WorldWideScience

Sample records for clean efficient alternative

  1. Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed, as am the major R ampersand D issues

  2. The Sequential Probability Ratio Test: An efficient alternative to exact binomial testing for Clean Water Act 303(d) evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Connie; Gribble, Matthew O; Bartroff, Jay; Bay, Steven M; Goldstein, Larry

    2017-05-01

    The United States's Clean Water Act stipulates in section 303(d) that states must identify impaired water bodies for which total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) of pollution inputs into water bodies are developed. Decision-making procedures about how to list, or delist, water bodies as impaired, or not, per Clean Water Act 303(d) differ across states. In states such as California, whether or not a particular monitoring sample suggests that water quality is impaired can be regarded as a binary outcome variable, and California's current regulatory framework invokes a version of the exact binomial test to consolidate evidence across samples and assess whether the overall water body complies with the Clean Water Act. Here, we contrast the performance of California's exact binomial test with one potential alternative, the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT). The SPRT uses a sequential testing framework, testing samples as they become available and evaluating evidence as it emerges, rather than measuring all the samples and calculating a test statistic at the end of the data collection process. Through simulations and theoretical derivations, we demonstrate that the SPRT on average requires fewer samples to be measured to have comparable Type I and Type II error rates as the current fixed-sample binomial test. Policymakers might consider efficient alternatives such as SPRT to current procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  4. High-fidelity simulations for clean and efficient combustion of alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oefelein, J C; Chen, J H [Reacting Flow Research Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Sankaran, R, E-mail: oefelei@sandia.go [National Center for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    There is an urgent and growing demand for high-fidelity simulations that capture complex turbulence-chemistry interactions in propulsion and power systems, and in particular, that capture and discriminate the effects of fuel variability. This project addresses this demand using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique (led by Oefelein) and the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) technique (led by Chen). In particular, we are conducting research under the INCITE program that is tightly coupled with funded projects established under the DOE Basic Energy Sciences and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy programs that will provide the foundational science required to develop a predictive modeling capability for design of advanced engines for transportation. Application of LES provides the formal ability to treat the full range of multidimensional time and length scales that exist in turbulent reacting flows in a computationally feasible manner and thus provides a way to simulate reacting flow phenomena in complex internal-combustion engine geometries at device relevant conditions. Application of DNS provides a way to study fundamental issues related to small-scale combustion processes in canonical configurations to understand dynamics that occur over a range of reactive-diffusive scales. Here we describe the challenges and present representative examples of the types of simulations each respective tool has been used for as part of the INCITE program. We focus on recent experiences on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) Cray-XT Platform (i.e., Jaguar).

  5. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  6. L-Reactor 186-basin cleaning alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Operation of L Reactor will necessitate annual cleaning of the L Area 186 basins. Alternatives are presented for sediment discharge due to 186-basin cleaning activities as a basis for choosing the optimal cleaning method. Current cleaning activities (i.e. removal of accumulated sediments) for the P, C and K-Area 186 basins result in suspended solids concentrations in the effluent waters above the NPDES limits, requiring an exemption from the NPDES permit for these short-term releases. The objective of mitigating the 186-basin cleaning activities is to decrease the suspended solids concentrations to within permit limits while continuing satisfactory operation of the basins

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural

  8. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 85 and 86 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and...-0299; FRL-9149-9] RIN 2060-AP64 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions AGENCY... streamline the process by which manufacturers of clean alternative fuel conversion systems may demonstrate...

  9. 40 CFR 63.447 - Clean condensate alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean condensate alternative. 63.447... alternative. As an alternative to the requirements specified in § 63.443(a)(1)(ii) through (a)(1)(v) for the... HAP emissions reductions achieved by this clean condensate alternative technology are equal to or...

  10. Sonochemical cleaning efficiencies in dental instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, T. Joyce; Walmsley, A. Damien; Price, Gareth J.

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasound has been widely used for cleaning purposes in a variety of situations, including in dental practice. Cleaning is achieved through a combination of acoustically driven streaming effects and sonochemical effects arising from the production of inertial cavitation in a liquid. In our work, various dental instruments used for endodontic (root canal) treatment have been evaluated for their efficiency in producing sonochemical effects in an in-vitro cleaning environment. The areas where cavitation was produced were mapped by monitoring chemiluminescence from luminol solutions and this was correlated with their cleaning efficiencies - assessed by the ability to bleach a dye, to form an emulsion by mixing immiscible components and also to remove ink from a glass surface. The results showed good correlation (Pearson's coefficient > 0.9) between the cavitation and cleaning efficiencies, suggesting that the former plays an important role in cleaning. The methods developed and the results will be beneficial in endodontics research in order to optimise future root canal instruments and treatments.

  11. Alternative Solvents and Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Hintze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning solvents for aerospace components and oxygen fuel systems, including currently used Vertrel-MCA, have a negative environmental legacy, high global warming potential, and have polluted cleaning sites. Thus, alternative solvents and technologies are being investigated with the aim of achieving precision contamination levels of less than 1 mg/sq ft. The technologies being evaluated are ultrasonic bath cleaning, plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide cleaning.

  12. Hydrogen as alternative clean fuel: Economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1995-03-01

    In analogy to biofuel production from biomasses, the electrolytic conversion of other renewable energies into hydrogen as an alternative clean fuel is considered. This solution allows the intermittent renewable energy sources, as photovoltaics and wind energy, to enhance their development and enlarge the role into conventional fuel market. A rough economic analysis of hydrogen production line shows the costs, added by electrolysis and storage stages, can be recovered by properly accounting for social and environmental costs due to whole cycle of conventional fuels, from production to use. So, in a perspective of attaining the economic competitiveness of renewable energy, the hydrogen, arising from intermittent renewable energy sources, will be able to compete in the energy market with conventional fuels, making sure that their substitution will occur in a significant amount and the corresponding environment

  13. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.

  14. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, K; Carrillo, S; Gutierrez, L

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at ''La Primavera'' farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done

  15. Alternative, Green Processes for the Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.; Grandelli, Heather Eilenfield; Devor, Robert; Hintze, Paul E.; Loftin, Kathleen B.; Tomlin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    weighed again showing typical contaminant deposition levels of approximately 0.00300g per part. They were then cleaned by the solvent or process being tested and then weighed a third time which allowed for the calculation of the cleaning efficiency of the test solvent or process.Based on preliminary experiments, five solvents (ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, and tert-butyl acetate) were down selected for further testing. When coupled with ultrasonic agitation, these solvents removed hydrocarbon contaminants as well as Vertrel MCA and showed improved removal of perfluorinated greases. Supercritical carbon dioxide did an excellent job dissolving each of the five contaminants but did a poor job of removing Teflon particles found in the perfluorinated greases. Plasma cleaning efficiency was found to be dependent on which supply gas was used, exposure time, and gas pressure. Under optimized conditions it was found that breathing air, energized to the plasma phase, was able to remove nearly 100% of the contamination.These findings indicate that alternative cleaning methods are indeed able to achieve precision levels of cleanliness. Currently, our team is working with a commercial cleaning company to get independent verification of our results. We are also evaluating the technical and financial aspects of scaling these processes to a size capable of supporting the future cleaning needs of KSC.

  16. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, J.D.; Meltzer, M.; Miscovich, D.; Montoya, D.; Goodrich, P.; Blycker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL`s findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria.

  17. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, J.D.; Meltzer, M.; Miscovich, D.; Montoya, D.; Goodrich, P.; Blycker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL's findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria

  18. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Fantao; Chu Jinkui [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Luo Gang; Zhou Ye; Carlberg, Patrick; Heidari, Babak [Obducat AB, SE-20125 Malmoe (Sweden); Maximov, Ivan; Montelius, Lars; Xu, H Q [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Lars, E-mail: ivan.maximov@ftf.lth.se [Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Box 117, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-06

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  19. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vol. 4, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficker, C.

    2000-09-08

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News discusses Executive Order 13149 which is designed to not only increase the use of alternative fuel by federal agencies but also to increase the use of fuel efficient vehicles in the federal fleet. Also highlighted is the 6th National Clean Cities Conference and Expo held in San Diego, May 7-10, 2000, which attracted nearly 1,000 people for three action-packed days of alternative fuel activities. The work to develop a market for alternative fuels is more important than ever.

  20. EM-31 Alternative and Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Bill

    2010-01-01

    King's introduction to his presentation made 5 important points: (1) Numerous SRS tanks scheduled for closure (contract commitments); (2) Cannot remove all sludge by mechanical means due to obstructions; (3) Chemical removal technology needed (likely oxalic acid); (4) Post - dissolution neutralization required prior to transfer to compliant tanks; (5) Sodium oxalate salts precipitate on neutralization and have negative downstream impacts. There were three SRS chemical cleaning programs in 2010: Baseline: 8wt percent OA batch contact, ECC: 1-3 wt. percent OA with oxalate destruction, and the Alternative/Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (EM-31). This talk is on the EM-31 program.

  1. Flue Gas Cleaning With Alternative Processes and Reaction Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Alternative methods to the traditional industrial NOX and SOXflue gas cleaning processes working at lower temperatures and/orleading to useful products are desired. In this work we presentour latest results regarding the use of molten ionic media inelectrocatalytic membrane separation, ionic liquid...... reversibleabsorption and supported ionic liquid deNOX catalysis. Furtherdevelopment of the methods will hopefully make them suitable forinstallation in different positions in the flue gas duct ascompared to the industrial methods available today....

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center : Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities

  4. Clean burn: Incinerators get more efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, G.

    2003-01-01

    Combustion efficiency and accuracy of today's new breed of incinerators is discussed. The latest of these units are capable of delivering 99.99 per cent combustion efficiency with no visible flame, black smoke or detectable odour. Near-complete combustion is achieved with incineration because of the very high temperatures reached in the enclosed combustion chamber as a combination of temperature, time for burning, and a good mix of gases and oxygen. Controlling these inputs is the key to efficient incineration, as is high quality fibre refractory lining; control means control of the stack top temperature, which will affect what comes out of the top water and how well the combustion byproducts are dispersed. Until recently, incinerators have not been highly regarded by the oil industry. However, with the growing concerns about greenhouse gases, carcinogens and in response to increasing regulations aimed at reducing venting and flaring, incinerators are coming into their own. Today they are seen more and more frequently in well testing, coalbed methane testing, at battery sites and at gas plants

  5. Tools for Predicting Cleaning Efficiency in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W; Brugger, M; Hayes, M; Jeanneret, J B; Kain, V; Kaltchev, D I; Schmidt, F

    2003-01-01

    The computer codes SIXTRACK and DIMAD have been upgraded to include realistic models of proton scattering in collimator jaws, mechanical aperture restrictions, and time-dependent fields. These new tools complement long-existing simplified linear tracking programs used up to now for tracking with collimators. Scattering routines from STRUCT and K2 have been compared with one another and the results have been cross-checked to the FLUKA Monte Carlo package. A systematic error is assigned to the predictions of cleaning efficiency. Now, predictions of the cleaning efficiency are possible with a full LHC model, including chromatic effects, linear and nonlinear errors, beam-beam kicks and associated diffusion, and time-dependent fields. The beam loss can be predicted around the ring, both for regular and irregular beam losses. Examples are presented.

  6. Monitor Clean and Efficient. Current state of affairs 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, J.

    2010-04-01

    This is the second report of the annual Monitor of the Dutch Clean and Efficient programme. The monitoring focuses on the development of target variables, effects, results and progress of the process. Most of the data regarding the results and effects concern the period until the end of 2009. Some data are not yet available for 2009 and can therefore only be provided for the preceding years. [nl

  7. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    To control chemical hazards in work places, substitution of harmful substances with less harmful or non-toxic products is now a method used in many countries and in many companies. It has previously been demonstrated that it is desirable and possible to use non-volatile, low-toxic vegetable...... cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...

  8. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  9. The high efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Williams, K.; Violet, C.

    1990-08-01

    We have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing our steel filters, we first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, we then built prototype filters for venting compressed gases and evaluated them in our automated filter tester. 12 refs., 20 figs

  10. High efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Conner, J.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Turner, C.; Vahla, G.; Violet, C.; Williams, K.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiently particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing steel filters, they first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, prototype filters were then built for venting compressed gases and evaluated in their automated filter tester

  11. Investigation of Alternative Approaches for Cleaning Mott Porous Metal Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy selected Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred cesium removal technology for Savannah River Site (SRS) waste. As a pretreatment step for the CSSX flowsheet, the incoming salt solution that contains entrained sludge is contacted with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and select actinides. The resulting slurry is filtered to remove the sludge and MST. Filter fouling occurs during this process. At times, personnel can increase the filtrate rate by backpulsing or scouring. At other times, the filtrate rate drops significantly and only chemical cleaning will restore filter performance. The current baseline technology for filter cleaning uses 0.5 M oxalic acid. The Salt Processing Project (SPP) at SRS, through the Tanks Focus Area, requested an evaluation of other cleaning agents to determine their effectiveness at removing trapped sludge and MST solids compared with the baseline oxalic acid method. A review of the technical literature identified compounds that appear effective at dissolving solid compounds. Consultation with the SPP management team, engineering personnel, and researchers led to a selection of oxalic acid, nitric acid, citric acid, and ascorbic acid for testing. Tests used simulated waste and actual waste as follows. Personnel placed simulated or actual SRS High Level Waste sludge and MST in a beaker. They added the selected cleaning agents, stirred the beakers, and collected supernate samples periodically analyzing for dissolved metals

  12. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating... regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products and...

  13. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vol. 5, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-11-01

    A quarterly magazine with articles on alternative fuel school buses, the market growth of biodiesel fuel, National AFV Day 2002, model year 2002 alternative fuel passenger cars and light trucks, the Michelin Challenge Bibendum road rally, and advanced technology vehicles at Robins Air Force Base, the Top Ten Clean Cities coalitions for 2000, and AFVs on college campuses.

  14. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    aluminum sludge heels may be appropriate as a means of reducing oxalic acid usage. Reagents other than oxalic acid may also be needed for removing actinide elements from the tank heels. A systems engineering evaluation (SEE) was performed on the various alternative chemical cleaning reagents and organic oxidation technologies discussed in the literature review. The objective of the evaluation was to develop a short list of chemical cleaning reagents and oxalic acid destruction methods that should be the focus of further research and development. The results of the SEE found that eight of the thirteen organic oxidation technologies scored relatively close together. Six of the chemical cleaning reagents were also recommended for further investigation. Based on the results of the SEE and plan set out in the TTQAP the following broad areas are recommended for future study as part of the AECC task: (1) Basic Chemistry of Sludge Dissolution in Oxalic Acid: A better understanding of the variables effecting dissolution of sludge species is needed to efficiently remove sludge heels while minimizing the use of oxalic acid or other chemical reagents. Tests should investigate the effects of pH, acid concentration, phase ratios, temperature, and kinetics of the dissolution reactions of sludge components with oxalic acid, mineral acids, and combinations of oxalic/mineral acids. Real waste sludge samples should be characterized to obtain additional data on the mineral phases present in sludge heels. (2) Simulant Development Program: Current sludge simulants developed by other programs for use in waste processing tests, while compositionally similar to real sludge waste, generally have more hydrated forms of the major metal phases and dissolve more easily in acids. Better simulants containing the mineral phases identified by real waste characterization should be developed to test chemical cleaning methods. (3) Oxalic Acid Oxidation Technologies: The two Mn based oxidation methods that

  15. Annealing free, clean graphene transfer using alternative polymer scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joshua D; Doidge, Gregory P; Carrion, Enrique A; Koepke, Justin C; Kaitz, Joshua A; Datye, Isha; Behnam, Ashkan; Hewaparakrama, Jayan; Aruin, Basil; Chen, Yaofeng; Dong, Hefei; Haasch, Richard T; Lyding, Joseph W; Pop, Eric

    2015-02-06

    We examine the transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with polymer scaffolds of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(phthalaldehyde) (PPA), and poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC). We find that optimally reactive PC scaffolds provide the cleanest graphene transfers without any annealing, after extensive comparison with optical microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Comparatively, films transferred with PLA, PPA, PMMA/PC, and PMMA have a two-fold higher roughness and a five-fold higher chemical doping. Using PC scaffolds, we demonstrate the clean transfer of CVD multilayer graphene, fluorinated graphene, and hexagonal boron nitride. Our annealing free, PC transfers enable the use of atomically-clean nanomaterials in biomolecule encapsulation and flexible electronic applications.

  16. Annealing free, clean graphene transfer using alternative polymer scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Joshua D; Doidge, Gregory P; Carrion, Enrique A; Koepke, Justin C; Datye, Isha; Behnam, Ashkan; Hewaparakrama, Jayan; Aruin, Basil; Chen, Yaofeng; Lyding, Joseph W; Kaitz, Joshua A; Dong, Hefei; Haasch, Richard T; Pop, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We examine the transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with polymer scaffolds of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(phthalaldehyde) (PPA), and poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC). We find that optimally reactive PC scaffolds provide the cleanest graphene transfers without any annealing, after extensive comparison with optical microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Comparatively, films transferred with PLA, PPA, PMMA/PC, and PMMA have a two-fold higher roughness and a five-fold higher chemical doping. Using PC scaffolds, we demonstrate the clean transfer of CVD multilayer graphene, fluorinated graphene, and hexagonal boron nitride. Our annealing free, PC transfers enable the use of atomically-clean nanomaterials in biomolecule encapsulation and flexible electronic applications. (paper)

  17. Evaluating clean energy alternatives for Jiangsu, China: An improved multi-criteria decision making method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Peng; Newton, Sidney; Fang, Jian-xin; Zhou, De-qun; Zhang, Lu-ping

    2015-01-01

    Promoting the utilization of clean energy has been identified as one potential solution to addressing environmental pollution and achieving sustainable development in many countries around the world. Evaluating clean energy alternatives includes a requirement to balance multiple conflict criteria, including technology, environment, economy and society, all of which are incommensurate and interdependent. Traditional MCDM (multi-criteria decision making) methods, such as the weighted average method, often fail to aggregate such criteria consistently. In this paper, an improved MCDM method based on fuzzy measure and integral is developed and applied to evaluate four primary clean energy options for Jiangsu Province, China. The results confirm that the preferred clean energy option for Jiangsu is solar photovoltaic, followed by wind, biomass and finally nuclear. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to evaluate the values of clean energy resources for Jiangsu. The ordered weighted average method is also applied to compare the method mentioned above in our empirical study. The results show that the improved MCDM method provides higher discrimination between alternative clean energy alternatives. - Highlights: • Interactions among evaluation criteria of clean energy resources are taken into account. • An improved multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method is proposed based on entropy weight method, fuzzy measure and integral. • Clean energy resources of Jiangsu are evaluated with the improved MCDM method, and their ranks are identified.

  18. Alternative fuel news: Official publication of the clean cities network and the alternative fuels data center, Vol. 4, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    2000-03-27

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News contains information on the upcoming Clean Cities Conference to be held May 7--10, 2000 in San Diego, California. Highlighted in this issue is the success of the Clean Cities Program in creating clean corridors that permit fleets that serve multiple cities to purchase AFVs with confidence, knowing that fueling convenience and supply will not be a problem. Also look for articles on electric vehicles, transit buses; state and fuel provider enforcement; the Salt Lake and Greater Long Island Clean Cities coalitions, HEVs and fuel cells are a big hit at auto shows; DOE awards alternative fuel grants to 33 National Parks; and the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) Section 506 report.

  19. SAGE SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS FOR SELECTING INDUSTRIAL SURFACE CLEANING ALTERNATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes computer software, called SAGE, that can provide not only cleaning recommendations but also general information on various surface cleaning options. In short, it is an advisory system which can provide users with vital information on the cleaning process optio...

  20. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2010-05-05

    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  1. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  2. Nuclear power generation alternative for a clean energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simionov, V; Ibadula, R.; Popescu, Ion.; Bobric, Elena

    2001-01-01

    World Energy Council stated that to raise the efficiency in which energy is provided is a huge challenge for power engineering. Over 60% of primary energy is in effect, wasted. At present 63% of the world's electricity comes from thermal power (coal, oil and gas), 19% from hydro, 17% from nuclear, 0.5% from geothermal and 0.1% from solar, wind and biomass. Nuclear power almost completely avoids all the problems associated within fossil fuels: no greenhouse effect, no acid rain, no air pollution with sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, no oil spills, etc. Its impact on health and environment is related to radiation and is relatively minor. Without pretending a high accuracy of numbers, if the first Romanian nuclear power reactor will be replaced by a coal plant of equivalent capacity, about 5 millions tons of CO 2 and large quantities of associated sulfur and nitrous oxides, would be discharged to the atmosphere each year. However, the acceptance of nuclear power is largely an emotional issue. Based on the environmental monitoring program this paper tries to demonstrate that the routine radioactive emissions of Cernavoda NPP, which are limited by competent national authority, constitutes an insignificant risk increase. The concept of sustainable development was elaborated in the late 1980s and defined as a development that fulfil the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development incorporates equity within and across countries as well as across generations, and integrates economic growth, environmental protection and social welfare. To analyze nuclear energy from a sustainable development perspective it is necessary to consider its economic, environmental and social impacts characteristics, both positive and negative. It is obvious that the development of nuclear energy broadens the natural resource base usable for energy production, and increases human and man-made capital. There are also

  3. Promoting energy efficient building in China through clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Lu; Li, Jing; Chiang, Yat Hung

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the barriers which impede the promotion of Energy Efficient Building (EEB), and to propose solutions to alleviate these barriers by capturing the benefits from Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), in the context of China. Through comprehensive literature review, eight types of significant barriers are identified, including weak enforcement of government policies, market inefficiency, information barrier, small and scattering buildings, fragmentation of the construction industry, perceived high risk, higher initial cost, and difficulty in energy management. To overcome the barriers, the potential of CDM to facilitate EEB promotion is then discussed. These barriers are verified and potential solutions are tested with a questionnaire survey conducted among five professional groups in China, i.e. designers, project managers, quantity surveyors, marketing managers and property managers. The results suggest that they generally identified with the barriers. However, their limited awareness of CDM implies that corresponding policies should be formulated and implemented to improve their capability of providing more EEBs with CDM. - Highlights: ► Eight types of significant barriers to the implement of EEB are identified. ► The sources and roots of barriers are verified with the industry professionals. ► Benefits of CDM to EEB are discussed. ► There is limited awareness of CDM in building sector. ► Overcoming or alleviating these barriers through CDM and other sources are proposed

  4. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: BASIC STUDIES RESULTS FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hay, M.

    2011-01-24

    In an effort to develop and optimize chemical cleaning methods for the removal of sludge heels from High Level Waste tanks, solubility tests have been conducted using nonradioactive, pure metal phases. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phase gibbsite and the iron phases hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, and wustite. Many of these mineral phases have been identified in radioactive, High Level Waste sludge at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids and a variety of other complexing organic acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that mixtures of oxalic acid with either nitric or sulfuric acid are the most effective cleaning solutions for the dissolution of the primary metal phases in sludge waste. Based on the results, optimized conditions for hematite dissolution in oxalic acid were selected using nitric or sulfuric acid as a supplemental proton source. Electrochemical corrosion studies were also conducted (reported separately; Wiersma, 2010) with oxalic/mineral acid mixtures to evaluate the effects of these solutions on waste tank integrity. The following specific conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) Oxalic acid was shown to be superior to all of the other organic acids evaluated in promoting the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. (2) All iron phases showed similar solubility trends in oxalic acid versus pH, with hematite exhibiting the lowest solubility and the slowest dissolution. (3) Greater than 90% hematite dissolution occurred in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures within one week for two hematite sources and within three weeks for a third hematite sample with a larger average particle size. This dissolution rate appears acceptable for waste tank cleaning applications. (4) Stoichiometric dissolution of iron phases in oxalic acid (based on the oxalate concentration) and the formation of the preferred 1:1 Fe to oxalate complex

  5. Energy Efficient Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum-based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are presented. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  6. An efficient, environmentally acceptable, clean up system for well completions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Oe.; Saasen, A.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluation of different casing cleaning fluid systems has been a difficult task due to the lack of a standardised laboratory measurement technique for technical performance. In order to meet the need for a reliable evaluation of different chemicals and fluid systems used in casing cleaning, a laboratory procedure for the evaluation of casing cleaning chemicals has been developed. This procedure has been successfully applied in the development of a new environmentally acceptable casing cleaning fluid system. Two different procedures are presented. An old method where the drilling fluid was displaced down the annulus and up the drill string was found to be ineffective compared to a method where the drilling fluid was displaced up in the annulus. The application of this procedure together with the use of the new chemical additive has reduced the cost of casing cleanup operations in the range of 30-40%. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  7. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrwas, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  8. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  9. Self-cleaning efficiency of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Jung, Yong Chae; Koch, Kerstin

    2009-03-03

    The hierarchical structured surface of the lotus (Nelumbo nucifera, Gaertn.) leaf provides a model for the development of biomimetic self-cleaning surfaces. On these water-repellent surfaces, water droplets move easily at a low inclination of the leaf and collect dirt particles adhering to the leaf surface. Flat hydrophilic and hydrophobic, nanostructured, microstructured, and hierarchical structured superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated, and a systematic study of wettability and adhesion properties was carried out. The influence of contact angle hysteresis on self-cleaning by water droplets was studied at different tilt angles (TA) of the specimen surfaces (3 degrees for Lotus wax, 10 degrees for n-hexatriacontane, as well as 45 degrees for both types of surfaces). At 3 degrees and 10 degrees TA, no surfaces were cleaned by moving water applied onto the surfaces with nearly zero kinetic energy, but most particles were removed from hierarchical structured surfaces, and a certain amount of particles were captured between the asperities of the micro- and hierarchical structured surfaces. After an increase of the TA to 45 degrees (larger than the tilt angles of all structured surfaces), as usually used for industrial self-cleaning tests, all nanostructured surfaces were cleaned by water droplets moving over the surfaces followed by hierarchical and microstructures. Droplets applied onto the surfaces with some pressure removed particles residues and led to self-cleaning by a combination of sliding and rolling droplets. Geometrical scale effects were responsible for superior performance of nanostructured surfaces.

  10. Demand for Clean Energies Efficient Development in Buildings Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa Omer, Abdeen

    2017-01-01

    Aims/Purpose: The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment, and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is concluded that green energies like wind, solar, ground source heat pumps, and biomass must be promoted, implemented, and demonstrated from the economic and/or environmental point view. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas. Study design: Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impacts (acid precipitation, ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect or global warming) are comprehensively discussed in this article. Place and Duration of Study: National Centre for Research, Energy Research Institute (ERI), between January 2014 and July 2015. (author)

  11. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  12. Ethanol-fueled low temperature combustion: A pathway to clean and efficient diesel engine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, Usman; Kumar, Raj; Zheng, Ming; Tjong, Jimi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Concept of ethanol–diesel fueled Premixed Pilot Assisted Combustion (PPAC). • Ultra-low NOx and soot with diesel-like thermal efficiency across the load range. • Close to TDC pilot injection timing for direct combustion phasing control. • Minimum pilot quantity (15% of total energy input) for clean, stable operation. • Defined heat release profile distribution (HRPD) to optimize pilot-ethanol ratio. - Abstract: Low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines offers the benefits of ultra-low NOx and smoke emissions but suffers from lowered energy efficiency due to the high reactivity and low volatility of diesel fuel. Ethanol from renewable biomass provides a viable alternate to the petroleum based transportation fuels. The high resistance to auto-ignition (low reactivity) and its high volatility make ethanol a suitable fuel for low temperature combustion (LTC) in compression-ignition engines. In this work, a Premixed Pilot Assisted Combustion (PPAC) strategy comprising of the port fuel injection of ethanol, ignited with a single diesel pilot injection near the top dead centre has been investigated on a single-cylinder high compression ratio diesel engine. The impact of the diesel pilot injection timing, ethanol to diesel quantity ratio and exhaust gas recirculation on the emissions and efficiency are studied at 10 bar IMEP. With the lessons learnt, successful ethanol–diesel PPAC has been demonstrated up to a load of 18 bar IMEP with ultra-low NOx and soot emissions across the full load range. The main challenge of PPAC is the reduced combustion efficiency especially at low loads; therefore, the authors have presented a combustion control strategy to allow high efficiency, clean combustion across the load range. This work entails to provide a detailed framework for the ethanol-fueled PPAC to be successfully implemented.

  13. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  14. Efficiency enhancement of InP nanowire solar cells by surface cleaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Y.; Wang, J.; Plissard, S.R.; Cavalli, A.; Vu, T.T.T.; Veldhoven, van P.J.; Gao, L.; Trainor, M.J.; Verheijen, M.A.; Haverkort, J.E.M.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an efficiency enhancement of an InP nanowire (NW) axial p–n junction solar cell by cleaning the NW surface. NW arrays were grown with in situ HCl etching on an InP substrate patterned by nanoimprint lithography, and the NWs surfaces were cleaned after growth by piranha etching. We

  15. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: A Green and Clean Alternative for Sustained Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Chennault, Kimberly Ann; Thambi, Nithya; Bitetto, Mary Anne; Hameyie, E. B.

    2008-01-01

    Providing efficient and clean power is a challenge for devices that range from the micro to macro in scale. Although there has been significant progress in the development of micro-, meso-, and macro-scale power supplies and technologies, realization of many devices is limited by the inability of power supplies to scale with the diminishing sizes…

  16. Bioinspired Bifunctional Membrane for Efficient Clean Water Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lou, Jinwei; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Dasgupta, Neil P; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-01-13

    Solving the problems of water pollution and water shortage is an urgent need for the sustainable development of modern society. Different approaches, including distillation, filtration, and photocatalytic degradation, have been developed for the purification of contaminated water and the generation of clean water. In this study, we explored a new approach that uses solar light for both water purification and clean water generation. A bifunctional membrane consisting of a top layer of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), a middle layer of Au NPs, and a bottom layer of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was designed and fabricated through multiple filtration processes. Such a design enables both TiO2 NP-based photocatalytic function and Au NP-based solar-driven plasmonic evaporation. With the integration of these two functions into a single membrane, both the purification of contaminated water through photocatalytic degradation and the generation of clean water through evaporation were demonstrated using simulated solar illumination. Such a demonstration should also help open up a new strategy for maximizing solar energy conversion and utilization.

  17. Effect of design and technology on the efficiency of ultrasonic facilities for sheet cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubyanitskij, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    Various techniques are reviewed for enhancing the efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning of various items, such as sheets, and for lowering the energy consumption of the process. It is important to maintain a specified spacing between the item to be cleaned and the supersound projector, to remove the contaminants accumulating in the surface layer of the solution and to provide an adequate combination between the ultrasonic and the mechanical cleaning means. It is noted that the injection of the surfactants directly into the cleaning zone lowers the intensity of foaming without affecting the quality of cleaning. In some cases the cleaning is even speeded up due to an improvement in conditions for the transmission of acoustic waves in areas at some distance from the converter

  18. Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future: Interlaboratory Working Group on Energy-Efficient and Clean-Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2000-12-18

    This study estimates the potential for public policies and R and D programs to foster clean energy technology solutions to the energy and environmental challenges facing the nation. These challenges include global climate change, air pollution, oil dependence, and inefficiencies in the production and use of energy. The study uses a scenario-based approach to examine alternative portfolios of public policies and technologies. Although the report makes no policy recommendations, it does present policies that could lead to impressive advances in the development and deployment of clean energy technologies without significant net economic impacts. Appendices are available electronically at: www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/29379appendices.pdf (6.4 MB).

  19. Alternative bio-based fuels for aviation: the clean airports program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has been designated as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. The U.S. Dept. of Energy (US DOE) conferred this designation in March 1996. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. The two major fuels used in aviation are the current piston engine aviation gasoline and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation gasoline (100LL), currently used in the general aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the U.S. today. Turbine engine fuel (jet fuel) produces two major environmental impacts: a local one, in the vicinity of the airports, and a global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinity of airports, through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles. (author)

  20. Asympotic efficiency of signed - rank symmetry tests under skew alternatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Durio; Yakov Nikitin

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency of some known tests for symmetry such as the sign test, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test or more general linear signed rank tests was studied mainly under the classical alternatives of location. However it is interesting to compare the efficiencies of these tests under asymmetric alternatives like the so-called skew alternative proposed in Azzalini (1985). We find and compare local Bahadur efficiencies of linear signed-rank statistics for skew alternatives and discuss also the con...

  1. Energy from Waste--clean, efficient, renewable: transitions in combustion efficiency and NOx control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, M H; Halter, R; Sigg, A; Brosch, B; Gehrmann, H J; Keunecke, M

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally EfW (Energy from Waste) plants apply a reciprocating grate to combust waste fuel. An integrated steam generator recovers the heat of combustion and converts it to steam for use in a steam turbine/generator set. This is followed by an array of flue gas cleaning technologies to meet regulatory limitations. Modern combustion applies a two-step method using primary air to fuel the combustion process on the grate. This generates a complex mixture of pyrolysis gases, combustion gases and unused combustion air. The post-combustion step in the first pass of the boiler above the grate is intended to "clean up" this mixture by oxidizing unburned gases with secondary air. This paper describes modifications to the combustion process to minimize exhaust gas volumes and the generation of noxious gases and thus improving the overall thermal efficiency of the EfW plant. The resulting process can be coupled with an innovative SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction) technology to form a clean and efficient solid waste combustion system. Measurements immediately above the grate show that gas compositions along the grate vary from 10% CO, 5% H(2) and 0% O(2) to essentially unused "pure" air, in good agreement with results from a mathematical model. Introducing these diverse gas compositions to the post combustion process will overwhelm its ability to process all these gas fractions in an optimal manner. Inserting an intermediate step aimed at homogenizing the mixture above the grate has shown to significantly improve the quality of combustion, allowing for optimized process parameters. These measures also resulted in reduced formation of NO(x) (nitrogenous oxides) due to a lower oxygen level at which the combustion process was run (2.6 vol% O(2,)(wet) instead of 6.0 vol% O(2,)(wet)). This reduction establishes optimal conditions for the DyNOR™ (Dynamic NO(x) Reduction) NO(x) reduction process. This innovative SNCR technology is adapted to situations typically

  2. G20 Clean Energy, and Energy Efficiency Deployment and Policy Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    G-20 Clean Energy, and Energy Efficiency Deployment and Policy Progress, a report prepared by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in collaboration with the G-20 Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Working Group, provides an overview of clean energy and energy efficiency technology deployment and summarises support policies in place across G-20 countries. The report highlights that while clean energy technology deployment has made steady progress and energy efficiency improvements have been made, continued reliance on fossil fuels to meet growth in global energy demand presents a significant challenge. Scaling-up the deployment of renewable energy, in addition to improving end-use efficiency, enhancing the efficiency of fossil fuel based power generation, and supporting the widespread deployment of CCS will, therefore, also be crucial aspects of the transition to a cleaner energy future. Because the G-20 group of countries represent close to 80% of energy-related CO2 emissions, by developing and deploying energy efficiency and clean energy technologies, they are presented with a unique opportunity to make collective progress in transitioning the global energy system. IEA Deputy Executive Director Richard Jones emphasised the importance of G-20 efforts, saying, 'The IEA welcomes this important collaboration with the G-20. Enhanced deployment of clean energy technologies and of energy efficiency improvements offers energy security and environmental benefits. It will also enable cost savings over the medium and long term -- an aspect that is particularly relevant at a time of economic uncertainty. We believe that enhanced policy assessment and analysis, building on this initial report, will enable governments to take more cost effective and efficient policy decisions.' This report was issued on the authority of the IEA Executive Director, it does not necessarily represent the views of IEA Member countries or the G20.

  3. G20 Clean Energy, and Energy Efficiency Deployment and Policy Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    G-20 Clean Energy, and Energy Efficiency Deployment and Policy Progress, a report prepared by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in collaboration with the G-20 Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Working Group, provides an overview of clean energy and energy efficiency technology deployment and summarises support policies in place across G-20 countries. The report highlights that while clean energy technology deployment has made steady progress and energy efficiency improvements have been made, continued reliance on fossil fuels to meet growth in global energy demand presents a significant challenge. Scaling-up the deployment of renewable energy, in addition to improving end-use efficiency, enhancing the efficiency of fossil fuel based power generation, and supporting the widespread deployment of CCS will, therefore, also be crucial aspects of the transition to a cleaner energy future. Because the G-20 group of countries represent close to 80% of energy-related CO2 emissions, by developing and deploying energy efficiency and clean energy technologies, they are presented with a unique opportunity to make collective progress in transitioning the global energy system. IEA Deputy Executive Director Richard Jones emphasised the importance of G-20 efforts, saying, 'The IEA welcomes this important collaboration with the G-20. Enhanced deployment of clean energy technologies and of energy efficiency improvements offers energy security and environmental benefits. It will also enable cost savings over the medium and long term -- an aspect that is particularly relevant at a time of economic uncertainty. We believe that enhanced policy assessment and analysis, building on this initial report, will enable governments to take more cost effective and efficient policy decisions.' This report was issued on the authority of the IEA Executive Director, it does not necessarily represent the views of IEA Member countries or the G20.

  4. Efficient waste reduction algorithms based on alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternative heuristic functions are investigated and applied to the modified Wang ... ∗Department of Computer Science and Information Systems, North-West ... rectangles have types ri (i = 1,...,n), where each type has a demand constraint of.

  5. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: tsbaptista@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  6. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  7. 76 FR 21673 - Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... EERE-2011-BP-TP-00024] RIN 1904-AC46 Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... and data related to the use of computer simulations, mathematical methods, and other alternative...

  8. The Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feibus, H.

    1995-12-31

    The joint effort by Polish and American organizations in Krakow has accomplished a great deal in just a few years. In particular, the low emission sources program has had major successes. Poland and America have a lot to learn from each other in the clean and economical use of coal. Both our countries are major producers and users of coal. Both have had to deal with the emissions of particulate and organics from coal combustion. We were fortunate, since our free market economy and democratic government helped us deal with a lot of these problems in the 1950s. In Poland, the freedom to solve these problems has evolved only in the last few years. In the first phase of the program, Polish and American engineers ran combustion tests on boilers and stoves in Krakow. They also performed analyses on the cost and feasibility of various equipment changes. The results of the first phase were used in refining the spreadsheet model to give better estimates of costs emissions. The first phase also included analyses of incentives for proceeding with needed changes. These analyses identified actions needed to create a market for the goods and services which control pollution. Such actions could include privatization, regulation, or financial incentives. The second phase of the program consisted of public meetings in Chicago, Washington, and Krakow. The purpose of the meetings was to inform U.S. and Polish firms about the results of phase 1 and to encourage them to compete to take part in phase 3. The third phase currently underway consists of the commercial ventures that were competitively selected. These ventures were consistent with recommendations unanimously made by the BSC. The three phases of the Polish-American program are discussed.

  9. Alternative approaches to evaluation of cow efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anonymous

    2017-01-26

    Jan 26, 2017 ... Indexes that are consistent with the econometric definition of efficiency and seek to ... defined as ratios, such as the biological efficiency metric calf weight/cow weight. Dinkel & Brown ..... Biometrics 15, 469-485. Scholtz, M.M.& ...

  10. An Evolutionary Efficiency Alternative to the Notion of Pareto Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe paper argues that the notion of Pareto efficiency builds on two normative assumptions: the more general consequentialist norm of any efficiency criterion, and the strong no-harm principle of the prohibition of any redistribution during the economic process that hurts at least one

  11. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  12. Needs, resources and climate change: Clean and efficient conversion technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2011-02-01

    Energy "powers" our life, and energy consumption correlates strongly with our standards of living. The developed world has become accustomed to cheap and plentiful supplies. Recently, more of the developing world populations are striving for the same, and taking steps towards securing their future energy needs. Competition over limited supplies of conventional fossil fuel resources is intensifying, and more challenging environmental problems are springing up, especially related to carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. There is strong evidence that atmospheric CO 2 concentration is well correlated with the average global temperature. Moreover, model predictions indicate that the century-old observed trend of rising temperatures could accelerate as carbon dioxide concentration continues to rise. Given the potential danger of such a scenario, it is suggested that steps be taken to curb energy-related CO 2 emissions through a number of technological solutions, which are to be implemented in a timely fashion. These solutions include a substantial improvement in energy conversion and utilization efficiencies, carbon capture and sequestration, and expanding the use of nuclear energy and renewable sources. Some of these technologies already exist, but are not deployed at sufficiently large scale. Others are under development, and some are at or near the conceptual state. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heat conversion alternative petrochemical complexes efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrakin, A. N.; Selivanov, A. A.; Morev, A. A.; Batrakov, P. A.; Kulbyakina, A. V.; Sotnikov, D. G.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the energy and economic efficiency calculation results of the petrochemical complexes based upon the sulfur oil shales processing by solid (ash) heat-carrier low-temperature carbonization plants by Galoter technology. The criterion for such enterprises fuel efficiency determining was developed on the base of the exergy methodology taking into account the recurrent publications consolidation. In this case, in supplying the consumers with paving bitumen, motor benzol, thiophene, toluene, 2-methylthiophene, xylene, gas sulfur, complex thermodynamic effectiveness was founded to amount to 53 %, and if ash residue realization is possible then it was founded to be to 70 %. The project economic attractiveness determining studies depending on the feedstock cost, its delivery way and investments amount changing were conducted.

