.

  3. Financing clean energy market creation. Clean energy ventures, venture capitalists and other investors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teppo, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Development and Management in Industry

    2006-07-01

    Many factors have emerged for change towards cleaner and more efficient technologies and services: climate change, increasing oil demands, and rising living standards in many parts of the world are putting an ever-increasing strain on the environment. Recently, these drivers have fueled the formation of a clean energy venture capital market where both independent venture capitalists (VCs) and corporate venture capitalists (CVCs) have invested in clean energy start-ups. Financing of clean energy market creation is the focus of this dissertation. The dissertation contributes to several bodies of literature in the area of entrepreneurship, new industry creation, corporate venturing, and venture capital research. The dissertation uses a grounded theory approach. The study is guided by three data collection approaches with an emphasis on the first two. First, interviews with European and North American VC and CVC firms that have invested in the clean energy sector were carried out. Second, a clean energy venture financing survey that consisted of qualitative, essay-format questions and some quantitative questions was carried out. Third, interviews with clean energy stakeholders were carried out in order to gain a better understanding of the emerging sector. The research results consist of three main findings. First, the research results suggest that clean energy ventures face the following three main entrepreneurial challenges: financing, market education, and growth management. A further study of three clean energy industry categories revealed additional challenges that varied according to the industry development stage. Second, the results demonstrate that, from a venture capitalist perspective, clean energy venture risk characteristics can be divided into two groups: generally recognized risk characteristics and cognitive risk characteristics. The identified generally recognized risk characteristics were market demand and adaptation, incompatibility with the VC model

  4. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  5. Energy Servers Deliver Clean, Affordable Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    K.R. Sridhar developed a fuel cell device for Ames Research Center, that could use solar power to split water into oxygen for breathing and hydrogen for fuel on Mars. Sridhar saw the potential of the technology, when reversed, to create clean energy on Earth. He founded Bloom Energy, of Sunnyvale, California, to advance the technology. Today, the Bloom Energy Server is providing cost-effective, environmentally friendly energy to a host of companies such as eBay, Google, and The Coca-Cola Company. Bloom's NASA-derived Energy Servers generate energy that is about 67-percent cleaner than a typical coal-fired power plant when using fossil fuels and 100-percent cleaner with renewable fuels.

  6. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  7. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  8. BP Cooperates with Chinese Partners for Clean Energy Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ China's Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Tsinghua University held a seminar on clean energy at the Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Educational Center on November 12 to review the results achieved in the past year to implement the 10-year CAS-BP cooperative research project titled "Clean Energy for Future."

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This is the Vietnamese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  10. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    This is the Chinese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  11. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  12. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Fuel Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Kreycik, C.

    2008-07-01

    The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, renewable fuel standards (RFS) policies are a mechanism for developing a market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. This flexible market-based policy, when properly executed, can correct for market failures and promote growth of the renewable fuels industry better than a more command-oriented approach. The policy attempts to correct market failures such as embedded fossil fuel infrastructure and culture, risk associated with developing renewable fuels, consumer information gaps, and lack of quantification of the non-economic costs and benefits of both renewable and fossil-based fuels. This report focuses on renewable fuel standards policies, which are being analyzed as part of this project.

  13. Self-reported occupational skin contact with cleaning agents and the risk of disability pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feveile, Helene; Christensen, Karl Bang; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational skin diseases often affect the hands and can lead to consequences at both the individual and the social level. OBJECTIVES: To investigate and quantify the association between self-reported occupational skin contact with cleaning agents and subsequent transition to disabil......BACKGROUND: Occupational skin diseases often affect the hands and can lead to consequences at both the individual and the social level. OBJECTIVES: To investigate and quantify the association between self-reported occupational skin contact with cleaning agents and subsequent transition...... in Denmark. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the impact of occupational exposure to cleaning agents on subsequent disability pension. RESULTS: Among women, 11% of the disability pension cases were attributable to exposure to cleaning agents and/or disinfectants. CONCLUSIONS: The study...

  14. Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  15. Clean Energy Policy Analyses. Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  16. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  17. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  18. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  19. Your First Stop for Clean Energy Policy Support (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial and UN-Energy, helps governments design and adopt policies and programs that support the deployment of transformational low-carbon technologies. The Solutions Center serves as a first-stop clearinghouse of clean energy policy reports, data, and tools and provides expert assistance and peer-to-peer learning forums. This factsheet highlights key Solutions Center offerings, including 'ask an expert' assistance on clean energy policy matters, training and peer learning, and technical resources for policy makers worldwide.

  20. Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation: Sharing New Ideas for Asia Clean Energy Future

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2010-01-01

    In response to the growing demand of energy policy makers and regulators in the Asia and Pacific region for additional knowledge support on clean energy, this publication—prepared under the Law and Policy Reform Program of the Office of the General Counsel—presents lessons learned from countries’ clean energy policy and regulatory measures and approaches discussed during the Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation held on 21–22 June 2010 at the Asian...

  1. Coalbed methane: Clean energy for the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A.-J.; Johnston, S.; Boyer, C.; Lambert, S.W.; Bustos, O.A.; Pashin, J.C.; Wray, A.

    2009-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) has the potential to emerge as a significant clean energy resource. It also has the potential to replace other diminishing hydrocarbon reserves. The latest developments in technologies and methodologies are playing a key role in harnessing this unconventional resource. Some of these developments include adaptations of existing technologies used in conventional oil and gas generations, while others include new applications designed specifically to address coal's unique properties. Completion techniques have been developed that cause less damage to the production mechanisms of coal seams, such as those occurring during cementing operations. Stimulation fluids have also been engineered specifically to enhance CBM production. Deep coal deposits that remain inaccessible by conventional mining operations offer CBM development opportunities.

  2. Mesoporous materials for clean energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Noemi; Silvestre-Albero, Ana M; Serrano, Elena; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; García-Martínez, Javier

    2014-11-21

    Alternative energy technologies are greatly hindered by significant limitations in materials science. From low activity to poor stability, and from mineral scarcity to high cost, the current materials are not able to cope with the significant challenges of clean energy technologies. However, recent advances in the preparation of nanomaterials, porous solids, and nanostructured solids are providing hope in the race for a better, cleaner energy production. The present contribution critically reviews the development and role of mesoporosity in a wide range of technologies, as this provides for critical improvements in accessibility, the dispersion of the active phase and a higher surface area. Relevant examples of the development of mesoporosity by a wide range of techniques are provided, including the preparation of hierarchical structures with pore systems in different scale ranges. Mesoporosity plays a significant role in catalysis, especially in the most challenging processes where bulky molecules, like those obtained from biomass or highly unreactive species, such as CO2 should be transformed into most valuable products. Furthermore, mesoporous materials also play a significant role as electrodes in fuel and solar cells and in thermoelectric devices, technologies which are benefiting from improved accessibility and a better dispersion of materials with controlled porosity.

  3. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The project included the following tasks: • Oxy-Coal Combustion – To ultimately produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. • High-Pressure, Entrained-Flow Coal Gasification – To ultimately provide a simulation tool for industrial entrained-flow integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasifier with quantified uncertainty. • Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) – To develop a new carbon-capture technology for coal through CLC and to transfer this technology to industry through a numerical simulation tool with quantified uncertainty bounds. • Underground Coal Thermal Treatment – To explore the potential for creating new in-situ technologies for production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from deep coal deposits and to demonstrate this in a new laboratory-scale reactor. • Mercury Control – To understand the effect of oxy-firing on the fate of mercury. • Environmental, Legal, and Policy Issues – To address the legal and policy issues associated with carbon management strategies in order to assess the appropriate role of these technologies in our evolving national energy portfolio. • Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the Heat Flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility – To produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers.

  4. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategies for development of clean energy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhen; Zhang Hongliang

    2008-01-01

    A development framework of clean energy in China is put forward based on core development strategy,technology support,and policy and laws support.In this framework,the priority development and strategic backup of clean energy are defined,and the technology support and policy and laws support are also presented.

  6. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center. 2015 Research Highlights -- Carbon Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber.

  7. Evaluation of Teaching on Clean Energy with Wind Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    塩沢, 臣城; 石田, 聡一; 干川, 圭吾

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of teaching material on clean energy with wind power generation is reported in this paper. A wind power generation system was developed as a teaching material in electric and electronics field in technology education of junior high school. It is shown that the teaching material was effective for students to understand the wind power generation and the clean energy.

  8. Falling behind - Canada's lost clean energy jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    With the depletion of conventional resources and the increasing concerns about the environment, emphasis has been put on developing clean energy. Clean energy is expected to become one of the main industrial sectors within the next decade, thus creating numerous jobs. While significant investments have been made by several countries to shift to clean energy, Canada is investing in highly polluting resources such as the tar sands. It is shown that if Canada were to match U.S. efforts in terms of clean energy on a per person basis, they would need to invest 11 billion additional dollars and this would result in the creation of 66,000 clean energy jobs. This paper showed that Canada is falling behind in terms of clean energy and the authors recommend that the Canadian government match U.S. investments and design policies in support of clean energy and put a price on carbon so as to favor the development of the clean energy sector and its consequent job creation.

  9. NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation: Issue 3 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-11-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on the NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation.

  10. Clean energy and agriculture. 5. ; Utilization of biomass for energy. Clean energy to nogyo. 5. ; Biomass energy no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, K. (National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    This paper reviews characteristics of biomass energy, which is regarded as renewable and clean, and present features of its utilization as well as their problems. Biomass energy resources are substantially such cultivated plants as saccharine crops, fatty and oily crops, petroleum plants, and aquatic plants. In addition, organic waste including agricultural and livestock waste is also the other important resource. Utilization of biomass for energy can be realized through applying such conversion technologies as methane fermentation, alcoholic fermentation, and thermal decomposition to the biomass resources. For the utilization, it is most important to make much of the viewpoints such as durable utilization corresponding to reproduction, competitive relation with food crops, and environmental protection. Biomass energy should be thought to be strictly limited to small-sized and regionally distributed energy. Therefore, it will be said that agriculture is appropriate to utilize biomass energy because it can practice both production and utilization of the biomass. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. CURE: Clean use of reactor energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a joint Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study that considered the feasibility of treating radioactive waste before disposal to reduce the inventory of long-lived radionuclides, making the waste more suitable for geologic disposal. The treatment considered here is one in which waste would be chemically separated so that long-lived radionuclides can be treated using specific processes appropriate for the nuclide. The technical feasibility of enhancing repository performance by this type of treatment is considered in this report. A joint Westinghouse Hanford-PNL study group developed a concept called the Clean Use of Reactor Energy (CURE), and evaluated the potential of current technology to reduce the long-lived radionuclide content in waste from the nuclear power industry. The CURE process consists of three components: chemical separation of elements that have significant quantities of long-lived radioisotopes in the waste, exposure in a neutron flux to transmute the radioisotopes to stable nuclides, and packaging of radionuclides that cannot be transmuted easily for storage or geologic disposal. 76 refs., 32 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing: Summary of Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing will help policymakers and industry gain deeper understanding of global manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Increased knowledge of the product supply chains can inform decisions related to manufacturing facilities for extracting and processing raw materials, making the array of required subcomponents, and assembling and shipping the final product. This brochure summarized key findings from the analysis and includes important figures from the report. The report was prepared by the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) analysts at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  13. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  14. Clean Energy: No Longer a Luxury! Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This learning activity provides an overview of the problem of clean energy sources and examination of alternatives. Student activity, quiz with answers, related activities, and nine references are provided. (SK)

  15. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) 2015 Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Mone, Christopher; Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Das, Sujit; Mann, Margaret; Gossett, Scott

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber. This booklet summarizes key findings of CEMAC work to date, describes CEMAC's research methodology, and describes work to come.

  16. Clean Economy, Living Planet. The Race to the Top of Global Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Slot, A.; Van den Berg, W. [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants RBSC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    For four years, WWF and Roland Berger have tracked developments in the global clean energy technology (cleantech) sector and ranked countries according to their cleantech sales. The 3rd annual 'Clean Economy, Living Planet' report ranks 40 countries based on the 2011 sales value of the clean energy technology products they manufacture. The report shows that the EU has lost its position to China as the leader in the fast growing global cleantech energy manufacturing sector. However, when cleantech sales are weighted as a percentage of GDP, Denmark and Germany occupied the first and third position globally. Last year the sector's global sales value rose by 10% to almost 200 billion euros, close to the scale of consumer electronics manufacturing. It is projected to overtake oil and gas equipment in the next three years.

  17. Accelerating Clean Energy Commercialization. A Strategic Partnership Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Locklin, Ken [Impax Asset Management Group (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    Technology development in the clean energy and broader clean tech space has proven to be challenging. Long-standing methods for advancing clean energy technologies from science to commercialization are best known for relatively slow, linear progression through research and development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D); and characterized by well-known valleys of death for financing. Investment returns expected by traditional venture capital investors have been difficult to achieve, particularly for hardware-centric innovations, and companies that are subject to project finance risks. Commercialization support from incubators and accelerators has helped address these challenges by offering more support services to start-ups; however, more effort is needed to fulfill the desired clean energy future. The emergence of new strategic investors and partners in recent years has opened up innovative opportunities for clean tech entrepreneurs, and novel commercialization models are emerging that involve new alliances among clean energy companies, RDD&D, support systems, and strategic customers. For instance, Wells Fargo and Company (WFC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have launched a new technology incubator that supports faster commercialization through a focus on technology development. The incubator combines strategic financing, technology and technical assistance, strategic customer site validation, and ongoing financial support.

  18. NREL's Clean Energy Policy Analyses Project: 2009 U.S. State Clean Energy Data Book, October 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.; Hummon, M.; McLaren, J.; Doris, E.

    2010-10-01

    This data book provides a summary of the status of state-level energy efficiency and renewable energy (taken together as clean energy) developments and supporting policy implementation. It is intended as a reference book for those interested in the progress of the states and regions toward a clean energy economy. Although some national-scale data are given in the initial section, the data are mostly aggregated by states and region, and no data on federal- or utility-level policies are presented here.

  19. NREL's Clean Energy Policy Analyses Project. 2009 U.S. State Clean Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, Racel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This data book provides a summary of the status of state-level energy efficiency and renewable energy (taken together as clean energy) developments and supporting policy implementation. It is intended as a reference book for those interested in the progress of the states and regions toward a clean energy economy. Although some national-scale data are given in the initial section, the data are mostly aggregated by states and region, and no data on federal- or utility-level policies are presented here.

  20. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  1. Symmetry energy III: Isovector skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielewicz, Paweł; Singh, Pardeep; Lee, Jenny

    2017-02-01

    Isoscalar density is a sum of neutron and proton densities and isovector is a normalized difference. Here, we report the experimental evidence for the displacement of the isovector and isoscalar surfaces in nuclei, by ∼ 0.9 fm from each other. We analyze data on quasielastic (QE) charge exchange (p,n) reactions, concurrently with proton and neutron elastic scattering data for the same target nuclei, following the concepts of the isoscalar and isovector potentials combined into Lane optical potential. The elastic data largely probe the geometry of the isoscalar potential and the (p,n) data largely probe a relation between the geometries of the isovector and isoscalar potentials. The targets include 48Ca, 90Zr, 120Sn and 208Pb and projectile incident energy values span the range of (10-50) MeV. In our fit to elastic and QE charge-exchange data, we allow the values of isoscalar and isovector radii, diffusivities and overall potential normalizations to float away from those in the popular Koning and Delaroche parametrization. We find that the best-fit isovector radii are consistently larger than isoscalar and the best-fit isovector surfaces are steeper. Upon identifying the displacement of the potential surfaces with the displacement of the surfaces for the densities in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculations, and by supplementing the results with those from analyzing excitation energies to isobaric analog states in the past, we arrive at the slope and value of the symmetry energy at normal density of 70 < L < 101 MeV and 33.5 < aaV < 36.4 MeV, respectively.

  2. Decentralized energy systems for clean electricity access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstone, Peter; Gershenson, Dimitry; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovative approaches are needed to address the needs of the 1.3 billion people lacking electricity, while simultaneously transitioning to a decarbonized energy system. With particular focus on the energy needs of the underserved, we present an analytic and conceptual framework that clarifies the heterogeneous continuum of centralized on-grid electricity, autonomous mini- or community grids, and distributed, individual energy services. A historical analysis shows that the present day is a unique moment in the history of electrification where decentralized energy networks are rapidly spreading, based on super-efficient end-use appliances and low-cost photovoltaics. We document how this evolution is supported by critical and widely available information technologies, particularly mobile phones and virtual financial services. These disruptive technology systems can rapidly increase access to basic electricity services and directly inform the emerging Sustainable Development Goals for quality of life, while simultaneously driving action towards low-carbon, Earth-sustaining, inclusive energy systems.

  3. 76 FR 5411 - Clean Energy and Power, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... COMMISSION Clean Energy and Power, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading January 27, 2011. It appears to the... securities of Clean Energy and Power, Inc. (``Clean Energy'') because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended September 30, 2007. Clean Energy is quoted on the Pink Sheets operated by...

  4. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application... the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/CleanEnergyMission or... or CleanEnergyMission@doc.gov ). The application deadline has been extended to Friday, March 12,...

  5. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission: Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission: Application... the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/CleanEnergyMission or... or CleanEnergyMission@doc.gov ). The application deadline has been extended to Friday, March 12,...

  6. Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillemann, Levi; Beck, Fredric; Brodrick, James; Brown, Austin; Feldman, David; Nguyen, Tien; Ward, Jacob

    2013-09-17

    For decades, America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. But even as costs fell and technology matured, a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. Critics often said a clean energy future would "always be five years away." This report focuses on four technology revolutions that are here today. In the last five years they have achieved dramatic reductions in cost and this has been accompanied by a surge in consumer, industrial and commercial deployment. Although these four technologies still represent a small percentage of their total market, they are growing rapidly. The four key technologies this report focuses on are: onshore wind power, polysilicon photovoltaic modules, LED lighting, and electric vehicles.

  7. Critical resources in clean energy technologies and waste flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal

    A broader implementation of clean energy technologies in future is a widely motivated scenario for meeting the climate change goals as well as to reduce our dependency on the non‐renewable fossil fuels. However, the transition from the current fossil‐based society to a future low‐carbon society...... constraints for the emerging clean energy technologies in future, along with an insight into the resource criticality assessment methodologies, detailed material flow analysis (MFA) of critical resources, and recovery of critical resources from the waste streams. The key findings of this PhD study were......:  The demand of neodymium and dysprosium, driven by the clean energy technologies is estimated to be 10 times higher by 2050 compared to the present primary supply (mining). This implies that either a highly accelerated rate of mining is required to meet the future demand or a radical change in current...

  8. Symmetry Energy III: Isovector Skins

    CERN Document Server

    Danielewicz, Pawel; Lee, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Isoscalar density is a sum of neutron and proton densities and isovector is a normalized difference. Here, we report on the experimental evidence for the displacement of the isovector and isoscalar surfaces in nuclei, by $\\sim$$0.9 \\, \\text{fm}$ from each other. We analyze data on quasielastic (QE) charge exchange (p,n) reactions, concurrently with proton and neutron elastic scattering data for the same target nuclei, following the concepts of the isoscalar and isovector potentials combined into Lane optical potential. The elastic data largely probe the geometry of the isoscalar potential and the (p,n) data largely probe a relation between the geometries of the isovector and isoscalar potentials. The targets include $^{48}$Ca, $^{90}$Zr, $^{120}$Sn and $^{208}$Pb and projectile incident energy values span the range of (10-50)$\\,\\text{MeV}$. In our fit to elastic and QE charge-exchange data, we allow the values of isoscalar and isovector radii, diffusivities and overall potential normalizations to float away f...

  9. 77 FR 74520 - Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc., Firepond, Inc., and GNC Energy Corporation; Order...

  10. Organic nanostructured thin film devices and coatings for clean energy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    Authored by leading experts from around the world, the three-volume Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings gives scientific researchers and product engineers a resource as dynamic and flexible as the field itself. The first two volumes cover the latest research and application of the mechanical and functional properties of thin films and coatings, while the third volume explores the cutting-edge organic nanostructured devices used to produce clean energy. This third volume, Organic Nanostructured Thin Film Devices and Coatings for Clean Energy, addresses various aspects of the proc

  11. Clean energy partnerships: A decade of success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-03-01

    This report contains a partial catalog of recent accomplishments of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)in collaboration with its many private- and public-sector partners. This compendium of success stories illustrates the range and diversity of EERE programs and achievements. Part of an ongoing effort, the principal goal of this collection is to provide stakeholders with the evidence they need to assess the value they are receiving from investments in these DOE programs. The report begins with an introduction and a description of the methodology. It then presents an overview of the accomplishments of EERE programs. This is followed by the stories themselves.

  12. Realizing a Clean Energy Future: Highlights of NREL Analysis (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-12-01

    Profound energy system transformation is underway. In Hawaiian mythology, Maui set out to lasso the sun in order to capture its energy. He succeeded. That may have been the most dramatic leap forward in clean energy systems that the world has known. Until now. Today, another profound transformation is underway. A combination of forces is taking us from a carbon-centric, inefficient energy system to one that draws from diverse energy sources - including the sun. NREL analysis is helping guide energy systems policy and investment decisions through this transformation. This brochure highlights NREL analysis accomplishments in the context of four thematic storylines.

  13. Embracing a clean-energy future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebelius, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The former governor of Kansas describes how her state is greening. The Blue Green Alliance has estimated that in a renewable-energy economy, Kansas stands to gain more than 11,000 jobs and almost $2 billion in new economic investments.

  14. Public-Private Partnerships for Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-09-01

    As part of its mission, CEMI builds partnerships around strategic priorities to increase U.S. clean energy manufacturing competitiveness. This requires an “all-hands-on-deck” approach that involves the nation’s private and public sectors, universities, think tanks, and labor leaders working together.

  15. Carbon Smackdown: Visualizing Clean Energy (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza, Juan [LBNL, Computational Research Division

    2010-08-09

    The final Carbon Smackdown match took place Aug. 9, 2010. Juan Meza of the Computational Research Division revealed how scientists use computer visualizations to accelerate climate research and discuss the development of next-generation clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and solar cells.

  16. Harnessing Solar Energy for the Production of Clean Fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, A.; Holzwarth, A.; de Groot, H.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union and its member states are being urged by leading scientists to make a major multi million Euro commitment to solar driven production of environmentally clean electricity, hydrogen and other fuels, as the only sustainable long-term solution for global energy needs. The most promisi

  17. Novel progress in clean energy partnership between CAS and BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On behalf of their respective organizations,CAS Vice President LI Jinghai and BP Group Chief Executive lain Conn recently put their names on an agreement for the partner selection and technology roadmap principle for the Clean Energy Commercialization Center (CECC),a joint venture between the two sides.

  18. Mapping of Ethiopian higher education institutions on clean energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    Norad commissioned Econ Poeyry to map teaching and research activities and capacity related to clean energy in selected Ethiopian universities. The mapping identified challenges and opportunities with the aim of facilitating future intervention by the Ethiopian Government and donors to help improve the energy sector development of the country. The report covered the government-owned universities of Bahir Dar, Mekelle, Jimma, Arba Minch and Addis Ababa. The mapping was based on a questionnaire and on interviews at each university. (Author)

  19. Clean Energy Innovation: Sources of Technical and Commercial Breakthroughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, T. D., IV; Miller, M.; Fleming, L.; Younge, K.; Newcomb, J.

    2011-03-01

    Low-carbon energy innovation is essential to combat climate change, promote economic competitiveness, and achieve energy security. Using U.S. patent data and additional patent-relevant data collected from the Internet, we map the landscape of low-carbon energy innovation in the United States since 1975. We isolate 10,603 renewable and 10,442 traditional energy patents and develop a database that characterizes proxy measures for technical and commercial impact, as measured by patent citations and Web presence, respectively. Regression models and multivariate simulations are used to compare the social, institutional, and geographic drivers of breakthrough clean energy innovation. Results indicate statistically significant effects of social, institutional, and geographic variables on technical and commercial impacts of patents and unique innovation trends between different energy technologies. We observe important differences between patent citations and Web presence of licensed and unlicensed patents, indicating the potential utility of using screened Web hits as a measure of commercial importance. We offer hypotheses for these revealed differences and suggest a research agenda with which to test these hypotheses. These preliminary findings indicate that leveraging empirical insights to better target research expenditures would augment the speed and scale of innovation and deployment of clean energy technologies.

  20. G20 Clean Energy, and Energy Efficiency Deployment and Policy Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    G-20 Clean Energy, and Energy Efficiency Deployment and Policy Progress, a report prepared by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in collaboration with the G-20 Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Working Group, provides an overview of clean energy and energy efficiency technology deployment and summarises support policies in place across G-20 countries. The report highlights that while clean energy technology deployment has made steady progress and energy efficiency improvements have been made, continued reliance on fossil fuels to meet growth in global energy demand presents a significant challenge. Scaling-up the deployment of renewable energy, in addition to improving end-use efficiency, enhancing the efficiency of fossil fuel based power generation, and supporting the widespread deployment of CCS will, therefore, also be crucial aspects of the transition to a cleaner energy future. Because the G-20 group of countries represent close to 80% of energy-related CO2 emissions, by developing and deploying energy efficiency and clean energy technologies, they are presented with a unique opportunity to make collective progress in transitioning the global energy system. IEA Deputy Executive Director Richard Jones emphasised the importance of G-20 efforts, saying, 'The IEA welcomes this important collaboration with the G-20. Enhanced deployment of clean energy technologies and of energy efficiency improvements offers energy security and environmental benefits. It will also enable cost savings over the medium and long term -- an aspect that is particularly relevant at a time of economic uncertainty. We believe that enhanced policy assessment and analysis, building on this initial report, will enable governments to take more cost effective and efficient policy decisions.' This report was issued on the authority of the IEA Executive Director, it does not necessarily represent the views of IEA Member countries or the G20.

  1. Nanogold plasmonic photocatalysis for organic synthesis and clean energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlong; Astruc, Didier

    2014-01-01

    This review provides the basic concepts, an overall survey and the state-of-the art of plasmon-based nanogold photocatalysis using visible light including fundamental understanding and major applications to organic reactions and clean energy-conversion systems. First, the basic concepts of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) are recalled, then the major preparation methods of AuNP-based plasmonic photocatalysts are reviewed. The major part of the review is dedicated to the latest progress in the application of nanogold plasmonic photocatalysis to organic transformations and energy conversions, and the proposed mechanisms are discussed. In conclusion, new challenges and perspectives are proposed and analyzed.

  2. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  3. Enhancing Tribal Energy Security and Clean Energy (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    This fact provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  4. The optimal time path of clean energy R&D policy when patents have finite lifetime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, R.; Kverndokk, S.; Rosendahl, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    We study the optimal time path for clean energy innovation policy. In a model with emission reduction through clean energy deployment, and with R&D increasing the overall productivity of clean energy, we describe optimal R&D policies jointly with emission pricing policies. We find that while emissio

  5. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  6. House of clean Energy application centre for renewable energies. Hessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Daniela; Cornelsen, Christiane; Osada, Roman [Hessisches Anwendungszentrum fuer Erneuerbare Energien und Energieeffizienz e.V. c/o RMD Rhein-Main Deponie GmbH, Floersheim-Wicker (Germany). House of clean Energy

    2012-11-01

    What form can the energy turnaround and the energy mix of the future be expected to take? What new paths of technology and research promise to yield the most effective solutions? How will it be possible to ensure a reliable energy supply sufficient to safeguard the existence and further development of modern industrial societies? These are the questions which are dominating the political debate throughout the world. (orig.)

  7. Meeting China's electricity needs through clean energy sources: A 2030 low-carbon energy roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng

    China is undergoing rapid economic development that generates significant increase in energy demand, primarily for electricity. Energy supply in China is heavily relying on coal, which leads to high carbon emissions. This dissertation explores opportunities for meeting China's growing power demand through clean energy sources. The utilization of China's clean energy sources as well as demand-side management is still at the initial phase. Therefore, development of clean energy sources would require substantial government support in order to be competitive in the market. One of the widely used means to consider clean energy in power sector supplying is Integrated Resource Strategic Planning, which aims to minimize the long term electricity costs while screening various power supply options for the power supply and demand analysis. The IRSP tool tackles the energy problem from the perspective of power sector regulators, and provides different policy scenarios to quantify the impacts of combined incentives. Through three scenario studies, Business as Usual, High Renewable, and Renewable and Demand Side Management, this dissertation identifies the optimized scenario for China to achieve the clean energy target of 2030. The scenarios are assessed through energy, economics, environment, and equity dimensions.

  8. Water management for sustainable and clean energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yuksel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Water management has recently become a major concern for many countries. During the last century consumption of water and energy has been increased in the world. This trend is anticipated to continue in the decades to come. One of the greatest reasons is the unplanned industrial activities deteriorating environment in the name of rising standard of life. What is needed is the avoidance of environmental pollution and maintenance of natural balance, in the context of sustainable development. However, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of the renewable energy resources. There is a large variation in annual precipitation, evaporation and surface run-off parameters, in Turkey. Precipitation is not evenly distributed in time and space throughout the country. There are 25 hydrological basins in Turkey. But the rivers often have irregular regimes. In this situation the main aim is to manage and use the water resources for renewable, sustainable and clean energy. This paper deals with water management for renewable, sustainable and clean energy in Turkey.

  9. Providing clean energy and energy access through cooperatives

    CERN Document Server

    Studies, International Institute of Labour

    2013-01-01

    This publication is a collection of case studies on cooperatives in energy production, distribution and consumption as a contribution to the on-going search for ways in which the goal of sustainable Energy for All can be turned into a reality.

  10. Final Technical Report_Clean Energy Program_SLC-SELF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Glenn; Coward, Doug

    2014-01-22

    This is the Final Technical Report for DOE's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant, Award No. DE-EE0003813, submitted by St. Lucie County, FL (prime recipient) and the Solar and Energy Loan Fund (SELF), the program's third-party administrator. SELF is a 501(c)(3) and a certified Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). SELF is a community-based lending organization that operates the Clean Energy Loan Program, which focuses on improving the overall quality of life of underserved populations in Florida with an emphasis on home energy improvements and cost-effective renewable energy alternatives. SELF was launched in 2010 through the creation of the non-profit organization and with a $2.9 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block (EECBG) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SELF has its main office and headquarters in St. Lucie County, in the region known as the Treasure Coast in East-Central Florida. St. Lucie County received funding to create SELF as an independent non-profit institution, outside the control of local government. This was important for SELF to create its identity as an integral part of the business community and to help in its quest to become a Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). This goal was accomplished in 2013, allowing SELF to focus on its mission to increase energy savings while serving markets that have struggled to find affordable financial assistance. These homeowners are most impacted by high energy costs. Energy costs are a disproportionate percentage of household expenses for low to moderate income (LMI) households. Electricity costs have been steadily rising in Florida by nearly 5% per year. Housing in LMI neighborhoods often includes older inefficient structures that further exacerbate the problem. Despite the many available clean energy solutions, most LMI property owners do not have the disposable income or equity in their homes necessary to afford the high upfront cost

  11. Clean energy, technical files; Energie propre, les fiches techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document is the compilation of the 42 issues of the 'Energie propre - Maitrise de la Demande d'Energie' newsletter published between September 1996 and July 1999 by the regional energy agency of Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region (ARENE). Each issue is a technical file presenting a particular action or study carried out in the framework of the program of mastery of energy demand in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region (SE France). These studies and actions concern various types of buildings: high schools, residential buildings for old people, office buildings, social buildings, hotels, recreational facilities, and cover all aspects of energy conservation: space heating, lighting systems, ventilation systems, thermal insulation, appliances.. (J.S.)

  12. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  13. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the {open_quotes}Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.{close_quotes} Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100, 000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}low emission sources{close_quotes} and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  14. Innovation, renewable energy, and state investment: Case studies of leading clean energy funds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Milford, Lewis; Porter, Kevin; Clark, Roger

    2002-09-01

    Over the last several years, many U.S. states have established clean energy funds to help support the growth of renewable energy markets. Most often funded by system-benefits charges (SBC), the 15 states that have established such funds are slated to collect nearly $3.5 billion from 1998 to 2012 for renewable energy investments. These clean energy funds are expected to have a sizable impact on the energy future of the states in which the funds are being collected and used. For many of the organizations tapped to administer these funds, however, this is a relatively new role that presents the challenge of using public funds in the most effective and innovative fashion possible. Fortunately, each state is not alone in its efforts; many other U.S. states and a number of countries are undertaking similar efforts. Early lessons are beginning to be learned by clean energy funds about how to effectively target public funds towards creating and building renewable energy markets. A number of innovative programs have already been developed that show significant leadership by U.S. states in supporting renewable energy. It is important that clean energy fund administrators learn from this emerging experience.

  15. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-08-20

    This survey reviews efforts by CESA member clean energy funds to promote the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. For each fund, details are provided regarding biomass eligibility for support, specific programs offering support to biomass projects, and examples of supported biomass projects (if available). For the purposes of this survey, biomass is defined to include bio-product gasification, combustion, co-firing, biofuel production, and the combustion of landfill gas, though not all of the programs reviewed here take so wide a definition. Programs offered by non-CESA member funds fall outside the scope of this survey. To date, three funds--the California Energy Commission, Wisconsin Focus on Energy, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority--have offered programs targeted specifically at the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. We begin by reviewing efforts in these three funds, and then proceed to cover programs in other funds that have provided support to biomass projects when the opportunity has arisen, but otherwise do not differentially target biomass relative to other renewable technologies.

  16. Global Gaps in Clean Energy RD and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report seeks to inform decision makers seeking to prioritise RD&D investments in a time of financial uncertainty. It is an update of the December 2009 IEA report Global Gaps in Clean Energy Research, Development and Demonstration, which examined whether rates of LCET investment were sufficient to achieve shared global energy and environmental goals (IEA,2009). It discusses the impact of the green stimulus spending announcements, and provides private sector perspectives on priorities for government RD&D spending. Finally, it includes a revised assessment of the gaps in public RD&D, together with suggestions for possible areas for expanded international collaboration on specific LCETs. The conclusion re-affirms the first Global Gaps study finding that governments and industry need to dramatically increase their spending on RD&D for LCETs.

  17. Clean Energy Finance: Challenges and Opportunities of Early-Stage Energy Investing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heap, D.; Pless, J.; Aieta, N.

    2013-12-01

    Characterized by a changing landscape and new opportunities, today's increasingly complex energy decision space will need innovative financing and investment models to appropriately assess risk and profitability. This report provides an overview of the current state of clean energy finance across the entire spectrum but with a focus on early stage investing, and it includes insights from investors across all investment classes. Further, this report aims to provide a roadmap with the mechanisms, limitations, and considerations involved in making successful investments by identifying risks, challenges, and opportunities in the clean energy sector.

  18. USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the integrated clean energy deployment process and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project road map, including over-arching goals, organization, strategy, technology-specific goals and accomplishments, challenges, solutions, and upcoming milestones.

  19. Final Technical Report_Clean Energy Program_SLC-SELF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Glenn; Coward, Doug

    2014-01-22

    This is the Final Technical Report for DOE's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant, Award No. DE-EE0003813, submitted by St. Lucie County, FL (prime recipient) and the Solar and Energy Loan Fund (SELF), the program's third-party administrator. SELF is a 501(c)(3) and a certified Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). SELF is a community-based lending organization that operates the Clean Energy Loan Program, which focuses on improving the overall quality of life of underserved populations in Florida with an emphasis on home energy improvements and cost-effective renewable energy alternatives. SELF was launched in 2010 through the creation of the non-profit organization and with a $2.9 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block (EECBG) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SELF has its main office and headquarters in St. Lucie County, in the region known as the Treasure Coast in East-Central Florida. St. Lucie County received funding to create SELF as an independent non-profit institution, outside the control of local government. This was important for SELF to create its identity as an integral part of the business community and to help in its quest to become a Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). This goal was accomplished in 2013, allowing SELF to focus on its mission to increase energy savings while serving markets that have struggled to find affordable financial assistance. These homeowners are most impacted by high energy costs. Energy costs are a disproportionate percentage of household expenses for low to moderate income (LMI) households. Electricity costs have been steadily rising in Florida by nearly 5% per year. Housing in LMI neighborhoods often includes older inefficient structures that further exacerbate the problem. Despite the many available clean energy solutions, most LMI property owners do not have the disposable income or equity in their homes necessary to afford the high upfront cost

  20. 78 FR 57629 - Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 9, 2013, Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC filed Form 556 and a petition for certification as...

