WorldWideScience

Sample records for clean efficient alternative

  1. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  2. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  3. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna

    2014-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  4. Alternative Solvents and Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Hintze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning solvents for aerospace components and oxygen fuel systems, including currently used Vertrel-MCA, have a negative environmental legacy, high global warming potential, and have polluted cleaning sites. Thus, alternative solvents and technologies are being investigated with the aim of achieving precision contamination levels of less than 1 mg/sq ft. The technologies being evaluated are ultrasonic bath cleaning, plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide cleaning.

  5. Clean and Highly Efficient Utilization of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianguo; YANG Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ Clean and highly efficient utilization of coal is an important scientific and technological issue.As the petroleum resource decreases but its consumption increases, all of the countries in the world have to face the big issue of sustainable development of energy and economy and protection of environment.Therefore, study on clean coal technology (CCT) has attracted much attention and become one of important themes of energy research.

  6. Alternative, Green Processes for the Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.; Grandelli, Heather Eilenfield; Devor, Robert; Hintze, Paul E.; Loftin, Kathleen B.; Tomlin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    weighed again showing typical contaminant deposition levels of approximately 0.00300g per part. They were then cleaned by the solvent or process being tested and then weighed a third time which allowed for the calculation of the cleaning efficiency of the test solvent or process.Based on preliminary experiments, five solvents (ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, and tert-butyl acetate) were down selected for further testing. When coupled with ultrasonic agitation, these solvents removed hydrocarbon contaminants as well as Vertrel MCA and showed improved removal of perfluorinated greases. Supercritical carbon dioxide did an excellent job dissolving each of the five contaminants but did a poor job of removing Teflon particles found in the perfluorinated greases. Plasma cleaning efficiency was found to be dependent on which supply gas was used, exposure time, and gas pressure. Under optimized conditions it was found that breathing air, energized to the plasma phase, was able to remove nearly 100% of the contamination.These findings indicate that alternative cleaning methods are indeed able to achieve precision levels of cleanliness. Currently, our team is working with a commercial cleaning company to get independent verification of our results. We are also evaluating the technical and financial aspects of scaling these processes to a size capable of supporting the future cleaning needs of KSC.

  7. Clean and Efficient Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-31

    Task 1 was to design study for fuel-efficient system configuration. The objective of task 1 was to perform a system design study of locomotive engine configurations leading to a 5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Modeling studies were conducted in GT-Power to perform this task. GT-Power is an engine simulation tool that facilitates modeling of engine components and their system level interactions. It provides the capability to evaluate a variety of engine technologies such as exhaust gas circulation (EGR), variable valve timing, and advanced turbo charging. The setup of GT-Power includes a flexible format that allows the effects of variations in available technologies (i.e., varying EGR fractions or fuel injection timing) to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, development can be driven by the simultaneous evaluation of several technology configurations.

  8. 40 CFR 63.447 - Clean condensate alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment used to convert pulp into paper, paperboard, or market pulp, including the stock storage and... definitions apply. (1) Clean condensate alternative affected source means the total of all HAP emission...

  9. A review of potential alternatives for air cleaning at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1990-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this review in support of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) being designed by Fluor Daniel Inc. for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The literature on air cleaning systems is reviewed to identify potential air cleaning alternatives that might be included in the design of HWVP. An overview of advantages/disadvantages of the various air cleaning technologies follows. Information and references are presented for the following potential air cleaning alternatives: deep-bed glass-fiber filters (DBGF), high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), remote modular filter systems, high-efficiency mist eliminators (HEME), electrostatic precipitators, and the sand filter. Selected information is summarized for systems in the United States, Belgium, Japan, and West Germany. This review addresses high-capacity air cleaning systems currently used in the nuclear industry and emphasizes recent developments. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Catalyst design for clean and efficient fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Šaric, Manuel

    cobalt promoted MoS2 catalyst. Reactivity of a series of model molecules, found in oil prior to desulfurization, is studied on cobalt promoted MoS2. Such an approach has the potential to explain the underlying processes involved in the removal of sulfur at each specific site of the catalyst. The goal...... will yield unwanted coproducts, causing the need for additional separation techniques to extract pure dimethyl carbonate after synthesis. This in return increases the production cost of dimethyl carbonate. This thesis is another step in the collective effort to make today’s fuels and chemicals...... environmentally friendlier and creating new, efficient and clean technologies for chemical and fuel production....

  11. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, J.D.; Meltzer, M.; Miscovich, D.; Montoya, D.; Goodrich, P.; Blycker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL`s findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria.

  12. Clean Hydrogen Production. Carbon Dioxide Free Alternatives. Project Phisico2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fierro, J. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Serrano, D.; Penelas, G.; Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Rodriguez, C.

    2006-07-01

    The main goal of the PHISICO2 project, funded and promoted by Comunidad de Madrid, is the evaluation and optimisation of three different processes for the clean hydrogen production without carbon dioxide emission. Solar energy and associated Technologies are proposed to be jointly employed with the aim of improving the process efficiency and reducing the production costs. As a transition to the non-fossil fuel hydrogen economy, the thermocatalytic CO2-free production of hydrogen from natural gas will be considered. One of the most promising alternatives of this process is to develop a cheap and stable carbon-based catalyst able to efficiently decompose methane into a CO2-free hydrogen stream and solid carbon. Thus, not only pure hydrogen can be obtained through but also carbon with specific properties and commercial value can be produced. Another option to be explored is the splitting of water by means of solar light by means of two different approaches: (i) photodissociation promoted by semiconductor catalysts and (ii) thermochemical cycles in which a specific mixed oxide is first thermally reduced by sunlight and then reoxidized by steam in a second step with the parallel production of hydrogen. Indeed, option (i) implies necessarily the development of semiconductors with appropriate band-gap able to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen in an efficient manner. Another critical issue will be the development of a strategy/concept that allows efficient separation of hydrogen and oxygen within the cell. In option (ii), the development of stable ferrites which act as the redox element of the cycle is also an important challenge. Finally, a 5 kW prototype solar engine water splitting, based on the mentioned thermochemical cycle, will developed and tested using concentrated solar light as an energy source. Moreover, thermodynamic and kinetic studies, reactor design, process optimisation, economical studies and comparison with conventional hydrogen production systems

  13. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... software. Furthermore, manufacturers often change components and strategies between model years as...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is streamlining the process by which manufacturers of clean alternative... Engineering Judgment C. Vehicle/Engine Groupings and Emission Data Vehicle/Engine Selection D. Mixed-Fuel...

  14. Flue Gas Cleaning With Alternative Processes and Reaction Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    Alternative methods to the traditional industrial NOX and SOXflue gas cleaning processes working at lower temperatures and/orleading to useful products are desired. In this work we presentour latest results regarding the use of molten ionic media inelectrocatalytic membrane separation, ionic liquid...... reversibleabsorption and supported ionic liquid deNOX catalysis. Furtherdevelopment of the methods will hopefully make them suitable forinstallation in different positions in the flue gas duct ascompared to the industrial methods available today....

  15. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: CORROSION STUDIES RESULTS: FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2010-09-29

    dilute concentration environment resulted in carbon steel corrosion rates that were less than 150 mpy. These rates are manageable in that chemical cleaning processes could proceed for limited time without significant wall loss. Further optimization of the Alternative Enhance Chemical Cleaning (AECC) process should focus on testing in solutions of this dilute concentration and low temperature regime. (2) In general, for the nitric acid based reagent, the aluminum oxide phase environments resulted in higher corrosion rates than the iron oxide phase environments. (3) In general, for the sulfuric acid based reagent, the iron oxide phase environments resulted in higher corrosion rates than the aluminum oxide phase environments. (4) In general, for the nitric acid based reagent, the HM sludge simulant environments resulted in higher corrosion rates than the PUREX sludge simulant environments. This result agrees with the previous observation that the aluminum oxide phases are more aggressive than the iron oxide phase environments in the nitric acid reagent. (5) Pitting was more likely to occur in the sulfuric acid based reagents than in the nitric acid based reagents. (6) Pitting occurred only in the iron based pure oxide phases and the sludge simulants. No pitting was observed in the aluminum based pure oxide phases. (7) Pitting tended to occur more frequently in tests that involved the dilute mineral acid reagent. (8) Pitting was more severe at the higher temperature for a given mineral acid concentration. (9) Pitting was more severe at a higher mineral acid concentration for a given temperature. (10) Based on the combined results of the open circuit potential and cathodic polarization testing, there was a low propensity for hydrogen evolution in solutions where sludge has been dissolved.

  16. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane

  17. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    aluminum sludge heels may be appropriate as a means of reducing oxalic acid usage. Reagents other than oxalic acid may also be needed for removing actinide elements from the tank heels. A systems engineering evaluation (SEE) was performed on the various alternative chemical cleaning reagents and organic oxidation technologies discussed in the literature review. The objective of the evaluation was to develop a short list of chemical cleaning reagents and oxalic acid destruction methods that should be the focus of further research and development. The results of the SEE found that eight of the thirteen organic oxidation technologies scored relatively close together. Six of the chemical cleaning reagents were also recommended for further investigation. Based on the results of the SEE and plan set out in the TTQAP the following broad areas are recommended for future study as part of the AECC task: (1) Basic Chemistry of Sludge Dissolution in Oxalic Acid: A better understanding of the variables effecting dissolution of sludge species is needed to efficiently remove sludge heels while minimizing the use of oxalic acid or other chemical reagents. Tests should investigate the effects of pH, acid concentration, phase ratios, temperature, and kinetics of the dissolution reactions of sludge components with oxalic acid, mineral acids, and combinations of oxalic/mineral acids. Real waste sludge samples should be characterized to obtain additional data on the mineral phases present in sludge heels. (2) Simulant Development Program: Current sludge simulants developed by other programs for use in waste processing tests, while compositionally similar to real sludge waste, generally have more hydrated forms of the major metal phases and dissolve more easily in acids. Better simulants containing the mineral phases identified by real waste characterization should be developed to test chemical cleaning methods. (3) Oxalic Acid Oxidation Technologies: The two Mn based oxidation methods that

  18. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...... industry, and vehicle repair and maintenance. There are, however, other elements that influence the possibility to substitute. The requirements to the resulting surface, depending on the following treatment of the surface. The character of the soilings to be removed. The possible presence of other...

  19. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    aluminum sludge heels may be appropriate as a means of reducing oxalic acid usage. Reagents other than oxalic acid may also be needed for removing actinide elements from the tank heels. A systems engineering evaluation (SEE) was performed on the various alternative chemical cleaning reagents and organic oxidation technologies discussed in the literature review. The objective of the evaluation was to develop a short list of chemical cleaning reagents and oxalic acid destruction methods that should be the focus of further research and development. The results of the SEE found that eight of the thirteen organic oxidation technologies scored relatively close together. Six of the chemical cleaning reagents were also recommended for further investigation. Based on the results of the SEE and plan set out in the TTQAP the following broad areas are recommended for future study as part of the AECC task: (1) Basic Chemistry of Sludge Dissolution in Oxalic Acid: A better understanding of the variables effecting dissolution of sludge species is needed to efficiently remove sludge heels while minimizing the use of oxalic acid or other chemical reagents. Tests should investigate the effects of pH, acid concentration, phase ratios, temperature, and kinetics of the dissolution reactions of sludge components with oxalic acid, mineral acids, and combinations of oxalic/mineral acids. Real waste sludge samples should be characterized to obtain additional data on the mineral phases present in sludge heels. (2) Simulant Development Program: Current sludge simulants developed by other programs for use in waste processing tests, while compositionally similar to real sludge waste, generally have more hydrated forms of the major metal phases and dissolve more easily in acids. Better simulants containing the mineral phases identified by real waste characterization should be developed to test chemical cleaning methods. (3) Oxalic Acid Oxidation Technologies: The two Mn based oxidation methods that

  20. Annealing free, clean graphene transfer using alternative polymer scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joshua D.; Doidge, Gregory P.; Carrion, Enrique A.; Koepke, Justin C.; Kaitz, Joshua A.; Datye, Isha; Behnam, Ashkan; Hewaparakrama, Jayan; Aruin, Basil; Chen, Yaofeng; Dong, Hefei; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph W.; Pop, Eric

    2015-02-01

    We examine the transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with polymer scaffolds of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(phthalaldehyde) (PPA), and poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC). We find that optimally reactive PC scaffolds provide the cleanest graphene transfers without any annealing, after extensive comparison with optical microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Comparatively, films transferred with PLA, PPA, PMMA/PC, and PMMA have a two-fold higher roughness and a five-fold higher chemical doping. Using PC scaffolds, we demonstrate the clean transfer of CVD multilayer graphene, fluorinated graphene, and hexagonal boron nitride. Our annealing free, PC transfers enable the use of atomically-clean nanomaterials in biomolecule encapsulation and flexible electronic applications.

  1. An evaluation of alternative cleaning methods for removing an organic contaminant from a stainless steel part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    As of December 1995, the manufacture of Freon, along with many other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), was prohibited by the Clean Air Act of 1990 (CAA). The ban of CFC solvents has forced manufacturers across the country to search for alternative metal cleaning techniques. The objective of this study was to develop a thorough, scientific based approach for resolving one specific manufacturer`s problem of removing organic contamination from a stainless steel part. This objective was accomplished with an approach that involved: (1) defining the problem, (2) identifying the process constraints, (3) researching alternate cleaning methods, (4) researching applicable government regulations, (5) performing a scientific evaluation and (6) drawing conclusions.

  2. SAGE SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS FOR SELECTING INDUSTRIAL SURFACE CLEANING ALTERNATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes computer software, called SAGE, that can provide not only cleaning recommendations but also general information on various surface cleaning options. In short, it is an advisory system which can provide users with vital information on the cleaning process optio...

  3. Evaluation of HCFC AK 225 Alternatives for Precision Cleaning and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, D. M.

    1998-01-01

    Maintaining qualified cleaning and verification processes are essential in an production environment. Environmental regulations have and are continuing to impact cleaning and verification processing in component and large structures, both at the Michoud Assembly Facility and component suppliers. The goal of the effort was to assure that the cleaning and verification proceeds unimpeded and that qualified, environmentally compliant material and process replacements are implemented and perform to specifications. The approach consisted of (1) selection of a Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System; (2) selection and evaluation of three cleaning and verification solvents as candidate alternatives to HCFC 225 (Vertrel 423 (HCFC), Vertrel MCA (HFC/1,2-Dichloroethylene), and HFE 7100DE (HFE/1,2 Dichloroethylene)); and evaluation of an analytical instrumental post cleaning verification technique. This document is presented in viewgraph format.

  4. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  5. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the {open_quotes}Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.{close_quotes} Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100, 000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}low emission sources{close_quotes} and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  6. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2010-05-05

    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  7. Continuous boiler cleaning with explosion generators. The alternative to soot blowers; Heizflaechenabreinigung mit Explosionsgeneratoren. Die Alternative zu Russblaesern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Christian; Rueegg, Hans [Explosion Power GmbH, Lenzburg (Switzerland); Pajarskas, Arno [Explosion Power DE GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The explosion generator was recently developed by Explosion Power GmbH. With explosion generators, the boiler is cleaned by pressure waves, which are created by controlled gas explosions of natural gas and oxygen. The experience of 22 months of operation in the WtE plant in Lucerne shows that the cleaning efficiency of the explosion generators is much higher than that of soot blowers. Explosion generators are installed Europe-wide in more than 13 different boiler lines. (orig.)

  8. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Exceptions b. Heavy-Duty Engine Types and Gross Vehicle Weight Classes c. Dual-Fuel Standards 2. Useful Life... first type, dedicated alternative fueled vehicles or engines, are only capable of operating on one type of fuel. Dual-fueled vehicles or engines, the second type, can operate on two types of fuel,...

  9. Energy Efficient Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum-based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are presented. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  10. Cleaning Efficiencies of Three Cleaning Agents on Four Different Surfaces after Contamination by Gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlandt, Antje; Groeneveld, Svenja; Fischer, Elke; Schierl, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs has been documented for decades showing widespread contamination in preparation and administration areas. Apart from preventive measures, efficient cleaning of surfaces is indispensable to minimize the exposure risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of three cleaning agents after intentional contamination by gemcitabine (GEM) and 5-fluorouracile (5-FU) on four different surface types usually installed in healthcare settings. Glass, stainless steel, polyvinylchloride (PVC), and laminated wood plates were contaminated with 20 ng/μl GEM and 2 ng/μl 5-FU solutions. Wipe samples were analyzed for drug residues after cleaning with a) distilled water, b) aqueous solution containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (10 mM) and 2-propanol (SDS-2P), and c) Incides N (pre-soaked) alcoholic wipes. Quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for GEM and gas chromato-graphy-tandem mass spectrometry (GCMS/MS) for 5-FU. Recovery was determined and cleaning efficiency was calculated for each scenario. Mean recoveries were 77-89% for GEM and 24-77% for 5-FU and calculated cleaning efficiencies ranged between 95 and 100% and 89 and 100%, respectively. Residual drug amounts were detected in the range nd (not detected) - 84 ng GEM/sample and nd - 6.6 ng 5-FU/sample depending on surface type and cleaning agent. Distilled water and SDS-2P had better decontamination outcomes than Incides N wipes on nearly all surface types, especially for GEM. Regarding 5-FU, the overall cleaning efficiency was lower with highest residues on laminated wood surfaces. The tested cleaning procedures are shown to clean glass, stainless steel, PVC, and laminated wood with an efficiency of 89-100% after contamination with GEM and 5-FU. Nevertheless, drug residues could be verified by wipe samples. Pure distilled water and SDS in an alcoholic-aqueous solution expressed an efficient cleaning performance, especially with

  11. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: BASIC STUDIES RESULTS FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hay, M.

    2011-01-24

    In an effort to develop and optimize chemical cleaning methods for the removal of sludge heels from High Level Waste tanks, solubility tests have been conducted using nonradioactive, pure metal phases. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phase gibbsite and the iron phases hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, and wustite. Many of these mineral phases have been identified in radioactive, High Level Waste sludge at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids and a variety of other complexing organic acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that mixtures of oxalic acid with either nitric or sulfuric acid are the most effective cleaning solutions for the dissolution of the primary metal phases in sludge waste. Based on the results, optimized conditions for hematite dissolution in oxalic acid were selected using nitric or sulfuric acid as a supplemental proton source. Electrochemical corrosion studies were also conducted (reported separately; Wiersma, 2010) with oxalic/mineral acid mixtures to evaluate the effects of these solutions on waste tank integrity. The following specific conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) Oxalic acid was shown to be superior to all of the other organic acids evaluated in promoting the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. (2) All iron phases showed similar solubility trends in oxalic acid versus pH, with hematite exhibiting the lowest solubility and the slowest dissolution. (3) Greater than 90% hematite dissolution occurred in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures within one week for two hematite sources and within three weeks for a third hematite sample with a larger average particle size. This dissolution rate appears acceptable for waste tank cleaning applications. (4) Stoichiometric dissolution of iron phases in oxalic acid (based on the oxalate concentration) and the formation of the preferred 1:1 Fe to oxalate complex

  12. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: BASIC STUDIES RESULTS FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hay, M.

    2011-01-24

    In an effort to develop and optimize chemical cleaning methods for the removal of sludge heels from High Level Waste tanks, solubility tests have been conducted using nonradioactive, pure metal phases. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phase gibbsite and the iron phases hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, and wustite. Many of these mineral phases have been identified in radioactive, High Level Waste sludge at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids and a variety of other complexing organic acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that mixtures of oxalic acid with either nitric or sulfuric acid are the most effective cleaning solutions for the dissolution of the primary metal phases in sludge waste. Based on the results, optimized conditions for hematite dissolution in oxalic acid were selected using nitric or sulfuric acid as a supplemental proton source. Electrochemical corrosion studies were also conducted (reported separately; Wiersma, 2010) with oxalic/mineral acid mixtures to evaluate the effects of these solutions on waste tank integrity. The following specific conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) Oxalic acid was shown to be superior to all of the other organic acids evaluated in promoting the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. (2) All iron phases showed similar solubility trends in oxalic acid versus pH, with hematite exhibiting the lowest solubility and the slowest dissolution. (3) Greater than 90% hematite dissolution occurred in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures within one week for two hematite sources and within three weeks for a third hematite sample with a larger average particle size. This dissolution rate appears acceptable for waste tank cleaning applications. (4) Stoichiometric dissolution of iron phases in oxalic acid (based on the oxalate concentration) and the formation of the preferred 1:1 Fe to oxalate complex

  13. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  14. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  15. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  16. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: A Green and Clean Alternative for Sustained Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Chennault, Kimberly Ann; Thambi, Nithya; Bitetto, Mary Anne; Hameyie, E. B.

    2008-01-01

    Providing efficient and clean power is a challenge for devices that range from the micro to macro in scale. Although there has been significant progress in the development of micro-, meso-, and macro-scale power supplies and technologies, realization of many devices is limited by the inability of power supplies to scale with the diminishing sizes…

  17. Methanol dehydration reaction to produce clean diesel alternative dimethylether over mesoporous aluminosilicate-based catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİFTÇİ, Ay&#; VARIŞLI, Dilek; TOKAY, Kenan Cem

    2009-01-01

    Due to its good burning characteristics and high cetane number, dimethylether (DME) is considered as a highly attractive and clean alternative to diesel fuel. This ether can be produced by methanol dehydration reaction over solid acid catalysts. In the present study, activities of mesoporous aluminosilicate catalysts prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis route and containing Al/Si atomic ratios ranging between 0.03 and 0.18 were tested in methanol dehydration. The optimum Al/Si ...

  18. Methanol dehydration reaction to produce clean diesel alternative dimethylether over mesoporous aluminosilicate-based catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİFTÇİ, Ay& VARIŞLI, Dilek; TOKAY, Kenan Cem

    2014-01-01

    Due to its good burning characteristics and high cetane number, dimethylether (DME) is considered as a highly attractive and clean alternative to diesel fuel. This ether can be produced by methanol dehydration reaction over solid acid catalysts. In the present study, activities of mesoporous aluminosilicate catalysts prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis route and containing Al/Si atomic ratios ranging between 0.03 and 0.18 were tested in methanol dehydration. The optimum Al/Si ...

  19. Characterization of the biofouling and cleaning efficiency of nanofiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houari, A; Seyer, D; Couquard, F; Kecili, K; Democrate, C; Heim, V; Di Martino, P

    2010-01-01

    The nanofiltration (NF) drinking water production unit of the Mery-sur-Oise plant (Val d'Oise, France) consists of eight identical filtration trains composed of three stages positioned in steps for a production capacity of 140,000 m(3) day(-1). To gain a better understanding of the irreversible fouling of the NF membranes, spiral wound modules in operation for 8 years from each of the three stages of the plant were autopsied before and after chemical cleaning and analysis by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Inductive Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry, contact angles, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content measurements, and rheometry. The fouled membranes from the three stages had similar contact angles of approximately 60 degrees . Relative infrared signals typical of biofilms were classified in descending order from stage 1 to stage 3. The foulant matter of stages 1 and 2 contained similar but weaker ATP concentrations than stage 3. During rheometry experiments, rotation and oscillation analyses demonstrated that the biofilm of stage 3 was less viscous and less elastic than the biofilms of stages 1 and 2. After cleaning, all the parameters analyzed demonstrated a quantitative decrease in the fouling matter at the NF membrane surface, but a biofilm with intact viscoelastic properties (unchanged G' and G'' values) remained at the membrane surface for the three stages. The persistence of biofilm material with intact mechanical properties at the NF membrane surface after chemical cleaning may result in permanent permeability decreases.