  14. Cleaning efficiency enhancement by ultrasounds for membranes used in dairy industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Facundo, M J; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Cuartas-Uribe, B; Álvarez-Blanco, S

    2016-11-01

    Membrane cleaning is a key point for the implementation of membrane technologies in the dairy industry for proteins concentration. In this study, four ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with different molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs) (5, 15, 30 and 50kDa) and materials (polyethersulfone and ceramics) were fouled with three different whey model solutions: bovine serum albumin (BSA), BSA plus CaCl2 and whey protein concentrate solution (Renylat 45). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasounds (US) on the membrane cleaning efficiency. The influence of ultrasonic frequency and the US application modes (submerging the membrane module inside the US bath or applying US to the cleaning solution) were also evaluated. The experiments were performed in a laboratory plant which included the US equipment and the possibility of using two membrane modules (flat sheet and tubular). The fouling solution that caused the highest fouling degree for all the membranes was Renylat 45. Results demonstrated that membrane cleaning with US was effective and this effectiveness increased at lower frequencies. Although no significant differences were observed between the two different US applications modes tested, slightly higher cleaning efficiencies values placing the membrane module at the bottom of the tank were achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy efficiency - an alternative to grid reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    A shortage of electrical distribution capacity can be approached either by reinforcing the existing distribution network or by using demand side management (DSM) to match consumption to existing capacity. Oslo-based E-CO Partner and network owner Viken Nett have recently completed a project on implementing DSM in Oslo. The results of this project are being used in another, ongoing, project, 'New technology for controlling power load in Oslo', which started in 2001. The two projects evaluate the potential for peak load power reduction amongst residential and commercial customers, as well as the potential for saving energy and for selecting alternative energy carriers to electricity. The consequences and limitations of implementing DSM were studied in greater depth in three pilot studies: these included the analysis of metered data, model simulations and comprehensive surveys to map key motivational factors and behaviour amongst a wide selection of end-users. The projects have shown that it is possible, over a 3-4 year period, to reduce or curb the peak load in a city area by 10-15%. This potential is related to a wide type of measures, among them installation of new equipment, replacement of electrical energy carriers, renovation of buildings and installation of smart house solutions. For network owners, the project has shown that DSM measures in a certain city area can be achieved at a cost 30% below that for grid reinforcement. (UK)

  16. Elimination of the dirty crust of white alterated glaze from excavated ceramics using the laser cleaning alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Aura Castro, Elvira; Saiz Mauleón, María Begoña; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa

    2006-01-01

    The laser technique has been applied to the cleaning process of glazed decorated ceramics from excavation sites. The use of this method arises as the only possible alternative in the process of cleaning pieces with crusts of dirt that are extremely hard and strongly stuck over altered and friable white glaze layers. The study carried out has allowed to fix the optimal laser parameters in the elimination of the dark dirty layer found on several fragments from different periods. The study has b...

  17. Cleaning capacity of hybrid instrumentation technique using reamer with alternating cutting edges system files: Histological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Carlos Sponchiado Junior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the cleaning capacity of a hybrid instrumentation technique using Reamer with Alternating Cutting Edges (RaCe system files in the apical third of mesial roots of mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth were selected and separated into two groups (n = 20 according to instrumentation technique as follows: BioRaCe - chemomechanical preparation with K-type files #10 and #15; and files BioRaCe BR0, BR1, BR2, BR3, and BR4; HybTec - hybrid instrumentation technique with K-type files #10 and #15 in the working length, #20 at 2 mm, #25 at 3 mm, cervical preparation with Largo burs #1 and #2; apical preparation with K-type files #15, #20, and #25 and RaCe files #25.04 and #30.04. The root canals were irrigated with 1 ml of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite at each change of instrument. The specimens were histologically processed and photographed under light optical microscope. The images were inserted onto an integration grid to count the amount of debris present in the root canal. Results: BioRaCe presented the highest percentage of debris in the apical third, however, with no statistically significant difference for HybTec (P > 0.05. Conclusions: The hybrid technique presented similar cleaning capacity as the technique recommended by the manufacturer.

  18. Effective and efficient implementation of alternative project delivery : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Alternative project delivery (APD) methods such as Design Build (DB) and Construction Manager at Risk (CMAR), are used by state departments of transportation to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of project delivery. The Maryland Department of ...

  19. Influence of wet chemical cleaning on quantum efficiency of GaN photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao-Hui; Gao Pin; Wang Hong-Gang; Li Biao; Chang Ben-Kang

    2013-01-01

    GaN samples 1–3 are cleaned by a 2:2:1 solution of sulfuric acid (98%) to hydrogen peroxide (30%) to de-ionized water; hydrochloric acid (37%); or a 4:1 solution of sulfuric acid (98%) to hydrogen peroxide (30%). The samples are activated by Cs/O after the same annealing process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after the different ways of wet chemical cleaning shows: sample 1 has the largest proportion of Ga, N, and O among the three samples, while its C content is the lowest. After activation the quantum efficiency curves show sample 1 has the best photocathode performance. We think the wet chemical cleaning method is a process which will mainly remove C contamination. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  20. Vertically Aligned Graphene Sheets Membrane for Highly Efficient Solar Thermal Generation of Clean Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panpan; Li, Jing; Lv, Lingxiao; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Liangti

    2017-05-23

    Efficient utilization of solar energy for clean water is an attractive, renewable, and environment friendly way to solve the long-standing water crisis. For this task, we prepared the long-range vertically aligned graphene sheets membrane (VA-GSM) as the highly efficient solar thermal converter for generation of clean water. The VA-GSM was prepared by the antifreeze-assisted freezing technique we developed, which possessed the run-through channels facilitating the water transport, high light absorption capacity for excellent photothermal transduction, and the extraordinary stability in rigorous conditions. As a result, VA-GSM has achieved average water evaporation rates of 1.62 and 6.25 kg m -2 h -1 under 1 and 4 sun illumination with a superb solar thermal conversion efficiency of up to 86.5% and 94.2%, respectively, better than that of most carbon materials reported previously, which can efficiently produce the clean water from seawater, common wastewater, and even concentrated acid and/or alkali solutions.

  1. Economic and environmental aspects on energy alternatives for a clean air -- wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calanter, P.; Serban, O. [Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies (Romania). Doctoral School; Dragomir, A. [SC CEPSTRA GRUP SRL, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    Fossil fuels combustion in the energy sector is a major contribution to the generation of greenhouse gases emission (GHG) -- mainly carbon dioxide. Emissions reduction represents an important means to protect the environment and to improve the health status of the population -- the major requirement in the context of a sustainble development strategy -- knowing the association of the greenhouse effect with climate change. Fossil fuels are limited and expensive resources. According to the Romanian National Agency for Mineral Resources (2009), under the current extraction level the national oil and gas resources are industrial exploitable for 15 years, while coal would be available for about 30 years. At present, the alternative of renewable energy -- solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and biomass -- is becoming more and more attractive at the global scale. The use of renewable energy offers a clean alternative for energy production, which allows considerable reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases, contributing to climate change mitigation efforts, and also savings of fossil fuels limited resources. Wind energy represents an increasingly more attractive alternative in Romania. Regulations concern not only investment and operation of installations, but also energy recovery and environmental protection. Even though the use of the entire national wind energy potential could determine a significant GHG emissions reduction, the technology, infrastructure and environmental restrictions limits wind energy valorization. Wind farms development, sustained by landscape, wind speed distribution and investors financial promotion, competes with the prudence imposed by the potential environmental impact (biodiversity, microclimate, etc), and the lack of historical data and information structuring. Adequate organization and dissemination of relevant information might be valuable for investors and sustainable development strategies. To estimate the GHG emissions reduction in Romania

  2. Enhanced understanding of energy ratepayers: Factors influencing perceptions of government energy efficiency subsidies and utility alternative energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Allen, Myria W.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores factors related to energy consumers' perceptions of government subsidies for utility provided energy efficiency (EE) programs and for utility providers' use of more clean/alternative energy sources. Demographic factors, attitudes, planned purchases, and perceptions of utility provider motives in relation to governmental and utility provider EE initiatives (i.e. providing discounts and coupons for CFL bulbs), plus the influence of gain- and loss-framed messages are investigated. Over 2000 respondents completed a 16 item phone survey. Hierarchical regression explained 38% of the variance in reactions regarding government subsidies of the cost of utility provided EE programs and 43% of the variance in perceptions involving whether utility companies should use of more clean or alternative forms of energy. Gender and party differences emerged. Loss-framed messages were more important when the issue was government subsidies. Both gain- and loss-framed messages were important when clean/alternative energy was the issue. - Highlights: • Over 2000 ratepayers were surveyed on their attitudes, planned behaviors and perceptions towards energy efficiency programs. • Almost 40% of how ratepayers feel about government subsidies and utility use of clean/alternative energy was explained. • Loss-framed messages were more effective when the dependent variable was ratepayer perception of government subsidies

  3. Energy Efficient in-Sensor Data Cleaning for Mining Frequent Itemsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques M. BAHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited energy, storage, computational power represent the main constraint of sensor networks. Development of algorithms that take into consideration this extremely demanding and constrained environment of sensor networks became a major challenge. Communicating messages over a sensor network consume far more energy than processing it and mining sensors data should respect the characteristics of sensor networks in terms of energy and computation constraints, network dynamics, and faults. This lead us to think of a data cleaning pre processing phase to reduce the packet size transmitted and prepare the data for an efficient and scalable data mining. This paper introduces a tree-based bi-level periodic data cleaning approach implemented on both the source node and the aggregator levels. Our contribution in this paper is two folds. First we look on a periodic basis at each data measured and periodically clean it while taking into consideration the number of occurrences of the measures captured which we shall call weight. Then, a data cleaning is performed between groups of nodes on the level of the aggregator, which contains lists of measures along with their weights. The quality of the information should be preserved during the in-network transmission through the weight of each measure captured by the sensors. This weight will constitute the key optimization of the frequent pattern tree. The result set will constitute a perfect training set to mine without higher CPU consumption allowing us to send only the useful information to the sink. The experimental results show the effectiveness of this technique in terms of energy efficiency and quality of the information by focusing on a periodical data cleaning while taking into consideration the weight of the data captured.

  4. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Carvalho Freitas Sigilião

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding.Methods:A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L, 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H, 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L, DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU, Renew System (GR and Diagloss polisher (GD. Mean roughness (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Results:In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05 was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01.Conclusion:All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness.

  5. An assessment of alternatives for replacing Freon 113 in bench type electrical circuit board cleaning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakson, K.; Vessell, A.L.

    1994-07-01

    Fermilab is presently phasing out all solvents containing Freon-113 (CFC-113) as part of the continuing Waste Minimization Program. These solvents are used primarily in cleaning the flux off of electronic circuit boards after soldering, specifically in bench type work. Title VI of the Clean Air Act mandates a production phase-out for ozone depleting substances, like CFC-113, by the year 2000. Our study addresses this issue by evaluating and choosing alternative non-CFC solvents to replace the CFC-1 13 solvents at Fermilab. Several potential non-CFC cleaning solvents were tested. The evaluation took place in three parts: controlled experimental evaluation, chemical composition evaluation, and employee performed evaluation. First, we performed a controlled nine-step procedure with the potential solvents where each was evaluated in categories such as cleaning effectiveness, odor, residue, type of output and drying time. Next, we listed the chemical composition of each solvent. We noted which solvents contained hydrochlorofluorocarbons because they are targeted for phase-out in the future and will be recognized as interim solutions only. Finally, after preliminary testing, five solvents were chosen as the best options. These solvents were sent to be tested by Fermilab employees who use such materials. Their opinions are valuable not only because they are knowledgeable in this field, but also because they will be using the solvents chosen to replace the CFC-113 solvents. The results favored two ''best alternatives'': Safezone Solvent Flux Remover by Miller-Stephenson and E-Series CFC Free Flux-Off 2000 by Chemtech. Another possible solution also pursued is the no-clean solder option. In our study, we were not able to thoroughly investigate the many types of no-clean solders because of time and financial constraints. The testing that was done, however, showed that no-clean solder was a viable alternative in many cases

  6. Investigation of efficiency of air cleaning from acetone using a segmental construction biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denas Bacevičius

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds, e. g. acetone, have a direct impact on climate change, decrease of ozone in the air, and on the growth of greenhouse effect. One of the most popular air purifying methods from VOC is a biological air cleaning. Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the efficiency of the new structure of biofilter with polypropylene plates segments. During the investigations the efficiency of segmental construction biofilter of air purification at different initial concentrations of pollutants was determined. Different concentrations of pollutants were estimated during the acetone dilution with water. During the tests the efficiency of biofilter air purification from acetone vapor and its change under different concentrations of vapors was set. Based on test results, the maximum efficiency of biofilter air purification was up to 93%. Studies have shown that increasing the allowable pollutant concentration, the efficiency of air purification unit decreases. Increasing the concentration of supplied acetone vapor into the biofilter from 232 to 701 mg/m3, cleaning efficiency decreased from 92.8 to 82.3%. Since microorganisms fail to oxidize organic compounds, the filter works better at lower initial concentrations of pollutants.

  7. The impact of chemical cleaning on separation efficiency and properties of reverse osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Baatiyyah, Hani

    2018-04-01

    One of most major concerns from both cost-effective and technical point of view in membrane process industry is membrane cleaning. The aim of the project was to investigate the variations in membrane surface properties and separation efficiency of reverse osmosis membrane. Compativtive analysis have to be performed on four RO membrane before and after exposing the virgin membrane into chemical cleaning to identify and analysis the impact of the chemical cleaning on the performance of RO membrane. Commerical chemical cleaning used in this project were caustic and acidic cleaning agent. The project’s aim is the investigation of simulation software’s precision for the four membranes performance projection at different conditions of the feed water. The assessment of the membranes performance was done in the Innovation Cluster at pilot plant that was industrial in size. The main commercial elements used were the thin-film composite membranes with a spiral-wound of 8-inch polyamide. Ultrafiltration (UF) and seawater RO membrane pretreatment process was done for the red sea sourced feed water. A pressure vessel dimensioned at 8-inch was operated in conjunction with an individual element at 8 -20 m3/hr feed flow rate, with an 8 to 12 % recovery and an average 35,000-42,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids (TDS) composition for the feed water. To achieve the project’s aim in assessing the membranes, three phase experimental stages were completed. The membranes performance was assessed in terms of their water flux, salt rejection, boron rejection, bicarbonate rejection and permeate quality. In addition, the membrane surfaces were characterized after exposing the fresh membranes with a chemical cleaning reagent. The experimental results showed an increase in both permeate flow and salt passage for all studied elements. The changes in the membranes performance were systematically explained based on the changes in the charge density and chemical structure of the membranes

  8. EM-21 Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Program For Sludge Heel Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.; King, W.; Martino, C.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary studies in the EM-21 Alternative Chemical Cleaning Program have focused on understanding the dissolution of Hematite (a primary sludge heel phase) in oxalic acid, with a focus on minimizing oxalic acid usage. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control, preferably using a supplemental proton source, is critical to oxalate minimization. With pH control, iron concentrations as high as 0.103 M have been obtained in 0.11 M oxalic acid. This is consistent with the formation of a 1:1 (iron:oxalate) complex. The solubility of Hematite in oxalic acid has been confirmed to increase by a factor of 3 when the final solution pH decreases from 5 to below 1. This is consistent with literature predictions of a shift in speciation from a 1:3 to 1:1 as the pH is lowered. Above a solution pH of 6, little Hematite dissolves. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing Hematite dissolution in oxalic acid.

  9. Feasibility for the medium efficiency filter as a postfilter in the air cleaning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H. S.; Jung, D. Y.; Byun, S. C.; Kim, S. H.

    2002-01-01

    The Air Cleaning Unit (ACU) is provided in a nuclear facility to filter the radioactive materials in gaseous effluents released from the facility during normal operation and during a postulated accident. The Air Cleaning Unit (ACU) consists of pre-HEPA filters, charcoal adsorber, post HEPA filters, fans, etc. The charcoal filters keep on-site dose and off-site effluents ALARA, consistent with regulatory requirements. The function of HEPA filter downstream of charcoal(carbon) adsorber in ACU is to catch potential radioactive carbon dust and to be a backup in the event of failure of upstream HEPA. Previous Regulatory Guide use only post HEPA filter of charcoal adsorber downstream but the Regulatory Guide of current revisions allows use of 95% dust spot efficiency filters in lieu of HEPA at the downstream of the carbon adsorber. In this paper is described that the background information of filters, Current Regulatory Guide of revised by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the feasibility for the medium efficiency filter as a carbon adsorber post filter in the Air Cleaning Unit

  10. Thermodynamic comparison and efficiency enhancement mechanism of coal to alternative fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xiaozhou; Li, Sheng; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy analysis are presented to three coal-to-alternative-fuels systems. • Internal reasons for performance differences for different systems are disclosed. • The temperature and heat release of synthesis reactions are key to plant efficiency. • The distillation unit and purge gas recovery are important to efficiency enhancement. - Abstract: Coal to alternative fuels is an important path to enforce energy security and to provide clean energy. In this paper, we use exergy analysis and energy utilization diagram (EUD) methods to disclose the internal reasons for performance differences in typical coal to alternative fuel processes. ASPEN plus software is used to simulate the coal-based energy systems, and the simulation results are verified with engineering data. Results show that coal to substitute natural gas (SNG) process has a higher exergy efficiency of 56.56%, while the exergy efficiency of traditional coal to methanol process is 48.65%. It is indicated that three key factors impact the performance enhancement of coal to alternative fuel process: (1) whether the fuel is distillated, (2) the synthesis temperature and the amount of heat release from reactions, and (3) whether the chemical purge gases from synthesis and distillation units are recovered. Distillation unit is not recommended and synthesis at high temperature and with large heat release is preferable for coal to alternative fuel systems. Gasification is identified as the main source of exergy destruction, and thereby how to decrease its destruction is the key direction of plant efficiency improvement in the future. Also, decreasing the power consumption in air separation unit by seeking for advanced technologies, i.e. membrane, or using another kind of oxidant is another direction to improve plant performance.

  11. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, S.L.; Manderino, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  12. Self-cleaning threaded rod spinneret for high-efficiency needleless electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gaofeng; Jiang, Jiaxin; Wang, Xiang; Li, Wenwang; Zhong, Weizheng; Guo, Shumin

    2018-07-01

    High-efficiency production of nanofibers is the key to the application of electrospinning technology. This work focuses on multi-jet electrospinning, in which a threaded rod electrode is utilized as the needless spinneret to achieve high-efficiency production of nanofibers. A slipper block, which fits into and moves through the threaded rod, is designed to transfer polymer solution evenly to the surface of the rod spinneret. The relative motion between the slipper block and the threaded rod electrode promotes the instable fluctuation of the solution surface, thus the rotation of threaded rod electrode decreases the critical voltage for the initial multi-jet ejection and the diameter of nanofibers. The residual solution on the surface of threaded rod is cleaned up by the moving slipper block, showing a great self-cleaning ability, which ensures the stable multi-jet ejection and increases the productivity of nanofibers. Each thread of the threaded rod electrode serves as an independent spinneret, which enhances the electric field strength and constrains the position of the Taylor cone, resulting in high productivity of uniform nanofibers. The diameter of nanofibers decreases with the increase of threaded rod rotation speed, and the productivity increases with the solution flow rate. The rotation of electrode provides an excess force for the ejection of charged jets, which also contributes to the high-efficiency production of nanofibers. The maximum productivity of nanofibers from the threaded rod spinneret is 5-6 g/h, about 250-300 times as high as that from the single-needle spinneret. The self-cleaning threaded rod spinneret is an effective way to realize continuous multi-jet electrospinning, which promotes industrial applications of uniform nanofibrous membrane.

  13. Radioisotope tracer technology for a hydraulic efficiency diagnosis of sludge digester after cleaning up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Kim Jong Bum; Choi, Byung Jong

    2004-03-01

    Radiotracer experiments were carried out on a cylindrical 2-stage anaerobic sludge digester in order to investigate the improvement of its efficiency by means of RTD (Residence Time Distribution) measurements before and after cleaning up the inside of the digester. The tracer was Sc-46 in an EDTA solution which forms such a stable complex compound to keep the isotope from being absorbed onto the surface of the pipelines or the wall. It was injected into the digester by pressurized nitrogen gas and its movement was monitored by NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors installed around the digester and recorded for a month by a 24-channel data acquisition system specially developed for radiotracer experiments by the Korea Tracer Group of KAERI. The experimental data was analyzed for the MRT (Mean Residence Time) and other parameters characterizing the flow behavior. After the cleaning of the digesters the variance has been decreased and the sludge dynamics was activated as a result of the increase of the effective volume from 20% to 80% after cleaning up in the secondary digester. Particularly the MRT of the secondary digester which has no mixing mechanism has been increased by 3 times

  14. Assessment of cleaning efficiency of the polydisperse gas flow in double-flow dedusting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Butenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of priority problems of nature protection activity at the industrial enterprises is upgrading the gas emissions cleaning of polydispersed dust. To solve the problem of catching of small fraction dust the double-flow dedusting system has been offered. Aim: The aim of the work is to determine the dependency type of the cleaning efficiency of polydisperse gas flow on gas separation factor double-flow dedusting system. Materials and methods: The analysis of influence of gas separation factor in the dividing device of double-flow dedusting system on its efficiency is carried out. By drawing up the mass balance of system on gas and on the mass of dust the general dependence for breakthrough of the main catcher, characterizing overall effectiveness of system, is received. Results: It is shown that value of breakthrough factor of the main catcher depends on dimensionless efficiency factors of the equipment. The received general dependence of breakthrough factor on separation factor allows to define the optimum value of separation factor for any combined dedusting system.

  15. Efficiency of cleaning and disinfection of surfaces: correlation between assessment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Frota, Oleci Pereira; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Guerra, Odanir Garcia; Rigotti, Marcelo Alessandro; Andrade, Denise de; Borges, Najla Moreira Amaral; Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the correlation among the ATP-bioluminescence assay, visual inspection and microbiological culture in monitoring the efficiency of cleaning and disinfection (C&D) of high-touch clinical surfaces (HTCS) in a walk-in emergency care unit. Method: a prospective and comparative study was carried out from March to June 2015, in which five HTCS were sampled before and after C&D by means of the three methods. The HTCS were considered dirty when dust, waste, humidity an...

  16. Modern efficient methods of steel vertical oil tanks clean-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrasov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legislative base of the Russian Federation operating in the field of operation of tanks and tank parks is considered, and consecutive stages of technological process of cleaning of vertical steel tanks from oil ground deposits are presented. In work shortcomings of existing most widespread electromechanical mixers are described when using a hydraulic method of removal and prevention of formation of ground deposits in tanks with oil and oil products. For the purpose of increase of efficiency, reliability and decrease in power consumption of washout of oil ground deposits in tanks the new design of system of funneled washout and prevention of formation of deposits is offered.

  17. Basic environmental principles for the promotion of clean and efficient energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanmer, R.; Connor-Lajambe, H.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reiterate what might be considered basic principles for promoting clean and efficient energy. These principles have very important implications for the design of energy supply and transportation facilities, but they go far beyond that to unify such design with the design, use and maintenance of many other types of facilities and goods. These principles also affect the way we consider energy security in the context of sustainable development. In annex, this paper presents the recommendation of the Council, with a list of environmentally favourable energy options. (TEC). 2 refs., Annex

  18. Self Cleaning High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filtration without Interrupting Process Flow - 59347

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The strategy of protecting the traditional glass fibre HEPA filtration train from it's blinding contamination and the recovery of dust by the means of self cleaning, pre-filtration is a proven means in the reduction of ultimate disposal volumes and has been used within the Fuel Production Industry. However, there is an increasing demand in nuclear applications requiring elevated operating temperatures, fire resistance, moisture resistance and chemical composition that the existing glass fibre HEPA filtration cannot accommodate, which can be remedied by the use of a metallic HEPA filter media. Previous research suggests that the then costs to the Department of Energy (DOE), based on a five year life cycle, was $29.5 million for the installation, testing, removal and disposal of glass fibre HEPA filtration trains. Within these costs, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4, 450 was given to the peripheral activity. Development of a low cost, cleanable, metallic, direct replacement of the traditional filter train will the clear solution. The Bergman et al work has suggested that a 1000 ft 3 /min, cleanable, stainless HEPA could be commercially available for $5, 000 each, whereas the industry has determined that the truer cost of such an item in isolation would be closer to $15, 000. This results in a conflict within the requirement between 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA'. By proposing a system that combines metallic HEPA filtration with the ability to self clean without interrupting the process flow, the need for a tradition HEPA filtration train will be eliminated and this dramatically reduces the resources required for cleaning or disposal, thus presenting a route to reducing ultimate costs. The paper will examine the performance characteristics, filtration efficiency, flow verses differential pressure and cleanability of a self cleaning HEPA grade sintered metal filter element, together with data to prove the contention. (authors)

  19. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  20. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  1. Evaluation of the combined betatron and momentum cleaning in point 3 in terms of cleaning efficiency and energy deposition for the LHC Collimation upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Rossi, A; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; Wollmann, D; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A

    2011-01-01

    The Phase I LHC Collimation System Upgrade could include moving part of the Betatron Cleaning from LHC Point 7 to Point 3 to improve both operation flexibility and intensity reach. In addition, the partial relocation of beam losses from the current Betatron cleaning region at Point 7 will mitigate the risks of Single Event Upsets to equipment installed in adjacent and partly not sufficient shielded areas. The combined Betatron and Momentum Cleaning at Point 3 implies that new collimators have to be added as well as to implement a new collimator aperture layout. This paper shows the whole LHC Collimator Efficiency variation with the new layout at different beam energies. As part of the evaluation, energy deposition distribution in the IR3 region give indications about the effect of this new implementations not only on the collimators themselves but also on the other beam line elements as well as in the IR3 surrounding areas.

  2. Determinants of efficiency in the provision of municipal street-cleaning and refuse collection services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-López, Bernardino; Moreno-Enguix, María del Rocio; Solana-Ibañez, José

    2011-06-01

    Effective waste management systems can make critical contributions to public health, environmental sustainability and economic development. The challenge affects every person and institution in society, and measures cannot be undertaken without data collection and a quantitative analysis approach. In this paper, the two-stage double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007) is used to estimate the efficiency determinants of Spanish local entities in the provision of public street-cleaning and refuse collection services. The purpose is to identify factors that influence efficiency. The final sample comprised 1072 municipalities. In the first stage, robust efficiency estimates are obtained with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). We apply the second stage, based on a truncated-regression, to estimate the effect of a group of environmental factors on DEA estimates. The results show the existence of a significant relation between efficiency and all the variables analysed (per capita income, urban population density, the comparative index of the importance of tourism and that of the whole economic activity). We have also considered the influence of a dummy categorical variable - the political sign of the governing party - on the efficient provision of the services under study. The results from the methodology proposed show that municipalities governed by progressive parties are more efficient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinants of efficiency in the provision of municipal street-cleaning and refuse collection services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benito-Lopez, Bernardino; Rocio Moreno-Enguix, Maria del; Solana-Ibanez, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Effective waste management systems can make critical contributions to public health, environmental sustainability and economic development. The challenge affects every person and institution in society, and measures cannot be undertaken without data collection and a quantitative analysis approach. In this paper, the two-stage double bootstrap procedure of is used to estimate the efficiency determinants of Spanish local entities in the provision of public street-cleaning and refuse collection services. The purpose is to identify factors that influence efficiency. The final sample comprised 1072 municipalities. In the first stage, robust efficiency estimates are obtained with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). We apply the second stage, based on a truncated-regression, to estimate the effect of a group of environmental factors on DEA estimates. The results show the existence of a significant relation between efficiency and all the variables analysed (per capita income, urban population density, the comparative index of the importance of tourism and that of the whole economic activity). We have also considered the influence of a dummy categorical variable - the political sign of the governing party - on the efficient provision of the services under study. The results from the methodology proposed show that municipalities governed by progressive parties are more efficient.

  4. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla

    Enzymes are used in an increasing number of industries. The application of enzymes is extending into the production of lignocellulosic ethanol in processes that economically can compete with fossil fuels. Since lignocellulosic ethanol is based on renewable resources it will have a positive impact...... production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesiswas to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed-batch fermentation. The process...... of the uncertainty and sensitivity of the model indicated the biological parameters to be responsible for most of the model uncertainty. A number of alternative fermentation technologies for enzyme production were identified in the open literature. Their mass transfer capabilities and their energy efficiencies were...

  5. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  6. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative Existing Building Energy Efficiency Analysis: November 17, 2009 - June 30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, P.; Potes, A.

    2010-06-01

    In June 2009, the State of Hawaii enacted an Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (EEPS) with a target of 4,300 gigawatt hours (GWh) by 2030 (Hawaii 2009). Upon setting this goal, the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, Booz Allen Hamilton (BAH), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working with select local stakeholders, partnered to execute the first key step toward attaining the EEPS goal: the creation of a high-resolution roadmap outlining key areas of potential electricity savings. This roadmap was divided into two core elements: savings from new construction and savings from existing buildings. BAH focused primarily on the existing building analysis, while NREL focused on new construction forecasting. This report presents the results of the Booz Allen Hamilton study on the existing building stock of Hawaii, along with conclusions on the key drivers of potential energy efficiency savings and on the steps necessary to attain them.

  7. Efficiency enhancement in IGCC power plants with air-blown gasification and hot gas clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, Antonio; Romano, Matteo C.; Lozza, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Air-blown IGCC systems with hot fuel gas clean-up are investigated. In detail, the gas clean-up station consists of two reactors: in the first, the raw syngas exiting the gasifier and passed through high-temperature syngas coolers is desulfurized by means of a zinc oxide-based sorbent, whereas in the second the sulfided sorbent is duly regenerated. The hot fuel gas clean-up station releases H 2 S-free syngas, which is ready to fuel the combustion turbine after hot gas filtration, and a SO 2 -laden stream, which is successively treated in a wet scrubber. A thermodynamic analysis of two air-blown IGCC systems, the first with cold fuel gas clean-up and the second with hot fuel gas clean-up, both with a state-of-the-art combustion turbine as topping cycle, shows that it is possible to obtain a really attractive net efficiency (more than 51%) for the second system, with significant improvements in comparison with the first system. Nevertheless, higher efficiency is accomplished with a small reduction in the power output and no sensible efficiency improvements seem to be appreciated when the desulfurization temperature increases. Other IGCC systems, with an advanced 1500 °C-class combustion turbine as the result of technology improvements, are investigated as well, with efficiency as high as 53%. - Highlights: ► Hot fuel gas clean-up is a highly favorable technology for IGCC concepts. ► Significant IGCC efficiency improvements are possible with hot fuel gas clean-up. ► Size reductions of several IGCC components are possible. ► Higher desulfurization temperatures do not sensibly affect IGCC efficiency. ► IGCC efficiency as high as 53% is possible with a 1500°C-class combustion turbine

  8. Experimental researches and comparison on aerodynamic parameters and cleaning efficiency of multi-level multi-channel cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Chlebnikovas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level multi-channel cyclone – the lately designed air cleaning device that can remove ultra-fine 20 μm particulatematter (PM from dusted air and reach over 95% of the overall cleaning efficiency. Multi-channel cyclone technology is based on centrifugal forces and has the resulting additional filtering process operation. Multi-level structure of cyclone allows to achieve higher air flow cleaning capacity at the same dimensions of the device, thus saving installation space required for the job, production and operating costs. Studies have examined the air flow parameters change in one–, two– and three–levels multichannel cyclone. These constructions differ according to the productivity of cleaned air under the constant peripheral and transitional (50/50 case air flow relations. Accordance with the results of air flow dynamics – velocity distribution of multi-channel cyclone, aerodynamic resistance and efficiency can be judged on the flow turbulence, the flow channel cross-section and select the most appropriate application. Cleaning efficiency studies were carried out using fine granite and wood ashes PM. The maximum cleaning efficiency was 93.3%, at an average of 4.5 g/m3, the aerodynamic resistance was equal to 1525 Pa.

  9. Energy efficient biological air cleaning for farm stable ventilation; Energieffektiv biologisk luftrensning til staldventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenborg Nicolaisen, C.; Hansen, Mads P.R. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark); Stroem, J.; Soerensen, Keld [DXT. Danish Exergy Technology A/S, Skoerping (Denmark); Goetke, C. [Lokalenergi Aarhus, Viby J. (Denmark); Morsing, S.; Soerensen, Lars C. [SKOV A/S, Roslev (Denmark); Ladegaerd Jensen, T.; Pedersen, Poul [Videncenter for svineproduktion, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    The project has been designed to reduce energy consumption for air purification by 30% while having a payback period of maximum 3 years. The project has achieved very significant results which are far above the target. Particularly satisfying is the wide range of new components that are launched in late 2012. By implementing the newly developed system at 100% cleaning (LPC 13 ventilators and Dynamic multistep control) in relation to Best Practice (SKOV's original system with DA600 fans) in a concrete pigsty, a saving of 61% and a simple payback of 1.7 years is achieved. Similarly, it is found that the energy used for pump operation can be reduced by 37% with the new Dynamic sprinkling control. At 20% cleaning a potential saving of 15% per year and a payback period of between 0 and 5 years was found, which is dependent on the desired performance as the capacities in the bio-filter's upper capacity range between 26 thousand to 30 thousand m3 / h entails costs for an additional extraction unit in the new solution. Furthermore, the newly developed components proved highly suitable for standard installations without air cleaning where a savings potential is 53% and the payback period 1.5 years. Product-wise, the project formed the basis for the development of: 1. New energy-efficient ventilation units (LPC11, 12,13) that are suitable for air purification; 2. A new energy-saving control principle (Dynamic Multi-Step) which is particularly suitable for low-energy ventilators; 3. A new energy-saving flow measurement system for ventilating ducts (Dynamic air to the central exhaust); 4. An energy-saving pressure control in common ducts (pressure control as a function of outside temperature); 5. Proposal for a new energy-saving pump operation for sprinkling of biological filters (Dynamic sprinkling). (LN)

  10. Establishing reliable good initial quantum efficiency and in-situ laser cleaning for the copper cathodes in the RF gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, F., E-mail: zhoufeng@slac.stanford.edu; Sheppard, J.C.; Vecchione, T.; Jongewaard, E.; Brachmann, A.; Corbett, J.; Gilevich, S.; Weathersby, S.

    2015-05-21

    Establishing good initial quantum efficiency (QE) and reliable in-situ cleaning for copper cathode in the RF gun is of critical importance for the RF gun operations. Recent studies on the SLAC RF gun test bed indicated that the pre-cleaning (plasma cleaning) in the test chamber followed by copper cathode exposure to air for cathode change leads to a very low initial QE in the RF gun, and also demonstrated that without the pre-cleaning good initial QE >4×10{sup −5} can be routinely achieved in the RF gun with the cathodes of QE <1×10{sup −7} measured in the test chamber. QE can decay over the time in the RF gun. The in-situ laser cleaning technique for copper cathodes in the RF gun is established and refined in comparison to previous cleaning at the linac coherent light source, resulting in an improved QE and emittance evolutions. The physics of the laser cleaning process is discussed. It is believed that the reflectivity change is one of the major factors for the QE boost with the laser cleaning.

  11. Efficiency of cleaning and disinfection of surfaces: correlation between assessment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleci Pereira Frota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the correlation among the ATP-bioluminescence assay, visual inspection and microbiological culture in monitoring the efficiency of cleaning and disinfection (C&D of high-touch clinical surfaces (HTCS in a walk-in emergency care unit. Method: a prospective and comparative study was carried out from March to June 2015, in which five HTCS were sampled before and after C&D by means of the three methods. The HTCS were considered dirty when dust, waste, humidity and stains were detected in visual inspection; when ≥2.5 colony forming units per cm2 were found in culture; when ≥5 relative light units per cm2 were found at the ATP-bioluminescence assay. Results: 720 analyses were performed, 240 per method. The overall rates of clean surfaces per visual inspection, culture and ATP-bioluminescence assay were 8.3%, 20.8% and 44.2% before C&D, and 92.5%, 50% and 84.2% after C&D, respectively (p<0.001. There were only occasional statistically significant relationships between methods. Conclusion: the methods did not present a good correlation, neither quantitative nor qualitatively.

  12. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vol. 6, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-07-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on auctions of used alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), Royalty Enterprises of Ohio, and introducing AFVs in neglected urban areas. Plus Ford's new CNG school bus and electric buses in Connecticut.

  13. Air cleaning efficiency of deodorant materials under dynamic conditions: effect of air flow rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizutani, Chiyomi; Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    Unpleasant odor is a serious problem in hospitals and elderly facilities. One of the unpleasant odors is ammonia originating from human urine and sweat. The air cleaning efficiency of porous activated carbon fiber fabric which has been treated with acid, and porous activated carbon fiber fabric...... mixed with ammonia gas at a concentration of 20 ppm and velocities of 0.05, 0.15, 0.3 and 1.2 m/s. The activated carbon fibers treated with acid had a high deodorizing effect for ammonia (0.8) at a velocity of 0.05 m/s. The deodorizing effect of this material decreased with the increase in the velocity....... The porous activated carbon fiber fabric did not have a deodorant effect....

  14. Methodology and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative environmental restoration clean-up goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, M.R.; Short, S.M.; Stiles, D.L.

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the methodologies and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative strategies for conducting remediation of all DOE sites and facilities, but does not address issues relating to Waste Management capabilities. Clean-up strategies and their corresponding goals for contaminated media may be driven by concentration-based regulatory standards, land-use standards (e.g., residential, industrial, wild life reserve, or totally restricted), risk-based standards, or other standards determined through stakeholder input. Strategies implemented to achieve these goals usually require the deployment of (a) clean-up technologies to destroy, remove, or contain the contaminants of concern; (b) institutional controls to prevent potential receptors from coming into contact with the contaminants; or (c) a combination of the above

  15. Assessment of clean development mechanism potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in heavy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Krey, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses clean development mechanism (CDM) potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in selected heavy industries (iron and steel, cement, aluminium, pulp and paper, and ammonia) taking India and Brazil as examples of CDM project host countries. We have chosen two criteria for identification of the CDM potential of each energy efficiency measure: (i) emission reductions volume (in CO 2 e) that can be expected from the measure and (ii) likelihood of the measure passing the additionality test of the CDM Executive Board (EB) when submitted as a proposed CDM project activity. The paper shows that the CDM potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures strongly depends on the project-specific and country-specific context. In particular, technologies for the iron and steel industry (coke dry quenching (CDQ), top pressure recovery turbine (TRT), and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) gas recovery), the aluminium industry (point feeder prebake (PFPB) smelter), and the pulp and paper industry (continuous digester technology) offer promising CDM potential

  16. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various

  17. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillsman, E.L.; Alvic, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S0 2 emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms

  18. Monitor Clean and Efficient. Background information. Methods and references as applied in the Monitor in April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, J.; De Ligt, T.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains background information about the Monitor Clean and Efficient that was published in April 2009. The goal and approach of the Monitor are clarified, as well as the methods and data that are used. The structure of this report resembles the structure of the Monitor. Sources and dates of availability are mentioned along with the data, as are the parties collecting and processing the information. The results that were found using this methodology have been published in the Monitor Clean and Efficient. [nl

  19. Hydrogen energy - Abundant, efficient, clean: A debate over the energy-system-of-change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Carl-Jochen [International Association for Hydrogen Energy (IAHE), c/o ENERGON Carl-Jochen Winter e.K., Obere St.-Leonhardstr. 9, 88662 Ueberlingen (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Both secondary energies, electricity and hydrogen, have much in common: they are technology driven; both are produced from any available primary energy; once produced both are environmentally and climatically clean over the entire length of their respective conversion chains, from production to utilization; they are electrochemically interchangeable via electrolyses and fuel cells; both rely on each other, e.g., when electrolyzers and liquefiers need electricity or when electricity-providing low temperature fuel cells need hydrogen; in cases of secondary energy transport over longer distances they compete with each other; in combined fossil fuel cycles both hydrogen and electricity are produced in parallel exergetically highly efficiently; hydrogen in addition to electricity helps exergizing the energy system and, thus, maximizing the available technical work. There are dissimilarities, too: electricity transports information, hydrogen does not; hydrogen stores and transports energy, electricity does not (in macroeconomic terms). The most obvious dissimilarity is their market presence, both in capacities and in availability: Electricity is globally ubiquitous (almost), whilst hydrogen energy is still used in only selected industrial areas and in much smaller capacities. The article describes in 15 chapters, 33 figures, 3 tables, and 2 Annexes the up-and-coming hydrogen energy economy, its environmental and climatic relevance, its exergizing influence on the energy system, its effect on decarbonizing fossil fueled power plants, the introduction of the novel non-heat-engine-related electrochemical energy converter fuel cell in portable electronics, in stationary and mobile applications. Hydrogen guarantees environmentally and climatically clean transportation on land, in air and space, and at sea. Hydrogen facilitates the electrification of vehicles with practically no range limits. (author)

  20. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center; Vol. 5, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-04-18

    A quarterly magazine with articles on recent changes to the Clean Cities Program; the SuperTruck student engineering challenge; alternative fuel use in delivery fleets; and a propane vehicle rally and conference in February 2001, in Kansas City, Mo.

  1. CALCIUM CARBIDE: AN EFFICIENT ALTERNATIVE TO THE USE OF ALUMINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Carlos Pinheiro Cardoso Filho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The steel demand for fine applications have increased considerably in the last years, and the criteria for its production are even stricter, mainly in relation to the residual elements content and cleanness required. In relation to the steel cleanness, the main problem faced is the control of the amount and morphology of alumina inclusions, generated in the steel deoxidation with aluminum. Besides harming the products quality, the presence of non metallic inclusions can originate nozzle clogging, and consequently interruptions in the process flux. Aiming to improve the steel cleanness and to minimize nozzle clogging, this study is developed to evaluate the partial substitution of aluminum by calcium carbide in the steel deoxidation. Along the operational procedures, the calcium carbide was applied to 397 heats, through what the improvement in steel cleanness is confirmed, with consequent reduction in the nozzle clogging occurrence.

  2. 1991-92 Canadian directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1991-1992 Canadian Directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies. The three main sections cover Alternative Energy Companies, Energy Efficiency Companies and Energy Service Companies. Contact and company information is provided

  3. 1991-92 Canadian directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The 1991-1992 Canadian Directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies. The three main sections cover Alternative Energy Companies, Energy Efficiency Companies and Energy Service Companies. Contact and company information is provided.