  1. MIT Clean Energy Prize: Final Technical Report May 12, 2010 - May 11, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Chris [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Campbell, Georgina [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Salony, Jason [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Aulet, Bill [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2011-08-09

    The MIT Clean Energy Prize (MIT CEP) is a venture creation and innovation competition to encourage innovation in the energy space, specifically with regard to clean energy. The Competition invited student teams from any US university to submit student-led ventures that demonstrate a high potential of successfully making clean energy more affordable, with a positive impact on the environment. By focusing on student ventures, the MIT CEP aims to educate the next generation of clean energy entrepreneurs. Teams receive valuable mentoring and hard deadlines that complement the cash prize to accelerate development of ventures. The competition is a year-long educational process that culminates in the selection of five category finalists and a Grand Prize winner and the distribution of cash prizes to each of those teams. Each entry was submitted in one of five clean energy categories: Renewables, Clean Non-Renewables, Energy Efficiency, Transportation, and Deployment.

  2. U.S. DOE Southeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzarella, Isaac [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Mago, Pedro [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Kalland, Stephen [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-12-31

    Between 2010 and 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded the Southeast Clean Energy Application Center (SE-CEAC), co-located at the North Carolina Solar Center at NC State University (NCSU) and at Mississippi State University. The SE-CEAC was one of eight regional CEACs established to promote and assist in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), district energy (DE) and waste heat to power (WHP) throughout the U.S. CHP locates power generation at the point of demand and makes productive use of the residual thermal energy for process and space heating in factories and businesses, thus lowering the cost of meeting electricity and heat requirements and increasing energy efficiency. The overall goal of the SE-CEAC was to support end-user implementation and overall market transformation for CHP and related clean energy technologies. Five objectives were targeted to achieve the goal: 1. Market Analysis and Information Dissemination 2. Outreach and Education for Potential CHP End-users 3. Policy Support for State and Regional Stakeholders 4. Technical Assistance to Support CHP Deployment 5. Collaboration with DOE and other CEACs Throughout the project, the CEACs provided key services of education and outreach, technical assistance and market analysis in support of project objectives. These services were very effective at achieving key objectives of assisting prospective CHP end-users and informing policy makers, utilities and others about the benefits of CHP. There is a marked increase in the awareness of CHP technologies and applications as an energy resource among end-users, policymakers, utility regulators, electric utilities and natural gas utilities in the Southeast region as a result. At the end of 2013, a number of best-practice policies for CHP were applied or under consideration in various Southeast states. The SE-CEAC met its targets for providing technical assistance with over 50 analyses delivered for 412 MW of potential end

  3. U.S. DOE Intermountain Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, Patti

    2013-09-30

    The Intermountain Clean Energy Application Center helped promote, assist, and transform the market for combined heat and power (CHP), including waste heat to power and district energy with CHP, in the intermountain states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. We accomplished these objectives through a combination of the following methods, which proved in concert to be a technically and economically effective strategy: o Identifying and facilitating high-impact CHP projects o Helping industrial, commercial, institutional, federal, and other large energy users in evaluating the economic and technical viability of potential CHP systems o Disseminating essential information about CHP including benefits, technologies, applications, project development, project financing, electric and gas utility incentives, and state policies o Coordinating and collaborating on CHP advancement with regional stakeholders including electric utilities, gas utilities, state energy offices, municipal development and planning personnel, trade associations, industry groups, non-profits, energy users, and others Outcomes of the project included increased understanding of and deployment of efficient and well-designed CHP systems in the states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Increased CHP deployment helps the United States to enhance energy efficiency, strengthen the competitiveness of American industries, promote economic growth, foster a robust and resilient energy infrastructure, reduce emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, and increase the use of market-ready advanced technologies. Specific outcomes included direct assistance to energy-intensive industrial facilities and other businesses, workshops and CHP tours, communication materials, and state policy education, all contributing to implementation of CHP systems in the intermountain region.

  4. Wind energy. Views on the environment: clean and green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Thomas O.

    1999-12-01

    As the United States grapples with the issue of global climate change resulting from fossil fuel combustion, and as the U.S. Congress and individual state legislatures consider restructuring the electric utility industry, lawmakers should keep in mind the environmental preferability of renewable energy sources such as wind and the long, continuing record of public support for them. This is particularly important in view of restructuring, which will have the effect of shifting decisions about the type and quantity of new power plants to be built from utility executives to the general public. Preliminary information suggests that ''green,'' or environmentally-friendly, power sources could win a significant market share. In addition to creating new demand for clean energy sources, this development is likely to create a committed, educated political constituency for clean energy that has not existed in the past. In such an altered environment for the selection of new generation, public attitudes on the desirability of various power sources will become much more important than they have in the past. The purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize public opinion surveys on the environment in general, renewable energy in general, and wind energy in particular in that order, using data gathered from polling in the U.S., the United Kingdom, and Canada. At this writing, more than 16 years after the first wind plants began going up in California, there is a solid and growing body of information available on public acceptance of wind energy. This paper draws on more than 25 surveys conducted over the years on wind and renewables, as well as individual findings on attitudes on the environment from other polls. An abbreviated summary of the public attitudes reviewed in this document is as follows: Views on the Environment: Public concern about protecting the environment, and particularly those aspects of the environment that relate to human health, such as

  5. Experimental study on energy performance of clean air heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed and developed based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor. The clean air heat pump integrated air purification, dehumidification and cooling in one unit. A prototype of the clean air heat pump was developed...

  6. Towards a framework of clean energy technology receptivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, Steve [SouthSouthNorth Projects (Africa), 138, Waterkant Street, Green Point, Cape Town 8003 (South Africa)

    2008-08-15

    Technology invention, innovation and transfer have been a constant of human evolution. Facing humanity is the threat of anthropogenic climate change, the solution to which is to reduce the rate at which greenhouse gasses (GHGs) are building up in the atmosphere and to deal with the impacts of climate variability and change. To deal with the global crisis requires technology invention, innovation and transfer and changes in behaviour that reduce the GHGs intensity of energy services. Meanwhile, the poverty reduction and development agenda are being shaped by the Millennium Development Goals, which slowly appears to be gaining buy-in. The question is how will the accelerated receipt of cleaner energy technologies can be successfully achieved in marginalised communities in developing countries? The paper considers a range of drivers, case studies and projects that are being undertaken as early Clean Development Mechanism experiments under the banner of the International SouthSouthNorth Group. It discusses the drivers of technology transfer and starts to unpack the elements of successful receptivity through selection and ownership of the newly introduced environmentally safe technologies (ESTs) for the provision of energy services. (author)

  7. A gecko skin micro/nano structure - A low adhesion, superhydrophobic, anti-wetting, self-cleaning, biocompatible, antibacterial surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gregory S; Green, David W; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Li, Xin; Cribb, Bronwen W; Myhra, Sverre; Watson, Jolanta A

    2015-07-01

    Geckos, and specifically their feet, have attracted significant attention in recent times with the focus centred around their remarkable adhesional properties. Little attention however has been dedicated to the other remaining regions of the lizard body. In this paper we present preliminary investigations into a number of notable interfacial properties of the gecko skin focusing on solid and aqueous interactions. We show that the skin of the box-patterned gecko (Lucasium sp.) consists of dome shaped scales arranged in a hexagonal patterning. The scales comprise of spinules (hairs), from several hundred nanometres to several microns in length, with a sub-micron spacing and a small radius of curvature typically from 10 to 20 nm. This micro and nano structure of the skin exhibited ultralow adhesion with contaminating particles. The topography also provides a superhydrophobic, anti-wetting barrier which can self clean by the action of low velocity rolling or impacting droplets of various size ranges from microns to several millimetres. Water droplets which are sufficiently small (10-100 μm) can easily access valleys between the scales for efficient self-cleaning and due to their dimensions can self-propel off the surface enhancing their mobility and cleaning effect. In addition, we demonstrate that the gecko skin has an antibacterial action where Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis) are killed when exposed to the surface however eukaryotic cell compatibility (with human stem cells) is demonstrated. The multifunctional features of the gecko skin provide a potential natural template for man-made applications where specific control of liquid, solid and biological contacts is required.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Region Clean Energy Application Center (PCEAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, Tim; Kammen, Dan; McDonell, Vince; Samuelsen, Scott; Beyene, Asfaw; Ganji, Ahmad

    2013-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Region Clean Energy Application Center (PCEAC) was formed in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission to provide education, outreach, and technical support to promote clean energy -- combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, and waste energy recovery (WHP) -- development in the Pacific Region. The region includes California, Nevada, Hawaii, and the Pacific territories. The PCEAC was operated as one of nine regional clean energy application centers, originally established in 2003/2004 as Regional Application Centers for combined heat and power (CHP). Under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, these centers received an expanded charter to also promote district energy and waste energy recovery, where economically and environmentally advantageous. The centers are working in a coordinated fashion to provide objective information on clean energy system technical and economic performance, direct technical assistance for clean energy projects and additional outreach activities to end users, policy, utility, and industry stakeholders. A key goal of the CEACs is to assist the U.S. in achieving the DOE goal to ramp up the implementation of CHP to account for 20% of U.S. generating capacity by 2030, which is estimated at a requirement for an additional 241 GW of installed clean technologies. Additional goals include meeting the Obama Administration goal of 40 GW of new CHP by 2020, key statewide goals such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in each state, California’s greenhouse gas emission reduction goals under AB32, and Governor Brown’s “Clean Energy Jobs Plan” goal of 6.5 GW of additional CHP over the next twenty years. The primary partners in the PCEAC are the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Energy and Resources Group (ERG) at UC Berkeley, the Advanced Power and Energy Program (APEP) at UC Irvine, and the Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC

  9. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2010-05-01

    High initial costs can impede the deployment of clean energy technologies. Financing can reduce these costs. And, state, municipal, and utility-sponsored loan programs have emerged to fill the gap between clean energy technology financing needs and private sector lending. In general, public loan programs are more favorable to clean energy technologies than are those offered by traditional lending institutions; however, public loan programs address only the high up-front costs of clean energy systems, and the technology installed under these loan programs rarely supports clean energy production at levels that have a notable impact on the broader energy sector. This report discusses ways to increase the impact of these loan programs and suggests related policy design considerations.

  10. Community Renewable Energy Deployment Provides Replicable Examples of Clean Energy Projects (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    This fact sheet describes the U.S. Department of Energy's Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CommRE) program, which is a more than $20 million effort funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, to promote investment in clean energy solutions and provide real-life examples for other local governments, campuses, and small utilities to replicate. Five community-based renewable energy projects received funding from DOE through the CommRE and their progress is detailed.

  11. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) - Enabling Collective Impact on Climate and Energy Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.; Gold, A. U.; Niepold, F., III

    2015-12-01

    Numerous climate change education efforts exist that aim to enable citizens and society to make informed decisions addressing environmental and societal issues arising from climate change. To extend the reach and impact of these efforts, it is necessary to coordinate them in order to reach a greater collective impact. The Collective Impact model, as described by Kania & Kramer (2011), requires five elements: 1) a common agenda; 2) shared measurement systems; 3) mutually reinforcing activities; 4) continuous communication; and 5) a well-funded backbone support organization. The CLEAN Network, as an example of a rudimentary form of such an organization, engages in continuous communication through weekly teleconferences, an active listserv and other activities to share resources, activities, and ideas that is moving the network to develop common understandings that will likely lead to the development of effective collective impact on increasing climate and energy literacy. A Spring 2013 survey of the CLEAN Network provided insight as to how the CLEAN Network was addressing member needs and identified what other support was needed to increase its collective impact. In addition, community discussions identified the components needed for an effective overarching backbone support organization. A Fall 2015 survey of the CLEAN Network and the broader climate change education community is being conducted to examine 1) how the CLEAN Network make up and needs have evolved and how they compare to the broader community, and 2) to gather further input into the shaping of the elements of collective impact on climate and energy literacy. This presentation will describe the results from the 2015 survey and compare them to the 2013 survey and the community discussions. This will include describing the CLEAN Network's evolving professional make up, engagement of its members network activities, the importance of the network to members; how the findings compare with the broader climate

  12. Enhancing State Clean Energy Workforce Training to Meet Demand. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Devashree

    2010-01-01

    Recent state policy and federal funding initiatives are driving the demand for clean energy in both the short and long term. This increased demand has created the need for many more workers trained or retrained in a variety of clean energy jobs. In response, states are utilizing funding under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009…

  13. Financing Projects That Use Clean-Energy Technologies. An Overview of Barriers and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, D. P. [New Energy Capital, LLC, Hanover, NH (United States); McKenna, J. J. [Hamilton Clark & Co., Washington, DC (United States); Murphy, L. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2005-10-01

    This technical paper describes the importance of project financing for clean-energy technology deployment. It describes the key challenges in financing clean-energy technology projects, including technical risks, credit worthiness risk, revenue security risk, market competition, scale and related cost, as well as first-steps to overcome those barriers.

  14. Nanoscale Thin Film Electrolytes for Clean Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Sanghavi, Rahul P.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2012-02-01

    Ceria and zirconia based systems can be used as electrolytes to develop solid oxide fuel cells for clean energy production and to prevent air pollution by developing efficient, reliable oxygen sensors. In this study, we have used oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (OPA-MBE) to grow samaria doped ceria (SDC), to understand the role of dopant concentration and geometry of the films towards the ionic conduction in these thin films. We have also discussed the Gd doped CeO2 (GDC) and Gd stabilized ZrO2 (GSZ) multi-layer thin films to investigate the effect of interfacial phenomena on the ionic conductivity of these hetero-structures. We found the optimum concentration to be 15 mol % SmO1.5, for achieving lowest electrical resistance in SDC thin films. The electrical resistance decreases with the increase in film thickness up to 200 nm. The results demonstrate the usefulness of this study towards establishing an optimum dopant concentration and choosing an appropriate thin film thickness to ameliorate the conductance of the SDC material system. Furthermore, we have explored the conductivity of highly oriented GDC and GSZ multi-layer thin films, wherein the conductivity increased with an increase in the number of layers. The extended defects and lattice strain near the interfaces increase the density of oxygen vacancies, which leads to enhanced ionic conductivity in multi-layer thin films.

  15. Demonstration projects of hydrogen mobility. The clean energy partnership (CEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Rene [TOTAL Deutschland GmbH / Clean Energy Partnership, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The Clean Energy Partnership (CEP)- an alliance of currently sixteen leading companies in Germany- shows that it may be doable to establish hydrogen as 'fuel of the future'. With Air Liquide, Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG), BMW, Daimler, EnBW, Ford, GM/Opel, Hamburger Hochbahn, Honda, Linde, Shell, Siemens, Total, Toyota, Vattenfall Europe and Volkswagen, the project partners include technology, oil and utility companies as well as major car manufacturers and two leading public transport companies of the two biggest German cities. The goal of CEP is to test using hydrogen- and fuel-cell technology on an everyday basis in the mobility sector with regard to individual traffic and public transport. Challenges are the use and supply of ''green'' hydrogen as well the serial production of hydrogen vehicles as well as the extension of the hydrogen filling station network. Nevertheless, Germany is a frontrunner when it comes to hydrogen mobility with currently 15 stations and 50% green hydrogen offered already today. (orig.)

  16. Essays on Infrastructure Design and Planning for Clean Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Ayse Selin

    The International Energy Agency estimates that the number of people who do not have access to electricity is nearly 1.3 billion and a billion more have only unreliable and intermittent supply. Moreover, current supply for electricity generation mostly relies on fossil fuels, which are finite and one of the greatest threats to the environment. Rising population growth rates, depleting fuel sources, environmental issues and economic developments have increased the need for mathematical optimization to provide a formal framework that enables systematic and clear decision-making in energy operations. This thesis through its methodologies and algorithms enable tools for energy generation, transmission and distribution system design and help policy makers make cost assessments in energy infrastructure planning rapidly and accurately. In Chapter 2, we focus on local-level power distribution systems planning for rural electrification using techniques from combinatorial optimization. We describe a heuristic algorithm that provides a quick solution for the partial electrification problem where the distribution network can only connect a pre-specified number of households with low voltage lines. The algorithm demonstrates the effect of household settlement patterns on the electrification cost. We also describe the first heuristic algorithm that selects the locations and service areas of transformers without requiring candidate solutions and simultaneously builds a two-level grid network in a green-field setting. The algorithms are applied to real world rural settings in Africa, where household locations digitized from satellite imagery are prescribed. In Chapter 3 and 4, we focus on power generation and transmission using clean energy sources. Here, we imagine a country in the future where hydro and solar are the dominant sources and fossil fuels are only available in minimal form. We discuss the problem of modeling hydro and solar energy production and allocation, including

  17. The hydrogen: a clean and durable energy; L'hydrogene: une energie propre et durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleau, Th. [Association Francaise de l' Hydrogene (France); Nejat Veziroglu, T. [Clean Energy Research Institute, University of Miami (United States); Lequeux, G. [Commission europeenne, DG de la Recherche, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    All the scientific experts agree, the hydrogen will be the energy vector of the future. During this conference day on the hydrogen, the authors recalled the actual economic context of the energy policy with the importance of the environmental policy and the decrease of the fossil fuels. The research programs and the attitudes of the France and the other countries facing the hydrogen are also discussed, showing the great interest for this clean and durable energy. They underline the importance of an appropriate government policy, necessary to develop the technology of the hydrogen production, storage and use. (A.L.B.)

  18. Clean energy development is a win-win-win for jobs, economic growth and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Learner, H.A. [Environmental Law and Policy Center, IL (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The Environmental Law and Policy Center of Illinois has recently released several publications promoting clean energy development to improve environmental quality and public health for the Midwest. This presentation emphasized how the clean energy development plan can create new jobs and stimulate economic growth. For example, the electric power industry is currently relying on 1950's energy technology. Modernizing the electricity industry would be good for both the economy and the environment. Repowering the industry would promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The presentation also compared a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and a clean energy development plan scenario for 2010 and 2020. It was suggested that policy changes may be required to ensure change. In the BAU scenario, electricity demand would increase annually, large additions of natural gas capacity would be used to meet the demand, and coal plants would increase their output. Under the clean energy development plan, electricity demand would flatten out, coal and nuclear plants would be replaced with renewables (mostly wind) or clean, natural gas generation. Under the clean energy development plan NOx would be reduced by 71 per cent, SOx by 56 per cent, mercury by 50 per cent, and carbon dioxide by 51 per cent. The clean energy development plan improves the environment by reducing air and water pollution and improves electricity reliability. 8 tabs., 20 figs.

  19. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

    2014-07-31

    The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage

  20. Public-Private roundtables at the fourth Clean Energy Ministerial, 17-18 April 2013, New Delhi, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, Tracey [Energetics, Incorporated, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-06-30

    The Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) is a high-level global forum to share best practices and promote policies and programs that advance clean energy technologies and accelerate the transition to a global clean energy economy. The CEM works to increase energy efficiency, expand clean energy supply, and enhance clean energy access worldwide. To achieve these goals, the CEM pursues a three-part strategy that includes high-level policy dialogue, technical cooperation, and engagement with the private sector and other stakeholders. Each year, energy ministers and other high-level delegates from the 23 participating CEM governments come together to discuss clean energy, review clean energy progress, and identify tangible next steps to accelerate the clean energy transition. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a crucial role in launching the CEM, hosted the first annual meeting of energy ministers in Washington, DC, in June 2010. The United Arab Emirates hosted the second Clean Energy Ministerial in 2011, and the United Kingdom hosted the third Clean Energy Ministerial in 2012. In April 2013, India hosted the fourth Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM4) in New Delhi. Key insights from CEM4 are summarized in the report. It captures the ideas and recommendations of the government and private sector leaders who participated in the discussions on six discussion topics: reducing soft costs of solar PV; energy management systems; renewables policy and finance; clean vehicle adoption; mini-grid development; and power systems in emerging economies.

  1. Interfacial Effects in Polymer Membranes for Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soles, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric membranes are critical components in several emerging clean energy technologies. Examples include proton exchange membranes for hydrogen fuel cells, anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells, flow batteries, and even block copolymer membranes for solid electrolytes/separators in lithium ion and other battery technologies. In all of these examples the function of the membrane is to physically separate two reactive electrodes or reactants, but allow the transport or exchange of specific ions through the membrane between the active electrodes. The flow of the charged ionic species between the electrodes can be used to balance the flow of electrons through an external electrical circuit that connects the electrodes, thereby storing or delivering charge electrochemically. In this presentation I will review the use of polymeric membranes in electrochemical energy storage technologies and discuss the critical issues related to the membranes that hinder these technologies. In particular I will also focus on the role the polymer membrane interface on device performance. At some point the polymer membrane must be interfaced with an active electrode or catalyst and the nature of this interface can significantly impact performance. Simulations of device performance based on bulk membrane transport properties often fail to predict the actual performance and empirical interfacial impedance terms usually added to capture the device performance. In this presentation I will explore the origins of this interfacial impedance in the different types of fuel cell membranes (proton and alkaline) by creating model thin film membranes where all of the membrane can be considered interfacial. We then use these thin films as a surrogate for the interfacial regions of a bulk membrane and then quantify the structure, dynamics, and transport properties of water and ions in the confined interfacial films. Using neutron reflectivity, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and

  2. State of the States 2010: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Gelman, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report builds on the emerging body of literature seeking to identify quantitative connections between clean energy policy and renewable energy. The methods presented test the relationships between a broad set of policies and clean energy resources (energy efficiency, biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind). Energy efficiency findings are an initial foray into this type of analysis and indicate significant connections between reduced energy use and buildings codes, energy efficiency resource standards (in some cases), and electricity price. Renewable energy findings specify that there is most often a relationship between state policies and solar and wind development, indicating that while policies might apply to a wide variety of renewable resources, further tailoring of policy specifics to resource needs may lead to increased development of a wider variety of renewable energy resources. Further research is needed to refine the connections between clean energy development and policy, especially in the area of the impact of the length of time that a policy has been in place.

  3. State of the States 2010. The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gelman, Rachel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report builds on the emerging body of literature seeking to identify quantitative connections between clean energy policy and renewable energy. The methods presented test the relationships between a broad set of policies and clean energy resources (energy efficiency, biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind). Energy efficiency findings are an initial foray into this type of analysis and indicate significant connections between reduced energy use and buildings codes, energy efficiency resource standards (in some cases), and electricity price. Renewable energy findings specify that there is most often a relationship between state policies and solar and wind development, indicating that while policies might apply to a wide variety of renewable resources, further tailoring of policy specifics to resource needs may lead to increased development of a wider variety of renewable energy resources. Further research is needed to refine the connections between clean energy development and policy, especially in the area of the impact of the length of time that a policy has been in place.

  4. Impact of Clean Energy R&D on the U.S. Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group; Mowers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group; Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. government, along with other governments, private corporations and organizations, invests significantly in research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) activities in clean energy technologies, in part to achieve the goal of a clean, secure, and reliable energy system. While specific outcomes and breakthroughs resulting from RDD&D investment are unpredictable, it can be instructive to explore the potential impacts of clean energy RDD&D activities in the power sector and to place those impacts in the context of current and anticipated market trends. This analysis builds on and leverages analysis by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) titled “Energy CO2 Emissions Impacts of Clean Energy Technology Innovation and Policy” (DOE 2017). Similar to DOE (2017), we explore how additional improvements in cost and performance of clean energy technologies could impact the future U.S. energy system; however, unlike the economy-wide modeling used in DOE (2017) our analysis is focused solely on the electricity sector and applies a different and more highly spatially-resolved electric sector model. More specifically, we apply a scenario analysis approach to explore how assumed further advancements in clean electricity technologies would impact power sector generation mix, electricity system costs, and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  5. Feasibility of zeolitic imidazolate framework membranes for clean energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, A. W.; Dubbeldam, D.; Liu, M. S.; Ladewig, B. P.; Hill, A. J.; Hill, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Gas separation technologies for carbon-free hydrogen and clean gaseous fuel production must efficiently perform the following separations: (1) H2/CO2 (and H2/N2) for pre-combustion coal gasification, (2) CO2/N2 for post-combustion of coal, (3) CO2/CH4 for natural gas sweetening and biofuel purificat

  6. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative Existing Building Energy Efficiency Analysis: November 17, 2009 - June 30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, P.; Potes, A.

    2010-06-01

    In June 2009, the State of Hawaii enacted an Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (EEPS) with a target of 4,300 gigawatt hours (GWh) by 2030 (Hawaii 2009). Upon setting this goal, the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, Booz Allen Hamilton (BAH), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working with select local stakeholders, partnered to execute the first key step toward attaining the EEPS goal: the creation of a high-resolution roadmap outlining key areas of potential electricity savings. This roadmap was divided into two core elements: savings from new construction and savings from existing buildings. BAH focused primarily on the existing building analysis, while NREL focused on new construction forecasting. This report presents the results of the Booz Allen Hamilton study on the existing building stock of Hawaii, along with conclusions on the key drivers of potential energy efficiency savings and on the steps necessary to attain them.

  7. VISION: Illuminating the Pathways to a Clean Energy Economy - JISEA 2016 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This report demonstrates JISEA's successes over the past year and previews our coming work. The 2016 Annual Report highlights JISEA accomplishments in low-carbon electricity system research, international collaboration, clean energy manufacturing analysis, 21st century innovation strategy, and more. As we look to the coming year, JISEA will continue to navigate complex issues, present unique perspectives, and envision a clean energy economy.

  8. US Clean Energy Sector and the Opportunity for Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, Carole Cameron

    2011-01-01

    The following paper sets forth the current understanding of the US clean energy demand and opportunity. As clean energy systems come online and technology is developed, modeling and simulation of these complex energy programs provides an untapped business opportunity. The US Department of Defense provides a great venue for developing new technology in the energy sector because it is demanding lower fuel costs, more energy efficiencies in its buildings and bases, and overall improvements in its carbon footprint. These issues coupled with the security issues faced by foreign dependence on oil will soon bring more clean energy innovations to the forefront (lighter batteries for soldiers, alternative fuel for jets, energy storage systems for ships, etc).

  9. Power System Challenge: Synthesis Report for the 7th Clean Energy Ministerial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-06-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial's (CEM's) Power System Challenge was established in 2015 to create a shared vision among major economies regarding the pathway to clean, reliable, resilient, and affordable power. Endorsing governments have created core principles and challenge propositions as a framework for government and industry action to support and guide power system transformation. This brochure details the status of the Challenge, how countries are working to meet the Challenge, and the relevant milestones reached by initiatives of the Clean Energy Ministerial.

  10. Clean Energy-Related Economic Development Policy across the States: Establishing a 2016 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    States implement clean energy-related economic development policy to spur innovation, manufacturing, and to address other priorities. This report focuses on those policies most directly related to expanding new and existing manufacturing. The extent to which states invest in this policymaking depends on political drivers and jurisdictional economic development priorities. To date, no one source has collected all of the clean energy-related economic development policies available across the 50 states. Thus, it is unclear how many policies exist within each state and how these policies, when implemented, can drive economic development. Establishing the baseline of existing policy is a critical first step in determining the potential holistic impact of these policies on driving economic growth in a state. The goal of this report is to document the clean energy-related economic development policy landscape across the 50 states with a focus on policy that seeks to expand new or existing manufacturing within a state. States interested in promoting clean energy manufacturing in their jurisdictions may be interested in reviewing this landscape to determine how they compare to peers and to adjust their policies as necessary. This report documents over 900 existing clean energy-related economic development laws, financial incentives (technology-agnostic and clean energy focused), and other policies such as agency-directed programs and initiatives across the states.

  11. The influence and ethics of interest groups on policy incentives for clean energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Mariana C.

    The clean energy revolution in the United States is not going to happen until diverse stakeholders in the coalition of clean energy proponents strengthen their cohesion and influence—two critical tools for interest group's to be successful in driving the formulation of public policy. Currently, clean energy technology and resource development is supported by a highly diverse coalition of interest groups such as environmental groups, health organizations, industry, and the Defense Department, whose primary goals are often unrelated. Yet their objectives are increasingly well served by pursuing clean energy development by pushing lawmakers for supportive policies. However, characteristics of this ad hoc coalition can hinder its influence and cohesion. Whereas, fossil fuel interests—exemplified by the coalition of oil proponents—are highly cohesive and influential. This thesis will analyze whether there is a correlation between public policies on clean energy, and the strength of interest group influence over those policy decisions. It will begin with an analysis of interest group theories. Next it will analyze the histories of the oil industry as the model opponent of clean energy policies, and the biofuels, wind energy, and solar energy industries as the model proponents of clean energy policies. The composition of the respective coalitions will reveal if they are diverse or similar, with broad or narrow goals, and other important characteristics. Their respective policy positions and messages will show what values are important to them, and the presidential support each coalition has been achieved, or failed to achieve, will provide further insight into their effectiveness. This thesis will then apply interest group theories to the supporter and opponent coalitions. Results obtained indicate that the coalition of oil interests is large, yet very cohesive and influential, while the coalition for clean energy is large, generally diffuse but with some important

  12. Strengthening Clean Energy Technology Cooperation under the UNFCCC: Steps toward Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, R.; de Coninck, H.; Dhar, S.; Hansen, U.; McLaren, J.; Painuly, J.

    2010-08-01

    Development of a comprehensive and effective global clean technology cooperation framework will require years of experimenting and evaluation with new instruments and institutional arrangements before it is clear what works on which scale and in which region or country. In presenting concrete examples, this paper aims to set the first step in that process by highlighting successful models and innovative approaches that can inform efforts to ramp up clean energy technology cooperation. This paper reviews current mechanisms and international frameworks for global cooperation on clean energy technologies, both within and outside of the UNFCCC, and provides selected concrete options for scaling up global cooperation on clean energy technology RD&D, enabling environment, and financing.

  13. Clean Energy Manufacturing: U.S. Competitiveness and State Policy Strategies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2014-02-01

    The capital intensive nature of clean energy technologies suggests that manufacturing clean energy equipment has the potential to support state and local economic development efforts. However, manufacturing siting decisions tend to be complex and multi-variable decision processes that require in-depth knowledge of specific markets, the logistical requirements of a given technology, and insight into global clean tech trends. This presentation highlights the potential of manufacturing in supporting economic development opportunities while also providing examples of the financial considerations affecting manufacturing facility siting decisions for wind turbine blades and solar PV. The presentation also includes discussion of other more qualitative drivers of facility siting decisions as gleaned from NREL industry interviews and discusses strategies state and local policymakers may employee to bolster their chances of successfully attracting clean energy manufacturers to their localities.

  14. Developing an Online Database of National and Sub-National Clean Energy Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, R.; Cross, S.; Heinemann, A.; Booth, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) was established in 1995 to provide summaries of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies offered by the federal and state governments. This primer provides an overview of the major policy, research, and technical topics to be considered when creating a similar clean energy policy database and website.

  15. Neutron skin uncertainties of Skyrme energy density functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, M; Nazarewicz, W; Birge, N; Gao, Y; Olsen, E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neutron-skin thickness is an excellent indicator of isovector properties of atomic nuclei. As such, it correlates strongly with observables in finite nuclei that depend on neutron-to-proton imbalance and the nuclear symmetry energy that characterizes the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. A rich worldwide experimental program involving studies with rare isotopes, parity violating electron scattering, and astronomical observations is devoted to pinning down the isovector sector of nuclear models. Purpose: We assess the theoretical systematic and statistical uncertainties of neutron-skin thickness and relate them to the equation of state of nuclear matter, and in particular to nuclear symmetry energy parameters. Methods: We use the nuclear superfluid Density Functional Theory with several Skyrme energy density functionals and density dependent pairing. To evaluate statistical errors and their budget, we employ the statistical covariance technique. Results: We find that the errors on neutron s...

  16. The role of government in supporting the emergence of clean energy venture capital investing in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerer, M.J.; Wuestenhagen, R.

    2005-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the role of the Swiss government in supporting the provision of venture capital for clean energy projects. Topics examined include the lack of sufficient venture capital investment in clean energy technology, the situation encountered in Switzerland today as far as energy entrepreneurship is concerned, key challenges and cultural, legal and fiscal aspects. Present government support in these areas, the relevance of current Swiss programmes and improvements that are to be made are also discussed. Also, activities in other countries are examined and suggestions are made concerning new activities to improve the situation in Switzerland.

  17. Clean energy funds: An overview of state support for renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2001-04-01

    Across the United States, as competition in the supply and delivery of electricity has been introduced, states have sought to ensure the continuation of ''public benefits'' programs traditionally administered or funded by electric utilities. Many states have built into their restructuring plans methods of supporting renewable energy sources. One of the most popular policy mechanisms for ensuring such continued support has been the system-benefits charge (SBC), a non-bypassable charge to electricity customers (usually applied on a cents/kWh basis) used to collect funds for public purpose programs. Thus far, at least fourteen states have established SBC funds targeted in part towards renewable energy. This paper discusses the status and performance of these state renewable or ''clean'' energy funds supported by system-benefits charges. As illustrated later, existing state renewable energy funds are expected to collect roughly $3.5 billion through 2012 for renewable energy. Clearly, these funds have the potential to provide significant support for clean energy technologies over at least the next decade. Because the level of funding for renewable energy available under these programs is unprecedented and because fund administrators are developing innovative and new programs to fund renewable projects, a certain number of program failures are unavoidable. Also evident is that states are taking very different approaches to the distribution of these funds and that many lessons are being learned as programs are designed, implemented, and evaluated. Our purpose in this paper is therefore to relay early experience with these funds and provide preliminary lessons learned from that experience. It is our hope that this analysis will facilitate learning across states and help state fund managers develop more effective and more coordinated programs. Central to this paper are case studies that provide information on the SBC-funded renewable

  18. 77 FR 71846 - In the Matter of Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc., Firepond, Inc., and GNC Energy Corporation... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Encore...

  19. Denmark's clean energy future from waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G. [Nova Pro, CADDET Danish National Team, Toelloese (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    This article presents a brief overview of Denmark's wave energy programme which aims to develop wave energy plants to supply 15% of Denmark's energy consumption. Details are given of the Wave Dragon deep water floating wave power plant, the Swan DK3 backward bend duct buoy, the point absorber float, and the WavePlane floating device. The step by step development approach for projects accepted by the wave energy programme, and future options are discussed. (UK)

  20. Evaluation of Potential Locations for Siting Small Modular Reactors near Federal Energy Clusters to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze federal energy demand across the contiguous US. Several federal energy clusters were previously identified, including Hampton Roads, Virginia, which was subsequently studied in detail. This study provides an analysis of three additional diverse federal energy clusters. The analysis shows that there are potential sites in various federal energy clusters that could be evaluated further for placement of an integral pressurized-water reactor (iPWR) to support meeting federal clean energy goals.

  1. Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromer, Neil A., E-mail: nafromer@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Resnick Sustainability Institute (United States); Diallo, Mamadou S., E-mail: diallo@wag.caltech.edu [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving the sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials in clean and renewable energy technologies could be addressed using (i) nanostructured materials with enhanced electronic, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties and (ii) nanotechnology-based separation materials and systems that can recover critical materials from non-traditional sources including mine tailings, industrial wastewater and electronic wastes with minimum environmental impact. This article discusses the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve materials sustainability for energy generation, conversion and storage. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address materials sustainability for clean and renewable energy technologies.

  2. 77 FR 64980 - Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  3. Hydrogen Storage Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course--Clean Energy: Hydrogen/Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alla; Andrews, Lisa; Khot, Ameya; Rubin, Lea; Young, Jun; Allston, Thomas D.; Takacs, Gerald A.