  20. Bioinspired Bifunctional Membrane for Efficient Clean Water Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lou, Jinwei; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Dasgupta, Neil P; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-01-13

    Solving the problems of water pollution and water shortage is an urgent need for the sustainable development of modern society. Different approaches, including distillation, filtration, and photocatalytic degradation, have been developed for the purification of contaminated water and the generation of clean water. In this study, we explored a new approach that uses solar light for both water purification and clean water generation. A bifunctional membrane consisting of a top layer of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), a middle layer of Au NPs, and a bottom layer of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was designed and fabricated through multiple filtration processes. Such a design enables both TiO2 NP-based photocatalytic function and Au NP-based solar-driven plasmonic evaporation. With the integration of these two functions into a single membrane, both the purification of contaminated water through photocatalytic degradation and the generation of clean water through evaporation were demonstrated using simulated solar illumination. Such a demonstration should also help open up a new strategy for maximizing solar energy conversion and utilization.

  1. Navajo Generating Station and Clean-Energy Alternatives: Options for Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Turchi, C. S.; Burman, K.

    2012-06-01

    In January 2012, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory delivered to the Department of the Interior the first part of a study on Navajo Generating Station (Navajo GS) and the likely impacts of BART compliance options. That document establishes a comprehensive baseline for the analysis of clean energy alternatives, and their ability to achieve benefits similar to those that Navajo GS currently provides. This analysis is a supplement to NREL's January 2012 study. It provides a high level examination of several clean energy alternatives, based on the previous analysis. Each has particular characteristics affecting its relevance as an alternative to Navajo GS. It is assumed that the development of any alternative resource (or portfolio of resources) to replace all or a portion of Navajo GS would occur at the end of a staged transition plan designed to reduce economic disruption. We assume that replacing the federal government's 24.3% share of Navajo GS would be a cooperative responsibility of both the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Central Arizona Water Conservation District (CAWCD).

  2. More efficient cleaning concepts for stepping up availability of lignite-fired power plants (Ligpower)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Wiechers; B. Wessel; S. Goudanis; F. Kluger; G. Riley [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The quality of lignite extracted in various deposits differs considerably in part. The impact of changed major coal quality parameters on steam generator operation became evident in the form of increased deposit formation on the boiler's heating surfaces. Successful countermeasures were launched, but the bottleneck of the problem continues to be the cleaning of the first convection heating surfaces downstream of the furnace. As the cleaning facilities available so far (soot blowers) have not proved sufficient for these areas of application despite all optimisation efforts made, new processes have to be developed. In contrast to the methods applied so far, these processes do not use the common cleaning medium steam but work on the basis of alternative cleaning media. Within the scope of the Ligpower project, such alternative cleaning methods were selected and subjected to extensive testing on commercial utility boilers. Since a more intensive cleaning of superheater tubes involves increased stress of the tube material, we developed new, more resistant, superheater designs and installed these in a 600 MW unit. The transferability of the findings made was ensured by a comparison of the lignites used. To permit the cleaning device to be controlled as needed, we developed a programme that analyses the degree of fouling of the boiler and generates suggestions for its cleaning. In addition, a tube-fin superheater design was calculated and optimised in terms of fluid dynamics. The extensive tests showed which cleaning methods have suitable approaches to cleaning. By testing them over several years, we gained important information about equipment design. The superheater design could be tested only to a limited degree. Thus, we obtained additional findings in tests using a test heating surface that was mounted on a 300 MW boiler. 77 figs., 5 tabs., 3 apps.

  3. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center; Vol. 2, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-05-01

    Official publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center featuring alternative fuels activity in every state, the Clean Cities game plan '98, and news from the Automakers.

  4. Energy from Waste--clean, efficient, renewable: transitions in combustion efficiency and NOx control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, M H; Halter, R; Sigg, A; Brosch, B; Gehrmann, H J; Keunecke, M

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally EfW (Energy from Waste) plants apply a reciprocating grate to combust waste fuel. An integrated steam generator recovers the heat of combustion and converts it to steam for use in a steam turbine/generator set. This is followed by an array of flue gas cleaning technologies to meet regulatory limitations. Modern combustion applies a two-step method using primary air to fuel the combustion process on the grate. This generates a complex mixture of pyrolysis gases, combustion gases and unused combustion air. The post-combustion step in the first pass of the boiler above the grate is intended to "clean up" this mixture by oxidizing unburned gases with secondary air. This paper describes modifications to the combustion process to minimize exhaust gas volumes and the generation of noxious gases and thus improving the overall thermal efficiency of the EfW plant. The resulting process can be coupled with an innovative SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction) technology to form a clean and efficient solid waste combustion system. Measurements immediately above the grate show that gas compositions along the grate vary from 10% CO, 5% H(2) and 0% O(2) to essentially unused "pure" air, in good agreement with results from a mathematical model. Introducing these diverse gas compositions to the post combustion process will overwhelm its ability to process all these gas fractions in an optimal manner. Inserting an intermediate step aimed at homogenizing the mixture above the grate has shown to significantly improve the quality of combustion, allowing for optimized process parameters. These measures also resulted in reduced formation of NO(x) (nitrogenous oxides) due to a lower oxygen level at which the combustion process was run (2.6 vol% O(2,)(wet) instead of 6.0 vol% O(2,)(wet)). This reduction establishes optimal conditions for the DyNOR™ (Dynamic NO(x) Reduction) NO(x) reduction process. This innovative SNCR technology is adapted to situations typically

  5. Efficiency of cleaning procedure of milking equipment and bacterial quality of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cleaning and sanitation of milking equipment could be consider a critical point in the milking procedure because a cleaning failure could influence the level of bacteria contamination of bulk tank milk. Aim of the study is to monitor the cleaning procedures of milking systems in 7 dairy cows farms in Lombardy and to find a relation between efficacy of cleaning system and the bacterial quality of bulk tank milk, remaining washing water through milking equipment and teat cup surface. Cleaning procedures were monitored with Lactocorder, that measured: duration, water temperature, turbulence, percentage of water in pipes, water conductivity of pre- and post-rinse and detergent phases. Results showed that the monitored farms the most of the cleaning parameters were lower than recommendations, in particular maximum water temperature (42.1±9.9°C and percentage of water during detergent phase (76.1±13.9 %. A maximum temperature of detergent phase <40°C determined a high Standard Plate Count (SPC, thermoduric bacteria and Coliform Count (CC of bulk tank milk, SPC and CC of teat cup surface. The research indicated that monitoring the efficiency of cleaning milking equipment with proper tools provide useful information about possible sources of contamination of bulk tank milk. Improving cleaning milking efficiency allow to improve milk quality.

  6. Efficiency and countereffects of cleaning treatment on limestone surfaces - investigation on the Corfu Venetian Fortress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moropoulou, A.; Kefalonitou, S. [National Technical University of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-11-01

    Surface alterations of the original limestone and the efficiency of several cleaning methods were investigated on the Corfu Venetian Fortress facade. Black crusts of gypsum dendrites and loose depositions or black-grey calcareous encrustations in combination with biological decay were identified as main decay processes. The cleaning treatments, chosen according to their acting on the stone surface, were: sepiolite for solvent action, ammonium bicarbonate for exchange action, EDTA for the chemical chelating action, hydrogen peroxide for chemical action on biological species and nylon brushes for physical action. Each cleaning method's efficiency and counteractions were evaluated by laboratory examinations concerning the morphology and the composition of the surface with SEM observations and X-ray microanalysts, before and after treatment and during ageing tests in sulphur dioxide and humidity atmosphere. The used methodology creates a sound basis for the evaluation and proper selection of a cleaning method, which should be highly efficient and with limited counteractions to the stone. (author)

  7. An Evolutionary Efficiency Alternative to the Notion of Pareto Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, Irene

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe paper argues that the notion of Pareto efficiency builds on two normative assumptions: the more general consequentialist norm of any efficiency criterion, and the strong no-harm principle of the prohibition of any redistribution during the economic process that hurts at least one person. These normative concerns lead to a constrained and static notion of efficiency in mainstream economics, ignoring dynamic efficiency gains from more equal allocations of resources. The paper ar...

  8. G20 Clean Energy, and Energy Efficiency Deployment and Policy Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    G-20 Clean Energy, and Energy Efficiency Deployment and Policy Progress, a report prepared by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in collaboration with the G-20 Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Working Group, provides an overview of clean energy and energy efficiency technology deployment and summarises support policies in place across G-20 countries. The report highlights that while clean energy technology deployment has made steady progress and energy efficiency improvements have been made, continued reliance on fossil fuels to meet growth in global energy demand presents a significant challenge. Scaling-up the deployment of renewable energy, in addition to improving end-use efficiency, enhancing the efficiency of fossil fuel based power generation, and supporting the widespread deployment of CCS will, therefore, also be crucial aspects of the transition to a cleaner energy future. Because the G-20 group of countries represent close to 80% of energy-related CO2 emissions, by developing and deploying energy efficiency and clean energy technologies, they are presented with a unique opportunity to make collective progress in transitioning the global energy system. IEA Deputy Executive Director Richard Jones emphasised the importance of G-20 efforts, saying, 'The IEA welcomes this important collaboration with the G-20. Enhanced deployment of clean energy technologies and of energy efficiency improvements offers energy security and environmental benefits. It will also enable cost savings over the medium and long term -- an aspect that is particularly relevant at a time of economic uncertainty. We believe that enhanced policy assessment and analysis, building on this initial report, will enable governments to take more cost effective and efficient policy decisions.' This report was issued on the authority of the IEA Executive Director, it does not necessarily represent the views of IEA Member countries or the G20.

  9. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: tsbaptista@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  10. The Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feibus, H.

    1995-12-31

    The joint effort by Polish and American organizations in Krakow has accomplished a great deal in just a few years. In particular, the low emission sources program has had major successes. Poland and America have a lot to learn from each other in the clean and economical use of coal. Both our countries are major producers and users of coal. Both have had to deal with the emissions of particulate and organics from coal combustion. We were fortunate, since our free market economy and democratic government helped us deal with a lot of these problems in the 1950s. In Poland, the freedom to solve these problems has evolved only in the last few years. In the first phase of the program, Polish and American engineers ran combustion tests on boilers and stoves in Krakow. They also performed analyses on the cost and feasibility of various equipment changes. The results of the first phase were used in refining the spreadsheet model to give better estimates of costs emissions. The first phase also included analyses of incentives for proceeding with needed changes. These analyses identified actions needed to create a market for the goods and services which control pollution. Such actions could include privatization, regulation, or financial incentives. The second phase of the program consisted of public meetings in Chicago, Washington, and Krakow. The purpose of the meetings was to inform U.S. and Polish firms about the results of phase 1 and to encourage them to compete to take part in phase 3. The third phase currently underway consists of the commercial ventures that were competitively selected. These ventures were consistent with recommendations unanimously made by the BSC. The three phases of the Polish-American program are discussed.

  11. Evaluation Of Sludge Heel Dissolution Efficiency With Oxalic Acid Cleaning At Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudduth, Christie; Vitali, Jason; Keefer, Mark

    2014-01-08

    The chemical cleaning process baseline strategy at the Savannah River Site was revised to improve efficiency during future execution of the process based on lessons learned during previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning activities and to account for operational constraints imposed by safety basis requirements. These improvements were also intended to transcend the difficulties that arise from waste removal in higher rheological yield stress sludge tanks. Tank 12 implemented this improved strategy and the bulk oxalic acid cleaning efforts concluded in July 2013. The Tank 12 radiological removal results were similar to previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning campaigns despite the fact that Tank 12 contained higher rheological yield stress sludge that would make removal more difficult than the sludge treated in previous cleaning campaigns. No appreciable oxalate precipitation occurred during the cleaning process in Tank 12 compared to previous campaigns, which aided in the net volume reduction of 75-80%. Overall, the controls established for Tank 12 provide a template for an improved cleaning process.

  12. Interrogating chemical variation via layer-by-layer SERS during biofouling and cleaning of nanofiltration membranes with further investigations into cleaning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li; Chen, Pengyu; Zhang, Bifeng; Zhang, Dayi; Li, Junyi; Martin, Francis L; Zhang, Kaisong

    2015-12-15

    Periodic chemical cleaning is an essential step to maintain nanofiltration (NF) membrane performance and mitigate biofouling, a major impediment in high-quality water reclamation from wastewater effluent. To target the important issue of how to clean and control biofouling more efficiently, this study developed surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a layer-by-layer tool to interrogate the chemical variations during both biofouling and cleaning processes. The fact that SERS only reveals information on the surface composition of biofouling directly exposed to cleaning reagents makes it ideal for evaluating cleaning processes and efficiency. SERS features were highly distinct and consistent with different biofouling stages (bacterial adhesion, rapid growth, mature and aged biofilm). Cleaning was performed on two levels of biofouling after 18 h (rapid growth of biofilm) and 48 h (aged biofilm) development. An opposing profile of SERS bands between biofouling and cleaning was observed and this suggests a layer-by-layer cleaning mode. In addition, further dynamic biochemical and infrastructural changes were demonstrated to occur in the more severe 48-h biofouling, resulting in the easier removal of sessile cells from the NF membrane. Biofouling substance-dependent cleaning efficiency was also evaluated using the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS appeared more efficient in cleaning lipid than polysaccharide and DNA. Protein and DNA were the predominant residual substances (irreversible fouling) on NF membrane leading to permanent flux loss. The chemical information revealed by layer-by-layer SERS will lend new insights into the optimization of cleaning reagents and protocols for practical membrane processes.

  13. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  14. Needs, resources and climate change: Clean and efficient conversion technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2011-02-01

    Energy "powers" our life, and energy consumption correlates strongly with our standards of living. The developed world has become accustomed to cheap and plentiful supplies. Recently, more of the developing world populations are striving for the same, and taking steps towards securing their future energy needs. Competition over limited supplies of conventional fossil fuel resources is intensifying, and more challenging environmental problems are springing up, especially related to carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. There is strong evidence that atmospheric CO 2 concentration is well correlated with the average global temperature. Moreover, model predictions indicate that the century-old observed trend of rising temperatures could accelerate as carbon dioxide concentration continues to rise. Given the potential danger of such a scenario, it is suggested that steps be taken to curb energy-related CO 2 emissions through a number of technological solutions, which are to be implemented in a timely fashion. These solutions include a substantial improvement in energy conversion and utilization efficiencies, carbon capture and sequestration, and expanding the use of nuclear energy and renewable sources. Some of these technologies already exist, but are not deployed at sufficiently large scale. Others are under development, and some are at or near the conceptual state. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Triboelectrostatic Separation-an Efficient Method of Producing Low Ash Clean Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章新喜; 边炳鑫; 段超红; 熊建军

    2002-01-01

    At present, coal is mainly consumed as fuel. In fact, coal is also a kind of precious raw material in chemical industry on the premise that some harmful minerals should be removed from coal. The paper presents the results of the research on producing low ash (<2%) coal with triboelectrostatic separator used for producing high-grade active carbon. The test is conducted in bench-scale system, whose capacity is 30~100 kg/h. The results indicate that: 1) the ash content of clean coal increases with the increase of solid content of feedstock, on the contrary, the yield of clean coal is declining; 2) a high velocity may result in a good separation efficiency; 3) for the same solid content, the reunion caused by intermolecular force makes the separation efficiency drop down when the ultra-fine coal is separated; 4) the separation efficiency is improved with the increase of electric field intensity, but there is a good optimized match between the electric field intensity and yield of clean coal; 5) a low rank coal is easy-to-wash in triboelectrostatic separation process; 6) the yield of clean coal can be enhanced and the ash decreased through adapting optimized conditions according to various coals.

  16. An assessment of alternatives for replacing Freon 113 in bench type electrical circuit board cleaning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isakson, K.; Vessell, A.L.

    1994-07-01

    Fermilab is presently phasing out all solvents containing Freon-113 (CFC-113) as part of the continuing Waste Minimization Program. These solvents are used primarily in cleaning the flux off of electronic circuit boards after soldering, specifically in bench type work. Title VI of the Clean Air Act mandates a production phase-out for ozone depleting substances, like CFC-113, by the year 2000. Our study addresses this issue by evaluating and choosing alternative non-CFC solvents to replace the CFC-1 13 solvents at Fermilab. Several potential non-CFC cleaning solvents were tested. The evaluation took place in three parts: controlled experimental evaluation, chemical composition evaluation, and employee performed evaluation. First, we performed a controlled nine-step procedure with the potential solvents where each was evaluated in categories such as cleaning effectiveness, odor, residue, type of output and drying time. Next, we listed the chemical composition of each solvent. We noted which solvents contained hydrochlorofluorocarbons because they are targeted for phase-out in the future and will be recognized as interim solutions only. Finally, after preliminary testing, five solvents were chosen as the best options. These solvents were sent to be tested by Fermilab employees who use such materials. Their opinions are valuable not only because they are knowledgeable in this field, but also because they will be using the solvents chosen to replace the CFC-113 solvents. The results favored two ``best alternatives``: Safezone Solvent Flux Remover by Miller-Stephenson and E-Series CFC Free Flux-Off 2000 by Chemtech. Another possible solution also pursued is the no-clean solder option. In our study, we were not able to thoroughly investigate the many types of no-clean solders because of time and financial constraints. The testing that was done, however, showed that no-clean solder was a viable alternative in many cases.

  17. EM-21 ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROGRAM FOR SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M; King, W; Martino, C

    2009-12-18

    Preliminary studies in the EM-21 Alternative Chemical Cleaning Program have focused on understanding the dissolution of Hematite (a primary sludge heel phase) in oxalic acid, with a focus on minimizing oxalic acid usage. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control, preferably using a supplemental proton source, is critical to oxalate minimization. With pH control, iron concentrations as high as 0.103 M have been obtained in 0.11 M oxalic acid. This is consistent with the formation of a 1:1 (iron:oxalate) complex. The solubility of Hematite in oxalic acid has been confirmed to increase by a factor of 3 when the final solution pH decreases from 5 to below 1. This is consistent with literature predictions of a shift in speciation from a 1:3 to 1:1 as the pH is lowered. Above a solution pH of 6, little Hematite dissolves. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing Hematite dissolution in oxalic acid.

  18. Clean, agile alternative binders, additives and plasticizers for propellant and explosive formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hawkins, T.W. [Phillips Lab., Edwards AFB, CA (United States); Lindsay, G.A. [Naval Weapons Station, China Lake, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) a clean, agile manufacturing of explosives, propellants and pyrotechniques (CANPEP) effort set about to identify new approaches to materials and processes for producing propellants, explosives and pyrotechniques (PEP). The RDX based explosive PBXN-109 and gun propellant M-43 were identified as candidates for which waste minimization and recycling modifications might be implemented in a short time frame. The binders, additives and plasticizers subgroup identified cast non-curable thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) formulations as possible replacement candidates for these formulations. Paste extrudable explosives were also suggested as viable alternatives to PBXN-109. Commercial inert and energetic TPEs are reviewed. Biodegradable and hydrolyzable binders are discussed. The applicability of various types of explosive formulations are reviewed and some issues associated with implementation of recyclable formulations are identified. It is clear that some processing and weaponization modifications will need to be made if any of these approaches are to be implemented. The major advantages of formulations suggested here over PBXN-109 and M-43 is their reuse/recyclability. Formulations using TPE or Paste could by recovered from a generic bomb or propellant and reused if they met specification or easily reprocessed and sold to the mining industry.

  19. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigilião, Lara Carvalho Freitas; Marquezan, Mariana; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding. Methods: A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L), 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H), 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L), DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU), Renew System (GR) and Diagloss polisher (GD). Mean roughness (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz) were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05) was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01). Conclusion: All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness. PMID:26560825

  20. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Carvalho Freitas Sigilião

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding.Methods:A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L, 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H, 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L, DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU, Renew System (GR and Diagloss polisher (GD. Mean roughness (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Results:In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05 was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01.Conclusion:All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness.

  1. Investigation of efficiency of air cleaning from acetone using a segmental construction biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denas Bacevičius

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds, e. g. acetone, have a direct impact on climate change, decrease of ozone in the air, and on the growth of greenhouse effect. One of the most popular air purifying methods from VOC is a biological air cleaning. Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the efficiency of the new structure of biofilter with polypropylene plates segments. During the investigations the efficiency of segmental construction biofilter of air purification at different initial concentrations of pollutants was determined. Different concentrations of pollutants were estimated during the acetone dilution with water. During the tests the efficiency of biofilter air purification from acetone vapor and its change under different concentrations of vapors was set. Based on test results, the maximum efficiency of biofilter air purification was up to 93%. Studies have shown that increasing the allowable pollutant concentration, the efficiency of air purification unit decreases. Increasing the concentration of supplied acetone vapor into the biofilter from 232 to 701 mg/m3, cleaning efficiency decreased from 92.8 to 82.3%. Since microorganisms fail to oxidize organic compounds, the filter works better at lower initial concentrations of pollutants.

  2. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  3. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  4. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  5. The Effectiveness of Power Tool Cleaning as an Alternative to Abrasive Blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    harshness. Therefore, both surface preparation and coating requirements may vary on each block. Power tools may provide adequate surface cleanliness for the...cleaning. 3. OBJECTIVES 1. Review the state-of-the-art of the power tool cleaning technology, evaluating the quality of surface cleanliness produced and...Assessing the Quality of Surface Cleanliness and Profile:’ Applicator Training Bulletin, July 1990, pp. 53-54. 17. Surface Conditioning Application Notes

  6. Layer-by-layer TiO(2)/WO(3) thin films as efficient photocatalytic self-cleaning surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrocinio, Antonio Otavio T; Paula, Leonardo F; Paniago, Roberto M; Freitag, Janna; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2014-10-08

    New TiO2/WO3 films were produced by the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique and successfully applied as self-cleaning photocatalytic surfaces. The films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates from the respective metal oxide nanoparticles obtained by the sol-gel method. Thirty alternative immersions in pH = 2 TiO2 and pH = 10 WO3 sols resulted in ca. 400 nm thick films that exhibited a W(VI)/Ti(IV) molar ratio of 0.5, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy, along with atomic force images, showed that the resulting layers are constituted by aggregates of very small nanoparticles (films were investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometry and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The films behave as nanoscale heterojunctions, and the presence of WO3 nanoparticles caused a decrease in the optical band gap of the bilayers compared to that of pure LbL TiO2 films. The TiO2/WO3 thin films exhibited high hydrophilicity, which is enhanced after exposition to UV light, and they can efficiently oxidize gaseous acetaldehyde under UV(A) irradiation. Photonic efficiencies of ξ = 1.5% were determined for films constituted by 30 TiO2/WO3 bilayers in the presence of 1 ppm of acetaldehyde, which are ∼2 times higher than those observed for pure LbL TiO2 films. Therefore, these films can act as efficient and cost-effective layers for self-cleaning, antifogging applications.