  4. Alternative irradiation system for efficiency manganese bath determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos Leite, Sandro, E-mail: sandro@ird.gov.b [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wagner Pereira, Walsan, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Xavier da Silva, Ademir, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Simoes da Fonseca, Evaldo, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Patrao, Karla Cristina de, E-mail: karla@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    An alternative irradiation system, which works with a radionuclide neutron source and manganese sulphate solution volume have been proposed for efficiency determination of a Manganese Bath System (MBS). This irradiation system was designed by simulation with MCNP5 code, considering a californium neutron source in several manganese sulphate volumes and different neutron reflectors. Although its solution specific activity are less than those in nuclear reactors, the simulation results have showed that the irradiation system proposed takes a manganese neutron capture increase up to 200 times when it compared to manganese neutron capture from a MBS whose diameter is about 100 cm. That becomes possible to use those samples for some of the absolute specific activity measuring methods.

  5. EM-31 Alternative And Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Program For Sludge Heel Removal - 11220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.; Hay, M.; Wiersma, B.; Pennebaker, F.

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of oxalic acid with nitric acid have been shown to be superior to oxalic acid alone for the dissolution of iron-rich High Level Waste sludge heels. Optimized conditions resulting in minimal oxalate usage and stoichiometric iron dissolution (based on added oxalate ion) have been determined for hematite (a primary sludge iron phase) in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures. The acid mixtures performed better than expected based on the solubility of hematite in the individual acids through a synergistic effect in which the preferred 1:1 Fe:oxalate complex is formed. This allows for the minimization of oxalate additions to the waste stream. Carbon steel corrosion rates were measured in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures to evaluate the impacts of chemical cleaning with these solutions on waste tank integrity. Manageable corrosion rates were observed in the concentration ranges of interest for an acid contact timescale of 1 month. Kinetics tests involving hematite and gibbsite (a primary sludge aluminum phase) have confirmed that (ge)90% solids dissolution occurs within 3 weeks. Based on these results, the chemical cleaning conditions recommended to promote minimal oxalate usage and manageable corrosion include: 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid/0.175 M nitric acid mixture, 50 C, 2-3 week contact time with agitation.

  6. Emissions in 2001 conform the reference scenario (GE WLO with high oil price) and including Clean and Efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, P.; Menkveld, M.

    2008-08-01

    This memo shows the calculation of an estimate for the total greenhouse gas emissions in 2011 in the reference scenario (GE WLO is the Dutch abbreviation for Global Economy and Welfare and Environment), including the impact of the Clean and Efficient programme from the assessment of ECN (Energy research Centre of the Netherlands) and MNP (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency) [nl

  7. Study of an alternative system for manganese bath efficiency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Sandro Passos

    2010-01-01

    An alternative irradiation system, using radioisotope neutron sources and a small MnSO 4 solution volume, was proposed m this work to determine the Manganese Bath System (MBS) efficiency. The irradiation system was characterized through simulations with the MCNP radiation transport code from the modeling of 252 Cf(f,n) and 238 PuBe(alpha,n) neutron sources in several MnSO 4 solution volumes and different neutron reflector medium for this solution. The parameter calculated in the simulations was the manganese neutron specific capture (MNSC), which is related to the MnSO 4 solution specific activity. From the proposed systems for 252 Cf (f, n) and 238 PuBe (alpha,n) the NSCM was increased hundred times, in relation with that achieved in the LN/LNMRI/IRD MBS system simulation when irradiated by each these neutron sources. During study for irradiation system characterization its concept was verified using a assemble of test irradiation (ATI), which were spherical glass cavities, with few centimeter in radius, filled with MnSO 4 solution, with and without presence of a neutron reflector medium. These TIA were used in four efficiency measurements and the average value was obtained. (author)

  8. Improving the Solar Panel Efficiency by Using Cooling and Cleaning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmar Khalil Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution to research work which aims at ending the electricity crisis in Iraq. The electric power stations, which use conventional fuel, are unable to provide the growing population with electricity all day-long. Moreover, electric distribution lines are sometimes exposed to attacks by terrorists. This paper recommends solar energy as the optimum solution to the electricity problem in Iraq, since it is both renewable and friendly to the environment. The paper also concentrated on reliability techniques to improve the efficiency of the solar energy system. This was achieved by means of designing and constructing a cooling system that consists of fans, sprinklers and wipers to eliminate excessive heat from solar panels when temperature rises to maximum levels. Sprinklers and wipers are also useful for cleaning the panels because dust is a negative factor which undermines the generation capacity of solar panels.   The cooling system is operated by means of a microcontroller that is programmed through Proteus 8, Arduino, and Matlab2016. Statistics reveal that a cooling system has significantly improved the productive capacity of the solar system and it can achieve an energy gain of (34.55%.

  9. New, Efficient and Clean Strategies to Explore CP Violation Through Neutral B Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    We point out that decays of the kind $B_d\\to D_\\pm K_{S(L)}$ and $B_s\\to D_\\pm\\eta^{(')},D_\\pm\\phi, ...$, where $D_+$ and $D_-$ denote the CP-even and CP-odd eigenstates of the neutral D-meson system, respectively, provide very efficient, theoretically clean determinations of the angle $\\gamma$ of the unitarity triangle. In this new strategy, we use the $B^0_q$--$\\bar{B^0_q}$ ($q\\in\\{d,s\\}$) mixing phase $\\phi_q$ as an input, and employ only ``untagged'' and mixing-induced CP-violating observables, which satisfy a very simple relation, allowing us to determine $\\tan\\gamma$. Using a plausible dynamical assumption, $\\gamma$ can be fixed in an essentially unambiguous manner. The corresponding formalism can also be applied to $B_d\\to D_\\pm\\pi^0,D_\\pm\\rho^0, >...$ and $B_s\\to D_\\pm K_{S(L)}$ decays. Although these modes appear less attractive for the extraction of $\\gamma$, they provide interesting determinations of $\\sin\\phi_q$. In comparison with the conventional $B_d\\to J/\\psi K_{S(L)}$ and $B_s\\to J/\\psi\\phi$ ...

  10. Efficient production and economics of the clean fuel hydrogen. Paper no. IGEC-1-Keynote-Elnashaie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnashaie, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper/plenary lecture to this green energy conference briefly discusses six main issues: 1) The future of hydrogen economy; 2) Thermo-chemistry of hydrogen production for different techniques of autothermic operation using different feedstocks; 3) Improvement of the hydrogen yield and minimization of reformer size through combining fast fluidization with hydrogen and oxygen membranes together with CO 2 sequestration; 4) Efficient production of hydrogen using novel Autothermal Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformer (ACFBMR); 5) Economics of hydrogen production; and, 6) Novel gasification process for hydrogen production from biomass. It is shown that hydrogen economy is not a Myth as some people advocate, and that with well-directed research it will represent a bright future for humanity utilizing such a clean, everlasting fuel, which is also free of deadly conflicts for the control of energy sources. It is shown that autothermic production of hydrogen using novel reformers configurations and wide range of feedstocks is a very promising route towards achieving a successful hydrogen economy. A novel process for the production of hydrogen from different renewable biomass sources is presented and discussed. The process combines the principles of pyrolysis with the simultaneous use of catalyst, membranes and CO 2 sequestration to produce pure hydrogen directly from the unit. Some of the novel processes presented are essential components of modern bio-refineries. (author)

  11. Optimal sampling plan for clean development mechanism energy efficiency lighting projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xianming; Xia, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiangfeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A metering cost minimisation model is built to assist the sampling plan for CDM projects. • The model minimises the total metering cost by the determination of optimal sample size. • The required 90/10 criterion sampling accuracy is maintained. • The proposed metering cost minimisation model is applicable to other CDM projects as well. - Abstract: Clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers are always interested in achieving required measurement accuracies with the least metering cost. In this paper, a metering cost minimisation model is proposed for the sampling plan of a specific CDM energy efficiency lighting project. The problem arises from the particular CDM sampling requirement of 90% confidence and 10% precision for the small-scale CDM energy efficiency projects, which is known as the 90/10 criterion. The 90/10 criterion can be met through solving the metering cost minimisation problem. All the lights in the project are classified into different groups according to uncertainties of the lighting energy consumption, which are characterised by their statistical coefficient of variance (CV). Samples from each group are randomly selected to install power meters. These meters include less expensive ones with less functionality and more expensive ones with greater functionality. The metering cost minimisation model will minimise the total metering cost through the determination of the optimal sample size at each group. The 90/10 criterion is formulated as constraints to the metering cost objective. The optimal solution to the minimisation problem will therefore minimise the metering cost whilst meeting the 90/10 criterion, and this is verified by a case study. Relationships between the optimal metering cost and the population sizes of the groups, CV values and the meter equipment cost are further explored in three simulations. The metering cost minimisation model proposed for lighting systems is applicable to other CDM projects as

  12. Efficiency analysis of alternative refrigerants for ejector cooling cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Bartosz; Kasperski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Advantages of using alternative refrigerants as ejector refrigerants were presumed. • Computer software basing on theoretical model of Huang et al. (1999) was prepared. • Optimal temperature range of primary vapor for each working fluid was calculated. - Abstract: Computer software, basing on the theoretical model of Huang et al. with thermodynamic properties of selected refrigerants, was prepared. Investigation was focused on alternative refrigerants that belong to two groups of substances: common solvents (acetone, benzene, cyclopentane, cyclohexane and toluene) and non-flammable synthetic refrigerants applied in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) (R236ea, R236fa, R245ca, R245fa, R365mfc and RC318). Refrigerants were selected to detect a possibility to use them in ejector cooling system powered by a high-temperature heat source. A series of calculations were carried out for the generator temperature between 70 and 200 °C, with assumed temperatures of evaporation 10 °C and condensation 40 °C. Investigation revealed that there is no single refrigerant that ensures efficient operation of the system in the investigated temperature range of primary vapor. Each substance has its own maximum entrainment ratio and COP at its individual temperature of the optimum. The use of non-flammable synthetic refrigerants allows obtaining higher COP in the low primary vapor temperature range. R236fa was the most beneficial among the non-flammable synthetic refrigerants tested. The use of organic solvents can be justified only for high values of motive steam temperature. Among the solvents, the highest values of entrainment ratio and COP throughout the range of motive temperature were noted for cyclopentane. Toluene was found to be an unattractive refrigerant from the ejector cooling point of view

  13. Historical Perspective of Clean Cities and Alternative Fuels Data Center Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, J. K.

    2007-09-01

    This document draws on the wealth of information housed in the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Trends and analyses are examined from data as far back as 1991. The findings of those trends and salient features are summarized.

  14. Alternative approach for Article 5. Energie Efficiency Directive; Alternatieve aanpak artikel 5. Energy Efficiency Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Jablonska, B. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Article 5 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is an annual obligation to renovate 3% of the building stock of central government. After renovation the buildings will meet the minimum energy performance requirements laid down in Article 4 of the EPBD. The Directive gives room to an alternative approach to achieve the same savings. The Ministry of Interior Affairs has asked ECN to assist with this alternative approach. ECN calculated what saving are achieved with the 3% renovation obligation under the directive. Then ECN looked for the possibilities for an alternative approach to achieve the same savings [Dutch] In artikel 5 van de Energie Efficiency Directive (EED) staat een verplichting om jaarlijks 3% van de gebouwvoorraad van de centrale overheid te renoveren. Die 3% van de gebouwvoorraad moet na renovatie voldoen aan de minimum eisen inzake energieprestatie die door het betreffende lidstaat zijn vastgelegd op grond van artikel 4 in de EPBD. De verplichting betreft gebouwen die in bezit en in gebruik zijn van de rijksoverheid met een gebruiksoppervlakte groter dan 500 m{sup 2}, vanaf juli 2015 groter dan 250 m{sup 2}. De gebouwen die eigendom zijn van de Rijksgebouwendienst betreft kantoren van rijksdiensten, gerechtsgebouwen, gebouwen van douane en politie en gevangenissen. Van de gebouwen van Defensie hoeven alleen kantoren en legeringsgebouwen aan de verplichting te voldoen.

  15. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  16. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  17. The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, A.; Faller, C.; Grille, T.; Glunz, S.; Kamerewerd, F.J.; Kopp, J.; Knobloch, J.; Klussmann, S.; Lauby, E.; Noel, A.; Paul, O.; Schaeffer, E.; Schubert, U.; Seitz, S.; Sterk, S.; Voss, B.; Warta, W.; Wettling, W.

    1992-08-01

    The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI) [de

  18. Catalyst in alternate energy resources for producing environment friendly clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.T.; Atta, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, a by-product of the Chemical Process Industries, is a deadly poisonous gas; if released into the atmosphere causes irreparable damage to the environment. A bimetallic catalyst system Ru: Mn doped with different concentrations of 'K' (Potassium) and supported on high surface area alumina support was prepared by co impregnation method, dispersed and reduced at 450 deg. C under hydrogen flow using a closed reactor system at atmospheric pressure for the utilization of poisonous CO gas to produce environmental friendly clean energy. Fischer Tropsch catalyst, when subjected to CO/hydrogenation, gives methane and other hydrocarbon products. The main purpose of this research work was two fold: 1. The powder catalyst when dispersed/reduced on a high surface area oxide support spreads on the surface of the system in a different orientations and shapes. The particle size of the prepared catalysts ranges from 5.0-25.0 nm. The whole system forms a complicated mixture of numerous particles and hence becomes very complicated to study. The characterisation of these randomly oriented particles having different sizes and shapes is a difficult job. This required sensitive UHV spectroscopic techniques like SSIMS, XPS, EEls, XRD and TEM. Their operations needs strong skills. Hence the first aim was to utilize these techniques for the characterization of the prepared catalysts and to establish the usefulness of these techniques in studying such complicated systems. 2. Since Ru is a very good Fischer Tropsch catalyst for the production of aliphatic hydrocarbons product. Our other aim was to find out whether if by surface modification through additives or by surface reconstructing through chemical treatment, we could alter the path of this CO/hydrogenation reaction to produce potentially important unsaturated/aromatic hydrocarbon products. This would serve our dual purpose in which we could use poisonous CO for useful purpose. Hence 'K' potassium as surface modifier is

  19. Simulation of the influence of flue gas cleaning system on the energetic efficiency of a waste-to-energy plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieco, E.; Poggio, A. [Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10121 (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    Municipal solid waste incinerators are designed to enhance the electrical efficiency obtained by the plant as much as possible. For this reason strong integration between the flue gas cleaning system and the heat recovery system is required. To provide higher electrical efficiencies acid gas neutralization process has the major importance in flue gas cleaning system. At least four technologies are usually applied for acid gas removal: dry neutralization with Ca(OH){sub 2} or with NaHCO{sub 3}, semi-dry neutralization with milk of lime and wet scrubbing. Nowadays, wet scrubbers are rarely used as a result of the large amount of liquid effluents produced; wet scrubbing technology is often applied as a final treatment after a dry neutralization. Operating conditions of the plant were simulated by using Aspen Plus in order to investigate the influences of four different technologies on the electrical efficiency of the plant. The results of the simulations did not show a great influence of the gas cleaning system on the net electrical efficiency, as the difference between the most advantageous technology (neutralization with NaHCO{sub 3}) and the worst one, is about 1%. (author)

  20. Gasoline compression ignition approach to efficient, clean and affordable future engines

    KAUST Repository

    Kalghatgi, Gautam

    2017-04-03

    The worldwide demand for transport fuels will increase significantly but will still be met substantially (a share of around 90%) from petroleum-based fuels. This increase in demand will be significantly skewed towards commercial vehicles and hence towards diesel and jet fuels, leading to a probable surplus of lighter low-octane fuels. Current diesel engines are efficient but expensive and complicated because they try to reduce the nitrogen oxide and soot emissions simultaneously while using conventional diesel fuels which ignite very easily. Gasoline compression ignition engines can be run on gasoline-like fuels with a long ignition delay to make low-nitrogen-oxide low-soot combustion very much easier. Moreover, the research octane number of the optimum fuel for gasoline compression ignition engines is likely to be around 70 and hence the surplus low-octane components could be used without much further processing. Also, the final boiling point can be higher than those of current gasolines. The potential advantages of gasoline compression ignition engines are as follows. First, the engine is at least as efficient and clean as current diesel engines but is less complicated and hence could be cheaper (lower injection pressure and after-treatment focus on control of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions rather than on soot and nitrogen oxide emissions). Second, the optimum fuel requires less processing and hence would be easier to make in comparison with current gasoline or diesel fuel and will have a lower greenhouse-gas footprint. Third, it provides a path to mitigate the global demand imbalance between heavier fuels and lighter fuels that is otherwise projected and improve the sustainability of refineries. The concept has been well demonstrated in research engines but development work is needed to make it feasible on practical vehicles, e.g. on cold start, adequate control of exhaust carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and control of noise at medium to high loads

  1. Shallow, non-pumped wells: a low-energy alternative for cleaning polluted groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Paul F

    2013-07-01

    This modeling study evaluated the capability of non-pumped wells with filter media for preventing contaminant plumes from migrating offsite. Linear configurations of non-pumped wells were compared to permeable reactive barriers in simulated shallow homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifers. While permeable reactive barriers enabled faster contaminant removal and shorter distances of contaminant travel, non-pumped wells also prevented offsite contaminant migration. Overall, results of this study suggest that discontinuous, linear configurations of non-pumped wells may be a viable alternative to much more costly permeable reactive barriers for preventing offsite contaminant travel in some shallow aquifers.

  2. Dual-Fuel Combustion for Future Clean and Efficient Compression Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Benajes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stringent emissions limits introduced for internal combustion engines impose a major challenge for the research community. The technological solution adopted by the manufactures of diesel engines to meet the NOx and particle matter values imposed in the EURO VI regulation relies on using selective catalytic reduction and particulate filter systems, which increases the complexity and cost of the engine. Alternatively, several new combustion modes aimed at avoiding the formation of these two pollutants by promoting low temperature combustion reactions, are the focus of study nowadays. Among these new concepts, the dual-fuel combustion mode known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI seems more promising because it allows better control of the combustion process by means of modulating the fuel reactivity depending on the engine operating conditions. The present experimental work explores the potential of different strategies for reducing the energy losses with RCCI in a single-cylinder research engine, with the final goal of providing the guidelines to define an efficient dual-fuel combustion system. The results demonstrate that the engine settings combination, piston geometry modification, and fuel properties variation are good methods to increase the RCCI efficiency while maintaining ultra-low NOx and soot emissions for a wide range of operating conditions.

  3. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Research and development of semiconductor CVD chamber cleaning systems for electronic device manufacturing using new alternative gas instead of SF6, PFCs, and other gases; 2000 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. SF6 tou ni daitaisuru gasu wo riyo shita denshi debaisu seizo cleaning system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The efforts aim to develop a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) mechanism cleaning gas with less environmental impact such as global warming and a CVD process using the same. The candidate gas synthesizing study for the development of such a gas continues from the preceding fiscal year. In addition, various candidate gases and tentatively synthesized gases are evaluated for their cleaning performance using a simplified experimental system. As the result, patent applications were filed for three novel alternative gases low in environmental impact and high in cleaning performance. In the research and development of CVD processes, a verification test process is developed for the evaluation of alternative gases at the real system level using a large CVD evaluation system. Studies are also made in which some existing gases are utilized to improve on CVD cleaning efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the process, one domestic patent application is made, and three essays are presented at an international conference on electrochemistry in the United States. (NEDO)

  4. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  5. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  6. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaek, M.O.

    2012-03-15

    Enzymes are used in an increasing number of industries. The application of enzymes is extending into the production of lignocellulosic ethanol in processes that economically can compete with fossil fuels. Since lignocellulosic ethanol is based on renewable resources it will have a positive impact on for example the emission of green house gasses. Cellulases and hemi-cellulases are used for enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass, and fermentable sugars are released upon the enzymatic process. Even though many years of research has decreased the amount of enzyme needed in the process, the cost of enzymes is still considered a bottleneck in the economic feasibility of lignocellulose utilization. The purpose of this project was to investigate and compare different technologies for production of these enzymes. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is currently used for industrial production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesis was to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed-batch fermentation. The process was carried out in pilot scale stirred tank reactors and based on a range of different process conditions, a process model was constructed which satisfactory described the course of fermentation. The process was governed by the rate limiting mass transfer of oxygen from the gas to the liquid phase. During fermentation, filamentous growth of the fungus lead to increased viscosity which hindered mass transfer. These mechanisms were described by a viscosity model based on the biomass concentration of the fermentation broth and a mass transfer correlation that incorporated a viscosity term. An analysis of the uncertainty and sensitivity of the model indicated the biological parameters to be responsible for most of the model uncertainty. A number of alternative

  7. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-01-01

    A quarterly magazine with articles the proposed National Energy Policy; the 2001 National Clean Cities Conference including Clean Cities Coalition Award and National Partner Award recipients; station cars (shared my multiple drivers); and new emissions-reducing incentives in Texas

  8. Fluid drag reduction and efficient self-cleaning with rice leaf and butterfly wing bioinspired surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Gregory D.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-08-01

    Researchers are continually inspired by living nature to solve complex challenges. For example, unique surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we present an overview of rice leaf and butterfly wing fluid drag and self-cleaning studies. In addition, we examine two other promising aquatic surfaces in nature known for such properties, including fish scales and shark skin. Morphology, drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of wettability, viscosity, and velocity. Liquid repellent coatings are utilized to recreate or combine various effects. Discussion is provided along with conceptual models describing the role of surface structures related to low drag, self-cleaning, and antifouling properties. Modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag and self-cleaning surfaces for applications in the medical, marine, and industrial fields.

  9. Netherlands export country for electricity? New developments in power plants and the impact on the Clean and Efficient programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebregts, A.J.; Daniels, B.W.

    2008-07-01

    This report explores part of the effects of the Dutch Climate Programme 'Clean and Efficient - Opportunities for Tomorrow' on the emissions of air pollutants, as included in the National Emissions Ceilings. The starting point for the analysis is the ex ante evaluation of Clean and Efficient as published in September 2007. Specifically for the Netherlands, the role of the power generation sector is important. For the near future (up to 2015), about 11 to 15 GW of new fossil generation capacity is being planned. In combination with the Clean and Efficient Programme, this will have a large impact on the resulting national emissions of air pollutants. Strong climate policies and high CO2 prices are likely to result in a lower electricity demand than the original reference projection (the Global Economy High Oil Price scenario). In addition, more renewable electricity generation and more cogeneration are expected. These changes are likely to improve the international competitiveness of the Dutch electricity generation. As a result, electricity exports rise and part of the emission reductions materialize outside the Netherlands, rather than within its borders [nl

  10. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  11. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors elaborate the economical efficiency evaluation technique that could be universal and applied for technical-and-economic feasibility study of the ball-cleaning system installation on the steam turbines of the electric power plants. Besides the effect from reducing the exhaust steam pressure in the condenser by means of the ball-cleaning system implementation, this technique also accounts for the effect of lowering the condenser hydraulic pressure.The article refers to the practical results of the ball-cleaning system introduction on the steam turbines of Gomel CHP-2. As a result of regular application of the ball-cleaning system the temperature difference of the condensers of all blocks Т-180/210-130-1 confined into the regulatory values and the cleanness coefficient of all three turbine units reached 0,85. The authors consider the working results, implementation experience of the ball-cleaning system at Gomel CHP-2 and its efficiency evaluation technique to be worth disseminating when introducing the analogous systems at the plants of Belarusian power network.The authors suggest measures on the condenser automatic-cleaning system improvement with the turbine mathematical-simulation model employment that will make it possible to optimize the condenser cleaning regimes and to increase the ball-cleaning system effectiveness with the condenser cleanness coefficient growing up to 0,90–0,92.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Mmmm... - Alternative Capture Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternative procedure for destruction efficiency determines the organic carbon content of the volatiles... portion of the coating and the efficiency of the capture system. The organic carbon content of the control... to the surrounding atmosphere. 3.0Control Device Efficiency. 3.1Determine the weight fraction carbon...

  13. An efficient marker-free vector for clean gene transfer into plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A marker-free vector, pBINMF, for clean gene transfer was constructed based on the binary vector pBINPLUS. Vector pBINMF, carrying only a multiple cloning site (MCS) between the left and the right T-DNA border, was suitable to directly generate marker-free transgenic plants (MFTPs) without any vector sequences ...

  14. Efficient and effective implementation of alternative project delivery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Over the past decade, the Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway : Administration (MDOT SHA) has implemented Alternative Project Delivery (APD) methods : in a number of transportation projects. While these innovative practices have produ...

  15. Digital voice recording: An efficient alternative for data collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Thomas M. Juntti; Thomas W. Bonnot; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2009-01-01

    Study designs are usually constrained by logistical and budgetary considerations that can affect the depth and breadth of the research. Little attention has been paid to increasing the efficiency of data recording. Digital voice recording and translation may offer improved efficiency of field personnel. Using this technology, we increased our data collection by 55...

  16. Fuel flexible distributed combustion for efficient and clean gas turbine engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Ahmed E.E.; Gupta, Ashwani K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Examined distributed combustion for gas turbines applications using HiTAC. • Gaseous, liquid, conventional and bio-fuels are examined with ultra-low emissions. • Novel design of fuel flexibility without any atomizer for liquid fuel sprays. • Demonstrated fuel flexibility with emissions x and CO, low noise, enhanced stability, higher efficiency and alleviation of combustion instability. Distributed reaction conditions were achieved using swirl for desirable controlled mixing between the injected air, fuel and hot reactive gases from within the combustor prior to mixture ignition. In this paper, distributed combustion is further investigated using a variety of fuels. Gaseous (methane, diluted methane, hydrogen enriched methane and propane) and liquid fuels, including both traditional (kerosene) and alternate fuels (ethanol) that cover a wide range of calorific values are investigated with emphasis on pollutants emission and combustor performance with each fuel. For liquid fuels, no atomization or spray device was used. Performance evaluation with the different fuels was established to outline the flexibility of the combustor using a wide range of fuels of different composition, phase and calorific value with specific focus on ultra-low pollutants emission. Results obtained on pollutants emission and OH * chemiluminescence for the specific fuels at various equivalence ratios are presented. Near distributed combustion conditions with less than 8 PPM of NO emission were demonstrated under novel premixed conditions for the various fuels tested at heat (energy) release intensity (HRI) of 27 MW/m 3 -atm. and a rather high equivalence ratio of 0.6. Higher equivalence ratios lacked favorable distributed combustion conditions. For the same conditions, CO emission varied for each fuel; less than 10 ppm were demonstrated for methane based fuels, while heavier liquid fuels provided less than 40 ppm CO emissions. Lower emissions of NO ( x can be possible by

  17. Substrate Effect on Plasma Clean Efficiency in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Ko JangJian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma clean in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD system plays an important role to ensure the same chamber condition after numerous film depositions. The periodic and applicable plasma clean in deposition chamber also increases wafer yield due to less defect produced during the deposition process. In this study, the plasma clean rate (PCR of silicon oxide is investigated after the silicon nitride deposited on Cu and silicon oxide substrates by remote plasma system (RPS, respectively. The experimental results show that the PCR drastically decreases with Cu substrate compared to that with silicon oxide substrate after numerous silicon nitride depositions. To understand the substrate effect on PCR, the surface element analysis and bonding configuration are executed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS is used to analyze microelement of metal ions on the surface of shower head in the PECVD chamber. According to Cu substrate, the results show that micro Cu ion and the CuOx bonding can be detected on the surface of shower head. The Cu ion contamination might grab the fluorine radicals produced by NF3 ddissociation in the RPS and that induces the drastic decrease on PCR.

  18. "Clean, green and ethical" animal production. Case study: reproductive efficiency in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme B; Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2006-02-01

    In response to changes in society and thus the marketplace, we need a vision for the future of our animal industries, including both on-farm and off-farm activities, that is "clean, green and ethical". Using small ruminants as a case study, we describe three "clean, green and ethical" strategies that farmers could use to improve reproductive performance. The first allows control of the timing of reproductive events by using socio-sexual signals (the "male effect") to induce synchronised ovulation in females. The second strategy, "focus feeding", is based on using short periods of nutritional supplements that are precisely timed and specifically designed for each event in the reproductive process (eg, gamete production, embryo survival, fetal programming, colostrum production). The third strategy aims to maximize offspring survival by a combination of management, nutrition and genetic selection for behaviour (temperament). All of these approaches involve non-pharmacological manipulation of the endogenous control systems of the animals and complement the detailed information from ultrasound that is now becoming available. Importantly, these approaches all have a solid foundation in reproductive biology. In several cases, they are currently used in commercial practice, but there is still room for improvement through both basic and applied research. Ultimately, these "clean, green and ethical" tools can be cost-effective, increase productivity and, at the same time, greatly improve the image of meat and milk industries in society and the marketplace.

  19. The Solubility of Ozone in Deionized Water and its Cleaning Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J.H.; Park, J.G. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Y.S. [Hanyang Technology Co., Ltd., Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of ozone in DI water and the reaction with wafers during the semiconductor wet cleaning process. The solubility of ozone in DI water was not only dependent on the temperature but also directly proportional to the input concentration of ozone. The lower the initial ozone concentration and the temperature, the longer the half-life time of ozone. The reaction order of ozone in DI water was calculated to be around 1.5. The redox potential reached a saturation value in 5min and slightly increased as the input ozone concentrations increased. The completely hydrophilic surface was created in 1min when HF etched silicon wafer was cleaned in ozonized DI water containing higher ozone concentrations than 2ppm. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements showed that the chemical oxide formed by ozonized DI water was measured to be thicker than that by piranha solution. The wafers contaminated with a non-ionic surfactant were more effectively cleaned in ozonized DI water than in piranha and ozonized piranha solutions. (author). 19 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Researches in increase of efficiency of electrokinetic process of ground cleaning from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, L.B.; Shcheglov, M.Y.; Nikolaevsky, V.B.; Tkachenko, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    Potentially perspective method of decontamination of ground is electrokinetic method, which basic advantage consists in an opportunity of its application for clearing ground with low filtering by ability directly on a place of local contaminated (in situ). Thus moving the large volumes of the contaminated ground is excluded. Base of this method is the processes of electromigration and electro-osmotic, proceeding in a contaminated ground lay at imposing an electrical field of a constant current. Electrokinetic method of cleaning of ground from radionuclides provides their transfer in water-soluble, mobile form, carry as positive or negative ions under influence of an electrical field into electrode chambers with their subsequent recycling.Electrokinetic method in practice can be realized as follows: in the contaminated ground establish special electrode devices, fill their electrolyte and connect to a source of a constant current. Formed in the anode device as a result of electrochemical decomposition of water the ions of hydrogen under action of an electrical field move to the cathode, thus cooperate with a ground and superside cations of radioactive elements. Desorbed cations of contaminate act in catholyte, which periodically or continuously is exposed to clearing, for example, on sorption column. Last years the experts MosNPO Radon carry out complex researches directed on development of electrokinetic technology of cleaning ground from radionuclides and heavy metals. To the present time laboratory and bench tests of electrokinetic method are carried out. The basic attention at study of process of cleaning was given to objects contaminated Cs-137, most difficult recovery an element, which is strongly fixed by clay minerals and can enter into crystal structure. (authors)

  1. Alternative Concepts of School Efficiency. Occasional Paper #18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    The conventional concept of educational efficiency, adapted from the technical-industrial sector, is inappropriate for public schools. In the technical industrial sector, there is widespread agreement about the desired outcome: profit. Yet there is very little public agreement about the proper goals of schooling. Even if agreement on goals could…

  2. Alternative approaches to evaluation of cow efficiency | MacNeil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimated breeding values based on the preceding results and using the maternal genetic effect on ADG as a proxy for the direct genetic effect on milk production were combined in six indexes of cow efficiency. These indexes sought to increase output and decrease input simultaneously, to increase output holding input ...

  3. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  4. Highly concentrated EDTA gel improves cleaning efficiency of root canal preparation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, P; Hoy, L; Günay, H

    2008-12-01

    Debris and smear layer, as a product of mechanical root canal instrumentation, reduce the effectiveness of pharmacological substances to prevent post-treatment diseases and impair direct contact of filling materials with a clean dentinal surface. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the presence and localization of debris and smear layer via scanning electron microscope analysis after standardized root canal preparation with different chelating agents. Dentin surfaces received treatment with: (1) 15% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), (2) 18.6% EDTA (3) and 24% EDTA or without any demineralizing chemicals as control. Forty vertically split human premolars were sputtered and divided into coronal, middle, and apical sections, followed by a randomized, blinded score evaluation using five scores. Pairwise comparisons of all treatment groups against a control group have been performed by Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Debris grades showed no significant difference between the three regions of the root canals, except for 18.6% EDTA in the central third. Smear layer and smear plug removal was concentration-dependent. Removal of the smear layer in the three areas showed that there was a statistically significant difference between all parts when using 18.6% and 24% EDTA concentrations compared with the control. The best smear layer removal in the apical region was observed using a 24% EDTA gel as chelating agent and lubricant. The usage of EDTA gel >/=18.6% presented a better cleaning regime when compared to the control group.

  5. The economic efficiency impacts of alternatives for revenue reconciliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.H.; Baughman, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    About a dozen electric utilities in the US offer rates that possess real-time characteristics. In these implementations the real-time prices are updated at half-hourly intervals and in no case are the prices spatially differentiated. The implemented rates are based upon marginal generating costs with markups to account for system transmission and distribution costs or other revenue reconciliation needs. This paper analyzes how great is the impact of alternative price markup methods on measures of social welfare and the time pattern of real-time prices. A case study and sensitivity results are also presented

  6. ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furková, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of efficiency and ranking of higher education institutions is very popular and important topic of public policy. The assessment of the quality of higher education institutions can stimulate positive changes in higher education. In this study we focus on assessment and ranking of Slovak economic faculties. We try to apply two different quantitative approaches for evaluation Slovak economic faculties - Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA as an econometric approach and PROMETHEE II as multicriteria decision making method. Via SFA we examine faculties’ success from scientific point of view, i.e. their success in area of publications and citations. Next part of analysis deals with assessing of Slovak economic sciences faculties from overall point of view through the multicriteria decision making method. In the analysis we employ panel data covering 11 economic faculties observed over the period of 5 years. Our main aim is to point out other quantitative approaches to efficiency estimation of higher education institutions.

  7. Alternative Practices to Improve Surface Fleet Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    through changes in procedures and operational modifications. iENCON uses BBLs/hr (barrels per hour) to evaluate the change in fuel efficiency (Pehlivan...policies and procedures that can be changed to continue the Navy’s efforts in the reduction of fuel consumption. Chapter III addresses drift...and four main engines. In a “full power” lineup all four engines are online. In a “split plant” lineup two engines remain online, one per shaft

  8. Potential impacts of energy efficiency policies in the U.S. industry: Results from the clean energy futures study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) studied the role that efficient clean energy technologies can play in meeting the economic and environmental challenges for our future energy supply. The study describes a portfolio of policies that would motivate energy users and businesses to invest in innovative energy efficient technologies. On the basis of the portfolios, two policy scenarios have been developed, i.e. a moderate scenario and an advanced scenario. We focus on the industrial part of the CEF-study. The studied policies include a wide scope of activities, which are organized under the umbrella of voluntary industrial sector agreements. The policies for the policy scenarios have been modeled using the National Energy Modeling System (CEF-NEMS). Under the reference scenario industrial energy use would grow to 41 Quads in 2020, compared to 34.8 Quads in 1997, with an average improvement of the energy intensity by 1.1% per year. In the Moderate scenario the annual improvement is a bout 1.5%/year, leading to primary energy use of 37.8 Quads in 2020, resulting in 10% lower CO2 emissions by 2020 compared to the reference scenario. In the Advanced scenario the annual improvement increases to 1.8% per year, leading to primary energy use of 34.3 Quads in 2020, and 29% lower CO2 emissions. We report on the policies, assumptions and results for industry

  9. Experimental Study of Removing Surface Corrosion Products from Archaeological Iron Objects and Alternating Iron Corrosion Products by Nd:YAG Laser Cleaning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Youn; Cho, Nam Chul [Kongju National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Myoung [IMT co. Ltd, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae Eun [National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The corrosion product of archaeological iron objects is supposed to be removed because it causes re-corrosion. So far it is removed by scapel and sand blaster but they depend on the skill and experience of a conservator and the glass-dust of the sand blaster is harmful to humans. Therefore this study applies a laser cleaning system which is used in various industrial cleaning processes, to remove corrosion product from archaeological iron objects. In addition, this work studies the alternation of corrosion product after laser irradiation, which evaluates the reliability of the laser cleaning system. Optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, XRD, Raman have been used to observe and analyse the surface of the objects. The results show the capacity of laser cleaning some corrosion product, but blackening appears with increasing pulses and laser energy, and some corrosion products, goethite and hematite, are partially altered to magnetite. These problems, blackening and alternation of corrosion product, should be solved by further studies which find the optimal laser irradiation condition and use a wetting agent.

  10. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Grosso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  11. Development of multicriteria models to classify energy efficiency alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Luis Pires; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Dias, Luis Candido; Martins, Antonio Gomes

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at describing a novel constructive approach to develop decision support models to classify energy efficiency initiatives, including traditional Demand-Side Management and Market Transformation initiatives, overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of Cost-Benefit Analysis. A multicriteria approach based on the ELECTRE-TRI method is used, focusing on four perspectives: - an independent Agency with the aim of promoting energy efficiency; - Distribution-only utilities under a regulated framework; - the Regulator; - Supply companies in a competitive liberalized market. These perspectives were chosen after a system analysis of the decision situation regarding the implementation of energy efficiency initiatives, looking for the main roles and power relations, with the purpose of structuring the decision problem by identifying the actors, the decision makers, the decision paradigm, and the relevant criteria. The multicriteria models developed allow considering different kinds of impacts, but avoiding difficult measurements and unit conversions due to the nature of the multicriteria method chosen. The decision is then based on all the significant effects of the initiative, both positive and negative ones, including ancillary effects often forgotten in cost-benefit analysis. The ELECTRE-TRI, as most multicriteria methods, provides to the Decision Maker the ability of controlling the relevance each impact can have on the final decision. The decision support process encompasses a robustness analysis, which, together with a good documentation of the parameters supplied into the model, should support sound decisions. The models were tested with a set of real-world initiatives and compared with possible decisions based on Cost-Benefit analysis

  12. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  13. Gasoline compression ignition approach to efficient, clean and affordable future engines

    KAUST Repository

    Kalghatgi, Gautam; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    towards diesel and jet fuels, leading to a probable surplus of lighter low-octane fuels. Current diesel engines are efficient but expensive and complicated because they try to reduce the nitrogen oxide and soot emissions simultaneously while using

  14. Basic Research Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlroy, A.; McRae, G.; Sick, V.; Siebers, D. L.; Westbrook, C. K.; Smith, P. J.; Taatjes, C.; Trouve, A.; Wagner, A. F.; Rohlfing, E.; Manley, D.; Tully, F.; Hilderbrandt, R.; Green, W.; Marceau, D.; O' Neal, J.; Lyday, M.; Cebulski, F.; Garcia, T. R.; Strong, D.

    2006-11-01

    To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying utilization of evolving transportation fuels, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges that have the potential for significant long-term impact on fuel efficiency and emissions.

  15. Tuning 3D topography on biomimetic surface for efficient self-cleaning and microfluidic manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Wei-Sheng; Huang, Han-Xiong; Chen, An-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, micro-/nanotopography on polymeric replica is generally limited to 2D when a mechanical demolding approach is applied. In this work, one-step replication of bio-inspired 3D topography is achieved using microinjection compression molding with novel dual-layer molds. Using a proposed flexible template, the replica topography and wettability are highly tunable during molding. Moreover, dual-scale topography on the mold is developed by coating the micropatterned insert with submicron silica particles. Contact angle and roll-off angle measurements indicate the lotus leaf, rose petal and rice leaf effects on biomimetic surfaces. Among the three kinds of surfaces, the petal-inspired surface possesses the superior performance in self-cleaning submicron contaminants and mechanical robustness, which is highly correlated to the low roughness-induced adhesive superhydrophobicity and the absence of fragile submicron-/nanostructure, respectively. Furthermore, a multi-layer mold structure is proposed for fabricating the open microfluidic devices. The embedment of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic silica particles in the microstructured open channel and the hydrophobic silica particles in the background area during replication renders the wettability contrast sharp, realizing the self-driven flow of microfluid confined within the open microchannel. (paper)

  16. Tuning 3D topography on biomimetic surface for efficient self-cleaning and microfluidic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Sheng; Huang, Han-Xiong; Chen, An-Fu

    2015-03-01

    Currently, micro-/nanotopography on polymeric replica is generally limited to 2D when a mechanical demolding approach is applied. In this work, one-step replication of bio-inspired 3D topography is achieved using microinjection compression molding with novel dual-layer molds. Using a proposed flexible template, the replica topography and wettability are highly tunable during molding. Moreover, dual-scale topography on the mold is developed by coating the micropatterned insert with submicron silica particles. Contact angle and roll-off angle measurements indicate the lotus leaf, rose petal and rice leaf effects on biomimetic surfaces. Among the three kinds of surfaces, the petal-inspired surface possesses the superior performance in self-cleaning submicron contaminants and mechanical robustness, which is highly correlated to the low roughness-induced adhesive superhydrophobicity and the absence of fragile submicron-/nanostructure, respectively. Furthermore, a multi-layer mold structure is proposed for fabricating the open microfluidic devices. The embedment of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic silica particles in the microstructured open channel and the hydrophobic silica particles in the background area during replication renders the wettability contrast sharp, realizing the self-driven flow of microfluid confined within the open microchannel.

  17. Efficiency and durability of a self-cleaning coating on concrete and stones under both natural and artificial ageing trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Quiroga, P. M.; Martínez-Ramírez, S.; Viles, H. A.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to test the performance under long-term working conditions of a commercial self-cleaning coating, a water-based TiO2 sol, on three building materials important in recent and older European heritage; Portland limestone, Woodkirk sandstone and concrete. First, the compatibility of the coating (effect on petrophysical properties) with the substrates was demonstrated by examining aesthetic properties and water vapour permeability of the building materials and secondly, the self-cleaning ability of the TiO2 nanoparticles in degrading artificial stain (rhodamine B) under UV light was evaluated. Finally, the durability (lasting performance) of photocatalytic activity was assessed during one year of outdoor exposure trial and 2000 h of accelerated ageing in a chamber with UV radiation and condensation cycles. Results showed that photocatalytic activity was unaltered on concrete, whereas on sandstone, particularly after artificial ageing, it was reduced due to the removal of nanoparticles from the surface. On limestone, a decrease of TiO2 content was observed but photodegradation efficiency (ability to perform as self-cleaner) seemed not to be affected.