    2015-01-01

    Global interest in both renewable energies and reduction in emission levels has placed increasing attention on hydrogen-based fuel cells that avoid harm to the environment by releasing only water as a byproduct. Therefore, there is a critical need for education and workforce development in clean energy technologies. A new undergraduate laboratory…

  4. ADB-aided Projects to Expand Clean Energy Application in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Baoguo

    2002-01-01

    @@ On October 14, China's Ministry of Science and Technology and Asian Development Bank jointly launched a project called "Opportunity for Clean Development Mechanism of Energy Departments"across the country, which is an ABD-aided project aiming at providing China's energy departments with the technical guide to the projects suitable for the Chinese conditions.

  5. Transition through co-optation: Harnessing carbon democracy for clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Kathryn-Louise

    This dissertation explores barriers to a clean energy transition in the United States. Clean energy is demonstrably viable, yet the pace of clean energy adoption in the U.S. is slow, particularly given the immediate threat of global climate change. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the factors inhibiting a domestic energy transition and to propose pragmatic approaches to catalyzing a transition. The first article examines the current political-economic and socio-technical energy landscape in the U.S. Fossil fuels are central to the functioning of the American economy. Given this centrality, constellations of power have been constructed around the reliable and affordable access of fossil fuels. The fossil fuel energy regime is comprised of: political-economic networks with vested interests in continued fossil fuel reliance, and fixed infrastructure that is minimally compatible with distributed generation. A transition to clean energy threatens the profitability of fossil fuel regime actors. Harnessing structural critiques from political ecology and process and function-oriented socio-technical systems frameworks, I present a multi-level approach to identifying pragmatic means to catalyzing an energy transition. High-level solutions confront the existing structure, mid-level solutions harness synergy with the existing structure, and low-level solutions lie outside of the energy system or foster the TIS. This is exemplified using a case study of solar development in Massachusetts. Article two presents a case study of the clean energy technological innovation system (TIS) in Massachusetts. I examine the actors and institutions that support cleantech development. Further, I scrutinize the actors and institutions that help sustain the TIS support system. The concept of a catalyst is presented; a catalyst is an actor that serves to propel TIS functions. Catalysts are critical to facilitating anchoring. Strategic corporate partners are identified as powerful

  6. Eleven Tribes Jump START Clean Energy Projects, Summer 2012 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This newsletter describes key activities of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs for Summer 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) has selected 11 Tribes - five in Alaska and six in the contiguous United States - to receive on-the-ground technical support for community-based energy efficiency and renewable energy projects as part of DOE-IE's Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program. START finalists were selected based on the clarity of their requests for technical assistance and the ability of START to successfully work with their projects or community. Technical experts from DOE and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will work directly with community-based project teams to analyze local energy issues and assist the Tribes in moving their projects forward. In Alaska, the effort will be bolstered by DOE-IE's partnership with the Denali Commission, which will provide additional assistance and expertise, as well as funding to fuel the Alaska START initiative.

  7. Off-momentum collimation and cleaning in the energy ramp in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Quaranta, Elena; Giulini Castiglioni Agosteo, Stefano Luigi Maria

    This Master thesis work has been carried out at CERN in the framework of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) Collimation project. The LHC is a two-beam proton collider, built to handle a stored energy of 360MJ for each beam. Since the energy deposition from particle losses could quench the superconducting magnets, a system of collimators has been installed in two cleaning insertions in the ring and in the experimental areas. The achievable LHC beam intensity is directly coupled to the beam loss rate and, consequently, to the cleaning eciency of the collimation system. This study analyses the collimation cleaning performance in dierent scenarios inside the accelerator. First, simulations are performed of the transverse losses in the LHC collimation system during the acceleration process. The results are compared with data taken during a dedicated session at the LHC machine. Simulations are also performed to predict the collimation eciency during future operation at higher energy. Furthermore, an investigation of t...

  8. Gas storage in porous metal-organic frameworks for clean energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengqian; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2010-01-07

    Depletion of fossil oil deposits and the escalating threat of global warming have put clean energy research, which includes the search for clean energy carriers such as hydrogen and methane as well as the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, on the urgent agenda. A significant technical challenge has been recognized as the development of a viable method to efficiently trap hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide gas molecules in a confined space for various applications. This issue can be addressed by employing highly porous materials as storage media, and porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) which have exceptionally high surface areas as well as chemically-tunable structures are playing an unusual role in this respect. In this feature article we provide an overview of the current status of clean energy applications of porous MOFs, including hydrogen storage, methane storage and carbon dioxide capture.

  9. Framework for Evaluating the Total Value Proposition of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, J. E.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional valuation techniques fail to include many of the financial advantages of clean energy technologies. By omitting benefits associated with risk management, emissions reductions, policy incentives, resource use, corporate social responsibility, and societal economic benefits, investors and firms sacrifice opportunities for new revenue streams and avoided costs. In an effort to identify some of these externalities, this analysis develops a total value proposition for clean energy technologies. It incorporates a series of values under each of the above categories, describing the opportunities for recapturing investments throughout the value chain. The framework may be used to create comparable value propositions for clean energy technologies supporting investment decisions, project siting, and marketing strategies. It can also be useful in policy-making decisions.

  10. State Support for Clean Energy Deployment: Lessons Learned for Potential Future Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubert, C.; Sinclair, M.

    2011-04-01

    Proposed federal clean energy initiatives and climate legislation have suggested significant increases to federal funding for clean energy deployment and investment. Many states and utilities have over a decade of experience and spend billions of public dollars every year to support EE/RE deployment through programs that reduce the cost of technologies, provide financing for EE/RE projects, offer technical assistance, and educate market participants. Meanwhile, constraints on public expenditures at all levels of government continue to call upon such programs to demonstrate their value. This report reviews the results of these programs and the specific financial incentives and financing tools used to encourage clean energy investment. Lessons from such programs could be used to inform the future application of EE/RE incentives and financing tools. These lessons learned apply to use of distributed resources and the historical focus of these EE/RE programs.

  11. State Support for Clean Energy Deployment. Lessons Learned for Potential Future Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubert, Charles [Clean Energy States Alliance, Montpelier, VT (United States); Sinclair, Mark [Clean Energy States Alliance, Montpelier, VT (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Proposed federal clean energy initiatives and climate legislation have suggested significant increases to federal funding for clean energy deployment and investment. Many states and utilities have over a decade of experience and spend billions of public dollars every year to support EE/RE deployment through programs that reduce the cost of technologies, provide financing for EE/RE projects, offer technical assistance, and educate market participants. Meanwhile, constraints on public expenditures at all levels of government continue to call upon such programs to demonstrate their value. This report reviews the results of these programs and the specific financial incentives and financing tools used to encourage clean energy investment. Lessons from such programs could be used to inform the future application of EE/RE incentives and financing tools. These lessons learned apply to use of distributed resources and the historical focus of these EE/RE programs.

  12. Hydrogen and fuel cells - The clean energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohland, B.; Nitsch, J.; Wendt, H.

    1992-01-01

    A strategy where hydrogen is effectively converted into useful energies like electricity and heat by fuel cells in the cogeneration mode is presented. A scenario is presented where renewable energies are used in an extensive but technologically achievable way. Renewable shares of 13 percent (2005), 36 percent (2025), and 69 percent (2050) on the total energy demand will lead to hydrogen shares of 11 percent in 2025 and 34 percent in 2050. Fuel cells provide high conversion efficiencies with respect to electricity and make it possible to use waste heat at different temperature levels. Low- and medium temperature fuel cells using pure hydrogen and high-temperature fuel cells for a mixed biogas-hydrogen conversion with a high energy yield are discussed.

  13. The Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feibus, H.

    1995-12-31

    The joint effort by Polish and American organizations in Krakow has accomplished a great deal in just a few years. In particular, the low emission sources program has had major successes. Poland and America have a lot to learn from each other in the clean and economical use of coal. Both our countries are major producers and users of coal. Both have had to deal with the emissions of particulate and organics from coal combustion. We were fortunate, since our free market economy and democratic government helped us deal with a lot of these problems in the 1950s. In Poland, the freedom to solve these problems has evolved only in the last few years. In the first phase of the program, Polish and American engineers ran combustion tests on boilers and stoves in Krakow. They also performed analyses on the cost and feasibility of various equipment changes. The results of the first phase were used in refining the spreadsheet model to give better estimates of costs emissions. The first phase also included analyses of incentives for proceeding with needed changes. These analyses identified actions needed to create a market for the goods and services which control pollution. Such actions could include privatization, regulation, or financial incentives. The second phase of the program consisted of public meetings in Chicago, Washington, and Krakow. The purpose of the meetings was to inform U.S. and Polish firms about the results of phase 1 and to encourage them to compete to take part in phase 3. The third phase currently underway consists of the commercial ventures that were competitively selected. These ventures were consistent with recommendations unanimously made by the BSC. The three phases of the Polish-American program are discussed.

  14. Geothermal energy: clean power from the Earth's heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Sass, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Societies in the 21st century require enormous amounts of energy to drive the machines of commerce and to sustain the lifestyles that many people have come to expect. Today, most of this energy is derived from oil, natural gas, and coal, supplemented by nuclear power. Local exceptions exist, but oil is by far the most common source of energy worldwide. Oil resources, however, are nonrenewable and concentrated in only a few places around the globe, creating uncertainty in long-term supply for many nations. At the time of the Middle East oil embargo of the 1970s, about a third of the United States oil supply was imported, mostly from that region. An interruption in the flow of this import disrupted nearly every citizen’s daily life, as well as the Nation’s economy. In response, the Federal Government launched substantial programs to accelerate development of means to increasingly harness “alternative energies”—primarily biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind. The new emphasis on simultaneously pursuing development of several sources of energy recognized the timeless wisdom found in the proverb of “not putting all eggs in one basket.” This book helps explain the role that geothermal resources can play in helping promote such diversity and in satisfying our Nation’s vast energy needs as we enter a new millennium. For centuries, people have enjoyed the benefits of geothermal energy available at hot springs, but it is only through technological advances made during the 20th century that we can tap this energy source in the subsurface and use it in a variety of ways, including the generation of electricity. Geothermal resources are simply exploitable concentrations of the Earth’s natural heat (thermal energy). The Earth is a bountiful source of thermal energy, continuously producing heat at depth, primarily by the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes—principally of uranium, thorium, and potassium—that occur in small amounts in all rocks

  15. Clean generation of electric energy; Generacion limpia de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M.; Torres, Emmanuel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article deals on the existing alternatives of renewable energy for generation of electricity free from polluting sequels within the Mexican territory and presents a global overview on the electricity generation in Mexico. Wind power, hydraulic energy, biomass, photovoltaic and fuel cells are sources of renewable energy that could contribute to Mexico's sustainable development, for this reason it is discussed on the main sources of renewable energy in Mexico - solar and wind energy, mini-hydraulic, biomass and geothermal -, on their development and evolution, cost, insertion projects and obstacles for their correct development in this country. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre las alternativas de energia renovable existentes para una generacion de electricidad libre de secuelas contaminantes dentro del territorio mexicano y presenta un panorama global sobre la generacion de electricidad en Mexico. La energia eolica, hidraulica, biomasa, fotovoltaica y las celdas de combustible son fuentes de energia renovable que podrian contribuir al desarrollo sustentable de Mexico, por esto se arguye sobre las principales fuentes de energia renovable en Mexico -energia solar, eolica, minihidraulica, biomasa y geotermia-, sobre su desarrollo y evolucion, costo, proyectos de insercion y obstaculos para su correcto desarrollo en ese pais.

  16. Low carbon Finland 2050. VTT clean energy technology strategies for society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Simila, L.; Sipila, K. [and others

    2012-11-15

    The Low Carbon Finland 2050 project by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland aims to assess the technological opportunities and challenges involved in reducing Finland's greenhouse gas emissions. A target for reduction is set as at least 80% from the 1990 level by 2050 as part of an international effort, which requires strong RD and D in clean energy technologies. Key findings of the project are presented in this publication, which aims to stimulate enlightening and multidisciplinary discussions on low-carbon futures for Finland. The project gathered together VTT's technology experts in clean energy production, smart energy infrastructures, transport, buildings, and industrial systems as well as experts in energy system modelling and foresight. VTT's leading edge 'Low Carbon and Smart Energy' enables new solutions with a demonstration that is the first of its kind in Finland, and the introduction of new energy technology onto national and global markets. (orig.)

  17. Clean energy technology transfer - a win-win strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.S. [Global Environment Facility - GEF Washington D.C. (United States)

    2001-07-01

    It's my great honor to participate in this extraordinary event in such a perfect location on World Environment Day. I am here on behalf of the Global Environment Facility, the leading international financier of renewable energy in developing countries. It is instructive to be in North-Rhine Westphalia, the leading German state, and perhaps the single leading sub-national agency supporting renewable energy anywhere in the world. Coming from the United States,I'm accustomed to believing that the US has the best of everything. With respect to renewable energy, we view California as the leader. But after listening to the Undersecretary's presentation, I will inform my American friends that they have much to learn from what is taking place in Germany. North-Rhine Westphalia is or may soon be the global leader and model.

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center and SE4All: Partnering to Support Country Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    Since 2012, the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) have partnered to deliver information, knowledge and expert assistance to policymakers and practitioners in countries actively working to achieve SE4All objectives. Through SE4All efforts, national governments are implementing integrated country actions to strategically transform their energy markets. This fact sheet details the Solutions Center and SE4All partnership and available areas of technical assistance.

  19. Financial Incentives to Enable Clean Energy Deployment: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-24

    Financial incentives have been widely implemented by governments around the world to support scaled up deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices. As of 2015, at least 48 countries have adopted financial incentives to support renewable energy and energy efficiency deployment. Broader clean energy strategies and plans provide a crucial foundation for financial incentives that often complement regulatory policies such as renewable energy targets, standards, and other mandates. This policy brief provides a primer on key financial incentive design elements, lessons from different country experiences, and curated support resources for more detailed and country-specific financial incentive design information.

  20. Clean Energy for the Commonwealth Powered by UMass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-15

    engineering Mechanical Eng., Mechatronics & System Design Wind resource assessment Offshore wind energy Hybrid systems design Wind-produced hydrogen...Manufacturing Professor Jim Watkins, Polymer Science and Engineering , Director Spray-on technique efficiently creates nanostructured films (titanium dioxide... Polymer Science & Engineering Nanostructured light-harvesting material Amherst Emrick, Todd Polymer Science & Engineering Organic LED Amherst

  1. Grid Integration Studies: Advancing Clean Energy Planning and Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Integrating significant variable renewable energy (VRE) into the grid requires an evolution in power system planning and operation. To plan for this evolution, power system stakeholders can undertake grid integration studies. This Greening the Grid document reviews grid integration studies, common elements, questions, and guidance for system planners.

  2. A Clean Energy Roadmap: Forging the Path Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation co-convened three cross-sector summits to develop recommendations for growing energy innovation in the United States. The first summit was held in Washington, D.C., on May 7, 2010, in partnership with the White House. Gallup and the city of Omaha, Nebraska, hosted the second summit on June 16, 2010,…

  3. Improving Reliability and Durability of Efficient and Clean Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Prabhakar [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Overall objective of the research program was to develop an in-depth understanding of the degradation processes in advanced electrochemical energy conversion systems. It was also the objective of the research program to transfer the technology to participating industries for implementation in manufacturing of cost effective and reliable integrated systems.

  4. EC-LEDS Mexico: Advancing Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    EC-LEDS works with the government of Mexico to help meet its goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. The program targets specific, highly technical areas where Mexico has indicated the program can add value and make an impact.

  5. U.S. Department of Energy clean cities five-year strategic plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambridge Concord Associates

    2011-02-15

    Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program, which is part of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Working with its network of about 100 local coalitions and more than 6,500 stakeholders across the country, Clean Cities delivers on its mission to reduce petroleum consumption in on-road transportation. In its work to reduce petroleum use, Clean Cities focuses on a portfolio of technologies that includes electric drive, propane, natural gas, renewable natural gas/biomethane, ethanol/E85, biodiesel/B20 and higher-level blends, fuel economy, and idle reduction. Over the past 17 years, Clean Cities coalitions have displaced more than 2.4 billion gallons of petroleum; they are on track to displace 2.5 billion gallons of gasoline per year by 2020. This Clean Cities Strategic Plan lays out an aggressive five-year agenda to help DOE Clean Cities and its network of coalitions and stakeholders accelerate the deployment of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles, while also expanding the supporting infrastructure to reduce petroleum use. Today, Clean Cities has a far larger opportunity to make an impact than at any time in its history because of its unprecedented $300 million allocation for community-based deployment projects from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) (see box below). Moreover, the Clean Cities annual budget has risen to $25 million for FY2010 and $35 million has been requested for FY2011. Designed as a living document, this strategic plan is grounded in the understanding that priorities will change annually as evolving technical, political, economic, business, and social considerations are woven into project decisions and funding allocations. The plan does not intend to lock Clean Cities into pathways that cannot change. Instead, with technology deployment at its core, the plan serves as a guide for decision-making at both the

  6. 2nd Skin approach to zero energy rental properties: Occupancy patterns to improve energy simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Santin, O.; Silvester, S.; Konstantinou, T.

    2015-01-01

    A number of second skin solutions have been developed in recent years to solve the problem of large scale renovation of housing. The 2ndSkin approach presented in this paper is currently under development by a consortium of academic and industry partners in the Netherlands. The objective of the 2ndSkin project is to develop a strategy for an integrated and effective renovation solution. This approach aims at developing a market-ready zero-energy solution that can be applied to rental apartmen...

  7. Turning waste heat into clean energy; Abwaerme in saubere Energie umwandeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-01

    ABB and Holcim Switzerland have agreed to install ABB's newly developed heat recovery and electrical power production system at their cement plant in Untervaz/Switzerland. ABB's state-of-the-art solution is based on the ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) technology that makes it possible to turn waste heat into clean electricity. Thanks to the use of waste heat as operating power, no fossil energy is required to run the power plant. Consequently, Holcim's Untervaz operation will be able to considerably reduce its energy costs and operate the plant more efficiently. The contract comprises engineering, project planning, delivery, installation and commissioning of the complete turnkey package consisting of all power plant components such as turbine, generator and heat exchangers. ABB has the know-how to fully integrate the power plant into the entire cement production process, including electricity supply and the complete control system. The system is expected to be in operation by the end of 2011. (orig.)

  8. Cracow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.

  9. HaidaLink : a clean energy solution for Haida Gwaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, M. [NaiKun Wind Development Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    NaiKun Wind Energy Group has worked in partnership with First Nations and the wind power industry to meet the energy needs of remote communities in British Columbia. NaiKun developed North America's first offshore wind project. This presentation introduced NaiKun's proposed HaidaLink Project connecting Haida Gwaii to the BC electricity grid via an underwater cable. Approximately 100 turbines in the Hecate Strait currently provide 320 MW of wind energy. NaiKun has contributed to the objectives of Haida Gwaii which include the preservation and stewardship of Haida Gwaii; develop employment potential; provide income for the community; manage new resource development; and, replace diesel generation. Currently, there are 3 generating stations on Haida Gwaii, notably 2 diesel and 1 hydro. In 2006, the load was 52 GWh. The northern and southern grids are not connected. Greenhouse gas emissions are 26,000 tonnes per year and economic growth is impeded by the poor reliability and quality of power. The community is in support of displacing diesel generation. The first phase of NaiKun's HaidaLink project involves the installation of a 50 km, 70 kV cable to connect Haida Gwaii with the BC grid. The $54 million project depends on approval and participation of BC Hydro and the British Columbia Utilities Commission, and is contingent upon completion of an environmental impact assessment. figs.

  10. Microalgal hydrogen production: prospects of an essential technology for a clean and sustainable energy economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayro-Kaiser, Vinzenz; Nelson, Nathan

    2017-02-26

    Modern energy production is required to undergo a dramatic transformation. It will have to replace fossil fuel use by a sustainable and clean energy economy while meeting the growing world energy needs. This review analyzes the current energy sector, available energy sources, and energy conversion technologies. Solar energy is the only energy source with the potential to fully replace fossil fuels, and hydrogen is a crucial energy carrier for ensuring energy availability across the globe. The importance of photosynthetic hydrogen production for a solar-powered hydrogen economy is highlighted and the development and potential of this technology are discussed. Much successful research for improved photosynthetic hydrogen production under laboratory conditions has been reported, and attempts are underway to develop upscale systems. We suggest that a process of integrating these achievements into one system to strive for efficient sustainable energy conversion is already justified. Pursuing this goal may lead to a mature technology for industrial deployment.

  11. The potential of nuclear energy to generate clean electric power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Menzel, Francine; Giarola, Rodrigo S.; Coelho, Talita S., E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The generation of electricity in Brazil is concentrated in hydroelectric generation, renewable and clean source, but that does not satisfy all the demand and leads to necessity of a supplementary thermal sources portion. Considering the predictions of increase in demand for electricity in the next years, it becomes necessary to insert new sources to complement the production taking into account both the volume being produced and the needs of environmental preservation. Thus, nuclear power can be considered a potential supplementary source for electricity generation in Brazil as well as the country has large reserves of fissile material, the generation emits no greenhouse gases, the country has technological mastery of the fuel cycle and it enables the production of large volumes of clean energy. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the potential of nuclear energy in electricity production in Brazil cleanly and safely, ensuring the supplies necessary to maintain the country's economic growth and the increased demand sustainable. For this, will be made an analysis of economic and social indicators of the characteristics of our energy matrix and the availability of our sources, as well as a description of the nuclear source and arguments that justify a higher share of nuclear energy in the matrix of the country. Then, after these analysis, will notice that the generation of electricity from nuclear source has all the conditions to supplement safely and clean supply of electricity in Brazil. (author)

  12. Deliberate Science, Continuum Magazine: Clean Energy Innovation at NREL, Winter 2012 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on deliberate science.

  13. Catalyzing Gender Equality-Focused Clean Energy Development in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) partnered with the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center), the African Development Bank and other institutions to develop a Situation Analysis of Energy and Gender Issues in ECOWAS Member States. Through a systematic approach to assess interlinked gender and energy issues in the region, the report puts forth a number of key findings. This brochure highlights ECREEE's partnership with the Solutions Center and key findings from the report.

  14. Clean Energy in City Codes: A Baseline Analysis of Municipal Codification across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dane, Alexander [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Sivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Municipal governments in the United States are well positioned to influence clean energy (energy efficiency and alternative energy) and transportation technology and strategy implementation within their jurisdictions through planning, programs, and codification. Municipal governments are leveraging planning processes and programs to shape their energy futures. There is limited understanding in the literature related to codification, the primary way that municipal governments enact enforceable policies. The authors fill the gap in the literature by documenting the status of municipal codification of clean energy and transportation across the United States. More directly, we leverage online databases of municipal codes to develop national and state-specific representative samples of municipal governments by population size. Our analysis finds that municipal governments with the authority to set residential building energy codes within their jurisdictions frequently do so. In some cases, communities set codes higher than their respective state governments. Examination of codes across the nation indicates that municipal governments are employing their code as a policy mechanism to address clean energy and transportation.

  15. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  16. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis. State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report relies on six in-depth interviews with loan program administrators to provide descriptions of existing programs. Findings from the interviews are combined with a review of relevant literature to elicit best practices and lessons learned from existing loan programs. Data collected from each of the loan programs profiled are used to quantify the impacts of these specific loan programs on the commonly cited, overarching state clean energy goals of energy security, economic development, and environmental protection.

  17. 75 FR 68094 - Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the Allowable... AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0211; FRL-9215-5] Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the Allowable Ethanol Content of Gasoline to 15...

  18. CLEAN-AIR heat pump. Reduced energy consumption for ventilation in buildings by integrating air cleaning and heat pump. Final Report; CLEAN-AIR heat pump - Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger ved luftrensning integreret med luft varmepumpe. Slut rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, L.; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Molinaro, G.; Simmonsen, P.; Skocajic, S. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ. Institut for Byggeri og Anlaeg, Lyngby (Denmark); Hummelshoej, R.M.; Carlassara, L. [COWI A/S, Lyngby, (Denmark); Groenbaek, H.; Hansen, Ole R. [Exhausto A/S, Langeskov (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes task 1 of the Clean Air Heat Pump project - modelling and simulation on energy savings when using the clean air heat pump for ventilation, air cleaning and energy recovery. The total energy consumption of the proposed ventilation systems using clean air heat pump technology was calculated by a theoretical model and compared with the reference ventilation systems (conventional ventilation systems). The energy compared between the two systems includes energy used for heating, cooling and fan. The simulation and energy saving calculation was made for the application of the clean air heat pump in three typical climate conditions, i.e. mild-cold, mild-hot and hot and wet climates. Real climate data recorded from three cities in 2002 was used for the calculation. The three cities were Copenhagen (Denmark), Milan (Italy) and Colombo (Sir Lanka) which represent the above three typical climate zones. For the Danish climate (the mild cold climate), the calculations show that the ventilation system using clean air heat pump technology can save up to 42% of energy cost in winter compared to the conventional ventilation system. The energy saving in summer can be as high as 66% for the ventilation system with humidity control and 9% for the ventilation system without the requirement of humidity control. Since the Danish summer climate is very mild, over 80% of the yearly energy consumption for ventilation is used during winter season. It is, therefore, estimated that more than 35% annual energy saving for ventilation is expected in Denmark using the clean air heat pump ventilation technology. For the mild hot climate, e.g. the Italian climate, the calculations show that up to 63% of the energy saving can be achieved in summer season. For the winter mode, 17% reduction of the energy cost can be expected for the domestic use. For industrial use, the energy cost of the clean air heat pump may not be favourable due to the industrial price of gas in Italy is

  19. 35 Years of Innovation - Leading the Way to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is at the forefront of energy innovation. For more than three decades, our researchers have built unparalleled expertise in renewable energy technologies while supporting the nation's vision that wind and water can provide clean, reliable, and cost-effective electricity. The NWTC strives to be an essential partner to companies, other DOE laboratories, government agencies, and universities around the world seeking to create a better, more sustainable future.

  20. Vertical Silicon Nanowire Platform for Low Power Electronics and Clean Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.-L. Kwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the progress of the vertical top-down nanowire technology platform developed to explore novel device architectures and integration schemes for green electronics and clean energy applications. Under electronics domain, besides having ultimate scaling potential, the vertical wire offers (1 CMOS circuits with much smaller foot print as compared to planar transistor at the same technology node, (2 a natural platform for tunneling FETs, and (3 a route to fabricate stacked nonvolatile memory cells. Under clean energy harvesting area, vertical wires could provide (1 cost reduction in photovoltaic energy conversion through enhanced light trapping and (2 a fully CMOS compatible thermoelectric engine converting waste-heat into electricity. In addition to progress review, we discuss the challenges and future prospects with vertical nanowires platform.

  1. Clean energy clear opportunity : a report on the human resources best practices and recommendations raised during the 2010 Canada-United States clean energy dialogue forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Since American and Canadian electricity markets are significantly integrated, neither country can afford to act in isolation on issues of electricity generation, transmission and use. This document presented a report on the human resources best practices and recommendations raised during the 2010 Canada-United States clean energy dialogue forum, with particular reference to the electricity sector workforce. Experts from government, electricity companies, educational institutions and industry associations attended the forum and identified several best practices and offered recommendations. Best practices were reported under the following 2 headings: in the face of a labour shortage; and in the face of new technologies and infrastructure. Some of the best practices under a labour shortage situation include engaging in strategic workforce planning; creating a culture of safety; promoting opportunities in the electricity sector; appealing to the interests and values of young people; enhancing workforce diversity; and transferring knowledge from senior workers to younger employees. In the face of new technologies and infrastructure, the best practices include the creation of operating and safety standards for new technologies; providing access to quality training programs; improving the availability of educational resources; and managing skills assessment and development. It was concluded that Canada and the United States are neighbours and trade partners and that over the coming years, they have the opportunity to become each other's best allies in the pursuit of clean energy objectives.

  2. Evaluation of the combined betatron and momentum cleaning in point 3 in terms of cleaning efficiency and energy deposition for the LHC Collimation upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Rossi, A; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; Wollmann, D; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A

    2011-01-01

    The Phase I LHC Collimation System Upgrade could include moving part of the Betatron Cleaning from LHC Point 7 to Point 3 to improve both operation flexibility and intensity reach. In addition, the partial relocation of beam losses from the current Betatron cleaning region at Point 7 will mitigate the risks of Single Event Upsets to equipment installed in adjacent and partly not sufficient shielded areas. The combined Betatron and Momentum Cleaning at Point 3 implies that new collimators have to be added as well as to implement a new collimator aperture layout. This paper shows the whole LHC Collimator Efficiency variation with the new layout at different beam energies. As part of the evaluation, energy deposition distribution in the IR3 region give indications about the effect of this new implementations not only on the collimators themselves but also on the other beam line elements as well as in the IR3 surrounding areas.

  3. Energy efficient biological air cleaning for farm stable ventilation; Energieffektiv biologisk luftrensning til staldventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenborg Nicolaisen, C.; Hansen, Mads P.R. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark); Stroem, J.; Soerensen, Keld [DXT. Danish Exergy Technology A/S, Skoerping (Denmark); Goetke, C. [Lokalenergi Aarhus, Viby J. (Denmark); Morsing, S.; Soerensen, Lars C. [SKOV A/S, Roslev (Denmark); Ladegaerd Jensen, T.; Pedersen, Poul [Videncenter for svineproduktion, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    The project has been designed to reduce energy consumption for air purification by 30% while having a payback period of maximum 3 years. The project has achieved very significant results which are far above the target. Particularly satisfying is the wide range of new components that are launched in late 2012. By implementing the newly developed system at 100% cleaning (LPC 13 ventilators and Dynamic multistep control) in relation to Best Practice (SKOV's original system with DA600 fans) in a concrete pigsty, a saving of 61% and a simple payback of 1.7 years is achieved. Similarly, it is found that the energy used for pump operation can be reduced by 37% with the new Dynamic sprinkling control. At 20% cleaning a potential saving of 15% per year and a payback period of between 0 and 5 years was found, which is dependent on the desired performance as the capacities in the bio-filter's upper capacity range between 26 thousand to 30 thousand m3 / h entails costs for an additional extraction unit in the new solution. Furthermore, the newly developed components proved highly suitable for standard installations without air cleaning where a savings potential is 53% and the payback period 1.5 years. Product-wise, the project formed the basis for the development of: 1. New energy-efficient ventilation units (LPC11, 12,13) that are suitable for air purification; 2. A new energy-saving control principle (Dynamic Multi-Step) which is particularly suitable for low-energy ventilators; 3. A new energy-saving flow measurement system for ventilating ducts (Dynamic air to the central exhaust); 4. An energy-saving pressure control in common ducts (pressure control as a function of outside temperature); 5. Proposal for a new energy-saving pump operation for sprinkling of biological filters (Dynamic sprinkling). (LN)

  4. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  5. Bridging the Gap: The Role of DOD in Clean Energy Commercialization: DOD Installations as Living Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    is an agreement established between Federal laboratories and commercial , academic, or non- profit partners to facilitate technology transfer between...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 10 -1 3 Bridging the Gap: The Role of DOD in Clean Energy Commercialization DOD Installations as “Living... Commercialization DOD Installations as “Living Laboratories” Harold Sanborn Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) U.S. Army Engineer

  6. Revolution...Now The Future Arrives for Five Clean Energy Technologies – 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Donohoo-Vallett

    2016-09-30

    Decades of investments by the federal government and industry in five key clean energy technologies are making an impact today. The cost of land-based wind power, utility and distributed photovoltaic (PV) solar power, light emitting diodes (LEDs), and electric vehicles (EVs) has fallen by 41% to as high as 94% since 2008. These cost reductions have enabled widespread adoption of these technologies with deployment increasing across the board.

  7. Total scattering investigation of materials for clean energy applications: the importance of the local structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2011-04-21

    In this Perspective article we give an account of the application of total scattering methods and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to the investigation of materials for clean energy applications such as materials for solid oxide fuel cells and lithium batteries, in order to show the power of this technique in providing new insights into the structure-property correlation in this class of materials.

  8. Clean energy systems in the subsurface. Production, storage and conversion. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Zhengmeng Michael; Were, Patrick (eds.) [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Goslar (Germany). Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen (EFZN); Xie, Heping [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China)

    2013-04-01

    Recent research on Integrated Energy and Environmental Utilization of Deep Underground Space. Results of the 3{sup rd} Sino-German Conference ''Underground Storage of CO{sub 2} and Energy'', held at Goslar, Germany, 21-23 May 2013. Researchers and professionals from academia and industry discuss the future of deep underground space technologies for an integrated energy and environmental utilization. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, energy security and sustainability are three of the greatest contemporary global challenges today. This year the Sino-German Cooperation Group ''Underground Storage of CO{sub 2} and Energy'', is meeting on the 21-23 May 2013 for the second time in Goslar, Germany, to convene its 3{sup rd} Sino-German conference on the theme ''Clean Energy Systems in the Subsurface: Production, Storage and Conversion''.

  9. Hydrogen evolution by fermentation using seaweed as substrates and the contribution to the clean energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanisho, S.; Suganuma, T.; Yamaguchi, A. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2001-07-01

    It is an important theme in Japan to use the sea for energy production, because Japan is surrounded by seas on all sides. Brown algae such as Laminaria have high value as the substrate of fermentative hydrogen production, since they have very high growth rate and also have high ability on the productivity of mannitol. I would like to present about the affection of salt concentration on the hydrogen production of Enterobacter aerogenes, and also the contribution on clean energy production by the seaweed cultivation in Japan. (orig.)

  10. 9 CFR 310.10 - Carcasses with skin or hide on; cleaning before evisceration; removal of larvae of Hypodermae...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; cleaning before evisceration; removal of larvae of Hypodermae, external parasites and other pathological... on; cleaning before evisceration; removal of larvae of Hypodermae, external parasites and other...-mortem inspection from any calf carcass infested with the larvae of the “oxwarble” fly (Hypoderma...

  11. Oily skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  12. Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony J; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy

    2007-10-06

    The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Impending climate change, mainly driven by energy use, now also threatens health. Policies to promote access to non-polluting and sustainable sources of energy have great potential both to improve public health and to mitigate (prevent) climate disruption. There are several technological options, policy levers, and economic instruments for sectors such as power generation, transport, agriculture, and the built environment. However, barriers to change include vested interests, political inertia, inability to take meaningful action, profound global inequalities, weak technology-transfer mechanisms, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to transform global markets. The need for policies that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate while addressing the energy needs of disadvantaged people is a central challenge of the current era. A comprehensive programme for clean energy should optimise mitigation and, simultaneously, adaption to climate change while maximising co-benefits for health--eg, through improved air, water, and food quality. Intersectoral research and concerted action, both nationally and internationally, will be required.

  13. The wind energy, a clean and renewable energy; L'energie eolienne, une energie propre et renouvelable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Facing the context of greenhouse gases reduction, the France began a national program of fight against the climatic change, in which the development of the renewable energies plays a major part. Among the renewable energy sources, the wind energy is the only one which is cheap and easily used. After a presentation of the leader of the wind energy in Europe (Germany, Spain and Denmark) and the position of the France, the document details the economical and environmental advantages of the wind energy, as the public opinion concerning this energy source. (A.L.B.)

  14. Role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in skin integrity and whole body energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Harini; Ntambi, James M

    2014-01-31

    The skin is the single largest organ in humans, serving as a major barrier to infection, water loss, and abrasion. The functional diversity of skin requires the synthesis of large amounts of lipids, such as triglycerides, wax esters, squalene, ceramides, free cholesterol, free fatty acids, and cholesterol and retinyl esters. Some of these lipids are used as cell membrane components, signaling molecules, and a source of energy. An important class of lipid metabolism enzymes expressed in skin is the Δ(9)-desaturases, which catalyze the synthesis in Δ(9)-monounsaturated lipids, primarily oleoyl-CoA (18:1n-9) and palmitoyl-CoA (16:1n-7), the major monounsaturated fatty acids in cutaneous lipids. Mice with a deletion of the Δ(9)-desaturase-1 isoform (SCD1) either globally (Scd1(-/-)) or specifically in the skin (skin-specific Scd1-knockout; SKO) present with marked changes in cutaneous lipids and skin integrity. Interestingly, these mice also exhibit increased whole body energy expenditure, protection against diet-induced adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and glucose intolerance. The increased energy expenditure in skin-specific Scd1-knockout (SKO) mice is a surprising phenotype, as it links cutaneous lipid homeostasis with whole body energy balance. This minireview summarizes the role of skin SCD1 in regulating skin integrity and whole body energy homeostasis and offers a discussion of potential pathways that may connect these seemingly disparate phenotypes.