  7. Modern efficient methods of steel vertical oil tanks clean-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrasov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legislative base of the Russian Federation operating in the field of operation of tanks and tank parks is considered, and consecutive stages of technological process of cleaning of vertical steel tanks from oil ground deposits are presented. In work shortcomings of existing most widespread electromechanical mixers are described when using a hydraulic method of removal and prevention of formation of ground deposits in tanks with oil and oil products. For the purpose of increase of efficiency, reliability and decrease in power consumption of washout of oil ground deposits in tanks the new design of system of funneled washout and prevention of formation of deposits is offered.

  8. Evaluation of the combined betatron and momentum cleaning in point 3 in terms of cleaning efficiency and energy deposition for the LHC Collimation upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Rossi, A; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; Wollmann, D; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A

    2011-01-01

    The Phase I LHC Collimation System Upgrade could include moving part of the Betatron Cleaning from LHC Point 7 to Point 3 to improve both operation flexibility and intensity reach. In addition, the partial relocation of beam losses from the current Betatron cleaning region at Point 7 will mitigate the risks of Single Event Upsets to equipment installed in adjacent and partly not sufficient shielded areas. The combined Betatron and Momentum Cleaning at Point 3 implies that new collimators have to be added as well as to implement a new collimator aperture layout. This paper shows the whole LHC Collimator Efficiency variation with the new layout at different beam energies. As part of the evaluation, energy deposition distribution in the IR3 region give indications about the effect of this new implementations not only on the collimators themselves but also on the other beam line elements as well as in the IR3 surrounding areas.

  9. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States); South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  10. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. (Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  11. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various

  12. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  13. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative Existing Building Energy Efficiency Analysis: November 17, 2009 - June 30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, P.; Potes, A.

    2010-06-01

    In June 2009, the State of Hawaii enacted an Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (EEPS) with a target of 4,300 gigawatt hours (GWh) by 2030 (Hawaii 2009). Upon setting this goal, the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, Booz Allen Hamilton (BAH), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working with select local stakeholders, partnered to execute the first key step toward attaining the EEPS goal: the creation of a high-resolution roadmap outlining key areas of potential electricity savings. This roadmap was divided into two core elements: savings from new construction and savings from existing buildings. BAH focused primarily on the existing building analysis, while NREL focused on new construction forecasting. This report presents the results of the Booz Allen Hamilton study on the existing building stock of Hawaii, along with conclusions on the key drivers of potential energy efficiency savings and on the steps necessary to attain them.

  14. An alternative clean-up column for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in solid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunda, Elizabeth N; Madadi, Vincent O; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The need for continuous monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has necessitated the development of analytical techniques that are sensitive and selective with minimal reagent requirement. In light of this, we developed a column for clean-up of soil and sediment extracts, which is less demanding in terms of the amount of solvent and sorbent. The dual-layer column consists of acidified silica gel and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). MIPs were synthesized via aqueous suspension polymerization using PCB 15 as the dummy template, 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and the obtained particles characterized via SEM, BET, and batch rebinding assays. Pre-concentration of the spiked real-world water sample using MISPE gave recoveries between 85.2 and 104.4% (RSD clean-up of extracts from complex matrices provided recoveries of 91.6-102.5% (RSD clean-up using acidified silica (70.4-90.5%; RSD clean-up procedure for continuous monitoring of PCBs. Method detection limits were 0.01-0.08 ng g(-1) and 0.002-0.01 ng mL(-1) for solid matrices and water, respectively.

  15. Sec16 alternative splicing dynamically controls COPII transport efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmi, Ilka; Kanski, Regina; Neumann, Alexander; Herdt, Olga; Hoff, Florian; Jacob, Ralf; Preußner, Marco; Heyd, Florian

    2016-08-05

    The transport of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi depends on COPII-coated vesicles. While the basic principles of the COPII machinery have been identified, it remains largely unknown how COPII transport is regulated to accommodate tissue- or activation-specific differences in cargo load and identity. Here we show that activation-induced alternative splicing of Sec16 controls adaptation of COPII transport to increased secretory cargo upon T-cell activation. Using splice-site blocking morpholinos and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering, we show that the number of ER exit sites, COPII dynamics and transport efficiency depend on Sec16 alternative splicing. As the mechanistic basis, we suggest the C-terminal Sec16 domain to be a splicing-controlled protein interaction platform, with individual isoforms showing differential abilities to recruit COPII components. Our work connects the COPII pathway with alternative splicing, adding a new regulatory layer to protein secretion and its adaptation to changing cellular environments.

  16. Experimental researches and comparison on aerodynamic parameters and cleaning efficiency of multi-level multi-channel cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Chlebnikovas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level multi-channel cyclone – the lately designed air cleaning device that can remove ultra-fine 20 μm particulatematter (PM from dusted air and reach over 95% of the overall cleaning efficiency. Multi-channel cyclone technology is based on centrifugal forces and has the resulting additional filtering process operation. Multi-level structure of cyclone allows to achieve higher air flow cleaning capacity at the same dimensions of the device, thus saving installation space required for the job, production and operating costs. Studies have examined the air flow parameters change in one–, two– and three–levels multichannel cyclone. These constructions differ according to the productivity of cleaned air under the constant peripheral and transitional (50/50 case air flow relations. Accordance with the results of air flow dynamics – velocity distribution of multi-channel cyclone, aerodynamic resistance and efficiency can be judged on the flow turbulence, the flow channel cross-section and select the most appropriate application. Cleaning efficiency studies were carried out using fine granite and wood ashes PM. The maximum cleaning efficiency was 93.3%, at an average of 4.5 g/m3, the aerodynamic resistance was equal to 1525 Pa.

  17. Energy efficient biological air cleaning for farm stable ventilation; Energieffektiv biologisk luftrensning til staldventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenborg Nicolaisen, C.; Hansen, Mads P.R. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark); Stroem, J.; Soerensen, Keld [DXT. Danish Exergy Technology A/S, Skoerping (Denmark); Goetke, C. [Lokalenergi Aarhus, Viby J. (Denmark); Morsing, S.; Soerensen, Lars C. [SKOV A/S, Roslev (Denmark); Ladegaerd Jensen, T.; Pedersen, Poul [Videncenter for svineproduktion, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    The project has been designed to reduce energy consumption for air purification by 30% while having a payback period of maximum 3 years. The project has achieved very significant results which are far above the target. Particularly satisfying is the wide range of new components that are launched in late 2012. By implementing the newly developed system at 100% cleaning (LPC 13 ventilators and Dynamic multistep control) in relation to Best Practice (SKOV's original system with DA600 fans) in a concrete pigsty, a saving of 61% and a simple payback of 1.7 years is achieved. Similarly, it is found that the energy used for pump operation can be reduced by 37% with the new Dynamic sprinkling control. At 20% cleaning a potential saving of 15% per year and a payback period of between 0 and 5 years was found, which is dependent on the desired performance as the capacities in the bio-filter's upper capacity range between 26 thousand to 30 thousand m3 / h entails costs for an additional extraction unit in the new solution. Furthermore, the newly developed components proved highly suitable for standard installations without air cleaning where a savings potential is 53% and the payback period 1.5 years. Product-wise, the project formed the basis for the development of: 1. New energy-efficient ventilation units (LPC11, 12,13) that are suitable for air purification; 2. A new energy-saving control principle (Dynamic Multi-Step) which is particularly suitable for low-energy ventilators; 3. A new energy-saving flow measurement system for ventilating ducts (Dynamic air to the central exhaust); 4. An energy-saving pressure control in common ducts (pressure control as a function of outside temperature); 5. Proposal for a new energy-saving pump operation for sprinkling of biological filters (Dynamic sprinkling). (LN)

  18. Highly Efficient Synthesis of Clean Biofuels from Biomass Using FeCuZnAIK Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-bai Qiu; Yong Xu; Tong-qi Ye; Fei-yan Gong; Zhi Yang; Mitsuo Yamamoto; Yong Liu; Quan-xin Li

    2011-01-01

    Highly efficient synthesis of clean biofuels using the bio-syngas obtained from biomass gasification was performed over Fe1.5Cu1Zn1Al1K0.117 catalyst.The maximum biofuel yield from the bio-syngas reaches about 1.59 kg biofuels/(kgcatal·h) with a contribution of 0.57 kg alcohols/(kgcatal·h) and 1.02 kg liquid hydrocarbons/(kgcatal·h).The alcohol products in the resulting biofuels were dominated by the C2+ alcohols (mainly C2-C6 alcohols) with a content of 73.55%-89.98%.The selectivity of the liquid hydrocarbons (C5+) in the hydrocarbon products ranges from 60.37% to 70.94%.The synthesis biofuels also possess a higher heat value of 40.53-41.49 MJ/kg.The effects of the synthesis conditions,including temperature,pressure,and gas hourly space velocity,on the biofuel synthesis were investigated in detail.The catalyst features were characterized by inductively coupled plasma and atomic emission spectroscopy,X-ray diffraction,temperature programmed reduction,and the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms measurements.The present biofuel synthesis with a higher biofuel yield and a higher selectivity of liquid hydrocarbons and C2+ alcohols may be a potentially useful route to produce clean biofuels and chemicals from biomass.

  19. CALCIUM CARBIDE: AN EFFICIENT ALTERNATIVE TO THE USE OF ALUMINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Carlos Pinheiro Cardoso Filho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The steel demand for fine applications have increased considerably in the last years, and the criteria for its production are even stricter, mainly in relation to the residual elements content and cleanness required. In relation to the steel cleanness, the main problem faced is the control of the amount and morphology of alumina inclusions, generated in the steel deoxidation with aluminum. Besides harming the products quality, the presence of non metallic inclusions can originate nozzle clogging, and consequently interruptions in the process flux. Aiming to improve the steel cleanness and to minimize nozzle clogging, this study is developed to evaluate the partial substitution of aluminum by calcium carbide in the steel deoxidation. Along the operational procedures, the calcium carbide was applied to 397 heats, through what the improvement in steel cleanness is confirmed, with consequent reduction in the nozzle clogging occurrence.

  20. Historical Perspective of Clean Cities and Alternative Fuels Data Center Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, J. K.

    2007-09-01

    This document draws on the wealth of information housed in the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Trends and analyses are examined from data as far back as 1991. The findings of those trends and salient features are summarized.

  1. Alternative approach for Article 5. Energie Efficiency Directive; Alternatieve aanpak artikel 5. Energy Efficiency Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Jablonska, B. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Article 5 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is an annual obligation to renovate 3% of the building stock of central government. After renovation the buildings will meet the minimum energy performance requirements laid down in Article 4 of the EPBD. The Directive gives room to an alternative approach to achieve the same savings. The Ministry of Interior Affairs has asked ECN to assist with this alternative approach. ECN calculated what saving are achieved with the 3% renovation obligation under the directive. Then ECN looked for the possibilities for an alternative approach to achieve the same savings [Dutch] In artikel 5 van de Energie Efficiency Directive (EED) staat een verplichting om jaarlijks 3% van de gebouwvoorraad van de centrale overheid te renoveren. Die 3% van de gebouwvoorraad moet na renovatie voldoen aan de minimum eisen inzake energieprestatie die door het betreffende lidstaat zijn vastgelegd op grond van artikel 4 in de EPBD. De verplichting betreft gebouwen die in bezit en in gebruik zijn van de rijksoverheid met een gebruiksoppervlakte groter dan 500 m{sup 2}, vanaf juli 2015 groter dan 250 m{sup 2}. De gebouwen die eigendom zijn van de Rijksgebouwendienst betreft kantoren van rijksdiensten, gerechtsgebouwen, gebouwen van douane en politie en gevangenissen. Van de gebouwen van Defensie hoeven alleen kantoren en legeringsgebouwen aan de verplichting te voldoen.

  2. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  3. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Mmmm... - Alternative Capture Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... portion of the coating and the efficiency of the capture system. The organic carbon content of the control... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alternative Capture Efficiency and... and Products Pt. 63, Subpt. MMMM, App. A Appendix A to Subpart MMMM of Part 63—Alternative...

  5. Low-cost, flexible, and self-cleaning 3D nanocone anti-reflection films for high-efficiency photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Kwong-Hoi; Lin, Qingfeng; Chou, Hungtao; Zhang, Qianpeng; Fu, Huiying; Qi, Pengfei; Fan, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Low-cost engineered nanotemplates are used to mold flexible nanocone anti-reflection (AR) films. Both optical reflectance measurements and photovoltaics characterizations demonstrate that the flexible nanocone AR films can considerably suppress device front-side reflectance and thus improve the power conversion efficiency of high-efficiency thin-film CdTe solar cells. Additionally, these nanocone AR films are found to be superhydrophobic and thus possess self-cleaning capability.

  6. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaek, M.O.

    2012-03-15

    Enzymes are used in an increasing number of industries. The application of enzymes is extending into the production of lignocellulosic ethanol in processes that economically can compete with fossil fuels. Since lignocellulosic ethanol is based on renewable resources it will have a positive impact on for example the emission of green house gasses. Cellulases and hemi-cellulases are used for enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass, and fermentable sugars are released upon the enzymatic process. Even though many years of research has decreased the amount of enzyme needed in the process, the cost of enzymes is still considered a bottleneck in the economic feasibility of lignocellulose utilization. The purpose of this project was to investigate and compare different technologies for production of these enzymes. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is currently used for industrial production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesis was to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed-batch fermentation. The process was carried out in pilot scale stirred tank reactors and based on a range of different process conditions, a process model was constructed which satisfactory described the course of fermentation. The process was governed by the rate limiting mass transfer of oxygen from the gas to the liquid phase. During fermentation, filamentous growth of the fungus lead to increased viscosity which hindered mass transfer. These mechanisms were described by a viscosity model based on the biomass concentration of the fermentation broth and a mass transfer correlation that incorporated a viscosity term. An analysis of the uncertainty and sensitivity of the model indicated the biological parameters to be responsible for most of the model uncertainty. A number of alternative

  7. New progresses in safe, clean and efficient development technologies for high-sulfur gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In China, there are a lot of high-sulfur gas reservoirs with total proved reserves of over 1 trillion m3, most of which were discovered in the Sichuan Basin. Most high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China, distributed in marine carbonate zones, are characterized by great buried depths, complex geologic conditions, high temperatures, high pressures, high H2S and CO2 content, presenting various challenges in gas field development engineering and production safety. Since the development of Sinian high-sulfur gas reservoirs in the Weiyuan area of the Sichuan Basin started in the 1960s, Wolonghe, Zhongba and other medium to small-scale gas reservoirs with medium to low sulfur content have been developed. Ever since 2009, successful production of Longgang and Puguang in the Sichuan Basin, together with some other high-sulfur gas reservoirs highlighted the breakthroughs in development technologies for high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China. This paper reviews the progress made in gas reservoir engineering, drilling and completion engineering, gas production, pipeline transportation, corrosion control, natural gas purification, HSE and other aspects with consideration of specific requirements related to safe, clean and high-efficient development of high-sulfur gas reservoirs since the “12th Five-Year Plan” period. Finally, considering the challenges in the development of high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China, we summarized the trend in future technological development with the following goals of reducing risks, minimizing environmental damages, and enhancing the efficiency of high-sulfur gas reservoir development.

  8. Dual-Fuel Combustion for Future Clean and Efficient Compression Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Benajes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stringent emissions limits introduced for internal combustion engines impose a major challenge for the research community. The technological solution adopted by the manufactures of diesel engines to meet the NOx and particle matter values imposed in the EURO VI regulation relies on using selective catalytic reduction and particulate filter systems, which increases the complexity and cost of the engine. Alternatively, several new combustion modes aimed at avoiding the formation of these two pollutants by promoting low temperature combustion reactions, are the focus of study nowadays. Among these new concepts, the dual-fuel combustion mode known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI seems more promising because it allows better control of the combustion process by means of modulating the fuel reactivity depending on the engine operating conditions. The present experimental work explores the potential of different strategies for reducing the energy losses with RCCI in a single-cylinder research engine, with the final goal of providing the guidelines to define an efficient dual-fuel combustion system. The results demonstrate that the engine settings combination, piston geometry modification, and fuel properties variation are good methods to increase the RCCI efficiency while maintaining ultra-low NOx and soot emissions for a wide range of operating conditions.

  9. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  10. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  11. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Grosso; Patrícia Valentão; Federico Ferreres; Paula B. Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extracti...

  12. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors elaborate the economical efficiency evaluation technique that could be universal and applied for technical-and-economic feasibility study of the ball-cleaning system installation on the steam turbines of the electric power plants. Besides the effect from reducing the exhaust steam pressure in the condenser by means of the ball-cleaning system implementation, this technique also accounts for the effect of lowering the condenser hydraulic pressure.The article refers to the practical results of the ball-cleaning system introduction on the steam turbines of Gomel CHP-2. As a result of regular application of the ball-cleaning system the temperature difference of the condensers of all blocks Т-180/210-130-1 confined into the regulatory values and the cleanness coefficient of all three turbine units reached 0,85. The authors consider the working results, implementation experience of the ball-cleaning system at Gomel CHP-2 and its efficiency evaluation technique to be worth disseminating when introducing the analogous systems at the plants of Belarusian power network.The authors suggest measures on the condenser automatic-cleaning system improvement with the turbine mathematical-simulation model employment that will make it possible to optimize the condenser cleaning regimes and to increase the ball-cleaning system effectiveness with the condenser cleanness coefficient growing up to 0,90–0,92.

  13. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  14. Clean Metal Finishing Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    metals. Hard coating deposition unproven. 3 N/A Weld coating Electrospark Deposition / Alloying (ESD/ ESA) Microarc welding Localized repair of non...mostly soft metals. Hard coating deposition unproven. 3 N/A Weld coating Electrospark Deposition / Alloying (ESD/ ESA) Microarc welding Localized...microwelding process, electrospark deposition , ESD (or electrospark alloying, ESA), has been validated as a localized repair technology11. It is used by

  15. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  16. Pilot plant investigations on cleaning efficiencies to reduce hazelnut cross-contamination in industrial manufacture of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Ibach, Anja; Baltruweit, Iris; Gruyters, Helwig; Janise, Annabella; Suwelack, Carola; Matissek, Reinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Shared equipment in industrial food manufacture has repeatedly been described as a potential source of unlabeled food allergens, i.e., hidden allergens. However, the impact of shared equipment on allergen cross-contamination is basically unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate systematically the extent of hazelnut cross-contamination in fine bakery wares as a model. A product change from cookies with 10% hazelnut to cookies without hazelnuts was simulated on pilot plant equipment. The extent of hazelnut cross-contamination (HNCC) was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each production device (kneaders, rotary molder, wire cutting machine, and steel band oven) and various cleaning procedures used between products. The experiments were performed repeatedly with finely ground hazelnuts and with roughly chopped hazelnut kernels. Cross-contamination from chopped kernels was distributed statistically but not homogeneously, and sampling and analysis with the ELISA was therefore not reproducible. Further analysis concentrated on homogenously distributed HNCC from ground hazelnut. Apart from product changes without intermediate cleaning, the highest HNCC was found after mechanical scraping: Up to 100 mg/kg hazelnut protein was found in the follow-up product after processing by one machine. After additional cleaning with hot water, the HNCC decreased regardless of the processing device to levels at or below 1 mg/kg hazelnut protein. In our pilot plant study, the application of an appropriate wet cleaning procedure in combination with quantitative monitoring of the cleaning efficiency reduced the hazelnut protein cross-contamination to a level at which severe hazelnut-related allergic reactions are unlikely to occur.

  17. Alternative Practices to Improve Surface Fleet Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    practices that, if changed, could provide significant fuel savings for fossil fuel ships. Recent and potential future budget cuts give fuel conservation...changed, could provide significant fuel savings for fossil fuel ships. Recent and potential future budget cuts give fuel conservation and efficiency...Figure 1. Navy fossil fuel expenditure for FY 2013 (after Dhoran 2014). .......................1 Figure 2. Fuel curves for a DDG showing GPH burned as

  18. Amorphous metal distribution transformers: The energy-efficient alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrity, T.F. [GE Power Systems, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Amorphous metal distribution transformers have been commercially available for the past 13 years. During that time, they have realized the promise of exceptionally high core efficiency as compared to silicon steel transformer cores. Utility planners today must consider all options available to meet the requirements of load growth. While additional generation capacity will be added, many demand-side initiatives are being undertaken as complementary programs to generation expansion. The efficiency improvement provided by amorphous metal distribution transformers deserves to be among the demand-side options. The key to understanding the positive impact of amorphous metal transformer efficiency is to consider the aggregate contribution those transformers can make towards demand reduction. It is estimated that distribution transformer core losses comprise at least 1% of the utility`s peak demand. Because core losses are continuous, any significant reduction in their magnitude is of great significance to the planner. This paper describes the system-wide economic contributions amorphous metal distribution transformers can make to a utility and suggests evaluation techniques that can be used. As a conservation tool, the amorphous metal transformer contributes to reduced power plant emissions. Calibration of those emissions reductions is also discussed in the paper.

  19. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Grosso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  20. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  1. Modern efficient methods of steel vertical oil tanks clean-up

    OpenAIRE

    Nekrasov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The legislative base of the Russian Federation operating in the field of operation of tanks and tank parks is considered, and consecutive stages of technological process of cleaning of vertical steel tanks from oil ground deposits are presented. In work shortcomings of existing most widespread electromechanical mixers are described when using a hydraulic method of removal and prevention of formation of ground deposits in tanks with oil and oil products. For the purpose of increase of efficien...

  2. An Alternative Efficient Technique For Thin Tooth Sectioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Gohar Babar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of tooth sectioningis realized in disasters such as earthquake, airplanecrash investigation, terror, micro leakage studies, ageestimation etc. The objective of this study was to developa simple method to make thin sections (approximately100 mm from freshly extracted teeth.Methods: One hundred and twenty human premolarsrecently extracted for orthodontic purpose were used forthis study. The teeth were stored in 0.5% chorlaraminefor 2 weeks and were not allowed to dry at any stageof the experiment. The teeth were thoroughly washedin distilled water teeth and then were sectionedbuccolingually from crown to the root portion.Results: A detailed embedding-cutting-mountingprocedure is described. The prepared thin groundsections were then examined under a Polarised lightmicroscope for the enamel and the dentine, as well asthe caries lesions can clearly be distinguished.Conclusion: This is an effective and efficient methodfor preparation of ground sections in which the hardtissue details are preserved.

  3. An erosion sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance for quantitative determination of the cleaning efficiency in an ultrasonic vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüschke, M; Koch, C; Dreyer, T

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning vessels cannot be measured directly in an easy way. In the presented work, a sensor is developed which quantitatively measures the ablation of a test layer. The sensor element is a quartz crystal which is coated with a sacrificial layer. Small changes in mass of this layer can be measured by a frequency shift of the crystal oscillation. For measurements, a 10 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal was used in a cleaning vessel working at 44.9 kHz. To determine the frequency shift by the ablation of the test layer, the quartz crystal was driven by a frequency generator sweeping the frequency in the range of the resonance frequency and a characteristic frequency was determined. The test layer which was applied to the quartz crystal consisted of silica microparticles suspended in varnish. In a preliminary experiment using a commercial cleaner it could be shown that significant changes in resonance frequency by cavitation effect could be detected. The initial frequency shift of the sacrificial layer is reproducible within 10%. The test layer can be adapted to the conditions of the cleaning vessel. By changing the electrical input power of the vessel, a threshold in the cavitation erosion was found.