  18. Energy efficiency impact of EGR on organizing clean combustion in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divekar, Prasad S.; Chen, Xiang; Tjong, Jimi; Zheng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Studied EGR impact on efficiency and emissions of diesel and dual-fuel combustion. • Quantified effectiveness of intake dilution for NOx reduction using EGR. • Identified suitable EGR ranges for mitigating emissions–efficiency trade-off. • Developed careful control of intake dilution and in-cylinder excess ratio. • Enabled ultra-low NOx in both diesel and dual-fuel combustion via EGR control. - Abstract: Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a commonly recognized primary technique for reducing NOx emissions in IC engines. However, depending on the extent of its use, the application of EGR in diesel engines is associated with an increase in smoke emissions and a reduction in thermal efficiency. In this work, empirical investigations and parametric analyses are carried out to assess the impact of EGR in attaining ultra-low NOx emissions while minimizing the smoke and efficiency penalties. Two fuelling strategies are studied, namely diesel-only injection and dual-fuel injection. In the dual-fuel strategy, a high volatility liquid fuel is injected into the intake ports, and a diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder. The results suggest that the reduction in NOx can be directly correlated with the intake dilution caused by EGR and the correlation is largely independent of the fuelling strategy, the intake boost, and the engine load level. Simultaneously ultra-low NOx and smoke emissions can be achieved at high intake boost and intake dilution levels in the diesel-only combustion strategy and at high ethanol fractions in the dual-fuel strategy. The efficiency penalty associated with EGR is attributed to two primary factors; the combustion off-phasing and the reduction in combustion efficiency. The combustion off-phasing can be minimized by the closed loop control of the diesel injection timing in both the fuelling strategies, whereas the combustion efficiency can be improved by limiting the intake dilution to moderate levels. The

  19. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Design Principles for Covalent Organic Frameworks as Efficient Electrocatalysts in Clean Energy Conversion and Green Oxidizer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Zhang, Lipeng; Zhao, Zhenghang; Xia, Zhenhai

    2017-05-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), an emerging class of framework materials linked by covalent bonds, hold potential for various applications such as efficient electrocatalysts, photovoltaics, and sensors. To rationally design COF-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in fuel cells and metal-air batteries, activity descriptors, derived from orbital energy and bonding structures, are identified with the first-principle calculations for the COFs, which correlate COF structures with their catalytic activities. The calculations also predict that alkaline-earth metal-porphyrin COFs could catalyze the direct production of H 2 O 2 , a green oxidizer and an energy carrier. These predictions are supported by experimental data, and the design principles derived from the descriptors provide an approach for rational design of new electrocatalysts for both clean energy conversion and green oxidizer production. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  2. Investigation of the biofuel flue and producer gases cleaning efficiency using ESP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poškas, Robertas; Sirvydas, Arūnas; Poškas, Povilas; Striūgas, Nerijus; Pedišius, Nerijus; Valinčius, Vitas

    2017-11-01

    The use of biofuel has been increasing in Europe over the last years, and the reason for that is acceptable cost and the least negative impact on the environment. However, NOx and emissions of fine particulates are important, and biofuel is still a disadvantage compared to oil and natural gas fired systems. Usually, flue gas is filtered in multicyclones or fibre filters before discharge into the atmosphere. Yet, in the case of fine particulates, the filters of such type do not show high effectiveness, thus electrostatic precipitators are used. In this comparative study on biofuel (wood pellets), the collection efficiency of solid particles from a class 3 boiler (50 kW) and from a gasification unit (100 kW) was investigated. Although releases of solid particles from modern boilers are low, a combination of such a boiler with an electrostatic precipitator may reduce the releases of particles to the minimum, and the collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator obtained during the investigation was 98-99%. There is a big difference in particle concentrations comparing the systems with flue gas and producer gas. As the working conditions in the test section with producer gas were harder, it led to lower efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator ( 75%).

  3. Investigation of the biofuel flue and producer gases cleaning efficiency using ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poškas Robertas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biofuel has been increasing in Europe over the last years, and the reason for that is acceptable cost and the least negative impact on the environment. However, NOx and emissions of fine particulates are important, and biofuel is still a disadvantage compared to oil and natural gas fired systems. Usually, flue gas is filtered in multicyclones or fibre filters before discharge into the atmosphere. Yet, in the case of fine particulates, the filters of such type do not show high effectiveness, thus electrostatic precipitators are used. In this comparative study on biofuel (wood pellets, the collection efficiency of solid particles from a class 3 boiler (50 kW and from a gasification unit (100 kW was investigated. Although releases of solid particles from modern boilers are low, a combination of such a boiler with an electrostatic precipitator may reduce the releases of particles to the minimum, and the collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator obtained during the investigation was ~98-99%. There is a big difference in particle concentrations comparing the systems with flue gas and producer gas. As the working conditions in the test section with producer gas were harder, it led to lower efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator (~75%.

  4. Clean and efficient energy conversion processes (Cecon-project). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The objectives of the work programme reported are the development and testing of two optimised energy conversion processes, both consisting of a radiant surface gas burner and a ceramic heat exchanger. The first sub-objective of the programme is related to industrial heating, drying and curing processes requireing low and medium heat fluxes. It is estimated that around one tenth of the total EC industrial energy use is associated with such processes. The majority of these processes currently use convection and conduction as the main heat transfer mechanisms and overall energy efficiencies are typically below 25%. For many drying and finishing processes (such as curing powder coatings and drying paints, varnishes, inks, and for the fabrication of paper and textiles), radiant heating can achieve much faster dyring rates and higher energy efficiency than convective heating. In the project new concepts of natural gas fired radiant heating have been investigated which would be much more efficient than the existing processes. One element of the programme was the evelopment of gas burners having enhanced radiant efficiencies. A second concerned the investigation of the safety of gas burners containing significant volumes of mixed gas and air. Finally the new gas burners were tested in combination with the high temperature heat exchanger to create highly efficient radiant heating systems. The second sub-objective concerned the development of a compact low cost heat exchanger capable of achieving high levels of heat recovery (up to 60%) which could be easily installed on industrial processes. This would make heat recovery a practical proposition on processes where existing heat recovery technology is currently not cost effective. The project will have an impact on industrial processes consuming around 80 MTOE of energy per year within EU countries (1 MTOE equals 41.8 PJ). The overall energy saving potential of the project is estimated to be around 22 MTOE which is around 10

  5. Modulated diesel fuel injection strategy for efficient-clean utilization of low-grade biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaole; Qian, Yong; Zhou, Qiyan; Lu, Xingcai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Influences of direct injection strategy on biogas RCCI mode are researched. • Excessive early pilot injection timing leads to the retard of combustion. • Overall indicated thermal efficiency of low-grade biogas can be higher than 40%. • Pilot injection timing has strong influence on particle size distribution. • Composition of biogas has a great influence on the gas emissions. - Abstract: Recently, as a kind of renewable fuel, low-grade biogas has been researched to apply in internal combustion engine. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to study the influence of injection strategies on the efficient utilization of low-grade biogas in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) mode with port fuel injection of biogas and in-cylinder direct injection of diesel based on a modified electronic controlled high-pressure directly injected compression ignition engine. Considered the high proportion of inert gas in biogas, a four-components simulated gas (H_2:CO:CH_4:N_2 = 5:40:5:50 vol%) has been selected as test fuels to simulate biogas. The effects of several injection control parameters such as pilot injection timing, main injection timing, common rail pressure and pilot injection ratio on the combustion and emissions are analyzed in detail. The research demonstrates that the main injection timing can effectively control the combustion phase and excessive early pilot injection timing leads to retard of combustion. CO emissions are relatively high due to homogenous charge of biogas. NOx and smoke emissions can be effectively controlled. In RCCI mode, the indicated thermal efficiency of biogas/diesel can reach 40%.

  6. Challenges of efficient and clean use of fossil fuels for power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vortmeyer, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Gerhard

    2010-09-15

    Constantly increasing resource efficiency together with the broad introduction of CCS technologies is fundamental for a continuous use of fossil fuels in power generation against the background of up-coming requirements for CO2 emission reduction. In principle, CCS means up-grading conventional power plant technology with proven CO2 removal processes. However, this leads to additional losses, auxiliary power demand and cost. System integration, development or at least adaption of components and processes are the main requirements in this context. Different technology solutions and recent developments will be addressed as well as challenges when implementing in demonstration projects.

  7. Ultra Clean 1.1MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James; Lueck, Steve

    2011-08-31

    Dresser, Inc. (GE Energy, Waukesha gas engines) will develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize a 1.1 Megawatt (MW) natural gas fueled combined heat and power reciprocating engine powered package. This package will feature a total efficiency > 75% and ultra low CARB permitting emissions. Our modular design will cover the 1 – 6 MW size range, and this scalable technology can be used in both smaller and larger engine powered CHP packages. To further advance one of the key advantages of reciprocating engines, the engine, generator and CHP package will be optimized for low initial and operating costs. Dresser, Inc. will leverage the knowledge gained in the DOE - ARES program. Dresser, Inc. will work with commercial, regulatory, and government entities to help break down barriers to wider deployment of CHP. The outcome of this project will be a commercially successful 1.1 MW CHP package with high electrical and total efficiency that will significantly reduce emissions compared to the current central power plant paradigm. Principal objectives by phases for Budget Period 1 include: • Phase 1 – market study to determine optimum system performance, target first cost, lifecycle cost, and creation of a detailed product specification. • Phase 2 – Refinement of the Waukesha CHP system design concepts, identification of critical characteristics, initial evaluation of technical solutions, and risk mitigation plans. Background

  8. Autothermal upgrading of biomass and wastes for clean and efficient production of power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafal Kobylecki; Zbigniew Bis; Wojciech Nowak [Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated that the main barrier of large scale heat and electricity production from biomass may be significantly reduced or eliminated by fuel upgrading and thermal treatment in a specially-designed pilot plant autothermal reactor. The process does not require significant amount of additional energy, since the whole process is run autothermal. The process final products are hot flue gases and a solid residue called a 'biocarbon' of LHV of roughly 28 MJ/kg. The properties of the biocarbon were similar, regardless of the input raw fuel type (biomass, waste, sewage sludge, energy crops, etc.). The use of the biocarbon for direct co-combustion with coal does not require installation of any additional feeding or fuel treatment systems at the power plants. Apart from its possible direct combustion, the biocarbon can be also efficiently used as a promising solid energy carrier for other processes (e.g. fuel cells). 6 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.; Pierce, B. [eds.

    1995-06-01

    Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

  10. Heterogeneous photocatalysis on construction materials: effect of catalyst properties on the efficiency for degrading NOx and self cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson, N.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of some properties of different catalysts on the photocatalytic activity. The efficiency has been determined for two different processes: NOx abatement and self-cleaning for Rhodamine B and tobacco extract being, the TiO2 based photocatalyst, supported as coatings on white mortar. Eight different catalysts were tested, seven commercial ones and one home-made catalyst with improved visible light absorption properties. Additionally, some of them were submitted to exposition to water and/or calcinations to alter their physical properties. A kinetic approach was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity, being the first reaction constant (for NO and just empirical constants (for self-cleaning the parameters used for the comparison of the different materials. As a result, the efficiency, even for ranking, is dependent on the type of contaminant used in the experiment. In general, NO oxidation and tobacco followed similar trends while no clear relations were found for Rhodamine B.En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de las propiedades de distintos catalizadores en la actividad fotocatalítica de degradación de NOx y autolimpieza, para Rodamina B y extracto de tabaco. Se han ensayado ocho fotocatalizadores, basados en TiO2 y soportados sobre mortero blanco; siete de ellos comerciales y uno sintetizado en el laboratorio con absorción mejorada en el visible. Adicionalmente, las propiedades físicas de algunos de ellos se alteraron mediante tratamientos con agua y/o por calcinación. La actividad fotocatalítica se ha evaluado mediante aproximación cinética, siendo la constante de reacción de primer orden (para NO y constantes empíricas de ajuste (para autolimpieza los parámetros de comparación entre materiales. Como resultado, la eficiencia depende del contaminante utilizado en el experimento de evaluación. En general, en este estudio, oxidación de NO y de extracto de tabaco presentan tendencias similares

  11. Use of biomass for clean and efficient production of heat and power. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Lans, R. van der; Frandsen, J.B.F.; Johnsson, J.E.; Jensen, A.; Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2001-03-01

    measurement and mathematical modelling of limestone reactivity were conducted. The influence of pH, type and size of limestone and the bulk composition of the solution on the dissolution rate of limestone was investigated. FGD pilot scale experiments were conducted to compare two methods of optimising the wet FGD process, i.e. 1) the use of adipic acid with limestone, and 2) exchange of the limestone with a chalk. Both methods were found to improve the desulphurization efficiency. Presence of HCl in the flue gas was shown to inhibit the limestone dissolution. Mathematical modelling of the FGD process was carried out to obtain a better understanding of the rate determining parameters in the desulphurization process and to provide a tool to aid in process optimization. The modeling results compared favourably with pilot scale results. (au)

  12. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce losses in the cooling source (condenser and to increase effectiveness of fuel-and-power resources utilization, the authors present a modern automatic ball-cleaning system for the pipes of condenser 180-KTsS-1 of turbine unit Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ of Gomel CHP-2. The article examines exploitation challenges of the steam turbine condensers and methods of clearing them from sedimentations. Depending on the sedimentation character and composition, and the quality of cooling water at the power plant, they apply various methods of the condenser tubes clearing: heat drying, vacuum dehydration, acid-washing, pipes-shooting with water and water-air pistols, ablution with high-pressure water jet etc. All the applied cleaning methods are the periodical means to fight the sedimentations and require the turbine halting or unloading, predetermine the equipment operating between clearings with constantly smearing cooling surfaces of the condensers, i.e. with reduced efficiency of equipment operation.The installation of the ball-cleaning system practically excludes defects of the chemical and mechanical cleaning methods, which leads to the condenser pipes life-in-service increase, the full-flow condensate quality improvement, reliability and efficient performance enhancement of the steam turbines equipment. The authors consider developed algorithms of data processing and designed system control of the condenser cleaning that allowed realizing its operation in automatic mode.

  13. Alternative Approaches to Technical Efficiency Estimation in the Stochastic Frontier Model

    OpenAIRE

    Acquah, H. de-Graft; Onumah, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the stochastic frontier model and calculating technical efficiency of decision making units are of great importance in applied production economic works. This paper estimates technical efficiency from the stochastic frontier model using Jondrow, and Battese and Coelli approaches. In order to compare alternative methods, simulated data with sample sizes of 60 and 200 are generated from stochastic frontier model commonly applied to agricultural firms. Simulated data is employed to co...

  14. Phenyl and ionic liquid based bifunctional periodic mesoporous organosilica supported copper: An efficient nanocatalyst for clean production of polyhydroquinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamifar, Dawood; Ardeshirfard, Hakimeh

    2017-11-01

    A novel phenyl and ionic liquid based bifunctional periodic mesoporous organosilica supported copper (Cu@BPMO-Ph-IL) is prepared, characterized and its catalytic application is developed in the clean production of polyhydroquinolines. The Cu@BPMO-Ph-IL was prepared via chemical grafting of ionic liquid groups onto phenyl-based PMO followed by treatment with copper acetate. This nanocatalyst was characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTs), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), nitrogen-sorption and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses. This was successfully applied in the one-pot Hantzsch condensation of aldehydes, ammonium acetate, alkylacetoacetates and dimedone to prepare a set of different derivatives of polyhydroquinolines in high yields and selectivity. The catalyst was effectively recovered and reused several times without important decrease in efficiency. The recovered catalyst was also characterized with TEM analysis to study its stability and durability under applied conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative cost-efficiency of the EVOTECH endoscope cleaner and reprocessor versus manual cleaning plus automated endoscope reprocessing in a real-world Canadian hospital endoscopy setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shum Cynthia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reprocessing of endoscopes generally requires labour-intensive manual cleaning followed by high-level disinfection in an automated endoscope reprocessor (AER. EVOTECH Endoscope Cleaner and Reprocessor (ECR is approved for fully automated cleaning and disinfection whereas AERs require manual cleaning prior to the high-level disinfection procedure. The purpose of this economic evaluation was to determine the cost-efficiency of the ECR versus AER methods of endoscopy reprocessing in an actual practice setting. Methods A time and motion study was conducted at a Canadian hospital to collect data on the personnel resources and consumable supplies costs associated with the use of EVOTECH ECR versus manual cleaning followed by AER with Medivators DSD-201. Reprocessing of all endoscopes was observed and timed for both reprocessor types over three days. Laboratory staff members were interviewed regarding the consumption and cost of all disposable supplies and equipment. Exact Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for assessing differences in total cycle reprocessing time. Results Endoscope reprocessing was significantly shorter with the ECR than with manual cleaning followed by AER. The differences in median time were 12.46 minutes per colonoscope (p Conclusions The EVOTECH ECR was more efficient and less costly to use for the reprocessing of endoscopes than manual cleaning followed by AER disinfection. Although the cost of consumable supplies required to reprocess endoscopes with EVOTECH ECR was slightly higher, the value of the labour time saved with EVOTECH ECR more than offset the additional consumables cost. The increased efficiency with EVOTECH ECR could lead to even further cost-savings by shifting endoscopy laboratory personnel responsibilities but further study is required.

  16. Lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals to achieve high-efficient and clean combustion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes full lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals launched to support selection an appropriate combustion technology and to support optimization of the boiler design. Tested mix of Middle-Bosnia brown coals is projected coal for new co-generation power plant Kakanj Unit 8 (300-450 MWe, EP B&H electricity utility. The basic coal blend consisting of the coals Kakanj: Breza: Zenica at approximate mass ratio of 70:20:10 is low grade brown coal with very high percentage of ash - over 40%. Testing that coal in circulated fluidized bed combustion technique, performed at Ruhr-University Bohum and Doosan Lentjes GmbH, has shown its inconveniency for fluidized bed combustion technology, primarily due to the agglomeration problems. Tests of these coals in PFC (pulverized fuel combustion technology have been performed in referent laboratory at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Sarajevo University, on a lab-scale PFC furnace, to provide reliable data for further analysis. The PFC tests results are fitted well with previously obtained results of the burning similar Bosnian coal blends in the PFC dry bottom furnace technique. Combination of the coals shares, the process temperature and the air combustion distribution for the lowest NOx and SO2 emissions was found in this work, provided that combustion efficiency and CO emissions are within very strict criteria, considering specific settlement of lab-scale furnace. Sustainability assessment based on calculation economic and environmental indicators, in combination with Low Cost Planning method, is used for optimization the power plant design. The results of the full lab-scale investigation will help in selection optimal Boiler design, to achieve sustainable energy system with high-efficient and clean combustion technology applied for given coals.

  17. Clean air program : design guidelines for bus transit systems using electric and hybrid electric propulsion as an alternative fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    The use of alternative fuels to power transit buses is steadily increasing. Several fuels, including : Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and : Methanol/Ethanol, are already being used. At presen...

  18. Bridge approach slabs for Missouri DOT field evaluation of alternative and cost efficient bridge approach slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Based on a recent study on cost efficient alternative bridge approach slab (BAS) designs (Thiagarajan et : al. 2010) has recommended three new BAS designs for possible implementation by MoDOT namely a) 20 feet cast-inplace : slab with sleeper slab (C...

  19. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  20. Alternate partial root-zone irrigation improves fertilizer-N use efficiency in tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Liu, Fulai; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the comparative effects of alternative partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) and deficit irrigation (DI) on fertilizer-N use efficiency in tomato plants under mineral N and organic N fertilizations. The plants were grown in split-root pots in a climate......-controlled glasshouse and were subjected to PRI and DI treatments during early fruiting stage. When analyzed across the N fertilizer treatments, PRI treatment led to significantly higher N yield, agronomic N use efficiency (ANUE), and apparent N recovery efficiency (ANRE) as compared with the DI treatment, indicating...... significantly higher fertilizer-N use efficiency and soil N availability as well as enhanced plant’s N acquisition ability in the PRI treatment. Analysis across the irrigation treatments showed that the mineral N fertilizer treatment (MinN) significantly increased N yield, ANUE and ANRE relative to the organic...

  1. Determination of loss of efficiency photovoltaic panel function of cleaning; Influencia do acumulo de poeira sobre a eficiencia de um painel fotovoltaico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, Roger N. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Catarinense (IFC), Luzerna, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: roger@ifc-videira.edu.br; Gnoatto, Estor; Ferruzzi, Yuri; Kavanagh, Edward [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Melo, Dirceu de [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Chapeco, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The use of photovoltaic panels to generate electricity is growing into a worldwide basis. This generation system has a low efficiency, so it is necessary to know the panels will be used, the load will be fed and factors that may influence the operation and performance. The main factors are: radiation, temperature, angle of installation and level the dirt on the surface of the panel. This study aimed to show the difference in efficiency between two sets of photovoltaic panels, one clean and one dirty, the average difference is 16.26%, thus demonstrating the importance of making regular cleaning of photovoltaic panels, and these data can extended to other types of photovoltaic modules. (author)

  2. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  3. Alternative co-digestion scenarios for efficient fixed-dome reactor biomethanation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Laranjeiro, Tiago; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    where low-tech reactors have been abandoned. Thus, the aims of this study were: a) to identify and evaluate alternative biomasses as anaerobic digestion substrates at a remote rural area site in India; b) to propose an efficient continuous biomethanation scenario for low-tech reactors; c) to assess......-digestion scenario with 45% and 13% higher energy recovery from biomasses' utilization and 69% and 25% less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, compared to R30 and R45, respectively. These results indicate that it is possible to operate efficiently low-tech biogas reactors with utilized biomasses as anaerobic digestion...

  4. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Project Financing Alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W. D.; Hail, John C.; Sullivan, Gregory P.

    2000-02-14

    This document provides findings and recommendations that resulted from an assessment of the Brookhaven National Laboratory by a team from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the site's potential for various alternative financing options as a means to implement energy-efficiency improvements. The assessment looked for life-cycle cost-effective energy-efficiency improvement opportunities, and through a series of staff interviews, evaluated the various methods by which these opportunities may be financed, while considering availability of funds, staff, and available financing options. This report summarizes the findings of the visit and the resulting recommendations.

  5. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes: The case of Dutch horticulture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Vlist, Arno J.; Withagen, Cees; Folmer, Henk

    2007-01-01

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter environmental regulation reduces technical inefficiency. For this purpose, we use a stochastic production frontier framework allowing for inclusion of policy variables to measure the effect of alternative environmental policy regimes on firms' performance. The main result is that stricter environmental policy regimes have indeed reduced technical inefficiencies in Dutch horticulture. The estimation results indicate amongst others that the 1997 agreement on energy, nutrient and pesticides use enhances technical efficiency. Firms under the strict environmental policy regime are found to be more technically efficient than those under a lax regime, thereby supporting the claims by Porter and Van der Linde (Porter, M., Van der Linde, C., 1995. Green and Competitive: Ending the stalemate. Harvard Business Review 73, pp. 120-137) concerning Dutch horticulture. (author)

  6. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  7. Intelligent alternator control system - a path to efficient dynamics; Intelligente Generatorregelung - Ein Weg zur effizienten Dynamik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, J.; Frickenstein, E.; Wier, M.; Hafkemeyer, M.; El-Dwaik, F.; Hockgeier, E. [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    In automotive engineering, it would seem - at first glance at least - difficult to simultaneously achieve both efficiency and dynamics in the sense of improved driving performance and fuel economy. The BMW Group has set itself the following goal: to drive innovation in automotive and powertrain engineering for the benefit of its customers. An example is the specific control of the alternator in such a way as to improve driving dynamics and fuel economy. (orig.)

  8. The implicit restarted Arnoldi method, an efficient alternative to solve the neutron diffusion equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, G.; Miro, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Ginestar, D. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Vidal, V. [Departamento de Sistemas Informaticos y Computacion, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    To calculate the neutronic steady state of a nuclear power reactor core and its subcritical modes, it is necessary to solve a partial eigenvalue problem. In this paper, an implicit restarted Arnoldi method is presented as an advantageous alternative to classical methods as the Power Iteration method and the Subspace Iteration method. The efficiency of these methods, has been compared calculating the dominant Lambda modes of several configurations of the Three Mile Island reactor core.

  9. Clean option: An alternative strategy for Hanford Tank Waste Remediation. Volume 2, Detailed description of first example flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Disposal of high-level tank wastes at the Hanford Site is currently envisioned to divide the waste between two principal waste forms: glass for the high-level waste (HLW) and grout for the low-level waste (LLW). The draft flow diagram shown in Figure 1.1 was developed as part of the current planning process for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), which is evaluating options for tank cleanup. The TWRS has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to safely manage the Hanford tank wastes. It includes tank safety and waste disposal issues, as well as the waste pretreatment and waste minimization issues that are involved in the ``clean option`` discussed in this report. This report describes the results of a study led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine if a more aggressive separations scheme could be devised which could mitigate concerns over the quantity of the HLW and the toxicity of the LLW produced by the reference system. This aggressive scheme, which would meet NRC Class A restrictions (10 CFR 61), would fit within the overall concept depicted in Figure 1.1; it would perform additional and/or modified operations in the areas identified as interim storage, pretreatment, and LLW concentration. Additional benefits of this scheme might result from using HLW and LLW disposal forms other than glass and grout, but such departures from the reference case are not included at this time. The evaluation of this aggressive separations scheme addressed institutional issues such as: radioactivity remaining in the Hanford Site LLW grout, volume of HLW glass that must be shipped offsite, and disposition of appropriate waste constituents to nonwaste forms.

  10. Dilemma in new clean and renewable energy alternatives for Santa Elena and its university. Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreano, Hernan [Universidad Estatal Peninsula de Santa Elena (Ecuador). Inst. de Investigacion Cientifica y Desarrollo Tecnologico (INCYT)

    2011-07-01

    The fate of finite fossil fuel sources for the coming decades and the need to migrate to renewable energy in a joint effort among governments, academia and private companies which make business in the energy arena are discussed and also the energy balance in Ecuador which shows a strong dependence of fossil fuels to satisfy demand from both: thermoelectric plants and transport, however, Santa Elena, the newly created province at the south western of Ecuador has the chance to turn the country energy situation into an opportunity and face the challenge to be the leader in energy alternatives because of its resources and chances to migrate sooner to environmental friendly fuels and later on to renewable energies, but a number of actions should be taken in a joint effort with its local university (UPSE), government bodies and private companies in order to create the ''Campus of Energy Knowledge'' to carry out the program: Energy Alternatives for Santa Elena, which includes 7 projects to make the province a leader one on the energy issue in Ecuador and in the continent, acting on a cluster initiative scheme. (orig.)

  11. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-02-17

    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ∼0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ∼10%, which is accompanied by 10-50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy.

  12. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-02-01

    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ~0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ~10%, which is accompanied by 10-50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy.

  13. Alternative geometry for cylindrical natural draft cooling tower with higher cooling efficiency under crosswind condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, M.; Ramezanpour, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alternative cross sections for natural draft cooling tower were proposed. • Numerical solution was applied to study thermal and hydraulic performances. • Thermal and hydraulic performances were assessed by comparative parameters. • Cooling tower with elliptical cross section had better thermal performance under crosswind. • It could successfully used at the regions with invariant wind direction. - Abstract: Cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower may significantly decrease under crosswind condition. Therefore, many researchers attempted to improve the cooling efficiency under this condition by using structural or mechanical facilities. In this article, alternative shell geometry with elliptical cross section is proposed for this type of cooling tower instead of usual shell geometry with circular cross section. Thermal performance and cooling efficiency of the two types of cooling towers are numerically investigated. Numerical simulations show that cooling tower with elliptical cross section improves the cooling efficiency compared to the usual type with circular cross section under high-speed wind moving normal to the longitudinal diameter of the elliptical cooling tower

  14. Static and dynamic efficiency of irreversible health care investments under alternative payment rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaggi, R; Moretto, M; Pertile, P

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the incentive for providers to invest in new health care technologies under alternative payment systems, when the patients' benefits are uncertain. If the reimbursement by the purchaser includes both a variable (per patient) and a lump-sum component, efficiency can be ensured both in the timing of adoption (dynamic) and the intensity of use of the technology (static). If the second instrument is unavailable, a trade-off may emerge between static and dynamic efficiency. In this context, we also discuss how the regulator could use control of the level of uncertainty faced by the provider as an instrument to mitigate the trade-off between static and dynamic efficiency. Finally, we calibrate the model to study a specific technology and estimate the cost of a regulatory failure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  16. Energy Efficiency Under Alternative Carbon Policies. Incentives, Measurement, and Interregional Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boyd, Erin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-28

    In this report, we examine and compare how tradable mass-based polices and tradable rate-based policies create different incentives for energy efficiency investments. Through a generalized demonstration and set of examples, we show that as a result of the output subsidy they create, traditional rate-based policies, those that do not credit energy savings from efficiency measures, reduce the incentive for investment in energy efficiency measures relative to an optimally designed mass-based policy or equivalent carbon tax. We then show that this reduced incentive can be partially addressed by modifying the rate-based policy such that electricity savings from energy efficiency measures are treated as a source of zero-carbon generation within the framework of the standard, or equivalently, by assigning avoided emissions credit to the electricity savings at the rate of the intensity target. These approaches result in an extension of the output subsidy to efficiency measures and eliminate the distortion between supply-side and demand-side options for GHG emissions reduction. However, these approaches do not address electricity price distortions resulting from the output subsidy that also impact the value of efficiency measures. Next, we assess alternative approaches for crediting energy efficiency savings within the framework of a rate-based policy. Finally, we identify a number of challenges that arise in implementing a rate-based policy with efficiency crediting, including the requirement to develop robust estimates of electricity savings in order to assess compliance, and the requirement to track the regionality of the generation impacts of efficiency measures to account for their interstate effects.

  17. A research needs assessment: Energy efficient alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Final reprot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum -- based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are present. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  18. Efficiency versus cost of alternative fuels from renewable resources: outlining decision parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Sanjay; Edinger, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    In the discussion of traditional versus renewable energies and alternatives to conventional crude oil-based fuels in the transportation sector, efficiency calculations are but one decision making parameter. Comparing the assets and liabilities of fossil-based and renewable fuels in the transportation sector, further aspects such as centralized versus decentralized technologies, cost evaluations, taxation, and ecological/social benefits have to be taken into account. This paper outlines the driving parameters for shifting toward alternative fuels based on fossil or renewable resources and their use in innovative vehicle technologies such as advanced internal combustion and fuel cell electric drive systems. For the decision in favor or against an alternative fuel to be introduced to the mass market, automotive technologies and the energy supply system have to be examined in an integrated way. From an economic and technological perspective, some fuels may be even incompatible with the trend toward using renewable resources that have advantages in decentralized systems. Beyond efficiency calculations, political and industrial interests arise and may be influential to reshaping our currently crude oil-based mobility sector

  19. Energy efficiency and CDM (Clean Development Mechanism): an attractive combination?; Eficiencia energetica e MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo): uma combinacao atrativa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de; Silva, Pedro Paulo [Programa GERBI - Reducao da Emissao de Gases Causadores do Efeito Estufa na Industria Brasileira, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti [PETROBRAS S.A., Pojuca, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Gas Natural (UNGN)

    2004-07-01

    The agreements that defined associated practices to the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) include energy efficiency in end users as a possible candidate to CDM eligibility. Worldwide, the experience of using 'carbon credits' resulted from reduced emissions in end users, as consequence of increased energy efficiency in processes, is limited. The paper presents preliminary conclusions of case studies developed by GERBI, evaluating the emissions reduction potential achieved by energy efficiency improvements in industrial processes, as well as financial impacts due to emissions reduction certificates traded. The paper considers a simplified methodology for feasibility analysis, but with necessary information to demonstrate how CDM and Energy Efficiency combination can support the decision for project implementation. (author)

  20. An efficient enzyme-powered micromotor device fabricated by cyclic alternate hybridization assembly for DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shizhe; Zhang, Xueqing; Xie, Yuzhe; Wu, Jie; Ju, Huangxian

    2017-07-06

    An efficient enzyme-powered micromotor device was fabricated by assembling multiple layers of catalase on the inner surface of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene and sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)/Au microtube (PEDOT-PSS/Au). The catalase assembly was achieved by programmed DNA hybridization, which was performed by immobilizing a designed sandwich DNA structure as the sensing unit on the PEDOT-PSS/Au, and then alternately hybridizing with two assisting DNA to bind the enzyme for efficient motor motion. The micromotor device showed unique features of good reproducibility, stability and motion performance. Under optimal conditions, it showed a speed of 420 μm s -1 in 2% H 2 O 2 and even 51 μm s -1 in 0.25% H 2 O 2 . In the presence of target DNA, the sensing unit hybridized with target DNA to release the multi-layer DNA as well as the multi-catalase, resulting in a decrease of the motion speed. By using the speed as a signal, the micromotor device could detect DNA from 10 nM to 1 μM. The proposed micromotor device along with the cyclic alternate DNA hybridization assembly technique provided a new path to fabricate efficient and versatile micromotors, which would be an exceptional tool for rapid and simple detection of biomolecules.

  1. Novel-structured electrospun TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers for high efficient photocatalytic cogeneration of clean water and energy from dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Siang; Bai, Hongwei; Liu, Zhaoyang; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-08-01

    It is still a challenge to photocatalytically cogenerate clean water and energy from dye wastewater owing to the relatively low photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts. In this study, novel-structured TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated via facile electrospinning. For the first time, the TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers demonstrated multifunctional ability for concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and H2 generation from dye wastewater. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers was ascribed to its excellent synergy of physicochemical properties: 1) mesoporosity and large specific surface area for efficient substrate adsorption, mass transfer and light harvesting; 2) red-shift of the absorbance spectra for enhanced light utilization; 3) long nanofibrous structure for efficient charge transfer and ease of recovery, 4) TiO2/CuO heterojunctions which enhance the separation of electrons and holes and 5) presence of CuO which serve as co-catalyst for the H2 production. The TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers also exhibited rapid settleability by gravity and uncompromised reusability. Thus, the as-synthesized TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers represent a promising candidate for highly efficient concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and clean energy production from dye wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of emerging clean vehicle system on water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Hua; Hu, Xiaojun; Xu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Clean vehicles may increase US water consumption up to 2810 billion gallons/year. • Large-scale clean vehicle adoption could lead to severe regional water stress. • Fuel choice for clean vehicle is crucial in minimizing regional water stress. • Regional optimization illustrated the importance of regional consideration. - Abstract: While clean vehicles (i.e., vehicles powered by alternative fuels other than fossil fuels) offer great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from gasoline-based vehicles, the associated impact on water resources has not yet been fully assessed. This research provides a systematic evaluation of the impact of a fully implemented clean vehicle system on national and state-level water demand and water stress. On the national level, based on existing policies, transitioning the current gasoline-based transportation into one with clean vehicles will increase national annual water consumption by 1950–2810 billion gallons of water, depending on the market penetration of electric vehicles. On the state level, variances of water efficiency in producing different fuels are significant. The fuel choice for clean vehicle development is especially crucial for minimizing water stress increase in states with already high water stress, high travel demands, and significant variations in water efficiency in producing different alternative fuels. Current development of clean vehicle infrastructure, however, has not reflected these state-level variations. This study takes an optimization approach to further evaluate impacts on state-level water stress from a fully implemented clean vehicle system and identified potential roles (fuel producer or consumer) states may play in real world clean vehicle development scenario. With an objective of minimizing overall water stress impact, our optimization model aims to provide an analytical framework to better assess impacts on state-level water

  3. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  4. Controlling the cost of clean air - A new clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.; Godfrey, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the authors' alternative to expensive coal combustion products clean-up by cleaning the coal, removing the sulfur, before combustion. Topics discussed include sulfur in coal and the coal cleaning process, the nature of a new coal cleaning technology, the impact on Clean Air Act compliance, and the economics of the new technology

  5. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  6. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments interested in developing a financing program can use this Excel tool to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  7. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 survey. R and D of high efficiency clean energy vehicles; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu clean energy jidosha no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of developing an automobile which keeps low pollution using petroleum substituting clean energy, decreases the running energy consumption to a half at least, and reduces the CO2 emission to less than a half of the conventional one at the same time, the R and D started in fiscal 1997. As to the study of a high efficiency hybrid power system, conducted were the prediction of fuel consumption performance of the system proposed, evaluation of element technology using hybrid simulator, evaluation experiment on a new hybrid vehicle, and grasp of overseas trends. In relation to the development of hybrid vehicles, the following were studied: methanol fuel cell loading hybrid vehicle, CNG engine loading hybrid vehicle, CNG ceramic engine loading hybrid truck, CNG lean burn engine loading hybrid truck, LNG engine loading hybrid bus, and DME engine loading hybrid bus. Besides, a survey on synthetic fuel and the related survey were carried out. 17 refs., 185 figs., 101 tabs.

  8. Distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency as alternatives to grid capacity enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudineh, Rahmatallah; Jamasb, Tooraj

    2014-01-01

    The need for investment in capital intensive electricity networks is on the rise in many countries. A major advantage of distributed resources is their potential for deferring investments in distribution network capacity. However, utilizing the full benefits of these resources requires addressing several technical, economic and regulatory challenges. A significant barrier pertains to the lack of an efficient market mechanism that enables this concept and also is consistent with business model of distribution companies under an unbundled power sector paradigm. This paper proposes a market-oriented approach termed as “contract for deferral scheme” (CDS). The scheme outlines how an economically efficient portfolio of distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency can be integrated as network resources to reduce the need for grid capacity and defer demand driven network investments. - Highlights: • The paper explores a practical framework for smart electricity distribution grids. • The aim is to defer large capital investments in the network by utilizing and incentivising distributed generation, demand response, energy efficiency and storage as network resources. • The paper discusses a possible new market model that enables integration of distributed resources as alternative to grid capacity enhancement

  9. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center; Vol. 5, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-08-01

    A quarterly magazine with articles the proposed National Energy Policy; the 2001 National Clean Cities Conference including Clean Cities Coalition Award and National Partner Award recipients; station cars (shared my multiple drivers); and new emissions-reducing incentives in Texas.

  10. Impact of the recession on the realization of the Kyoto target and the 2011 target of the working programme 'Clean and Efficient'. Memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    By request of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment the Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) drew up this memo on the impact of the recession on the realization of the Kyoto target and the intermediate target for 2011 from the working programme Clean and Efficient. The main conclusion of this memo is that both with and without the recession the Kyoto target will probably be realized. The main difference lies in the volume of emission allowances deployed by the government to realize the target [mk] [nl

  11. Financing the clean development mechanism through debt-for-efficiency swaps? Case study evidence from a Uruguayan wind farm project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassimon, Danny; Prowse, Martin; Essers, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    As one of Kyoto’s three flexibility mechanisms for reducing the cost of compliance, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows the issuance of Certified Emission Reduction (CER) credits from offset projects in non-Annex I countries. Whilst much attention has focused on the widespread use...... this through analysing the use of a debt swap between Uruguay and Spain within a CDM wind farm project in Uruguay. The paper assesses this transaction according to a simple framework by which debt swaps can be evaluated: whether it delivers additional resources to the debtor country and/or debtor government...

  12. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  13. Using energy efficiency and alternative energy to extend fossil resources or what if tomorrow actually comes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the role of energy in maintaining and advancing society, and what happens if we run out of energy. The author provided a glimpse into the energy world through the display of a series of graphs depicting world energy consumption, world energy production, world population distribution, growth rates in Asia, coal use per capita, the United States energy consumption by source, percent of air emissions in the United States from fossil fuel use, and others. It was argued that alternative energy and energy efficiency diminish growth in demand and peak load, supports portfolio diversity, lowers cost, and diminishes environmental impacts. The advances in wind power and solar power were reviewed, as well as advances in bioenergy and hydrogen. The author also argued the case for energy efficiency and conservation. A discussion of various pricing schemes was offered. The first option examined was time of use price, defined as 3 time blocks published in advance for entire seasons. The second option was critical peak pricing, involving a high price imposed for a few days per year when system conditions are critical or near critical. The third option discussed was real-time prices, implying an hourly real-time marginal cost of a kilowatt hour. It was suggested that the system should be changed, since subsidizing energy consumption distorts demand. Energy efficiency and renewables extend fossil energy availability, helping in the transition to a more sustainable world. refs., tabs., figs

  14. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  15. Gas Cleaning System with a Pre-Unloading Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilevsky Michail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the causes and mechanisms reduce the efficiency of processes separation in cyclone devices, the results of field surveys of industrial cyclone. It offers an alternative solution to clean the flue gases from the boiler KE-10/14.

  16. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 2014 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    Spring 2014 edition of the biannual newsletter of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program. Each issue contains program news, success stories, and information about tools and resources to assist in the deployment of alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, idle reduction, fuel efficiency improvements, and other measures to cut petroleum use in transportation.

  17. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  18. Efficiency and exhaust gas analysis of variable compression ratio spark ignition engine fuelled with alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshaiah, N. [Mechanical Engineering Department, M.I.T.S, Madanapalle, Angallu-517325, A.P. (India)

    2010-07-01

    Considering energy crises and pollution problems today, investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products. In the present work, the variable compression ratio spark ignition engine designed to run on gasoline has been tested with pure gasoline, LPG (Isobutene), and gasoline blended with ethanol 10%, 15%, 25% and 35% by volume. Also, the gasoline mixed with kerosene at 15%, 25% and 35% by volume without any engine modifications has been tested and presented the result. Brake thermal and volumetric efficiency variation with brake load is compared and presented. CO and CO2 emissions have been also compared for all tested fuels.