  15. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  16. Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

    2005-08-03

    be unused and convert it to electricity or useful thermal energy. Recycled energy produces no or little increase in fossil fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Examples of energy recycling methods include industrial gasification technologies to increase energy recovery, as well as less traditional CHP technologies, and the use of energy that is typically discarded from pressure release vents or from the burning and flaring of waste streams. These energy recovery technologies have the ability to reduce costs for power generation. This report is a preliminary study of the potential contribution of this ''new'' generation of clean recycled energy supply technologies to the power supply of the United States. For each of the technologies this report provides a short technical description, as well as an estimate of the potential for application in the U.S., estimated investment and operation costs, as well as impact on air pollutant emission reductions. The report summarizes the potential magnitude of the benefits of these new technologies. The report does not yet provide a robust cost-benefit analysis. It is stressed that the report provides a preliminary assessment to help focus future efforts by the federal government to further investigate the opportunities offered by new clean power generation technologies, as well as initiate policies to support further development and uptake of clean power generation technologies.

  17. Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) - Interactive Webinars for Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, M.; Ledley, T. S.; Buhr, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change will have far reaching impacts that the citizens of tomorrow will need to be prepared to address. In order for the citizens of tomorrow to be prepared, there is a clear need to support teachers in improving their understanding of the climate system and give them the resources to help their students develop that understanding. CLEAN (http://cleanet.org) is a National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) project that is stewarding a collection of resources for teaching climate and energy science in grades 6-16. The collection contains classroom activities, lab demonstrations, visualizations, simulations, videos, and more. We have implemented a series of nine interactive webinars (iWebinars), each of which focuses on an aspect of the Essential Principles of Climate Science, pairs a scientist and a teacher to convey the science and how to teach that science using the vetted resources in the CLEAN collection, and gives the participants the opportunity to ask questions and discuss with the presenters and each other how they would use the resources in their classrooms and what else they would need to effectively teach the topic under discussion. The iWebinars were recorded and posted to the CLEAN portal (http://cleanet.org/clean/community/webinars/index.html) so that the participants and others can view them in the future. In this presentation, we will describe the scope and structure of the iWebinars; how the scientist's and teacher's presentations were coordinated to most effectively help the participants learn both the science and how to best convey it to their students; and how we involved the teachers in discussions to deepen their engagement and learning.

  18. An international partnership approach to clean energy technology innovation: Carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoliang

    Is a global research partnership effective in developing, deploying, and diffusing clean energy technologies? Drawing on and extending innovation system studies, this doctoral dissertation elaborates an analytical model for a global technology learning system; examines the rationales, mechanisms, and effectiveness of the United States-- China Clean Energy Research Center Advanced Coal Technology Consortium (CERC-ACTC); and analyzes government's role in developing and implementing carbon capture and storage technologies in the United States (U.S.) and China. Studies have shown that successful technology innovation leads to economic prosperity and national competence, and prove that technology innovation does not happen in isolation but rather within interactive systems among stakeholders. However, the innovation process itself remains unclear, particularly with regard to interactive learning among and between major institutional actors, including technology developers, regulators, and financial organizations. This study seeks to advance scholarship on the interactive learning from the angle of global interactive learning. This dissertation research project seeks, as well, to inform policy-makers of how to strengthen international collaboration in clean energy technology development. The U.S.--China CERC-ACTC announced by Presidents Obama and Hu in 2009, provided a unique opportunity to close this scholarly gap. ACTC aimed to "advance the coal technology needed to safely, effectively, and efficiently utilize coal resources including the ability to capture, store, and utilize the emissions from coal use in both nations " through the joint research and development by U.S. and Chinese scientists and engineers. This dissertation project included one-year field research in the two countries, with in-depth interviews of key stakeholders, a survey of Consortium participants, analysis of available data, and site visits to collaborative research projects from 2013-2014. This

  19. Benefits to the United States of Increasing Global Uptake of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, D.

    2010-07-01

    A previous report describes an opportunity for the United States to take leadership in efforts to transform the global energy system toward clean energy technologies (CET). An accompanying analysis to that report provides estimates of the economic benefits to the United States of such a global transformation on the order of several hundred billion dollars per year by 2050. This report describes the methods and assumptions used in developing those benefit estimates. It begins with a summary of the results of the analysis based on an updated and refined model completed since the publication of the previous report. The framework described can be used to estimate the economic benefits to the U.S. of coordinated global action to increase the uptake of CETs worldwide. Together with a Monte Carlo simulation engine, the framework can be used to develop plausible ranges for benefits, taking into account the large uncertainty in the driving variables and economic parameters. The resulting estimates illustrate that larger global clean energy markets offer significant opportunities to the United States economy.

  20. Navajo Generating Station and Clean-Energy Alternatives: Options for Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Turchi, C. S.; Burman, K.

    2012-06-01

    In January 2012, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory delivered to the Department of the Interior the first part of a study on Navajo Generating Station (Navajo GS) and the likely impacts of BART compliance options. That document establishes a comprehensive baseline for the analysis of clean energy alternatives, and their ability to achieve benefits similar to those that Navajo GS currently provides. This analysis is a supplement to NREL's January 2012 study. It provides a high level examination of several clean energy alternatives, based on the previous analysis. Each has particular characteristics affecting its relevance as an alternative to Navajo GS. It is assumed that the development of any alternative resource (or portfolio of resources) to replace all or a portion of Navajo GS would occur at the end of a staged transition plan designed to reduce economic disruption. We assume that replacing the federal government's 24.3% share of Navajo GS would be a cooperative responsibility of both the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Central Arizona Water Conservation District (CAWCD).

  1. Renewable Energy Investment in Emerging Markets: Evaluating Improvements to the Clean Development Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Tang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past, industrialized countries have invested in or financed numerous renewable energy projects in developing countries, primarily through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol. However, critics have pointed to its bureaucratic structure, problems with additionality and distorted credit prices as ill-equipped to streamline renewable energy investment. In this paper, we simulate the impact of policy on investment decisions on whether or not to invest in wind energy infrastructure in India, Brazil and China. Data from 2,578 past projects as well as literature on investor behaviour is used to inform the model structure and parameters. Our results show that the CDM acts differently in each country and reveal that while streamlining the approval process and reconsidering additionality can lead to non-trivial increase in total investment, stabilizing policy and decreasing investment risk will do the most to spur investment.

  2. Sustainable energy for cashew production chain using innovative clean technology project developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannir Selvam, P.V.; Nandenha, Julio; Santiago, Brunno Henrique de Souza; Silva, Rosalia Tatiane da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (GPEC/DEQ/UFRN), Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos e Processos], e-mail: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The main objective is to develop a new process synthesis based on the residual biomass waste for the energy production applied to the fruit processing plant with co-production of hot, cold thermal energy using biogas from the wood biomass and animal wastes. After carried out the bibliographical research about the current state of art technology, an engineering project had been developed with the use of the software Super Pro Designer V 4.9. Some simulations of processes of the fast pyrolysis, gasification, bio digestion, generation of energy have been realized including the system integration of energy production as innovation of the present work. Three cases study have been developed: first, the current process of conventional energy using combustion, another one using combined pyrolysis and gasification, and the last one with bio digestion for combined power, heat and chilling. The results about the project investment and the cost analysis, economic viability and cash balance were obtained using software Orc 2004. Several techno-economic parameters of the selected cases study involving process innovation were obtained and compared, where a better energy and materials utilization were observed in relation to conventional process. This project which is still in development phase, involves small scale energy integrated system design. The energy and the process integration cashew fruit production chain, based on the clean technology process design, has enable significant improvement in terms of economic and environmental using optimal system configurations with viability and sustainability. (author)

  3. Photobiological hydrogen production and artificial photosynthesis for clean energy: from bio to nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, K; Najafpour, M M; Voloshin, R A; Balaghi, S E; Tyystjärvi, E; Timilsina, R; Eaton-Rye, J J; Tomo, T; Nam, H G; Nishihara, H; Ramakrishna, S; Shen, J-R; Allakhverdiev, S I

    2015-12-01

    Global energy demand is increasing rapidly and due to intensive consumption of different forms of fuels, there are increasing concerns over the reduction in readily available conventional energy resources. Because of the deleterious atmospheric effects of fossil fuels and the uncertainties of future energy supplies, there is a surge of interest to find environmentally friendly alternative energy sources. Hydrogen (H2) has attracted worldwide attention as a secondary energy carrier, since it is the lightest carbon-neutral fuel rich in energy per unit mass and easy to store. Several methods and technologies have been developed for H2 production, but none of them are able to replace the traditional combustion fuel used in automobiles so far. Extensively modified and renovated methods and technologies are required to introduce H2 as an alternative efficient, clean, and cost-effective future fuel. Among several emerging renewable energy technologies, photobiological H2 production by oxygenic photosynthetic microbes such as green algae and cyanobacteria or by artificial photosynthesis has attracted significant interest. In this short review, we summarize the recent progress and challenges in H2-based energy production by means of biological and artificial photosynthesis routes.

  4. Fusion energy science: Clean, safe, and abundant energy through innovative science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    Fusion energy science combines the study of the behavior of plasmas--the state of matter that forms 99% of the visible universe--with a vision of using fusion--the energy source of the stars--to create an affordable, plentiful, and environmentally benign energy source for humankind. The dual nature of fusion energy science provides an unfolding panorama of exciting intellectual challenge and a promise of an attractive energy source for generations to come. The goal of this report is a comprehensive understanding of plasma behavior leading to an affordable and attractive fusion energy source.

  5. Let People Bathe in Clean Energy. Regional new energy vision for Matsuyama Town; 2001 nendo Matsuyama machi chiiki shin energy vision. Toumeinal energy wo sosoide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For promoting the introduction of new energy and for enhancing people's consciousness of such at Matsuyama Town, Yamagata Prefecture, surveys and studies were conducted involving the amount of energy needed by the town, the amount of new energy resources in existence, and new energy introduction projects, and then a vision was formulated. The town demands 120,407-million kcal/year in energy comprising 56.8% from oil based fuels, 39.2% from electric power, and 4.1% from LP gas. As for consumption, 35.6% is consumed by households, 28.9% by industries, 21.3% by transportation, and 14.2% by commerce. The amount of carbon dioxide due to the consumption is estimated at 28,000 t-CO2/year. Key projects for new energy introduction were discussed, which included an eco-town project for introducing photovoltaic power generation systems, passive solar heat utilization systems, clean energy vehicles, and so forth, into public facilities; an eco-agriculture project for utilizing wind power generation and livestock excreta energy; an eco-park project for exhibiting new energies to the public; and an eco-school pilot model project. (NEDO)

  6. Revolution…Now The Future Arrives for Five Clean Energy Technologies – 2015 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) released the Revolution Now report, highlighting four transformational technologies: land-based wind power, silicon photovoltaic (PV) solar modules, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and electric vehicles (EVs). That study and its 2014 update showed how dramatic reductions in cost are driving a surge in consumer, industrial, and commercial adoption for these clean energy technologies—as well as yearly progress. In addition to presenting the continued progress made over the last year in these areas, this year’s update goes further. Two separate sections now cover large, central, utility-scale PV plants and smaller, rooftop, distributed PV systems to highlight how both have achieved significant deployment nationwide, and have done so through different innovations, such as easier access to capital for utility-scale PV and reductions of non-hardware costs and third-party ownership for distributed PV. Along with these core technologies

  7. Energy Deposition Studies for the Betatron Cleaning Insertion (IR7) of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Santana-Leitner, Mario; Ferrari, Alfredo; Magistris, Matteo; Tsoulou, A; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2005-01-01

    Two insertions (IR3, IR7) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are dedicated to beam cleaning with the design goals of absorbing part of the primary beam halo and of the secondary radiation. The tertiary halo which escapes the collimation system in IR7 may heat the cold magnets at unacceptable levels, if no additional absorber is used. In order to assess the energy deposition in sensitive components, extensive simulations were run with the Monte Carlo cascade code FLUKA. The straight section and the dispersion suppressors (DS) of IR7 were fully implemented. A modular approach in the geometry definition and an extensive use of user-written programs allowed the implementation of all magnets and collimators with high precision, including flanges, steel supports and magnetic field. This paper provides the number and location of additional absorbers needed to keep the energy deposition in the coils of the magnets below the quenching limit.

  8. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  9. Texas Clean Energy Project: Topical Report, Phase 1 - February 2010-December 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Karl

    2012-11-01

    Summit Texas Clean Energy, LLC (STCE) is developing the Texas Clean Energy Project (TCEP or the project) to be located near Penwell, Texas. The TCEP will include an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with a nameplate capacity of 400 megawatts electric (MWe), combined with the production of urea fertilizer and the capture, utilization and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) sold commercially for regional use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the Permian Basin of west Texas. The TCEP will utilize coal gasification technology to convert Powder River Basin subbituminous coal delivered by rail from Wyoming into a synthetic gas (syngas) which will be cleaned and further treated so that at least 90 percent of the overall carbon entering the facility will be captured. The clean syngas will then be divided into two high-hydrogen (H2) concentration streams, one of which will be combusted as a fuel in a combined cycle power block for power generation and the other converted into urea fertilizer for commercial sale. The captured CO2 will be divided into two streams: one will be used in producing the urea fertilizer and the other will be compressed for transport by pipeline for offsite use in EOR and permanent underground sequestration. The TCEP was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) for cost-shared co-funded financial assistance under Round 3 of its Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). A portion of this financial assistance was budgeted and provided for initial development, permitting and design activities. STCE and the DOE executed a Cooperative Agreement dated January 29, 2010, which defined the objectives of the project for all phases. During Phase 1, STCE conducted and completed all objectives defined in the initial development, permitting and design portions of the Cooperative Agreement. This topical report summarizes all work associated with the project objectives, and additional work

  10. Locally Appropriate Energy Strategies for the Developing World: A focus on Clean Energy Opportunities in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Rebekah Grace

    This dissertation focuses on an integration of energy modeling tools to explore energy transition pathways for emerging economies. The spate of growth in the global South has led to a global energy transition, evidenced in part by a surge in the development of large scale energy infrastructure projects for the provision of reliable electricity service. The rational of energy security and exigency often usher these large scale projects through to implementation with minimal analysis of costs: social and environmental impact, ecological risk, or opportunity costs of alternative energy transition pathways foregone. Furthermore, development of energy infrastructure is inherently characterized by the involvement of a number of state and non-state actors, with varying interests, objectives and access to authority. Being woven through and into social institutions necessarily impacts the design, control and functionality of infrastructure. In this dissertation I therefore conceptualize energy infrastructure as lying at the intersection, or nexus, of people, the environment and energy security. I argue that energy infrastructure plans and policy should, and can, be informed by each of these fields of influence in order to appropriately satisfy local development needs. This case study explores the socio-techno-environmental context of contemporary mega-dam development in northern Borneo. I describe the key actors of an ongoing mega-dam debate and the constellation of their interaction. This highlights the role that information may play in public discourse and lends insight into how inertia in the established system may stymie technological evolution. I then use a combination of power system simulation, ecological modeling and spatial analysis to analyze the potential for, and costs and tradeoffs of, future energy scenarios. In this way I demonstrate reproducible methods that can support energy infrastructure decision making by directly addressing data limitation barriers. I

  11. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences bet

  12. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.; Doris, E.

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets--like human capital and modern infrastructure--as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  13. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA). State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets—like human capital and modern infrastructure–as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  14. Current Situation of World Clean Energy%世界清洁能源发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海峰; 李鲜

    2012-01-01

    21世纪人类面临严重的资源、环境考验,因此发展清洁能源、实现经济社会可持续发展已成为当今世界的主流,各国政府竞相争夺未来清洁能源市场,从政策导向到资金支持方面都对清洁能源市场给予厚爱.文章主要依托美国皮尤慈善基金会发布的《谁将赢得世界清洁能源之赛2010》的报告来分析G-20国家清洁能源发展现状和投融资情况.%In the twenty-first Century, human being faces with serious problems of resources and environment, therefore, the development of clean energy, achieving economics and society sustainable development have become the mainstream of the world, governments compete for future clean energy market, from the policy guidance to the capital investment to support the clean energy market. This paper mainly relies on "Who's Winning the Clean Energy Race! 2010 Edition: G-20 Investment Powering Forward" released by the United States Pew Charitable Trusts to analyze the clean energy development and investment in current situation among G-20.

  15. Effect of cleaning and storage on quartz substrate adhesion and surface energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Dave; John, Arun

    2014-04-01

    The force of adhesion of 50 nm diameter diamond-like carbon sphere probes to three quartz substrates was measured using an atomic force microscope. The force of adhesion was measured prior to cleaning, within 10 minutes after cleaning, after storage in an N2-purged cabinet, and after storage in an N2-purged vacuum oven. The evaluated cleaning recipes were SC1-like, SPM-like, and HF-based, each followed by ultra-pure deionized water (UPW) rinse and spin drying. The measurements were conducted in a Class 100 clean room at approximately 50% relative humidity. In addition, contact angle measurements were made on three additional quartz substrates using UPW before cleaning, after cleaning, and throughout N2 storage. The adhesion force increased after cleaning as compared to the pre-cleaned state, continued to increase until reaching a maximum after 5 days of N2 storage, and then decreased after 26 days for all three substrates. One substrate was then stored in a vacuum oven for 3 days, and the adhesion force decreased to 46% of the pre-cleaned state. The contact angle was reduced from over 30° before cleaning to 0° immediately after cleaning. During subsequent N2 storage, the contact angle increased to 5° or greater after 18 hours for the substrate cleaned with the HF-based recipe and after 15 days for the substrates cleaned by the SC1-like and SPM-like recipes.

  16. Renewable energies for the South. New support for clean energy investment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W.; Schmitz-Borchert, H.P. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century there are still more than two billion people in the world without access to electricity and basic energy services. 'Energy poverty' impedes sustainable economic, social and environmental development of rural areas in developing countries. Large-scale diffusion of renewable energy technologies can help to overcome this situation. Major barriers are now beginning to be removed. This volume is the result of an international symposium on 'Renewable Energies for the South', held at the Science Park Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen/Germany. In took place on June 5-6, 2000 with more than 200 participants from 27 countries. The conference aimed at enhancing the dialogue between the multiple groups and actors involved in the development, transfer and application of renewable energy technologies. The following issues are covered in this book: - technology needs and framework conditions in developing countries - appropriate renewable energy technologies - financing renewable energy investment - capacity building and training programmes. (orig.)

  17. Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator: A Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, O.; Miller, M.; Bazilian, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper seeks to briefly characterize the evolving role of power sector regulation. Given current global dynamics, regulation of the power sector is undergoing dramatic changes. This transformation is being driven by various factors including technological advances and cost reductions in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and demand management; increasing air pollution and climate change concerns; and persistent pressure for ensuring sustainable economic development and increased access to energy services by the poor. These issues add to the already complex task of power sector regulation, of which the fundamental remit remains to objectively and transparently ensure least-cost service delivery at high quality. While no single regulatory task is trivial to undertake, it is the prioritization and harmonization of a multitude of objectives that exemplifies the essential challenge of power sector regulation. Evolving regulatory roles can be understood through the concept of existing objectives and an additional layer of emerging objectives. Following this categorization, we describe seven existing objectives of power sector regulators and nine emerging objectives, highlighting key challenges and outlining interdependencies. This essay serves as a preliminary installment in the Clean Energy Regulatory Initiative (CERI) series, and aims to lay the groundwork for subsequent reports and case studies that will explore these topics in more depth.

  18. Hydrogen: a clean energy for tomorrow?; L'hydrogene: une energie propre pour demain?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artero, V. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, Lab. de chimie et biologie des metaux, 38 (France); CEA Grenoble, energies alternatives, 38 (France); Guillet, N. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' innovation pour les technologies des energies nouvelles et les nanomateriaux, 38 (France); Fruchart, D. [Institut Neel du CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Societe McPhy Energy, 26 - La Motte Fanjas (France); Fontecave, M. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-07-15

    Hydrogen has a strong energetic potential. In order to exploit this potential and transform this energy into electricity, two chemical reactions could be used which do not release any greenhouse effect gas: hydrogen can be produced by water electrolysis, and then hydrogen and oxygen can be combined to produce water and release heat and electricity. Hydrogen can therefore be used to store energy. In Norway, the exceeding electricity produced by wind turbines in thus stored in fuel cells, and the energy of which is used when the wind weakens. About ten dwellings are thus supplied with only renewable energy. Similar projects are being tested in Corsica and in the Reunion Island. The main challenges for this technology are its cost, its compactness and its durability. The article gives an overview of the various concepts, apparatus and systems involved in hydrogen and energy production. Some researches are inspired by bacteria which produce hydrogen with enzymes. The objective is to elaborate better catalysts. Another explored perspective is the storage of solid hydrogen

  19. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  20. Supporting Teachers in Climate Change Instruction - The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Tool Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; Niepold, F.; Carley, S.; Lynds, S. E.; Howell, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    The topic of climate change comes up regularly in news stories and household discussions. However, a recent poll among teenagers about their knowledge of climate change shows that teenagers' understanding of the basics of the climate system is minimal with 54% receiving a failing grade (Leiserowitz et al., 2011). The upcoming Next Generation Science Standards emphasize that solid knowledge about climate change and sustainability is essential for students to be prepared for the decisions the next generation of citizens will face. We summarize the needs described by educators in a national, multi-year informant pool study focused on climate instruction, and outline the demands the new Next Generation Science Standards are posing on educators, in terms of climate and sustainability instruction. We then showcase different tools available to educators to address these needs. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN, cleanet.org) supports educators in addressing these challenges and assists them in their teaching about climate topics. In this presentation we will demonstrate the various avenues through which the CLEAN portal can help educators improve their own climate and energy literacy, support them in determining why and how to effectively integrate the climate and energy principles into their teaching, and facilitate their successful use of the resources with their students. This will include a brief overview of the following features: a) The breadth of the collection , which contains over 450 reviewed resources, and the multi-faceted search that can help educators quickly find materials that are most relevant to their needs; b) Annotations of individual resources that provide information extracted from the reviews about the science, pedagogy, and teaching tips, as well as indicating the relevant climate or energy principles and the AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy, the National Science Education Standards, and the Guidelines for Excellence in

  1. Overview of Variable Renewable Energy Regulatory Issues: A Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Cox, S.

    2014-05-01

    This CERI report aims to provide an introductory overview of key regulatory issues associated with the deployment of renewable energy -- particularly variable renewable energy (VRE) sources such wind and solar power. The report draws upon the research and experiences from various international contexts, and identifies key ideas that have emerged from the growing body of VRE deployment experience and regulatory knowledge. The report assumes basic familiarity with regulatory concepts, and although it is not written for a technical audience, directs the reader to further reading when available. VRE deployment generates various regulatory issues: substantive, procedural, and public interest issues, and the report aims to provide an empirical and technical grounding for all three types of questions as appropriate.

  2. Clean energy funds: An overview of state support for renewable energy

    OpenAIRE

    Bolinger, Mark; WISER Ryan; Milford, Lew; Stoddard, Michael; Porter, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    As competition in the supply and delivery of electricity has been introduced in the United States, states have sought to ensure the continuation of "public benefits" programs traditionally administered or funded by electric utilities. One of the most popular policy mechanisms for ensuring such continued support has been the system-benefits charge (SBC). This paper summarizes the status and performance of fourteen state renewable energy funds supported by system-benefits charges, and is ...

  3. Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilau, Asmerom M.

    This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide emission reductions. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide emissions could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented

  4. Energy from Waste--clean, efficient, renewable: transitions in combustion efficiency and NOx control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, M H; Halter, R; Sigg, A; Brosch, B; Gehrmann, H J; Keunecke, M

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally EfW (Energy from Waste) plants apply a reciprocating grate to combust waste fuel. An integrated steam generator recovers the heat of combustion and converts it to steam for use in a steam turbine/generator set. This is followed by an array of flue gas cleaning technologies to meet regulatory limitations. Modern combustion applies a two-step method using primary air to fuel the combustion process on the grate. This generates a complex mixture of pyrolysis gases, combustion gases and unused combustion air. The post-combustion step in the first pass of the boiler above the grate is intended to "clean up" this mixture by oxidizing unburned gases with secondary air. This paper describes modifications to the combustion process to minimize exhaust gas volumes and the generation of noxious gases and thus improving the overall thermal efficiency of the EfW plant. The resulting process can be coupled with an innovative SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction) technology to form a clean and efficient solid waste combustion system. Measurements immediately above the grate show that gas compositions along the grate vary from 10% CO, 5% H(2) and 0% O(2) to essentially unused "pure" air, in good agreement with results from a mathematical model. Introducing these diverse gas compositions to the post combustion process will overwhelm its ability to process all these gas fractions in an optimal manner. Inserting an intermediate step aimed at homogenizing the mixture above the grate has shown to significantly improve the quality of combustion, allowing for optimized process parameters. These measures also resulted in reduced formation of NO(x) (nitrogenous oxides) due to a lower oxygen level at which the combustion process was run (2.6 vol% O(2,)(wet) instead of 6.0 vol% O(2,)(wet)). This reduction establishes optimal conditions for the DyNOR™ (Dynamic NO(x) Reduction) NO(x) reduction process. This innovative SNCR technology is adapted to situations typically

  5. CATALYTIC RESEARCH FOR CLEAN ENERGY AND ULTRA-CLEAN FUELS IN THE 21st CENTURY--Future Perspectives%21世纪清洁能源与超清洁燃料催化研究的展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春山

    2002-01-01

    The global growth in energy consumption in the 20th century and the situations around the energy supply and demand of energy and fuels are briefly discussed. Future perspectives in terms of needs and opportunities for catalytic research in the area of energy and resources are presented, with emphasis placed on the clean energy and the clean transportation fuels in the early parts of the 21st century. More environmentally-friendly, comprehensive and efficient utilization of energy sources is emphasized as a direction for future catalytic research.

  6. Utility-Scale Future, Continuum Magazine: Clean Energy Innovation at NREL, Spring 2011, Issue 1 Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on creating a utility-scale future.

  7. Realizing Clean Energy's Potential: Lessons Learned in the U.S. West (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    NREL Analysis Insights connects the dots between NREL studies, pulling big picture insights from a larger body of work. In the premiere issue of our new periodical Analysis Insights, we explore lessons learned from experience in the U.S. West for realizing clean energy's potential.

  8. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Clean Steel Casting Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyucak, Selcuk [CanmetMATERIALS; Li, Delin [CanmetMATERIALS

    2013-12-31

    Inclusions in steel castings can cause rework, scrap, poor machining, and reduced casting performance, which can obviously result in excess energy consumption. Significant progress in understanding inclusion source, formation and control has been made. Inclusions can be defined as non-metallic materials such as refractory, sand, slag, or coatings, embedded in a metallic matrix. This research project has focused on the mold filling aspects to examine the effects of pouring methods and gating designs on the steel casting cleanliness through water modeling, computer modeling, and melting/casting experiments. Early in the research project, comprehensive studies of bottom-pouring water modeling and low-alloy steel casting experiments were completed. The extent of air entrainment in bottom-poured large castings was demonstrated by water modeling. Current gating systems are designed to prevent air aspiration. However, air entrainment is equally harmful and no prevention measures are in current practice. In this study, new basin designs included a basin dam, submerged nozzle, and nozzle extension. The entrained air and inclusions from the gating system were significantly reduced using the new basin method. Near the end of the project, there has been close collaboration with Wescast Industries Inc., a company manufacturing automotive exhaust components. Both computer modeling using Magma software and melting/casting experiments on thin wall turbo-housing stainless steel castings were completed in this short period of time. Six gating designs were created, including the current gating on the pattern, non-pressurized, partially pressurized, naturally pressurized, naturally pressurized without filter, and radial choke gating without filter, for Magma modeling. The melt filling velocity and temperature were determined from the modeling. Based on the simulation results, three gating designs were chosen for further melting and casting experiments on the same casting pattern using

  9. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  10. Modeling complex dispersed energy and clean water systems for the United States/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Hugo Francisco Lopez

    As world population grows, and its technology evolves, the demand for electricity inexorably increases. Until now most of this electricity has been produced via fossil fuels, non-renewable energy resources that are irreversibly deteriorating our environment. On the economical aspect it does not get any better. Let's not forget market rules, the higher the demand and lower the offer, the higher the price we will have to pay. Oil is an excellent example. Some countries try to solve this situation with Pharaohnic projects, i.e. investing absurd amounts of money in 'green electricity' building monstrous dams to power equally monstrous hydroelectric power plants. The only problem with this is that it is not green at all---it does have an enormous environmental impact---it is extremely complicated and expensive to implement. It is important to point out, that this research project does not try to solve world's thirst for electricity. It is rather aimed to help solve this problematic at a much lower scale---it should be considered as an extremely small step in the right direction. It focuses on satisfying the local electricity needs with renewable, non-contaminating and locally available resources. More concisely, this project focuses on the attainment and use of hydrogen as an alternate energy source in El Paso/Juarez region. Clean technology is nowadays available to produce hydrogen and oxygen, i.e. the photoelectrolysis process. Photovoltaic cells coupled with electrolytic devices can be used to produce hydrogen and oxygen in a sustainable manner. In this research, simulation models of hybrid systems were designed and developed. They were capable to compare, predict and evaluate different options for hydrogen generation. On the other hand, with the produced hydrogen from the electrolysis process it was possible to generate electricity through fuel cells. The main objectives of the proposed research were to define how to use the resources for the attainment of hydrogen

  11. Clean Energy for Tomorrow: Towards Zero Emission and Carbon Free Future: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ramli Wan Daud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cell technology using hydrogen energy is an advanced green energy technology for the future use. This is green, sustainable, clean and very environmental friendly. Green house gases emission from industrial activities has been proven beyond doubt as the main cause of global warming and climate changes. The finite world energy supply that consists nearly 90% of fossil fuel which is depleted; an energy crisis because of widening fossil fuel production and demand gaps. Many nations responded to anticipate energy crisis by diversifying their fuel resources to include renewable and alternative energy and developing green energy technology for the future. Despite political announcements on renewable energy, fossil fuels will continue to dominate energy resources for some time to come and carbon emission will increase but global nuclear energy expansion is uncertain because of international tensions and general public fears of another Chernobyl or Fogoshima disasters or a nuclear terrorist attack. Biofuels are plagued by the conflict between crops for fuel and crops for food and there is a shift of interest towards crop biomass wastes. The further expansion of hydrogen energy is constrained by costs and safety in hydrogen transport and storage. Fuel cell research and development has shifted from older AFC, PAFC and MCFC whose entry into the market were stalled by intractable operational and durability problems, to more promising PEMFC, DMFC and SOFC. A new type of fuel cell, the microbial fuel cell (MFC is also gaining some attention because of sustainable way of simultaneously reducing BOD and COD of wastewater and provide power; combined wastewater treatment and power (CWTP. The main thrust in PEMFC research and development is cost reduction of membrane and electrocatalyst by substitution of cheap and more efficient organic-inorganic nanocomposite membranes and nanoinorganic electrocatalyst as well as lower electrocatalyst loading and cost

  12. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  13. Oxide-ion and proton conducting electrolyte materials for clean energy applications: structural and mechanistic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo; Fisher, Craig A J; Islam, M Saiful

    2010-11-01

    This critical review presents an overview of the various classes of oxide materials exhibiting fast oxide-ion or proton conductivity for use as solid electrolytes in clean energy applications such as solid oxide fuel cells. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between structural and mechanistic features of the crystalline materials and their ion conduction properties. After describing well-established classes such as fluorite- and perovskite-based oxides, new materials and structure-types are presented. These include a variety of molybdate, gallate, apatite silicate/germanate and niobate systems, many of which contain flexible structural networks, and exhibit different defect properties and transport mechanisms to the conventional materials. It is concluded that the rich chemistry of these important systems provides diverse possibilities for developing superior ionic conductors for use as solid electrolytes in fuel cells and related applications. In most cases, a greater atomic-level understanding of the structures, defects and conduction mechanisms is achieved through a combination of experimental and computational techniques (217 references).

  14. A Blueprint for Florida's Clean Energy Future - Case Study of a Regional Government's Environmental Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lowman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On 13 July 2007, Governor Charlie Crist of Florida signed executive orders to establish greenhouse gas emission targets that required an 80 percent reduction below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Florida is a very high-risk state with regard to climate change. Its 1,350-mile-long coastline, location in "Hurricane Alley," reliance on coral reefs and other vulnerable natural resources for its economy, and the predictions that state population could double in the next 30 years all contribute to this designation of "high-risk. As a consequence of the potential economic and ecological impacts of climate change to Florida, a series of Action Teams were created to plan for adaptation to impending environmental changes. As the 26th largest emitter of carbon dioxide on a global scale, Florida needs to act aggressively to create a clean energy footprint as part of its statewide initiatives but with global impacts. This case study examines the process and expected outcomes undertaken by a regional government that anticipates the need for stringent adaptation.

  15. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  16. Optimization of cascade hydropower system operation by genetic algorithm to maximize clean energy output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Tayebiyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several reservoir systems have been constructed for hydropower generation around the world. Hydropower offers an economical source of electricity with reduce carbon emissions. Therefore, it is such a clean and renewable source of energy. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue. Yet, reservoir systems are inefficiently operated and manage according to policies determined at the construction time. It is worth noting that with little enhancement in operation of reservoir system, there could be an increase in efficiency of the scheme for many consumers. Methods: This research develops simulation-optimization models that reflect discrete hedging policy (DHP to manage and operate hydropower reservoir system and analyse it in both single and multireservoir system. Accordingly, three operational models (2 single reservoir systems and 1 multi-reservoir system were constructed and optimized by genetic algorithm (GA. Maximizing the total power generation in horizontal time is chosen as an objective function in order to improve the functional efficiency in hydropower production with consideration to operational and physical limitations. The constructed models, which is a cascade hydropower reservoirs system have been tested and evaluated in the Cameron Highland and Batang Padang in Malaysia. Results: According to the given results, usage of DHP for hydropower reservoir system operation could increase the power generation output to nearly 13% in the studied reservoir system compared to present operating policy (TNB operation. This substantial increase in power production will enhance economic development. Moreover, the given results of single and multi-reservoir systems affirmed that hedging policy could manage the single system much better than operation of the multi-reservoir system. Conclusion: It can be summarized that DHP is an efficient and feasible policy, which could be used

  17. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of clean and hydrogen covered Si(001) surfaces: first principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C H

    2012-09-07

    Surface phonons, conductivities, and loss functions are calculated for reconstructed (2×1), p(2×2) and c(4×2) clean Si(001) surfaces, and (2×1) H and D covered Si(001) surfaces. Surface conductivities perpendicular to the surface are significantly smaller than conductivities parallel to the surface. The surface loss function is compared to high resolution electron energy loss measurements. There is good agreement between calculated loss functions and experiment for H and D covered surfaces. However, agreement between experimental data from different groups and between theory and experiment is poor for clean Si(001) surfaces. Formalisms for calculating electron energy loss spectra are reviewed and the mechanism of electron energy losses to surface vibrations is discussed.

  18. Key challenges and recent progress in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage for clean energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Miller, James F.