  4. Cleaning efficiency of nickel-titanium GT and .04 rotary files when used in a torque-controlled rotary handpiece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffridge, Calvin B; Hartwell, Gary R; Walker, Thomas L

    2003-05-01

    This study determined if the cleaning efficiency of nickel-titanium rotary files in an endodontic electric handpiece using a no-torque control setting was superior to that obtained when using the torque-control feature. Fifty extracted human anterior teeth with straight canals were divided into two groups of 20 and two control groups of 5. Canals were instrumented with GT and .04 ProFile nickel-titanium files until a size 35 advanced to working length. Samples were sectioned and the apical 6 mm of the canal was photographed (x20) and projected onto a 3- x 4-foot grid with squares measuring 0.5 inches each. Total debris was the percentage of the number of squares containing debris versus the total number of squares. The teeth in the torque-controlled group showed an average of 24.99% debris versus 15.55% for the teeth in the no-torque group. The difference was not statistically significant; therefore, no difference can be said to exist between the two torque settings in terms of cleaning efficiency.

  5. Basic Research Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlroy, A.; McRae, G.; Sick, V.; Siebers, D. L.; Westbrook, C. K.; Smith, P. J.; Taatjes, C.; Trouve, A.; Wagner, A. F.; Rohlfing, E.; Manley, D.; Tully, F.; Hilderbrandt, R.; Green, W.; Marceau, D.; O' Neal, J.; Lyday, M.; Cebulski, F.; Garcia, T. R.; Strong, D.

    2006-11-01

    To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying utilization of evolving transportation fuels, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges that have the potential for significant long-term impact on fuel efficiency and emissions.

  6. The NucleoSpin® DNA Clean-up XS kit for the concentration and purification of genomic DNA extracts: an alternative to microdialysis filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlow, William R; Krieger, Robert; Meusel, Markus; Sehhat, Joshua C; Timken, Mark D; Buoncristiani, Martin R

    2011-06-01

    Traditionally, DNA extracts from biological evidence items have been concentrated and rinsed using microdialysis filtration units, including the Centricon(®) and Microcon(®) centrifugal filter devices. As an alternative to microdialysis filtration, we present an optimized method for using NucleoSpin(®) XS silica columns to concentrate and clean-up aqueous extracts from the organic extraction of DNA from biological samples. The method can be used with standard organic extraction and dithiothreitol (DTT)-based differential extraction methods with no modifications to these methods prior to the concentration and clean-up step. Extracts from laboratory-prepared bloodstains, saliva and semen stains have been successfully amplified with both qPCR and STR assays. Finally, the total time to process a set of samples with the NucleoSpin(®) XS column is approximately 30 min vs. approximately 1.5h with the Centricon(®) YM-100 filter device.

  7. Alternating Anderson-Richardson method: An efficient alternative to preconditioned Krylov methods for large, sparse linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, Phanish; Pask, John E

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the recently proposed Alternating Anderson-Jacobi (AAJ) method (Pratapa et al., J. Comput. Phys. (2016), 306, 43--54) to include preconditioning, and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling in the solution of large, sparse linear systems on parallel computers. The resulting preconditioned Alternating Anderson-Richardson (AAR) method reduces to the AAJ method for a particular choice of preconditioner. The AAR method employs Anderson extrapolation at periodic intervals within a preconditioned Richardson iteration to accelerate convergence. In this work, we develop a version of the method that is particularly well suited for scalable high-performance computing. In applications to Helmholtz and Poisson equations, we show that the strong and weak parallel scaling of AAR is superior to both Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) and Conjugate Gradient (CG) methods, using the same preconditioning, in large-scale parallel calculations employing up to 110,592 computational cores. Moreover, we find that the ...

  8. Clean TiO2 nanocuboid film tightly attached on a conductive substrate for highly efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ming; Liu, Kuili; Gan, Zhixing; Zhang, Xiantu; Zhang, Honghui; Sun, Xianke; Zhou, Xiaodong; Chen, Yuanyuan; Feng, Yamin

    2016-12-01

    Anatase TiO2 film consisting of nanocuboids with co-exposed {1 0 1}, {0 0 1} and {1 0 0} facets have been successfully synthesized via thermally annealing amorphous anodized TiO2 nanotube arrays in ambient fluorine. When employed as a photoanode material in photoelectrochemical water splitting, the film of the clean TiO2 nanocuoboids yields a photocurrent density of up to 0.65 mA cm-2 at 0.22 V versus the Ag/AgCl electrode with Faradic efficiency of 100% and exhibits excellent stability, which can be attributed to enhanced photogenerated charge separation and transport to the collecting electrode. This film could also potentially be used for other facet-related applications such as TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells, sensors and lithium batteries.

  9. Design Principles for Covalent Organic Frameworks as Efficient Electrocatalysts in Clean Energy Conversion and Green Oxidizer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Zhang, Lipeng; Zhao, Zhenghang; Xia, Zhenhai

    2017-02-23

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), an emerging class of framework materials linked by covalent bonds, hold potential for various applications such as efficient electrocatalysts, photovoltaics, and sensors. To rationally design COF-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in fuel cells and metal-air batteries, activity descriptors, derived from orbital energy and bonding structures, are identified with the first-principle calculations for the COFs, which correlate COF structures with their catalytic activities. The calculations also predict that alkaline-earth metal-porphyrin COFs could catalyze the direct production of H2 O2 , a green oxidizer and an energy carrier. These predictions are supported by experimental data, and the design principles derived from the descriptors provide an approach for rational design of new electrocatalysts for both clean energy conversion and green oxidizer production.

  10. Evaluation of AK-225(R), Vertrel(R) MCA and HFE A 7100 as Alternative Solvents for Precision Cleaning and Verification Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Orlando; Trizzino, Mary; Fedderson, Bryan

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Materials Science Division conducted a study to evaluate alternative solvents for CFC-113 in precision cleaning and verification on typical samples that are used in the KSC environment. The effects of AK-225(R), Vertrel(R), MCA, and HFE A 7100 on selected metal and polymer materials were studied over 1, 7 and 30 day test times. This report addresses a study on the compatibility aspects of replacement solvents for materials in aerospace applications.

  11. Evaluation of alternative PCB clean-up strategies using an individual-based population model of mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J., E-mail: Chris.salice@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79410 (United States); Sample, Bradley E., E-mail: bsample@ecorisk.com [Ecological Risk Inc., Rancho Murieta, CA 95683 (United States); Miller Neilan, Rachael; Rose, Kenneth A.; Sable, Shaye [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, Energy, Coast and Environment Building, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Population models can be used to place observed toxic effects into an assessment of the impacts on population-level endpoints, which are generally considered to provide greater ecological insight and relevance. We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate the population-level effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the impact that different remediation strategies had on mink population endpoints (population size and extinction risk). Our simulations indicated that the initial population size had a strong impact on mink population dynamics. In addition, mink populations were extremely responsive to clean-up scenarios that were initiated soon after the contamination event. In fact, the rate of PCB clean-up did not have as strong a positive effect on mink as did the initiation of clean-up (start time). We show that population-level approaches can be used to understand adverse effects of contamination and to also explore the potential benefits of various remediation strategies. - Highlights: > We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate population-level impacts of PCB contamination. > The model was also used to explore the population responses to different PCB remediation strategies. > Population size had a large impact on whether mink populations persisted or went extinct. > Starting remediation sooner had a stronger positive effect on mink populations than did the rate of PCB clean-up. > Individual-based models are useful in understanding effects of contamination and different remediation strategies. - An individual-based model of mink showed strong population-level effects of PCB contamination and provided insight into optimal PCB remediation strategies.

  12. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  13. Ultra Clean 1.1MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James; Lueck, Steve

    2011-08-31

    Dresser, Inc. (GE Energy, Waukesha gas engines) will develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize a 1.1 Megawatt (MW) natural gas fueled combined heat and power reciprocating engine powered package. This package will feature a total efficiency > 75% and ultra low CARB permitting emissions. Our modular design will cover the 1 – 6 MW size range, and this scalable technology can be used in both smaller and larger engine powered CHP packages. To further advance one of the key advantages of reciprocating engines, the engine, generator and CHP package will be optimized for low initial and operating costs. Dresser, Inc. will leverage the knowledge gained in the DOE - ARES program. Dresser, Inc. will work with commercial, regulatory, and government entities to help break down barriers to wider deployment of CHP. The outcome of this project will be a commercially successful 1.1 MW CHP package with high electrical and total efficiency that will significantly reduce emissions compared to the current central power plant paradigm. Principal objectives by phases for Budget Period 1 include: • Phase 1 – market study to determine optimum system performance, target first cost, lifecycle cost, and creation of a detailed product specification. • Phase 2 – Refinement of the Waukesha CHP system design concepts, identification of critical characteristics, initial evaluation of technical solutions, and risk mitigation plans. Background

  14. Air cleaning efficiency of deodorant materials under dynamic conditions: effect of air flow rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizutani, Chiyomi; Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    was evaluated as deodorant materials neutralising ammonia in air. The deodorant material efficiency was tested in a special experimental set-up consisting of a straight pipe section, an ammonia gas generator, a fan and a textile frame. The deodorant materials, placed in the pipe, were exposed to a flow of air...... mixed with ammonia gas at a concentration of 20 ppm and velocities of 0.05, 0.15, 0.3 and 1.2 m/s. The activated carbon fibers treated with acid had a high deodorizing effect for ammonia (0.8) at a velocity of 0.05 m/s. The deodorizing effect of this material decreased with the increase in the velocity....... The porous activated carbon fiber fabric did not have a deodorant effect....

  15. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.; Pierce, B. [eds.

    1995-06-01

    Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

  16. Alternate partial root-zone irrigation improves fertilizer-N use efficiency in tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Liu, Fulai; Jensen, Lars Stoumann;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the comparative effects of alternative partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) and deficit irrigation (DI) on fertilizer-N use efficiency in tomato plants under mineral N and organic N fertilizations. The plants were grown in split-root pots in a climate-....../diffusive flow to the root surfaces and root N uptake efficiency in the wetting soil and stimulated soil N mineralization and plant N demand, contributing to the improved fertilizer-N use efficiency in the PRI relative to the DI treatment....

  17. Efficiency of Silver Impregnated Porous Pot (SIPP Filters for Production of Clean Potable Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhekie Mamba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Silver Impregnated Porous Pot (SIPP filter is a product of the Tshwane University of Technology manufactured for the production of safe drinking water at a household (home level. Two SIPP devices were assessed for the reduction efficiency of chemical contaminants such as calcium, magnesium, iron, arsenic, fluorides and total organic carbon (TOC as well as microbial contaminants from environmental samples. Turbidity change after filtration, together with correlation between chlorophyll a in the feed water and SIPP’s flow rates were also evaluated in order to give comprehensive guidelines on the quality of intake water that could be filtered through the filter without causing a significant decrease in flow rate. The SIPP filters removed contaminants from environmental water samples as follows: 70% to 92% iron, 36% to 68% calcium, 42% to 82% arsenic, 39% to 98% magnesium, 39% to 95% fluorides, 12% to 35% TOC and 45% to 82% turbidity. The SIPP filters had initial flow rates of 1 L/h to 4 L/h but the flow rates dropped to 0.5 L/h with an increase in cumulative volume of intake water as the filter was used. Turbidity and chemical contaminant reduction rates decreased with accumulating volume of intake water but the filter removed Ca, Fe and Mg to levels that comply with the South African National Standards (SANS 241 and the World Health Organization (WHO guideline values. However, the SIPP filters cannot produce enough water to satisfy the daily drinking water requirement of a typical household (25 L/p·d. Chlorophyll a was associated with a decrease in the flow rate through the SIPP filters.

  18. Evaluation of alternative sorbents for dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up in the QuEChERS method for the determination of pesticide residues in rice by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Liziara da C; Caldas, Sergiane S; Prestes, Osmar D; Primel, Ednei G; Zanella, Renato

    2016-05-01

    Many compounds are used for pest control during the production and storage of rice, making it necessary to employ multiclass methods for pesticide residues determination. For this purpose, QuEChERS-based methods are very efficient, fast and accurate, and improvements in the clean-up step are important, especially for complex matrices, like cereals. In this work, different sorbents such as chitosan, florisil(®) , alumina, diatomaceous earth, graphitized carbon black, besides the commonly used primary secondary amine and octadecylsilane, were evaluated for dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up in acetate-buffered QuEChERS method for the determination of residues of 20 representative pesticides and one metabolite in rice by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The sorbent C18 presented the best results, however, chitosan showed similar results, and the best performance among the unconventional sorbents evaluated. The method limit of quantification, attending accuracy (70-120% recovery) and precision (RSD ≤20%) criteria, ranged from 5 to 20 μg/kg. Results showed that chitosan is an effective alternative to reduce analysis costs, maintaining the method reliability and accuracy.

  19. Heterogeneous photocatalysis on construction materials: effect of catalyst properties on the efficiency for degrading NOx and self cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson, N.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of some properties of different catalysts on the photocatalytic activity. The efficiency has been determined for two different processes: NOx abatement and self-cleaning for Rhodamine B and tobacco extract being, the TiO2 based photocatalyst, supported as coatings on white mortar. Eight different catalysts were tested, seven commercial ones and one home-made catalyst with improved visible light absorption properties. Additionally, some of them were submitted to exposition to water and/or calcinations to alter their physical properties. A kinetic approach was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity, being the first reaction constant (for NO and just empirical constants (for self-cleaning the parameters used for the comparison of the different materials. As a result, the efficiency, even for ranking, is dependent on the type of contaminant used in the experiment. In general, NO oxidation and tobacco followed similar trends while no clear relations were found for Rhodamine B.En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de las propiedades de distintos catalizadores en la actividad fotocatalítica de degradación de NOx y autolimpieza, para Rodamina B y extracto de tabaco. Se han ensayado ocho fotocatalizadores, basados en TiO2 y soportados sobre mortero blanco; siete de ellos comerciales y uno sintetizado en el laboratorio con absorción mejorada en el visible. Adicionalmente, las propiedades físicas de algunos de ellos se alteraron mediante tratamientos con agua y/o por calcinación. La actividad fotocatalítica se ha evaluado mediante aproximación cinética, siendo la constante de reacción de primer orden (para NO y constantes empíricas de ajuste (para autolimpieza los parámetros de comparación entre materiales. Como resultado, la eficiencia depende del contaminante utilizado en el experimento de evaluación. En general, en este estudio, oxidación de NO y de extracto de tabaco presentan tendencias similares

  20. Use of biomass for clean and efficient production of heat and power. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Lans, R. van der; Frandsen, J.B.F.; Johnsson, J.E.; Jensen, A.; Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2001-03-01

    measurement and mathematical modelling of limestone reactivity were conducted. The influence of pH, type and size of limestone and the bulk composition of the solution on the dissolution rate of limestone was investigated. FGD pilot scale experiments were conducted to compare two methods of optimising the wet FGD process, i.e. 1) the use of adipic acid with limestone, and 2) exchange of the limestone with a chalk. Both methods were found to improve the desulphurization efficiency. Presence of HCl in the flue gas was shown to inhibit the limestone dissolution. Mathematical modelling of the FGD process was carried out to obtain a better understanding of the rate determining parameters in the desulphurization process and to provide a tool to aid in process optimization. The modeling results compared favourably with pilot scale results. (au)

  1. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce losses in the cooling source (condenser and to increase effectiveness of fuel-and-power resources utilization, the authors present a modern automatic ball-cleaning system for the pipes of condenser 180-KTsS-1 of turbine unit Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ of Gomel CHP-2. The article examines exploitation challenges of the steam turbine condensers and methods of clearing them from sedimentations. Depending on the sedimentation character and composition, and the quality of cooling water at the power plant, they apply various methods of the condenser tubes clearing: heat drying, vacuum dehydration, acid-washing, pipes-shooting with water and water-air pistols, ablution with high-pressure water jet etc. All the applied cleaning methods are the periodical means to fight the sedimentations and require the turbine halting or unloading, predetermine the equipment operating between clearings with constantly smearing cooling surfaces of the condensers, i.e. with reduced efficiency of equipment operation.The installation of the ball-cleaning system practically excludes defects of the chemical and mechanical cleaning methods, which leads to the condenser pipes life-in-service increase, the full-flow condensate quality improvement, reliability and efficient performance enhancement of the steam turbines equipment. The authors consider developed algorithms of data processing and designed system control of the condenser cleaning that allowed realizing its operation in automatic mode.

  2. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Project Financing Alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W. D.; Hail, John C.; Sullivan, Gregory P.

    2000-02-14

    This document provides findings and recommendations that resulted from an assessment of the Brookhaven National Laboratory by a team from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the site's potential for various alternative financing options as a means to implement energy-efficiency improvements. The assessment looked for life-cycle cost-effective energy-efficiency improvement opportunities, and through a series of staff interviews, evaluated the various methods by which these opportunities may be financed, while considering availability of funds, staff, and available financing options. This report summarizes the findings of the visit and the resulting recommendations.

  3. Intelligent alternator control system - a path to efficient dynamics; Intelligente Generatorregelung - Ein Weg zur effizienten Dynamik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, J.; Frickenstein, E.; Wier, M.; Hafkemeyer, M.; El-Dwaik, F.; Hockgeier, E. [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    In automotive engineering, it would seem - at first glance at least - difficult to simultaneously achieve both efficiency and dynamics in the sense of improved driving performance and fuel economy. The BMW Group has set itself the following goal: to drive innovation in automotive and powertrain engineering for the benefit of its customers. An example is the specific control of the alternator in such a way as to improve driving dynamics and fuel economy. (orig.)

  4. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-02-01

    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ~0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ~10%, which is accompanied by 10-50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy.

  5. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-02-17

    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ∼0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ∼10%, which is accompanied by 10-50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy.

  6. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  7. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  8. Clean option: An alternative strategy for Hanford Tank Waste Remediation. Volume 2, Detailed description of first example flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Disposal of high-level tank wastes at the Hanford Site is currently envisioned to divide the waste between two principal waste forms: glass for the high-level waste (HLW) and grout for the low-level waste (LLW). The draft flow diagram shown in Figure 1.1 was developed as part of the current planning process for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), which is evaluating options for tank cleanup. The TWRS has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to safely manage the Hanford tank wastes. It includes tank safety and waste disposal issues, as well as the waste pretreatment and waste minimization issues that are involved in the ``clean option`` discussed in this report. This report describes the results of a study led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine if a more aggressive separations scheme could be devised which could mitigate concerns over the quantity of the HLW and the toxicity of the LLW produced by the reference system. This aggressive scheme, which would meet NRC Class A restrictions (10 CFR 61), would fit within the overall concept depicted in Figure 1.1; it would perform additional and/or modified operations in the areas identified as interim storage, pretreatment, and LLW concentration. Additional benefits of this scheme might result from using HLW and LLW disposal forms other than glass and grout, but such departures from the reference case are not included at this time. The evaluation of this aggressive separations scheme addressed institutional issues such as: radioactivity remaining in the Hanford Site LLW grout, volume of HLW glass that must be shipped offsite, and disposition of appropriate waste constituents to nonwaste forms.

  9. Dilemma in new clean and renewable energy alternatives for Santa Elena and its university. Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreano, Hernan [Universidad Estatal Peninsula de Santa Elena (Ecuador). Inst. de Investigacion Cientifica y Desarrollo Tecnologico (INCYT)

    2011-07-01

    The fate of finite fossil fuel sources for the coming decades and the need to migrate to renewable energy in a joint effort among governments, academia and private companies which make business in the energy arena are discussed and also the energy balance in Ecuador which shows a strong dependence of fossil fuels to satisfy demand from both: thermoelectric plants and transport, however, Santa Elena, the newly created province at the south western of Ecuador has the chance to turn the country energy situation into an opportunity and face the challenge to be the leader in energy alternatives because of its resources and chances to migrate sooner to environmental friendly fuels and later on to renewable energies, but a number of actions should be taken in a joint effort with its local university (UPSE), government bodies and private companies in order to create the ''Campus of Energy Knowledge'' to carry out the program: Energy Alternatives for Santa Elena, which includes 7 projects to make the province a leader one on the energy issue in Ecuador and in the continent, acting on a cluster initiative scheme. (orig.)

  10. Energy Efficiency Under Alternative Carbon Policies. Incentives, Measurement, and Interregional Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boyd, Erin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-28

    In this report, we examine and compare how tradable mass-based polices and tradable rate-based policies create different incentives for energy efficiency investments. Through a generalized demonstration and set of examples, we show that as a result of the output subsidy they create, traditional rate-based policies, those that do not credit energy savings from efficiency measures, reduce the incentive for investment in energy efficiency measures relative to an optimally designed mass-based policy or equivalent carbon tax. We then show that this reduced incentive can be partially addressed by modifying the rate-based policy such that electricity savings from energy efficiency measures are treated as a source of zero-carbon generation within the framework of the standard, or equivalently, by assigning avoided emissions credit to the electricity savings at the rate of the intensity target. These approaches result in an extension of the output subsidy to efficiency measures and eliminate the distortion between supply-side and demand-side options for GHG emissions reduction. However, these approaches do not address electricity price distortions resulting from the output subsidy that also impact the value of efficiency measures. Next, we assess alternative approaches for crediting energy efficiency savings within the framework of a rate-based policy. Finally, we identify a number of challenges that arise in implementing a rate-based policy with efficiency crediting, including the requirement to develop robust estimates of electricity savings in order to assess compliance, and the requirement to track the regionality of the generation impacts of efficiency measures to account for their interstate effects.

  11. A research needs assessment: Energy efficient alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Final reprot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum -- based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are present. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  12. Cryopreservation in Closed Bag Systems as an Alternative to Clean Rooms for Preparations of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerl, Silvia; Peter, Robert; Krackhardt, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) represents a therapeutic option widely used for hematopoietic malignancies. One important milestone in the development of this treatment strategy was the development of effective cryopreservation technologies resulting in a high quality with respect to cell viability as well as lack of contamination of the graft.Stem cell preparations have been initially performed within standard laboratories as it is routinely still the case in many countries. With the emergence of cleanrooms, manufacturing of stem cell preparations within these facilities has become a new standard mandatory in Europe. However, due to high costs and laborious procedures, novel developments recently emerged using closed bag systems as reliable alternatives to conventional cleanrooms. Several hurdles needed to be overcome including the addition of the cryoprotectant dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a relevant manipulation. As a result of the development, closed bag systems proved to be comparable in terms of product quality and patient outcome to cleanroom products. They also comply with the strict regulations of good manufacturing practice.With closed systems being available, costs and efforts of a cleanroom facility may be substantially reduced in the future. The process can be easily extended for other cell preparations requiring minor modifications as donor lymphocyte preparations. Moreover, novel developments may provide solutions for the production of advanced-therapy medicinal products in closed systems.