  19. Micro-Tom Tomato as an Alternative Plant Model System: Mutant Collection and Efficient Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Masahito; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Tomato is a model plant for fruit development, a unique feature that classical model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice do not have. The tomato genome was sequenced in 2012 and tomato is becoming very popular as an alternative system for plant research. Among many varieties of tomato, Micro-Tom has been recognized as a model cultivar for tomato research because it shares some key advantages with Arabidopsis including its small size, short life cycle, and capacity to grow under fluorescent lights at a high density. Mutants and transgenic plants are essential materials for functional genomics research, and therefore, the availability of mutant resources and methods for genetic transformation are key tools to facilitate tomato research. Here, we introduce the Micro-Tom mutant database "TOMATOMA" and an efficient transformation protocol for Micro-Tom.

  20. The Codacs™ direct acoustic cochlear implant actuator: exploring alternative stimulation sites and their stimulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossöhmichen, Martin; Salcher, Rolf; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    This work assesses the efficiency of the Codacs system actuator (Cochlear Ltd., Sydney Australia) in different inner ear stimulation modalities. Originally the actuator was intended for direct perilymph stimulation after stapedotomy using a piston prosthesis. A possible alternative application is the stimulation of middle ear structures or the round window (RW). Here the perilymph stimulation with a K-piston through a stapes footplate (SFP) fenestration (N = 10) as well as stimulation of the stapes head (SH) with a Bell prosthesis (N = 9), SFP stimulation with an Omega/Aerial prosthesis (N = 8) and reverse RW stimulation (N = 10) were performed in cadaveric human temporal bones (TBs). Codacs actuator output is expressed as equivalent sound pressure level (eq. SPL) using RW and SFP displacement responses, measured by Laser Doppler velocimetry as reference. The axial actuator coupling force in stimulation of stapes and RW was adjusted to ~5 mN. The Bell prosthesis and Omega/Aerial prosthesis stimulation generated similar mean eq. SPLs (Bell: 127.5-141.8 eq. dB SPL; Omega/Aerial: 123.6-143.9 eq. dB SPL), being significantly more efficient than K-piston perilymph stimulation (108.6-131.6 eq. dB SPL) and RW stimulation (108.3-128.2 eq. dB SPL). Our results demonstrate that SH, SFP and RW are adequate alternative stimulation sites for the Codacs actuator using coupling prostheses and an axial coupling force of ~5 mN. Based on the eq. SPLs, all investigated methods were adequate for in vivo hearing aid applications, provided that experimental conditions including constant coupling force will be implemented.

  1. The Codacs™ direct acoustic cochlear implant actuator: exploring alternative stimulation sites and their stimulation efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grossöhmichen

    Full Text Available This work assesses the efficiency of the Codacs system actuator (Cochlear Ltd., Sydney Australia in different inner ear stimulation modalities. Originally the actuator was intended for direct perilymph stimulation after stapedotomy using a piston prosthesis. A possible alternative application is the stimulation of middle ear structures or the round window (RW. Here the perilymph stimulation with a K-piston through a stapes footplate (SFP fenestration (N = 10 as well as stimulation of the stapes head (SH with a Bell prosthesis (N = 9, SFP stimulation with an Omega/Aerial prosthesis (N = 8 and reverse RW stimulation (N = 10 were performed in cadaveric human temporal bones (TBs. Codacs actuator output is expressed as equivalent sound pressure level (eq. SPL using RW and SFP displacement responses, measured by Laser Doppler velocimetry as reference. The axial actuator coupling force in stimulation of stapes and RW was adjusted to ~5 mN. The Bell prosthesis and Omega/Aerial prosthesis stimulation generated similar mean eq. SPLs (Bell: 127.5-141.8 eq. dB SPL; Omega/Aerial: 123.6-143.9 eq. dB SPL, being significantly more efficient than K-piston perilymph stimulation (108.6-131.6 eq. dB SPL and RW stimulation (108.3-128.2 eq. dB SPL. Our results demonstrate that SH, SFP and RW are adequate alternative stimulation sites for the Codacs actuator using coupling prostheses and an axial coupling force of ~5 mN. Based on the eq. SPLs, all investigated methods were adequate for in vivo hearing aid applications, provided that experimental conditions including constant coupling force will be implemented.

  2. Beyond centrality-classifying topological significance using backup efficiency and alternative paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavitt, Yuval; Singer, Yaron

    2007-01-01

    In complex networks characterized by broad degree distribution, node significance is often associated with its degree or with centrality metrics which relate to its reachability and shortest paths passing through it. Such measures do not consider availability of efficient backup of the node and thus often fail to capture its contribution to the functionality and resilience of the network operation. In this paper, we suggest the quality of backup (QoB) and alternative path centrality (APC) measures as complementary methods which enable analysis of node significance in a manner which considers backup. We examine the theoretical significance of these measures and use them to classify nodes in social interaction networks and in the Internet AS (autonomous system) graph while applying the valley-free routing restrictions which reflect the economic relationships between the AS nodes in the Internet. We show that both node degree and node centrality are not necessarily evidence of its significance. In particular, we show that social structures do not necessarily depend on highly central nodes and that medium degree nodes with medium centrality measure prove to be crucial for efficient routing in the Internet AS graph

  3. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  4. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Clifford

    Full Text Available The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes.Before-after trial.Newly built community hospital.90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results.Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months.1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant. For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant, and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016. For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN trended toward improvement (P = 0.056; b removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning worsened (P = 0.017; c removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046, but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003; d cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated.At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences.

  5. Electroluminescent efficiency of alternating current thick film devices using ZnS:Cu,Cl phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Gaytri; Han, Sang Do; Kim, Jung Duk; Khatkar, Satyender P.; Rhee, Young Woo

    2006-01-01

    ZnS:Cu,Cl phosphor is prepared with the help of low intensity milling of the precursor material in two step firing process. The synthesized phosphor is used for the preparation of alternating current thick film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) devices with screen-printing method. The commission international de l'Eclairge (CIE) color co-ordinates of the ACTFEL devices prepared by these phosphor layers shows a shift from bluish-green to green region with the change in the amount of Cu in the phosphor. The various parameters to improve the efficiency and luminance of the devices have also been investigated. The brightness of the ac thick film EL device depends on the particle size of the phosphor, crystallinity, amount of binding material and applied voltage. The EL device fabricated with phosphor having average particle size of 25 μm shows maximum luminescence, when 60% phosphor concentration is used with respect to binding material. EL intensity is also linearly dependent on frequency. It is due the increase of excitation chances of the host matrix or dopant ions with increasing frequency

  6. Health Care Efficiencies: Consolidation and Alternative Models vs. Health Care and Antitrust Regulation - Irreconcilable Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael W

    2017-11-01

    health care, rather than specifics for the delivery of health care. 4 With the U.S. expenditures on health care producing inferior results, experts see consolidation and alternatives to fee-for-service as fundamental to reducing costs. 5 Integrating care coordination and delivery and increasing scale to drive efficiencies allows organizations to benefit from shared savings and relationships with payors and vendors. 6 Deloitte forecasts that, by 2024, the current health system landscape-which includes roughly 80 national health systems, 275 regional systems, 130 academic medical centers, and 1,300 small community systems-will morph into just over 900 multi-hospital systems. 7 Even though health care market and payment reforms encourage organizations to consolidate and integrate, innovators must proceed with extreme caution. Health care organizations attempting to drive efficiencies and bring down costs through mergers may run afoul of numerous federal and state laws and regulations. 8 Calls for updates or leniency in these laws are growing, including the possible recognition of an "Obamacare defense" to antitrust restrictions 9 and speculation that laws restricting physicians from having financial relationships will be repealed, ostensibly to allow sharing of the rewards reaped from coordinated care. 10 In the meantime, however, absent specific waivers or exemptions, all the usual rules and regulations apply, including antitrust constraints, 11 physician self-referral 12 and anti-kickback laws and regulations, 13 state fraud and abuse restrictions, 14 and more. In short, a maelstrom of conflicting political prescriptions, health care regulations, and antitrust restrictions undermine the ability of innovators to achieve efficiencies through joint ventures, transactions, innovative models, and other structures. This article first considers the conflicting positions taken by the United States government with respect to achieving efficiencies in health care under the ACA and

  7. Various alternatives-to-antibiotics for maximizing the efficiency of growth performance and feed efficiency in poultry: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the increase in regulations regarding the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) and the rise in consumer demand for poultry products from “Raised Without Antibiotics” or “No Antibiotics Ever” flocks, the quest for alternative products or approaches has intensified in recent years. A great d...

  8. Atomic hydrogen cleaning of GaAs photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelker, M.; Price, J.; Sinclair, C.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that surface contaminants on semiconductors can be removed when samples are exposed to atomic hydrogen. Atomic H reacts with oxides and carbides on the surface, forming compounds that are liberated and subsequently pumped away. Experiments at Jefferson lab with bulk GaAs in a low-voltage ultra-high vacuum H cleaning chamber have resulted in the production of photocathodes with high photoelectron yield (i.e., quantum efficiency) and long lifetime. A small, portable H cleaning apparatus also has been constructed to successfully clean GaAs samples that are later removed from the vacuum apparatus, transported through air and installed in a high-voltage laser-driven spin-polarized electron source. These results indicate that this method is a versatile and robust alternative to conventional wet chemical etching procedures usually employed to clean bulk GaAs

  9. Reliable wet-chemical cleaning of natively oxidized high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jascha; Lehmann, Sebastian; Lauermann, Iver; Rissom, Thorsten; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Bär, Marcus; Sadewasser, Sascha

    2014-12-01

    Currently, Cu-containing chalcopyrite-based solar cells provide the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies. They have reached efficiency values above 20%, the same performance level as multi-crystalline silicon-wafer technology that dominates the commercial PV market. Chalcopyrite thin-film heterostructures consist of a layer stack with a variety of interfaces between different materials. It is the chalcopyrite/buffer region (forming the p-n junction), which is of crucial importance and therefore frequently investigated using surface and interface science tools, such as photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. To ensure comparability and validity of the results, a general preparation guide for "realistic" surfaces of polycrystalline chalcopyrite thin films is highly desirable. We present results on wet-chemical cleaning procedures of polycrystalline Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin films with an average x = [Ga]/([In] + [Ga]) = 0.29, which were exposed to ambient conditions for different times. The hence natively oxidized sample surfaces were etched in KCN- or NH3-based aqueous solutions. By x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we find that the KCN treatment results in a chemical surface structure which is - apart from a slight change in surface composition - identical to a pristine as-received sample surface. Additionally, we discover a different oxidation behavior of In and Ga, in agreement with thermodynamic reference data, and we find indications for the segregation and removal of copper selenide surface phases from the polycrystalline material.

  10. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  11. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  12. Improving the clean-up efficiency of field soil contaminated with diesel oil by the application of stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon-Young; Roh, Hoon; Yang, Jae-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Fenton-like oxidation in the presence of stabilizers has been applied in batch and column reactors to treat field soils contaminated with diesel oil. Citrates, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), ethylene diamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and phosphates were assessed as stabilizers. The stability of hydrogen peroxide in the soil was evaluated by varying the concentration of each stabilizer and hydrogen peroxide. In a batch test, the residual concentration of hydrogen peroxide was shown to be directly related to the concentration of these stabilizers. Citrate showed the greatest stabilizing effect of the four stabilizers for hydrogen peroxide and 0.05 M was selected as the optimum dosage. In order to investigate the effect of stabilizer on the efficiency of removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in a column reactor, 30 mL of each stabilizer solution at pH 3 and containing 15% hydrogen peroxide was injected. The batch result confirmed that the greatest TPH removal took place in the presence of citrate in a column reactor. The order of TPH removal in the presence of stabilizers was: citrate > H3PO4 > EDDS > EDTA. TPH removal was affected by the concentration of stabilizer and the initial concentration of TPH. When 0.05 M citrate solution containing 15% hydrogen peroxide was applied to four field soils and an artificially contaminated soil, similar or better TPH removal was observed in the field soils compared to the artificially contaminated soil. This result suggests that Fenton-like oxidation with stabilizer can be effective in restoring field soils contaminated with diesel oil.

  13. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  14. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes : the case of Dutch horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der A.J.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Folmer, H.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter

  15. Eco-efficient Value Creation : An Alternative Perspective on Packaging and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Vogtländer, J.

    2012-01-01

    The classical sustainability perspective on packaging is to reduce the environmental impact or eco burden of the packaging, using life cycle assessment to evaluate different design alternatives. Simultaneously, the classical marketing perspective on packaging is to generate value through

  16. Routing strategies for efficient deployment of alternative fuel vehicles for freight delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    With increasing concerns on environmental issues, recent research on Vehicle Routing Problems : (VRP) has added new factors such as greenhouse gas emissions and alternative fuel vehicles into : the models. In this report, we consider one such promisi...

  17. Alternatives to antibiotics for maximizing growth performance and feed efficiency in poultry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, U; Kim, W H; Oh, S T; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in regulations regarding the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the rise in consumer demand for poultry products from 'Raised Without Antibiotics' or 'No Antibiotics Ever' flocks, the quest for alternative products or approaches has intensified in recent years. A great deal of research has focused on the development of antibiotic alternatives to maintain or improve poultry health and performance. This review describes the potential for the various alternatives available to increase animal productivity and help poultry perform to their genetic potential under existing commercial conditions. The classes of alternatives described include probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, organic acids, enzymes, phytogenics, antimicrobial peptides, hyperimmune egg antibodies, bacteriophages, clay, and metals. A brief description of the mechanism of action, efficacy, and advantages and disadvantages of their uses are also presented. Though the beneficial effects of many of the alternatives developed have been well demonstrated, the general consensus is that these products lack consistency and the results vary greatly from farm to farm. Furthermore, their mode of action needs to be better defined. Optimal combinations of various alternatives coupled with good management and husbandry practices will be the key to maximize performance and maintain animal productivity, while we move forward with the ultimate goal of reducing antibiotic use in the animal industry.

  18. A study on the introduction of a demonstration plant for the clean and efficient production of water and electricity in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmad, Yus R.; Bakri Arbie

    2000-01-01

    BATAN is interested to develop a nuclear reactor that has a high degree of safety and a broad spectrum of process heat application including for electricity to be introduced in Indonesia and in the Asia Pacific Region. In order to have nuclear reactor technology that meets those requirements, a flexible direct marketing in the short and long term with a minimum adaptation could be done. Nuclear process heat applications such as for synthetic fuel production require supply of energy at high temperature levels up to 950 deg. C in order to achieve a sufficiently high reaction rate. The high temperature reactor is the only reactor system working in this temperature range. However, as the first step of development of the reactor technology in Indonesia, introduction (in the near time) of demo plant for the clean and efficient production of water and electricity may be a realistic strategy. Therefore, the study is focused on the high temperature gas cooled reactor technology coupled with the proven desalination plant. The scope of study to be done includes reactor technology, safety system evaluation, fuel cycle technology, waste management and decommissioning, economic and financing, licensing process, project development, site and environmental study, and plant layout. BATAN and related parties are preparing the study. In this report the scope of study and its progress is briefly presented. (author)

  19. Reliable wet-chemical cleaning of natively oxidized high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cell absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Jascha [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Lehmann, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.lehmann@ftf.lth.se [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Lauermann, Iver; Rissom, Thorsten; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch. [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Bär, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.baer@helmholtz-berlin.de [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik und Chemie, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus-Senftenberg, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Sadewasser, Sascha, E-mail: sascha.sadewasser@inl.int [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga s/n, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-12-21

    Currently, Cu-containing chalcopyrite-based solar cells provide the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies. They have reached efficiency values above 20%, the same performance level as multi-crystalline silicon-wafer technology that dominates the commercial PV market. Chalcopyrite thin-film heterostructures consist of a layer stack with a variety of interfaces between different materials. It is the chalcopyrite/buffer region (forming the p-n junction), which is of crucial importance and therefore frequently investigated using surface and interface science tools, such as photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. To ensure comparability and validity of the results, a general preparation guide for “realistic” surfaces of polycrystalline chalcopyrite thin films is highly desirable. We present results on wet-chemical cleaning procedures of polycrystalline Cu(In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin films with an average x = [Ga]/([In] + [Ga]) = 0.29, which were exposed to ambient conditions for different times. The hence natively oxidized sample surfaces were etched in KCN- or NH{sub 3}-based aqueous solutions. By x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we find that the KCN treatment results in a chemical surface structure which is – apart from a slight change in surface composition – identical to a pristine as-received sample surface. Additionally, we discover a different oxidation behavior of In and Ga, in agreement with thermodynamic reference data, and we find indications for the segregation and removal of copper selenide surface phases from the polycrystalline material.

  20. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Ralph [Auburn University, AL (United States); Schindler, Anton [Auburn University, AL (United States); Duke, Steve [Auburn University, AL (United States); Burch, Thom [Auburn University, AL (United States); Bransby, David [Auburn University, AL (United States); Stafford, Don [Lafarge North America, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  1. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  2. Efficient on-the-fly Algorithm for Checking Alternating Timed Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Chatain, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we focus on property-preserving preorders between timed game automata and their application to control of partially observable systems. We define timed weak alternating simulation as a preorder between timed game automata, which preserves controllability. We define the rules...... of building a symbolic turn-based two-player game such that the existence of a winning strategy is equivalent to the simulation being satisfied. We also propose an on-the-fly algorithm for solving this game. This simulation checking method can be applied to the case of non-alternating or strong simulations...

  3. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  4. Cleaning Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  5. Keeping condensers clean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  6. Solar fuel processing efficiency for ceria redox cycling using alternative oxygen partial pressure reduction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Meng; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Solar-driven non-stoichiometric thermochemical redox cycling of ceria for the conversion of solar energy into fuels shows promise in achieving high solar-to-fuel efficiency. This efficiency is significantly affected by the operating conditions, e.g. redox temperatures, reduction and oxidation pressures, solar irradiation concentration, or heat recovery effectiveness. We present a thermodynamic analysis of five redox cycle designs to investigate the effects of working conditions on the fuel production. We focused on the influence of approaches to reduce the partial pressure of oxygen in the reduction step, namely by mechanical approaches (sweep gassing or vacuum pumping), chemical approaches (chemical scavenger), and combinations thereof. The results indicated that the sweep gas schemes work more efficient at non-isothermal than isothermal conditions, and efficient gas phase heat recovery and sweep gas recycling was important to ensure efficient fuel processing. The vacuum pump scheme achieved best efficiencies at isothermal conditions, and at non-isothermal conditions heat recovery was less essential. The use of oxygen scavengers combined with sweep gas and vacuum pump schemes further increased the system efficiency. The present work can be used to predict the performance of solar-driven non-stoichiometric redox cycles and further offers quantifiable guidelines for system design and operation. - Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis was conducted for ceria-based thermochemical cycles. • Five novel cycle designs and various operating conditions were proposed and investigated. • Pressure reduction method affects optimal operating conditions for maximized efficiency. • Chemical oxygen scavenger proves to be promising in further increasing efficiency. • Formulation of quantifiable design guidelines for economical competitive solar fuel processing

  7. Best Practices for Water Conservation and Efficiency as an Alternative for Water Supply Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released a document that provides water conservation and efficiency best practices for evaluating water supply projects. The document can help water utilities and federal and state governments carry out assessments of the potential for future

  8. Economic efficiency or self-sufficiency: alternative strategies for oil consumers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heal, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    The ideal energy source is low cost (efficient) and reliable (secure). The high price and perceived political unreliability of Middle East oil supplies prompted a nearly worldwide trend towards energy self-sufficiency. Gains in energy efficiency, which have been most marked in the OECD, are permanent and, prompted by environmental concern, probably progressive. But the opportunity that is still available to low cost oil suppliers to regain lost markets will only be realized if those supplies are demonstrably reliable. (author)

  9. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert P. [International District Energy Association, Westborough, MA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems. A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  10. Proceedings of the Clean and Efficient Use of Fossil Energy for Power Generation in Thailand. The Joint Eighth APEC Clean Fossil Energy Technical Seminar and the Seventh APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-30

    The convention named above held jointly by the two seminars also named above took place in Bangkok, Thailand, in the period October 30 through November 3. Open remarks were delivered by Mr. Piromsakdi Laparojkit, Secretary General of National Energy Policy Council, Thailand; Mr. Yoshito Yoshimura, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan; Mr. Paul Toghe, Embassy of Australia in Bangkok; and Mr. Robert Gee, Department of Energy, U.S.A. There were ten technical sessions, in which presentations were made and discussion was held over coal in the APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) economy, important role of coal and natural gas in developing economies, coal and environmental situation in Thailand, coal fired power plant related environmental issues, commercially available CCTs (clean coal technologies) in the APEC region, emerging technologies for reducing GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, clean fuels in the APEC region, growing importance of IPPs (independent power producers) in the APEC region, cooperation among APEC economies, and the like. (NEDO)

  11. Use of acoustic field in gas cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulaud, D.; Madelaine, G.; Malherbe, C.

    1985-01-01

    The use of acoustic field in gas cleaning can be done in two ways: the first is the conditioning of an aerosol by acoustic agglomeration before filtration by conventional methods (cyclones, granular beds, etc.), the second is the collection efficiency improvement of granular bed filters exposed to an acoustic field. In a first part, experimental results are given on the acoustic agglomeration of a polydisperse aerosol of mass concentration between 0.5 and 1 g/m 3 . An important effect of wall precipitation of particles is described and deposition velocity due to the presence of an acoustic field are measured as a function of particle diameter, sound pressure level and acoustic frequency. A dimensionless relationship between the deposition velocity and particle relaxation time is established for these results. At the end of this part energetic criteria for the use of acoustic agglomeration in a gas cleaning train is given. In a second part, experimental results are given to the influence of acoustic field on the collection efficiency of monodispersed aerosols ranging from 0.1 to 1 μm. For these both uses of acoustic field in industrial gas cleaning the different alternatives for the acoustic field generation are discussed

  12. Polyphosphonium polymers for siRNA delivery: An efficient and nontoxic alternative to polyammonium carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Cá tia; Wich, Peter R.; Frechet, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A water-soluble polyphosphonium polymer was synthesized and directly compared with its ammonium analog in terms of siRNA delivery. The triethylphosphonium polymer shows transfection efficiency up to 65% with 100% cell viability, whereas the best result obtained for the ammonium analog reaches only 25% transfection with 85% cell viability. Moreover, the nature of the alkyl substituents on the phosphonium cations is shown to have an important influence on the transfection efficiency and toxicity of the polyplexes. The present results show that the use of positively charged phosphonium groups is a worthy choice to achieve a good balance between toxicity and transfection efficiency in gene delivery systems. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Polyphosphonium polymers for siRNA delivery: An efficient and nontoxic alternative to polyammonium carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Cátia

    2012-02-01

    A water-soluble polyphosphonium polymer was synthesized and directly compared with its ammonium analog in terms of siRNA delivery. The triethylphosphonium polymer shows transfection efficiency up to 65% with 100% cell viability, whereas the best result obtained for the ammonium analog reaches only 25% transfection with 85% cell viability. Moreover, the nature of the alkyl substituents on the phosphonium cations is shown to have an important influence on the transfection efficiency and toxicity of the polyplexes. The present results show that the use of positively charged phosphonium groups is a worthy choice to achieve a good balance between toxicity and transfection efficiency in gene delivery systems. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Assessment of energy efficiency project financing alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WDM Hunt; JC Hail; GP Sullivan

    2000-03-13

    Energy reduction goals for Federal agencies were first established in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1988, and directed 10{percent} reduction in facility energy use based on a 1985 baseline. Since that time, Federal sites have been actively seeking and implementing a wide variety of energy-efficiency measures in facilities across the Federal sector. In the intervening years this energy reduction goal has been progressively increased to 20{percent} through legislation (Public Law 102-486, The Energy Policy Act of 1992) and a number of Executive Orders. Executive Order 13123, Greening the Government Through Efficient Energy management (signed June 3, 1999), further increased the facility energy-efficiency improvement goal from 30{percent} in 2005 to 35{percent} by 2010 relative to the 1985 baseline.

  15. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  16. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  17. Final Report: Utilizing Alternative Fuel Ignition Properties to Improve SI and CI Engine Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, Margaret; Boehman, Andre; Lavoie, George; Fatouraie, Mohammad

    2017-11-30

    Experimental and modeling studies were completed to explore leveraging physical and chemical fuel properties for improved thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. Fundamental studies of the ignition chemistry of ethanol and iso-octane blends and constant volume spray chamber studies of gasoline and diesel sprays supported the core research effort which used several reciprocating engine platforms. Single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine studies were carried out to characterize the impact of ethanol/gasoline, syngas (H2 and CO)/gasoline and other oxygenate/gasoline blends on engine performance. The results of the single-cylinder engine experiments and other data from the literature were used to train a GT Power model and to develop a knock criteria based on reaction chemistry. The models were used to interpret the experimental results and project future performance. Studies were also carried out using a state of the art, direct injection (DI) turbocharged multi- cylinder engine with piezo-actuated fuel injectors to demonstrate the promising spray and spark timing strategies from single-cylinder engine studies on the multi-cylinder engine. Key outcomes and conclusions of the studies were: 1. Efficiency benefits of ethanol and gasoline fuel blends were consistent and substantial (e.g. 5-8% absolute improvement in gross indicated thermal efficiency (GITE)). 2. The best ethanol/gasoline blend (based on maximum thermal efficiency) was determined by the engine hardware and limits based on component protection (e.g. peak in-cylinder pressure or maximum turbocharger inlet temperature) – and not by knock limits. Blends with <50% ethanol delivered significant thermal efficiency gains with conventional SI hardware while maintain good safety integrity to the engine hardware. 3. Other compositions of fuel blends including syngas (H2 and CO) and other dilution strategies provided significant efficiency gains as well (e.g. 5% absolute improvement in ITE). 4. When the

  18. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  19. Energy efficient school buildings in central-western Argentina: an assessment of alternative typologies for the classroom tier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, C.; Basso, M.; Fernandez, J.C. [Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda, Mendoza (AR)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    Four energy-efficient demonstration school buildings were built in the western province of Mendoza, Argentina, in 1999, as part of a massive building program required to implement the new Federal Education Plan. The buildings should make medium use of bioclimatic strategies and daylighting. The aspects of typology of the classroom tiers became immediately apparent as one of the main conditioners of the overall scheme. Three different alternative schemes were designed and built. A deeper analysis of these and other possible alternatives were thought essential for future constructions of the type. Four typologies of the classroom tier, using the same, locally available technology, are being comparatively assessed in the aspects of energy efficiently, thermal and luminous comfort, construction and operation costs and environmental impact (LCA). The paper presents the provisional results of the two first items only: energy efficiency and thermal comfort. While all four schemes evaluated are believed to be ''workable'', differences will tend to favour some the other according to context situations. Volumetric Loss Coeff. range from 1.09 to 1.24 W/Km{sup 3}. Solar savings fractions for the school operation hours vary between: 82.83 and 91.58%. Work is being continued to cover all the analysis items in a combined way. (author)

  20. Acute medical assessment units: an efficient alternative to in-hospital acute medical care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watts, M

    2011-02-01

    Acute Medical Assessment Units (AMAUs) are being proposed as an alternative to congested Emergency Departments (EDs for the assessment of patients with a range of acute medical problems. We retrospectively reviewed the discharge destination of patients referred to a newly established AMAU during a six-month period. During the same period we contrasted activity in the ED for a similar group of patients. 1,562 patients were assessed in the AMAU. 196 (12.5%) were admitted to an in-patient bed and 1,148 (73.5%) were entered into specific diagnosis-driven out-patient pathways. 1,465 patients attended the ED and 635 (43.3%) were admitted. Out-patient alternatives to expensive in-patient care need to be provided at the \\'coal face" of acute referral. The AMAU provides this, and as a consequence admission rates are relatively low. This is achieved by directly communicating with GPs, accessing senior clinical decision makers, and providing immediate access to diagnostically driven outpatient pathways.

  1. Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Song, Bo [China Academy of Building Research; Zhang, Sisi [China Academy of Building Research

    2012-08-01

    In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and

  2. Title:Distributed Generation Storage, Demand Response, and Energy Efficiency as Alternatives to Grid Capacity Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Poudineh, R.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The need for investment in capital intensive electricity networks is on the rise in many countries. A major advantage of distributed resources is their potential for deferring investments in distribution network capacity. However, utilizing the full benefits of these resources requires addressing several technical, economics and regulatory challenges. A significant barrier pertains to the lack of an efficient market mechanism that enables this concept and also is consistent with business mode...

  3. Pyramiding, alternating or mixing: comparative performances of deployment strategies of nematode resistance genes to promote plant resistance efficiency and durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djian-Caporalino, Caroline; Palloix, Alain; Fazari, Ariane; Marteu, Nathalie; Barbary, Arnaud; Abad, Pierre; Sage-Palloix, Anne-Marie; Mateille, Thierry; Risso, Sabine; Lanza, Roger; Taussig, Catherine; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2014-02-22

    Resistant cultivars are key elements for pathogen control and pesticide reduction, but their repeated use may lead to the emergence of virulent pathogen populations, able to overcome the resistance. Increased research efforts, mainly based on theoretical studies, explore spatio-temporal deployment strategies of resistance genes in order to maximize their durability. We evaluated experimentally three of these strategies to control root-knot nematodes: cultivar mixtures, alternating and pyramiding resistance genes, under controlled and field conditions over a 3-years period, assessing the efficiency and the durability of resistance in a protected crop rotation system with pepper as summer crop and lettuce as winter crop. The choice of the resistance gene and the genetic background in which it is introgressed, affected the frequency of resistance breakdown. The pyramiding of two different resistance genes in one genotype suppressed the emergence of virulent isolates. Alternating different resistance genes in rotation was also efficient to decrease virulent populations in fields due to the specificity of the virulence and the trapping effect of resistant plants. Mixing resistant cultivars together appeared as a less efficient strategy to control nematodes. This work provides experimental evidence that, in a cropping system with seasonal sequences of vegetable species, pyramiding or alternating resistance genes benefit yields in the long-term by increasing the durability of resistant cultivars and improving the long-term control of a soil-borne pest. To our knowledge, this result is the first one obtained for a plant-nematode interaction, which helps demonstrate the general applicability of such strategies for breeding and sustainable management of resistant cultivars against pathogens.

  4. Signal-to-noise ratio and detective quantum efficiency determination by and alternative use of photographic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgudzhiev, Z.; Koleva, D.

    1986-01-01

    A known theoretical model of an alternative use of silver-halogenid pnotographic emulsions in which the number of the granulas forming the photographic image is used as a detector output instead of the microdensiometric blackening density is applied to some real photographic emulsions. It is found that by this use the Signal-to-Noise ratio of the photographic detector can be increased to about 5 times while its detective quantum efficiency can reach about 20%, being close to that of some photomultipliers

  5. A simple and efficient alternative to implementing systematic random sampling in stereological designs without a motorized microscope stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Neal R; Poda, Daniel; Sutherland, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    When properly applied, stereology is a very robust and efficient method to quantify a variety of parameters from biological material. A common sampling strategy in stereology is systematic random sampling, which involves choosing a random sampling [corrected] start point outside the structure of interest, and sampling relevant objects at [corrected] sites that are placed at pre-determined, equidistant intervals. This has proven to be a very efficient sampling strategy, and is used widely in stereological designs. At the microscopic level, this is most often achieved through the use of a motorized stage that facilitates the systematic random stepping across the structure of interest. Here, we report a simple, precise and cost-effective software-based alternative to accomplishing systematic random sampling under the microscope. We believe that this approach will facilitate the use of stereological designs that employ systematic random sampling in laboratories that lack the resources to acquire costly, fully automated systems.

  6. The effect of cojugate energy consumptions on comparative efficiency of alternatives of the development of nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnov, V.P.; Bykov, A.I.; Egorushkin, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of control of conjugate energy consumptions on comparative efficiency of alternatives of the development of nuclear power engineering, including NPPs with thermal and fast reactors has been calculated. Economical-mathematical models of the system of nuclear power engineering including the subsystems of fuel utilization, fuel supply and conjugate industries, have been used. It has been shown, that with allowance for conjugate energy consumptions, the economic characteristics of nuclear power engineering sharply degradate when it develops only on the basis of thermal reactors. Putting the fast reactors into the system of nuclear power engineering has an important effect on reduction of conjugate energy consumptions and favors the increase of the efficiency of the system functioning during the considered time interval (60 years). Positive effects from putting breeders into operation become appreciable only on the latest estimated time intervals

  7. Atomistic Modelling of Materials for Clean Energy Applications : hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, a number of clean-energy materials for hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery energy storage applications have been investigated through state-of-the-art density functional theory. As an alternative fuel, hydrogen has been regarded as one of the promising clean energies with the advantage of abundance (generated through water splitting) and pollution-free emission if used in fuel cell systems. However, some key problems such as finding efficient ways to prod...

  8. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oettli, B.; Hammer, S.; Moret, F.; Iten, R.; Nordmann, T.

    2010-05-01

    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  9. STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND EFFECTS OF COMPRESSION RATIO ON THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND ENGINE POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjito Sarjito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was a case study during the sabatical program at Kingston University London in February 2007. It has been studied by team of motorsport automotive department Kingston University London and it has been elaborated as a final project on Master Program. This study takes into account some of the issues surrounding the debate about alcohol fuels in Motorsport and the wider automotive sector and is primarily concerned to add data where there seems to be little existing research since Motorsport is a secretive business. Motorsport plays an important part in the automotive industry and is a sport enjoyed worldwide. Racing practice is regarded as using the best available resources and technology as it requires optimal performance. The racing arena gives engineers the opportunity to test valuable technological solutions to prove their merits. Therefore, racing is the natural starting point for introducing new technological solutions to the public and could lead to the wholesale conversion to renewable fuels to meet our automotive energy needs. Alcohol has unique properties that make superior in many ways to ordinary gasoline. The higher knock resistance allows for higher compression ratios to be utilized resulting in higher power outputs and thermal efficiency. The efficient use of energy is of growing concern in all spheres of life and the automotive sector needs to be front runner in these efforts.

  10. Roadmap 2030 Dutch Glass Industry. Towards a clean, efficient and cost-effective future; Routekaart 2030 Nederlandse Glasindustrie. Naar een schone, zuinige en rendabele toekomst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    This Roadmap is the result of the covenant signed by the Dutch glass industry and the Dutch national government in 2009 on a Long Term Agreement on Energy Efficiency. Participating companies committed to continuous improvement in energy performance in both manufacturing processes as well as the supply chain from raw material to final product. The Dutch glass industry has undertaken a strategic study regarding the possibilities of achieving far-reaching energy efficiency improvement by 2030. The overall industry's target is to realise an energy efficiency improvement of 25%, compared to its energy consumption and production level of 2009. Several related areas were identified for actions and measures for energy efficiency improvement: (1) Alternatives to primary raw materials; (2) Intensified use of secondary raw materials (cullet); (3) Innovations in batch preparation; (4) Innovations in glass composition; (5) Innovations in process control; (6) Innovations in furnace design; (7) New methods of waste heat recovery; (8) Improved performance of glass products [Dutch] Dit rapport is tot stand gekomen in het kader van de Meerjarenafspraak Energie-Efficientie ETS (Emission Trading System) ondernemingen, ook wel het MEE-convenant genoemd. Dit convenant nodigt de deelnemende sectoren uit tot het opstellen van een Routekaart voor 2030. De Routekaart is een strategische studie die inzichtelijk maakt hoe invulling wordt gegeven aan het realiseren van energie-efficientie verbeteringen binnen de bedrijven en in de keten op de route naar 2030. Hoofdstuk 1 is een introductie op de Routekaart 2030 en de wijze waarop de Routekaart tot stand is gekomen. Hoofdstuk 2 beschrijft in vogelvlucht de sector, op welke manier nu al invulling wordt gegeven aan duurzame ontwikkeling en energie, en geeft een beschrijving van de Vereniging van Nederlandse Glasfabrikanten (VNG). Hoofdstuk 3 beschrijft algemene trends en de visie van de sector op de toekomst. Daarnaast wordt de markt in 2030

  11. Dry efficient cleaning of poly-methyl-methacrylate residues from graphene with high-density H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunge, G., E-mail: gilles.cunge@cea.fr; Petit-Etienne, C.; Davydova, A. [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique, CNRS-UJF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Ferrah, D.; Renault, O. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Okuno, H. [CEA, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Kalita, D.; Bouchiat, V. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF-INP, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-09-28

    Graphene is the first engineering electronic material, which is purely two-dimensional: it consists of two exposed sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon surfaces and has no bulk. Therefore, surface effects such as contamination by adsorbed polymer residues have a critical influence on its electrical properties and can drastically hamper its widespread use in devices fabrication. These contaminants, originating from mandatory technological processes of graphene synthesis and transfer, also impact fundamental studies of the electronic and structural properties at the atomic scale. Therefore, graphene-based technology and research requires “soft” and selective surface cleaning techniques dedicated to limit or to suppress this surface contamination. Here, we show that a high-density H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasmas can be used to selectively remove polymeric residues from monolayer graphene without any damage on the graphene surface. The efficiency of this dry-cleaning process is evidenced unambiguously by a set of spectroscopic and microscopic methods, providing unprecedented insights on the cleaning mechanisms and highlighting the role of specific poly-methyl-methacrylate residues at the graphene interface. The plasma is shown to perform much better cleaning than solvents and has the advantage to be an industrially mature technology adapted to large area substrates. The process is transferable to other kinds of two-dimensional material and heterostructures.

  12. Peak oil demand: the role of fuel efficiency and alternative fuels in a global oil production decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Millard-Ball, Adam; Ganser, Matthew; Gorelick, Steven M

    2013-07-16

    Some argue that peak conventional oil production is imminent due to physical resource scarcity. We examine the alternative possibility of reduced oil use due to improved efficiency and oil substitution. Our model uses historical relationships to project future demand for (a) transport services, (b) all liquid fuels, and (c) substitution with alternative energy carriers, including electricity. Results show great increases in passenger and freight transport activity, but less reliance on oil. Demand for liquids inputs to refineries declines significantly after 2070. By 2100 transport energy demand rises >1000% in Asia, while flattening in North America (+23%) and Europe (-20%). Conventional oil demand declines after 2035, and cumulative oil production is 1900 Gbbl from 2010 to 2100 (close to the U.S. Geological Survey median estimate of remaining oil, which only includes projected discoveries through 2025). These results suggest that effort is better spent to determine and influence the trajectory of oil substitution and efficiency improvement rather than to focus on oil resource scarcity. The results also imply that policy makers should not rely on liquid fossil fuel scarcity to constrain damage from climate change. However, there is an unpredictable range of emissions impacts depending on which mix of substitutes for conventional oil gains dominance-oil sands, electricity, coal-to-liquids, or others.

  13. MS transport assays for γ-aminobutyric acid transporters--an efficient alternative for radiometric assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sebastian; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2014-08-05

    Transport assays for neurotransmitters based on radiolabeled substrates are widely spread and often indispensable in basic research and the drug development process, although the use of radioisotopes is inherently coupled to issues concerning radioactive waste and safety precautions. To overcome these disadvantages, we developed mass spectrometry (MS)-based transport assays for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). These "MS Transport Assays" provide all capabilities of [(3)H]GABA transport assays and therefore represent the first substitute for the latter. The performance of our approach is demonstrated for GAT1, the most important GABA transporter (GAT) subtype. As GABA is endogenously present in COS-7 cells employed as hGAT1 expression system, ((2)H6)GABA was used as a substrate to differentiate transported from endogenous GABA. To record transported ((2)H6)GABA, a highly sensitive, short, robust, and reliable HILIC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method using ((2)H2)GABA as an internal standard was developed and validated according to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) guidelines. Based on this LC-MS quantification, a setup to characterize hGAT1 mediated ((2)H6)GABA transport in a 96-well format was established, that enables automated processing and avoids any sample preparation. The K(m) value for ((2)H6)GABA determined for hGAT1 is in excellent agreement with results obtained from [(3)H]GABA uptake assays. In addition, the established assay format enables efficient determination of the inhibitory potency of GAT1 inhibitors, is capable of identifying those inhibitors transported as substrates, and furthermore allows characterization of efflux. The approach described here combines the strengths of LC-MS/MS with the high efficiency of transport assays based on radiolabeled substrates and is applicable to all GABA transporter subtypes.

  14. Influence of direct and alternating current electric fields on efficiency promotion and leaching risk alleviation of chelator assisted phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Cai, Limei; Qi, Shihua; Wu, Jian; Sophie Gu, Xiaowen

    2018-03-01

    Direct and alternating current electric fields with various voltages were used to improve the decontamination efficiency of chelator assisted phytoremediation for multi-metal polluted soil. The alleviation effect of electric field on leaching risk caused by chelator application during phytoremediation process was also evaluated. Biomass yield, pollutant uptake and metal leaching retardation under alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) electric fields were compared. The biomass yield of Eucalyptus globulus under AC fields with various voltages (2, 4 and 10 V) were 3.91, 4.16 and 3.67kg, respectively, significantly higher than the chelator treatment without electric field (2.71kg). Besides growth stimulation, AC fields increased the metal concentrations of plant tissues especially in aerial parts manifested by the raised translocation factor of different metals. Direct current electric fields with low and moderate voltages increased the biomass production of the species to 3.45 and 3.12kg, respectively, while high voltage on the contrary suppressed the growth of the plants (2.66kg). Under DC fields, metal concentrations elevated obviously with increasing voltages and the metal translocation factors were similar under all voltages. Metal extraction per plant achieved the maximum value under moderate voltage due to the greatest biomass production. DC field with high voltage (10V) decreased the volume of leachate from the chelator treatment without electric field from 1224 to 56mL, while the leachate gathered from AC field treatments raised from 512 to 670mL. DC field can retard the downward movement of metals caused by chelator application more effectively relative to AC field due to the constant water flow and electroosmosis direction. Alternating current field had more promotive effect on chelator assisted phytoremediation efficiency than DC field illustrated by more metal accumulation in the species. However, with the consideration of leaching risk, DC

  15. VIGOR TESTS ASSOCIATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR PRECISE AND EFFICIENT ASSESSMENT OF MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS ALTOMANI NEVES DIAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to associate two concepts of seed vigor testing, the aging and seedling growth using image analysis, providing a feasible and time-saving way to evaluate maize seed vigor in large scale. For this purpose, five seed lots with different vigor levels from two single hybrids were used. The seeds were characterized by moisture content, germination, seedling emergence, seedling emergence speed index, accelerated aging and cold tests. The treatments were composed by varying the accelerated aging periods (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96h and seedling growth periods (48 and 72h, before submitting the seedlings to image analysis for seedling root length measurement. Considering the results obtained, the adaptation of accelerated aging test by reducing the aging duration from 96h to 48h, and the replacement of the germination test by seedling root length measurement using image analysis could be considered a potential tool for maize seed vigor assessment. The treatments composed of 48h of seed aging followed by seedlings root length measurements using image analysis provided reliable data, compared to traditional vigor tests and it could be considered an efficient and timesaving approach, associating two different concepts of seed vigor analysis.