    Reducing or eliminating the dependency on petroleum of transportation systems is a major element of US energy research activities. Batteries are a key enabling technology for the development of clean, fuel-efficient vehicles and are key to making today's hybrid electric vehicles a success. Fuel cells are the key enabling technology for a future hydrogen economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nations, offering cleaner, more efficient alternatives to today's technology. Additionally fuel cells are significantly more energy efficient than combustion-based power generation technologies. Fuel cells are projected to have energy efficiency twice that of internal combustion engines. However before fuel cells can realize their potential, significant challenges remain. The two most important are cost and durability for both automotive and stationary applications. Recent electrocatalyst developments have shown that Pt alloy catalysts have increased activity and greater durability than Pt catalysts. The durability of conventional fluorocarbon membranes is improving, and hydrocarbon-based membranes have also shown promise of equaling the performance of fluorocarbon membranes at lower cost. Recent announcements have also provided indications that fuel cells can start from freezing conditions without significant deterioration. Hydrogen storage systems for vehicles are inadequate to meet customer driving range expectations (>300 miles or 500 km) without intrusion into vehicle cargo or passenger space. The United States Department of Energy has established three centers of Excellence for hydrogen storage materials development. The centers are focused on complex metal hydrides that can be regenerated onboard a vehicle, chemical hydrides that require off-board reprocessing, and carbon-based storage materials. Recent developments have shown progress toward the 2010 DOE targets. In addition DOE has established an independent storage material testing center

  19. 2nd Skin approach to zero energy rental properties: Occupancy patterns to improve energy simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra Santin, O.; Silvester, S.; Konstantinou, T.

    2015-01-01

    A number of second skin solutions have been developed in recent years to solve the problem of large scale renovation of housing. The 2ndSkin approach presented in this paper is currently under development by a consortium of academic and industry partners in the Netherlands. The objective of the 2ndS

  20. Photo-Enhanced Hydrogen Transport Technology for Clean Renewable Electrochemical Energy Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers are promising electrochemical devices for space and terrestrial applications due to their high power densities and clean...

  1. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Study on the global network; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 3. Global network kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As a part of the WE-NET project, the introduction condition of hydrogen as substituting energy and CO2 reduction effect were analyzed using a global energy model. The WE-NET project aims at global-wide introduction of clean energy by converting abundant renewable clean energy into hydrogen transportable to distant consumers all over the world. The study result in fiscal 1996 is as follows. Undeveloped hydroelectric resources in the world are estimated to be 12 trillion kWh/y equivalent to the existing developed one in the world. Since the cost of the hydroelectric power generation projects over 1000MW in the planning stage is estimated to be 0.02-0.05$/kWh lower than that of other renewable energies, such projects are expected as energy source in the initial stage of the practical WE-NET project. The GREEN model was modified by adding a hydrogen analysis function, and extending an analysis period. The modified model allowed evaluation of the long-term important role of hydrogen energy, in particular, the capability of CO2 gas reduction all over the world. 28 refs., 92 figs., 56 tabs.

  2. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinti, Jennifer [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Birgenheier, Lauren [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, Milind [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facelli, Julio [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, Michal [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McLennan, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, Terry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory. There were four principle areas of research; Environmental, legal, and policy issues related to development of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic unconventional fuels industry; Basin-scale assessment of conventional and unconventional fuel development impacts; and Liquid fuel production by in situ thermal processing of oil shale Multiple research projects were conducted in each area and the results have been communicated via sponsored conferences, conference presentations, invited talks, interviews with the media, numerous topical reports, journal publications, and a book that summarizes much of the oil shale research relating to Utah’s Uinta Basin. In addition, a repository of materials related to oil shale and oil sands has been created within the University of Utah’s Institutional Repository, including the materials generated during this research program. Below is a listing of all topical and progress reports generated by this project and submitted to the Office of Science and Technical Information (OSTI). A listing of all peer-reviewed publications generated as a result of this project is included at the end of this report; Geomechanical and Fluid Transport Properties 1 (December, 2015); Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis (February, 2015); and Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach (November, 2014); Policy Issues Associated With Using Simulation to Assess Environmental Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience (September, 2013); V-UQ of Generation 1 Simulator with AMSO Experimental Data (August, 2013); Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges

  3. Economic Impacts from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program: Using Property-Assessed Clean Energy Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, M.; Cliburn, J. K.; Coughlin, J.

    2011-04-01

    This report examines the economic impacts (including job creation) from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program (CSLP), an example of Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The CSLP was the first test of PACE financing on a multi-jurisdictional level (involving individual cities as well as the county government). It was also the first PACE program to comprehensively address energy efficiency measures and renewable energy, and it was the first funded by a public offering of both taxable and tax-exempt bonds.

  4. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) Scenario Analysis: Quantitative Estimates Used to Facilitate Working Group Discussions (2008-2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.; Frazier, R.

    2012-03-01

    This report provides details on the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) Scenario Analysis to identify potential policy options and evaluate their impact on reaching the 70% HECI goal, present possible pathways to attain the goal based on currently available technology, with an eye to initiatives under way in Hawaii, and provide an 'order-of-magnitude' cost estimate and a jump-start to action that would be adjusted with a better understanding of the technologies and market.

  5. An energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and SEM study of debris remaining on endodontic instruments after ultrasonic cleaning and autoclave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2005-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate metallic and non-metallic debris remaining on endodontic files after ultrasonic cleaning and autoclave processing. Forty-eight unused rotary and hand endodontic files, including eight different brands, were tested. Instruments were cleaned with ultrasound, autoclaved and before and after each step were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Adherent debris was analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). All of the instruments before ultrasound cleaning were contaminated with metallic and non-metallic debris. Although most non-metallic debris was removed by ultrasonic cleaning, most of the metallic debris remained even after the final step of sterilization.

  6. Model dependence of the neutron-skin thickness on the symmetry energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B. K.; Centelles, M.; Colò, G.; Roca-Maza, X.; Paar, N.; Viñas, X.; Singh, S. K.; Patra, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    The model dependence in the correlations of the neutron-skin thickness in heavy nuclei with various symmetry-energy parameters is analyzed by using several families of systematically varied microscopic mean-field models. Such correlations show a varying degree of model dependence once the results for all the different families are combined. Some mean-field models associated with similar values of the symmetry-energy slope parameter at saturation density L , and pertaining to different families, yield a greater-than-expected spread in the neutron-skin thickness of the 208Pb nucleus. The effective value of the symmetry-energy slope parameter Leff, determined by using the nucleon density profiles of the finite nucleus and the density derivative S'(ρ ) of the symmetry energy starting from about saturation density up to low densities typical of the surface of nuclei, seems to account for the spread in the neutron-skin thickness for the models with similar L . The differences in the values of Leff are mainly due to the small differences in the nucleon density distributions of heavy nuclei in the surface region and the behavior of the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities.

  7. Preliminary Public Design Report for the Texas Clean Energy Project: Topical Report - Phase 1, June 2010-July 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Karl

    2012-02-01

    Summit Texas Clean Energy, LLC (Summit) is developing the Texas Clean Energy Project (TCEP or the project) to be located near Penwell, Texas. The TCEP will include an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with a nameplate capacity of 400 megawatts electric (MWe), combined with the production of urea fertilizer and the capture, utilization and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) sold commercially for regional use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the Permian Basin of west Texas. The TCEP will utilize coal gasification technology to convert Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal delivered by rail from Wyoming into a synthetic gas (syngas) which will be cleaned and further treated so that at least 90 percent of the overall carbon entering the facility will be captured. The clean syngas will then be divided into two high-hydrogen (H2) concentration streams, one of which will be combusted as a fuel in a combined cycle power block for power generation and the other converted into urea fertilizer for commercial sale. The captured CO2 will be divided into two streams: one will be used in producing the urea fertilizer and the other will be compressed for transport by pipeline for offsite use in EOR. The TCEP was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) for cost-shared co-funded financial assistance under Round 3 of its Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). A portion of this financial assistance was budgeted and provided for initial development, permitting and design activities. Front-end Engineering and Design (FEED) commenced in June 2010 and was completed in July 2011, setting the design basis for entering into the detailed engineering phase of the project. During Phase 1, TCEP conducted and completed the FEED, applied for and received its air construction permit, provided engineering and other technical information required for development of the draft Environmental Impact Statement, and

  8. Alkaline ceramidase 1 is essential for mammalian skin homeostasis and regulating whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakath-Ali, Kifayathullah; Vancollie, Valerie E; Lelliott, Christopher J; Speak, Anneliese O; Lafont, David; Protheroe, Hayley J; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Galli, Antonella; Green, Angela; Gleeson, Diane; Ryder, Ed; Glover, Leanne; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Karp, Natasha A; Arends, Mark J; Brenn, Thomas; Spiegel, Sarah; Adams, David J; Watt, Fiona M; van der Weyden, Louise

    2016-07-01

    The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin that acts as a barrier to protect the body from the external environment and to control water and heat loss. This barrier function is established through the multistage differentiation of keratinocytes and the presence of bioactive sphingolipids such as ceramides, the levels of which are tightly regulated by a balance of ceramide synthase and ceramidase activities. Here we reveal the essential role of alkaline ceramidase 1 (Acer1) in the skin. Acer1-deficient (Acer1(-/-) ) mice showed elevated levels of ceramide in the skin, aberrant hair shaft cuticle formation and cyclic alopecia. We demonstrate that Acer1 is specifically expressed in differentiated interfollicular epidermis, infundibulum and sebaceous glands and consequently Acer1(-/-) mice have significant alterations in infundibulum and sebaceous gland architecture. Acer1(-/-) skin also shows perturbed hair follicle stem cell compartments. These alterations result in Acer1(-/-) mice showing increased transepidermal water loss and a hypermetabolism phenotype with associated reduction of fat content with age. We conclude that Acer1 is indispensable for mammalian skin homeostasis and whole-body energy homeostasis. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: A Green and Clean Alternative for Sustained Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Chennault, Kimberly Ann; Thambi, Nithya; Bitetto, Mary Anne; Hameyie, E. B.

    2008-01-01

    Providing efficient and clean power is a challenge for devices that range from the micro to macro in scale. Although there has been significant progress in the development of micro-, meso-, and macro-scale power supplies and technologies, realization of many devices is limited by the inability of power supplies to scale with the diminishing sizes…

  10. Electronic structure, total energies, and STM images of clean and oxygen-covered Al(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Joachim; Hammer, Bjørk; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel;

    1995-01-01

    an attractive O-O interaction is identified together with an enhancement in the dipole moment induced per O atom. Finally, Tersoff-Hamann-type scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) topographs are derived based on the calculated one-electron wave functions and spectra. For the clean Al(111) a theoretical STM...

  11. Control, monitoring and data acquisition architecture design for clean production of hydrogen from mini-wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroya, Sebastian; Cotos, Jose M. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain). Lab. of Systems; Gomez, Guillermo; Plaza, Borja [National Institute for Aerospace Technology (INTA), Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Fontan, Manuel; Magdaleno, Alexander [OBEKI Innobe, Ibarra, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Vallve, Xavier; Palou, Jaume [Trama TecnoAmbiental, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    One of the pillars that holds up the stability and economic development of our society is the need to ensure a reliable and affordable supply of energy that meets our current energy needs. The high dependence on fossil fuels, our main source of primary energy, has many drawbacks mainly caused by greenhouse gases. It is urgent to address this unsustainable energy future through innovation, adoption of new energy alternatives and better use of existing technologies. In this context, hydrogen associated to renewable energy is probably an important part of that future. This paper presents a real demonstrator of energy generation and storage through the clean production of hydrogen from small wind energy. Thus, this demonstrator will allow the study of the technical and econonmic feasibility of hydrogen production. Wind energy will be stored as hydrogen for a later use. In this way hydrogen represents a form of no-loss energy battery. The use of small wind energy allows a more modular and scattered production even in developing countries. In this way, we avoid the transport of hydrogen and the electricity to produce it, improving system efficiency. Moreover, small wind systems require a lower initial investment in infrastructure which will facilitate the development of a separate market for hydrogen production. (orig.)

  12. Model dependence of the neutron-skin thickness on the symmetry energy

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, C; Centelles, M; Colò, G; Roca-Maza, X; Paar, N; Viñas, X; Singh, S K; Patra, S K

    2016-01-01

    The model dependence in the correlations of the neutron-skin thickness in heavy nuclei with various symmetry energy parameters is analyzed by using several families of systematically varied microscopic mean field models. Such correlations show a varying degree of model dependence once the results for all the different families are combined. Some mean field models associated with similar values of the symmetry energy slope parameter at saturation density $L$, and pertaining to different families, yield a greater-than-expected spread in the neutron-skin thickness of the $^{208}$Pb nucleus. The effective value of the symmetry energy slope parameter $L_{\\rm eff}$, determined by using the nucleon density profiles of the finite nucleus and the density derivative $S^\\prime(\\rho)$ of the symmetry energy starting from about saturation density up to low densities typical of the surface of nuclei, seems to account for the spread in the neutron-skin thickness for the models with similar $L$. The differences in the values...

  13. Development of Thermoelectric and Permanent Magnet Nanoparticles for Clean Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phi-Khanh

    The global trend towards energy efficiency and environmental sustainability has generated a strong demand for clean energy technologies. Among the many energy solutions, the work in this dissertation contributes to two strategic goals: the reduction of fuel consumption in the transportation sector, and the increase of domestic wind power capacity. The key barriers to achieving these goals are materials challenges. Automobiles can be made more efficient by thermoelectric conversion of waste heat from the engine into electricity that can be used to power electrical components in the vehicle. Vehicles can forego petroleum fuel altogether by using electric or hybrid motors. Unfortunately, the conversion efficiency of current thermoelectric technology is too low to be considered economically feasible, and the permanent magnets used in electric vehicle motors and wind turbine generators require critical rare-earth elements that are economically unstable (often referred to as the "rare-earth crisis"). In order to combat these challenges, a "spark erosion" technique was utilized for producing nanoparticles that improve thermoelectric efficiency and contribute to the development of electromotors that do not require rare-earths. In Chapter 2 of this dissertation, I describe the utilization of spark erosion for producing high-quality thermoelectric nanoparticles at a remarkably high rate and with enhanced thermoelectric properties. The technique was employed to synthesize p-type bismuth-antimony telluride (BST) and n-type skutterudite nanoparticles, using a relatively small laboratory apparatus, with low energy consumption. The compacted BST nanocomposite samples made from these nanoparticles exhibit a well-defined, 20--50 nm size nanograin microstructure, and show an enhanced Figure of merit, ZT, of 1.36 at 360 K due to a reduction in lattice thermal conductivity. The skutterudite nanocomposites also show reduced thermal conductivity but still require enhancement in the

  14. Variations in skin dose associated with linac bed material at 6 MV x-ray energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butson, Martin J. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China) and Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Department of Medical Physics, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: mbutson@guessmail.com; Cheung Tsang; Yu, Peter K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Webb, B. [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Department of Medical Physics, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2002-01-07

    Treatment with radiotherapy x-rays at 6 MV energy produces a build-up effect whereby a smaller dose is delivered to the patient's skin compared to the tumour dose. With anterior fields, no material is normally placed over the patient's skin, thus providing the maximum skin sparing possible with the beam configuration used. A posterior beam normally passes through the treatment couch top and increases the dose delivered to the patient's skin. Both the Mylar sheeting and the support ribbing material produce a significant increase in skin dose. Measurements at 6 MV have shown that the basal cell layer dose can be increased by up to 51% of maximum dose with a carbon fibre/Mylar couch and by 28% for a tennis string/Mylar couch when compared to anterior beams. These values are associated with the position of the carbon fibre or tennis string ribbing. Dermal layer doses are increased by up to 30 and 24% of maximum dose for carbon fibre and tennis string, respectively. These values include a combination of dose due to the support ribbing and the Mylar sheeting. Due to the variability in patient positioning on the couch top, these increases would be spread out over the skin surface producing an average increase per unit area at the basal layer of up to 32 and 20% of the maximum, respectively, for carbon fibre and tennis string couch tops and 21 and 12% at the dermal layer compared to dose at D{sub max}. (author)

  15. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  16. Modeling and simulation of a solar power source at 3kW for a clean energy without pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louzazni M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The air pollution was much worse, and it became necessary to replace the fossil energy sources by the renewable energies. The causes are related to reserves that can be exhausted, to pollution and their impacts on the environment. Production of toxic gases from the combustion of coal for the effect of increasing the temperature of the earth. Solar energy is a clean and inexhaustible excellent alternative. We propose a modeling and simulation of a solar system consists of a photovoltaic generator (PVG, a boost chopper, to supply a telecommunications relay station (BTS, According to the load characteristics (I = 60A, V = 48V DC (3 kW. A stage adaptation composed of this chopper controlled by a PWM controller (Pulse Width Modulation is used to control the optimal operating point (MPPT and optimize system performance using Matlab / Simulink.

  17. Design Principles for Covalent Organic Frameworks as Efficient Electrocatalysts in Clean Energy Conversion and Green Oxidizer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Zhang, Lipeng; Zhao, Zhenghang; Xia, Zhenhai

    2017-02-23

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), an emerging class of framework materials linked by covalent bonds, hold potential for various applications such as efficient electrocatalysts, photovoltaics, and sensors. To rationally design COF-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in fuel cells and metal-air batteries, activity descriptors, derived from orbital energy and bonding structures, are identified with the first-principle calculations for the COFs, which correlate COF structures with their catalytic activities. The calculations also predict that alkaline-earth metal-porphyrin COFs could catalyze the direct production of H2 O2 , a green oxidizer and an energy carrier. These predictions are supported by experimental data, and the design principles derived from the descriptors provide an approach for rational design of new electrocatalysts for both clean energy conversion and green oxidizer production.

  18. Influence of thermoluminescent dosimeters energy dependence on the measurement of entrance skin dose in radiographic procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Galindo, Renata Sales; Hazin, Clovis Abrahao, E-mail: mercial@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN/NE-CNEN/PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Maia, Ana Figueiredo [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nascimento, Natalia Cassia do Espirito Santo; Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: this study was aimed at evaluating the influence of the energy dependence of thermoluminescent materials on the determination of entrance skin dose in patients submitted to conventional radiographic studies (general radiology, mammography and dental radiology). Materials and methods: three different thermoluminescent materials were utilized: LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and CaSO{sub 4}:Dy. These materials were exposed to standardized sources of X and gamma radiation and clinical X-ray beams. Results: calibration and energy dependence curves were obtained. All the materials showed a linear response as a function of the air kerma. As far as energy dependence is concerned, the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy and LiF:Mg,Ti samples showed the greatest variation on thermoluminescent responses as a function of the effective radiation beam. Conclusion: the tested materials showed an appropriate performance for detecting X radiation on standard and clinical X-ray beams. Although CaSO{sub 4}:Dy and LiF:Mg,Ti samples present a significant energy dependence in the considered energy range, these materials can be utilized for measuring entrance skin doses, provided appropriate correction factors are applied (author)

  19. Clean energy and sustainable building in the west of the USA; Schone energie en duurzaam bouwen in het westen van de Verenigde Staten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, J. [TWA Netwerk, San Francisco (United States)

    2012-01-15

    In preparation of an upcoming public-private partnership in the field of clean energy and sustainable building, a team of the Consulate General of San Francisco made several exploratory visits to stakeholders in the west of the United States. This article reports on a number of findings [Dutch] In voorbereiding op een aanstaande privaat-publieke samenwerking op het vlak van schone energie en duurzaam bouwen bracht een team van het Consulaat Generaal van San Francisco in de afgelopen maanden verkennende bezoeken aan belangwekkende partijen in het westen van de Verenigde Staten. In dit artikel wordt een aantal bevindingen daarvan nader uitgelicht.

  20. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 survey. R and D of high efficiency clean energy vehicles; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu clean energy jidosha no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of developing an automobile which keeps low pollution using petroleum substituting clean energy, decreases the running energy consumption to a half at least, and reduces the CO2 emission to less than a half of the conventional one at the same time, the R and D started in fiscal 1997. As to the study of a high efficiency hybrid power system, conducted were the prediction of fuel consumption performance of the system proposed, evaluation of element technology using hybrid simulator, evaluation experiment on a new hybrid vehicle, and grasp of overseas trends. In relation to the development of hybrid vehicles, the following were studied: methanol fuel cell loading hybrid vehicle, CNG engine loading hybrid vehicle, CNG ceramic engine loading hybrid truck, CNG lean burn engine loading hybrid truck, LNG engine loading hybrid bus, and DME engine loading hybrid bus. Besides, a survey on synthetic fuel and the related survey were carried out. 17 refs., 185 figs., 101 tabs.

  1. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  2. The effect of neutron skin on inclusive prompt photon production in Pb + Pb collisions at Large Hadron Collider energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Somnath

    2017-04-01

    Recent experiments on lead ({{{Pb}}}82208) nuclei have observed the celebrated phenomenon of the neutron skin thickness of low energy nuclear physics. Skin thickness provides a measure of the extension of the spatial distribution of neutrons inside the atomic nucleus than protons. We have studied the effect of neutron skin thickness on inclusive prompt photon production in Pb + Pb collisions at Large Hadron Collider energies. We have calculated the ‘central-to-peripheral ratio’ ({R}{cp}) of prompt photon production with and without accounting for the neutron skin effect. The neutron skin causes a characteristic enhancement of the ratio, in particular at forward rapidity, which is distinguishable in our calculation. However, a very precise direct photon measurement up to large transverse momenta would be necessary to constrain the feature in experiment.

  3. Symmetry energy at subsaturation densities and the neutron skin thickness of 208Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xiaohua; Zuo, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The mass-dependent symmetry energy coefficients $a_{sym}(A)$ has been extracted by analysing the heavy nuclear mass differences reducing the uncertainties as far as possible in our previous work. Taking advantage of the obtained symmetry energy coefficient $a_{sym}(A)$ and the density profiles obtained by switching off the Coulomb interaction in $^{208}\\text{Pb}$, we calculated the slope parameter $L_{0.11}$ of the symmetry energy at the density of $0.11\\text{fm}^{-3}$. The calculated $L_{0.11}$ ranges from 40.5 MeV to 60.3 MeV. The slope parameter $L_{0.11}$ of the symmetry energy at the density of $0.11\\text{fm}^{-3}$ is also calculated directly with Skyrme interactions for nuclear matter and is found to have a fine linear relation with the neutron skin thickness of $^{208}\\text{Pb}$, which is the difference of the neutron and proton rms radii of the nucleus. With the linear relation the neutron skin thickness $ \\Delta R_{np} $ of $^{208}\\text{Pb}$ is predicted to be 0.15 - 0.21 fm.

  4. Empirical Validation of Simple Calculation Method for Assessment of Energy Performance in Double-Skin Façade Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Thomas, Sara Jessica; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova;

    2009-01-01

    When designing new buildings a Double-Skin Facades (DSF) concept is recurrently discussed as an energy saving solution. There is a strong demand for a tool, which could estimate the energy performance of a DSF building in an early design stage, in order to assess whether it fulfills the Energy Pe...

  5. Final Report for Clean, Reliable, Affordable Energy that Reflects the Values of the Pinoleville Pomo Nation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Lenora [Self-Governance Director; Sampsel, Zachary N [Program Director

    2014-07-21

    This report aims to present and analyze information on the potential of renewable energy power systems and electric vehicle charging near the Pinoleville Pomo Nation in Ukiah, California to provide an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective energy and transportation options for development. For each renewable energy option we examine, solar, wind, microhydro, and biogas in this case, we compiled technology and cost information for construction, estimates of energy capacity, and data on electricity exports rates.

  6. Renewable Energy Zones: Delivering Clean Power to Meet Demand, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2016-05-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document describes the renewable energy zone concept that has emerged as a transmission planning tool to help scale up the penetration of solar, wind, and other resources on the power system.

  7. EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly: Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2011 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    This quarterly newsletter provides timely news and information about the plans and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations-U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project, including significant events and milestones, work undertaken by each of the five working groups, and project-related renewable energy and energy efficiency educational outreach and technology deployment efforts.

  8. Texas Clean Energy Project: Decision Point Application, Section 2: Topical Report - Phase 1, February 2010-October 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Summit Texas Clean Energy, LLC (STCE) is developing the Texas Clean Energy Project (TCEP or the Project) to be located near Penwell, Texas. The TCEP will include an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with a nameplate capacity of 400 megawatts electric (MWe), combined with the production of urea fertilizer and the capture, utilization and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) sold commercially for regional use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the Permian Basin of west Texas. The TCEP will utilize coal gasification technology to convert Powder River Basin subbituminous coal delivered by rail from Wyoming into a synthetic gas (syngas) that will be cleaned and further treated so that at least 90 percent of the overall carbon entering the IGCC facility will be captured. The clean syngas will then be divided into two highhydrogen (H2) concentration streams, one of which will be combusted as a fuel in a combined cycle power block for power generation and the other converted into urea fertilizer for commercial sale. The captured CO2 will be divided into two streams: one will be used in producing the urea fertilizer and the other will be compressed for transport by pipeline for offsite use in EOR and permanent underground sequestration. The TCEP was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) for cost-shared co-funded financial assistance under Round 3 of its Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). A portion of this financial assistance was budgeted and provided for initial development, permitting and design activities. STCE and the DOE executed a Cooperative Agreement dated January 29, 2010, which defined the objectives of the Project for all phases. During Phase 1, STCE conducted and completed all objectives defined in the initial development, permitting and design portions of the Cooperative Agreement. This topical report summarizes all work associated with the project objectives, and

  9. Total skin electron therapy at two energies on a linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.R.; Wymme, C.J. [Christchurch Hospital (New Zealand); Hugtenburg, R.P. [Canterbury Univ., Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-01

    Extensive measurements have been performed on the Varian 2100c linear accelerator with a water equivalent phantom, cylindrical phantoms and an anthropomorphic phantom to validate the 12 beam technique and to measure calibration factors with respect to total skin electron therapy (TEST) for the treatment of Mycosis Fungoides. The technique was developed at 2.5 MeV and 3.5 MeV (mean energy at the surface) with the energy degrading screen at 30 cm from the patient. Field flatness over the treatment area was within {+-} 3% with no significant regional variation of energy. The bremstrahlung contamination was 0.06 - 1.2 %. The absolute calibration of absorbed dose to the patient required the measurement of the ratio skin dose to calibration point dose, this was confirmed by measurements with a parallel plate ionization chamber and thermoluminescence dosimetry. The results indicate the care that must be taken with ionization chamber measurements under TSET condition to avoid erroneous readings due to the `polarity effect`. A protocol is suggested for the practical implementation and quality assurance of the technique. The results of two successful treatments are presented and compared with the predicted results from phantoms. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Green, Clean, & Mean: Pushing the Energy Envelope in Tech Industry Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Rengie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Diamond, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Haves, Philip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nordman, Bruce [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Gerald [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    When it comes to innovation in energy and building performance, one can expect leading-edge activity from the technology sector. As front-line innovators in design, materials science, and information management, developing and operating high-performance buildings is a natural extension of their core business. The energy choices made by technology companies have broad importance given their influence on society at large as well as the extent of their own energy footprint. Microsoft, for example, has approximately 250 facilities around the world (30 million square feet of floor area), with significant aggregate energy use of approximately 4 million kilowatt-hours per day (Figure 1).

  11. A Framework for Engaging Navajo Women in Clean Energy Development through Applied Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnes, Beth; Manygoats, Adrian; Weitkamp, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Through applied theatre, Navajo women can participate in authoring a new story for how energy is mined, produced, developed, disseminated and used in the Navajo Nation. This article is an analysis of a creative process that was utilised with primarily Navajo women to create a Navajo Women's Energy Project (NWEP). The framework for this creative…

  12. Prospect of Coal Based IGCC to Meet the Clean Energy Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamruzzaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a country is nearly proportional to the average per person energy consumption rate, which is very low in our country. However, the rate of average energy consumption is increasing day by day throughout the world. With increasing the production of energy, the problem of environment pollution from the power generation sources and energy efficiency becomes more imperative. Coal is the major source of primary energy of the world, however, the energy efficiency of coal based power plant is low, and also it significantly polluted the environment. Therefore, to improve the energy efficiency and reduce the pollution from coal based power plant is an important issue to discuss. In this paper, the primary reserves of energy throughout the world are discussed. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC is a latest technology used to improve the performance of coal based power plant. The process of IGCC and the present condition of IGCC throughout the world is discussed. Finally the advantages of IGCC and necessity of moving towards IGCC from convention coal based power plant is discussed in terms of cost, efficiency and environmental issues.

  13. Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands: Data and Resources for Tribes (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-12-01

    This is a outreach brochure (booklet) for the DOE Office of Indian Energy summarizing the renewable energy technology potential on tribal lands. The booklet features tech potential maps for various technologies, information about the activities of DOE-IE, and resources for Tribes.

  14. Neutron skin of (208)Pb, nuclear symmetry energy, and the parity radius experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Maza, X; Centelles, M; Viñas, X; Warda, M

    2011-06-24

    A precise determination of the neutron skin Δr(np) of a heavy nucleus sets a basic constraint on the nuclear symmetry energy (Δr(np) is the difference of the neutron and proton rms radii of the nucleus). The parity radius experiment (PREX) may achieve it by electroweak parity-violating electron scattering (PVES) on (208)Pb. We investigate PVES in nuclear mean field approach to allow the accurate extraction of Δr(np) of (208)Pb from the parity-violating asymmetry A(PV) probed in the experiment. We demonstrate a high linear correlation between A(PV) and Δr(np) in successful mean field forces as the best means to constrain the neutron skin of (208)Pb from PREX, without assumptions on the neutron density shape. Continuation of the experiment with higher precision in A(PV) is motivated since the present method can support it to constrain the density slope of the nuclear symmetry energy to new accuracy.

  15. Governing China’s Clean Energy Transition: Policy Reforms, Flexible Implementation and the Need for Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the ten years since committing to clean energy transition, China has formulated a large number of policies and programs to achieve some very ambitious targets. This paper argues that the dearth of empirical studies concerning the implementation of these new policies and programs has created a knowledge gap between official policy documents, which are vague and lacking in specifics, and official policy outcomes, which are unreliable. In particular, the merits and limitations of flexible implementation with regard to desirable outcomes need to be debated and clarified. This paper calls for more empirical investigation in four areas as a starting point: (1 the nature and extent of flexibility in the implementation; (2 implementation strategies and their impacts; (3 factors that shape the behavior of local officials responsible for implementation; and (4 the relationship between the central-local relation and policy implementation.

  16. Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Arne [Humboldt State Univ., MN (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Bond, Tami C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lam, Nicholoas L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences; Hultman, Nathan [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

  17. Clean growth 2.0 - how Canada can be a leader in energy and environmental innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    Canada is blessed with a variety of natural resources in significant quantities; the country has important reserves of oil, natural gas, uranium and coal as well as a significant potential for renewable energies such as hydroelectricity, biofuels, wind and tidal power. This abundance of natural resources combined with a strategic location from which to access both the United States and Chinese markets play a significant part in contributing to Canada's prosperity. The aim of this paper is to show that Canada can be an energy and resource powerhouse and a leader in energy and environmental innovation. The Canadian Council of Chief Executives believes that government, industry and Canadians need to pull in the same direction in order to achieve it. This document points out that Canada can have an important role in the development of new energy and environmental technologies and 5 recommendations are made on how to achieve this goal.

  18. Our On-Its-Head-and-In-Your-Dreams Approach Leads to Clean Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence; Gwinner, Don; Hicks, Al

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center for Inverse Design (CID), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: energy. The mission of the CID is to revolutionize the discovery of new materials by design with tailored properties through the development and application of a novel inverse design approach powered by theory guiding experiment with an initial focus on solar energy conversion.

  19. Clean energy from sugarcane waste: feasibility study of an innovative application of bagasse and barbojo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellepiane, Daniela; Bosio, Barbara; Arato, Elisabetta

    Due to the existing difficulty of finding energy sources and reducing pollution, the use of renewable sources and highly efficient technologies for electrical energy production stands out as one of the promising solutions for the future. This paper shows the results of the combination of these two aspects, namely, a molten carbonate fuel cell system fed with biomass derived syngas. In particular, the biogas comes from bagasse and barbojo, the sugarcane residues. So far in developing countries they have been wasted or partly used with poorly efficient technology. The feasibility of such an application is studied by means of the process simulator Aspen Plus © in which a detailed Fortran model has been integrated for the electrochemical reactor simulation. The results of the predictive model are presented and discussed; in particular, the substantial economic and environmental advantages obtainable by applying the technical solution here proposed to the Peruvian energy scenario, are shown.

  20. Linking steroid hormone levels to sexual maturity index and energy reserves in Nereis diversicolor from clean and polluted estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare seasonal variations of reproduction physiology of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor --a key species in estuarine ecosystems--originating from a clean (Authie) and multi-polluted (Seine) estuaries. A particular attention was carried out in female worms, on relationships between sexual maturity stages, energy reserves (glycogen and lipids) and steroid hormone levels (progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone). Sexual maturity index (SMI), energy reserves and steroid hormones are clearly influenced by season in worms from both sites. Depleted steroid hormone levels were depicted in specimens exhibiting high sexual maturity stage and energy reserves. Intersite analysis has revealed all over the sampling period:--a sexual precocity in worms from Seine,--glycogen concentrations generally higher in worms from Authie,--no clear tendency for lipids,--no differences in steroid hormone levels. Sexual precocity and lower glycogen levels in Seine could be explained by a specific strategy above all devoted to reproduction in these worms. Chemical stress could be a possible explanation of these observations.

  1. Tunnel spin polarization versus energy for clean and doped Al2O3 barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B G; Banerjee, T; Lodder, J C; Jansen, R

    2007-11-23

    The variation of the tunnel spin-polarization (TSP) with energy is determined using a magnetic tunnel transistor, allowing quantification of the energy dependent TSP separately for both ferromagnet/insulator interfaces and direct correlation with the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) measured in the same device. The intrinsic TSP is reduced below the Fermi level, and more strongly so for tunneling into empty states above the Fermi level. For artificially doped barriers, the low bias TMR decreases due to defect-assisted tunneling. Yet, this mechanism becomes ineffective at large bias, where instead inelastic spin scattering causes a strong TMR decay.

  2. Exploring Rare Earths supply constraints for the emerging clean energy technologies and the role of recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Wenzel, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The dependency on critical resources like Rare Earth Elements (REEs) has been pronounced as a potential barrier to a wider implementation of emerging renewable energy technologies. This study explores the dependency of such technologies especially wind turbines and electric vehicles along...... accelerated rate of Nd and Dy mining is unavoidable in order to keep up with the pace of increasing demand from new technologies required in a renewable energy trategy for meeting the climate change challenge. Recycling does not seem to be in a position to close the wide gap between future demand and supply...

  3. Exploring Rare Earths supply constraints for the emerging clean energy technologies and the role of recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Wenzel, Henrik

    The dependency on critical resources like Rare Earth Elements (REEs) has been pronounced as a potential barrier to a broader implementation of emerging renewable energy technologies. This study explores the dependency of such technologies especially wind turbines and electric vehicles along...... with other background end-uses on two key REEs, i.e. neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy). Our study reveals that a highly accelerated rate of REEs mining is unavoidable in order to keep up with the pace of increasing demand from new technologies required in a renewable energy strategy for meeting the climate...

  4. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2016-12-30

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  5. The scientific symposium “Materials Challenges for Clean Energy in the New Millennium”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Mukerjee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The global energy problem is rapidly intensifying due to escalating competition for resources from emerging, populous countries such as China, India, and Brazil and compelling evidence pointing towards the imperative need for controlling greenhouse gas and carbon emissions.

  6. EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly: Volume 2, Issue 1, June 2012 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This quarterly newsletter provides timely news and information about the plans and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations-U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project, including significant events and milestones, work undertaken by each of the working groups, and project-related technology deployment efforts.