  13. Determination of loss of efficiency photovoltaic panel function of cleaning; Influencia do acumulo de poeira sobre a eficiencia de um painel fotovoltaico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, Roger N. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Catarinense (IFC), Luzerna, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: roger@ifc-videira.edu.br; Gnoatto, Estor; Ferruzzi, Yuri; Kavanagh, Edward [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Melo, Dirceu de [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Chapeco, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The use of photovoltaic panels to generate electricity is growing into a worldwide basis. This generation system has a low efficiency, so it is necessary to know the panels will be used, the load will be fed and factors that may influence the operation and performance. The main factors are: radiation, temperature, angle of installation and level the dirt on the surface of the panel. This study aimed to show the difference in efficiency between two sets of photovoltaic panels, one clean and one dirty, the average difference is 16.26%, thus demonstrating the importance of making regular cleaning of photovoltaic panels, and these data can extended to other types of photovoltaic modules. (author)

  14. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  15. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  16. Replacement of Natural Sand with Efficient Alternatives: Recent Advances in Concrete Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzar Hamid Mir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most undisputable material being used in infrastructure development throughout the world. It is a globally accepted construction material in all types of Civil Engineering structures. Natural sand is a prime material used for the preparation of concrete and also plays an important role in Mix Design. Now a day‟s river erosion and other environmental issues have led to the scarcity of river sand. The reduction in the sources of natural sand and the requirement for reduction in the cost of concrete production has resulted in the increased need to find new alternative materials to replace river sand so that excess river erosion is prevented and high strength concrete is obtained at lower cost. Partial or full replacement of natural sand by the other alternative materials like quarry dust, foundry sand and others are being researched from past two decades, in view of conserving the ecological balance. This paper summarizes conclusions of experiments conducted for the properties like strength, durability etc. It was observed the results have shown positive changes and improvement in mechanical properties of the conventional concrete due to the addition or replacement of fine sand with efficient alternatives.

  17. Elaboration of a Program to Facilitate the Implementation of the Directive 2009/33/EC on the Promotion of Clean and Energy-Efficient Road Motor Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztián Uhlik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption, carbon-dioxide and other air pollutant emissions of motor vehicles can be reduced substantially by various recently developed technical solutions. The use of these new technologies increases the price of the vehicles which causes an unwanted economic burden for the purchasers of such vehicles. The market competition between manufacturers requires low prices which delays the adaptation of the new, more efficient technologies. The recently enacted legislation, aimed at the promotion of purchasing clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles, intends to remedy this problem.

  18. Resource efficiency and economic implications of alternatives to surgical castration without anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roest, K; Montanari, C; Fowler, T; Baltussen, W

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the economic implications of alternative methods to surgical castration without anaesthesia. Detailed research results on the economic implications of four different alternatives are reported: castration with local anaesthesia, castration with general anaesthesia, immunocastration and raising entire males. The first three alternatives have been assessed for their impact on pig production costs in the most important pig-producing Member States of the EU. The findings on castration with anaesthesia show that cost differences among farms increase if the anaesthesia cannot be administered by farmers and when the veterinarian has to be called to perform it. The cost of veterinarian service largely affects the total average costs, making this solution economically less feasible in small-scale pig farms. In all other farms, the impact on production costs of local anaesthesia is however limited and does not exceed 1 €ct per kg. General anaesthesia administered by inhalation or injection of Ketamin in combination with a sedative (Azaperone, Midazolan) is more expensive. These costs depend heavily on farm size, as the inhalation equipment has to be depreciated on the largest number of pigs possible. The overall costs of immunocastration - including the cost of the work load for the farmer - has to be evaluated against the potential benefits derived from higher daily weight gain and feed efficiency in comparison with surgical castrates. The economic feasibility of this practice will finally depend on the price of the vaccine and on consumer acceptance of immunocastration. The improvement in feed efficiency may compensate almost entirely for the cost of vaccination. The main advantages linked to raising entire males are due to the higher efficiency of feed conversion, to the better growth rate and to the higher leanness of carcass. A higher risk of boar taint on the slaughter line has to be accounted for. Raising entire males should not

  19. Financing the clean development mechanism through debt-for-efficiency swaps? Case study evidence from a Uruguayan wind farm project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassimon, Danny; Prowse, Martin; Essers, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    As one of Kyoto’s three flexibility mechanisms for reducing the cost of compliance, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows the issuance of Certified Emission Reduction (CER) credits from offset projects in non-Annex I countries. Whilst much attention has focused on the widespread use...

  20. Energy efficiency and CDM (Clean Development Mechanism): an attractive combination?; Eficiencia energetica e MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo): uma combinacao atrativa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de; Silva, Pedro Paulo [Programa GERBI - Reducao da Emissao de Gases Causadores do Efeito Estufa na Industria Brasileira, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti [PETROBRAS S.A., Pojuca, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Gas Natural (UNGN)

    2004-07-01

    The agreements that defined associated practices to the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) include energy efficiency in end users as a possible candidate to CDM eligibility. Worldwide, the experience of using 'carbon credits' resulted from reduced emissions in end users, as consequence of increased energy efficiency in processes, is limited. The paper presents preliminary conclusions of case studies developed by GERBI, evaluating the emissions reduction potential achieved by energy efficiency improvements in industrial processes, as well as financial impacts due to emissions reduction certificates traded. The paper considers a simplified methodology for feasibility analysis, but with necessary information to demonstrate how CDM and Energy Efficiency combination can support the decision for project implementation. (author)

  1. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  2. Novel-structured electrospun TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers for high efficient photocatalytic cogeneration of clean water and energy from dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Siang; Bai, Hongwei; Liu, Zhaoyang; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-08-01

    It is still a challenge to photocatalytically cogenerate clean water and energy from dye wastewater owing to the relatively low photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts. In this study, novel-structured TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated via facile electrospinning. For the first time, the TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers demonstrated multifunctional ability for concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and H2 generation from dye wastewater. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers was ascribed to its excellent synergy of physicochemical properties: 1) mesoporosity and large specific surface area for efficient substrate adsorption, mass transfer and light harvesting; 2) red-shift of the absorbance spectra for enhanced light utilization; 3) long nanofibrous structure for efficient charge transfer and ease of recovery, 4) TiO2/CuO heterojunctions which enhance the separation of electrons and holes and 5) presence of CuO which serve as co-catalyst for the H2 production. The TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers also exhibited rapid settleability by gravity and uncompromised reusability. Thus, the as-synthesized TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers represent a promising candidate for highly efficient concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and clean energy production from dye wastewater.

  3. Efficiency and exhaust gas analysis of variable compression ratio spark ignition engine fuelled with alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Seshaiah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering energy crises and pollution problems today, investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products. In the present work, the variable compression ratio spark ignition engine designed to run on gasoline has been tested with pure gasoline, LPG (Isobutene, and gasoline blended with ethanol 10%, 15%, 25% and 35% by volume. Also, the gasoline mixed with kerosene at 15%, 25% and 35% by volume without any engine modifications has been tested and presented the result. Brake thermal and volumetric efficiency variation with brake load is compared and presented. CO and CO2 emissions have been also compared for all tested fuels.

  4. Enhanced brain targeting efficiency of intranasally administered plasmid DNA: an alternative route for brain gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In-Kwon; Kim, Mi Young; Byun, Hyang-Min; Hwang, Tae Sun; Kim, Jung Mogg; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Park, Tae Gwan; Jung, Woon-Won; Chun, Taehoon; Jeong, Gil-Jae; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Recently, nasal administration has been studied as a noninvasive route for delivery of plasmid DNA encoding therapeutic or antigenic genes. Here, we examined the brain targeting efficiency and transport pathways of intranasally administered plasmid DNA. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) measurements of plasmid DNA in blood and brain tissues revealed that intranasally administered pCMVbeta (7.2 kb) and pN2/CMVbeta (14.1 kb) showed systemic absorption and brain distribution. Following intranasal administration, the beta-galactosidase protein encoded by these plasmids was significantly expressed in brain tissues. Kinetic studies showed that intranasally administered plasmid DNA reached the brain with a 2,595-fold higher efficiency than intravenously administered plasmid DNA did, 10 min post-dose. Over 1 h post-dose, the brain targeting efficiencies were consistently higher for intranasally administered plasmid DNA than for intravenously administered DNA. To examine how plasmid DNA enters the brain and moves to the various regions, we examined tissues from nine brain regions, at 5 and 10 min after intranasal or intravenous administration of plasmid DNA. Intravenously administered plasmid DNA displayed similar levels of plasmid DNA in the nine different regions, whereas, intranasally administered plasmid DNA exhibited different levels of distribution among the regions, with the highest plasmid DNA levels in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, plasmid DNA was mainly detected in the endothelial cells, but not in glial cells. Our results suggest that intranasally applied plasmid DNA may reach the brain through a direct route, possibly via the olfactory bulb, and that the nasal route might be an alternative method for efficiently delivering plasmid DNA to the brain.

  5. Efficient automatic classifiers for the detection of A phases of the cyclic alternating pattern in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Sara; Manfredini, Elena; Rosso, Valentina; Grassi, Andrea; Mendez, Martin O; Alba, Alfonso; Matteucci, Matteo; Parrino, Liborio; Terzano, Mario G; Cerutti, Sergio; Bianchi, Anna M

    2012-04-01

    This study aims to develop an automatic detector of the A phases of the cyclic alternating pattern, periodic activity that generally occurs during non-REM (NREM) sleep. Eight polysomnographic recordings from healthy subjects were examined. From EEG recordings, five band descriptors, an activity descriptor and a variance descriptor were extracted and used to train different machine-learning algorithms. A visual scoring provided by an expert clinician was used as golden standard. Four alternative mathematical machine-learning techniques were implemented: (1) discriminant classifier, (2) support vector machines, (3) adaptive boosting, and (4) supervised artificial neural network. The results of the classification, compared with the visual analysis, showed average accuracies equal to 84.9 and 81.5% for the linear discriminant and the neural network, respectively, while AdaBoost had a slightly lower accuracy, equal to 79.4%. The SVM leads to accuracy of 81.9%. The performance achieved by the automatic classification is encouraging, since an efficient automatic classifier would benefit the practice in everyday clinics, preventing the physician from the time-consuming activity of the visually scoring of the sleep microstructure over whole 8-h sleep recordings. Finally, the classification based on learning algorithms would provide an objective criterion, overcoming the problems of inter-scorer disagreement.

  6. The Codacs™ direct acoustic cochlear implant actuator: exploring alternative stimulation sites and their stimulation efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grossöhmichen

    Full Text Available This work assesses the efficiency of the Codacs system actuator (Cochlear Ltd., Sydney Australia in different inner ear stimulation modalities. Originally the actuator was intended for direct perilymph stimulation after stapedotomy using a piston prosthesis. A possible alternative application is the stimulation of middle ear structures or the round window (RW. Here the perilymph stimulation with a K-piston through a stapes footplate (SFP fenestration (N = 10 as well as stimulation of the stapes head (SH with a Bell prosthesis (N = 9, SFP stimulation with an Omega/Aerial prosthesis (N = 8 and reverse RW stimulation (N = 10 were performed in cadaveric human temporal bones (TBs. Codacs actuator output is expressed as equivalent sound pressure level (eq. SPL using RW and SFP displacement responses, measured by Laser Doppler velocimetry as reference. The axial actuator coupling force in stimulation of stapes and RW was adjusted to ~5 mN. The Bell prosthesis and Omega/Aerial prosthesis stimulation generated similar mean eq. SPLs (Bell: 127.5-141.8 eq. dB SPL; Omega/Aerial: 123.6-143.9 eq. dB SPL, being significantly more efficient than K-piston perilymph stimulation (108.6-131.6 eq. dB SPL and RW stimulation (108.3-128.2 eq. dB SPL. Our results demonstrate that SH, SFP and RW are adequate alternative stimulation sites for the Codacs actuator using coupling prostheses and an axial coupling force of ~5 mN. Based on the eq. SPLs, all investigated methods were adequate for in vivo hearing aid applications, provided that experimental conditions including constant coupling force will be implemented.

  7. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 survey. R and D of high efficiency clean energy vehicles; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu clean energy jidosha no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of developing an automobile which keeps low pollution using petroleum substituting clean energy, decreases the running energy consumption to a half at least, and reduces the CO2 emission to less than a half of the conventional one at the same time, the R and D started in fiscal 1997. As to the study of a high efficiency hybrid power system, conducted were the prediction of fuel consumption performance of the system proposed, evaluation of element technology using hybrid simulator, evaluation experiment on a new hybrid vehicle, and grasp of overseas trends. In relation to the development of hybrid vehicles, the following were studied: methanol fuel cell loading hybrid vehicle, CNG engine loading hybrid vehicle, CNG ceramic engine loading hybrid truck, CNG lean burn engine loading hybrid truck, LNG engine loading hybrid bus, and DME engine loading hybrid bus. Besides, a survey on synthetic fuel and the related survey were carried out. 17 refs., 185 figs., 101 tabs.

  8. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  9. 我国煤炭高效洁净利用新技术%New Technology of Coal High Efficient and Cleaning Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金华

    2012-01-01

    The high efficient and clean utilization of coal is the effective access to realize the energy saving and emission reduction.Based on the circumstances,the paper introduced the technical principle,innovations,technical advantage and promotion conditions of the three new technologies of the coal high efficient and clean utilization,including the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology,the coal water mixture preparation and new technology application and the dry flue gas cleaning technology of the active coke.In combination with the present actual conditions,the development orientation of the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology as pointed would be finally to set up the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology system with the deep systematic study on the clean pulverized coal preparation technology,the pulverized coal logistic and distribution technology,the pulverized coal boiler combustion and cleaning technology as well as the commercialized operation mode.The gasification coal water mixture prepared with the mine water and the long distance pipeline transportation would be the development orientation of the gasification coal water mixture.The dry flue gas cleaning technology of active coke would be suitable applied to the zone lacking of water resources and the development direction in the near future would be to improve the performances of the active coke,to reduce the technique cost,to improve the de-nitre capacity,to simplify the technique procedure and to have the removing and regeneration completed in a device.%煤炭的高效洁净利用是实现节能减排的有效途径,基于此,对我国目前煤炭高效洁净利用3项新技术(高效煤粉工业锅炉技术、水煤浆制备和应用新技术、活性焦干法烟气净化技术)的技术原理、创新点、技术优点及推广情况进行了介绍。结合当前实际,指出高效煤粉工业锅炉技术的发展方向是通过对

  10. Gas Cleaning System with a Pre-Unloading Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilevsky Michail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the causes and mechanisms reduce the efficiency of processes separation in cyclone devices, the results of field surveys of industrial cyclone. It offers an alternative solution to clean the flue gases from the boiler KE-10/14.

  11. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 2014 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    Spring 2014 edition of the biannual newsletter of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program. Each issue contains program news, success stories, and information about tools and resources to assist in the deployment of alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, idle reduction, fuel efficiency improvements, and other measures to cut petroleum use in transportation.

  12. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  13. Efficient sample clean-up and online preconcentration for sensitive determination of melamine in milk samples by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan-ling; Chen, Xiao-wei; Zhang, Zhu-bao; Li, Jing; Xie, Tian-yao

    2014-10-01

    Based on an efficient sample clean-up and field-amplified sample injection online preconcentration technique in capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection, a new analytical method for the sensitive determination of melamine in milk samples was established. In order to remove the complex matrix interference, which resulted in a serious problem during field-amplified sample injection, liquid-liquid extraction was utilized. As a result, liquid-liquid extraction provides excellent sample clean-up efficiency when ethyl acetate was used as organic extraction by adjusting the pH of the sample solution to 9.5. Both inorganic salts and biological macromolecules are effectively removed by liquid-liquid extraction. The sample clean-up procedure, capillary electrophoresis separation parameters and field-amplified sample injection conditions are discussed in detail. The capillary electrophoresis separation was achieved within 5 min under the following conditions: an uncoated fused-silica capillary, 12 mM HAc + 10 mM NaAc (pH = 4.6) as running buffer, separation voltage of +13 kV, electrokinetic injection of +12 kV × 10 s. Preliminary validation of the method performance with spiked melamine provided recoveries >90%, with limits of detection and quantification of 0.015 and 0.050 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day were below 6%. This newly developed method is sensitive and cost effective, therefore, suitable for screening of melamine contamination in milk products.

  14. Slip-stacked perylenediimides as an alternative strategy for high efficiency nonfullerene acceptors in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Patrick E; Timalsina, Amod; Matte, H S S Ramakrishna; Zhou, Nanjia; Guo, Xugang; Zhao, Wei; Facchetti, Antonio; Chang, Robert P H; Hersam, Mark C; Wasielewski, Michael R; Marks, Tobin J

    2014-11-19

    Perylenediimide (PDI)-based acceptors offer a potential replacement for fullerenes in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs). The most promising efforts have focused on creating twisted PDI dimers to disrupt aggregation and thereby suppress excimer formation. Here, we present an alternative strategy for developing high-performance OPVs based on PDI acceptors that promote slip-stacking in the solid state, thus preventing the coupling necessary for rapid excimer formation. This packing structure is accomplished by substitution at the PDI 2,5,8,11-positions ("headland positions"). Using this design principle, three PDI acceptors, N,N-bis(n-octyl)-2,5,8,11-tetra(n-hexyl)-PDI (Hexyl-PDI), N,N-bis(n-octyl)-2,5,8,11-tetraphenethyl-PDI (Phenethyl-PDI), and N,N-bis(n-octyl)-2,5,8,11-tetraphenyl-PDI (Phenyl-PDI), were synthesized, and their molecular and electronic structures were characterized. They were then blended with the donor polymer PBTI3T, and inverted OPVs of the structure ITO/ZnO/Active Layer/MoO3/Ag were fabricated and characterized. Of these, 1:1 PBTI3T:Phenyl-PDI proved to have the best performance with Jsc = 6.56 mA/cm(2), Voc = 1.024 V, FF = 54.59%, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) = 3.67%. Devices fabricated with Phenethyl-PDI and Hexyl-PDI have significantly lower performance. The thin film morphology and the electronic and photophysical properties of the three materials are examined, and although all three materials undergo efficient charge separation, PBTI3T:Phenyl-PDI is found to have the deepest LUMO, intermediate crystallinity, and the most well-mixed domains. This minimizes geminate recombination in Phenyl-PDI OPVs and affords the highest PCE. Thus, slip-stacked PDI strategies represent a promising approach to fullerene replacements in BHJ OPVs.

  15. Resource efficiency and economic implications of alternatives to surgical castration without anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, de K.; Montanari, C.; Fowler, T.; Baltussen, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the economic implications of alternative methods to surgical castration without anaesthesia. Detailed research results on the economic implications of four different alternatives are reported. castration with local anaesthesia, castration with general anaesthesia,

  16. Performance and energy efficiency of alternative comminution principles: Chipping versus grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Magagnotti, Natascia; Nati, Carla (CNR IVALSA, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)); Cavallo, Eugenio; Facello, Alessio; Paletto, Giuseppe (CNR IMAMOTER, Torino (Italy))

    2012-05-15

    Comminution is a critical process in biomass supply chains and can be conducted with either chippers or grinders. These machines use different work tools(knives and hammers, respectively) and are applied to different feedstock types, but few studies are available on the inherent differences between the two technologies. A versatile grinder, alternatively equipped with hammers and knives, was studied to investigate the effect of tool type on machine productivity, fuel consumption, and product quality.The machine was powered by an agricultural tractor rigged with a flow meter, a torque meter, and shaft revolution meter for determining fuel consumption, power output, and engine speed. Three different feedstock types were processed: discarded pallets, solid logs, and residues from park maintenance, the latter consisting of branches from ornamental tree and shrub species. Depending on feedstock type, the knife configuration was 30 - 80 % (average 50 %) more productive than the hammer configuration and required 15 - 30 % (average 24 %) less energy per unit of product. Fuel consumption per dry ton was 30 - 75 % (average 52 %) higher for the hammer configuration. That held true for all feedstock types. Product quality was better for the knife configuration, except for park maintenance residues. In general, hammers should be limited to product with severe contamination that prevents the efficient use of knives

  17. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous

  18. CFD simulation and energy efficient analysis of stratified cleaning in large-space clean factory buildings%高大洁净厂房分层净化CFD模拟与节能性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秀芳; 肖武; 赵彬

    2012-01-01

    分析了高大洁净厂房的空间特点、使用时间特点、净化负荷特点,提出了在高度上分层的净化空调方案.采用CFD模拟了某高大洁净厂房采用分层净化空调时的气流组织,浓度场、温度场的模拟结果表明,该方案适用于高大洁净厂房.%Analyses the characteristics of space, service time and cleaning load in the building, and provides the stratified cleaning air conditioning scheme. Simulates the air distribution of stratified cleaning air conditioning in a large-space clean factory building with CFD. The concentration and temperature fields obtained show that the stratified cleaning air conditioning scheme suits for large-space clean factory buildings.

  19. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  20. Efficient decomposition of perfluorocarboxylic acids and alternative fluorochemical surfactants in hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hisao; Nagaoka, Yumiko; Murayama, Misako; Kutsuna, Shuzo

    2008-10-01

    Decomposition of C5-C9 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroether carboxylic acids (alternatives to PFCA-based surfactants) in hot water in a sealed reactor was investigated. Although PFCAs showed almost no decomposition in hot water at 80 degrees C in the absence of persulfate (S2O8(2-)), the addition of S2O8(2-) to the reaction system led to efficient decomposition, even at this relatively low temperature. The major products in the aqueous and gas phases were F- ions and CO2, respectively, and short-chain PFCAs were also detected in the aqueous phase. For example, when an aqueous solution containing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 374 microM) and S2O8(2-) (50.0 mM) was heated at 80 degrees C for 6 h, PFOA concentration in the aqueous phase fell below 1.52 microM (detection limit of HPLC with conductometric detection), and the yields of F- ions [i.e., (moles of F- formed) /(moles of fluorine content in initial PFOA)] and CO2 [i.e, (moles of CO2 formed) /(moles of carbon content in initial PFOA)] were 77.5% and 70.2%, respectively. This method was also effective in decomposing perfluoroether carboxylic acids, such as CF3OC2F4OCF2COOH, CF3OC2F4OC2F4OCF2COOH, and C2F5OC2F4OCF2COOH, which are alternatives to PFCA-based surfactants, producing F- and CO2 with yields of 82.9-88.9% and 87.7-100%, respectively, after reactions at 80 degrees C for 6 h. In addition, the method was successfully used to decompose perfluorononanoic acid in a floor wax solution. When PFOAwastreated at a higher temperature (150 degrees C), other decomposition reactions occurred: the formation of F- and CO2 was dramatically decreased, and 1H-perfluoroalkanes (C(n)F(2n+1)H, n = 4-7) formed in large amounts. This result clearly indicates that treatment with high-temperature water was not suitable for the decomposition of PFCAs to F-: surprisingly, the relatively low temperature of 80 degrees C was preferable.