  16. Alternative Concept to Enhance the Disposal Efficiency for CANDU Spent Fuel Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Cho, Dong Geun; Kook, Dong Hak; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo

    2011-01-01

    There are two types of nuclear reactors in Korea and they are PWR type and CANDU type. The safe management of the spent fuels from these reactors is very important factor to maintain the sustainable energy supply with nuclear power plant. In Korea, a reference disposal system for the spent fuels has been developed through a study on the direct disposal of the PWR and CANDU spent fuel. Recently, the research on the demonstration and the efficiency analyses of the disposal system has been performed to make the disposal system safer and more economic. PWR spent fuels which include a lot of reusable material can be considered being recycled and a study on the disposal of HLW from this recycling process is being performed. CANDU spent fuels are considered being disposed of directly in deep geological formation, since they have little reusable material. In this study, based on the Korean Reference spent fuel disposal System (KRS) which was to dispose of both PWR type and CANDU type, the more effective CANDU spent fuel disposal systems were developed. To do this, the disposal canister for CANDU spent fuels was modified to hold the storage basket for 60 bundles which is used in nuclear power plant. With these modified disposal canister concepts, the disposal concepts to meet the thermal requirement that the temperature of the buffer materials should not be over 100 .deg. C were developed. These disposal concepts were reviewed and analyzed in terms of disposal effective factors which were thermal effectiveness, U-density, disposal area, excavation volume, material volume etc. and the most effective concept was proposed. The results of this study will be used in the development of various wastes disposal system together with the HLW wastes from the PWR spent fuel recycling process.

  17. A cost and technical efficiency analysis of two alternative models for implementing the basic package of health services in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaakman, Aaron Philip; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Boitard, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003, the Afghan Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) and international partners have directed a contracting-out model through which non-governmental organisations (NGOs) deliver the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in 31 of the 34 Afghan provinces. The MoPH also managed health service delivery in three provinces under an alternative initiative entitled Strengthening Mechanisms (SM). In 2011, under the authority of the MoPH and Delegation of the European Union to Afghanistan, EPOS Health Management conducted a cost and technical efficiency study of the contracting-out and SM mechanisms in six provinces to examine economic trade-offs in the provision of the BPHS. The study provides analyses of all resource inputs and primary outputs of the BPHS in the six provinces during 2008 and 2009. The authors examined technical efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) at the BPHS facility level. Cost analysis results indicate that the weighted average cost per BPHS outpatient visit totalled $3.41 in the SM provinces and $5.39 in the NGO-led provinces in 2009. Furthermore, the data envelopment analyses (DEAs) indicate that facilities in the three NGO-led provinces scored 0.168 points higher on the DEA scale (0-1) than SM facilities. The authors conclude that an approximate 60% increase in costs yielded a 16.8% increase in technical efficiency in the delivery of the BPHS during 2009 in the six provinces.

  18. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  19. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  20. Alternative Processing Technology for Converting Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats to Clean Fuels and Light Olefins%动植物油生产清洁燃料和低碳烯烃的替代加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华; 李春义; 杨朝合; 山红红

    2008-01-01

    Since the production cost of biodiesel is now the main hurdle limiting their applicability in some areas, catalytic cracking reactions represent an alternative route to utilization of vegetable oils and animal fats. Hence, catalytic transformation of oils and fats was carried out in a laboratory-scale two-stage riser fluid catalytic cracking (TSRFCC) unit in this work. The results show that oils and fats can be used as FCC feed singly or co-feeding with vacuum gas oil (VGO), which can give high yield (by mass) of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), C2-C4 olefins, for example 45% LPG, 47% C2-C4 olefins, and 77.6% total liquid yield produced with palm oil cracking. Co-feeding with VGO gives a high yield of LPG (39.1%) and propylene (18.1%). And oxygen element content is very low (about 0.5%) in liquid products, hence, oxygen is removed in the form of H2O, CO and CO2. At the same time, high concentration of aromatics (C7-C9 aromatics predominantly) in the gasoline fraction is obtained after TSRFCC reaction of palm oil, as a result of large amount of hydrogen-transfer, cyclization and aromatization reactions. Additionally, most of properties of produced gasoline and diesel oil fuel meet the requirements of national standards, containing little sulfur. So TSRFCC technology is thought to be an alternative processing technology leading to production of clean fuels and light olefins.

  1. Neural and hybrid modeling: an alternative route to efficiently predict the behavior of biotechnological processes aimed at biofuels obtainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Stefano; Saraceno, Alessandra; Calabrò, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The present paper was aimed at showing that advanced modeling techniques, based either on artificial neural networks or on hybrid systems, might efficiently predict the behavior of two biotechnological processes designed for the obtainment of second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses. In particular, the enzymatic transesterification of waste-oil glycerides, the key step for the obtainment of biodiesel, and the anaerobic digestion of agroindustry wastes to produce biogas were modeled. It was proved that the proposed modeling approaches provided very accurate predictions of systems behavior. Both neural network and hybrid modeling definitely represented a valid alternative to traditional theoretical models, especially when comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic pathways, of the true kinetic mechanisms, and of the transport phenomena involved in biotechnological processes was difficult to be achieved.

  2. Neural and Hybrid Modeling: An Alternative Route to Efficiently Predict the Behavior of Biotechnological Processes Aimed at Biofuels Obtainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Curcio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper was aimed at showing that advanced modeling techniques, based either on artificial neural networks or on hybrid systems, might efficiently predict the behavior of two biotechnological processes designed for the obtainment of second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses. In particular, the enzymatic transesterification of waste-oil glycerides, the key step for the obtainment of biodiesel, and the anaerobic digestion of agroindustry wastes to produce biogas were modeled. It was proved that the proposed modeling approaches provided very accurate predictions of systems behavior. Both neural network and hybrid modeling definitely represented a valid alternative to traditional theoretical models, especially when comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic pathways, of the true kinetic mechanisms, and of the transport phenomena involved in biotechnological processes was difficult to be achieved.

  3. The Development of Mini Portable Digester Designs for Domestic and Restaurant Solid Waste Processing to be Clean Biogas as Energy's Alternative to Replace LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Janari dan, D.; Setiawan, N.

    2016-02-01

    Biofuel is developed as an alternative source of second generation energy that could be attained from organic waste. This research is purposed to create applicative and cheap Portable digester unit for society. The design concepts’ screening that was made under considerations of the experts is finally resumed. Design 1 with final weight score of 1, design 2 with final weight score of -1, design 3 with final weight score of 2, design 4 with final weight score 3, design 5 with final weight score of -1, design 6 with final weight score of 0. Accepted designs for further concept assessment are design 1, 2 and 6. The result of concept assessment applies weighting for the scoring. Design 1 resulting 2.67, design 2 results 2.15 while design 3 results 2.52. Design 1 is concluded as the design with biggest result, which is 2.67. Its specification is explained as follows: tank capacity of 60 liters, manual rotating crank pivot, tank's material is plastic with symbol 1, material of axle swivel arm is grey cast iron, 2 mm rotary blades with hole. The experiment 1 contained 23.78% methane and 13.65 carbon dioxide that resulted from content test.

  4. The Development of Mini Portable Digester Designs for Domestic and Restaurant Solid Waste Processing to be Clean Biogas as Energy's Alternative to Replace LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, A; Janari dan, D; Setiawan, N

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel is developed as an alternative source of second generation energy that could be attained from organic waste. This research is purposed to create applicative and cheap Portable digester unit for society. The design concepts’ screening that was made under considerations of the experts is finally resumed. Design 1 with final weight score of 1, design 2 with final weight score of -1, design 3 with final weight score of 2, design 4 with final weight score 3, design 5 with final weight score of -1, design 6 with final weight score of 0. Accepted designs for further concept assessment are design 1, 2 and 6. The result of concept assessment applies weighting for the scoring. Design 1 resulting 2.67, design 2 results 2.15 while design 3 results 2.52. Design 1 is concluded as the design with biggest result, which is 2.67. Its specification is explained as follows: tank capacity of 60 liters, manual rotating crank pivot, tank's material is plastic with symbol 1, material of axle swivel arm is grey cast iron, 2 mm rotary blades with hole. The experiment 1 contained 23.78% methane and 13.65 carbon dioxide that resulted from content test. (paper)

  5. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  6. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  7. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  8. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  9. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  10. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  11. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  12. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  13. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2008, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  14. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  15. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; T. Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-07-01

    After rapid growth in economic development and energy demand over the last three decades, China has undertaken energy efficiency improvement efforts to reduce its energy intensity under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP). Since becoming the world's largest annual CO{sub 2} emitter in 2007, China has set reduction targets for energy and carbon intensities and committed to meeting 15% of its total 2020 energy demand with non-fossil fuel. Despite having achieved important savings in 11th FYP efficiency programs, rising per capita income and the continued economic importance of trade will drive demand for transport activity and fuel use. At the same time, an increasingly 'electrified' economy will drive rapid power demand growth. Greater analysis is therefore needed to understand the underlying drivers, possible trajectories and mitigation potential in the growing industrial, transport and power sectors. This study uses scenario analysis to understand the likely trajectory of China's energy and carbon emissions to 2030 in light of the current and planned portfolio of programs, policies and technology development and ongoing urbanization and demographic trends. It evaluates the potential impacts of alternative transportation and power sector development using two key scenarios, Continued Improvement Scenario (CIS) and Accelerated Improvement Scenario (AIS). CIS represents the most likely path of growth based on continuation of current policies and meeting announced targets and goals, including meeting planned appliance efficiency standard revisions, fuel economy standards, and industrial targets and moderate phase-out of subcritical coal-fired generation with additional non-fossil generation. AIS represents a more aggressive trajectory of accelerated improvement in energy intensity and decarbonized power and transport sectors. A range of sensitivity analysis and power technology scenarios are tested to evaluate the impact of additional actions such as

  16. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  17. Variable Circular Collimator in Robotic Radiosurgery: A Time-Efficient Alternative to a Mini-Multileaf Collimator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Nuyttens, Joost J.M.E.; Schaart, Dennis R.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2011-01-01

    and high-quality plans were obtained for robotic-controlled noncoplanar treatments using a mMLC. Iris is a time-efficient alternative for small targets, with similar or better plan quality.

  18. Caracterização de dois equipamentos de beneficiamento e classificação de tomates para mesa Cleaning efficiency in packing lines for fresh market tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André T. O. Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, nos últimos anos, tem aumentado o beneficiamento e a classificação de frutas e hortaliças em equipamentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a etapa de limpeza de dois equipamentos de beneficiamento de tomate de mesa, um nacional e outro importado, instalados na região metropolitana de Campinas - SP. A caracterização foi realizada quanto ao número, tipo e velocidade de rotação das escovas, aplicação de água, tempo de permanência dos frutos e eficiência de limpeza. O tempo de permanência foi mensurado com relação ao tamanho dos frutos, segundo os padrões da CEAGESP. Para mensurar a eficiência, foi desenvolvido um equipamento composto de um anel deslizante envolvido por um pano branco. As amostragens foram realizadas antes e após a etapa de limpeza e avaliadas utilizando colorímetro HUNTER Lab. Por meio dos resultados, observaram-se diferenças entre os dois equipamentos, em que o importado apresentou menor número de escovas, rotações mais baixas e maior consumo de água que o nacional. No equipamento nacional, o tempo de permanência dependeu do tamanho dos frutos, não sendo encontrada essa correlação no equipamento importado, e ambos tiveram a mesma eficiência de limpeza. Conclui-se que a limpeza está relacionada à interação entre os parâmetros estudados, sendo também necessário realizar manutenções nos equipamentos das unidades para a melhoria no funcionamento.On the last years, in Brazil, sorting and classifying fruits and vegetables using packing lines have increased. This work aimed at characterizing the cleaning process for fresh market tomatoes at two packing lines, one imported and one national located at Campinas, São Paulo State. Characterization included data, number, types and brushes velocity, water use, fruit standing time and cleaning efficiency. Standing time was measured correlating to fruit diameter (CEAGESP. For measuring cleaning efficiency an equipment was developed

  19. Dirt-binding particles consisting of hydrogenated castor oil beads constitute a nonirritating alternative for abrasive cleaning of recalcitrant oily skin contamination in a three-step programme of occupational skin protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, V; Erfurt-Berge, C; Schiemann, S; Michael, S; Egloffstein, A; Kuss, O

    2010-04-01

    In occupational fields with exposure to grease, oil, metal particles, coal, black lead or soot, cleansing formulations containing abrasive bodies (e.g. refined walnut shell, corn, wood, plastic or pumice) are used. These may constitute an irritant per se. As an alternative, hydrogenated castor oil (also known as castor wax) beads have been developed as dirt-binding particles. A polar surface contributes to their mechanical cleaning effects in removal of oily grime. Standardized examination of the in vivo effects upon the skin barrier of castor wax beads in comparison with abrasive bodies and pure detergent. Three cleansing preparations - (i) detergent, (ii) detergent containing castor wax beads, (iii) detergent containing walnut shell powder - were each repetitively applied in vivo (four times daily for 3 weeks), mimicking workplace conditions, in 30 healthy volunteers (15 with and 15 without an atopic skin diathesis) and compared vs. (iv) no treatment. The treatment effects upon the skin barrier were monitored by repeated measurements of functional parameters [transepidermal water loss (TEWL), redness] and surface topography. After a 3-week treatment, a significant global treatment effect (P dirt and use of skin protection and skin care measures under real workplace conditions, this component may now be used and examined further in different occupations.

  20. Expanding the CRISPR/Cas9 toolkit for Pichia pastoris with efficient donor integration and alternative resistance markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weninger, Astrid; Fischer, Jasmin E; Raschmanová, Hana; Kniely, Claudia; Vogl, Thomas; Glieder, Anton

    2018-04-01

    Komagataella phaffii (syn. Pichia pastoris) is one of the most commonly used host systems for recombinant protein expression. Achieving targeted genetic modifications had been hindered by low frequencies of homologous recombination (HR). Recently, a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system has been implemented for P. pastoris enabling gene knockouts based on indels (insertion, deletions) via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) at near 100% efficiency. However, specifically integrating homologous donor cassettes via HR for replacement studies had proven difficult resulting at most in ∼20% correct integration using CRISPR/Cas9. Here, we demonstrate the CRISPR/Cas9 mediated integration of markerless donor cassettes at efficiencies approaching 100% using a ku70 deletion strain. The Ku70p is involved in NHEJ repair and lack of the protein appears to favor repair via HR near exclusively. While the absolute number of transformants in the Δku70 strain is reduced, virtually all surviving transformants showed correct integration. In the wildtype strain, markerless donor cassette integration was also improved up to 25-fold by placing an autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) on the donor cassette. Alternative strategies for improving donor cassette integration using a Cas9 nickase variant or reducing off targeting associated toxicity using a high fidelity Cas9 variant were so far not successful in our hands in P. pastoris. Furthermore we provide Cas9/gRNA expression plasmids with a Geneticin resistance marker which proved to be versatile tools for marker recycling. The reported CRSIPR-Cas9 tools can be applied for modifying existing production strains and also pave the way for markerless whole genome modification studies in P. pastoris. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Carbon dioxide nucleation as a novel cleaning method for ultrafiltration membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ghamdi, Mohanned

    2016-12-08

    operation. Therefore, the new cleaning method might provide an efficient and environmentally friendly alternative cleaning technique to low-pressure membranes technology in the future.

  2. Bubble size distribution analysis and control in high frequency ultrasonic cleaning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmann, M; Struyf, H; Mertens, P; Heyns, M; Gendt, S De; Brems, S; Glorieux, C

    2012-01-01

    In the semiconductor industry, the ongoing down-scaling of nanoelectronic elements has lead to an increasing complexity of their fabrication. Hence, the individual fabrication processes become increasingly difficult to handle. To minimize cross-contamination, intermediate surface cleaning and preparation steps are inevitable parts of the semiconductor process chain. Here, one major challenge is the removal of residual nano-particulate contamination resulting from abrasive processes such as polishing and etching. In the past, physical cleaning techniques such as megasonic cleaning have been proposed as suitable solutions. However, the soaring fragility of the smallest structures is constraining the forces of the involved physical removal mechanisms. In the case of 'megasonic' cleaningcleaning with ultrasound in the MHz-domain – the main cleaning action arises from strongly oscillating microbubbles which emerge from the periodically changing tensile strain in the cleaning liquid during sonication. These bubbles grow, oscillate and collapse due to a complex interplay of rectified diffusion, bubble coalescence, non-linear pulsation and the onset of shape instabilities. Hence, the resulting bubble size distribution does not remain static but alternates continuously. Only microbubbles in this distribution that show a high oscillatory response are responsible for the cleaning action. Therefore, the cleaning process efficiency can be improved by keeping the majority of bubbles around their resonance size. In this paper, we propose a method to control and characterize the bubble size distribution by means of 'pulsed' sonication and measurements of acoustic cavitation spectra, respectively. We show that the so-obtained bubble size distributions can be related to theoretical predictions of the oscillatory responses of and the onset of shape instabilities for the respective bubbles. We also propose a mechanism to explain the enhancement of both acoustic and cleaning

  3. Novel design of high voltage pulse source for efficient dielectric barrier discharge generation by using silicon diodes for alternating current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hoa Thi; Hayashi, Misaki; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Yasunori; Ishijima, Tatsuo

    2017-06-01

    This work focuses on design, construction, and optimization of configuration of a novel high voltage pulse power source for large-scale dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generation. The pulses were generated by using the high-speed switching characteristic of an inexpensive device called silicon diodes for alternating current and the self-terminated characteristic of DBD. The operation started to be powered by a primary DC low voltage power supply flexibly equipped with a commercial DC power supply, or a battery, or DC output of an independent photovoltaic system without transformer employment. This flexible connection to different types of primary power supply could provide a promising solution for the application of DBD, especially in the area without power grid connection. The simple modular structure, non-control requirement, transformer elimination, and a minimum number of levels in voltage conversion could lead to a reduction in size, weight, simple maintenance, low cost of installation, and high scalability of a DBD generator. The performance of this pulse source has been validated by a load of resistor. A good agreement between theoretically estimated and experimentally measured responses has been achieved. The pulse source has also been successfully applied for an efficient DBD plasma generation.

  4. Alberta's clean energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with the future of clean energy in Alberta. With the present economic growth of the oil sands industry in Alberta, it is expected that there will be very considerable increases in job opportunities and GDP in both Canada and US. The challenges include high-energy demand and reduction of the carbon footprint. Alberta has adopted certain approaches to developing renewable and alternate forms of energy as well as to increasing the efficiency of present energy use and raising environmental consciousness in energy production. Three areas where the effects of clean energy will be felt are energy systems, climate change, and regional impacts, for instance on land, water, and wildlife. Alberta's regulatory process is shown by means of a flow chart. Aspects of oil sands environmental management include greenhouse gas targets, air quality assurance, and water quality monitoring, among others. Steps taken by Alberta to monitor and improve air quality and water management are listed. In conclusion, the paper notes that significant amounts of money are being pumped into research and development for greenhouse gas and water management projects.

  5. Solid-state semiconductors are better alternatives to arc-lamps for efficient and uniform illumination in minimal access surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex C H; Elson, Daniel S; Neil, Mark A; Kumar, Sunil; Ling, Bingo W; Bello, Fernando; Hanna, George B

    2009-03-01

    Current arc-lamp illumination systems have a number of technical and ergonomic limitations. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are energy-efficient solid-state lighting devices which are small, durable and inexpensive. Their use as an alternative to arc-lamp light sources in minimal access surgery has not been explored. This study aims to develop an LED-based endo-illuminator and to determine its lighting characteristics for use in minimal access surgery. We developed an LED endo-illuminator using a white LED mounted at the tip of a steel rod. Offline image analysis was carried out to compare the illuminated field using the LED endo-illuminator or an arc-lamp based endoscope in terms of uniformity, shadow sharpness and overall image intensity. Direct radiometric power measurements in light intensity and stability were obtained. Visual perception of fine details at the peripheral endoscopic field was assessed by 13 subjects using the different illumination systems. Illumination from the LED endo-illuminator was more uniform compared to illumination from an arc-lamp source, especially at the closer distance of 4 cm (0.0006 versus 0.0028 arbitrary units--lower value indicates more uniform illumination). The shadows were also sharper (edge widths of 16 versus 44 pixels for the first edge and 15 versus 61 pixels for the second edge). The overall mean image intensity was higher (127 versus 100 arbitrary units) when using the autoshutter mode despite the lower direct radiometric power, about one tenth of the arc-lamp endoscopic system. The illumination was also more stable with less flickering (0.02% versus 5% of total power in non-DC components). Higher median scores on visual perception was also obtained (237 versus 157, p arc-lamp-based system currently used.

  6. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  7. Review and analysis of potential safety impacts of and regulatory barriers to fuel efficiency technologies and alternative fuels in medium- and heavy-duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes a safety analysis of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (MD/HDVs) equipped with fuel efficiency (FE) technologies and/or using alternative fuels (natural gas-CNG and LNG, propane, biodiesel and power train electrification). The st...

  8. Cleaning metal filters by pulse-jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, P.; Perry, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cleanable metal filters have an established use in the Nuclear Industry. The filters that have been installed in the past have not proved to be sufficiently cleanable. A series of tests were undertaken to study the application of pulse-jet cleaning to metal fibre filter elements. The efficiency of dust removal was examined under various operating conditions. A very high degree of particulate removal was achieved, with a return to almost clean pressure drop. The effectiveness of cleaning was found to vary inversely with blowback pressure. The position of the blowback nozzle with respect to the filter element throat was also found to be important to cleaning efficiency. Under the test conditions the effect of re-entrainment when cleaning on line was found to be minimal. (author)

  9. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D of high efficiency clean energy vehicles; 2000 nendo choteisonshitsu denryoku soshi gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kiban gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Using the petroleum substituting clean energy, the R and D were conducted with the aim of developing vehicles which reduce the consumption of travel energy to 1/2 and the CO2 emission to 1/2 or below of those of existing vehicles. The FY 1999 results were summed up. As to the R and D of the hybrid power system, carried out were the prediction of fuel consumption performance by numerical simulation, evaluation of performance of new hybrid electric vehicles, etc. Concerning the R and D of high efficiency clean energy vehicles, the R and D of the following were reported from each of the makers: hybrid passenger car loaded with methanol fuel cells, hybrid passenger car loaded with ANG engine, hybrid truck loaded with CNG ceramic engine, hybrid truck loaded with CNG engine, hybrid bus loaded with LNG engine, and hybrid bus loaded with DME engine. Further, in the survey of synthetic fuels, the paper reported on the results of the evaluation of synthetic light oil engines and evaluation of characteristics of synthetic light oil. (NEDO)

  10. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  11. Physician strives to create lean, clean health care machine. Studies of manufacturing processes may one day help make your practice more efficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D

    2001-01-01

    Elisabeth Hager, MD, MMM, CPE, is teaming up with scientists and industrialists to teach physicians how to apply principles of lean, total-quality manufacturing to their practices. She believes innovation and efficiencies can help doctors resurrect their profession's image and their control over it--and perhaps even reinvent American health care.

  12. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  13. Technological roadmap for production, clean and efficient use of Brazilian mineral coal: 2012 to 2035; Roadmap tecnologico para producao, uso limpo e eficiente do carvao mineral nacional: 2012 a 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Brazil has one of the largest coal reserves in the world, but it is not among the largest producers in the world. Coal in Brazil, has two main applications: use as fuel for power generation, including industrial energy use, and in the iron and steel industry for production of coke, pig iron and steel. In the updated rates of use, the coal reserves can provide coal for more than 500 years. A public policy to better take advantage of the mineral coal, with horizons in 2022 and 2035 and the guidelines and strategies proposed for the country to reach the production, clean and efficient use of the expressive quantity of the mineral national coal are presented.

  14. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  15. The BC energy plan : a vision for clean energy leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    Global warming is a pertinent environmental issue. This report presented a vision and plan for clean energy leadership in British Columbia (BC). The intent of the plan is make the province energy self-sufficient while taking responsibility for the natural environment and climate. The BC energy plan set out targets as well as a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The plan outlines the steps that industry, environmental agencies, communities and citizens must take to reach goals for conservation, energy efficiency and clean energy. This report provided highlights of the BC energy plan and discussed energy conservation and efficiency targets. It also discussed electricity security and public ownership of electricity in addition to strategies and policy options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from electricity. The report presented several policy options for alternative energy including an innovative clean energy fund; generating electricity from mountain pine beatlewood to turn wood waste into energy; and transportation strategies. The report also discussed electricity options such as bioenergy; coal thermal power; geothermal; hydrogen and fuel cell technology; large hydroelectric dams; natural gas; small hydro; solar; tidal energy; and wind. Other topics that were addressed in the report included skills, training and labour; and, oil and gas policy actions. A summary of policy actions was also presented. tabs., figs.

  16. The BC energy plan : a vision for clean energy leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    Global warming is a pertinent environmental issue. This report presented a vision and plan for clean energy leadership in British Columbia (BC). The intent of the plan is make the province energy self-sufficient while taking responsibility for the natural environment and climate. The BC energy plan set out targets as well as a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The plan outlines the steps that industry, environmental agencies, communities and citizens must take to reach goals for conservation, energy efficiency and clean energy. This report provided highlights of the BC energy plan and discussed energy conservation and efficiency targets. It also discussed electricity security and public ownership of electricity in addition to strategies and policy options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from electricity. The report presented several policy options for alternative energy including an innovative clean energy fund; generating electricity from mountain pine beatlewood to turn wood waste into energy; and transportation strategies. The report also discussed electricity options such as bioenergy; coal thermal power; geothermal; hydrogen and fuel cell technology; large hydroelectric dams; natural gas; small hydro; solar; tidal energy; and wind. Other topics that were addressed in the report included skills, training and labour; and, oil and gas policy actions. A summary of policy actions was also presented. tabs., figs

  17. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May ... 34 How The Clean Hands - Safe Hands System Works - Duration: 3:38. Clean Hands-Safe Hands 5, ...

  18. Chemical cleaning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, B.L.; Thomas, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Three main chemical processes for cleaning steam generators have evolved from the early work of the industry. Of the more than 50 chemical cleanings carried out to date most have been considered a success by the utilities performing them. (author)

  19. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  20. Proceedings of the emission reduction and eco-efficiency forum and workshop : towards clean energy production : managing GHGs while minimizing costs and maximizing recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The petroleum industry is now in the process of determining which methods and technologies will be adopted to reduce the environmental impacts caused by emissions. This forum investigated methods of increasing efficiency and reducing greenhouses gas (GHG) emissions in oil sands operations. Industry operators, government official and researchers discussed new approaches to addressing climatic change. Provincial energy efficiency policies were discussed, and cost-effective methods for increasing the energy efficiency of oil sands processing plants were reviewed. GHG credit programs were discussed. New technologies for reducing fugitive emissions and recovering energy from waste heat were presented. Water-friendly steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects were outlined, and new distributed generation plans for oil and gas processing plants were presented. Pollutant emission control technologies were discussed. The conference also included several presentations that examined the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies and the construction of pipeline infrastructure. Sequestration technologies and sites were also reviewed. The forum featured 24 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  1. Design and simulations of a spectral efficient optical code division multiple access scheme using alternated energy differentiation and single-user soft-decision demodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Garba, Aminata

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) network transmission scheme using alternated amplitude sequences and energy differentiation at the transmitters to allow concurrent and secure transmission of several signals. The proposed system uses error control encoding and soft-decision demodulation to reduce the multi-user interference at the receivers. The design of the proposed alternated amplitude sequences, the OCDMA energy modulators and the soft decision, single-user demodulators are also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme allows achieving spectral efficiencies higher than several reported results for optical CDMA and much higher than the Gaussian CDMA capacity limit.

  2. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation; Stromeffizienz und erneuerbare Energien - Wirtschaftliche alternative zu Grosskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettli, B.; Hammer, S.; Moret, F.; Iten, R. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nordmann, T. [TNC Consulting AG, Erlenbach (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  3. US Clean Energy Sector and the Opportunity for Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, Carole Cameron

    2011-01-01

    The following paper sets forth the current understanding of the US clean energy demand and opportunity. As clean energy systems come online and technology is developed, modeling and simulation of these complex energy programs provides an untapped business opportunity. The US Department of Defense provides a great venue for developing new technology in the energy sector because it is demanding lower fuel costs, more energy efficiencies in its buildings and bases, and overall improvements in its carbon footprint. These issues coupled with the security issues faced by foreign dependence on oil will soon bring more clean energy innovations to the forefront (lighter batteries for soldiers, alternative fuel for jets, energy storage systems for ships, etc).

  4. Heterogeneous catalysis and the challenges of powering the planet, securing chemicals for civilised life, and clean efficient utilization of renewable feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews, first, the prospects, practices and principles of generating solar fuels. It does so with an analysis of recent progress in the light-driven emission of H2 (and other fuels) as well as O2 from water. To place this challenge in perspective, some current practices entailing the use of well-proven solid catalysts developed for fossil-based feedstocks, are described. The massive differences between proven methods of generating fuel and chemicals from non-renewable and from solar radiation are emphasized with the aid of numerous quantitative examples. Whilst it is acknowledged that a key action in reducing the liberation of greenhouse gases (GHG) is to tackle the challenge of decreasing their evolution in power generation and in the production of steel, aluminium and other bulk commodities (metals, alloys, concrete and ceramics), nevertheless much can be done to diminish the emission of CO2 (and to use it as feedstock) through the agency of new, designed solid catalysts and microalgae. Solar-thermal converters are also attractive alternatives, even though they are more likely to be used centrally rather than in small modular units like 'artificial leaves,' some of which are promising for the purposes of generating energy (and perhaps fuel) in a delocalized, modular manner. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. COOLCEP (cool clean efficient power): A novel CO{sub 2}-capturing oxy-fuel power system with LNG (liquefied natural gas) coldness energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na; Han, Wei [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lior, Noam [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6315 (United States); Liu, Meng [Division of Research and Environment Standardization, China National Institute of Standardization, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2010-02-15

    A novel liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled power plant is proposed, which has virtually zero CO{sub 2} and other emissions and a high efficiency. The plant operates as a subcritical CO{sub 2} Rankine-like cycle. Beside the power generation, the system provides refrigeration in the CO{sub 2} subcritical evaporation process, thus it is a cogeneration system with two valued products. By coupling with the LNG evaporation system as the cycle cold sink, the cycle condensation process can be achieved at a temperature much lower than ambient, and high-pressure liquid CO{sub 2} can be withdrawn from the cycle without consuming additional power. Two system variants are analyzed and compared, COOLCEP-S and COOLCEP-C. In the COOLCEP-S cycle configuration, the working fluid in the main turbine expands only to the CO{sub 2} condensation pressure; in the COOLCEP-C cycle configuration, the turbine working fluid expands to a much lower pressure (near-ambient) to produce more power. The effects of some key parameters, the turbine inlet temperature and the backpressure, on the systems' performance are investigated. It was found that at the turbine inlet temperature of 900 C, the energy efficiency of the COOLCEP-S system reaches 59%, which is higher than the 52% of the COOLCEP-C one. The capital investment cost of the economically optimized plant is estimated to be about 750 EUR/kWe and the payback period is about 8-9 years including the construction period, and the cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.031-0.034 EUR/kWh. (author)

  6. COOLCEP (cool clean efficient power): A novel CO2-capturing oxy-fuel power system with LNG (liquefied natural gas) coldness energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Na; Lior, Noam; Liu, Meng; Han, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A novel liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled power plant is proposed, which has virtually zero CO 2 and other emissions and a high efficiency. The plant operates as a subcritical CO 2 Rankine-like cycle. Beside the power generation, the system provides refrigeration in the CO 2 subcritical evaporation process, thus it is a cogeneration system with two valued products. By coupling with the LNG evaporation system as the cycle cold sink, the cycle condensation process can be achieved at a temperature much lower than ambient, and high-pressure liquid CO 2 can be withdrawn from the cycle without consuming additional power. Two system variants are analyzed and compared, COOLCEP-S and COOLCEP-C. In the COOLCEP-S cycle configuration, the working fluid in the main turbine expands only to the CO 2 condensation pressure; in the COOLCEP-C cycle configuration, the turbine working fluid expands to a much lower pressure (near-ambient) to produce more power. The effects of some key parameters, the turbine inlet temperature and the backpressure, on the systems' performance are investigated. It was found that at the turbine inlet temperature of 900 o C, the energy efficiency of the COOLCEP-S system reaches 59%, which is higher than the 52% of the COOLCEP-C one. The capital investment cost of the economically optimized plant is estimated to be about 750 EUR/kWe and the payback period is about 8-9 years including the construction period, and the cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.031-0.034 EUR/kWh.

  7. Decontamination of polypropylene fabrics by dry cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    Polypropylene fabrics can efficiently be decontaminated by dry cleaning in benzine or perchloroethylene, this also in case the fabric was greased in addition to radioactive contamination. For heavily soiled fabric, it is advantageous to first dry clean it and then wash it. The positive effect was confirmed of intensifiers on the cleaning process, especially of benzine soap. In practice, its concentration should be selected within 1 and 10 g.dm - 3 . Decontamination by dry cleaning and subsequent washing is advantageous in that that the resulting activity of waste water from the laundry is low. Radioactive wastes from the dry cleaning process have a low weight and can be handled as solid waste. (M.D.)

  8. Atmospheric plasma generation for LCD panel cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyu-Sik; Won, Chung-Yuen; Choi, Ju-Yeop; Yim, C. H.

    2007-12-01

    UV lamp systems have been used for cleaning of display panels of TFT LCD or Plasma Display Panel (PDP). However, the needs for high efficient cleaning and low cost made high voltage plasma cleaning techniques to be developed and to be improved. Dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs), also referred to as barrier discharges or silent discharges have for a long time been exclusively related to ozone generation. In this paper, a 6kW high voltage plasma power supply system was developed for LCD cleaning. The -phase input voltage is rectified and then inverter system is used to make a high frequency pulse train, which is rectified after passing through a high-power transformer. Finally, bi-directional high voltage pulse switching circuits are used to generate the high voltage plasma. Some experimental results showed the usefulness of atmospheric plasma for LCD panel cleaning.

  9. Achieving clean and efficient engine operation up to full load by combining optimized RCCI and dual-fuel diesel-gasoline combustion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesús; García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier; Boronat, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized dual-fuel strategy to cover the whole engine load-speed map. • EURO VI NOx levels up to 14 bar IMEP with fully and highly premixed RCCI strategies. • Dual-fuel provides up to 7% higher efficiency than CDC if urea consumption is considered. - Abstract: This experimental work investigates the capabilities of the reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion concept to be operated in the whole engine map and discusses its benefits when compared to conventional diesel combustion. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder medium-duty diesel engine fueled with regular gasoline and diesel fuels. The main modification on the stock engine architecture was the addition of a port fuel injector in the intake manifold. In addition, with the aim of extending the reactivity controlled compression ignition operating range towards higher loads, the piston bowl volume was increased to reduce the compression ratio of the engine from 17.5:1 (stock) down to 15.3:1. To allow the dual-fuel operation over the whole engine map without exceeding the mechanical limitations of the engine, an optimized dual-fuel combustion strategy is proposed in this research. The combustion strategy changes as the engine load increases, starting from a fully premixed reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion up to around 8 bar IMEP, then switching to a highly premixed reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion up to 15 bar IMEP, and finally moving to a mainly diffusive dual-fuel combustion to reach the full load operation. The engine mapping results obtained using this combustion strategy show that reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion allows fulfilling the EURO VI NOx limit up to 14 bar IMEP. Ultra-low soot emissions are also achieved when the fully premixed combustion is promoted, however, the soot levels rise notably as the combustion strategy moves to a less premixed pattern. Finally, the direct comparison of

  10. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing low reluctance rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and rollers including low reluctance rim structures. The magnetic field and the rollers help contain the molten metal from leaking out of the containment structure.

  11. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing a ferromagnetic dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and a ferromagnetic dam. The magnetic field and the ferromagnetic dam contain the molten metal from leaking out side portions of the open side of the containment structure.

  12. A global analysis of alternative tillage and crop establishment practices for economically and environmentally efficient rice production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debashis; Ladha, Jagdish Kumar; Rana, Dharamvir Singh; Jat, Mangi Lal; Gathala, Mahesh Kumar; Yadav, Sudhir; Rao, Adusumilli Narayana; Ramesha, Mugadoli S; Raman, Anitha

    2017-08-24

    Alternative tillage and rice establishment options should aim at less water and labor to produce similar or improved yields compared with traditional puddled-transplanted rice cultivation. The relative performance of these practices in terms of yield, water input, and economics varies across rice-growing regions. A global meta and mixed model analysis was performed, using a dataset involving 323 on-station and 9 on-farm studies (a total of 3878 paired data), to evaluate the yield, water input, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost and net return with five major tillage/crop establishment options. Shifting from transplanting to direct-seeding was advantageous but the change from conventional to zero or reduced tillage reduced yields. Direct-seeded rice under wet tillage was the best alternative with yield advantages of 1.3-4.7% (p Direct-seeding under zero tillage was another potential alternative with high savings in water input and cost of cultivation, with no yield penalty. The alternative practices reduced methane emissions but increased nitrous oxide emissions. Soil texture plays a key role in relative yield advantages, and therefore refinement of the practice to suit a specific agro-ecosystem is needed.

  13. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  14. Discharge cleaning of carbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results of discharge cleaning of carbon deposits are presented. Deposits were prepared by creating plasma in pure methane. The methane was cracked in RF discharge at the output power of 250 W. The resultant radicals were bonded to the wall of discharge vessel forming a thin film of hydrogenated black carbon with the thickness of about 200nm. The film was then cleaned in situ by oxygen plasma with the density of about 1x10 16 m -3 , electron temperature of 5 eV, neutral gas kinetic temperature of about 100 0 C and neutral atom density of 6x10 21 m -3 . The treatment time was 30 minutes. The efficiency of plasma cleaning was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. As long as the wall was contaminated with carbon deposit, substantial emission of the CO molecules was detected. As the cleaning was in progress, the CO emission was decreasing and vanished after 30 minutes when the discharge vessel became free of any carbon. The results are explained by interaction of plasma radicals with carbon deposits. (author)

  15. Clean and efficient application of biomass for production of power and heat - Phase 3 in a long-term strategic research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Jensen, A.D.; Jensen, P.A.; Johnsson, J.E.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2002-06-01

    This project contains activities on: Rheology of ashes from co-firing of coal and biomass; Investigation of ash and deposit formation in full-scale utility boilers; and Selective catalytic reduction: Deactivation under biomass combustion. A fly ash and deposit investigation was carried out as part of the SK Power Company test programme on co-firing of biomasses in a grate-fired boiler. The alternative biomasses (wood chips, olive stones and shea nuts) contain more K, S, and Cl, than wheat straw, and higher fly ash mass loading (mass of fly ash/volume of flue gas) was observed when co-firing alternative biomasses with wheat straw. Anyhow, no significant change in deposit structure when co-firing alkali-rich biomass was observed: KCl is glues residual ash particles together, independent of the feedstock mixture. Thus it can be concluded that co-firing of the actual biomasses in boilers designed for straw-firing, at the present shares is not problematic, from an ash formation and/or deposit build-up point-of-view. Anyhow the increase in ash mass loading in the flue gas, may cause increased build-up of particulate deposits in the convective pass of the boiler. Mature deposit samples from the Masnedoe and Ensted straw-fired boilers were investigated by SEM and EDX. Each deposit sample was classified into an inner, an intermediate, and an outer main layer. The outermost deposit layers at Masnedoe and Ensted looked chemically quite similar, even though they were of different colours. The intermediate layer at Ensted contained many Si- and Ca-rich particles glued together by melted KCI, while the intermediate deposit layers at Masnedoe were different. Since the straw fuels probably are similar, the differences observed in the deposit chemistry must be induced by the higher temperature of the Masnedoe deposit. An experimental method has been set up for viscosity determinations on ashes from co-firing with wheat straw. The method contains a pre-treatment of the ashes, where

  16. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  17. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  18. Optimalisasi Of Efficiency Terms And Test The Value Kalor Of Perfomansi Boiler Use The Energi Biomassa Upon Which Burn Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Kholiq

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTION Especial Fuel used by Boiler PG MODJO PANGGUNG TULUNGAGUNG PTPN X is bagasse and oil burn the residu MFO. A lot of PG in Indonesia which exactly use the very costly fossil fuel so that generate the inefisiensi. Research by enhancing fiber cangkang fiber chaff to efficiency termis perfomansi and performance of boiler PG MODJO PODIUM. Assess the kalor of every-every fuel calculated given the composition of every fuel by using existing equation from literature calculation consume the fuel space volume burn the efficiency from every fuel to boiler and expense efficiency from every fuel used. From calculation of every fuel is hence got by result that Fuel efficiency use the smaller dregs fuel compared to from fuel of fiber and oil burn the residu MFO. LaterThen from facetof material cost burn the bagasse more efficient from at fuel of fiber and oil burn the residu MFO. To reply the the problem hence researcher use the indirect method. This method own the advantage that is can know the balance of complete and energi substance to eachevery stream which can facilitate in identifying opdon to increase is optimal of efficiency of termis boiler.