  7. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 2. Research study on promotion of international cooperation; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the research result on promotion of international cooperation in the WE-NET project in fiscal 1996. The WE-NET project aims at development of the total system for hydrogen production, transport, storage and utilization, and construction of the earth-friendly innovative global clean energy network integrating elemental technologies. Since the standpoint is different between latent resource supplying countries and technology supplying countries, the WE-NET project should be constantly promoted under international understanding and cooperation. The committee distributed the annual summary report prepared by NEDO to overseas organizations, and made positive PR activities in the 11th World Conference and others. The committee made the evaluation on the improvement effect of air pollution by introducing a hydrogen vehicle in combination with Stanford University, and preparation of PR video tapes for hydrogen energy. Preliminary arrangement of Internet home pages, establishment of a long-term vision for international cooperation, and proposal toward the practical WE-NET are also made. 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Putting renewables and energy efficiency to work: How many jobs can the clean energy industry generate in the US?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max; Kammen, Daniel M. [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall 3050, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States); Patadia, Shana [Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An analytical job creation model for the US power sector from 2009 to 2030 is presented. The model synthesizes data from 15 job studies covering renewable energy (RE), energy efficiency (EE), carbon capture and storage (CCS) and nuclear power. The paper employs a consistent methodology of normalizing job data to average employment per unit energy produced over plant lifetime. Job losses in the coal and natural gas industry are modeled to project net employment impacts. Benefits and drawbacks of the methodology are assessed and the resulting model is used for job projections under various renewable portfolio standards (RPS), EE, and low carbon energy scenarios We find that all non-fossil fuel technologies (renewable energy, EE, low carbon) create more jobs per unit energy than coal and natural gas. Aggressive EE measures combined with a 30% RPS target in 2030 can generate over 4 million full-time-equivalent job-years by 2030 while increasing nuclear power to 25% and CCS to 10% of overall generation in 2030 can yield an additional 500,000 job-years. (author)

  9. Vacancies in functional materials for clean energy storage and harvesting: the perfect imperfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Blake, Graeme R; Palstra, Thomas T M

    2017-03-21

    Vacancies exist throughout nature and determine the physical properties of materials. By manipulating the density and distribution of vacancies, it is possible to influence their physical properties such as band-gap, conductivity, magnetism, etc. This can generate exciting applications in the fields of water treatment, energy storage, and physical devices such as resistance-change memories. In this review, we focus on recent progress in vacancy engineering for the design of materials for energy harvesting applications. A brief discription of the concept of vacancies, the way to create and control them, as well as their fundamental properties, is first provided. Then, emphasis is placed on the strategies used to tailor vacancies for metal-insulator transitions, electronic structures, and introducing magnetism in non-magnetic materials. Finally, we present representative applications of different structures with vacancies as active electrode materials of lithium or sodium ion batteries, catalysts for water splitting, and hydrogen evolution.

  10. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  11. Promotion for underground coal gassification how basic clean technologies for production of energy

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a potential source of future energy production that is currently receiving an increased level of attention within business, academic and policy communities. The principle of UCG is to access coal which either lies too deep underground, or is economically unattractive to exploit for conventional mining methods. Coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option ...

  12. China Committed to Environmental Protection with Increase of Clean Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Construction of the West-East gas transmission pipeline is a significant decision that the Chinese government made at the turn of the century, aiming at bringing the long-term benefits to the Chinese people. The project, starting from Tarim basin in West China's Xinjiang Autonomous Region and ending in Shanghai on China's eastern coastline, will stimulate the western economic development,accelerate adjustment of the eastern energy consumption structure and improve the environmental protection in the areas along the giant pipeline.

  13. CRACOW CLEAN FOSSIL FUELS AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM. PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIERCE,B.

    1998-10-01

    Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.

  14. Enzymatic correlates of energy status in wild yellow perch inhabiting clean and contaminated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Charles; Campbell, Peter G C; Couture, Patrice

    2011-09-01

    Enzymes representing a variety of metabolic pathways were examined in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected from a metal-contaminated region (Rouyn-Noranda, Québec, Canada) to determine which were most closely related to fish condition factor, pyloric caeca weight, and visceral lipid accumulation, as well to seek a better understanding of the influence of metal contamination on the physiology and biometrics of perch. Compared to laboratory fish, wild perch were under important energy restrictions. The condition factor of wild fish was correlated with indicators of aerobic metabolism (citrate synthase, cytochrome C oxidase), protein anabolism (nucleoside diphosphokinase), and indicators of lipid accumulation (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, visceral lipid index). Pyloric caeca weights were well correlated with indicators of protein anabolism, but only when both seasons were examined together, possibly indicating a lag in the response of enzymes to changes in diet. The addition of contaminant stress to existing energy restrictions led to changes in the relationships between enzymes and biometrics, reducing the predictive power of the models for perch in contaminated lakes. The present study broadens our knowledge of the impact of metal contamination on energy accumulation and tissue metabolic capacities in wild perch.

  15. Tolerance to metals and assessment of energy reserves in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor in clean and contaminated estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C; Amiard-Triquet, C

    2005-02-01

    Estuaries are subject to anthropogenic activities. Because the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor has ecological characteristics and bioindicator abilities, its use was pertinent in investigating the concepts and cost of tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn). In this context, two approaches were carried out, performing toxicity tests and estimating energy reserves (glycogen and lipids), in populations originating from a contaminated site (Seine estuary) compared with those from a clean site (Authie estuary). Mean lethal times (LT(50)s) of organisms exposed to zinc from the Seine estuary were higher than those from the Authie estuary, but not of organisms exposed to Cd or Cu. The influence of animal weight and salinity on the sensitivity of worms also was studied. The biggest worms were more tolerant to zinc than the smallest ones, and worms survived longer at a reduced salinity (15 per thousand). Concentrations of glycogen and lipids in each sampling season were higher in specimens from the Authie estuary than in worms from the Seine estuary. No influence of salinity on glycogen and lipid levels was observed. Glycogen concentrations were not influenced by the weight of specimens, whereas lipid concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with weight. In conclusion, worms from the Seine estuary exhibited tolerance to Zn, and the depletion of energy reserves observed in this population could be interpreted as a cost of tolerance.

  16. Conclusions drawn from actions implemented within the first stage of the Cracow program of energy conservation and clean fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Pierce, B.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1992 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), acting on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, executed the first stage of the Cracow Program of Energy Conservation and Clean Fossil Fuels, called also American-Polish Program of Actions for Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. The main contractor for BNL and PNL was the Cracow Development Office (BRK). The interest in improving the condition of Cracow air results from the fact that the standard for permissible air pollution was exceeded several times in Cracow and especially within the central part of the town. Therefore, air pollution appeared one of the most important problems that faced the municipal authorities. It followed from monitoring investigations that the high level of air pollutant concentration is caused by in-home coal-fired tile stoves operated in winter seasons and by coal- and coke-fired boiler houses simulated mainly in the central part of the town. The results obtained in first stage are presented. This paper is an attempt to formulate conclusions drawn from these works and recommendations with regard to the future policy of the town authorities; selected results are presented to clarify or illustrate the conclusions.

  17. Hydrogen as a clean energy option; Option Wasserstoff als sauberer Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newi, G. [Consulectra Unternehmensberatung GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Many visionary action programmes are based on the conviction that hydrogen produced from renewable, environmentally sustainable resources is the chemical energy carrier of the future. In Hamburg there have been various pilot projects over the past ten years which deal explicitly with problems of infrastructure relating to the integration of renewable energy sources in the existing energy supply. One such example is the fuel cell block heating station in Hamburg Behrenfeld which has been supplying residential buildings for some time now. Another is a practice-oriented pilot project involving a hydrogen-fuelled PAFC with 220 kW thermal and 200 kW electrical power output. The hydrogen is supplied by a 60 m-3 LH{sub 2} tank, the first of its kind to be approved by the authorities and accepted by the public. [Deutsch] Viele visionaere Aktionsprogramme sehen aus dauerhaft umweltvertraeglichen Quellen erzeugten Wasserstoff als chemischen Energietraeger der Zukunft. In Hamburg gibt es seit rd. 10 Jahren verschiedene Pilotprojekte, die sich insbesondere mit Fragen der Infrastruktur zur Integration erneuerbarer Energiequellen in die bestehende Energieversorgung befassen. Ein Beispiel ist das in Hamburg-Behrenfeld seit einiger Zeit betriebene Brennstoffzellen-Blockheizkraftwerk zur Versorgung von Wohngebaeuden. Als praxisbezogenes Pilotprojekt wird u.a. eine H{sub 2}-versorgte PAFC mit 220 kW thermischer und 200 kW elektrischer Leistung betrieben. Die Wasserstoffversorgung aus einem oberirdischen 60 m{sup 3} LH{sub 2}-Tank wurde erstmals in dieser Anwendungsform behoerdlich genehmigt und von der Oeffentlichkeit akzeptiert. (orig./MSK)

  18. Wind power, a clean energy alternative; El viento, una alternativa energetica limpia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas Tovar, Roberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Venta (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    That a new energy source, renewable and environmentally benign is incorporated into our electric networks, is something really significative. What better contribution for the rational use of the conventional energy sources than substituting an important part of its share for a source of the stated characteristics. The wind is a resource that Nature offers US for free, whose energy can be transformed into electricity utilizing conversion technologies that have reached maturity and are currently available in the marketplace. This document presents the characteristics of the aeolian resource in the Tehuantepec Isthmus region. A description is made of the first pilot project in our country built by Comision Federal de Electricidad at La Venta, Oaxaca. The reasoning that support the development of the projects at a greater scale and investment and production costs are exhibited for the above mentioned project. [Espanol] Que una nueva fuente de energia, renovable y ambientalmente benigna se incorpore a nuestras redes electricas, es algo verdaderamente significativo. Que mejor contribucion para el uso racional de los energeticos convencionales que substituir una parte importante de su aportacion con una fuente de las caracteristicas mencionadas. El viento es un recurso que nos brinda la naturaleza en forma gratuita, cuya energia puede transformarse en electricidad utilizando tecnologias de conversion que han alcanzado madurez y que actualmente se encuentran disponibles en el mercado. En este documento se presentan las caracteristicas del recurso eolico en la region del Istmo de Tehuantepec, se hace una descripcion del primer proyecto piloto de nuestro pais, construido por la Comision Federal de Electricidad en La Venta, Oaxaca, se exponen los argumentos que apoyan al desarrollo de proyectos en mayor escala y se exhiben los costos de inversion y produccion para el proyecto mencionado.

  19. Enhancing growth of cultured human skin cells using low-energy CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Nili; Reuveni, Haim; Halevy, Sima; Lubart, Rachel

    1997-12-01

    In view of the versatility and usage of the CO2 laser as a too. in surgery and dermatology, we have studied its effect on enhancing proliferation of cultured skin cells using an attenuated CO2 laser. Exposure of cultured keratinocytes or fibroblasts to continuous wave or pulse mode irradiation enhanced thymidine incorporation by 1.4 to 1.7 folds, and cell number by 1.25 to 1.4 folds, measured 24 and 48 hours later, depending on the fluency applied. As expected, these effects were not suppressed by added antioxidants, indicating that the mechanism involved in this newly observed effect, differ from photosensitization by low energy visible and near IR lasers.

  20. Biodelignification of lignocellulose substrates: An intrinsic and sustainable pretreatment strategy for clean energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Anuj K; Gonçalves, Bruna C M; Strap, Janice L; da Silva, Silvio S

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is a promising sugar feedstock for biofuels and other high-value chemical commodities. The recalcitrance of LB, however, impedes carbohydrate accessibility and its conversion into commercially significant products. Two important factors for the overall economization of biofuel production is LB pretreatment to liberate fermentable sugars followed by conversion into ethanol. Sustainable biofuel production must overcome issues such as minimizing water and energy usage, reducing chemical usage and process intensification. Amongst available pretreatment methods, microorganism-mediated pretreatments are the safest, green, and sustainable. Native biodelignifying agents such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporous cinnabarinus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyathus stercoreus can remove lignin, making the remaining substrates amenable for saccharification. The development of a robust, integrated bioprocessing (IBP) approach for economic ethanol production would incorporate all essential steps including pretreatment, cellulase production, enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of the released sugars into ethanol. IBP represents an inexpensive, environmentally friendly, low energy and low capital approach for second-generation ethanol production. This paper reviews the advancements in microbial-assisted pretreatment for the delignification of lignocellulosic substrates, system metabolic engineering for biorefineries and highlights the possibilities of process integration for sustainable and economic ethanol production.

  1. The clean biogas like an renewable energy source; El biogas limpio como fuente de energia renovable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Ortega, J.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the project is to find an optimal solution to clearing the biogas and remove the H2 S from it. The solution has to be efficient, rentable and easy to use. There are many solutions, but there is not one standard solution indeed the efficiency depends on many different influences e.g. the type of manure or kind of waste. Common solutions; aeration, ferrum- chloride, blood and absorption have been studied and advanced in Scandinavian region. This kind of energy result easy to implement it in system with a big amount of manure, such as, cows and pigs farms, and it needs a little invest to do it possible. (Author)

  2. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  3. Metal phosphonate hybrid mesostructures: environmentally friendly multifunctional materials for clean energy and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian-Yi; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2011-10-17

    The synthesis of porous hybrid materials has been extended to mesoporous non-silica-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials, in which mesoporous metal phosphonates represent an important family. By using organically bridged polyphosphonic acids as coupling molecules, the homogeneous incorporation of a considerable number of organic functional groups into the metal phosphonate hybrid framework has been realized. Small amounts of organic additives and the pH value of the reaction solution have a large impact on the morphology and textural properties of the resultant hybrid mesoporous metal phosphonate solids. Cationic and nonionic surfactants can be used as templates for the synthesis of ordered mesoporous metal phosphonates. The materials are used as efficient adsorbents for heavy metal ions, CO₂, and aldehydes, as well as in the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. They are also useful photocatalysts under UV and simulated solar light irradiation for organic dye degradation. Further functionalization of the synthesized mesoporous hybrids makes them oxidation and acid catalysts, both with impressive performances in the fields of sustainable energy and environment.

  4. Converting hazardous organics into clean energy using a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Quanpeng; Bai, Jing; Zhou, Baoxue

    2013-11-15

    Direct discharging great quantities of organics into water-body not only causes serious environmental pollution but also wastes energy sources. In this paper, a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC(2)) based on TiO2/Ti photoanode and Cu2O/Cu photocathode was designed for hazardous organics treatment with simultaneous electricity generation. Under solar irradiation, the interior bias voltage produced for the Fermi level difference between photoelectrodes drives photoelectrons of TiO2/Ti photoanode to combine with photoholes of Cu2O/Cu photocathode through external circuit thus generating electricity. In the meantime, organics are decomposed by photoholes remained at TiO2/Ti photoanode. By using various hazardous organics including azo dyes as model pollutants, the PFC showed high converting performance of organics into electricity. For example, in 0.05 M phenol solution, a short-circuit current density 0.23 mA cm(-2), open-circuit voltage 0.49 V, maximum power output 0.3610(-4)W cm(-2) was achieved. On the other hand, removal rate of chroma reached 67%, 87% and 63% in 8h for methyl orange, methylene blue, Congo red, respectively.

  5. Photosynthetic microbial desalination cells (PMDCs) for clean energy, water and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabian, Bahareh; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2013-12-01

    Current microbial desalination cell (MDC) performances are evaluated with chemical catalysts such as ferricyanide, platinum catalyzed air-cathodes or aerated cathodes. All of these methods improve power generation potential in MDCs, however, they are not preferable for large scale applications due to cost, energy and environmental toxicity issues. In this study, performance of microbial desalination cells with an air cathode and an algae biocathode (Photosynthetic MDC - PMDC) were evaluated, both under passive conditions (no mechanical aeration or mixing). The results indicate that passive algae biocathodes perform better than air cathodes and enhance COD removal and utilize treated wastewater as the growth medium to obtain valuable biomass for high value bioproducts. Maximum power densities of 84 mW m(-3) (anode volume) or 151 mW m(-3) (biocathode volume) and a desalination rate of 40% were measured with 0.9 : 1 : 0.5 volumetric ratios of anode, desalination and algae biocathode chambers respectively. This first proof-of-concept study proves that the passive mechanisms can be beneficial in enhancing the sustainability of microbial desalination cells.

  6. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.; Pierce, B. [eds.

    1995-06-01

    Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

  7. Converting hazardous organics into clean energy using a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianyong; Li, Jinhua, E-mail: lijinhua@sjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Quanpeng; Bai, Jing; Zhou, Baoxue

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A dual photoelcetrode PFC for converting hazardous organics into electricity. • The PFC possesses high cell performance operating in various model compounds. • Parameters were studied for optimization of the PFC performance. • Significant removal rate of chroma was observed in azo dyes solutions. -- Abstract: Direct discharging great quantities of organics into water-body not only causes serious environmental pollution but also wastes energy sources. In this paper, a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC{sup 2}) based on TiO{sub 2}/Ti photoanode and Cu{sub 2}O/Cu photocathode was designed for hazardous organics treatment with simultaneous electricity generation. Under solar irradiation, the interior bias voltage produced for the Fermi level difference between photoelectrodes drives photoelectrons of TiO{sub 2}/Ti photoanode to combine with photoholes of Cu{sub 2}O/Cu photocathode through external circuit thus generating electricity. In the meantime, organics are decomposed by photoholes remained at TiO{sub 2}/Ti photoanode. By using various hazardous organics including azo dyes as model pollutants, the PFC showed high converting performance of organics into electricity. For example, in 0.05 M phenol solution, a short-circuit current density 0.23 mA cm{sup −2}, open-circuit voltage 0.49 V, maximum power output 0.36 10{sup −4} W cm{sup −2} was achieved. On the other hand, removal rate of chroma reached 67%, 87% and 63% in 8 h for methyl orange, methylene blue, Congo red, respectively.

  8. NOTE: Variations in skin dose associated with linac bed material at 6 MV x-ray energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butson, Martin J.; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K. N.; Webb, Belinda

    2002-01-01

    Treatment with radiotherapy x-rays at 6 MV energy produces a build-up effect whereby a smaller dose is delivered to the patient's skin compared to the tumour dose. With anterior fields, no material is normally placed over the patient's skin, thus providing the maximum skin sparing possible with the beam configuration used. A posterior beam normally passes through the treatment couch top and increases the dose delivered to the patient's skin. Both the Mylar sheeting and the support ribbing material produce a significant increase in skin dose. Measurements at 6 MV have shown that the basal cell layer dose can be increased by up to 51% of maximum dose with a carbon fibre/Mylar couch and by 28% for a tennis string/Mylar couch when compared to anterior beams. These values are associated with the position of the carbon fibre or tennis string ribbing. Dermal layer doses are increased by up to 30 and 24% of maximum dose for carbon fibre and tennis string, respectively. These values include a combination of dose due to the support ribbing and the Mylar sheeting. Due to the variability in patient positioning on the couch top, these increases would be spread out over the skin surface producing an average increase per unit area at the basal layer of up to 32 and 20% of the maximum, respectively, for carbon fibre and tennis string couch tops and 21 and 12% at the dermal layer compared to dose at Dmax.

  9. Survey for making a data book on the new energy technological development. Waste-fueled power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traversal themes; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika, gas ka oyobi odanteki tema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper concerns the following six fields among the fields of new energy technology: the waste-fueled power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction and coal gasification. The up-to-date data made public were collected and classified into the following items: outline of systems, specific examples of the introduction in Japan and other countries, policies/laws and rules/subsidy systems, production quantity/actual amount of introduction/projected amount of introduction (target), cost, terminology, listing of main related companies and groups, etc. Further, arrangement was traversally conducted on the outlook of the energy introduction by the Japanese government and measures taken for development of new energy by Japan and other countries. Namely, the items of the book are as follows: classification of new energy, outlook for energy supply/demand, cost of new energy technology (power generation) and outlook for the introduction, menus of buying surplus electricity of electric companies, policies/laws and rules/subsidy systems concerning the new energy introduction in Japan and overseas, and a list of organizations engaged in the new energy technological development.

  10. Energy cost of isometric force production after active shortening in skinned muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joumaa, V; Fitzowich, A; Herzog, W

    2017-02-23

    The steady state isometric force after active shortening of a skeletal muscle is lower than the purely isometric force at the corresponding length. This property of skeletal muscle is known as force depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the energy cost of force production at the steady state after active shortening was reduced compared to the energy cost of force production for a purely isometric contraction performed at the corresponding length (same length, same activation). Experiments were performed in skinned fibres isolated from rabbit psoas muscle. Skinned fibres were actively shortened from an average sarcomere length of 3.0 µm to an average sarcomere length of 2.4 µm. Purely isometric reference contractions were performed at an average sarcomere length of 2.4 µm. Simultaneously with the force measurements, the ATP cost was measured during the last 30 seconds of isometric contractions using an enzyme-coupled assay. Stiffness was calculated during a quick stretch-release cycle of 0.2% fibre length performed once the steady state had been reached after active shortening and during the purely isometric reference contractions. Force and stiffness following active shortening were decreased by 10.0±1.8% and 11.0±2.2%, respectively compared to the isometric reference contractions. Similarly, ATPase activity per second (not normalized to the force) showed a decrease of 15.6±3.0% in the force depressed state compared to the purely isometric reference state. However, ATPase activity per second per unit of force was similar for the isometric contractions following active shortening (28.7±2.4 mM/mN.s.mm(3)) and the corresponding purely isometric reference contraction (30.9±2.8 mM/mN.s.mm(3)). Furthermore, the reduction in absolute ATPase activity per second was significantly correlated with force depression and stiffness depression. These results are in accordance with the idea that force depression following active shortening is

  11. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Tina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants ( Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280, recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies or cotton wool and water (140 babies. Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 % babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4 vs. water 63.5 (14.2, p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4 vs. water 63.6 (14.3, p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses. Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Trial registration Current Controlled

  12. Islands of clean energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.; Rentmeester, S.

    2015-01-01

    In a period of two months, TU Delft alumnus Allard van Hoeken gave around 100 interviews in response to the introduction of Bluetec and winning the Dutch KIVI Engineering Award. He was happy to do it, because he is an engineer with a message.

  13. 日美清洁能源协议及影响分析%Analysis of Japan - U.S.Clean Energy Technologies Action Plan and its Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔成; 牛建国

    2011-01-01

    After the global financial crisis, Japan and U.S initiated the closer cooperation to reduce the cost of clean energy development and enhance the international competitiveness.METI of Japan and U.S DOE signed the cooperation agreement in the Nov.18 2010, and issued a joint statement.Japan and U.S will be promote a broad and deep cooperation on the energy smart communities initiative (ESCI), clean energy policy dialogue, as well as clean technology innovation and job creation.These kinds of cooperation will make the significant impact on the technology development and framework of the global clean energy, and we have to pay more attention to the process and take some response.%全球金融危机后,美日两国为降低清洁能源开发成本、进一步提高国际竞争力,着手开展更为密切的合作.日本经产省与美国能源部于2010年11月18日签署了相关协议,并发表了联合声明.日美两国将在能源和智能电网开启(ESCI)、日美清洁能源政策对话、以及日美清洁能源技术创新和就业创造促进政策对话等领域开展广泛而深入的合作.日美两国在清洁能源领域的合作将给全球清洁能源产业和技术格局,以及技术进步产生重大影响,值得我们予以密切关注和积极应对.

  14. Lessons learned from a rigorous peer-review process for building the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness (CLEAN) collection of high-quality digital teaching materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Niepold, F.; Fox, S.; Howell, C. D.; Lynds, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    The topic of climate change permeates all aspects of our society: the news, household debates, scientific conferences, etc. To provide students with accurate information about climate science and energy awareness, educators require scientifically and pedagogically robust teaching materials. To address this need, the NSF-funded Climate Literacy & Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Pathway has assembled a new peer-reviewed digital collection as part of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) featuring teaching materials centered on climate and energy science for grades 6 through 16. The scope and framework of the collection is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP 2009) and a set of energy awareness principles developed in the project. The collection provides trustworthy teaching materials on these socially relevant topics and prepares students to become responsible decision-makers. While a peer-review process is desirable for curriculum developer as well as collection builder to ensure quality, its implementation is non-trivial. We have designed a rigorous and transparent peer-review process for the CLEAN collection, and our experiences provide general guidelines that can be used to judge the quality of digital teaching materials across disciplines. Our multi-stage review process ensures that only resources with teaching goals relevant to developing climate literacy and energy awareness are considered. Each relevant resource is reviewed by two individuals to assess the i) scientific accuracy, ii) pedagogic effectiveness, and iii) usability/technical quality. A science review by an expert ensures the scientific quality and accuracy. Resources that pass all review steps are forwarded to a review panel of educators and scientists who make a final decision regarding inclusion of the materials in the CLEAN collection. Results from the first panel review show that about 20% (~100) of the resources that were initially considered for inclusion

  15. Study and Evaluation of Liquid Air Energy Storage Technology For a Clean and Secure Energy Future Challenges and opportunities for Alberta wind energy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi H. Alyami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global energy demand is steadily increasing each year. Many jurisdictions are seeking to incorporate sustainable and renewable energy sources to help meeting the demand and doing so in a responsible method to the environment and the next generation. In a wide-context, renewable energy sources are promising, yet cannot be controlled in such a way that is responsive to energy demand fluctuation. Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES technology seeks to bridge the gap that exists between energy supply and demand in an effort to mitigate the current demand deficiency. The volume ratio of air to liquid air is nearly 700:1. Liquid air is a dense energy carrier that is by converting renewable energy at off-peak periods into liquid air the energy can be stored until a peak-demand period when energy producers are maximising output to meet the demand. The energy is then retrieved from the liquid air through rapid expansion as it re-gasifies through a gas turbine and converted into electricity. A commercial scale pilot plant in Slough, UK illustrates the application of this technology empirically. The application of this technology in Canada might have challenges as public policy respective jurisdictions play a role. A case of point of applications where LAES can be integrated is the renewable energy market; particularly the wind power in Alberta. This paper’s analysis embraces wind power industry in Alberta from the perspective of both the electric system operator and the power generation plant. As such, it serves as an alleviating proposal of the current wind energy issues in Alberta – including the uncertainty of forecasting system. The analysis assumed energy storage technologies as a viable stand-alone mitigation with no consideration of the current technological and operational advancements in power systems such HVDC grids, distributed generation concepts and among others.

  16. Biomimetic self-cleaning surfaces: synthesis, mechanism and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Quan; Zhang, Wenwen; Dong, Chenbo; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil Sreenivasan; Xia, Zhenhai

    2016-09-01

    With millions of years of natural evolution, organisms have achieved sophisticated structures, patterns or textures with complex, spontaneous multifunctionality. Among all the fascinating characteristics observed in biosystems, self-cleaning ability is regarded as one of the most interesting topics in biomimicry because of its potential applications in various fields such as aerospace, energy conversion and biomedical and environmental protection. Recently, in-depth studies have been carried out on various compelling biostructures including lotus leaves, shark skins, butterfly wings and gecko feet. To understand and mimic their self-cleaning mechanisms in artificial structures, in this article, recent progress in self-cleaning techniques is discussed and summarized. Based on the underlying self-cleaning mechanisms, the methods are classified into two categories: self-cleaning with water and without water. The review gives a succinct account of the detailed mechanisms and biomimetic processes applied to create artificial self-cleaning materials and surfaces, and provides some examples of cutting-edge applications such as anti-reflection, water repellence, self-healing, anti-fogging and micro-manipulators. The prospectives and directions of future development are also briefly proposed.

  17. Elaboration of a Program to Facilitate the Implementation of the Directive 2009/33/EC on the Promotion of Clean and Energy-Efficient Road Motor Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztián Uhlik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption, carbon-dioxide and other air pollutant emissions of motor vehicles can be reduced substantially by various recently developed technical solutions. The use of these new technologies increases the price of the vehicles which causes an unwanted economic burden for the purchasers of such vehicles. The market competition between manufacturers requires low prices which delays the adaptation of the new, more efficient technologies. The recently enacted legislation, aimed at the promotion of purchasing clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles, intends to remedy this problem.

  18. In situ relationship between energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller) from clean and contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouneyrac, C; Pellerin, J; Moukrim, A; Ait Alla, A; Durou, C; Viault, N

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in situ, the temporal effects of urban effluent discharge on energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor. Results have shown no differences in energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) in organisms originating from a contaminated site (Oued Souss) and a comparatively clean site (Oualidia). Both sites are located on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. In contrast, steroid hormone (progesterone, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol) levels were significantly decreased in animals from Oued Souss. The differences in the responses suggest that organisms from the polluted site have been exposed to endocrine disruptors.

  19. Optical fiber chemical sensors with sol-gel derived nanomaterials for monitoring high temperature/high pressure reactions in clean energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiquan

    2010-04-01

    The development of sensor technologies for in situ, real time monitoring the high temperature/high pressure (HTP) chemical processes used in clean energy technologies is a tough challenge, due to the HTP, high dust and corrosive chemical environment of the reaction systems. A silica optical fiber is corrosive resistance, and can work in HTP conditions. This paper presents our effort in developing fiber optic sensors for in situ, real time monitoring the concentration of trace ammonia and hydrogen in high temperature gas samples. Preliminary test results illustrate the feasibility of using fiber optic sensor technologies for monitoring HTP processes for next generation energy industry.

  20. Optical and adhesive properties of dust deposits on solar mirrors and their effects on specular reflectivity and electrodynamic cleaning for mitigating energy-yield loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Malay; Yellowhair, Julius; Stark, Jeremy; Heiling, Calvin; Hudelson, John; Hao, Fang; Gibson, Hannah; Horenstein, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale solar plants are mostly installed in semi-arid and desert areas. In those areas, dust layer buildup on solar collectors becomes a major cause for energy yield loss. Development of transparent electrodynamic screens (EDS) and their applications for self-cleaning operation of solar mirrors are presented with a primary focus on the removal dust particles smaller than 30 µm in diameter while maintaining specular reflection efficiency surface. The electrodes are insulated from each other and are embedded within a thin transparent dielectric film. The electrodes are activated using three-phase high-voltage pulses at low current (electrostatic forces and propels the dust layer off of the collector's surface by a traveling wave. The cleaning process takes less than 2 minutes; needs energy less than 1 Wh/m2 without requiring any water or manual labor. The reflection efficiency can be restored > 95% of the original clean-mirror efficiency. We briefly present (1) loss of specular reflection efficiency as a function of particle size distribution of deposited dust, and (2) the effects of the electrode design and materials used for minimizing initial loss of specular reflectivity in producing EDS-integrated solar mirrors. Optimization of EDS by using a figure of merit defined by the ratio of dust removal efficiency to the initial loss of specular reflection efficiency is discussed.

  1. Experimental evaluation on energy performance of innovative clean air heat pump for indoor environment control in summer and winter seasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor, an innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed, developed and investigated through experimental studies. The CAHP integrated air purification, dehumidification and heating/cooling in one unit. A prototype of the CAHP...

  2. Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Song, Bo [China Academy of Building Research; Zhang, Sisi [China Academy of Building Research

    2012-08-01

    In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and

  3. Energy efficiency and CDM (Clean Development Mechanism): an attractive combination?; Eficiencia energetica e MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo): uma combinacao atrativa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de; Silva, Pedro Paulo [Programa GERBI - Reducao da Emissao de Gases Causadores do Efeito Estufa na Industria Brasileira, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti [PETROBRAS S.A., Pojuca, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Gas Natural (UNGN)

    2004-07-01

    The agreements that defined associated practices to the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) include energy efficiency in end users as a possible candidate to CDM eligibility. Worldwide, the experience of using 'carbon credits' resulted from reduced emissions in end users, as consequence of increased energy efficiency in processes, is limited. The paper presents preliminary conclusions of case studies developed by GERBI, evaluating the emissions reduction potential achieved by energy efficiency improvements in industrial processes, as well as financial impacts due to emissions reduction certificates traded. The paper considers a simplified methodology for feasibility analysis, but with necessary information to demonstrate how CDM and Energy Efficiency combination can support the decision for project implementation. (author)

  4. Assessment of Seasonal Energy Efficiency Strategies of a Double Skin Façade in a Monsoon Climate Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choongwan Koo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As climate change and global warming have become two of the most significant environmental issues today, the double-skin façade (DSF is getting considerable attention as an energy-efficient passive design. This study is aimed at assessing the seasonal energy efficiency strategies of a DSF targeting library facilities in the climate region with hot summers and cold winters. Toward this end, this study was conducted in four steps: (i establishment of seasonal energy-efficient strategies; (ii application of seasonal energy-efficient strategies; (iii analysis of energy saving effect by season; and (iv life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 analyses for selecting an optimal DSF. Results show that a shaft box DSF energy model (EMS #2, which applied winter strategies, was optimal with an energy saving rate of 4.13%, while a multi-story DSF energy model (EMM #5, which applied summer strategies, was optimal with an energy saving rate of 12.67%. In terms of savings to investment ratio (SIR40 and breakeven point (BEP40, the multi-story DSF (3.20; 9 years was superior. The results of this study can be used for (i seasonal energy efficiency strategies of a DSF in East Asian monsoon climates, and (ii as a guideline for the application of a DSF both in existing and new buildings.

  5. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  6. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  7. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  8. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Clean Energy Entrepreneurship Prize 2008 Final Report DOE Award # DE-FG36-07GO17110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-08-09

    The MIT Clean Energy Prize was established to accelerate the pace of innovation in the energy space, specifically with regard to clean energy and to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Through a prize structure designed to incent new ideas to be brought forward coupled with a supporting infrastructure to educate, mentor, network and provide a platform for visibility, it was believed we could achieve this goal in a very efficient and effective manner. The grand prize of $200K was meant to be the highly visible and attractive carrot to achieve this and through a public-private partnership of sponsors who held a long term view (i.e., they were not Venture Capitalists or law firms looking for short term business through advantaged deal flow). It was also designed to achieve this in a highly inclusive manner. Towards this end, while MIT was the platform on which the competition was run, and this brought some instant cache and differentiation, the competition was open to all teams which had at least one US citizen. Both professional teams and student teams were eligible.

  9. CFD simulation and energy efficient analysis of stratified cleaning in large-space clean factory buildings%高大洁净厂房分层净化CFD模拟与节能性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秀芳; 肖武; 赵彬

    2012-01-01

    分析了高大洁净厂房的空间特点、使用时间特点、净化负荷特点,提出了在高度上分层的净化空调方案.采用CFD模拟了某高大洁净厂房采用分层净化空调时的气流组织,浓度场、温度场的模拟结果表明,该方案适用于高大洁净厂房.%Analyses the characteristics of space, service time and cleaning load in the building, and provides the stratified cleaning air conditioning scheme. Simulates the air distribution of stratified cleaning air conditioning in a large-space clean factory building with CFD. The concentration and temperature fields obtained show that the stratified cleaning air conditioning scheme suits for large-space clean factory buildings.

  10. Determination of BPA, BPB, BPF, BADGE and BFDGE in canned energy drinks by molecularly imprinted polymer cleaning up and UPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Pasquale; Di Marco Pisciottano, Ilaria; Esposito, Francesco; Fasano, Evelina; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Mita, Gustavo Damiano; Cirillo, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of five bisphenols in canned energy drinks by UPLC with fluorescence detection, after clean up on molecularly imprinted polymers, is herein described. The method was validated at two concentration levels, calculating trueness, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility, specificity, linearity of detector response, the limits of quantifications and the limits of detection for each bisphenol. The method is specific, reliable and very sensitive, allowing for determination of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) down to 0.50ng/mL; it was employed to determine contamination levels from these bisphenols in forty energy drinks of different brands, collected from the market in Naples. BPA was detected in 17 out of 40 samples (42.5%); in some energy drinks also BPF, BADGE and BFDGE were determined.