  1. An alternative synthetic approach for efficient catalytic conversion of syngas to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Hairong; Ma, Xinbin; Gong, Jinlong

    2014-05-20

    Ethanol is an attractive end product and a versatile feedstock because a widespread market exists for its commercial use as a fuel additive or a potential substitute for gasoline. Currently, ethanol is produced primarily by fermentation of biomass-derived sugars, particularly those containing six carbons, but coproducts 5-carbon sugars and lignin remain unusable. Another major process for commercial production of ethanol is hydration of ethylene over solid acidic catalysts, yet not sustainable considering the depletion of fossil fuels. Catalytic conversion of synthetic gas (CO + H2) could produce ethanol in large quantities. However, the direct catalytic conversion of synthetic gas to ethanol remains challenging, and no commercial process exists as of today although the research has been ongoing for the past 90 years, since such the process suffers from low yield and poor selectivity due to slow kinetics of the initial C-C bond formation and fast chain growth of the C2 intermediates. This Account describes recent developments in an alternative approach for the synthesis of ethanol via synthetic gas. This process is an integrated technology consisting of the coupling of CO with methanol to form dimethyl oxalate and the subsequent hydrogenation to yield ethanol. The byproduct of the second step (methanol) can be separated and used in circulation as the feedstock for the coupling step. The coupling reaction of carbon monoxide for producing dimethyl oxalate takes place under moderate reaction conditions with high selectivity (∼95%), which ideally leads to a self-closing, nonwaste, catalytic cycling process. This Account also summarizes the progress on the development of copper-based catalysts for the hydrogenation reaction with remarkable efficiencies and stability. The unique lamellar structure and the cooperative effect between surface Cu(0) and Cu(+) species are responsible for the activity of the catalyst with high yield of ethanol (∼91%). The understanding of

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Kk of... - Data Quality Objective and Lower Confidence Limit Approaches for Alternative Capture Efficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data Quality Objective and Lower Confidence Limit Approaches for Alternative Capture Efficiency Protocols and Test Methods A Appendix A to Subpart KK of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...

  3. A versatile elevated-pressure reactor combined with an ultrahigh vacuum surface setup for efficient testing of model and powder catalysts under clean gas-phase conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfin, Franck; Piccolo, Laurent [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l' environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), UMR 5256 CNRS and Université Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-09-15

    A small-volume reaction cell for catalytic or photocatalytic testing of solid materials at pressures up to 1000 Torr has been coupled to a surface-science setup used for standard sample preparation and characterization under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The reactor and sample holder designs allow easy sample transfer from/to the UHV chamber, and investigation of both planar and small amounts of powder catalysts under the same conditions. The sample is heated with an infrared laser beam and its temperature is measured with a compact pyrometer. Combined in a regulation loop, this system ensures fast and accurate temperature control as well as clean heating. The reaction products are automatically sampled and analyzed by mass spectrometry and/or gas chromatography (GC). Unlike previous systems, our GC apparatus does not use a recirculation loop and allows working in clean conditions at pressures as low as 1 Torr while detecting partial pressures smaller than 10{sup −4} Torr. The efficiency and versatility of the reactor are demonstrated in the study of two catalytic systems: butadiene hydrogenation on Pd(100) and CO oxidation over an AuRh/TiO{sub 2} powder catalyst.

  4. Investigation into environmentally friendly alternative cleaning processes for hybrid microcircuits to replace vapor degreasing with 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, B.E.

    1997-02-01

    Two cleaning processes, one aqueous and one nonaqueous, were investigated as potential replacements for the vapor degreasing process using 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) for hybrid microcircuit assemblies. The aqueous process was based upon saponification chemistry. A 10% solution of either Kester 5768 or Armakleen 2001, heated to 140 F, was sprayed on the hybrid at 450 psig and a flow rate of 5 gpm through a specially designed nozzle which created microdroplets. The nonaqueous process was based upon dissolution chemistry and used d-limonene as the solvent in an immersion and spray process. The d-limonene solvent was followed by an isopropyl alcohol spray rinse to remove the excess d-limonene. The aqueous microdroplet process was found to be successful only for solder reflow profiles that did not exceed 210 C. Furthermore, removal of component marking was a problem and the spray pressure had to be reduced to 130 psig to eliminate damage to capacitor end caps. The d-limonene cleaning was found to be successful for solder reflow temperature up to 250 C when using a four-step cleaning process. The four steps included refluxing the hybrid at 80 C, followed by soaking the hybrid in d-limonene which is heated to 80 C, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature d-limonene, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature IPA was developed to remove residual flux from the hybrid microcircuits. This process was the most robust and most closely matched the cleaning ability of TCA.

  5. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  6. Efficient multi-keV x-ray generation from a high-Z target irradiated with a clean ultra-short laser pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Nishikino, M; Nishimura, H; Kawachi, T; Pirozhkov, A S; Sagisaka, A; Orimo, S; Ogura, K; Yogo, A; Okano, Y; Ohshima, S; Fujioka, S; Kiriyama, H; Kondo, K; Shimomura, T; Kanazawa, S

    2011-02-28

    Kα line emissions from Mo and Ag plates were experimentally studied using clean, ultrahigh-intensity femtosecond laser pulses. The absolute yields of Kα x-rays at 17 keV from Mo and 22 keV from Ag were measured as a function of the laser pulse contrast ratio and irradiation intensity. Significantly enhanced Kα yields were obtained for both Mo and Ag by employing high contrast ratios and irradiances. Conversion efficiencies of 4.28×10⁻⁵/sr for Mo and 4.84×10⁻⁵/sr for Ag, the highest values obtained to date, were demonstrated with contrast ratios in the range 10⁻¹⁰ to 10⁻¹¹.

  7. 78 FR 79579 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Efficiency 5% (0.05) Thermal Efficiency... 5% (0.05) Commercial Water Heaters or Hot Thermal Efficiency... 5... electric storage water heaters [cir] Commercial gas-fired and oil-fired storage water heaters [cir] Commercial gas-fired and oil-fired instantaneous water heaters greater than or equal to 10 gallons...

  8. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes: The case of Dutch horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der A.J.; Withagen, C.; Folmer, H.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter environ

  9. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes : The case of Dutch horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, Arno J.; Withagen, Cees; Folmer, Henk

    2007-01-01

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter environ

  10. Eco-efficient Value Creation: An Alternative Perspective on Packaging and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Vogtländer, J.

    2012-01-01

    The classical sustainability perspective on packaging is to reduce the environmental impact or eco burden of the packaging, using life cycle assessment to evaluate different design alternatives. Simultaneously, the classical marketing perspective on packaging is to generate value through differentia

  11. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  12. The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions. Final report; Erstellung einer Prozesslinie fuer `High-Efficiency`-Silicium-Solarzellen unter Reinraumbedingungen; Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberle, A.; Faller, C.; Grille, T.; Glunz, S.; Kamerewerd, F.J.; Kopp, J.; Knobloch, J.; Klussmann, S.; Lauby, E.; Noel, A.; Paul, O.; Schaeffer, E.; Schubert, U.; Seitz, S.; Sterk, S.; Voss, B.; Warta, W.; Wettling, W.

    1992-08-01

    The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI) [Deutsch] Erstellung und Erprobung eines Reinraum-Technologielabors fuer die Herstellung von Si-Solarzellen mit Wirkungsgraden von 20% (AM1.5). Neben der Einrichtung des Labors bestand die Aufgabe darin, die physikalischen und technologischen Grundlagen der ``High-efficiency``-Solarzelle zu erarbeiten, alle Prozessschritte zu erproben und zu optimieren, sowie Messplaetze fuer begleitende Charakterisierungsarbeiten zu erstellen. Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht beschreibt den Aufbau der Labor- und Charakterisierungseinrichtungen, die physikalischen Grundlagen der ``High-efficiency``-Solarzelle, sowie die wichtigsten Ergebnisse der Solarzellenherstellung und -optimierung. (orig./BWI)

  13. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Ralph [Auburn University, AL (United States); Schindler, Anton [Auburn University, AL (United States); Duke, Steve [Auburn University, AL (United States); Burch, Thom [Auburn University, AL (United States); Bransby, David [Auburn University, AL (United States); Stafford, Don [Lafarge North America, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  14. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Heat and Power for the 21st Century, Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    This overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program describes the program's focus and goals, along with current fuel cell applications and future potential. The program focuses on research and development of fuel cell systems for diverse applications in the stationary power, portable power, and transportation sectors. It works to reduce costs and improve technologies to advance fuel cell uses in areas such as combined heat and power, auxiliary power units, portable power systems, and stationary and backup power. To help ensure that fuel cell advances are realized, the program rigorously analyzes energy efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits of fuel cells and seeks to optimize synergies among fuel cell applications and other renewable technologies.

  15. An Energy-efficient and Clean Spray Drying Technology%节能型清洁喷雾干燥技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志远; 贾敏

    2016-01-01

    The traditional catalyst spray drying system usually uses direct drying process, the carrier gas contacts with materials directly, this method can pollute some special catalysts to influence the quality of the final product, and direct discharge of the high temperature exhaust gas into the atmosphere can cause heat loss. So an energy-efficient and clean spray drying technology for catalyst preparation has been developed. The spray drying technology uses the indirect stove with new structure to supply clean and dry hot air, and uses the half-cycle technology to reuse part of the high temperature exhaust gas.%传统的催化剂喷雾干燥系统多采用直接干燥工艺,载气与待干燥物料直接接触换热,这样会对某些特性的催化剂造成污染,影响产品的最终品质,且高温尾气不经回收直接排入大气,造成热量损失。基于此,开发了一种节能型催化剂清洁喷雾干燥技术,即:利用新型结构的间接式热风炉提供清洁的干燥热风,利用尾气半循环使部分高温清洁尾气回用,实现了节能型、清洁型喷雾干燥工艺。

  16. Strategy for diffusion of alternative energy sources and energetic efficiency; Uma estrategia de divulgacao de energias alternativas e eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Hamilton Moss de; Aguiar, Joao Carlos; Sa, Antonio Leite de; Galdino, Marco Antonio [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dutra, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Pierre T. [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borges, Hortencio A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates the results obtained up to the present from a technological divulgation strategy which resulted into a cooperation program between the CEPEL and the University-Society Integration Program (PIUES) that is been conducted by the catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. That cooperation was initially restricted to the divulgation and stimulation of technical teaching of alternative energy sources, particularly solar energy, being posteriorly extended to the energy efficiency techniques.

  17. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  18. Reliable wet-chemical cleaning of natively oxidized high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jascha; Lehmann, Sebastian; Lauermann, Iver; Rissom, Thorsten; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Bär, Marcus; Sadewasser, Sascha

    2014-12-01

    Currently, Cu-containing chalcopyrite-based solar cells provide the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies. They have reached efficiency values above 20%, the same performance level as multi-crystalline silicon-wafer technology that dominates the commercial PV market. Chalcopyrite thin-film heterostructures consist of a layer stack with a variety of interfaces between different materials. It is the chalcopyrite/buffer region (forming the p-n junction), which is of crucial importance and therefore frequently investigated using surface and interface science tools, such as photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. To ensure comparability and validity of the results, a general preparation guide for "realistic" surfaces of polycrystalline chalcopyrite thin films is highly desirable. We present results on wet-chemical cleaning procedures of polycrystalline Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin films with an average x = [Ga]/([In] + [Ga]) = 0.29, which were exposed to ambient conditions for different times. The hence natively oxidized sample surfaces were etched in KCN- or NH3-based aqueous solutions. By x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we find that the KCN treatment results in a chemical surface structure which is - apart from a slight change in surface composition - identical to a pristine as-received sample surface. Additionally, we discover a different oxidation behavior of In and Ga, in agreement with thermodynamic reference data, and we find indications for the segregation and removal of copper selenide surface phases from the polycrystalline material.

  19. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  20. Putting renewables and energy efficiency to work: How many jobs can the clean energy industry generate in the US?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max; Kammen, Daniel M. [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall 3050, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States); Patadia, Shana [Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An analytical job creation model for the US power sector from 2009 to 2030 is presented. The model synthesizes data from 15 job studies covering renewable energy (RE), energy efficiency (EE), carbon capture and storage (CCS) and nuclear power. The paper employs a consistent methodology of normalizing job data to average employment per unit energy produced over plant lifetime. Job losses in the coal and natural gas industry are modeled to project net employment impacts. Benefits and drawbacks of the methodology are assessed and the resulting model is used for job projections under various renewable portfolio standards (RPS), EE, and low carbon energy scenarios We find that all non-fossil fuel technologies (renewable energy, EE, low carbon) create more jobs per unit energy than coal and natural gas. Aggressive EE measures combined with a 30% RPS target in 2030 can generate over 4 million full-time-equivalent job-years by 2030 while increasing nuclear power to 25% and CCS to 10% of overall generation in 2030 can yield an additional 500,000 job-years. (author)

  1. Efficient on-the-fly Algorithm for Checking Alternating Timed Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Chatain, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we focus on property-preserving preorders between timed game automata and their application to control of partially observable systems. We define timed weak alternating simulation as a preorder between timed game automata, which preserves controllability. We define the rules of buil...

  2. Experimental Study on Efficient Photocatalysis Air Cleaning Device%一种光触媒高效空气净化器的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫其年; 刘志强; 杨景发; 张子生

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve the purpose of efficient air purification , based on the physical method,the sketch map of cyclotron duct for diversion and syntonic light source structure were designed by using the Photocatalysis of TiO2 and the biology effect of ozone and ultraviolet. The efficient photocatalysis air cleaning cartridge which was used for poultry house has the advantage of advanced air-filtering ability, enduring and stable effect as well as wide range of application. The cartridge's efficiency of removing germ,formaldehyde and ammonia was 90.9%, 63.9% and 86.2% respectively.%为了达到高效净化空气的目的,从物理方法入手,利用二氧化钛光触媒的光催化作用、短波紫外线和臭氧的生物效应原理,通过"多波段谐振光源"和"导流回旋风道"的设计,研制出一款光触媒高效空气净化器,具有净化空气能力强、效果持久稳定、无二次公害和维持费用低、操作简便、适用范围广等优点.细菌的去除效率在90.9%以上,甲醛去除效率为63.9%,氨去除效率为86.2%.

  3. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  4. Solar fuel processing efficiency for ceria redox cycling using alternative oxygen partial pressure reduction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Meng; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Solar-driven non-stoichiometric thermochemical redox cycling of ceria for the conversion of solar energy into fuels shows promise in achieving high solar-to-fuel efficiency. This efficiency is significantly affected by the operating conditions, e.g. redox temperatures, reduction and oxidation pressures, solar irradiation concentration, or heat recovery effectiveness. We present a thermodynamic analysis of five redox cycle designs to investigate the effects of working conditions on the fuel pr...

  5. Assessment of energy efficiency project financing alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WDM Hunt; JC Hail; GP Sullivan

    2000-03-13

    Energy reduction goals for Federal agencies were first established in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1988, and directed 10{percent} reduction in facility energy use based on a 1985 baseline. Since that time, Federal sites have been actively seeking and implementing a wide variety of energy-efficiency measures in facilities across the Federal sector. In the intervening years this energy reduction goal has been progressively increased to 20{percent} through legislation (Public Law 102-486, The Energy Policy Act of 1992) and a number of Executive Orders. Executive Order 13123, Greening the Government Through Efficient Energy management (signed June 3, 1999), further increased the facility energy-efficiency improvement goal from 30{percent} in 2005 to 35{percent} by 2010 relative to the 1985 baseline.

  6. Polyphosphonium polymers for siRNA delivery: An efficient and nontoxic alternative to polyammonium carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Cátia

    2012-02-01

    A water-soluble polyphosphonium polymer was synthesized and directly compared with its ammonium analog in terms of siRNA delivery. The triethylphosphonium polymer shows transfection efficiency up to 65% with 100% cell viability, whereas the best result obtained for the ammonium analog reaches only 25% transfection with 85% cell viability. Moreover, the nature of the alkyl substituents on the phosphonium cations is shown to have an important influence on the transfection efficiency and toxicity of the polyplexes. The present results show that the use of positively charged phosphonium groups is a worthy choice to achieve a good balance between toxicity and transfection efficiency in gene delivery systems. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Donor-acceptor alternating copolymer nanowires for highly efficient organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewon; Jo, Sae Byeok; Kim, Min; Kim, Heung Gyu; Shin, Jisoo; Kim, Haena; Cho, Kilwon

    2014-10-22

    A donor-acceptor conjugated copolymer enables the formation of nanowire systems that can be successfully introduced into bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells. A simple binary solvent mixture that makes polarity control possible allows kinetic control over the self-assembly of the crystalline polymer into a nanowire structure during the film-forming process. The enhanced photoconductivity of the nanowire-embedded photoactive layer efficiently facilitates photon harvesting in the solar cells. The resultant maximum power conversion efficiency is 8.2% in a conventional single-cell structure, revealing a 60% higher performance than in devices without nanowires.

  8. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  9. 78 FR 62472 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Water Heaters or Hot Thermal Efficiency.. 5% (0.05) Water Supply Boilers. Standby Loss........ 10% (0.1... conditioning (HVAC), water heater (WH), and commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) manufacturers by the March... Commercial electric storage water heaters Commercial gas-fired and oil-fired storage water heaters...

  10. Reliable wet-chemical cleaning of natively oxidized high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cell absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Jascha [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Lehmann, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.lehmann@ftf.lth.se [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Lauermann, Iver; Rissom, Thorsten; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch. [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Bär, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.baer@helmholtz-berlin.de [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik und Chemie, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus-Senftenberg, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Sadewasser, Sascha, E-mail: sascha.sadewasser@inl.int [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga s/n, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-12-21

    Currently, Cu-containing chalcopyrite-based solar cells provide the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies. They have reached efficiency values above 20%, the same performance level as multi-crystalline silicon-wafer technology that dominates the commercial PV market. Chalcopyrite thin-film heterostructures consist of a layer stack with a variety of interfaces between different materials. It is the chalcopyrite/buffer region (forming the p-n junction), which is of crucial importance and therefore frequently investigated using surface and interface science tools, such as photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. To ensure comparability and validity of the results, a general preparation guide for “realistic” surfaces of polycrystalline chalcopyrite thin films is highly desirable. We present results on wet-chemical cleaning procedures of polycrystalline Cu(In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin films with an average x = [Ga]/([In] + [Ga]) = 0.29, which were exposed to ambient conditions for different times. The hence natively oxidized sample surfaces were etched in KCN- or NH{sub 3}-based aqueous solutions. By x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we find that the KCN treatment results in a chemical surface structure which is – apart from a slight change in surface composition – identical to a pristine as-received sample surface. Additionally, we discover a different oxidation behavior of In and Ga, in agreement with thermodynamic reference data, and we find indications for the segregation and removal of copper selenide surface phases from the polycrystalline material.

  11. Energy efficient school buildings in central-western Argentina: an assessment of alternative typologies for the classroom tier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, C.; Basso, M.; Fernandez, J.C. [Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda, Mendoza (AR)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    Four energy-efficient demonstration school buildings were built in the western province of Mendoza, Argentina, in 1999, as part of a massive building program required to implement the new Federal Education Plan. The buildings should make medium use of bioclimatic strategies and daylighting. The aspects of typology of the classroom tiers became immediately apparent as one of the main conditioners of the overall scheme. Three different alternative schemes were designed and built. A deeper analysis of these and other possible alternatives were thought essential for future constructions of the type. Four typologies of the classroom tier, using the same, locally available technology, are being comparatively assessed in the aspects of energy efficiently, thermal and luminous comfort, construction and operation costs and environmental impact (LCA). The paper presents the provisional results of the two first items only: energy efficiency and thermal comfort. While all four schemes evaluated are believed to be ''workable'', differences will tend to favour some the other according to context situations. Volumetric Loss Coeff. range from 1.09 to 1.24 W/Km{sup 3}. Solar savings fractions for the school operation hours vary between: 82.83 and 91.58%. Work is being continued to cover all the analysis items in a combined way. (author)

  12. Acute medical assessment units: an efficient alternative to in-hospital acute medical care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watts, M

    2011-02-01

    Acute Medical Assessment Units (AMAUs) are being proposed as an alternative to congested Emergency Departments (EDs for the assessment of patients with a range of acute medical problems. We retrospectively reviewed the discharge destination of patients referred to a newly established AMAU during a six-month period. During the same period we contrasted activity in the ED for a similar group of patients. 1,562 patients were assessed in the AMAU. 196 (12.5%) were admitted to an in-patient bed and 1,148 (73.5%) were entered into specific diagnosis-driven out-patient pathways. 1,465 patients attended the ED and 635 (43.3%) were admitted. Out-patient alternatives to expensive in-patient care need to be provided at the \\'coal face" of acute referral. The AMAU provides this, and as a consequence admission rates are relatively low. This is achieved by directly communicating with GPs, accessing senior clinical decision makers, and providing immediate access to diagnostically driven outpatient pathways.

  13. An alternative to evaluate the efficiency of in vitro culture medium using a logistic regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Furtado Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of a culture medium for the in vitro culture of a species is performed using its physical and/or chemical properties. However, the analysis of the experimental results makes it possible to evaluate its quality. In this sense, this work presents an alternative using a logistic model to evaluate the culture medium to be used in vitro. The probabilities provided by this model will be used as a medium evaluator index. The importance of this index is based on the formalization of a statistical criterion for the selection of the adequate culture medium to be used on in vitro culture without excluding its physical and/or chemical properties. To demonstrate this procedure, an experiment determining the ideal medium for the in vitro culture of primary explants of Ipeca [Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. Stokes] was evaluated. The differentiation of the culture medium was based on the presence and absence of the growth regulator BAP (6-benzilaminopurine. A logistic model was adjusted as a function of the weight of fresh and dry matter. Minimum, medium and maximum probabilities obtained with this model showed that the culture medium containing BAP was the most adequate for the explant growth. Due to the high discriminative power of these mediums, detected by the model, their use is recommended as an alternative to select culture medium for similar experiments.

  14. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert

    2013-09-30

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  15. A simple and efficient alternative to implementing systematic random sampling in stereological designs without a motorized microscope stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Neal R; Poda, Daniel; Sutherland, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    When properly applied, stereology is a very robust and efficient method to quantify a variety of parameters from biological material. A common sampling strategy in stereology is systematic random sampling, which involves choosing a random sampling [corrected] start point outside the structure of interest, and sampling relevant objects at [corrected] sites that are placed at pre-determined, equidistant intervals. This has proven to be a very efficient sampling strategy, and is used widely in stereological designs. At the microscopic level, this is most often achieved through the use of a motorized stage that facilitates the systematic random stepping across the structure of interest. Here, we report a simple, precise and cost-effective software-based alternative to accomplishing systematic random sampling under the microscope. We believe that this approach will facilitate the use of stereological designs that employ systematic random sampling in laboratories that lack the resources to acquire costly, fully automated systems.

  16. Efficiency of alternative McMC strategies illustrated using the reaction norm model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shariati, M; Sorensen, D

    2008-01-01

    The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) strategy provides remarkable flexibility for fitting complex hierarchical models. However, when parameters are highly correlated in their posterior distributions and their number is large, a particular MCMC algorithm may perform poorly and the resulting...... inferences may be affected. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency (in terms of the asymptotic variance of features of posterior distributions of chosen parameters, and in terms of computing cost) of six MCMC strategies to sample parameters using simulated data generated with a reaction...