  19. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  20. Ultra-clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergenroether, K.

    1987-01-01

    No other method guarantees such a thorough cleaning of contaminated materials' surfaces. Only ultrasound can reach those cavities crevices and corners where any manual cleaning fails. Furthermore there is no cumbersome and time-consuming manual decontamination which often has to be carried out in glove boxes and hot cells. Depending on the design the cleaning effect can reach from removing adhering dirt particles to removing complete surface layers. (orig./PW) [de

  1. Brushless Cleaning of Solar Panels and Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    Machine proposed for cleaning solar panels and reflectors uses multiple vortexes of air, solvent, and water to remove dust and dirt. Uses no brushes that might abrade solar surfaces and thereby reduce efficiency. Machine can be readily automated and can be used on curved surfaces such as aparbolic reflectors as well as on flat ones. Cleaning fluids are recycled, so that large quantities of water and solvent are not needed.

  2. New catalysts for photocatalytic cleaning of waste water; Neue Katalysatoren zur photokatalytischen Abwasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, M [Inst. for Solarenergieforschung GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Bahnemann, D [Inst. for Solarenergieforschung GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Hirthe, B [Sachtleben Chemie, Duisburg (Germany); Griebler, W D [Sachtleben Chemie, Duisburg (Germany)

    1994-11-01

    Cleaning of polluted ground and waste water meets with particular problems where the group of halogenated hydrocarbons is concerned, which are not, or not readily, to be biologically degraded by conventional techniques. As an alternative technique to waste water cleaning, a method known as photocatalysis was proposed some years ago, which removes the organic pollutants by oxidation at semiconductor particles exposed to a light source. The article reports on a newly developed photocatalyst with distinctly enhanced pollutant degradation efficiency. (orig./EF) [Deutsch] Besondere Schwierigkeiten bei der Reinigung verschmutzter Grund- und Abwaesser bereitet die Gruppe der halogenierten Kohlenwasserstoffe, die sich nicht oder nur schwer auf herkoemmliche Weise biologisch abbauen lassen. Als alternative Technik zur Abwasserreinigung wurde vor einigen Jahren die sogenannte Photokatalyse vorgeschlagen, bei der die organischen Schadstoffe durch Oxidation an belichteten Halbleiterteilchen entfernt werden. Nachfolgend wird ueber einen neu entwickelten Photokatalysator berichtet, mit dessen Hilfe eine deutliche Steigerung der Effektivitaet des photokatalytischen Schadstoffabbaus gelingt. (orig./EF)

  3. The clean development mechanism versus international permit trading: The effect on technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagem, Cathrine

    2009-01-01

    The clean development mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol may induce technological change in developing countries. As an alternative to the clean development mechanism regime, developing countries may accept a (generous) cap on their own emissions, allow domestic producers to invest in new efficient technologies, and sell the excess emission permits on the international permit market. The purpose of this article is to show how the gains from investment, and hence the incentive to invest in new technology in developing countries, differ between the two alternative regimes. We show that the difference in the gains from investment depends on whether the producers in developing countries face competitive or noncompetitive output markets, whether the investment affects fixed or variable production costs, and whether producers can reduce emissions through means other than investing in new technology. (author)

  4. Efficiency of enzymatic and other alternative clarification and fining treatments on turbidity and haze in cherry juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Köser, C.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    function. Individual and interactive effects on turbidity and haze formation in precentrifuged and uncentrifuged cherry juice of treatments with pectinase, acid protease, bromelain, gallic acid, and gelatin-silica sol were investigated in a factorial experimental design with 32 different parameter...... combinations. Gelatin-silica sol consistently had the best effect on juice clarity. Centrifugation of cherry juice (10000g for 15 min) prior to clarification treatment significantly improved juice clarity and diminished the rate of haze formation during cold storage of juice. Both treatment of precentrifuged...... cherry juice with Novozym 89L protease and co- addition of pectinase and gallic acid improved cherry juice clarity and diminished haze levels. None of the alternative treatments produced the unwieldy colloids notorious to gelatin- silica sol treatment. The data suggest that several alternative...

  5. Evaluation of efficient XML interchange (EXI) for large datasets and as an alternative to binary JSON encodings

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Bruce W.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Current and emerging Navy information concepts, including network-centric warfare and Navy Tactical Cloud, presume high network throughput and interoperability. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) addresses the latter requirement, but its verbosity is problematic for afloat networks. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is an alternative to XML common in web applications and some non-relational databases. Compact, binary encodings exist ...

  6. U.S. Department of Energy clean cities five-year strategic plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambridge Concord Associates

    2011-02-15

    Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program, which is part of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Working with its network of about 100 local coalitions and more than 6,500 stakeholders across the country, Clean Cities delivers on its mission to reduce petroleum consumption in on-road transportation. In its work to reduce petroleum use, Clean Cities focuses on a portfolio of technologies that includes electric drive, propane, natural gas, renewable natural gas/biomethane, ethanol/E85, biodiesel/B20 and higher-level blends, fuel economy, and idle reduction. Over the past 17 years, Clean Cities coalitions have displaced more than 2.4 billion gallons of petroleum; they are on track to displace 2.5 billion gallons of gasoline per year by 2020. This Clean Cities Strategic Plan lays out an aggressive five-year agenda to help DOE Clean Cities and its network of coalitions and stakeholders accelerate the deployment of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles, while also expanding the supporting infrastructure to reduce petroleum use. Today, Clean Cities has a far larger opportunity to make an impact than at any time in its history because of its unprecedented $300 million allocation for community-based deployment projects from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) (see box below). Moreover, the Clean Cities annual budget has risen to $25 million for FY2010 and $35 million has been requested for FY2011. Designed as a living document, this strategic plan is grounded in the understanding that priorities will change annually as evolving technical, political, economic, business, and social considerations are woven into project decisions and funding allocations. The plan does not intend to lock Clean Cities into pathways that cannot change. Instead, with technology deployment at its core, the plan serves as a guide for decision-making at both the

  7. Non-Gasoline Alternative Fueling Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Through a nationwide network of local coalitions, Clean Citiesprovides project assistance to help stakeholders in the public and private sectors deploy alternative...

  8. Report in fiscal 1999 on the achievements in research and development of the ITS technology using clean energy driven automobiles. Research and development of an efficient utilization system for car rentals in tourist resort areas; 1998 nendo clean energy jidosha wo mochiita ITS gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kankochiyo rentaka koritsuteki riyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1998 on developing ITS technology using clean energy driven automobiles. Development is intended on an efficient management and control method for EV car rentals in tourist resort areas using the ITS technology from the viewpoints of reducing road traffic load and global environment problems. The development items include a control center system, a system to control battery charging status at the center, a battery charging determination algorithm, and a car navigation and bi-directional communications mounting system. The system development has been completed nearly completely, having attained relatively high user satisfaction. However, because of the experimental rented cars having long mileage, there were few chances of verifying the charge determination algorithm and the functions of the ITS. Investigations were carried out on technological trends in overseas countries on EV and ITS, and on commuter car introduction projects. Structuring the hardware for a commuter EV system is not too difficult if the presently available EV and ITS technologies are used. However, in advancing commercialization, there are such assignments as establishment of software, operation patterns, and interfaces that enhance user convenience and profitability. (NEDO)

  9. The effects of window alternatives on energy efficiency and building economy in high-rise residential buildings in moderate to humid climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaşar, Yalçın; Kalfa, Sibel Maçka

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated energy and economy efficiency of window alternatives in Trabzon. ► Energy consumptions of eight window alternatives were simulated and discussed. ► Window alternatives’s life cycle costs were calculated and compared. ► We suggested appropriate energy and economy efficient window alternatives. ► The study defines useful guidelines to select appropriate window alternatives. - Abstract: Currently, focused efforts are being made to determine the influence of windows on the energy consumption and economy of high-rise buildings. Certain window designs and appropriate glazing systems reduce building energy consumption for heating and cooling and contribute to building economy. This paper addresses double-glazed window units that are composed of tinted glass; clear reflective glass; low emissivity (low-e) glass; and smart glass (one surface consists of a high-performance, heat-reflective glass, and other surface has a low-emissivity coated). These materials reduce the heating and cooling loads of buildings by providing solar control and heat conservation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these alternative units, rather than readily available double-glazed units, in two types of flats. The flats have the same construction and operating system, but they have different plan types with regard to building energy consumption and building economy as it relates to life cycle cost analysis. For this study, we selected buildings in Trabzon, in Climate Region II of Turkey, due to its moderate-humid climate. F- and C-type high-rise residential blocks, with flats composed of two to three bedrooms, constructed by the Republic of Turkey’s Prime Ministry Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKİ) are used as models for the simulation. The flat plans in these blocks are modeled using DesignBuilder v.1.8 energy simulation software. The simulation results show that smart-glazed units and those with low emissivity

  10. How clean is clean?---How clean is needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of cleaning qualifications used in a variety of industries: from small-scale manufacturer's of precision-machined products to large-scale manufacturer's of electronics (printed wiring boards and surface mount technology) and microelectronics. Cleanliness testing techniques used in the production of precision-machined products, will be described. The on-going DOD program to obtain high-reliability electronics, through the use of military specifications for cleaning and cleanliness levels, will be reviewed. In addition, the continually changing cleanroom/materials standards of the microelectronics industry will be discussed. Finally, we will speculate on the role that new and improved analytical techniques and sensor technologies will play in the factories of the future. 4 refs., 1 tab

  11. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  12. First-Annual Global Clean Energy Manufacturing Report Shows Strong Domestic Benefits for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EERE Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-02-01

    The Energy Department’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) commissioned the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center to conduct the first-ever annual assessment of the economic state of global clean energy manufacturing. The report, Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing, makes economic data on clean energy technology widely available.

  13. Carbon pricing comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Together with the Clean Energy Bill, the implications of the Australian Federal Government's climate change legislative package are far reaching. Norton Rose gives business a heads-up in this breakdown of the draft legislation underpinning the carbon pricing and clean energy scheme. It is a summary of Norton Rose's full analysis.

  14. Mechanical cleaning of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.; Calado, V.E.; Barreiro, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of graphene due to residues from nanofabrication often introduces background doping and reduces electron mobility. For samples of high electronic quality, post-lithography cleaning treatments are therefore needed. We report that mechanical cleaning based on contact mode atomic force

  15. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  16. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO 2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  17. Evaluation of cleaning methods applied in home environments after renovation and remodeling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiin, L.-M.; Lu, S.-E.; Sannoh, Sulaiman; Lim, B.S.; Rhoads, G.G.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a cleaning trial in 40 northern New Jersey homes where home renovation and remodeling (R and R) activities were undertaken. Two cleaning protocols were used in the study: a specific method recommended by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), in the 1995 'Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing', using a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered vacuum cleaner and a tri-sodium phosphate solution (TSP); and an alternative method using a household vacuum cleaner and a household detergent. Eligible homes were built before the 1970s with potential lead-based paint and had recent R and R activities without thorough cleaning. The two cleaning protocols were randomly assigned to the participants' homes and followed the HUD-recommended three-step procedure: vacuuming, wet washing, and repeat vacuuming. Wipe sampling was conducted on floor surfaces or windowsills before and after cleaning to evaluate the efficacy. All floor and windowsill data indicated that both methods (TSP/HEPA and non-TSP/non-HEPA) were effective in reducing lead loading on the surfaces (P<0.001). When cleaning was applied to surfaces with initial lead loading above the clearance standards, the reductions were even greater, above 95% for either cleaning method. The mixed-effect model analysis showed no significant difference between the two methods. Baseline lead loading was found to be associated with lead loading reduction significantly on floors (P<0.001) and marginally on windowsills (P=0.077). Such relations were different between the two cleaning methods significantly on floors (P<0.001) and marginally on windowsills (P=0.066), with the TSP/HEPA method being favored for higher baseline levels and the non-TSP/non-HEPA method for lower baseline levels. For the 10 homes with lead abatement, almost all post-cleaning lead loadings were below the standards using either cleaning method. Based on our results, we recommend that

  18. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-24

    Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  19. Environmental risk assessment of effluents as a whole emerging contaminant: Efficiency of alternative tertiary treatments for wastewater depuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Garduño, B; Pintado-Herrera, M G; Biel-Maeso, M; Rueda-Márquez, J J; Lara-Martín, P A; Perales, J A; Manzano, M A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2017-08-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) and regulated compounds (RCs) from three different WWTP effluents were measured in the current study. The efficiency of two tertiary treatments, Photobiotreatment (PhtBio) and Multi-Barrier Treatment (MBT), for removing contaminants was determined. Results indicated different percentages of removal depending on the treatment and the origin of the effluent. Risk Quotients (RQs) were determined for different species of algae, Daphnia, and fish. RQ results revealed diverse risk values depending on the bioindicator species. Tonalide, galaxolide (fragrances), and ofloxacin (antibiotic) were the most persistent and harmful substances in tested effluents. "Negligible risk" category was reached since a wide diversity of ECs were removed by MBT with high removal percentages. Contrarily, PhtBio was effective only in the depuration of certain chemical compounds, and its efficiency depended on the composition of the raw effluent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murawski, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.murawski@iapp.de; Fuchs, Cornelius; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Gather, Malte C. [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the properties of N,N′-[(Diphenyl-N,N′-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N′-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2′-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4 wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35 .1 lm/W (74 .0 lm/W) at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} and reach a very high brightness of 10 000 cd/m{sup 2} at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  1. Confine Clay in an Alternating Multilayered Structure through Injection Molding: A Simple and Efficient Route to Improve Barrier Performance of Polymeric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feilong; Deng, Hua; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Ke; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2015-05-20

    Various methods have been devoted to trigger the formation of multilayered structure for wide range of applications. These methods are often complicated with low production efficiency or require complex equipment. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for the fabrication of polymeric sheets containing multilayered structure with enhanced barrier property through high speed thin-wall injection molding (HSIM). To achieve this, montmorillonite (MMT) is added into PE first, then blended with PP to fabricate PE-MMT/PP ternary composites. It is demonstrated that alternating multilayer structure could be obtained in the ternary composites because of low interfacial tension and good viscosity match between different polymer components. MMT is selectively dispersed in PE phase with partial exfoliated/partial intercalated microstructure. 2D-WAXD analysis indicates that the clay tactoids in PE-MMT/PP exhibits an uniplanar-axial orientation with their surface parallel to the molded part surface, while the tactoids in binary PE-MMT composites with the same overall MMT contents illustrate less orientation. The enhanced orientation of nanoclay in PE-MMT/PP could be attributed to the confinement of alternating multilayer structure, which prohibits the tumbling and rotation of nanoplatelets. Therefore, the oxygen barrier property of PE-MMT/PP is superior to that of PE-MMT because of increased gas permeation pathway. Comparing with the results obtained for PE based composites in literature, outstanding barrier property performance (45.7% and 58.2% improvement with 1.5 and 2.5 wt % MMT content, respectively) is achieved in current study. Two issues are considered responsible for such improvement: enhanced MMT orientation caused by the confinement in layered structure, and higher local density of MMT in layered structure induced denser assembly. Finally, enhancement in barrier property by confining impermeable filler into alternating multilayer structure through such

  2. Alternative method of portable irradiation of manganese sulphate solution by an plutonium-beryllium source for manganese sulphate bath efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Martins, Marcelo Marques; Pereira, Walsan Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to create an alternative irradiation system from a Plutonium-Beryllium source for manganese sulphate solution using the Monte Carlo code. Thus seeking to eliminate the issue of institutes that do not have reactors or particle accelerators in its infrastructure, in order to optimize and provide independence for them to carry out efficiency measurements of MnSO_4 solution in their own locality. The Monte Carlo simulations defined the technical features of this new system so that the solution reaches the maximum neutron capture by manganese in solution. (author)

  3. Catalyst design for clean and efficient fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Šaric, Manuel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Moses, Poul Georg; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This thesis contains a theoretical approach to specific problems in catalysis and is based upon fundamental concepts from thermodynamics and density functional theory calculations. It investigates the already existing and well established process of hydrodesulfurization and a novel process of synthesizing dimethyl carbonate electrochemically.Hydrodesulfurization is an industrial refining process in which sulfur is removed from oil in order to reduce SO2 emissions. The study on hydrodesulfuriz...

  4. Catalyst design for clean and efficient fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Šaric, Manuel

    cobalt promoted MoS2 catalyst. Reactivity of a series of model molecules, found in oil prior to desulfurization, is studied on cobalt promoted MoS2. Such an approach has the potential to explain the underlying processes involved in the removal of sulfur at each specific site of the catalyst. The goal...... is to identify which sites are active towards specific molecules and in getting insight to what the ideal catalyst should look like in terms of morphology. Dimethyl carbonate is an environmentally benign compound that can be used as a solvent and precursor in chemical synthesis or as a fuel and fuel additive...... processes currently used. It is found that noble metals can be used as electrocatalysts for the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate, significantly lowering the potential when using copper instead of gold. Besides being active, copper was found to be selective towards dimethyl carbonate. A non-selective catalyst...

  5. A safe, effective, and facility compatible cleaning in place procedure for affinity resin in large-scale monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Dembecki, Jill; Jaffe, Neil E; O'Mara, Brian W; Cai, Hui; Sparks, Colleen N; Zhang, Jian; Laino, Sarah G; Russell, Reb J; Wang, Michelle

    2013-09-20

    Cleaning-in-place (CIP) for column chromatography plays an important role in therapeutic protein production. A robust and efficient CIP procedure ensures product quality, improves column life time and reduces the cost of the purification processes, particularly for those using expensive affinity resins, such as MabSelect protein A resin. Cleaning efficiency, resin compatibility, and facility compatibility are the three major aspects to consider in CIP process design. Cleaning MabSelect resin with 50mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) along with 1M sodium chloride is one of the most popular cleaning procedures used in biopharmaceutical industries. However, high concentration sodium chloride is a leading cause of corrosion in the stainless steel containers used in large scale manufacture. Corroded containers may potentially introduce metal contaminants into purified drug products. Therefore, it is challenging to apply this cleaning procedure into commercial manufacturing due to facility compatibility and drug safety concerns. This paper reports a safe, effective and environmental and facility-friendly cleaning procedure that is suitable for large scale affinity chromatography. An alternative salt (sodium sulfate) is used to prevent the stainless steel corrosion caused by sodium chloride. Sodium hydroxide and salt concentrations were optimized using a high throughput screening approach to achieve the best combination of facility compatibility, cleaning efficiency and resin stability. Additionally, benzyl alcohol is applied to achieve more effective microbial control. Based on the findings, the recommended optimum cleaning strategy is cleaning MabSelect resin with 25 mM NaOH, 0.25 M Na2SO4 and 1% benzyl alcohol solution every cycle, followed by a more stringent cleaning using 50 mM NaOH with 0.25 M Na2SO4 and 1% benzyl alcohol at the end of each manufacturing campaign. A resin life cycle study using the MabSelect affinity resin demonstrates that the new cleaning strategy

  6. Clean Energy: No Longer a Luxury! Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This learning activity provides an overview of the problem of clean energy sources and examination of alternatives. Student activity, quiz with answers, related activities, and nine references are provided. (SK)

  7. Utilization of Pine Nut Shell derived carbon as an efficient alternate for the sequestration of phthalates from aqueous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair A. Qureshi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the importance of a cheap bio waste; Pine Nut Shell (PNS, from which a carbon is synthesized that can efficiently remove toxic phthalates from an aqueous system. PNS derived carbon shows high affinity toward phthalates in descending order along with adsorption capacity i.e., dibutyl phthalate (DBP 5.65 mg/g > diallyl phthalate (DAP 3.64 mg/g > diethyl phthalate (DEP and 2.87 mg/g > dimethyl phthalate (DMP 2.48 mg/g. Different characterization techniques such as FTIR, elemental analysis, point of zero electric charge (PZC, SEM, EDX and BET were employed to investigate the binding sites and surface area of the adsorbent. Adsorption experiments were performed both in batch and column modes. Equilibrium studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm fits best to experimental data. Kinetically, adsorption phenomena obeyed pseudo second order. Furthermore, thermodynamic results expressed the exothermic nature of adsorption on the basis of negative value of enthalpy change. Column sorption method was also adapted to check the feasibility of the adsorption process through the investigation of flow rate, breakthrough curve and pre-concentration factor which is found to be 13 for DMP and DEP and 16 for DAP and DBP. Methanol was found to be best solvent for the recovery of phthalates. Application in real water samples also showed good efficiency of PNS derived carbon for the removal of phthalates.

  8. The NAA method at Polytechnique Montreal. An efficient alternative way to use the k0 NAA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilian, C.; Kennedy, G.

    2014-01-01

    At Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, the philosophy in performing neutron activation analysis (NAA) is long-term and application oriented. Thinking long-term implies a good understanding of the fundamentals of the method, of the samples, of the tools, reactor and detectors, and there must be constant innovation that is experimentally validated with extensive measurements. Application oriented means a NAA method developed to provide users with fast, sensitive, accurate and reliable analyses for various types of materials. This philosophy dictates the manner in which the developments in the areas of NAA software, peak-area calculation, dead-time correction, detection efficiency model, k 0 and Q 0 values, neutron moderation and neutron self-shielding are carried out. This paper presents a survey of the Laboratory’s methodology, reviewing a few of its unique features such as detector efficiency calibration and sample related perturbations of the neutron activation. These features are used as examples to provide the reader with an understanding of the philosophy and the evolution of the NAA method at Ecole Polytechnique. (author)

  9. Emulsion Synthesis of Size-Tunable CH3NH3PbBr3 Quantum Dots: An Alternative Route toward Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hailong; Zhao, Fangchao; Liu, Lige; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Xian-gang; Shi, Lijie; Zou, Bingsuo; Pei, Qibing; Zhong, Haizheng

    2015-12-30

    We report a facile nonaqueous emulsion synthesis of colloidal halide perovskite quantum dots by controlled addition of a demulsifier into an emulsion of precursors. The size of resulting CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots can be tuned from 2 to 8 nm by varying the amount of demulsifier. Moreover, this emulsion synthesis also allows the purification of these quantum dots by precipitation from the colloidal solution and obtains solid-state powder which can be redissolved for thin film coating and device fabrication. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the quantum dots is generally in the range of 80-92%, and can be well-preserved after purification (∼80%). Green light-emitting diodes fabricated comprising a spin-cast layer of the colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots exhibited maximum current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A, power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 1.1%. This provides an alternative route toward high efficient solution-processed perovskite-based light-emitting diodes. In addition, the emulsion synthesis is versatile and can be extended for the fabrication of inorganic halide perovskite colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals.

  10. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  11. Environmentally Clean Mitigation of Undesirable Plant Life Using Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; McGrann, T J; Yamamoto, R M; Parker, J M

    2009-07-01

    This concept comprises a method for environmentally clean destruction of undesirable plant life using visible or infrared radiation. We believe that during the blossom stage, plant life is very sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, with an enhanced sensitivity to specific spectral ranges. Small doses of irradiation can arrest further plant growth, cause flower destruction or promote plant death. Surrounding plants, which are not in the blossoming stage, should not be affected. Our proposed mechanism to initiate this effect is radiation produced by a laser. Tender parts of the blossom possess enhanced absorptivity in some spectral ranges. This absorption can increase the local tissue temperature by several degrees, which is sufficient to induce bio-tissue damage. In some instances, the radiation may actually stimulate plant growth, as an alternative for use in increased crop production. This would be dependent on factors such as plant type, the wavelength of the laser radiation being used and the amount of the radiation dose. Practical, economically viable realization of this concept is possible today with the advent of high efficiency, compact and powerful laser diodes. The laser diodes provide an efficient, environmentally clean source of radiation at a variety of power levels and radiation wavelengths. Figure 1 shows the overall concept, with the laser diodes mounted on a movable platform, traversing and directing the laser radiation over a field of opium poppies.

  12. Investigation of aluminum surface cleaning using cavitating fluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralys, Aurimas; Striška, Vytautas; Mokšin, Vadim [Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Faculty of Mechanics, Department of Machine Engineering, J. Basanavičiaus str.28, 03224, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-12-16

    This paper investigates efficiency of specially designed atomizer used to spray water and cavitate microbubbles in water flow. Surface cleaning system was used to clean machined (grinded) aluminum surface from abrasive particles. It is established that cleaning efficiency depends on diameter of the diffuser, water pressure and distance between nozzle and metal surface. It is obtained that the best cleaning efficiency (100%) is achieved at pressure 36 bar, when diameter of diffuser is 0.4 mm and distance between nozzle and surface is 1 mm. It is also established that satisfactory cleaning efficiency (80%) is achieved not only when atomizer is placed closer to metal surface, but also at larger (120 mm) distances.

  13. Dry Phosphorus silicate glass etching and surface conditioning and cleaning for multi-crystalline silicon solar cell processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagilik, Ahmed S.

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to the wet chemical etching method, dry chemical etching processes for Phosphorus silicate glass [PSG} layer removal using Trifluormethane/Sulfur Hexafluoride (CHF 3 / SF 6 ) gas mixture in commercial silicon-nitride plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (SiN-PECVD) system is applied. The dependence of the solar cell performance on the etching temperature is investigated and optimized. It is found that the SiN-PECVD system temperature variation has a significant impact on the whole solar cell characteristics. A dry plasma cleaning treatment of the Si wafer surface after the PSG removal step is also investigated and developed. The cleaning step is used to remove the polymer film which is formed during the PSG etching using both oxygen and hydrogen gases. By applying an additional cleaning step, the polymer film deposited on the silicon wafer surface after PSG etching is eliminated. The effect of different plasma cleaning conditions on solar cell performance is investigated. After optimization of the plasma operating conditions, the performance of the solar cell is improved and the overall gain in efficiency of 0.6% absolute is yielded compared to a cell without any further cleaning step. On the other hand, the best solar cell characteristics can reach values close to that achieved by the conventional wet chemical etching processes demonstrating the effectiveness of the additional O 2 /H 2 post cleaning treatment.(author)

  14. Cleaning Insertions and Collimation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, S.; Appleby, R. B.; Bertarelli, A.; Bruce, R.; Jowett, J. M.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.

    High-performance collimation systems are essential for operating efficiently modern hadron machine with large beam intensities. In particular, at the LHC the collimation system ensures a clean disposal of beam halos in the superconducting environment. The challenges of the HL-LHC study pose various demanding requests for beam collimation. In this paper we review the present collimation system and its performance during the LHC Run 1 in 2010-2013. Various collimation solutions under study to address the HL-LHC requirements are then reviewed, identifying the main upgrade baseline and pointing out advanced collimation concept for further enhancement of the performance.

  15. Controlling the clean room atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Several types of clean rooms are commonly in use. They include the conventional clean room, the horizontal laminar flow clean room, the vertical laminar flow clean room and a fourth type that incorporates ideas from the previous types and is known as a clean air bench or hood. These clean rooms are briefly described. The origin of contamination and methods for controlling the contamination are discussed

  16. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-23

    This special issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the Fifth National Clean Cities Conference held in Louisville, Kentucky. The momentum for the program is stronger than ever and the coalitions are working to propel the alternative fuel industry forward.

  17. Alternative diagnostic strategies for coronary artery disease in women: demonstration of the usefulness and efficiency of probability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.A.; Wijns, W.; Vanbutsele, R.J.; Robert, A.; De Coster, P.; Brasseur, L.A.; Beckers, C.; Detry, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative strategies using conditional probability analysis for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) were examined in 93 infarct-free women presenting with chest pain. Another group of 42 consecutive female patients was prospectively analyzed. For this latter group, the physician had access to the pretest and posttest probability of CAD before coronary angiography. These 135 women all underwent stress electrocardiographic, thallium scintigraphic, and coronary angiographic examination. The pretest and posttest probabilities of coronary disease were derived from a computerized Bayesian algorithm. Probability estimates were calculated by the four following hypothetical strategies: SO, in which history, including risk factors, was considered; S1, in which history and stress electrocardiographic results were considered; S2, in which history and stress electrocardiographic and stress thallium scintigraphic results were considered; and S3, in which history and stress electrocardiographic results were used, but in which stress scintigraphic results were considered only if the poststress probability of CAD was between 10% and 90%, i.e., if a sufficient level of diagnostic certainty could not be obtained with the electrocardiographic results alone. The strategies were compared with respect to accuracy with the coronary angiogram as the standard. For both groups of women, S2 and S3 were found to be the most accurate in predicting the presence or absence of coronary disease (p less than .05). However, it was found with use of S3 that more than one-third of the thallium scintigrams could have been avoided without loss of accuracy. It was also found that diagnostic catheterization performed to exclude CAD as a diagnosis could have been avoided in half of the patients without loss of accuracy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 65K ...

  19. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 66K ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  2. Clean Hands Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/campa... . Comments on this ... are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/... This video can ...

  4. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent geographic terms used within the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating the addition of pollutants...

  5. 6 Home Cleaning Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aluminum, brass, ceramics, chrome, copper, fiberglass, glass/quartz, plastic, and steel. GLASS CLEANER 1 cup vinegar 1 ... originally filled with commercial cleaning products. Instead, reuse plastic water bottles.  Always place a label on the ...

  6. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... It's in your hands - prevent sepsis in health care' A 5 May 2018 advocacy message from WHO - ...

  7. Steam cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Mikio; Muraoka, Shoichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To clean complicated and long objects to be cleaned having a structure like that of nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Constitution: Steams are blown from the bottom of a fuel assembly and soon condensated initially at the bottom of a vertical water tank due to water filled therein. Then, since water in the tank is warmed nearly to the saturation temperature, purified water is supplied from a injection device below to the injection device above the water tank on every device. In this way, since purified water is sprayed successively from below to above and steams are condensated in each of the places, the entire fuel assembly elongated in the vertical direction can be cleaned completely. Water in the reservoir goes upward like the steam flow and is drained together with the eliminated contaminations through an overflow pipe. After the cleaning has been completed, a main steam valve is closed and the drain valve is opened to drain water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  8. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Published on May 5, 2017 This video for healthcare providers is intended to promote or encourage adherence ... role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www. ...

  10. Solar photocatalytic cleaning of polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, D.

    1994-01-01

    Alternatively to biological, physical and chemical methods of waste water cleaning, photocatalysis can be employed. In this residue-free method, titanium dioxide particles are brought into contact with polluted water as photocatalysts. Under UV irradiation at wave-lengths below 400 nm, change carriers are generated in the semiconductor particles that act so intensely oxidizing as to completely degrade almost all organic pollutants in waste water. In this process, the ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum can be harnessed to generate oxidation equivalents. Thus, solar photocatalytic waste water cleaning is excellently suited for developing countries. (BWI) [de

  11. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  12. Mn2+ anchored CdS polymer nanocomposites: An efficient alternative for Mn2+ doped CdS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, Bhaskar Jyoti; Nath, Bikash Chandra; Borah, Chandramika; Dolui, Swapan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A chelating bi-functional polymer brushes was prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization using grafting-from methodology. Mn 2+ -anchored CdS-polymer nanocomposites were synthesized using this graft copolymer by simple chelation method resulting in emission at about 620 nm which originates from the fluorescence of manganese ions embedded on the surface of CdS nanoparticles. This method provides an efficient straightforward substitute of Mn 2+ dopped CdS nanoparticles. Optical properties of the composites were investigated which indicates that simple Mn 2+ chelation and subsequent binding of CdS in a polymer matrix can have similar effect in the luminescence property as those synthesized via complex doping methods. Moreover this methodology can be applied for synthesis of any metal anchored nanocomposites proficiently and cost effectively in large-scale production. - Highlights: • A chelating bifunctional copolymer brush was synthesized via ATRP. • CdS nanoparticles and Mn 2+ were coupled with the bifunctional polymer. • Composites showed emission properties similar to Mn 2+ doped CdS nanoparticles. • Side chain length of the polymers also affect the emission properties of the composites.

  13. Energy efficiency and CO_2 mitigation potential of the Turkish iron and steel industry using the LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Seyithan A.

    2015-01-01

    With the assistance of the LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning) energy modeling tool, this study explores the energy efficiency and CO_2 emission reduction potential of the iron and steel industry in Turkey. With a share of 35%, the steel and iron industry is considered as the most energy-consuming sector in Turkey. The study explores that the energy intensity rate can be lowered by 13%, 38% and 51% in SEI (slow-speed energy efficiency improvement), AEI (accelerating energy efficiency improvement) and CPT (cleaner production and technology scenario) scenarios, respectively. Particularly the projected aggregated energy savings of the scenarios CPT and AES are very promising with saving rates of 33.7% and 23% respectively. Compared to baseline scenarios, energy efficiency improvements correspond to economic potential of 0.1 billion dollars for SEI, 1.25 dollars for AEI and 1.8 billion dollars for CPT scenarios annually. Concerning GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, in 2030 the iron and steel industry in Turkey is estimated to produce 34.9 MtCO_2 in BAU (business-as-usual scenario), 32.5 MtCO_2 in SEI, 24.6 MtCO_2 in AEI and 14.5 MtCO_2 in CPT a scenario which corresponds to savings of 9%–39%. The study reveals that energy consumption and GHG emissions of the iron and steel industry can be lowered significantly if the necessary measures are implemented. It is expected that this study will fill knowledge gaps pertaining to energy efficiency potential in Turkish energy intensive industries and help stakeholders in energy intensive industries to realize the potential for energy efficiency and GHG mitigation. - Highlights: • This paper explores energy efficiency potential of iron and Steel industry in Turkey. • We applied the LEAP modeling to forecast future developments. • Four different scenarios have been developed for the LEAP modeling. • There is a huge potential for energy efficiency and mitigation of GHG emissions.

  14. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, K.; Riley, C.; Raye, M.

    1998-11-30

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the accomplishments of the Clean Cities coalitions during the past 5 years. Now Clean Cities advocates in city after city across the US are building stations and driving alternative fuel vehicles, in addition to enhancing public awareness.

  15. Cleaning of porous filters in fossilized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo Otero, A.; Sancho Rod, J.

    1965-01-01

    In this report are established the optimum working conditions of a filter cleaning system by blow back. For this purpose it was determined in the first place the blow back air rate necessary to have a good cleaning. The reasons for which it was not possible until now to control the pressure in a fluidized bed calcination reactor are analyzed and a criteria is established to calculate the optimum floe necessary to clean efficiently a porous by this procedures. (Author)

  16. Exploring surface cleaning strategies in hospital to prevent contact transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hao; Jones, Rachael M; Li, Yuguo

    2017-01-18

    Cleaning of environmental surfaces in hospitals is important for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other hospital-acquired infections transmitted by the contact route. Guidance regarding the best approaches for cleaning, however, is limited. In this study, a mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations was constructed to study MRSA concentration dynamics on high-touch and low-touch surfaces, and on the hands and noses of two patients (in two hospitals rooms) and a health care worker in a hypothetical hospital environment. Two cleaning interventions - whole room cleaning and wipe cleaning of touched surfaces - were considered. The performance of the cleaning interventions was indicated by a reduction in MRSA on the nose of a susceptible patient, relative to no intervention. Whole room cleaning just before first patient care activities of the day was more effective than whole room cleaning at other times, but even with 100% efficiency, whole room cleaning only reduced the number of MRSA transmitted to the susceptible patient by 54%. Frequent wipe cleaning of touched surfaces was shown to be more effective that whole room cleaning because surfaces are rapidly re-contaminated with MRSA after cleaning. Wipe cleaning high-touch surfaces was more effective than wipe cleaning low-touch surfaces for the same frequency of cleaning. For low wipe cleaning frequency (≤3 times per hour), high-touch surfaces should be targeted, but for high wipe cleaning frequency (>3 times per hour), cleaning should target high- and low-touch surfaces in proportion to the surface touch frequency. This study reproduces the observations from a field study of room cleaning, which provides support for the validity of our findings. Daily whole room cleaning, even with 100% cleaning efficiency, provides limited reduction in the number of MRSA transmitted to susceptible patients via the contact route; and should be supplemented with frequent targeted

  17. Ecological effectiveness of oil spill countermeasures: how clean is clean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper with 94 references examines background levels of hydrocarbons and the difficulty of defining clean. Processes and timescales for natural cleaning, and factors affecting natural cleaning timescales are considered. Ecological advantages and disadvantages of clean-up methods are highlighted, and five case histories of oil spills are summarised. The relationships between ecological and socio-economic considerations, and the need for a net environmental benefit analysis which takes into account the advantages and disadvantages of clean-up responses and natural clean-up are discussed. A decision tree for evaluating the requirement for shore clean-up is illustrated. (UK)

  18. Developments in surface contamination and cleaning fundamentals and applied aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects, Second Edition, provides an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation. Each volume in this series contains a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. This volume forms the heart of the series, covering the fundamentals and application aspects, characterization of surface contaminants, and methods for removal of surface contamination. In addition, new cleaning techniques effective at smaller scales are considered and employed for removal where conventional cleaning techniques fail, along with new cleaning techniques for molecular contaminants. The Volume is edited by the leading experts in small particle surface contamination and cleaning, providing an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control, and procurement specific...

  19. Optimizing UF Cleaning in UF-SWRO System Using Red Sea Water

    KAUST Repository

    Bahshwan, Mohanad

    2012-01-01

    in the production cost. This research focused on increasing the plant's efficiency through optimizing the cleaning protocol without jeopardizing the effectiveness of the cleaning process. For that purpose, the design of experiment (DOE) focused on testing

  20. On-line chemical cleaning of pipelines; Limpieza quimica de ductos en linea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Michael Brent [Brenntag Stinnes Logistics, Muelheim/Ruhr (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The concern of efficiency and maintenance in the pipeline industry, due to fluids and sediments, has led the development of new methods of cleaning. Some methods of cleaning are described in this work with their advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Nucleation as a Novel Cleaning Method for Sodium Alginate Fouling Removal from Reverse Osmosis Membranes desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Alnajjar, Heba

    2017-05-01

    The use of Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes have been significantly increasing in water desalination, and the main operational obstacle in RO desalination plants is membrane fouling. Among other solutes, dissolved biopolymers, such as polysaccharides can lead to severe membrane fouling especially with the addition of calcium ions because of the complexation formation between the surface of membrane and foulants materials. However, this complexation can also take place in the feed bulk, resulting in foulants aggregates formation. Although there are some physical techniques that can maintain the membrane performance without reducing its lifetime, only chemical cleanings are still commonly used in RO plants. In this study, a novel cleaning method is proposed to restore the membrane performance by removing the deposited foulants without reducing the membrane lifetime. The cleaning method is based on using water saturated with dissolved CO2 gas, and its principle is based on producing spontaneous CO2 bubbles due to local pressure difference leading to nucleation of bubbles throughout the membrane surface, especially at nucleation sites, which improve the cleaning efficiency. Alginic acid sodium salt was used as a model of polysaccharides foulants in presence of different concentrations of NaCl and calcium ions aiming to enhance membrane fouling, and then CO2 cleaning solution efficiency, in terms flux recovery (FR), was tested under different operating conditions and compared to other cleaning methods. Average FR of 20%±3, 25%±3 and 80%±3 for MilliQ water, a cleaning solution at pH4, and CO2 solution at 6 bar, 0.17 m/s, and 23 ̊C ±0.2 for 6 minutes were obtained, respectively. The efficiency of this novel cleaning method was also compared to direct osmosis overnight, and the average flux was comparable (about 60%±3), though that the cleaning time was significantly different. Various calcium concentrations (0-10 mM) were added in the alginate solution to study the

  2. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  3. Water cleaning by pulsed corona discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabowski, L.R.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Rutgers, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Direct electrical energization methods for water cleaning are under investigation in the framework of the ytriD-project1. The emphasis of the first stage of the project is optimization of the reactor configuration regarding the energy efficiency. A comparison is made between a batch reactor and an

  4. Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge. Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

  5. Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

  6. Hot gas cleaning, a targeted project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romey, I. [University of Essen, Essen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Advanced hot gas cleaning systems will play a key role in future integrated combined cycle technologies. IGCC demonstration plants in operation or under construction are at present equipped with conventional wet gas scrubbing and cleaning systems. Feasibility studies for those IGCC plants have shown that the total efficiency of the processes can be improved using hot gas cleaning systems. However, this technology has not been developed and tested at a technical scale. Six well-known European industrial companies and research centres jointly worked together since January 1996 on a Targeted Project `Hot Gas Cleaning` to investigate and develop new hot gas cleaning systems for advanced clean coal power generation processes. In addition project work on chemical analysis and modelling was carried out in universities in England and Germany. The latest main findings were presented at the workshop. The main project aims are summarised as follows: to increase efficiency of advanced power generation processes; to obtain a reduction of alkalis and environmental emissions e.g. SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and dust; and to develop the design basis for future industrial plants based on long-term operation of laboratory, pilot and demo-plants. To cover a range of possible process routes for future hot gas cleaning systems the following research programme is under investigation: removal of trace elements by different commercial and self developed sorbents; gas separation by membranes; separation of gas turbine relevant pollutants by hot filter dust and; H{sub 2}S removal and gas dedusting at high temperatures. 13 figs.