  11. Clean Power on Tap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adopts the most advanced nuclear power technologies to meet long-term energy needs Nuclear power has taken center stage in China’s nationwide cam-paign to develop new and clean energy sources. In the latest effort, Chinese state-owned nuclear power giants invested over 40 billion yuan ($5.86 billion) as an initial funding injection to build a new plant under the

  12. Analysis of material characteristics for the construction of energy degrading and scattering plates for electron beam skin radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Antunes, Paula C.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: gabriel.fonseca@usp.br, e-mail: hyoriyas@ipen.br, e-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.br, e-mail: pacrisguian@usp.br; Furnari, Laura; Santos, Gabriela R. [Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: laurafurnari@hotmail.com, e-mail: reis.gabby@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    There are many radiosensitive diseases associated to the skin such as mycosis fungoids and the syndrome of Sezary that are part of a sub-group of cutaneous diseases type T-cell lymphoma. Several studies indicate the eradication of the disease when treated with linear accelerators emitting electron beams with energies between 4 to 10 MeV. However, this treatment technique presents innumerable technical challenges since the disease in general reaches all patient's body, becoming necessary a very large field size radiation beam, and also, it should deliver superficial doses limited to the skin depth. To reach the uniformity in the dose distribution, many techniques had already been developed. Based on these previous studies and guided by the report nr. 23 of the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine), the present study will develop an energy scattering and degrading plates, supplying subsidies for a future installation for skin treatment at the - Servico de Radioterapia do Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo. As part of the plates design, first of all, the energy spectrum of the 6 MeV electron beam of the VARIAN 2100C accelerator was reconstructed through Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP4C code and based on experimental data. Once the spectrum is built the design of the plates has been performed analyzing several materials, shapes and dimensions most adequate on the basis of radial and axial dose distribution, production of rays-x and dose attenuation. The simulations will be validated with experimental measurements using copper and aluminum. (author)

  13. Novel-structured electrospun TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers for high efficient photocatalytic cogeneration of clean water and energy from dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Siang; Bai, Hongwei; Liu, Zhaoyang; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-08-01

    It is still a challenge to photocatalytically cogenerate clean water and energy from dye wastewater owing to the relatively low photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts. In this study, novel-structured TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated via facile electrospinning. For the first time, the TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers demonstrated multifunctional ability for concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and H2 generation from dye wastewater. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers was ascribed to its excellent synergy of physicochemical properties: 1) mesoporosity and large specific surface area for efficient substrate adsorption, mass transfer and light harvesting; 2) red-shift of the absorbance spectra for enhanced light utilization; 3) long nanofibrous structure for efficient charge transfer and ease of recovery, 4) TiO2/CuO heterojunctions which enhance the separation of electrons and holes and 5) presence of CuO which serve as co-catalyst for the H2 production. The TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers also exhibited rapid settleability by gravity and uncompromised reusability. Thus, the as-synthesized TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers represent a promising candidate for highly efficient concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and clean energy production from dye wastewater.

  14. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  15. 清洁型热回收焦炉节能措施%Energy conservation measures of cleaning heat recovery coke oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    要长维; 薛恺; 李振文; 王慎国

    2011-01-01

    Based on the operation condition of SYR stamping and cleaning heat recovery coke oven, emphasize the main factors affecting energy consumption such as market factors, burn-off rate, water content of coal as fired. According to the (Access Conditions of Coking Industry) (2008 amendment) ,put forward reasonable suggestions to reduce energy consumption and improve benefit of enterprises.%结合SYR型捣固式清洁型热回收焦炉运行状况,着重分析影响其能耗的主要因素,包括市场因素、烧失率、入炉煤水分等,针对这些影响因素并根据《焦化行业准入条件》(2008年修订)相关要求,为进一步降低企业能耗,提高企业效益提出合理化建议.

  16. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  17. Neutrino Detection With CLEAN

    CERN Document Server

    McKinsey, D N

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...

  18. The GreenLab Research Facility: A Micro-Grid Integrating Production, Consumption and Storage of Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell Bomani, Bilal Mark; Elbuluk, Malik; Fain, Henry; Kankam, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a large gap between the production and demand for energy from alternative fuel and alternative renewable energy sources. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has initiated a laboratory-pilot study that concentrates on using biofuels as viable alternative fuel resources for the field of aviation, as well as, utilizing wind and solar technologies as alternative renewable energy resources, and in addition, the use of pumped water for storage of energy that can be retrieved through hydroelectric generation. This paper describes the GreenLab Research Facility and its power and energy sources with .recommendations for worldwide expansion and adoption of the concept of such a facility

  19. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specimen; Urine collection - clean catch; UTI - clean catch; Urinary tract infection - clean catch; Cystitis - clean catch ... LE, Norrby SR. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  20. Dilemma in new clean and renewable energy alternatives for Santa Elena and its university. Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreano, Hernan [Universidad Estatal Peninsula de Santa Elena (Ecuador). Inst. de Investigacion Cientifica y Desarrollo Tecnologico (INCYT)

    2011-07-01

    The fate of finite fossil fuel sources for the coming decades and the need to migrate to renewable energy in a joint effort among governments, academia and private companies which make business in the energy arena are discussed and also the energy balance in Ecuador which shows a strong dependence of fossil fuels to satisfy demand from both: thermoelectric plants and transport, however, Santa Elena, the newly created province at the south western of Ecuador has the chance to turn the country energy situation into an opportunity and face the challenge to be the leader in energy alternatives because of its resources and chances to migrate sooner to environmental friendly fuels and later on to renewable energies, but a number of actions should be taken in a joint effort with its local university (UPSE), government bodies and private companies in order to create the ''Campus of Energy Knowledge'' to carry out the program: Energy Alternatives for Santa Elena, which includes 7 projects to make the province a leader one on the energy issue in Ecuador and in the continent, acting on a cluster initiative scheme. (orig.)

  1. SYQ-3型节能清蜡机研制与应用%Development and application of model SYQ-3 energy-saving paraffin cleaning equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良青; 沈建华; 宋改春

    2001-01-01

    Model SYQ-3 paraffin cleaning equipment is a new kind of energy-saving wax removing and well flushing equipment which is designed for waxed oil well.Structure and working principle are introduced.Through field testing and application it is proved that this equipment has suitable structure and good performance.It is a ideal equipment for paraffin cleaning,and has high value for extending application.%SYQ-3型节能清蜡机是针对油井结蜡而专门研制的新型节能清蜡洗井设备,简要介绍该设备设计结构,工作原理,通过现场试验及应用,证明该设备结构合理,性能良好,是油井清蜡的一种较理想的设备,具有推广价值。

  2. Partnership for a Clean Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Having lived in China for almost three decades,Sabina Brady is a de facto China hand.Currently,she is the cxecutive director of the U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program (ECP),a nonprofit organization that engages in market development and promotion of clean energy within the framework of China-U.S.bilateral government commitments on the environrnent and energy.

  3. Human skin based triboelectric nanogenerators for harvesting biomechanical energy and as self-powered active tactile sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Zhang, Hulin; Lin, Zong-Hong; Zhou, Yu Sheng; Jing, Qingshen; Su, Yuanjie; Yang, Jin; Chen, Jun; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-10-22

    We report human skin based triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) that can either harvest biomechanical energy or be utilized as a self-powered tactile sensor system for touch pad technology. We constructed a TENG utilizing the contact/separation between an area of human skin and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film with a surface of micropyramid structures, which was attached to an ITO electrode that was grounded across a loading resistor. The fabricated TENG delivers an open-circuit voltage up to -1000 V, a short-circuit current density of 8 mA/m(2), and a power density of 500 mW/m(2) on a load of 100 MΩ, which can be used to directly drive tens of green light-emitting diodes. The working mechanism of the TENG is based on the charge transfer between the ITO electrode and ground via modulating the separation distance between the tribo-charged skin patch and PDMS film. Furthermore, the TENG has been used in designing an independently addressed matrix for tracking the location and pressure of human touch. The fabricated matrix has demonstrated its self-powered and high-resolution tactile sensing capabilities by recording the output voltage signals as a mapping figure, where the detection sensitivity of the pressure is about 0.29 ± 0.02 V/kPa and each pixel can have a size of 3 mm × 3 mm. The TENGs may have potential applications in human-machine interfacing, micro/nano-electromechanical systems, and touch pad technology.

  4. The future of clean energy, from vision to a real alternative; Fremtidens rene energisystem, fra visjon til reelt alternativ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Research on environment-protecting and renewable energy has been a high national priority in recent years. Research in this field for the first time were brought together in one program when RENERGI was established in 2004. For nearly 10 years, RENERGI has been central to the public funding of energy research and, not least, helped a good structuring of competence building.(eb)

  5. Energy Efficiency for Clean Air : Capturing the multiple benefits for climate, air quality, and public health in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.

    2016-01-01

    As global energy consumption increased to 389 EJ by 2013, while the global energy-related CO2 emissions increased by over 50%, to 32.2 Gt in 2014. This growth is driven mostly by increased industrial production in developing countries. By now already two thirds of CO2 emissions budget for limiting g

  6. Constraints on the Neutron Skin and the Symmetry Energy from the Anti-analog Giant Dipole Resonance in 208Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, L G; Colo', G; Sagawa, H

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the neutron-skin thickness Delta(R) on the energy difference between the anti-analog giant dipole resonance (AGDR), E(AGDR), and the isobaric analog state (IAS), E(IAS), in a heavy nucleus such as 208Pb. For guidance, we first develop a simple and analytic, yet physical, approach based on the Droplet Model that linearly connects the energy difference E(AGDR)-E(IAS) with Delta(R). To test this correlation on more fundamental grounds, we employ a family of systematically varied Skyrme energy density functionals where variations on the value of the symmetry energy at saturation density J are explored. The calculations have been performed within the fully self consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) plus charge-exchange random phase approximation (RPA) framework. We confirm the linear correlation within our microscopic apporach and, by comparing our results with available experimental data in 208Pb, we find that our analysis is consistent with Delta(R) = 0.204 \\pm 0.009 fm, J = 31.4 \\pm 0.5 MeV ...

  7. Energy from biomass gasification as energetic option for clean development; Energia da gaseificacao de biomassa como opcao energetica de desenvolvimento limpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baeso; Kinto, Oscar Tadashi; Morales Udaeta, Miguel Edgar [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the study for energy production using biomass in the energetic planning and as a clean development mechanism. The paper defines the Medio Paranapanema region, considered as one of the less developed in the state of Sao Paulo, as application referential, in accordance with the Resource Integrated Planning methodology. The work also presents the state-of-art of the gasification technologies existent in the world. The region analysis and characterization, the biomass resource and the gasification technologies has been used as the methodology by the paper, focusing the Complete Costs Analysis during a planning period of 10 years. A theoretical potential of 4 x 10{sup 3} GW h result has been obtained, by using as fuel the biomass residues of the sugar cane, corn, cotton and manioc. From the obtained results, a preferential planning for the region has been established showing the the feasibility and the sustainability of that technology for electric power production.

  8. 含氧塑料薄膜在清洁能源电池中的应用%APPLICATION OF FLUORINE CONTAINING PLASTIC FILM IN CLEAN ENERGY BATTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑会林

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride plastic film in clean energy battery applications was briefly reviewed. The application and production method of PVDF membrane used in lithium battery, perfluorinated sulfonic acid ion-exchange membrane used in fuel cells and wind power storage vanadium batteries were introduced respectively. The status of author's latest research results in related fields was also introduced.%简述了含氟塑料薄膜在清洁能源电池中的应用.分别论述了用于锂电池的PVDF隔离膜,以及用于燃料电池、风力发电蓄能电池钒电池的全氟磺酸离子膜的应用与制作方法.介绍了笔者在相关领域的最新研究成果.

  9. Energy-Deposition to Reduce Skin Friction in Supersonic Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has drawn attention to an impending need to improve energy-efficiency in low supersonic (M<~3) platforms. Aerodynamic efficiency is the foundation of...

  10. EERE Quality Control Workshop Final Report: Proceedings from the EERE Quality Control Workshop, in support of the DOE Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative; Golden, Colorado, December 9-10, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) has recognized the cross-cutting, pre-competitive and enabling nature of quality control for a wide range of clean energy technologies. As such, the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, Solar Energy Technologies Office, Vehicle Technologies Office, Building Technologies Office, and Advanced Manufacturing Office decided to explore needs and potential cross-office synergies in this area by holding the EERE Quality Control Workshop, in support of the DOE Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative. This report summarizes the purpose and scope of the workshop; reviews the current status and state-of-the-art for in-line quality control; summarizes the results from three breakout sessions; and presents conclusions and recommendations.

  11. U.S.CLEAN ENERGY BENEFITS AND COSTS%美国清洁能源的成本和效益(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard Joseph WHITE

    2012-01-01

    This paper mentions,evaluates and gives suggestions on some of the United States government programs that promote clean energy.It also shows the programs effectiveness and cost.The reason the United States was chosen as an example is due to the fact that it is the world’s largest investor in clean and renewable energy and can be used as a model demonstrating what happens when the government,not the free market is the main promoter of a clean and renewable energy program.The programs that will be discussed and analyzed are: Nuclear clean-up,weatherizing modest income homes,the manufacturing of advanced car battery(traction) systems and components and the Car Allowance Rebate System.The cost ineffectiveness of each program is demonstrated clearly when it becomes evident that all of these programs can not continue without government funding.Additionally,deadlines for finishing projects are not met,costs exceed estimates,and government funding is used for purposes other than its original intention.%将从分析美国新能源战略的有效性和成本入手,梳理和评估美国政府的新能源方案,同时提出一些关于清洁能源的建议。选择了美国推广清洁能源行为作为对象来讨论,不仅因为美国是世界上最大的清洁能源和可再生能源的投资者,同时还强调美国在运行这一投资的时候并没有使用自由市场来推动,而是完全由政府买单和控制。具体要讨论的方案是:核清理;低收入家庭房屋保暖;先进的汽车电池(牵引)系统及组件;电动汽车补贴退税制度。通过对每个方案内容的阐述和成本、效益的分析,来评估这些方案是否是有价值的和值得继续的。最后的结论可以归纳为这些清洁能源实施项目非常低效,并且提出一系列的证据表明这些项目在没有政府巨额经费支持的情况下是无法继续的,同时表明在没有严格的项目完成日期、持续发生超过预算的额外支出的

  12. Improved clean development mechanism and joint implementation to promote holistic sustainable development - an integrated policy and methodology for international energy collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kua Harn Wei

    2007-07-01

    The current Clean Development Mechanism/Joint Implementation framework does not emphasize on wholistic sustainability of energy projects. The Golden Standard was a good example of how this framework can be fine-tuned. However, it does not explicitly incentivize the adoption of the sustainability standards it outlines. A 4-element integrated policy strategy is proposed. A Sustainability Assessment Matrix is constructed to evaluate project proposals' sustainability performance. The Probational Sustainability Performance Demand requires continual monitoring of this performance of approved projects throughout a designated probation period. The involved countries will be awarded Sustainability Credits (measured with the matrix) in installments according to their performance within this period. The Probational Emission Reduction Demand requires investing countries to meet moderated emission reduction targets in order for them to claim the certified emission reductions/ emission reduction credits and their share of Sustainability Credits. These credits are converted into Sustainability Assistance Funds, which can be channeled back to finance either the approved projects or independent renewable energy projects in the involved countries. The MIT Energy Cost Model is used to estimate the required amount and identify the forms of such assistance package. Finally, an integrated policymaking framework is suggested to execute and monitor these interconnected policy elements. (auth)

  13. Energy resources integrated planning as instrument for clean development; Planejamento integrado de recursos energeticos como instrumento de desenvolvimento limpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Luis Claudio Ribeiro; Kanayama, Paulo Helio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baeso; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the RIP - Resources Integrated Planning, viewing the sustainable development. In the RIP the regional energy resource utilization are a prioritization and the regional economic talent is viewing as a competitive advantage for improvement of the social indexes, and the environmental limitations are considered, including the effects of global heating. Also, the political forces are respected, the involved and interested participates in the planning, and the most important the systemic approaching for obtaining the sustainable, rational and efficient use of the energy are obtained in advance which allows to predict the development consequences before the implantation of projects.

  14. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Skin KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Skin Print A A ... are really dead skin cells. continue Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  15. EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly: Volume 1, Issue 2, March 2011, Energy Development in Island Nations, U.S. Virgin Islands (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-01

    This quarterly newsletter provides timely news and information about the plans and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project, including significant events and milestones, work undertaken by each of the five working groups, and project-related renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.

  16. Clean energy for development and economic growth: Biomass and other renewable options to meet energy and development needs in poor nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilley, Art; Pandey, Bikash; Karstad, Elsen; Owen, Matthew; Bailis, Robert; Ribot, Jesse; Masera, Omar; Diaz, Rodolpho; Benallou, Abdelahanine; Lahbabi, Abdelmourhit

    2012-10-01

    The document explores the linkages between renewable energy, poverty alleviation, sustainable development, and climate change in developing countries. In particular, the paper places emphasis on biomass-based energy systems. Biomass energy has a number of unique attributes that make it particularly suitable to climate change mitigation and community development applications.

  17. First ITER Council convened in Cadarache - historic step in the quest for clean Energy 28 November 2007 Cadarache

    CERN Multimedia

    Hay, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    "On 27 November 2007, the ITER Council convened for the first time in the history of the new International Organization. Opening the meeting, Dr Werner Burkart, Deputy Director of the International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA), said: "Let me congratulate all who have contributed to the achievements of the ITER initiative to date.... (1,5 page)

  18. A Facade refurbishment toolbox supporting energy upgrade of residential building skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinou, T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the next decade investments in buildings energy saving need to increase, together with the rate and depth of renovations, to achieve the required reduction in buildings related CO2 emissions. Although the need to improve residential buildings has been identified, guidelines come as general sugg

  19. Austria seeks to pull plug on EU's support for clean-energy nuclear deal in UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John

    2014-11-15

    In a landmark decision, the European Commission (EC) has given the green light for construction of what is set to be the first nuclear power plant to be built in the UK for nearly 25 years. The UK government, indeed all major political parties in the country, support an ambitious nuclear energy 'revival' to replace ageing reactors and build a fleet of new units to meet increasing energy demand, improve security of energy supply and cut emissions in line with international commitments. The EC's involvement in the UK's plans was to consider the incentives and support that the UK government had said it would be prepared to give the EDF-led consortium behind plans to build the Hinkley Point C two-unit EPR plant in Somerset. However, despite such a thorough analysis of the terms of support offered to the project by the UK, the EC's decision to support the project could now be facing a legal challenge from Austria.

  20. An Energy-efficient and Clean Spray Drying Technology%节能型清洁喷雾干燥技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志远; 贾敏

    2016-01-01

    The traditional catalyst spray drying system usually uses direct drying process, the carrier gas contacts with materials directly, this method can pollute some special catalysts to influence the quality of the final product, and direct discharge of the high temperature exhaust gas into the atmosphere can cause heat loss. So an energy-efficient and clean spray drying technology for catalyst preparation has been developed. The spray drying technology uses the indirect stove with new structure to supply clean and dry hot air, and uses the half-cycle technology to reuse part of the high temperature exhaust gas.%传统的催化剂喷雾干燥系统多采用直接干燥工艺,载气与待干燥物料直接接触换热,这样会对某些特性的催化剂造成污染,影响产品的最终品质,且高温尾气不经回收直接排入大气,造成热量损失。基于此,开发了一种节能型催化剂清洁喷雾干燥技术,即:利用新型结构的间接式热风炉提供清洁的干燥热风,利用尾气半循环使部分高温清洁尾气回用,实现了节能型、清洁型喷雾干燥工艺。

  1. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 9. Investigation of innovative and leading technologies; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 9. Kakushinteki sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The WE-NET Project is a long-term project designed to ensure that an energy network technology using hydrogen becomes a reality not later than 2020. So the project cannot remain effective unless constant efforts are made to foresee future trends of technology and optimize it as the making of entire system for the project. In this project, new technologies which are not up for development are also investigated. Their feasibility should be studied, if necessary. From the foregoing point of view, new technologies are studied, collected and evaluated. Thus, useful suggestions and proposals may be made as to the course for the project to follow, as well as its research and development. Proposals highly evaluated up to FY 1995 are the hydrogen-oxygen internal-combustion Stirling`s engine, hydrogen production by solid oxide electrolysis, magnetic refrigeration technology for liquefaction of hydrogen, solar thermal hydrogen production with iron sponge technology, and hydrogen producing technology with photocatalyst. Conceptual investigation themes in FY 1996 are the hydrogen internal-combustion Stirling engine, solar thermal hydrogen production, phototransformation process, and high-temperature steam electrolysis. 9 figs., 54 tabs.

  2. Treatment analysis of incentive politics for renewable energy projects in the clean development mechanism (CDM): the Brazilian case; Analise do tratamento das politicas de incentivos a projetos de energias renovaveis no mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo (MDL): o caso brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Anamelia; Hauser, Philipp, Emails: anameliam@yahoo.com.br, philipphauser@web.de

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the politics for mitigation recently adopted by the Brazil, and discuss his treatment under the rules of CDM, viewing to contribute for a transparent solution which to allow the conciliation global and national politics for the clean expansion of the energy sector in Brazil.

  3. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) Project: An Analysis of Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs in the United States (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T.; Cory, K.

    2009-06-01

    This report analyzes renewable energy feed-in tariff (FIT) policies and explores the different FIT policies currently implemented in the United States. It also discusses of a few proposed policies, the best practices in FIT policy design, and examines how FITs can be used to target state policy goals. The report covers current and potential future interactions between FITs and other state and federal energy policies while also providing an overview of the impacts FIT policies have in terms of renewable energy deployment, job creation, and economic development.

  4. Clean coal - a national urgency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.M.; Sahai, R. [Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur (India). Technical Consultancy Division

    2000-07-01

    India is the third largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Coal generally has a high ash content, thereby requiring that it be cleaned for proper use. Technological advances now make it possible to reduce pollution considerably, even as energy use increases. However, to reduce environmental impacts, technologies for cleaning coal before combustion need to be developed. The paper focuses on the need for clean coal production and the benefits associated with it. Although the country is rich in coal reserves, the generally inferior quality of coal will lead to its depletion if it is not used cleanly. Increasing the proportion of prepared coal from the current level of less than 5% (i.e. 10-11 million tonnes per annum) of all coal consumed will lead to a massive saving. This can be achieved if new washeries are set up, preferably near the coalfields. 2 figs.

  5. Clean steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels.

  6. A more effective use of clean energy. Decentralized power supply: EEG promotes the personal use of electricity; Saubere Energie effektiver nutzen. Dezentrale Stromversorgung: EEG foerdert die Eigenstromnutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-05-15

    Despite cutbacks in the feed-in tariff in the most cases PV systems remain viable in the future. However, the system operator has to deal with the achievement and securing a maximum revenue more intensively. It is recommendable not to feed electricity to 100% but to use as much energy as possible. Since the Renewable Energy Law promotes the personal use of electricity in particular, and thus increases the profitability of the plant.

  7. Megasonic cleaning: effect of dissolved gas properties on cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Hrishi; Singh, Sherjang; Baugh, James; Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current and future lithography techniques require complex imaging improvement strategies. These imaging improvement strategies require printing of sub-resolution assist-features (SRAF) on photomasks. The size of SRAF's has proven to be the main limiting factor in using high power Megasonic cleaning process on photomasks. These features, due to high aspect ratio are more prone to damage at low Megasonic frequencies and at high Megasonic powers. Additionally the non-uniformity of energy dissipated during Megasonic cleaning is a concern for exceeding the damage threshold of the SRAFs. If the cavitation events during Megasonic cleaning are controlled in way to dissipate uniform energy, better process control can be achieved to clean without damage. The amount and type of gas dissolved in the cleaning liquid defines the cavitation behavior. Some of the gases possess favourable solubility and adiabatic properties for stable and controlled cavitation behaviour. This paper particularly discusses the effects of dissolved Ar gas on Megasonic characteristics. The effect of Ar Gas is characterized by measuring acoustic energy and Sonoluminscense. The phenomenon is further verified with pattern damage studies.

  8. Accelerating Protons to Therapeutic Energies with Ultra-Intense Ultra-Clean and Ultra-Short Laser Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Stepan S; Bychenkov, Valery Yu; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalinchenko, Galina; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Rousseau, Pascal; Reed, Stephen; Yanovsky, Victor; Krushelnick, Karl; Litzenberg, Dale William; Maksimchuk, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    Proton acceleration by high-intensity laser pulses from ultra-thin foils for hadron therapy is discussed. With the improvement of the laser intensity contrast ratio to 10-11 achieved on Hercules laser at the University of Michigan, it became possible to attain laser-solid interactions at intensities up to 1022 W/cm2 that allows an efficient regime of laser-driven ion acceleration from submicron foils. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) computer simulations of proton acceleration in the Directed Coulomb explosion regime from ultra-thin double-layer (heavy ions / light ions) foils of different thicknesses were performed under the anticipated experimental conditions for Hercules laser with pulse energies from 3 to 15 J, pulse duration of 30 fs at full width half maximum (FWHM), focused to a spot size of 0.8 microns (FWHM). In this regime heavy ions expand predominantly in the direction of laser pulse propagation enhancing the longitudinal charge separation electric field that accelerates light ions. The dependence of the ma...

  9. Environmental compliance guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Air Act: nonattainment areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this manual is to identify information requirements associated with air quality permit applications in areas for which ambient pollutant levels currently exceed the national ambient air quality standards (nonattainment areas). The manual is to be used by project managers at the US Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the DOE Environmental Compliance Guide, to provide preliminary estimates of information required to obtain air quality permits for DOE projects. An analysis of nonattainment area permitting found that permitting of all sources in such areas is done on the state or local levels; the Environmental Protection Agency does not grant permits in nonattainment areas. As a result, Federal information requirements for permitting in nonattainment areas are somewhat vague. To provide a more realistic picture of nonattainment area permitting, selected state and local regulations were surveyed, and were found to contain more detail on the information required for permit approval. The most potentially demanding information requirements associated with nonattainment area permitting are the determination of Lowest Achievable Emission Rate, the negotiation of external emission offsets, and the consideration of the environmental impacts of project alternatives in ozone and carbon monoxide nonattainment areas. In any state, a few information requirements for nonattainment area permitting are likely to overlap with information requirements of other permitting processes, such as those in the Prevention of Significant Deterioration procedure. These requirements are emissions data and air quality modeling and its associated input data requirements (meteorology, topography, etc.).

  10. Energy Saving Measures of Clean Air Conditioning System in Solid Dosage Forms Workshop of Pharmaceutical Companies%浅谈药厂固体制剂车间净化空调系统的节能措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆

    2012-01-01

    According to large energy consumption of clean air-conditioning system in solid dosage forms workshop of pharmaceutical companies, combining with the project cases, this paper suggests three energy saving measures.%针对药厂固体制剂车间净化空调系统能耗大的问题,结合具体的工程案例,有针对性地提出了几种有效的节能措施。

  11. ADS-EA Proposal for Clean Nuclear Energy%用于洁净核能源的ADS-EA方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator Driving System (ADS) is a new device for cleaningenergy. A high intensity, high power proton beam provided by accelerators is used to drive a sub-critical nuclear reactor. It is safe, reliable and can produce less nuclear waste, and also can be used to treat the nuclear waste from the classical reactor. An Energy Amplifier (EA), which is composed of three cyclotrons, is one type of ADS. It will be used to produce 14.4 MW proton beam (12 mA, 1.2 GeV) and to operate a 1 500 MW nuclear reactor.%加速器驱动系统(ADS)是一种新型的洁净能源装置,它采用加速器提供的强流高能量质子束驱动次临界的核反应堆,既有安全可靠和产生核废料少的优点,还可以处理传统反应堆留下的核废料.能量放大器是一个基于回旋加速器组合的ADS方案,由三级回旋加速器组成的加速器系统可以产生流强为12mA和能量为1.2GeV的质子束(束流功率14.4MW),用以驱动1500MW的核反应堆.

  12. Demonstration Project for a Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle as Part of the Clean Energy Dialogue with Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skszek, Tim [Vehma International Of America, Inc., Troy, MI (United States)

    2015-12-29

    The intent of the Multi-Material Lightweight Vehicle (“MMLV”) was to assess the feasibility of achieving a significant level of vehicle mass reduction, enabling engine downsizing resulting in a tangible fuel reduction and environmental benefit. The MMLV project included the development of two (2) lightweight vehicle designs, referred to as Mach-I and Mach-II MMLV variants, based on a 2013 Ford production C/D segment production vehicle (Fusion). Weight comparison, life cycle assessment and limited full vehicle testing are included in the project scope. The Mach-I vehicle variant was comprised of materials and processes that are commercially available or previously demonstrated. The 363 kg mass reduction associated with the Mach-I design enabled use of a one-liter, three-cylinder, gasoline turbocharged direct injection engine, maintaining the performance and utility of the baseline vehicle. The full MMLV project produced seven (7) MMLV Mach-I “concept vehicles” which were used for testing and evaluation. The full vehicle tests confirmed that MMLV Mach-I concept vehicle performed approximately equivalent to the baseline 2013 Ford Fusion vehicle thereby validating the design of the multi material lightweight vehicle design. The results of the Life Cycle Assessment, conducted by third party consultant, indicated that if the MMLV Mach-I design was built and operated in North America for 250,000 km (155,343 miles) it would produce significant environmental and fuel economy benefits including a 16% reduction in Global Warming Potential (GWP) and 16% reduction in Total Primary Energy (TPE). The LCA calculations estimated the combined fuel economy of 34 mpg (6.9 l/100 km) associated with the MMLV Mach-I Design compared to 28 mpg (8.4 l/100 km) for the 2013 Ford Fusion.

  13. Device and methods for the measurement of energy transfer in experiments involving thermal and electrical injuries of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K G; Nielsen, O; Thomsen, H K

    1981-01-01

    This work is part of a larger investigation aiming at tracing differences between injuries caused by heat and electricity. Electrodes and heaters similar to the electrodes of an electric cattle baton are used to dissipate approximately 40 joules in 40 seconds in pig skin. Voltages in the range 40-60 volts (AC or DC) are applied via stainless steel electrodes and temperatures in the range 50-100 degrees C are applied via heaters made of copper wire. Heat transfer is controlled by electronically regulated heaters utilizing the temperature dependence of the heater wire itself as a thermometer. Transfer of electricity takes place from either commercial DC supply, from transformed voltage from the mains or from a sine voltage generator connected to a power amplifier. The energy transfer is in all cases measured by electronic integration of the dissipated power in time. The power supplied to th electrodes or the heaters is found by electronic multiplication of the applied voltage and current. Typical power vs. time curves are presented.

  14. Charge-exchange scattering to the isobaric analog state at medium energies as a probe of the neutron skin

    CERN Document Server

    Loc, Bui Minh; Zegers, R G T

    2014-01-01

    The charge-exchange (3He,t) scattering to the isobaric analog state (IAS) of the target can be considered as "elastic" scattering of 3He by the isovector term of the optical potential (OP) that flips the projectile isospin. Therefore, the accurately measured charge-exchange scattering cross- section for the IAS can be a good probe of the isospin dependence of the OP, which is determined exclusively within the folding model by the difference between the neutron and proton densities and isospin dependence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Given the neutron skin of the target is related directly to the same density difference, it can be well probed in the analysis of the charge- exchange (3He,t) reactions at medium energies when the two-step processes can be neglected and the t-matrix interaction can be used in the folding calculation. For this purpose, the data of the (3He,t) scattering to the IAS of 90Zr and 208Pb targets at Elab = 420 MeV have been analyzed in the distorted wave Born approximation using the...

  15. Lateral ordering of PTCDA on the clean and the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100) surface investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Stefan; Fiedler, Benjamin; Bauer, Oliver; Marele, Antonela; Sokolowski, Moritz M

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) on the clean and on the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100) surface [referred to as (√2 × 2√2)R45° - 2O/Cu(100)] by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Our results confirm the (4√2 × 5√2)R45° superstructure of PTCDA/Cu(100) reported by A. Schmidt et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99,11770-11779]. However, contrary to Schmidt et al., we have no indication for a dissociation of the PTCDA upon adsorption, and we propose a detailed structure model with two intact PTCDA molecules within the unit cell. Domains of high lateral order are obtained, if the deposition is performed at 400 K. For deposition at room temperature, a significant density of nucleation defects is found pointing to a strong interaction of PTCDA with Cu(100). Quite differently, after preadsorption of oxygen and formation of the (√2 × 2√2)R45° - 2O/Cu(100) superstructure on Cu(100), PTCDA forms an incommensurate monolayer with a structure that corresponds well to that of PTCDA bulk lattice planes.

  16. Lateral ordering of PTCDA on the clean and the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100 surface investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gärtner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the adsorption of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA on the clean and on the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100 surface [referred to as (√2 × 2√2R45° – 2O/Cu(100] by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM and low energy electron diffraction (LEED. Our results confirm the (4√2 × 5√2R45° superstructure of PTCDA/Cu(100 reported by A. Schmidt et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99,11770–11779]. However, contrary to Schmidt et al., we have no indication for a dissociation of the PTCDA upon adsorption, and we propose a detailed structure model with two intact PTCDA molecules within the unit cell. Domains of high lateral order are obtained, if the deposition is performed at 400 K. For deposition at room temperature, a significant density of nucleation defects is found pointing to a strong interaction of PTCDA with Cu(100. Quite differently, after preadsorption of oxygen and formation of the (√2 × 2√2R45° – 2O/Cu(100 superstructure on Cu(100, PTCDA forms an incommensurate monolayer with a structure that corresponds well to that of PTCDA bulk lattice planes.

  17. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  18. Archaea on human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Probst

    Full Text Available The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  19. Clean Energy—The Ultimate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Major economies in the world have raised various proposals to reduce carbon emissions by applying clean energies in a bid to tackle climate change. As a major consumer of coal, China is facing mounting pressure, and experts are wrangling about which clean energy should come first on the government agenda. To get a closer look at the current situation in China, Beijing Review reporter Liu Yunyun sat down with Zhou Dadi, Director General Emeritus of the Energy Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission, who shared his insights on clean energy. Edited excerpts follow:

  20. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  1. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S

    2012-01-01

    We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields, the average divergence error in the system is reduced by an order of magnitude with our cleaning algorithm. Divergence errors in SPMHD are maintained to < 1%, even for realistic 3D applications with a corresponding gain in numerical stability. Density errors for an oscillating elliptic water drop using weakly compressible SPH are reduced by a factor of two.

  2. NREL Analysis: Reimagining What's Possible for Clean Energy, Continuum Magazine, Summer 2015 / Issue 8; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This issue of Continuum Magazine covers the depth and breadth of NREL's ever-expanding analytical capabilities. For example, in one project we are leading national efforts to create a computer model of one of the most complex systems ever built. This system, the eastern part of the North American power grid, will likely host an increasing percentage of renewable energy in years to come. Understanding how this system will work is important to its success - and NREL analysis is playing a major role. We are also identifying the connections among energy, the environment and the economy through analysis that will point us toward a 'water smart' future.

  3. SU-E-T-632: Preliminary Study On Treating Nose Skin Using Energy and Intensity Modulated Electron Beams with Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, L; Eldib, A; Li, J; Price, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Uneven nose surfaces and air cavities underneath and the use of bolus present complexity and dose uncertainty when using a single electron energy beam to plan treatments of nose skin with a pencil beam-based planning system. This work demonstrates more accurate dose calculation and more optimal planning using energy and intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) delivered with a pMLC. Methods: An in-house developed Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculation/optimization planning system was employed for treatment planning. Phase space data (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV) were used as an input source for MC dose calculations for the linac. To reduce the scatter-caused penumbra, a short SSD (61 cm) was used. Our previous work demonstrates good agreement in percentage depth dose and off-axis dose between calculations and film measurement for various field sizes. A MERT plan was generated for treating the nose skin using a patient geometry and a dose volume histogram (DVH) was obtained. The work also shows the comparison of 2D dose distributions between a clinically used conventional single electron energy plan and the MERT plan. Results: The MERT plan resulted in improved target dose coverage as compared to the conventional plan, which demonstrated a target dose deficit at the field edge. The conventional plan showed higher dose normal tissue irradiation underneath the nose skin while the MERT plan resulted in improved conformity and thus reduces normal tissue dose. Conclusion: This preliminary work illustrates that MC-based MERT planning is a promising technique in treating nose skin, not only providing more accurate dose calculation, but also offering an improved target dose coverage and conformity. In addition, this technique may eliminate the necessity of bolus, which often produces dose delivery uncertainty due to the air gaps that may exist between the bolus and skin.