  17. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  18. Collisionless Stellar Hydrodynamics as an Efficient Alternative to N-body Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Nigel L; Hensler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    For simulations that deal only with dark matter or stellar systems, the conventional N-body technique is fast, memory efficient, and relatively simple to implement. However when including the effects of gas physics, mesh codes are at a distinct disadvantage compared to SPH. Whilst implementing the N-body approach into SPH codes is fairly trivial, the particle-mesh technique used in mesh codes to couple collisionless stars and dark matter to the gas on the mesh, has a series of significant scientific and technical limitations. These include spurious entropy generation resulting from discreteness effects, poor load balancing and increased communication overhead which spoil the excellent scaling in massively parallel grid codes. We propose the use of the collisionless Boltzmann moment equations as a means to model collisionless material as a fluid on the mesh, implementing it into the massively parallel FLASH AMR code. This approach, which we term "collisionless stellar hydrodynamics" enables us to do away with ...

  19. Functionalized dicationic ionic liquids: Green and efficient alternatives for catalysts in phthalate plasticizers preparation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NEGAR ZEKRI; REZA FAREGHI-ALAMDARI; ZAHRA KHODARAHMI

    2016-08-01

    Two highly acidic, imidazolium-based, functionalized dicationic ionic liquids (FDCILs) were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, ¹H NMR and¹³ C NMR. The synthesized FDCILs were used as efficient and green catalysts in the synthesis of phthalate plasticizers through esterification of phthalic anhydride (PhA)with ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol. Among these two FDCILs, (dimethyl-4-sulfobutyl-ammonium) 1,2- ethan-1-methyl-imidazolium-sulfonic acid hydrogen sulfate performed better. The catalytic activity of FDCIL is related to the density of acidic groups on it and the length of the carbon chain in the cationic part. Theinfluences of the reaction temperature, catalyst dosage, and molar ratio of phthalic anhydride to alcohol on the esterification reaction were investigated. The reusability of the catalyst in these reactions was studied too. Theb diester phthalates were obtained up to 98.8% yield. The products can be separated easily by decantation from the reaction mixture.

  20. VIGOR TESTS ASSOCIATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR PRECISE AND EFFICIENT ASSESSMENT OF MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS ALTOMANI NEVES DIAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to associate two concepts of seed vigor testing, the aging and seedling growth using image analysis, providing a feasible and time-saving way to evaluate maize seed vigor in large scale. For this purpose, five seed lots with different vigor levels from two single hybrids were used. The seeds were characterized by moisture content, germination, seedling emergence, seedling emergence speed index, accelerated aging and cold tests. The treatments were composed by varying the accelerated aging periods (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96h and seedling growth periods (48 and 72h, before submitting the seedlings to image analysis for seedling root length measurement. Considering the results obtained, the adaptation of accelerated aging test by reducing the aging duration from 96h to 48h, and the replacement of the germination test by seedling root length measurement using image analysis could be considered a potential tool for maize seed vigor assessment. The treatments composed of 48h of seed aging followed by seedlings root length measurements using image analysis provided reliable data, compared to traditional vigor tests and it could be considered an efficient and timesaving approach, associating two different concepts of seed vigor analysis.

  1. Otimização da eficiência de limpeza em equipamento de beneficiamento de tomate de mesa Optimizing cleaning efficiency at a fresh market tomato packing line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele C. Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A etapa de limpeza no sistema de beneficiamento do tomate de mesa é essencial para a aceitação do produto pelo consumidor, pois o grau de limpeza dos frutos está diretamente relacionado com a qualidade do produto. Entretanto, a etapa de lavagem, nos atuais equipamentos de limpeza, utilizada em unidades comerciais de beneficiamento, demanda volume excessivo de água, trazendo sérias preocupações ambientais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a eficiência de limpeza em dois sistemas, avaliando diferentes configurações operacionais relacionadas com a rotação de escovas, vazão do sistema e tempo de permanência do fruto sobre o jato. Comparou-se o sistema convencional utilizado em equipamentos comerciais com o sistema composto por um bocal de spray do tipo cone cheio. Os resultados demonstraram que a eficiência de limpeza não está diretamente relacionada com o volume de água utilizado, mas, sim, à pressão da água, associado ao tempo de permanência dos frutos e à rotação das escovas. Portanto, o uso de spray em sistemas de limpeza de frutos de tomate pode trazer benefícios tanto para a eficiência de limpeza, com incrementos superiores a 13%, como para o meio ambiente, trazendo redução no consumo de água.The post-harvesting cleaning process in fresh market tomatoes production is essential to the consumer acceptance, since the degree of dirtiness of the fruits is directly related to its quality. However, the washing stage of the cleaning process of commercial packinghouse demands an excessive water volume, bringing serious environmental concerns. The objective of this work was to compare the cleaning efficiency in two cleaning systems through the evaluation of different operational conditions of the cleaning process, related with the brush rotation, water flow and fruit standing time under the system. It was compared the conventional system utilized in commercial equipment with a system using commercial sprays. The

  2. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  3. Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Song, Bo [China Academy of Building Research; Zhang, Sisi [China Academy of Building Research

    2012-08-01

    In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and

  4. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specimen; Urine collection - clean catch; UTI - clean catch; Urinary tract infection - clean catch; Cystitis - clean catch ... LE, Norrby SR. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  5. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  6. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  7. Pressurised fluidised bed combustion: an alternative for the clean use of coal. La combustion en lecho fluido a presion, una alternativa de uso limpio del carbon en desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beucom O Perez-Zamora, V.; Menendez Perez, J.A.E. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-11-01

    Atmospheric fluidised bed combustion is an alternative worthy of consideration. It is a solution which maintains or even increases output slightly and, in the circulating fluidised bed variety, has the advantage of being able to burn an inconsistent quality of coal with a high sulphur content. The most important question is to what output this method can be developed whilst remaining competitive with other systems. There is a tendency to assume that atmospheric fluidised bed combustors can be developed up to 250 MW and that more powerful installations for electricity generation use systems with a higher output. In any case, this is no more than a general and preliminary observation. Its validity will be proved by the technical and economic results achieved with high output systems and by the availability of coal of the required mix of quality and price. 10 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. Synergetic Effect between Lighting Efficiency Enhancement and Building Energy Reduction Using Alternative Thermal Operating System of Indoor LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Lip Ahn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the synergetic effect between light-emitting diode (LED lighting efficiency and building energy savings in heating and cooling using an alternative thermal operating system (ATOS of indoor LED lighting integrated with the ventilation system of a building as an active cooling device. The heat generated from LED lighting and the indoor lighting illuminance were experimentally determined. The indoor heat gains in cooling and heating periods were determined using measurement data; the annual energy savings of an office building in heating and cooling were calculated through simulation. The LED lighting illuminance increased by approximately 40% and the lighting contribution for indoor heat gain was 7.8% in summer, while 69.8% in winter with the ATOS. Consequently, the annual total energy use of the office building could be reduced by 5.9%; the energy use in cooling and heating was reduced by 18.4% and 3.3%, respectively.

  9. Efficient hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates indicates alternative routes to methanol based on CO2 and CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Ekambaram; Gunanathan, Chidambaram; Zhang, Jing; Shimon, Linda J W; Milstein, David

    2011-07-22

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates is of significant interest both conceptually and practically, because these compounds can be produced from CO2 and CO, and their mild hydrogenation can provide alternative, mild approaches to the indirect hydrogenation of CO2 and CO to methanol, an important fuel and synthetic building block. Here, we report for the first time catalytic hydrogenation of organic carbonates to alcohols, and carbamates to alcohols and amines. Unprecedented homogeneously catalysed hydrogenation of organic formates to methanol has also been accomplished. The reactions are efficiently catalysed by dearomatized PNN Ru(II) pincer complexes derived from pyridine- and bipyridine-based tridentate ligands. These atom-economical reactions proceed under neutral, homogeneous conditions, at mild temperatures and under mild hydrogen pressures, and can operate in the absence of solvent with no generation of waste, representing the ultimate 'green' reactions. A possible mechanism involves metal-ligand cooperation by aromatization-dearomatization of the heteroaromatic pincer core.

  10. Alternative Processing Technology for Converting Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats to Clean Fuels and Light Olefins%动植物油生产清洁燃料和低碳烯烃的替代加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华; 李春义; 杨朝合; 山红红

    2008-01-01

    Since the production cost of biodiesel is now the main hurdle limiting their applicability in some areas, catalytic cracking reactions represent an alternative route to utilization of vegetable oils and animal fats. Hence, catalytic transformation of oils and fats was carried out in a laboratory-scale two-stage riser fluid catalytic cracking (TSRFCC) unit in this work. The results show that oils and fats can be used as FCC feed singly or co-feeding with vacuum gas oil (VGO), which can give high yield (by mass) of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), C2-C4 olefins, for example 45% LPG, 47% C2-C4 olefins, and 77.6% total liquid yield produced with palm oil cracking. Co-feeding with VGO gives a high yield of LPG (39.1%) and propylene (18.1%). And oxygen element content is very low (about 0.5%) in liquid products, hence, oxygen is removed in the form of H2O, CO and CO2. At the same time, high concentration of aromatics (C7-C9 aromatics predominantly) in the gasoline fraction is obtained after TSRFCC reaction of palm oil, as a result of large amount of hydrogen-transfer, cyclization and aromatization reactions. Additionally, most of properties of produced gasoline and diesel oil fuel meet the requirements of national standards, containing little sulfur. So TSRFCC technology is thought to be an alternative processing technology leading to production of clean fuels and light olefins.

  11. The role of alternative oxidase in modulating carbon use efficiency and growth during macronutrient stress in tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Stephen M; Kristensen, Brian K; Robson, Christine A; Amirsadeghi, Sasan; Eng, Edward W Y; Abdel-Mesih, Amal; Møller, Ian M; Vanlerberghe, Greg C

    2005-06-01

    When wild-type (wt) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petit Havana SR1) cells are grown under macronutrient (P or N) limitation, they induce large amounts of alternative oxidase (AOX), which constitutes a non-energy-conserving branch of the respiratory electron transport chain. To investigate the significance of AOX induction, wt cells were compared with transgenic (AS8) cells lacking AOX. Under nutrient limitation, growth of wt cell cultures was dramatically reduced and carbon use efficiency (g cell dry weight gain g(-1) sugar consumed) decreased by 42-63%. However, the growth of AS8 was only moderately reduced by the nutrient deficiencies and carbon use efficiency values remained the same as under nutrient-sufficient conditions. As a result, the nutrient limitations more severely compromised the tissue nutrient status (P or N) of AS8 than wt cells. Northern analyses and a comparison of the mitochondrial protein profiles of wt and AS8 cells indicated that the lack of AOX in AS8 under P limitation was associated with increased levels of proteins commonly associated with oxidative stress and/or stress injury. Also, the level of electron transport chain components was consistently reduced in AS8 while tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes did not show a universal trend in abundance in comparison to the wt. Alternatively, the lack of AOX in AS8 cells under N limitation resulted in enhanced carbohydrate accumulation. It is concluded that AOX respiration provides an important general mechanism by which plant cells can modulate their growth in response to nutrient availability and that AOX also has nutrient-specific roles in maintaining cellular redox and carbon balance.

  12. Electrical field assisted matrix solid phase dispersion as a powerful tool to improve the extraction efficiency and clean-up of fluoroquinolones in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Orlando, Ricardo Mathias; Faria, Adriana Ferreira

    2016-08-26

    This work presents a new method by electrical matrix solid phase dispersion for the extraction and clean-up of marbofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, difloxacin and sarafloxacin in bovine milk. Composition and pH of the eluent, applied electrical potential and polarity were optimized by experimental designs. The combination of the chromatographic and electrophoretic mechanisms allowed the extraction and clean-up in one step with low organic solvent consumption, high extraction throughput and elution automation. Linearity, precision, trueness and limit of quantification were evaluated and provided values in accordance with other methods recently developed for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in milk. This technique proved to be promising for the extraction and clean-up of ionizable analytes in different milk matrices.

  13. Roadmap 2030 Dutch Glass Industry. Towards a clean, efficient and cost-effective future; Routekaart 2030 Nederlandse Glasindustrie. Naar een schone, zuinige en rendabele toekomst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    This Roadmap is the result of the covenant signed by the Dutch glass industry and the Dutch national government in 2009 on a Long Term Agreement on Energy Efficiency. Participating companies committed to continuous improvement in energy performance in both manufacturing processes as well as the supply chain from raw material to final product. The Dutch glass industry has undertaken a strategic study regarding the possibilities of achieving far-reaching energy efficiency improvement by 2030. The overall industry's target is to realise an energy efficiency improvement of 25%, compared to its energy consumption and production level of 2009. Several related areas were identified for actions and measures for energy efficiency improvement: (1) Alternatives to primary raw materials; (2) Intensified use of secondary raw materials (cullet); (3) Innovations in batch preparation; (4) Innovations in glass composition; (5) Innovations in process control; (6) Innovations in furnace design; (7) New methods of waste heat recovery; (8) Improved performance of glass products [Dutch] Dit rapport is tot stand gekomen in het kader van de Meerjarenafspraak Energie-Efficientie ETS (Emission Trading System) ondernemingen, ook wel het MEE-convenant genoemd. Dit convenant nodigt de deelnemende sectoren uit tot het opstellen van een Routekaart voor 2030. De Routekaart is een strategische studie die inzichtelijk maakt hoe invulling wordt gegeven aan het realiseren van energie-efficientie verbeteringen binnen de bedrijven en in de keten op de route naar 2030. Hoofdstuk 1 is een introductie op de Routekaart 2030 en de wijze waarop de Routekaart tot stand is gekomen. Hoofdstuk 2 beschrijft in vogelvlucht de sector, op welke manier nu al invulling wordt gegeven aan duurzame ontwikkeling en energie, en geeft een beschrijving van de Vereniging van Nederlandse Glasfabrikanten (VNG). Hoofdstuk 3 beschrijft algemene trends en de visie van de sector op de toekomst. Daarnaast wordt de markt in 2030

  14. Dry efficient cleaning of poly-methyl-methacrylate residues from graphene with high-density H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunge, G., E-mail: gilles.cunge@cea.fr; Petit-Etienne, C.; Davydova, A. [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique, CNRS-UJF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Ferrah, D.; Renault, O. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Okuno, H. [CEA, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Kalita, D.; Bouchiat, V. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF-INP, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-09-28

    Graphene is the first engineering electronic material, which is purely two-dimensional: it consists of two exposed sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon surfaces and has no bulk. Therefore, surface effects such as contamination by adsorbed polymer residues have a critical influence on its electrical properties and can drastically hamper its widespread use in devices fabrication. These contaminants, originating from mandatory technological processes of graphene synthesis and transfer, also impact fundamental studies of the electronic and structural properties at the atomic scale. Therefore, graphene-based technology and research requires “soft” and selective surface cleaning techniques dedicated to limit or to suppress this surface contamination. Here, we show that a high-density H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasmas can be used to selectively remove polymeric residues from monolayer graphene without any damage on the graphene surface. The efficiency of this dry-cleaning process is evidenced unambiguously by a set of spectroscopic and microscopic methods, providing unprecedented insights on the cleaning mechanisms and highlighting the role of specific poly-methyl-methacrylate residues at the graphene interface. The plasma is shown to perform much better cleaning than solvents and has the advantage to be an industrially mature technology adapted to large area substrates. The process is transferable to other kinds of two-dimensional material and heterostructures.

  15. The Development of Mini Portable Digester Designs for Domestic and Restaurant Solid Waste Processing to be Clean Biogas as Energy's Alternative to Replace LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Janari dan, D.; Setiawan, N.

    2016-02-01

    Biofuel is developed as an alternative source of second generation energy that could be attained from organic waste. This research is purposed to create applicative and cheap Portable digester unit for society. The design concepts’ screening that was made under considerations of the experts is finally resumed. Design 1 with final weight score of 1, design 2 with final weight score of -1, design 3 with final weight score of 2, design 4 with final weight score 3, design 5 with final weight score of -1, design 6 with final weight score of 0. Accepted designs for further concept assessment are design 1, 2 and 6. The result of concept assessment applies weighting for the scoring. Design 1 resulting 2.67, design 2 results 2.15 while design 3 results 2.52. Design 1 is concluded as the design with biggest result, which is 2.67. Its specification is explained as follows: tank capacity of 60 liters, manual rotating crank pivot, tank's material is plastic with symbol 1, material of axle swivel arm is grey cast iron, 2 mm rotary blades with hole. The experiment 1 contained 23.78% methane and 13.65 carbon dioxide that resulted from content test.

  16. Acute physiology, age, and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score is an alternative efficient predictor of mortality in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yohei; Shimizu, Mikio; Hirabayashi, Hidemitsu

    2007-05-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of the acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score in burn patients. We hypothesised that APACHE III score efficiently predicts mortality of burn patients as it reflects the physiological changes in the acute phase and the severity of the underlying illness. Data such as age, gender, inhalation injury, total burn surface area (TBSA), burn index (BI), prognostic burn index (PBI), APACHE III score and outcome of 105 hospitalised patients were analysed retrospectively. TBSA, BI, PBI, and APACHE III score in the mortality group were significantly higher than those of surviving group. The mean scores of surviving versus mortality groups were as follows: TBSA, 19.2+/-17.8% versus 69.1+/-28.4%, pAPACHE III score, 28.4+/-22.2% versus 71.3+/-32.1%, pAPACHE III score showed marked associations between higher scores and higher mortality. APACHE III score showed a significant correlation with PBI (pAPACHE III score could be used as an alternative efficient predictor of mortality in burn patients.

  17. A superlattice of alternately stacked Ni-Fe hydroxide nanosheets and graphene for efficient splitting of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Renzhi; Wang, Chengxiang; Liang, Jianbo; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhou, Kechao; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2015-02-24

    Cost-effective electrocatalysts based on nonprecious metals for efficient water splitting are crucial for various technological applications represented by fuel cell. Here, 3d transition metal layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with varied contents of Ni and Fe were successfully synthesized through a homogeneous precipitation. The exfoliated Ni-Fe LDH nanosheets were heteroassembled with graphene oxide (GO) as well as reduced graphene oxide (rGO) into superlattice-like hybrids, in which two kinds of oppositely charged nanosheets are stacked face-to-face in alternating sequence. Heterostructured composites of Ni2/3Fe1/3 LDH nanosheets and GO (Ni2/3Fe1/3-GO) exhibited an excellent oxygen evolution reaction (OER) efficiency with a small overpotential of about 0.23 V and Tafel slope of 42 mV/decade. The activity was further improved via the combination of Ni2/3Fe1/3 LDH nanosheets with more conductive rGO (Ni2/3Fe1/3-rGO) to achieve an overpotential as low as 0.21 V and Tafel plot of 40 mV/decade. The catalytic activity was enhanced with an increased Fe content in the bimetallic Ni-Fe system. Moreover, the composite catalysts were found to be effective for hydrogen evolution reaction. An electrolyzer cell powered by a single AA battery of 1.5 V was demonstrated by using the bifunctional catalysts.

  18. Spherical tensor gradient operator method for integral rotation: a simple, efficient, and extendable alternative to Slater-Koster tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Timothy J; York, Darrin M

    2008-07-07

    We present a novel alternative to the use of Slater-Koster tables for the efficient rotation and gradient evaluation of two-center integrals used in tight-binding Hamiltonian models. The method recasts the problem into an exact, yet implicit, basis representation through which the properties of the spherical tensor gradient operator are exploited. These properties provide a factor of 3 to 4 speedup in the evaluation of the integral gradients and afford a compact code structure that easily extends to high angular momentum without loss in efficiency. Thus, the present work is important in improving the performance of tight-binding models in molecular dynamics simulations and has particular use for methods that require the evaluation of two-center integrals that involve high angular momentum basis functions. These advances have a potential impact for the design of new tight-binding models that incorporate polarization or transition metal basis functions and methods based on electron density fitting of molecular fragments.

  19. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; T. Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-07-01

    After rapid growth in economic development and energy demand over the last three decades, China has undertaken energy efficiency improvement efforts to reduce its energy intensity under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP). Since becoming the world's largest annual CO{sub 2} emitter in 2007, China has set reduction targets for energy and carbon intensities and committed to meeting 15% of its total 2020 energy demand with non-fossil fuel. Despite having achieved important savings in 11th FYP efficiency programs, rising per capita income and the continued economic importance of trade will drive demand for transport activity and fuel use. At the same time, an increasingly 'electrified' economy will drive rapid power demand growth. Greater analysis is therefore needed to understand the underlying drivers, possible trajectories and mitigation potential in the growing industrial, transport and power sectors. This study uses scenario analysis to understand the likely trajectory of China's energy and carbon emissions to 2030 in light of the current and planned portfolio of programs, policies and technology development and ongoing urbanization and demographic trends. It evaluates the potential impacts of alternative transportation and power sector development using two key scenarios, Continued Improvement Scenario (CIS) and Accelerated Improvement Scenario (AIS). CIS represents the most likely path of growth based on continuation of current policies and meeting announced targets and goals, including meeting planned appliance efficiency standard revisions, fuel economy standards, and industrial targets and moderate phase-out of subcritical coal-fired generation with additional non-fossil generation. AIS represents a more aggressive trajectory of accelerated improvement in energy intensity and decarbonized power and transport sectors. A range of sensitivity analysis and power technology scenarios are tested to evaluate the impact of additional actions such as

  20. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  1. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  2. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  3. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  4. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  5. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  6. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  7. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  8. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  9. A safe, effective, and facility compatible cleaning in place procedure for affinity resin in large-scale monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Dembecki, Jill; Jaffe, Neil E; O'Mara, Brian W; Cai, Hui; Sparks, Colleen N; Zhang, Jian; Laino, Sarah G; Russell, Reb J; Wang, Michelle

    2013-09-20

    Cleaning-in-place (CIP) for column chromatography plays an important role in therapeutic protein production. A robust and efficient CIP procedure ensures product quality, improves column life time and reduces the cost of the purification processes, particularly for those using expensive affinity resins, such as MabSelect protein A resin. Cleaning efficiency, resin compatibility, and facility compatibility are the three major aspects to consider in CIP process design. Cleaning MabSelect resin with 50mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) along with 1M sodium chloride is one of the most popular cleaning procedures used in biopharmaceutical industries. However, high concentration sodium chloride is a leading cause of corrosion in the stainless steel containers used in large scale manufacture. Corroded containers may potentially introduce metal contaminants into purified drug products. Therefore, it is challenging to apply this cleaning procedure into commercial manufacturing due to facility compatibility and drug safety concerns. This paper reports a safe, effective and environmental and facility-friendly cleaning procedure that is suitable for large scale affinity chromatography. An alternative salt (sodium sulfate) is used to prevent the stainless steel corrosion caused by sodium chloride. Sodium hydroxide and salt concentrations were optimized using a high throughput screening approach to achieve the best combination of facility compatibility, cleaning efficiency and resin stability. Additionally, benzyl alcohol is applied to achieve more effective microbial control. Based on the findings, the recommended optimum cleaning strategy is cleaning MabSelect resin with 25 mM NaOH, 0.25 M Na2SO4 and 1% benzyl alcohol solution every cycle, followed by a more stringent cleaning using 50 mM NaOH with 0.25 M Na2SO4 and 1% benzyl alcohol at the end of each manufacturing campaign. A resin life cycle study using the MabSelect affinity resin demonstrates that the new cleaning strategy

  10. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2008, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  11. 身体清洁对低龄幼儿选择扩散效应的消除%Physical Cleanness Eliminates Children's Spreading-alternatives-effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅于玲; 秦启文; 冯缙; 杨帅

    2012-01-01

    研究以105名4岁幼儿为被试,采用选择扩散范式的盲选-双选法考察身体清洁能否消除低龄幼儿的选择扩散效应。通过操纵自变量(洗手vs.不洗手),观察幼儿是否出现选择扩散。结果发现,不洗手组的被试出现明显的选择扩散效应,洗手组则没有。说明4岁幼儿已经表现出选择扩散效应,且能通过身体清洁得以消除。除了自我心理学和行为倾向的解释之外,研究结果说明,具身认知可能也是影响选择扩散效应的心理机制。%The Spreading-alternatives-effect is a form of attitude , hange caused by post-decision dissonance. After choosing between two equally attractive alternatives, people tend to evaluate the chosen alternative more positively or devaluate the rejected alternative. It can be observed in both adults and children. Recent studies found that the spreading-alternatives-effict was eliminated by hand-washing in adults. The purpose uf this study was to explore whether physical clean behavior such as hand-washing could eliminate children' s post decision dissonance as it did in adults. A total of' 1104-year-old kindergarten children participated in this experiment. Five of them refused to cooperate and 105 of them finished the experiment as designed (M = 53.4month, SD = 2.98, 49boys). In blind-two-fhoice tasks preferences would not guide choices and such tasks are applicable to children, too. 3 brightly cohn'ed plastic toys were used as the stimuli. The toys were the same except for their colors, which were mainly red, blue and orange. Each of the three toys were put in three stockings to hide their main identities ; two of the the stockings were the same colore and the remaining one was different. Children firstly chose between two toys in the same colored stocking, while the color of the toys cannot be seen, and secondly chose between the rejected alternative and the third one. To manipulate the independent

  12. Efficient and robust 3D CT image reconstruction based on total generalized variation regularization using the alternating direction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianlin; Wang, Linyuan; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Hanming; Cheng, Genyang

    2015-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction algorithms for computed tomography (CT) through total variation regularization based on piecewise constant assumption can produce accurate, robust, and stable results. Nonetheless, this approach is often subject to staircase artefacts and the loss of fine details. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce a family of novel image regularization penalties called total generalized variation (TGV) for the effective production of high-quality images from incomplete or noisy projection data for 3D reconstruction. We propose a new, fast alternating direction minimization algorithm to solve CT image reconstruction problems through TGV regularization. Based on the theory of sparse-view image reconstruction and the framework of augmented Lagrange function method, the TGV regularization term has been introduced in the computed tomography and is transformed into three independent variables of the optimization problem by introducing auxiliary variables. This new algorithm applies a local linearization and proximity technique to make the FFT-based calculation of the analytical solutions in the frequency domain feasible, thereby significantly reducing the complexity of the algorithm. Experiments with various 3D datasets corresponding to incomplete projection data demonstrate the advantage of our proposed algorithm in terms of preserving fine details and overcoming the staircase effect. The computation cost also suggests that the proposed algorithm is applicable to and is effective for CBCT imaging. Theoretical and technical optimization should be investigated carefully in terms of both computation efficiency and high resolution of this algorithm in application-oriented research.