  7. The impact of Moore's Law and loss of Dennard scaling: Are DSP SoCs an energy efficient alternative to x86 SoCs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, L; Netzer, G

    2016-01-01

    Moore's law, the doubling of transistors per unit area for each CMOS technology generation, is expected to continue throughout the decade, while Dennard voltage scaling resulting in constant power per unit area stopped about a decade ago. The semiconductor industry's response to the loss of Dennard scaling and the consequent challenges in managing power distribution and dissipation has been leveled off clock rates, a die performance gain reduced from about a factor of 2.8 to 1.4 per technology generation, and multi-core processor dies with increased cache sizes. Increased caches sizes offers performance benefits for many applications as well as energy savings. Accessing data in cache is considerably more energy efficient than main memory accesses. Further, caches consume less power than a corresponding amount of functional logic. As feature sizes continue to be scaled down an increasing fraction of the die must be “underutilized” or “dark” due to power constraints. With power being a prime design constraint there is a concerted effort to find significantly more energy efficient chip architectures than dominant in servers today, with chips potentially incorporating several types of cores to cover a range of applications, or different functions in an application, as is already common for the mobile processor market. Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), largely targeting the embedded and mobile processor markets, typically have been designed for a power consumption of 10% or less of a typical x86 CPU, yet with much more than 10% of the floating-point capability of the same technology generation x86 CPUs. Thus, DSPs could potentially offer an energy efficient alternative to x86 CPUs. Here we report an assessment of the Texas Instruments TMS320C6678 DSP in regards to its energy efficiency for two common HPC benchmarks: STREAM (memory system benchmark) and HPL (CPU benchmark) (paper)

  8. The impact of Moore's Law and loss of Dennard scaling: Are DSP SoCs an energy efficient alternative to x86 SoCs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, L.; Netzer, G.

    2016-10-01

    Moore's law, the doubling of transistors per unit area for each CMOS technology generation, is expected to continue throughout the decade, while Dennard voltage scaling resulting in constant power per unit area stopped about a decade ago. The semiconductor industry's response to the loss of Dennard scaling and the consequent challenges in managing power distribution and dissipation has been leveled off clock rates, a die performance gain reduced from about a factor of 2.8 to 1.4 per technology generation, and multi-core processor dies with increased cache sizes. Increased caches sizes offers performance benefits for many applications as well as energy savings. Accessing data in cache is considerably more energy efficient than main memory accesses. Further, caches consume less power than a corresponding amount of functional logic. As feature sizes continue to be scaled down an increasing fraction of the die must be “underutilized” or “dark” due to power constraints. With power being a prime design constraint there is a concerted effort to find significantly more energy efficient chip architectures than dominant in servers today, with chips potentially incorporating several types of cores to cover a range of applications, or different functions in an application, as is already common for the mobile processor market. Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), largely targeting the embedded and mobile processor markets, typically have been designed for a power consumption of 10% or less of a typical x86 CPU, yet with much more than 10% of the floating-point capability of the same technology generation x86 CPUs. Thus, DSPs could potentially offer an energy efficient alternative to x86 CPUs. Here we report an assessment of the Texas Instruments TMS320C6678 DSP in regards to its energy efficiency for two common HPC benchmarks: STREAM (memory system benchmark) and HPL (CPU benchmark)

  9. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  10. Evaluation de l'eco-efficience des processus de mise a niveau d'helicopteres en tant qu'alternative a la fin de vie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancher, Alexandre

    Classic industrial production methods generate significant pressures on natural resources as well as environmental constraints related to product end-of-life management. Closed-loop supply chains are often seen as more eco-efficient alternatives, well known to provide substantial economic and environmental benefits at the scale of the product life cycle. This is notably achieved through important reductions in the overall cost of production, in the needs for new materials and energies, and in the proportion of end-of-life components going to landfill. Due to their modular designs and the particular dynamics of helicopter service life, light nonpressurized helicopters have proven to be highly receptive to partial or total remanufacture and upgrade, extending their service life, enhancing their performance and modernizing their equipment, often for only a fraction of the cost of a new aircraft. However, little environmental data is available in order to assess the overall eco-efficiency of helicopter upgrade processes. This study resulted in the creation of a method for the systemic characterization of the processes encountered during the helicopter service life. The arrangement of these processes over time has enabled the construction of helicopter operation cycles, representative of the helicopter service life. These operation cycles have then been characterized, following various criteria based on helicopter designs and usage profiles, in order to study and compare their respective eco-efficiency. A case study is provided to illustrate the application of the method, based on a currently operating industrial business model of helicopter upgrade. This case study intends to provide a first-level assessment of the potential economic, technical and environmental benefits from remanufacturing and upgrading a helicopter, as an alternative production channel. The study found that compared to its replacement, upgrading a former airframe to a more recent design is generally

  11. An alternative approach for the determination of the full-peak detection efficiency in case of a close-in detection geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wispelaere, A. de; Corte, F. de

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an alternative method for the determination of ε p in the case of measurements restricted to one single sample-detector distance. It is based on an iterative procedure, linking the measurement of calibrated multi-γ point sources at this particular detector distance (the resulting ε p -function being disturbed by true-coincidence effects) with measurement of some coincidence-free single-γ point sources (leading to peak-to-total ratios P/T that, combined with detection efficiencies, yield correction factors for true-coincidence effects). The thus obtained ε p versus E γ curve for point-source geometry can then be converted to the actual extended sample geometry, based on the effective solid angle concept

  12. Cleaning UF membranes with simple and formulated solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levitsky, I.; Duek, A.; Naim, R.; Arkhangelsky, E.; Gitis, V.

    2012-01-01

    The ultrafiltration membranes fouled by proteins are typically cleaned by consecutive soaking in alkali, surfactant and oxidizing solutions. We combined all three chemicals into a formulated cleaning agent and examined its efficiency to restore the water flux without damaging the membrane or

  13. Environmental and economic benefits resulting from citizens' participation in CO2 emissions trading: An efficient alternative solution to the voluntary compensation of CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few months in the emerging and lucrative carbon project market, a growing number of organizations have proposed to offset citizens' greenhouse gas emissions. The target of these carbon-offset initiatives is to satisfy the increasing demand of individuals wishing to take part in the fight against climate change. In this paper, we review and criticize these carbon-offsetting programs in general terms. We then propose an alternative that, in our opinion, should prove to be a better solution for citizens who are willing to pay for protecting the environment. This alternative is to organize citizens' participation in carbon emissions trading on a large scale in order to purchase and retire (destroy) CO 2 permits. To do so, a benevolent Regulator or non-governmental organization must correct certain CO 2 emissions market failures; this particularly concerns the high transaction costs, which represent an entry barrier and prevent citizens from purchasing and withholding permits. Based on theoretical findings, we demonstrate that implementing citizens' participation in emissions trading is an economically efficient and a morally preferable option. (author)

  14. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  15. Clean room actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Toshiro

    1987-06-01

    This report explains on the present status of the clean room actuators including the author's research results. In a clean room, there exists a possibility of dust generation, even when a direct human work is eliminated by the use of robots or automatic machines, from the machines themselves. For this, it is important to develop such clean robots and transfer/positioning mechanism that do not generate dusts, and to develop an actuator and its control technique. Topics described in the report are as follows: 1. Prevention of dust diffusion by means of sealing. 2. Elimination of mechanical contact (Linear induction motor and pneumatic float, linear motor and magnetic attraction float, linear motor and air bearing, and magnetic bearing). 3. Contactless actuator having a positioning mechanism (Use of linear step motor and rotary contactless actuator). (15 figs, 11 refs)

  16. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  17. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  18. Cleaning of Easel Paintings: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordalo, R.; Morais, P.J.; Gouveia, H.; Young, C.

    2006-01-01

    The application of laser cleaning to paintings is relatively recent despite its use on stone-based materials for over 30 years. The cleaning of paintings is of high importance, because it is the least reversible invasive intervention, as well as the most usual of all conservation treatments. Paintings are multilayer system of heterogeneous nature, often very sensitive and inherent difficult to clean. Being a noncontact method, laser cleaning has advantages compared to alternative techniques. Over the last decade, there have been important research studies and advances. However, they are far from sufficient to study the effects on painting materials and to establish the best parameters for each material under investigation. This paper presents a historical overview of the application of laser technology to the cleaning of paintings giving special emphasis on the research of the last decade. An overview of the current research into the interaction between the radiation and the different painting materials (varnish, pigments, and medium) is also given. The pigment's mechanisms of discoloration and the presence of media as a variable factor in the discoloration of pigments are discussed.

  19. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  20. Megasonic cleaning strategy for sub-10nm photomasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jyh-Wei; Samayoa, Martin; Dress, Peter; Dietze, Uwe; Ma, Ai-Jay; Lin, Chia-Shih; Lai, Rick; Chang, Peter; Tuo, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    One of the main challenges in photomask cleaning is balancing particle removal efficiency (PRE) with pattern damage control. To overcome this challenge, a high frequency megasonic cleaning strategy is implemented. Apart from megasonic frequency and power, photomask surface conditioning also influences cleaning performance. With improved wettability, cleanliness is enhanced while pattern damage risk is simultaneously reduced. Therefore, a particle removal process based on higher megasonic frequencies, combined with proper surface pre-treatment, provides improved cleanliness without the unintended side effects of pattern damage, thus supporting the extension of megasonic cleaning technology into 10nm half pitch (hp) device node and beyond.

  1. Summary report of the Banff clean energy dialogue : towards a truly Canadian clean energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    A clean energy strategy will allow Canada to seize opportunities for prosperity in a low-carbon future, while also contributing to the country's economic growth. This report outlined the conclusions drawn by representatives of major energy corporations and policy-makers who gathered to discuss Canada's clean energy plans for the future. Attendants at the meeting concluded that energy conservation and energy efficiency will play a prominent role in a successful clean energy strategy. However, a price on carbon is needed to emphasize the fundamental relationship between energy and the environment. A successful strategy will feature the following 4 overarching principles: (1) economic opportunity, (2) social responsibility, (3) environmental stewardship, and (4) international strategy in relation to trade and development of new markets. The role that federal, provincial and municipal governments will play in developing and implementing the strategy was also presented. The meeting was divided into the following 6 working sessions: (1) global context for a clean energy strategy, (2) why a Canadian clean energy strategy? Why now?, (3) key pillars of a Canadian clean energy strategy, (4) key building blocks of a national clean energy strategy, (5) a balanced Canadian framework, and (6) next steps. 1 fig.

  2. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  3. Environmental cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverse, Michelle; Aceto, Helen

    2015-03-01

    The guidelines in this article provide veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and veterinary health care workers with an overview of evidence-based recommendations for the best practices associated with environmental cleaning and disinfection of a veterinary clinic that deals with small animals. Hospital-associated infections and the control and prevention programs necessary to alleviate them are addressed from an environmental perspective. Measures of hospital cleaning and disinfection include understanding mechanisms and types of contamination in veterinary settings, recognizing areas of potential concern, addressing appropriate decontamination techniques and selection of disinfectants, the management of potentially contaminated equipment, laundry, and waste management, and environmental surveillance strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer under phosphor layer on luminance and luminous efficiency characteristics in alternating-current plasma display panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon-Sang [School of Electronics Engineering, College of IT Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Tae, Heung-Sik, E-mail: hstae@ee.knu.ac.kr [School of Electronics Engineering, College of IT Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Eun Young [Core Technology Lab., Corporate R and D Center, Samsung SDI Company Ltd., Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-29

    This paper examines the optical and discharge characteristics of alternating-current plasma display panel when adopting the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer is deposited under the phosphor layer by using the screen-printing method. The resulting changes in the optical and discharge characteristics, including the power consumption, color temperature, luminance, luminous efficiency, scanning electron microscopy image, and reflectance, are then compared for both cases with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer. As a result of optimizing the thicknesses between the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and phosphor layers, the luminance and luminous efficiency are improved by about 17% and 7%, respectively. - Highlights: • We examine characteristics of plasma display panel when adopting reflective layer. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer was deposited under the phosphor layer. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer with flaky shape is very effective in enhancing luminance.

  5. Heart-Rate Variability During Deep Sleep in World-Class Alpine Skiers: A Time-Efficient Alternative to Morning Supine Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, David; Testorelli, Moreno; Olstad, Daniela Schäfer; Erlacher, Daniel; Achermann, Peter; Eser, Prisca; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    It is increasingly popular to use heart-rate variability (HRV) to tailor training for athletes. A time-efficient method is HRV assessment during deep sleep. To validate the selection of deep-sleep segments identified by RR intervals with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and to compare HRV parameters of these segments with those of standard morning supine measurements. In 11 world-class alpine skiers, RR intervals were monitored during 10 nights, and simultaneous EEGs were recorded during 2-4 nights. Deep sleep was determined from the HRV signal and verified by delta power from the EEG recordings. Four further segments were chosen for HRV determination, namely, a 4-h segment from midnight to 4 AM and three 5-min segments: 1 just before awakening, 1 after waking in supine position, and 1 in standing after orthostatic challenge. Training load was recorded every day. A total of 80 night and 68 morning measurements of 9 athletes were analyzed. Good correspondence between the phases selected by RR intervals vs those selected by EEG was found. Concerning root-mean-squared difference of successive RR intervals (RMSSD), a marker for parasympathetic activity, the best relationship with the morning supine measurement was found in deep sleep. HRV is a simple tool for approximating deep-sleep phases, and HRV measurement during deep sleep could provide a time-efficient alternative to HRV in supine position.

  6. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  7. CPICOR{trademark}: Clean power from integrated coal-ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintrell, R.; Miller, R.N.; Harbison, E.J.; LeFevre, M.O.; England, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The US steel industry, in order to maintain its basic iron production, is thus moving to lower coke requirements and to the cokeless or direct production of iron. The US Department of Energy (DOE), in its Clean Coal Technology programs, has encouraged the move to new coal-based technology. The steel industry, in its search for alternative direct iron processes, has been limited to a single process, COREX{reg_sign}. The COREX{reg_sign} process, though offering commercial and environmental acceptance, produces a copious volume of offgas which must be effectively utilized to ensure an economical process. This volume, which normally exceeds the internal needs of a single steel company, offers a highly acceptable fuel for power generation. The utility companies seeking to offset future natural gas cost increases are interested in this clean fuel. The COREX{reg_sign} smelting process, when integrated with a combined cycle power generation facility (CCPG) and a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU), is an outstanding example of a new generation of environmentally compatible and highly energy efficient Clean Coal Technologies. This combination of highly integrated electric power and hot metal coproduction, has been designated CPICOR{trademark}, Clean Power from Integrated Coal/Ore Reduction.

  8. Clean Technology Application : Kupola Model Burner for Increasing the Performance of Spent Accu Recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titiresmi

    2000-01-01

    Recycling of used battery for recovering lead done by either small household/small scale industries has been identified as a source of air pollution, especially by heavy metal (Pb). This condition give an adverse impact toward workers and societies. Technological aspect is one of the causal. The process apply an open system. Therefore, a lot of energy, as well as dust wasted to the air without prior treatment. For overcoming this condition, closed system by utilizing Cupola furnace will be offered as one of the alternatives clean technology application and to increase the recovering performance in order to set an effective and efficient result. (author)

  9. Clean nuclear power (2. part)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocherolles, R.

    1998-01-01

    The 450 nuclear power plants which produce 24% of world electricity do not generate greenhouse gas effects, but 8,000 tonnes per year of irradiated, radioactive fuel. The first article which was published in the July-August 1997 issue of this journal, described the composition and management of these fuels. This article wish to show the advantage of 'advanced re-processing', which would separate fission products from actinides, in order to incinerate them separately in dedicated fuels and reactors, which, from an ecological point of view, seems more efficient than burying them underground in deep, geological layers. To rid the planet of waste which is continuing to build up, the first step is to build 'incinerators' which will eliminate fission products by slow neutron assisted neutronic capture, and actinides by fast neutron assisted fission. Various projects have been set up, in particular, in Los Alamos, Japan and the CERN. The Carlo Rubbia hybrid machine operating on the well-known thorium cycle is the most advanced project. An incinerator connected up to standard PWR reactor produces no actinide, and reduces the existing stock of plutonium. However, the proper solution, obviously, is to no longer produce waste along with power; second generation nuclear fission will do this. The CERN team bas studied a clean reactor, producing practically no actinides, or fission products, more or less. Thus, the solution to the problem of waste is at hand, and nuclear power will be cleaner that all other types of power. The world market opening up to clean nuclear power is about 1,300 Gigawatts, or 1,300 plants of 1,000 Megawatts. Remarkable progress is taking place under our very eyes; soon we will have clean power in sufficient quantities, at a lower cost than that of other forms of power. (authors)

  10. Fluid dynamic effects on precision cleaning with supercritical fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, M.R.; Hogan, M.O.; Silva, L.J.

    1994-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff have assembled a small supercritical fluids parts cleaning test stand to characterize how system dynamics affect the efficacy of precision cleaning with supercritical carbon dioxide. A soiled stainless steel coupon, loaded into a ``Berty`` autoclave, was used to investigate how changes in system turbulence and solvent temperature influenced the removal of test dopants. A pulsed laser beam through a fiber optic was used to investigate real-time contaminant removal. Test data show that cleaning efficiency is a function of system agitation, solvent density, and temperature. These data also show that high levels of cleaning efficiency can generally be achieved with high levels of system agitation at relatively low solvent densities and temperatures. Agitation levels, temperatures, and densities needed for optimal cleaning are largely contaminant dependent. Using proper system conditions, the levels of cleanliness achieved with supercritical carbon dioxide compare favorably with conventional precision cleaning methods. Additional research is currently being conducted to generalize the relationship between cleaning performance and parameters such as contaminant solubilities, mass transfer rates, and solvent agitation. These correlations can be used to optimize cleaning performance, system design, and time and energy consumption for particular parts cleaning applications.

  11. Benzotriazole removal on post-Cu CMP cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jiying; Liu Yuling; Sun Ming; Fan Shiyan; Li Yan

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates systematically the effect of FA/O II chelating agent and FA/O I surfactant in alkaline cleaning solutions on benzotriazole (BTA) removal during post-Cu CMP cleaning in GLSI under the condition of static etching. The best detergent formulation for BTA removal can be determined by optimization of the experiments of single factor and compound cleaning solution, which has been further confirmed experimentally by contact angle (CA) measurements. The resulting solution with the best formulation has been measured for the actual production line, and the results demonstrate that the obtained cleaning solution can effectively and efficiently remove BTA, CuO and abrasive SiO 2 without basically causing interfacial corrosion. This work demonstrates the possibility of developing a simple, low-cost and environmentally-friendly cleaning solution to effectively solve the issues of BTA removal on post-Cu CMP cleaning in a multi-layered copper wafer. (paper)

  12. Laser-assisted cleaning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experiments conducted with loose contamination on metal and transparent dielectric surfaces proved conclusively the dominant role played by the absorption of the incident radiation by the surface towards the generation of the cleaning force as against the absorption in the particulates alone. Further, the presence of ...

  13. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  14. Clean energy microgrids

    CERN Document Server

    Obara, Shin'ya

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest technology in microgrids and economic, environmental and policy aspects of their implementation, including microgrids for cold regions, and future trends. The aim of this work is to give this complete overview of the latest technology around the world, and the interrelation with clean energy systems.

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean Hands Count ...

  16. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  17. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ...

  19. Affordable High Performance Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an Electromagnetically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) with enhanced performance, in Watts/kg and Watts/m2, using flight proven, high efficiency solar cells. For...

  20. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-01-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  1. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  2. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  3. New Approaches to Cleaning Liquid Radioactive Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabulonov, Yu.L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The industrial cleaning methods of liquid radioactive waste and technologically contaminated solutions, which contain heavy metals and radionuclides, are considered. It is shown that in the case when heavy metal ions exclusively exist in ionic form, the cleaning method with highest efficiency is electrodialysis. In the case when components, which must be removed, are in ionic and colloidal forms at the same time, the previous destruction of colloidal and organic matter (method of hydrodynamic cavitation, lowtemperature plasma etc is necessary. The developed «PTANK» method enables an effective purification of multicomponent metalcontaining man-made solutions, which contain additionally organic substances and complexes. Development of advanced membrane technologies, creation of complex recycling schemes and their synergistic combination will provide an opportunity to achieve deep cleaning of technologically contaminated solutions and minimize the amount of secondary wastes.

  4. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change...

  5. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  6. Axisymmetric alternating direction explicit scheme for efficient coupled simulation of hydro-mechanical interaction in geotechnical engineering—Application to circular footing and deep tunnel in saturated ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Heru Prassetyo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Explicit solution techniques have been widely used in geotechnical engineering for simulating the coupled hydro-mechanical (H-M interaction of fluid flow and deformation induced by structures built above and under saturated ground, i.e. circular footing and deep tunnel. However, the technique is only conditionally stable and requires small time steps, portending its inefficiency for simulating large-scale H-M problems. To improve its efficiency, the unconditionally stable alternating direction explicit (ADE scheme could be used to solve the flow problem. The standard ADE scheme, however, is only moderately accurate and is restricted to uniform grids and plane strain flow conditions. This paper aims to remove these drawbacks by developing a novel high-order ADE scheme capable of solving flow problems in non-uniform grids and under axisymmetric conditions. The new scheme is derived by performing a fourth-order finite difference (FD approximation to the spatial derivatives of the axisymmetric fluid–diffusion equation in a non-uniform grid configuration. The implicit Crank-Nicolson technique is then applied to the resulting approximation, and the subsequent equation is split into two alternating direction sweeps, giving rise to a new axisymmetric ADE scheme. The pore pressure solutions from the new scheme are then sequentially coupled with an existing geomechanical simulator in the computer code fast Lagrangian analysis of continua (FLAC. This coupling procedure is called the sequentially-explicit coupling technique based on the fourth-order axisymmetric ADE scheme or SEA-4-AXI. Application of SEA-4-AXI for solving axisymmetric consolidation of a circular footing and of advancing tunnel in deep saturated ground shows that SEA-4-AXI reduces computer runtime up to 42%–50% that of FLAC's basic scheme without numerical instability. In addition, it produces high numerical accuracy of the H-M solutions with average percentage difference of only 0.5%

  7. Clean air strategy for Alberta: Background project reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    As a background to the development of a clean air strategy for Alberta, reports are presented which cover the definition of what clean air is, the applicability of full cost accounting to this strategy, market-based approaches to managing Alberta air emissions, gas and electric utility incentives programs for energy efficiency, energy efficiency legislation in Alberta and other jurisdictions, initiatives which address emissions reduction in the transportation sector, coordination of science and technology relevant to clean air issues, and initiatives in energy and environmental education

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center: Assisting Countries with Clean Energy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    advice on financing instruments. In a recent keynote to the Climate and Clean Energy Investment Forum renewable energy technologies in the country. Informing Energy Access and Clean Energy Project Finance understanding and knowledge of how to design policies that enable financing and encourage investment in clean

  9. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  10. Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Owen, R.K.; Postma, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH and >99.7% for NaI. 7 refs

  11. Plasma cleaning for waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.P.

    1993-07-01

    Although plasma cleaning is a recognized substitute for solvent cleaning in removing organic contaminants, some universal problems in plasma cleaning processes prevent wider use of plasma techniques. Lack of understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of the process, unreliable endpoint detection techniques, and slow process times make plasma cleaning processes less than desirable. Our approach to address these plasma cleaning problems is described. A comparison of plasma cleaning rates of oxygen and oxygen/sulfur hexafluoride gases shows that fluorine-containing plasmas can enhance etch rates by 400% over oxygen alone. A discussion of various endpoint indication techniques is discussed and compared for application suitability. Work toward a plasma cleaning database is discussed. In addition to the global problems of plasma cleaning, an experiment where the specific mixed-waste problem of removal of machine oils from radioactive scrap metal is discussed.

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  13. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  14. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  15. Natural cleaning of the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon) in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Legraverant, Yohann; Berthe, Cécile; Brooker, Rohan M.; Lo, Cédrik; Lecchini, David

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling increases the operational and economic costs associated with pearl production. As current procedures for reducing oyster biofouling can be detrimental to survival and growth and may pollute the surrounding environment developing alternative, biologically-mediated, methods could potentially increase both production and ecological sustainability. With this in mind, the present study investigated natural cleaning of black-lipped pearl oysters, Pinctada margaritifera, by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon). The feeding behaviour of six butterflyfish species was examined at Rangiroa Atoll, French Polynesia: Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon ephippium, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon trifascialis and Chaetodon ulietensis. All species cleaned the surface of pearl oysters by removing epibionts (from 16% to 40% of total biomass), although dietary variation may explain different cleaning efficiencies. Generalist omnivores (C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. ephippium and C. ulietensis) were the most efficient cleaners (% cleaning range: 26-40% of total biomass). Within this group, C. ephippium removed the most biomass (average of 41%) targeting algae and anemones. However, C. auriga targeted the most diverse range of epibionts, removing significant amounts of algae, sponges, tunicates, and anemones. These results suggest that foraging by butterflyfishes can substantially reduce biofouling on economically-important tropical bivalves.

  16. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Clean Cities Project Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    Each Clean Cities project award under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included a diverse group of stakeholders who worked together to lay the foundation for their communities to adopt alternative fuels and petroleum reduction strategies. This document provides a snapshot of the impact of each project and highlights the partners and Clean Cities coalitions who helped transform local and regional transportation markets through 25 projects impacting 45 states.

  17. Alternative assessment of nano-TiO{sub 2} sedimentation under different conditions based on sedimentation efficiency at quasi-stable state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Guang’an; Chen, Rui; Lu, Shushen [Sun Yat-sen University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Jiang, Chengchun [Shenzhen Polytechnic, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (China); Liu, Hong, E-mail: liuhong@cigit.ac.cn [Sun Yat-sen University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Wang, Chuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology (China)

    2015-11-15

    The predictable significant increase in manufacture and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) will cause their inevitable release into environment, and the potential harmful effects of ENPs have been confirmed. As representative ENPs, sedimentation behavior of nano-titanium dioxide (n-TiO{sub 2}) should be better understood to control its environmental risk. In this study, an experimental methodology was established to set the sampling area and sampling time of n-TiO{sub 2} sedimentation. In addition, we defined a quasi-stable state and a precise index, i.e., sedimentation efficiency (SE) at this state, to describe the n-TiO{sub 2} sedimentation behavior. Both alternative concentration determination and conventional size measurement were applied to evaluate the sedimentation behavior of n-TiO{sub 2} with fulvic acid. Results showed that the sedimentation behavior described by SE was more precise and in disagreement with those predicted by particle size. Moreover, sedimentation experiments with salicylic acid (SA), under an electric field and different water temperatures or with sulfosalicylic acid under light irradiation were also performed. When the total organic carbon concentration of SA, the voltage of working electrodes, and water temperature increased, or the wavelength of light source decreased, the SE of n-TiO{sub 2} increased and n-TiO{sub 2} showed a tendency to settle in water. These findings might be important for deepening the understanding of n-TiO{sub 2} environmental behavior and exploring sedimentation behavior of other ENPs.

  18. Structural connectivity allows for multi-threading during rest: the structure of the cortex leads to efficient alternation between resting state exploratory behavior and default mode processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senden, Mario; Goebel, Rainer; Deco, Gustavo

    2012-05-01

    Despite the absence of stimulation or task conditions the cortex exhibits highly structured spatio-temporal activity patterns. These patterns are known as resting state networks (RSNs) and emerge as low-frequency fluctuations (rest. We are interested in the relationship between structural connectivity of the cortex and the fluctuations exhibited during resting conditions. We are especially interested in the effect of degree of connectivity on resting state dynamics as the default mode network (DMN) is highly connected. We find in experimental resting fMRI data that the DMN is the functional network that is most frequently active and for the longest time. In large-scale computational simulations of the cortex based on the corresponding underlying DTI/DSI based neuroanatomical connectivity matrix, we additionally find a strong correlation between the mean degree of functional networks and the proportion of time they are active. By artificially modifying different types of neuroanatomical connectivity matrices in the model, we were able to demonstrate that only models based on structural connectivity containing hubs give rise to this relationship. We conclude that, during rest, the cortex alternates efficiently between explorations of its externally oriented functional repertoire and internally oriented processing as a consequence of the DMN's high degree of connectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaporator Cleaning Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Operation of the 242-16H High Level Waste Evaporator proves crucial to liquid waste management in the H-Area Tank Farm. Recent operational history of the Evaporator showed significant solid formation in secondary lines and in the evaporator pot. Additional samples remain necessary to ensure material identity in the evaporator pot. Analysis of these future samples will provide actinide partitioning information and dissolution characteristics of the solid material from the pot to ensure safe chemical cleaning

  20. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    Half the world's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020. The high human density and changes in peoples' consumption habits result in an ever-increasing amount of trash that must be handled by governing bodies. Problems created by inefficient or dysfunctional cleaning services are e......, which not only motivates our research but also provides useful information on reasons and possible solutions for trash problems....

  1. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount

  2. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of

  3. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  4. Clean steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels

  5. Chip cleaning and regeneration for electrochemical sensor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalla, Vijayender [Biochemistry Department ' G.Moruzzi' , University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Carrara, Sandro, E-mail: sandro.carrara@epfl.c [Biochemistry Department ' G.Moruzzi' , University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Stagni, Claudio [Department DEIS, University of Bologna, viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Samori, Bruno [Biochemistry Department ' G.Moruzzi' , University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-02

    Sensing systems based on electrochemical detection have generated great interest because electronic readout may replace conventional optical readout in microarray. Moreover, they offer the possibility to avoid labelling for target molecules. A typical electrochemical array consists of many sensing sites. An ideal micro-fabricated sensor-chip should have the same measured values for all the equivalent sensing sites (or spots). To achieve high reliability in electrochemical measurements, high quality in functionalization of the electrodes surface is essential. Molecular probes are often immobilized by using alkanethiols onto gold electrodes. Applying effective cleaning methods on the chip is a fundamental requirement for the formation of densely-packed and stable self-assembly monolayers. However, the available well-known techniques for chip cleaning may not be so reliable. Furthermore, it could be necessary to recycle the chip for reuse. Also in this case, an effective recycling technique is required to re-obtain well cleaned sensing surfaces on the chip. This paper presents experimental results on the efficacy and efficiency of the available techniques for initial cleaning and further recycling of micro-fabricated chips. Piranha, plasma, reductive and oxidative cleaning methods were applied and the obtained results were critically compared. Some interesting results were attained by using commonly considered cleaning methodologies. This study outlines oxidative electrochemical cleaning and recycling as the more efficient cleaning procedure for electrochemical based sensor arrays.

  6. Improving the cleaning procedure to make kitchen floors less slippery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirion, F; Poirier, P; Lehane, P

    2008-12-01

    This investigation shows that, in most cases, the floor cleaning procedure of typical restaurants could be improved, resulting in a better cleaning efficiency and a better floor friction. This simple approach could help reduce slips and falls in the workplace. Food safety officers visited ten European style restaurants in the London Borough of Bromley (UK) to identify their floor cleaning procedure in terms of the cleaning method, the concentration and type of floor cleaner and the temperature of the wash water. For all 10 restaurants visited, the cleaning method was damp mopping. Degreasers were used in three sites while neutral floor cleaners were used in seven sites. Typically, the degreasers were over diluted and the neutrals were overdosed. The wash water temperature ranged from 10 to 72 degrees C. The on-site cleaning procedures were repeated in the laboratory for the removal of olive oil from new and sealed quarry tiles, fouled and worn quarry tiles and new porcelain tiles. It is found that in 24 out of 30 cases, cleaning efficiency can be improved by simple changes in the floor cleaning procedure and that these changes result in a significant improvement of the floor friction. The nature of the improved floor cleaning procedure depends on the flooring type. New and properly sealed flooring tiles can be cleaned using damp mopping with a degreaser diluted as recommended by the manufacturer in warm or hot water (24 to 50 degrees C). But as the tiles become worn and fouled, a more aggressive floor cleaning is required such as two-step mopping with a degreaser diluted as recommended by the manufacturer in warm water (24 degrees C).

  7. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E.; Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L.; Lacroix, M.; Carra, O.; Dechelette, F.; Prele, G.; Rodriguez, G.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO 2 interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  8. Una alternativa limpia para el tratamiento de las aguas residuales galvánicas: revisión bibliográfica A clean alternative for galvanic wastewater treatment: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Chávez Porras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre las aguas residuales generadas por industrias galvánicas y una posibilidad de tratamiento para disminuir los contaminantes propios de estos efluentes. La actividad produce fundamentalmente efluentes líquidos con alta carga contaminante en volúmenes relativamente pequeños, como también efluentes con cargas contaminantes diluidas en grandes volúmenes; adicionalmente a esto, la generación de desechos sólidos o semisólidos es el principal problema en importancia después de los vertidos líquidos. Se concluye que las aguas residuales pueden alcanzar un alto nivel tóxico para el medio ambiente y el hombre; se generan, así, alternativas para su tratamiento y la posible recuperación de los metales pesados, específicamente para estas industrias que son las grandes generadoras de los contaminantes, donde los tratamientos convencionales no logran eliminarlos en sus procesos, lo que requiere una combinación de alternativas tecnológicas para tratar las aguas residuales. Se considera el proceso de electrocoagulación como efectivo para eliminar contaminantes del agua residual, que permite recuperar parte de las aguas para reúso.This study presents a literature review on wastewater produced in galvanic industry, and a possible treatment alternative in order to decrease contaminants of such effluents. This industry basically generates liquid wastes with a big contaminating load in relatively small volumes. Additionally, generation of solid and semisolid wastes is the second main problem after discharge of liquids. It is concluded that wastewaters can reach a high level of toxicity for both environment and man. Then, some alternatives are proposed for treatment and possible recovery of heavy metals, especially for this industry which are important producers of contaminants, since conventional treatments are not totally effective for their elimination during the processes. This requires a

  9. Natural gas - bridge to a clean energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doelman, J.

    1991-01-01

    Per unit of useful energy natural gas gives the lowest environmental pollution of all fossil fuels. This is due to its low carbon content, the absence of sulphur compounds, and the fact that natural gas can, rather easily, be burnt completely in such a way that also the NO x emission is acceptably low. Although natural gas has already a good record as an efficient and clean fuel large improvements are still possible, but this requires more R+D and time. The presently known natural gas world reserves are high enough to go for a substantially higher share of gas in the energy package. E.g. replacing coal by natural gas will give large environmental improvements. Furthermore, direct gas use is very often the most efficient and cleanest option, also when electricity is an alternative. To develop and connect the known large reserves to the market enormous amounts of money are required. The political and economical situation should make these investments possible and attractive. The ideas first expressed by the Dutch prime minister, now incorporated in the Energy Charter, have been developed to that end. Special attention should be given to the development of small gas fields as is e.g. being done in The Netherlands, which has improved the local gas reserves situation impressively. As a first major step to a clean future the potential of natural gas should be explored and put to work worldwide. Its potential as an important diversified source of energy is underestimated. Amongst others by funding more natural gas R+D natural gas should develop a keyrole in the energy scene of the next 3-5 decades.(author) 3 figs., 8 tabs., 3 refs

  10. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulatov, Igor; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO 2 reduction.

  11. Clean energy deployment: addressing financing cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameli, Nadia; Kammen, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    New methods are needed to accelerate clean energy policy adoption. To that end, this study proposes an innovative financing scheme for renewable and energy efficiency deployment. Financing barriers represent a notable obstacle for energy improvements and this is particularly the case for low income households. Implementing a policy such as PACE—property assessed clean energy—allows for the provision of upfront funds for residential property owners to install electric and thermal solar systems and make energy efficiency improvements to their buildings. This paper will inform the design of better policies tailored to the creation of the appropriate conditions for such investments to occur, especially in those countries where most of the population belongs to the low–middle income range facing financial constraints. (letter)

  12. Clean energy deployment: addressing financing cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Nadia; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2012-09-01

    New methods are needed to accelerate clean energy policy adoption. To that end, this study proposes an innovative financing scheme for renewable and energy efficiency deployment. Financing barriers represent a notable obstacle for energy improvements and this is particularly the case for low income households. Implementing a policy such as PACE—property assessed clean energy—allows for the provision of upfront funds for residential property owners to install electric and thermal solar systems and make energy efficiency improvements to their buildings. This paper will inform the design of better policies tailored to the creation of the appropriate conditions for such investments to occur, especially in those countries where most of the population belongs to the low-middle income range facing financial constraints.

  13. Quantitative determination and sampling of azathioprine residues for cleaning validation in production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Tatiana Tatit; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kedor-Hackmann, Erika Rosa Maria; Santoro, Maria Inês Rocha Miritello

    2007-03-12

    Cleaning validation is an integral part of current good manufacturing practices in any pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, azathioprine and several other pharmacologically potent pharmaceuticals are manufactured in same production area. Carefully designed cleaning validation and its evaluation can ensure that residues of azathioprine will not carry over and cross contaminate the subsequent product. The aim of this study was to validate simple analytical method for verification of residual azathioprine in equipments used in the production area and to confirm efficiency of cleaning procedure. The HPLC method was validated on a LC system using Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 mm x 150 mm, 4 microm) and methanol-water-acetic acid (20:80:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). UV detection was made at 280 nm. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range from 2.0 to 22.0 microg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The detection limit (DL) and quantitation limit (QL) were 0.09 and 0.29 microg mL(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were below 2.0%. The mean recovery of method was 99.19%. The mean extraction-recovery from manufacturing equipments was 83.5%. The developed UV spectrophotometric method could only be used as limit method to qualify or reject cleaning procedure in production area. Nevertheless, the simplicity of spectrophotometric method makes it useful for routine analysis of azathioprine residues on cleaned surface and as an alternative to proposed HPLC method.

  14. CAFE compliance by light trucks: economic impacts of clean diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teotia, A.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.

    1999-01-01

    With the popularity of light trucks increasing in the United States, their share of the US light vehicle market had doubled between 1980 and 1996, climbing from 20 to 40%. By 1996, annual energy consumption for light trucks had risen to 5.97 x 10 15 Btu [5.97 quadrillion Btu, or ''quad'', or 6.30 x 10 18 joule (J)], compared to 7.94 quad (8.38 x 10 18 J) for cars. In recent years (since 1995), the fuel economy of US-manufactured light trucks (almost 99% of which use gasoline engines) has been below the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. This paper analyzes a strategy to reduce the CAFE shortfalls by adopting the new, highly energy-efficient clean diesel engine. Research on such engines has been funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, under its Light Truck Clean Diesel Engine Program. A clean diesel engine market penetration trajectory is developed, representing an industry response to meet the CAFE standards. Whether the engine will be produced inside the country or imported remains uncertain, so two cases are defined. Values of exports/imports of clean diesel engines/trucks under these cases are estimated. The macroeconomic benefits are estimated by using a model of the US economy developed by Standard and Poor's Data Resources, Inc. On the basis of gains in the gross domestic product projected under the alternative cases, domestic production of the clean diesel engine is favored over importing it. (author)

  15. CleanFleet. Final report: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} vans operating on regular gasoline. The liquid and gaseous fuel vans were model year 1992 vans from Ford, Chevrolet, and Dodge. The two electric vehicles (EVs) were on loan to FedEx from Southern California Edison. The AFVs represented a snapshot in time of 1992 technologies that (1) could be used reliably in daily FedEx operations and (2) were supported by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A typical van is shown in Figure 2. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s for meeting air quality regulations in the mid to late 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet`s 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

  16. Financing clean energy market creation. Clean energy ventures, venture capitalists and other investors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teppo, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Development and Management in Industry

    2006-07-01

    Many factors have emerged for change towards cleaner and more efficient technologies and services: climate change, increasing oil demands, and rising living standards in many parts of the world are putting an ever-increasing strain on the environment. Recently, these drivers have fueled the formation of a clean energy venture capital market where both independent venture capitalists (VCs) and corporate venture capitalists (CVCs) have invested in clean energy start-ups. Financing of clean energy market creation is the focus of this dissertation. The dissertation contributes to several bodies of literature in the area of entrepreneurship, new industry creation, corporate venturing, and venture capital research. The dissertation uses a grounded theory approach. The study is guided by three data collection approaches with an emphasis on the first two. First, interviews with European and North American VC and CVC firms that have invested in the clean energy sector were carried out. Second, a clean energy venture financing survey that consisted of qualitative, essay-format questions and some quantitative questions was carried out. Third, interviews with clean energy stakeholders were carried out in order to gain a better understanding of the emerging sector. The research results consist of three main findings. First, the research results suggest that clean energy ventures face the following three main entrepreneurial challenges: financing, market education, and growth management. A further study of three clean energy industry categories revealed additional challenges that varied according to the industry development stage. Second, the results demonstrate that, from a venture capitalist perspective, clean energy venture risk characteristics can be divided into two groups: generally recognized risk characteristics and cognitive risk characteristics. The identified generally recognized risk characteristics were market demand and adaptation, incompatibility with the VC model

  17. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Singer, M.

    2014-10-01

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

  18. Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-22

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

  19. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the

  20. 高效率、低成本洁净钢“制造平台”集成技术及其动态运行%Integration Technology of High Efficiency and Low Cost Clean Steel "Production Platform" and Its Dynamic Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷瑞钰

    2012-01-01

    The conception, definition, connotation, boundary of the high efficiency, low cost clean steel "production platform" and the rules, methods of its dynamic operation are studied and discussed. It is pointed out that, not only the connotations of quality and technology, but also the connotations of market and economy are embodied in the high efficiency, low cost clean steel "production platform". The construction of high efficiency, low cost clean steel "production platform" is one of the common key technologies concerning efficiency, quality and cost. It is the basic and universal technology, which not only applicable in the production of "high-end" steel products, but also in the production of bulk ordinary steel products. The "production platform" of high efficiency, low cost clean steel is the important direction of modern steel-making technology progress and has great significance on the competitiveness of the steel plants. The research of high efficiency, low cost "production platform" not only involves the production and management of the steel plants, but also the academic research field (process engineering and dynamic opera- tion) and innovation of engineering design(theory and method of dynamic-precision design). The integrated theory and method of high efficiency and low cost clean steel "production platform" is the binding point of metallurgical process engineering and material engineering.%研究并讨论了高效率、低成本洁净钢"制造平台"的概念、定义、内涵、边界和动态运行的规则和方法。指出高效率、低成本洁净钢"制造平台"不仅有质量含义、技术含义,而且有市场含义、经济含义。高效率、低成本洁净钢"制造平台"建设是钢厂今后技术进步过程中具有基础性、普适性并事关效率、质量、成本的共性关键技术之一,不仅适用在"高端产品"研发和生产,也适用于大宗普通商品钢材的