  4. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 2013 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutor, J.; Tucker, E.; Thomas, J.

    2013-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  5. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 16, No. 1, May 2012 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  6. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 15, No. 1, April 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on electric vehicle deployment, renewable natural gas, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  7. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 16, No. 2, Fall 2012 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  8. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  9. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  10. Development Prospect and Proposals on Clean Energy Power Generation in Jiangxi Province%江西省清洁能源发电的发展前景及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志勇; 温志华

    2011-01-01

    Development of clean energy is the key to achieve the low-carbon economy, and also a significant move to implement the strategy of Poyang Lake ecological economic zone in Jiangxi province. First, the status quo and prospect of developing clean energy resources of Jiangxi province are analyzed. Then, according to the regional characteristics of Jiangxi which is short of coal and gas, but relatively rich of water, wind and biomass resources, some suggestions are put forward on the strategic measures, technology selection and policy support for clean energy generation, including hydropower, wind power, nuclear power, solar energy, biomass generation and so on, which are expected to provide a reference for improving the proportion of clean energy and achieving the sustainable development in Jiangxi.%发展清洁能源是实现低碳经济的关键,也是江西省实施鄱阳湖生态经济区战略的重要举措。首先分析了江西省清洁能源发电的现状及前景;然后根据江西省缺煤乏气,水资源、风资源及生物质资源相对丰富的地域特征,针对其发展水电、风电、核电、太阳能发电、生物质发电等清洁能源应采取的战略举措、技术选择和政策支持提出了具体意见,以期为提高江西省清洁能源比重、实现绿色崛起提供参考。

  11. Applying the Science of Science Communication to Climate Change and Clean Energy: Lessons Learned from the NSF- and PBS-supported "Earth: The Operators' Manual"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.; Sanford, C.

    2014-12-01

    Yale legal scholar and professor of psychology Dan Kahan has criticized the climate change science community for not applying what's known about effective communications strategies to topics with potentially controversial content. "Earth: The Operators' Manual," funded by NSF's Informal Science Education program and appearing on PBS was hosted by Penn State geoscientist Richard Alley. From the initial proposal forward into airing on public television in 2011 and 2012, ETOM aimed to be authoritative and apolitical while still being engaging to general audiences. Based on social scientific insights from project Advisor, Suzanne Moser, and others, ETOM aimed to avoid "climate porn" scare tactics and over-used footage, and to enlist a diverse group of "messengers" in addition to Alley. An important design criterion was to give equal time to clean energy solutions while pulling no punches as to the consensus findings of leading climate scientists. With the ETOM project now completed and final reports submitted to NSF, what results can be shared to inform future efforts? And how did ETOM compare in audience impact with other major media efforts such as Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth" or Showtime's more recent "Years of Living Dangerously"? Results reported draw on the external evaluation by Rockman Et Al, and include both quantitative and qualitative data. Key findings are the importance of including Texan ranchers enthusiastic about wind power alongside Navy Admirals adamant that climate change is human-caused and Marines implementing solar energy to reduce casualties incurred while transporting fossil fuels. In-person presentations by Alley and others at science centers served as de facto focus groups for scripting the TV programs, along with actual focus groups convened by Rockman. The 3rd program, ENERGY QUEST USA, documented 5 quite different communities, from Alaska to Forth Worth, Baltimore, Portland and Kansas, all using competition, local values, and economic

  12. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  13. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  14. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  15. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  16. STUDY ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF CLEAN ENERGY INDUSTRY PARK IN JIUQUAN%酒泉清洁能源产业园区建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉忠; 胡秉安

    2011-01-01

    2006年以来酒泉风电、光电产业飞速发展,已建成500万kW风电基地、20MW太阳能发电基地,成为全国最大的风电产业示范基地和清洁能源产业园区之一.为确保“陆上三峡”的建设目标,必须从加强产业园区基础设施建设、加快输电网建设和调峰电源建设提高电量调节能力、加大国内外融资力度、建立园区科技创新机制、构建园区人才资源支撑体系等方面对清洁能源产业园区进行建设,以充分发挥酒泉市丰富的风光资源优势,推动低碳经济的发展.%Since 2006, the wind - power and optoelectronic industry had been developing rapidly in Jiuquan with 5 million kilowatts of wind - power base and 20 - megawatt solar - power base, which become the largest demonstration base for wind - power industry and one of industrial parks for clean energy in China. To achieve the goal of " land Three Gorges" in Gansu province, this paper put forward some countermeasures, such as strengthening the industrial park infrastructure construction, speeding up the power net construction, increasing the domestic and international financing strength, building up a technological innovation system, and establishing personnel support system in industrial park, to produce the advantage of rich resources in Jiuquan and promote low carbon economic development.

  17. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Skin ... (bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and tissues beneath) are typical childhood skin infections. The usual bacterial culprits in skin ...

  18. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  19. Minimal skin dose increase in longitudinal rotating biplanar linac-MR systems: examination of radiation energy and flattening filter design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanloo, A.; Burke, B.; St. Aubin, J.; Baillie, D.; Wachowicz, K.; Warkentin, B.; Steciw, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2016-05-01

    The magnetic fields of linac-MR systems modify the path of contaminant electrons in photon beams, which alters patient entrance skin dose. Also, the increased SSD of linac-MR systems reduces the maximum achievable dose rate. To accurately quantify the changes in entrance skin dose, the authors use EGSnrc Monte Carlo calculations that incorporate 3D magnetic field of the Alberta 0.5 T longitudinal linac-MR system. The Varian 600C linac head geometry assembled on the MRI components is used in the BEAMnrc simulations for 6 MV and 10 MV beam models and skin doses are calculated at an average depth of 70 μm using DOSXYZnrc. 3D modeling shows that magnetic fringe fields decay rapidly and are small at the linac head. SSDs between 100 and 120 cm result in skin-dose increases of between ~6%-19% and ~1%-9% for the 6 and 10 MV beams, respectively. For 6 MV, skin dose increases from ~10.5% to ~1.5% for field-size increases of 5  ×  5 cm2 to 20  ×  20 cm2. For 10 MV, skin dose increases by ~6% for a 5  ×  5 cm2 field, and decreases by ~1.5% for a 20  ×  20 cm2 field. Furthermore, the proposed reshaped flattening filter increases the dose rate from the current 355 MU min-1 to 529 MU min-1 (6 MV) or 604 MU min-1 (10 MV), while the skin-dose increases by only an additional ~2.6% (all percent increases in skin dose are relative to D max). This study suggests that there is minimal increase in the entrance skin dose and minimal/no decrease in the dose rate of the Alberta longitudinal linac-MR system. The even lower skin dose increase at 10 MV offers further advantages in future designs of linac-MR prototypes.

  20. Wagging ETOM's Long Tail: MOOCs, Hangouts on Air, and Formal and Informal Undergraduate Experiences with Climate Change Science and Clean Energy Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Alley, R. B.; Akuginow, E.; McNeal, K.; Blockstein, D.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can reasonably be described as a "wicked problem" meaning that it is complex, difficult and multi-faceted, although critical to equitable development and the sustainability of human civilization. But while the Wikipedia definition says such problems are "impossible" to solve, not even to try will lead to certain failure. "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) was an NSF-funded informal science education project with 3 hour-long TV programs appearing on PBS in 2011 and 2012, along with live presentations by series host, Penn State's Richard Alley, and others at 5 major science centers. Uniquely among climate change programming, ETOM gave equal time to identifying solutions along with climate science, and made all its materials freely available via YouTube. Formal and informal science educators can register to download HD videos for classroom and outreach use, and signups have ranged from middle schools to 4-year colleges. Building on the success of the series and Alley's companion tradebook of the same name, Penn State working with Coursera invited Alley to develop a MOOC entitled "Energy, The Environment and Our Future" that similarly combined the essential science along with clean energy solutions. The course reached more than 30,000 students in the first semester of 2014. More recently the ETOM team has partnered with the National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) to develop "READ for the EARTH," an NSF EAGER project, offering campuses the opportunity to adopt Alley's book, the ETOM videos (including "How To Talk To An Ostrich"), NCSE's www.CAMELclimatechange.org web site and other resources for both formal and informal uses. Some campuses have used the book with honors classes, and some are exploring adapting ETOM as a first year reading experience for all freshman. Our presentation will share reactions to the MOOC, to the pilot phases of "READ for the EARTH" and present both qualitative and quantitative results. Some of the most

  1. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Aniruddha, E-mail: nontee65@rediffmail.com [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Sonar, V.R.; Das, D.K.; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Nilaya, J.P.; Biswas, D.J. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, 400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  2. Coordination-resolved local bond strain and 3p energy entrapment of K atomic clusters and K(1 1 0) skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ting; Bo, Maolin; Guo, Yongling [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Chen, Hefeng [United Superconductive Institution, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Yan [School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan 411201 (China); Huang, Yongli, E-mail: huangyongli@xtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Sun, Chang Q., E-mail: ecqsun@ntu.edu.sg [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan 411201 (China); NOVITAS, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Coordination environment resolves electron binding-energy shift of K{sub 44}, K{sub 46}, K{sub 55} clusters. • Predict the effective coordination number of K nanoclusters when we get the atomic number N. • Atomic under coordination shortens the local bonds and entrapment. • XPS derives core level of an isolated atom and its bulk shift. - Abstract: We have examined the atomic coordination effect on the local bond strain and the 3p core-level shift of K(1 1 0) skin and nanoclusters using a combination of the bond order–length–strength correlation notion, tight-binding approach, density functional theory calculations, and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. It turns out that: (i) the 3p core-level shifts from 15.595 ± 0.003 eV for an isolated K atom by 2.758 eV to the bulk value of 18.353 eV; (ii) the effective atomic coordination number reduces from the bulk value of 12 to 3.93 for the first layer and to 5.81 for the second layer of K(1 1 0) skin associated with the local lattice strain of 12.76%, a binding energy density 72.67%, and atomic cohesive energy −62.46% for the skin; and (iii) K cluster size reduction lowers the effective atomic coordination number and enhances further the skin electronic attribution. Results have revealed that the 3p core-level shifts of K(1 1 0) and nanoclusters originate from perturbation of the Hamiltonian by under-coordination induced charge densification and quantum entrapment.

  3. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting.

  4. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2008, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  5. Nicotinamide for skin cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Diona L

    2017-03-20

    Nicotinamide (vitamin B3 ) has a range of photoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo; it enhances DNA repair, reduces UV radiation-induced suppression of skin immune responses, modulates inflammatory cytokine production and skin barrier function and restores cellular energy levels after UV exposure. Pharmacological doses of nicotinamide have been shown to reduce actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals, making this a nontoxic and accessible option for skin cancer chemoprevention in this population.

  6. The quantification of wound healing as a method to assess late radiation damage in primate skin exposed to high-energy protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.

    In an experiment examining the effects of space radiations on primates, different groups of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were exposed to single whole-body doses of 32- or 55-MeV protons. Survivors of those exposures, together with age-matched controls, have been monitored continuously since 1964 and 1965. Late effects of nominal proton doses ranging from 2-6 Gray have been measured in vitro using skin fibroblasts from the animals. A logical extension of that study is reported here, and it involves observations of wound healing after 3-mm diameter dermal punches were removed from the ears (pinnae) of control and irradiated monkeys. Tendencies in the reduction of competence to repair cutaneous wound have been revealed by the initial examinations of animals that received doses greater than 2 Gy more than 2 decades earlier. These trends indicate that this method of assessing radiation damage to skin exposed to high-energy radiations warrants further study.

  7. Clean and Highly Efficient Utilization of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianguo; YANG Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ Clean and highly efficient utilization of coal is an important scientific and technological issue.As the petroleum resource decreases but its consumption increases, all of the countries in the world have to face the big issue of sustainable development of energy and economy and protection of environment.Therefore, study on clean coal technology (CCT) has attracted much attention and become one of important themes of energy research.

  8. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  9. Clean Production Management of Breweries: the realities of implementing clean production management in Tsingtao Brewery

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chaonan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,China's beer industry has rapid growth,but because of high energy consumption and high emissions in the production process, its environmental pollution became more serious and aroused concern. Beer companies must promote management of clean production in the pursuit of economic benefits while addressing the pollution problems. Comparing to leading markets, China’s beer industry practiced clean production at later stage, the level of clean production management is still lower t...

  10. Nuclear mass formula with a neutron skin degree of freedom and finite-range model for the surface energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, P.; Myers, W.D.

    1984-03-01

    We study the possibility of extending the model used by Moeller and Nix in 1980 to calculate nuclear masses and fission barriers for nuclei throughout the periodic system, to describe compressibility effects and the existence of a neutron skin. 9 references. (WHK)

  11. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are round and lie directly under squamous cells. Melanocytes are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. It also protects the ...

  12. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the head, face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ... cancer is found early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. ...

  13. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dermatologic Surgery Expertise for the life of your skin (TM) Public Resources Dermatologic Surgery Conditions Treatments and ... learn-more"> 3 million Americans are diagnosed with skin cancer every year Any suspicious new growths or ...

  14. Skin tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, S

    2001-08-01

    Skin tears are a serious, painful problem for older patients. Find out how your staff can recognize patients at risk, what they can do to prevent skin tears, and how to manage them effectively if they occur.

  15. Skin turgor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arm or abdomen is checked. The skin is held for a few seconds then released. Skin with ... University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  16. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  19. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of combustion control technology); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu nensho seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1996 developmental results of hydrogen burning turbine combustion technology in the hydrogen utilization international clean energy system (WE-NET) project. A test was conducted on an annular type combustor where oxygen is mixed with steam (inert gas) at burner and fired with hydrogen. Appropriate flame shape and cooling/dilution vapor distribution were attempted, and various data on combustion were measured for improvement. Mixture and flame holding were improved by developing a can type combustor (1) where oxygen is diluted with steam after firing oxygen and hydrogen around burner and by strengthening circulation in the combustor. Improvement such as appropriate steam distribution, etc. is needed. A can type combustor (2) was tested in which the premixed oxygen and hydrogen is supplied from scoop and fired with hydrogen. By supplying part of oxygen from the primary scoop, the residual hydrogen and oxygen concentration around the stoichiometric ratio can be reduced. Concentration of the residual oxygen can be measured by the absorption light method, but it is difficult to adopt the non-contact measuring method to hydrogen. An outlook for the gas temperature measuring method was obtained. 12 refs., 121 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Constrained hyperbolic divergence cleaning in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics with variable cleaning speeds

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S; Bate, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    We present an updated constrained hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning algorithm for smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) that remains conservative with wave cleaning speeds which vary in space and time. This is accomplished by evolving the quantity $\\psi / c_h$ instead of $\\psi$. Doing so allows each particle to carry an individual wave cleaning speed, $c_h$, that can evolve in time without needing an explicit prescription for how it should evolve, preventing circumstances which we demonstrate could lead to runaway energy growth related to variable wave cleaning speeds. This modification requires only a minor adjustment to the cleaning equations and is trivial to adopt in existing codes. Finally, we demonstrate that our constrained hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning algorithm, run for a large number of iterations, can reduce the divergence of the field to an arbitrarily small value, achieving $\

  1. Constrained hyperbolic divergence cleaning in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics with variable cleaning speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Terrence S.; Price, Daniel J.; Bate, Matthew R.

    2016-10-01

    We present an updated constrained hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning algorithm for smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) that remains conservative with wave cleaning speeds which vary in space and time. This is accomplished by evolving the quantity ψ /ch instead of ψ. Doing so allows each particle to carry an individual wave cleaning speed, ch, that can evolve in time without needing an explicit prescription for how it should evolve, preventing circumstances which we demonstrate could lead to runaway energy growth related to variable wave cleaning speeds. This modification requires only a minor adjustment to the cleaning equations and is trivial to adopt in existing codes. Finally, we demonstrate that our constrained hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning algorithm, run for a large number of iterations, can reduce the divergence of the magnetic field to an arbitrarily small value, achieving ∇ ṡ B = 0 to machine precision.

  2. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 2. Research study on promotion of international cooperation (standardization of hydrogen energy technology); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the basic study on standardization of hydrogen energy technology, and the research study on ISO/TC197 in fiscal 1996. As a part of the WE-NET project, the subtask 2 aims at preparation of standards necessary for practical use and promotion. Developmental states in every field of hydrogen energy technologies, current states of domestic/overseas related standards and laws, and needs and issues of standardization were surveyed. In particular, the needs and issues were clarified in relation to existing standards and laws from the viewpoint of specific hydrogen property. ISO/TC197 was established in 1989 for standardization of the systems and equipment for production, storage, transport, measurement and utilization of hydrogen energy. Four working groups are in action for the supply system and tank of liquid hydrogen fuel for automobiles, the container and ship for complex transport of liquid hydrogen, the specifications of hydrogen products for energy, and the hydrogen supply facility for airports. The draft international standards were proposed to the international conference in 1996. 16 refs., 21 figs., 41 tabs.

  3. Cleaning and surface properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  4. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers.

  5. Neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb, and symmetry-energy constraints from the study of the anti-analog giant dipole resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; Csige, L; Eriksen, T K; Giacoppo, F; Görgen, A; Hagen, T W; Harakeh, M N; Julin, R; Koehler, P; Paar, N; Siem, S; Stuhl, L; Tornyi, T; Vretenar, D

    2013-01-01

    The 208Pb(p,ngamma p)207Pb reaction at a beam energy of 30 MeV has been used to excite the anti-analog of the giant dipole resonance (AGDR) and to measure its gamma-decay of to the isobaric analog state. The energy of the transition has also been calculated with the self-consistent relativistic random-phase approximation (RRPA), and found to be linearly correlated to the predicted value of the neutron-skin thickness (DR_pn). By comparing the theoretical results with the measured transition energy, the value of 0.190 +- 0.028 fm has been determined for DR_pn of 208Pb, in agreement with previous experimental results. The AGDR excitation energy has also been used to calculate the symmetry energy at saturation (J=32.7+- 0.6 MeV) and the slope of the symmetry energy (L=49.7 +- 4.4 MeV), resulting in more stringent constraints than most of the previous studies.

  6. Mechanical cleaning of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.; Calado, V.E.; Barreiro, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of graphene due to residues from nanofabrication often introduces background doping and reduces electron mobility. For samples of high electronic quality, post-lithography cleaning treatments are therefore needed. We report that mechanical cleaning based on contact mode atomic force mi

  7. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  8. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 2. Research on promotion of international cooperation (research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task. 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 research result on the basic research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies, and ISO/TC197. As for the standardization, in relation to the hydrogen station in the WE-NET second phase research, the laws related to handling of gaseous hydrogen, and the basic issues on facility and safe handling were studied. As for ISO/TC197, the following draft standards were examined: Fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, fuel tank for liquid hydrogen vehicles, container for liquid hydrogen transport, specification of hydrogen fuel, hydrogen fuel supply facility for air ports, gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen mixture fuel system for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel connector for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel tank for vehicles, and basic items for hydrogen system safety. Final examination of the fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, and the specification of hydrogen fuel was finished, and these are scheduled to be registered for ISO. (NEDO)

  9. The MiniCLEAN Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Jen (Ryan); Gold, Michael; Miniclean Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MiniCLEAN (Cryogenic Low-Energy Astrophysics with Noble liquid) dark matter experiment will exploit a single-phase liquid argon detector instrumented with 92 photomultiplier tubes placed in the cryogen with 4- π coverage of a 500 kg (150 kg) target (fiducial) mass. The detector design strategy emphasizes scalability to target masses of order 10 tons or more. It is designed also for a liquid neon target that allows for an independent verification of signal and background and a test of the expected dependence of the WIMP-nucleus interaction rate. For MiniCLEAN, PMT stability and calibration are essential. The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) based light injection system provide single photon for the calibration which can be performed in near real-time, providing a continuous monitor on the condition of the detector. This talk will summarize the status of detector and upcoming commissioning at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Canada.

  10. An elastic second skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  11. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body. Without skin, people's muscles, bones, and organs would be hanging out all over the place. Skin holds everything together. It also: protects our bodies helps keep our bodies at just the right temperature allows us to have the sense of touch Don't Miss Your Epidermis The ...

  12. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / Development of an environmentally friendly industrial cleaning system using near-critical and supercritical carbon dioxide (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / chorinkai ryutai wo mochiita kankyo chowagata kogyo senjo sochi no kaihatsu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the manufacturing process of semiconductors and in the high tech industry, cleaning is indispensable. At present, when regulation of the use of CFC which used to be much used has been decided on, the conversion to the use of substitutes for CFC cleaning is urgently needed. Transfer to cleaning by water/alcohol/hydrocarbon has been proceeded with, but there are a lot of problems. Out of the development of the cleaning method using supercritical fluid, the paper described the fiscal 1997 result. As to enhancement of efficiency and decrease in size of equipment, a cleaning experiment by high pressure CO2 around the critical point was conducted by integrating nozzle, ultrasonic generator and cavitation generator and adding solvent circulating system. Multi-purpose and energy saving of the equipment were also studied. To establish an analysis method for the cleaning degree, the contaminated component film of trace organic matter with a specified thickness was formed on the silicon wafer, and using the Fourier transform ultrared spectroscopy, a method to determine the film thickness was studied. For the function evaluation for precision machine parts and determination of optimum cleaning conditions, the cleaning/degreasing process of valves were compared with the conventional method. For the product manufacturing, the paper investigated and prepared the data in Japan and from abroad. 55 refs., 79 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. A Commercial IOTV Cleaning Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    quite clean and had a refreshing scent . The medium soiled garments (30%) also looked reasonably clean after one wash. The heavily soiled garments...and Solvair® Cleaning in cleaning soiled Improved Outer Tactical Vests (IOTV). Computer-controlled Wet Cleaning coupled with the use of LANADOL...to clean soiled IOTVs. Soldier Product Support Integration Directorate, ILSC U.S. Army Soldier Systems Center 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760

  14. Protecting the skin during thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Bezerra Lira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we describe the standard technical maneuver used in our department to protect the skin during thyroidectomy in order to get the best aesthetic result. We use surgical gloves to protect the skin during these operations to reduce the negative impact of thermal trauma and mechanical retractors and energy delivery devices at the edges of the skin incised. This practice is effective, inexpensive, rapid, reproducible and showed no complication in our experience of over 2,500 thyroidectomies.

  15. Study on Pricing Compensation Mechanism of Clean Energy Based on Triangle Fuzzy Number%基于三角模糊数的清洁能源电价补偿机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忠富; 何楠; 周凤翱; 张科

    2013-01-01

    By setting an effective and reasonable compensation mechanism of clean energy pricing, it can promote clean energy power to develop easily. Based on the externalities of clean power, this paper identifies the reasonable compensation range by triangle fuzzy number and calculates the compensation value of different objects by degree of membership, the objects include clean power plants, power enterprises and power consumers. In order to study this problem clearly, it took wind power for an example and made quantity research in the measures of improving power pricing compensation mechanism by triangle fuzzy number and object constraint theories. To power users, the reasonable compensation range is 0. 002 yuan/kW · h-0. 008 yuan/kW · h. To power enterprises, the range is 3 869. 48 yuan/MW-16 096. 74 yuan/MW. To clean power plants (wind power plant), the range is 0. 218 9 yuan/kW· h-0. 241 2 yuan/kW · h. The results show that compensation ranges are relative to the different objects, and the compensation value will change by the quantities of clean power in gird.%为了制定合理的清洁能源电价补偿机制,推动清洁能源电力的有效发展,分析了我国清洁能源电价补偿机制现状及存在的问题,基于清洁能源电力的外部性特征,引入三角模糊数,通过模糊数将补偿机制中补偿金额的计算扩展为补偿区间的确定,同时将不同对象的可能补偿额度定为隶属度;并以风电为例,运用模糊响应公式对其补偿区间进行了量化分析.结果表明,电力用户补偿区间为0.002~0.008元/(kW·h),电网企业补偿区间为3 869.48~16 096.74元/MW,清洁能源电厂(风电厂)补偿区间为0.218 9~0.241 2元/(kW·h),且清洁能源电力的各级补偿区间与补偿对象密切相关,补偿额度也会随其上网电量的变化而波动.

  16. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  17. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  18. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  19. Effective Cleaning Radius Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churnetski, B.V.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses results of testing done in the Savannah River Laboratory half tank and full tank mockup facilities using kaolin clay slurries and the relationship between cleaning radius and pump and slurry characteristics.

  20. Clean Power Plan Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are resources to help states as they develop state implementation plans under section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act to meet EPA's carbon pollution standards for existing power plants. Supplements www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards.

  1. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  2. Highlights of the Energy Forum on Solar Building Skins%聚焦太阳能建筑外观的能源论坛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建民

    2012-01-01

    Energy Forum on Solar Building Skins was held in Bressanone, Italy in 6-7 December 2012. The main objective of the conference is to contribute a multidisciplinary, integrated planning approach to sustainable buildings, and to create a dialogue among architects, engineers, scientists, energy managers and manufacturers. It is also aimed at reducing energy consumption while improving the comfort and health of building occupants. Mr. Andreas Karweger, General Manager of Forum, delivers the opening remarks.%第七届太阳能建筑外观能源论坛于2012年12月6~7日在意大利布列瑟农举行.本届论坛旨在为建筑师、工程师、科学家、能源管理者和光伏设备制造商创造对话机会,提供一个国际交流的平台,研究讨论出一种多学科的综合规划办法,在改善居住者舒适性和身心健康的同时减少能源消耗.能源论坛总经理Mr.Andreas Karweger在开幕式上致辞.

  3. Correlation of the neutron star crust-core properties with the slope of the symmetry energy and the lead skin thickness

    CERN Document Server

    Pais, H; Agrawal, B K; Providência, C

    2016-01-01

    The correlations of the crust-core transition density and pressure in neutron stars with the slope of the symmetry energy and the neutron skin thickness are investigated, using different families of relativistic mean field parametrizations with constant couplings and non-linear terms mixing the $\\sigma$, $\\omega$ and $\\rho$-meson fields. It is shown that the modification of the density dependence of the symmetry energy, involving the $\\sigma$ or the $\\omega$ meson, gives rise to different behaviors: the effect of the $\\omega$-meson may also be reproduced within non-relativistic phenomenological models, while the effect of the $\\sigma$-meson is essentially relativistic. Depending on the parametrization with $\\sigma-\\rho$ or $\\omega-\\rho$ mixing terms, different values of the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation must be considered in order to obtain a neutron matter equation of state compatible with results from chiral effective field theory. This difference leads to different pressures at the crust-core ...

  4. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  5. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center; Vol. 2, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-05-01

    Official publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center featuring alternative fuels activity in every state, the Clean Cities game plan '98, and news from the Automakers.

  6. Aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L

    1995-01-16

    Aging of the skin is a composite of actinic damage, chronologic aging, and hormonal influences. The majority of changes associated with aging, such as wrinkles and solar lentigines ("liver spots"), are due to photoaging and reflect cumulative sun exposure as well as skin pigmentation. Classically, chronologic aging includes those cutaneous changes that occur in non-sun-exposed areas, such as the buttocks, and are observed in both men and women. A clinical example would be soft tissue sagging due to elastic fiber degeneration. In women, investigations into the effect of hormones on aging of the skin have concentrated on estrogens; in men, there have been a limited number of studies on the influence of testosterone. The latter have shown an age-dependent decrease in tissue androgens in pubic skin, but not scrotal or thigh skin. To date, age has not been shown to have an effect on androgen receptor binding, although a decrease in foreskin 5 alpha-reductase activity with increasing age has been described. In fibroblast cultures from foreskins, there have been conflicting results as to whether 5 alpha-reductase activity decreases in an age-dependent manner. Some of the skin changes that have been categorized as secondary to chronologic aging, such as decreased sebaceous gland activity and decreased hair growth, may actually represent a decline in the concentration of tissue androgens with increasing age. The influence of androgens on age-related changes in keratinocyte and fibroblast function remains speculative.

  7. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-03-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  8. Inner-shell promotions in low-energy Li+-Al collisions at clean and alkali-covered Al(100) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, K. A. H.; Weare, C. B.; Yarmoff, J. A.

    1994-11-01

    Spectra of scattered ions and ion-induced electron emissions are used to investigate the electronic processes that occur during 0.4-5.0-keV Li+ bombardment of clean and alkali-atom-covered Al(100). The results show that Li 1s electrons are promoted during hard Li-Al collisions, but not during Li-K or Li-Na collisions. Consequences of the inner-shell electron promotions are evident in the inelastic loss, neutralization behavior, and electron emissions of the scattered Li particles. Spectra of scattered Li+ ions exhibit discrete-loss features, which are resistant to the usual increase in resonant neutralization that accompanies the deposition of alkali atoms on the surface. The loss features are due to Li 1s excitation via electron promotion, while the production of ions away from the surface via autoionization is responsible for their lack of response to alkali-atom adsorption. Spectra of ion-induced electron emissions confirm that Li*(1s2s2) is produced and that it undergoes autoionization.

  9. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  10. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  11. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  12. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Dry skin Overview Dry, ashy skin: People who had atopic ... often have very dry skin as adults. Dry skin: Overview Also called xerosis Dry skin is common. ...

  13. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  14. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    individual gas cleaning stages, and the probable operating conditions of the gas cleaning stages to conceptually satisfy the gas cleaning requirements; (2) Estimate process material & energy balances for the major plant sections and for each gas cleaning stage; (3) Conceptually size and specify the major gas cleaning process equipment; (4) Determine the resulting overall performance of the application; and (5) Estimate the investment cost and operating cost for each application. Analogous evaluation steps were applied for each application using conventional gas cleaning technology, and comparison was made to extract the potential benefits, issues, and development needs of the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning technology. The gas cleaning process and related gas conditioning steps were also required to meet specifications that address plant environmental emissions, the protection of the gas turbine and other Power Island components, and the protection of the methanol synthesis reactor. Detailed material & energy balances for the gas cleaning applications, coupled with preliminary thermodynamic modeling and laboratory testing of candidate sorbents, identified the probable sorbent types that should be used, their needed operating conditions in each stage, and their required levels of performance. The study showed that Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning technology can be configured to address and conceptually meet all of the gas cleaning requirements for IGCC, and that it can potentially overcome several of the conventional IGCC power plant availability issues, resulting in improved power plant thermal efficiency and cost. For IGCC application, Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning yields 6% greater generating capacity and 2.3 percentage-points greater efficiency under the Current Standards case, and more than 9% generating capacity increase and 3.6 percentage-points higher efficiency in the Future Standards case. While the conceptual equipment costs are estimated to be only slightly

  15. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  16. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  17. Skin flaps and grafts - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional flaps - self-care; Distant flaps - self-care; Free flap - self-care; Skin autografting - self-care; Pressure ulcer ... your wound To care for the graft or flap site: You may need to rest ... around it clean and free from dirt or sweat. DO NOT let the ...

  18. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 15, No. 2, October 2011 (Brochure) (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  19. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  20. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  1. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    Half the world's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020. The high human density and changes in peoples' consumption habits result in an ever-increasing amount of trash that must be handled by governing bodies. Problems created by inefficient or dysfunctional cleaning services...

  2. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  3. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you ever get a bad sunburn that caused blisters when you were a child?Does your skin ... Cancer InstituteMelanoma International FoundationAmerican Cancer Society ResourcesDiagnosis and Management of Malignant Melanoma by BG Goldstein, AO Goldstein( ...

  4. On the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable resources: dirty vs clean energy sources and the relative efficiency of generators

    OpenAIRE

    Elettra Agliardi; Luigi Sereno

    2012-01-01

    We develop a model on the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable energy sources with endogenous extraction choices under emission taxes, subsidies on renewable resources and abatement costs. We assume that non-renewable resources are "dirty" inputs and create environmental degradation, while renewable resources are more environmentally friendly, although they may be more or less productive than the exhaustible resources. The value of the switching option from non-renewabl...

  5. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  6. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  7. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  8. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  9. 76 FR 34041 - Clean Technologies Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... technologies including wind, hydro, waste-to-energy, solar power generation and clean coal; energy efficiency... of 15%. Wind, hydro, solar, biomass, and waste-to-energy all have huge potential. Only 19,973 MW of... concern for the Indian energy sector, threatening to slow the growth of the Indian economy. To keep...

  10. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  11. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  12. Multi-stage cleaning plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1980-12-09

    A cleaning plant positioned within an annular fluidized bed combustion chamber is divided into a plurality of separate cleaning stages, wherein a first stage is located adjacent the fluidized bed and additional stages are arranged within the first stage. Each stage comprises a plurality of separate cleaning devices which act in parallel, while cleaning devices of different stages act in series to remove debris from the combustion gases that exit from the fluidized bed combustion chamber.

  13. Dosimetry for Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Sung Sil; Loh, John J. K.; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-06-15

    Increasing frequency of skin cancer, mycosis fungoides, Kaposi sarcoma etc, it need to treatment dose planning for total skin electron beam (TSEB) therapy. Appropriate treatment planning for TSEB therapy is needed to give homogeneous dose distribution throughout the entire skin surface. The energy of 6 MeV electron from the 18 MeV medical linear accelerator was adapted for superficial total skin electron beam therapy. The energy of the electron beam was reduced to 4.2 MeV by a 0.5cmx90cmx180cm acryl screen placed in a feet front of the patient. Six dual field beam was adapted for total skin irradiation to encompass the entire body surface from head to toe simultaneously. The patients were treated behind the acryl screen plate acted as a beam scatterer and contained a parallel-plate shallow ion chamber for dosimetry and beam monitoring. During treatment, the patient was placed in six different positions due to be homogeneous dose distribution for whole skin around the body. One treatment session delivered 400 cGy to the entire skin surface and patients were treated twice a week for eight consecutive weeks, which is equivalent to TDF value 57. Instrumentation and techniques developed in determining the depth dose, dose distribution and bremsstrahlung dose are discussed.

  14. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics The Skin Cancer Foundation's Champions for Change Gala 2016 Learn ...

  15. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  16. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  17. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  18. Skin Bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Samira M.

    2015-01-01

    In this project, I aim to investigate the reasoning behind the practice of skin bleaching by analyzing the documentary ”Dark Girls”, to gain a better understanding of race and colorism issues. Also this project tries to see if there is a connection with history and if this has been a part of making the european beauty ideal determine the choices black’s make in regards to beauty.

  19. A Clean Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAGGIECHEN

    2004-01-01

    If you have US$1 million, do you invest in car production or cleaning car emissions? More cars than ever are hitting the roads and demand is rising.Cleaner cars are being called for, as the government strives to reduce car emission. So there is an obvious market both for cars and for new emission control technologies.Theoretically, you should make money by investing in either of them in China today.

  20. CLEAN: CLustering Enrichment ANalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedovic Mario

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of biological knowledge encoded in various lists of functionally related genes has become one of the most important aspects of analyzing genome-wide functional genomics data. In the context of cluster analysis, functional coherence of clusters established through such analyses have been used to identify biologically meaningful clusters, compare clustering algorithms and identify biological pathways associated with the biological process under investigation. Results We developed a computational framework for analytically and visually integrating knowledge-based functional categories with the cluster analysis of genomics data. The framework is based on the simple, conceptually appealing, and biologically interpretable gene-specific functional coherence score (CLEAN score. The score is derived by correlating the clustering structure as a whole with functional categories of interest. We directly demonstrate that integrating biological knowledge in this way improves the reproducibility of conclusions derived from cluster analysis. The CLEAN score differentiates between the levels of functional coherence for genes within the same cluster based on their membership in enriched functional categories. We show that this aspect results in higher reproducibility across independent datasets and produces more informative genes for distinguishing different sample types than the scores based on the traditional cluster-wide analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of the CLEAN framework in comparing clusterings produced by different algorithms. CLEAN was implemented as an add-on R package and can be downloaded at http://Clusteranalysis.org. The package integrates routines for calculating gene specific functional coherence scores and the open source interactive Java-based viewer Functional TreeView (FTreeView. Conclusion Our results indicate that using the gene-specific functional coherence score improves the reproducibility of the