  13. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  14. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  15. Carbon dioxide nucleation as a novel cleaning method for ultrafiltration membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ghamdi, Mohanned

    2016-12-08

    operation. Therefore, the new cleaning method might provide an efficient and environmentally friendly alternative cleaning technique to low-pressure membranes technology in the future.

  16. Actual provision as an alternative criterion to improve the efficiency of payments for ecosystem services for C sequestration in semiarid vineyards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galati, Antonino; Crescimanno, Maria; Gristina, Luciano; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of the PES scheme actually used in the Sicilian rural development program, based on an egalitarian criterion, and proposing an alternative scheme in order to guarantee a greater equity and fairness of premium distribution in relation to soil car

  17. Vehicles Components Cleaning Systemfor Efficient and Environmentally Friendly%高效环保车辆配件清洗系统的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书和

    2013-01-01

      概要介绍国内铁路车辆闸瓦间隙自动调节器配件清洗现状,结合现场大修实际情况,从环保、节能、扩能、安全的角度出发,提出用途广泛的配件超声波清洗系统,介绍其技术方案设计、系统结构组成、技术参数以及使用效果。%  The paper briefly overviews the current status of cleaning system for brake shoe gap automatic regulator components on the domestic railway vehicles. Combines with overhaul practice, from the point of views of environmental protection, energy saving, capacity improvement and safety, the paper proposes the uses of ultrasonic cleaning system for a wide range of components, presents its technical proposal solution design and system structure and composition, technical parameters, and the utilization results.

  18. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov; Kappas Kussaynov; Аyanbergen К. Khassenov

    2013-01-01

    This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  19. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  20. An experience of divulging alternative energies and energetic efficiency; Uma experiencia de divulgacao de energias alternativas e eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Hamilton Moss de; Aguiar, Joao Carlos; Sa, Antonio Leite de; Galdino, Marco Antonio [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dutra, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Pierre T. [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borges, Hortencio A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the work was to present a Brazilian energetic efficiency program and its results divulgement strategies. This program was sponsored by Electric Power Research Center - CEPEL and it objectified the construction of a totally efficient house.

  1. Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe dominant economic theory, neoclassical economics, employs a single economic evaluative criterion: efficiency. Moreover, it assigns this criterion a very specific meaning. Other – heterodox – schools of thought in economics tend to use more open concepts of efficiency, related to comm

  2. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation; Stromeffizienz und erneuerbare Energien - Wirtschaftliche alternative zu Grosskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettli, B.; Hammer, S.; Moret, F.; Iten, R. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nordmann, T. [TNC Consulting AG, Erlenbach (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  3. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  4. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A. (PSE and G Research Corp., Newark, NJ (US)); Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P. (ARD Corp., Columbia, MD (US))

    1987-05-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant.

  5. Efficiency of enzymatic and other alternative clarification and fining treatments on turbidity and haze in cherry juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Köser, C.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    function. Individual and interactive effects on turbidity and haze formation in precentrifuged and uncentrifuged cherry juice of treatments with pectinase, acid protease, bromelain, gallic acid, and gelatin-silica sol were investigated in a factorial experimental design with 32 different parameter...... cherry juice with Novozym 89L protease and co- addition of pectinase and gallic acid improved cherry juice clarity and diminished haze levels. None of the alternative treatments produced the unwieldy colloids notorious to gelatin- silica sol treatment. The data suggest that several alternative...

  6. Clean Cities Technical Assistance Project (Tiger Teams)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    This two-page fact sheet describes Clean Cities' technical assistance (Tiger Teams) capabilities and projects, both completed and ongoing. Tiger Teams are a critical element of the Clean Cities program, providing on-the-ground consultation to help inform program strategies. The knowledge Tiger Team experts gain from these experiences often helps inform other alternative fuels activities, such as needed research, codes and standards revisions, and new training resources.

  7. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  8. Physician strives to create lean, clean health care machine. Studies of manufacturing processes may one day help make your practice more efficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D

    2001-01-01

    Elisabeth Hager, MD, MMM, CPE, is teaming up with scientists and industrialists to teach physicians how to apply principles of lean, total-quality manufacturing to their practices. She believes innovation and efficiencies can help doctors resurrect their profession's image and their control over it--and perhaps even reinvent American health care.

  9. Technological roadmap for production, clean and efficient use of Brazilian mineral coal: 2012 to 2035; Roadmap tecnologico para producao, uso limpo e eficiente do carvao mineral nacional: 2012 a 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Brazil has one of the largest coal reserves in the world, but it is not among the largest producers in the world. Coal in Brazil, has two main applications: use as fuel for power generation, including industrial energy use, and in the iron and steel industry for production of coke, pig iron and steel. In the updated rates of use, the coal reserves can provide coal for more than 500 years. A public policy to better take advantage of the mineral coal, with horizons in 2022 and 2035 and the guidelines and strategies proposed for the country to reach the production, clean and efficient use of the expressive quantity of the mineral national coal are presented.

  10. Non-Gasoline Alternative Fueling Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Through a nationwide network of local coalitions, Clean Citiesprovides project assistance to help stakeholders in the public and private sectors deploy alternative...

  11. US Clean Energy Sector and the Opportunity for Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, Carole Cameron

    2011-01-01

    The following paper sets forth the current understanding of the US clean energy demand and opportunity. As clean energy systems come online and technology is developed, modeling and simulation of these complex energy programs provides an untapped business opportunity. The US Department of Defense provides a great venue for developing new technology in the energy sector because it is demanding lower fuel costs, more energy efficiencies in its buildings and bases, and overall improvements in its carbon footprint. These issues coupled with the security issues faced by foreign dependence on oil will soon bring more clean energy innovations to the forefront (lighter batteries for soldiers, alternative fuel for jets, energy storage systems for ships, etc).

  12. Cathodic ARC surface cleaning prior to brazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, V. R. (Vivek R.); Hollis, K. J. (Kendall J.); Castro, R. G. (Richard G.); Smith, F. M. (Frank M.); Javernick, D. A. (Daniel A.)

    2002-01-01

    Surface cleanliness is one the critical process variables in vacuum furnace brazing operations. For a large number of metallic components, cleaning is usually accomplished either by water-based alkali cleaning, but may also involve acid etching or solvent cleaning / rinsing. Nickel plating may also be necessary to ensure proper wetting. All of these cleaning or plating technologies have associated waste disposal issues, and this article explores an alternative cleaning process that generates minimal waste. Cathodic arc, or reserve polarity, is well known for welding of materials with tenacious oxide layers such as aluminum alloys. In this work the reverse polarity effect is used to clean austenitic stainless steel substrates prior to brazing with Ag-28%Cu. This cleaning process is compared to acid pickling and is shown to produce similar wetting behavior as measured by dynamic contact angle experiments. Additionally, dynamic contact angle measurements with water drops are conducted to show that cathodic arc cleaning can remove organic contaminants as well. The process does have its limitations however, and alloys with high titanium and aluminum content such as nickel-based superalloys may still require plating to ensure adequate wetting.

  13. Greywater treatment in airports using anaerobic filter followed by UV disinfection : an efficient and low cost alternative.

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar do; Calijuri, Maria Lúcia; Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Santiago,Aníbal da Fonseca; Lopes, Lucas Sampaio

    2014-01-01

    Greywater reuse is one of the main alternatives for reducing potable water consumption in households, industries and commercial buildings. Airport complexes need large amounts of water to maintain their operation routine, and replacing potable water with greywater may represent significant savings of financial and environmental resources. The objectives of this study were to discuss aspects related to greywater reuse in airports of different regions, as well as to present a case study of an a...

  14. 电能替代应用及效益评价%Application and Efficiency Evaluation of Alternative Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹东莉; 袁越; 李志祥

    2011-01-01

    结合高校生活热水供应系统来具体量化电能替代所带来的经济效益和环境效益,同时在此基础上,结合较成熟的评价方法,对高校生活热水供应系统电能替代的效益进行全面的量化评价.计算结果表明,考虑环境效益的计算模型更贴近实际,评价结果更合理,为进一步推广电能替代技术提供了参考.%Taking the hot water supply system in colleges and universities as an example, this paper specifically quantifies the economic benefits and environmental benefits of alternative energy. It also quantitatively assesses the comprehensive benefits of the hot water supply system when using alternative energy with the help of a better developed assessment method The results show that the calculation model with the environmental benefits considered is closer to reality, and results generated by the model are more reasonable It provides references for the further promotion of energy alternatives.

  15. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2016-12-30

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  16. Ultrasound-guided Thrombin Injection: An Alternative Treatment for Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm with Better Efficiency and Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghai YAO; Hongliang CONG; Shangqin WU; Shan SUN; Qike DONG; Dongmei CHEN; Peng LI

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and safety of ultrasound-guided thrombin injection on femoral pseudoaneurysm (FPA) as compared to ultrasound-guided local oppression. Eleven cases of FPA were enrolled and 7 cases received ultrasound-guide thrombin injection (injection group), and the remaining 4 cases were treated with local oppression (oppression group). Efficiency and safety were analyzed by ultrasound and subsequent follow-up. The results showed that 1 case relapsed in oppression group while no relapse occurred in thrombin injection group. Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection is better for treatment of FPA in terms of effectiveness and safety.

  17. Heterogeneous catalysis and the challenges of powering the planet, securing chemicals for civilised life, and clean efficient utilization of renewable feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews, first, the prospects, practices and principles of generating solar fuels. It does so with an analysis of recent progress in the light-driven emission of H2 (and other fuels) as well as O2 from water. To place this challenge in perspective, some current practices entailing the use of well-proven solid catalysts developed for fossil-based feedstocks, are described. The massive differences between proven methods of generating fuel and chemicals from non-renewable and from solar radiation are emphasized with the aid of numerous quantitative examples. Whilst it is acknowledged that a key action in reducing the liberation of greenhouse gases (GHG) is to tackle the challenge of decreasing their evolution in power generation and in the production of steel, aluminium and other bulk commodities (metals, alloys, concrete and ceramics), nevertheless much can be done to diminish the emission of CO2 (and to use it as feedstock) through the agency of new, designed solid catalysts and microalgae. Solar-thermal converters are also attractive alternatives, even though they are more likely to be used centrally rather than in small modular units like 'artificial leaves,' some of which are promising for the purposes of generating energy (and perhaps fuel) in a delocalized, modular manner.

  18. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Dddd... - Alternative Procedure To Determine Capture Efficiency From Enclosures Around Hot Presses in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... volatile organic compound or HAP removal efficiency of the control device. 3.4Data Quality Objective (DQO.... The injection points should be located within leak prone, volatile organic compound/hazardous air..., ppmv. Standard conditions: 20 °C, 760 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). To estimate the maximum...

  1. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy clean cities five-year strategic plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambridge Concord Associates

    2011-02-15

    Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program, which is part of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Working with its network of about 100 local coalitions and more than 6,500 stakeholders across the country, Clean Cities delivers on its mission to reduce petroleum consumption in on-road transportation. In its work to reduce petroleum use, Clean Cities focuses on a portfolio of technologies that includes electric drive, propane, natural gas, renewable natural gas/biomethane, ethanol/E85, biodiesel/B20 and higher-level blends, fuel economy, and idle reduction. Over the past 17 years, Clean Cities coalitions have displaced more than 2.4 billion gallons of petroleum; they are on track to displace 2.5 billion gallons of gasoline per year by 2020. This Clean Cities Strategic Plan lays out an aggressive five-year agenda to help DOE Clean Cities and its network of coalitions and stakeholders accelerate the deployment of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles, while also expanding the supporting infrastructure to reduce petroleum use. Today, Clean Cities has a far larger opportunity to make an impact than at any time in its history because of its unprecedented $300 million allocation for community-based deployment projects from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) (see box below). Moreover, the Clean Cities annual budget has risen to $25 million for FY2010 and $35 million has been requested for FY2011. Designed as a living document, this strategic plan is grounded in the understanding that priorities will change annually as evolving technical, political, economic, business, and social considerations are woven into project decisions and funding allocations. The plan does not intend to lock Clean Cities into pathways that cannot change. Instead, with technology deployment at its core, the plan serves as a guide for decision-making at both the

  3. Energy-efficient photodegradation of azo dyes with TiO(2) nanoparticles based on photoisomerization and alternate UV-visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Da; Lv, Xiaojun; Wang, Ying; Chang, Haixin; Li, Jinghong

    2010-02-01

    Herein, we demonstrated a UV-vis light alternate photocatalysis (UVLAP) strategy in the photodegradation of azo dyes. The UVLAP of azo dyes over TiO(2) catalysts exhibited significantly higher energy efficiency than the conventional UV process by 40%, which was attributed to the photoisomerization of azo dyes and the resulting diversity of dyes' cis and trans states in interfacial properties, including conductance and spatial effects. This UVLAP strategy could contribute to the energy-saving photodegradation of azo dyes and other pollutants with photoisomerization properties and facilitate the practical application of TiO(2) in the environmental remediation.

  4. Clean and efficient application of biomass for production of power and heat - Phase 3 in a long-term strategic research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Jensen, A.D.; Jensen, P.A.; Johnsson, J.E.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2002-06-01

    This project contains activities on: Rheology of ashes from co-firing of coal and biomass; Investigation of ash and deposit formation in full-scale utility boilers; and Selective catalytic reduction: Deactivation under biomass combustion. A fly ash and deposit investigation was carried out as part of the SK Power Company test programme on co-firing of biomasses in a grate-fired boiler. The alternative biomasses (wood chips, olive stones and shea nuts) contain more K, S, and Cl, than wheat straw, and higher fly ash mass loading (mass of fly ash/volume of flue gas) was observed when co-firing alternative biomasses with wheat straw. Anyhow, no significant change in deposit structure when co-firing alkali-rich biomass was observed: KCl is glues residual ash particles together, independent of the feedstock mixture. Thus it can be concluded that co-firing of the actual biomasses in boilers designed for straw-firing, at the present shares is not problematic, from an ash formation and/or deposit build-up point-of-view. Anyhow the increase in ash mass loading in the flue gas, may cause increased build-up of particulate deposits in the convective pass of the boiler. Mature deposit samples from the Masnedoe and Ensted straw-fired boilers were investigated by SEM and EDX. Each deposit sample was classified into an inner, an intermediate, and an outer main layer. The outermost deposit layers at Masnedoe and Ensted looked chemically quite similar, even though they were of different colours. The intermediate layer at Ensted contained many Si- and Ca-rich particles glued together by melted KCI, while the intermediate deposit layers at Masnedoe were different. Since the straw fuels probably are similar, the differences observed in the deposit chemistry must be induced by the higher temperature of the Masnedoe deposit. An experimental method has been set up for viscosity determinations on ashes from co-firing with wheat straw. The method contains a pre-treatment of the ashes, where

  5. Clean and efficient application of biomass for production of power and heat - Phase 3 in a long-term strategic research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Jensen, A.D.; Jensen, P.A.; Johnsson, J.E.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2002-06-01

    This project contains activities on: Rheology of ashes from co-firing of coal and biomass; Investigation of ash and deposit formation in full-scale utility boilers; and Selective catalytic reduction: Deactivation under biomass combustion. A fly ash and deposit investigation was carried out as part of the SK Power Company test programme on co-firing of biomasses in a grate-fired boiler. The alternative biomasses (wood chips, olive stones and shea nuts) contain more K, S, and Cl, than wheat straw, and higher fly ash mass loading (mass of fly ash/volume of flue gas) was observed when co-firing alternative biomasses with wheat straw. Anyhow, no significant change in deposit structure when co-firing alkali-rich biomass was observed: KCl is glues residual ash particles together, independent of the feedstock mixture. Thus it can be concluded that co-firing of the actual biomasses in boilers designed for straw-firing, at the present shares is not problematic, from an ash formation and/or deposit build-up point-of-view. Anyhow the increase in ash mass loading in the flue gas, may cause increased build-up of particulate deposits in the convective pass of the boiler. Mature deposit samples from the Masnedoe and Ensted straw-fired boilers were investigated by SEM and EDX. Each deposit sample was classified into an inner, an intermediate, and an outer main layer. The outermost deposit layers at Masnedoe and Ensted looked chemically quite similar, even though they were of different colours. The intermediate layer at Ensted contained many Si- and Ca-rich particles glued together by melted KCI, while the intermediate deposit layers at Masnedoe were different. Since the straw fuels probably are similar, the differences observed in the deposit chemistry must be induced by the higher temperature of the Masnedoe deposit. An experimental method has been set up for viscosity determinations on ashes from co-firing with wheat straw. The method contains a pre-treatment of the ashes, where

  6. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  7. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...

  8. Modeling magnetic photonic crystals with lossy ferrites using an efficient complex envelope alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Tan, Eng Leong; Chen, Zhi Ning

    2011-04-15

    In this Letter, we present an efficient complex-envelope alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (CE-ADI-FDTD) method for the transient analysis of magnetic photonic crystals with lossy ferrites. The proposed CE-ADI-FDTD method is generally formulated for a saturated ferrite with anisotropic permittivity tensor and ferrite loss. Auxiliary differential equations for modeling saturated ferrite and Maxwell's curl equations are first cast into a first-order differential system in a CE form. Then, by using an efficient ADI splitting formulas, the proposed CE-ADI-FDTD method is attained in a very concise form with few and simple right-hand side terms. The performance of the proposed method is validated and compared with the explicit FDTD method.

  9. Clean Processing and Utilization of Coal Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如清; 王海峰

    2006-01-01

    The dominant status of coal on the energy production and consumption structure of China will not be changed in the middle period of this century. To realize highly efficient utilization of coal, low pollution and low cost are great and impendent tasks. These difficult problems can be almost resolved through establishing large-scale pithead power stations using two-stage highly efficient dry coal-cleaning system before coal burning, which is a highly efficient, clean and economical strategy considering the current energy and environmental status of China. All these will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  10. Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.; Greene, Howard L.

    With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security, and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking non-petroleum based alternative fuels, along with more advanced energy technologies (e.g., fuel cells) to increase the efficiency of energy use. The most promising alternative fuel will be the fuel that has the greatest impact on society. The major impact areas include well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions, non-petroleum feed stocks, well-to-wheel efficiencies, fuel versatility, infrastructure, availability, economics, and safety. Compared to some of the other leading alternative fuel candidates (i.e., methane, methanol, ethanol, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels), dimethyl ether appears to have the largest potential impact on society, and should be considered as the fuel of choice for eliminating the dependency on petroleum. DME can be used as a clean high-efficiency compression ignition fuel with reduced NO x, SO x, and particulate matter, it can be efficiently reformed to hydrogen at low temperatures, and does not have large issues with toxicity, production, infrastructure, and transportation as do various other fuels. The literature relevant to DME use is reviewed and summarized to demonstrate the viability of DME as an alternative fuel.

  11. Cleaning and surface properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  12. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  13. Utilization of Pine Nut Shell derived carbon as an efficient alternate for the sequestration of phthalates from aqueous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair A. Qureshi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the importance of a cheap bio waste; Pine Nut Shell (PNS, from which a carbon is synthesized that can efficiently remove toxic phthalates from an aqueous system. PNS derived carbon shows high affinity toward phthalates in descending order along with adsorption capacity i.e., dibutyl phthalate (DBP 5.65 mg/g > diallyl phthalate (DAP 3.64 mg/g > diethyl phthalate (DEP and 2.87 mg/g > dimethyl phthalate (DMP 2.48 mg/g. Different characterization techniques such as FTIR, elemental analysis, point of zero electric charge (PZC, SEM, EDX and BET were employed to investigate the binding sites and surface area of the adsorbent. Adsorption experiments were performed both in batch and column modes. Equilibrium studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm fits best to experimental data. Kinetically, adsorption phenomena obeyed pseudo second order. Furthermore, thermodynamic results expressed the exothermic nature of adsorption on the basis of negative value of enthalpy change. Column sorption method was also adapted to check the feasibility of the adsorption process through the investigation of flow rate, breakthrough curve and pre-concentration factor which is found to be 13 for DMP and DEP and 16 for DAP and DBP. Methanol was found to be best solvent for the recovery of phthalates. Application in real water samples also showed good efficiency of PNS derived carbon for the removal of phthalates.

  14. Supplementary analysis of impacts of alternative approaches for the Certification/Enforcement Program for consumer-product energy-efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-04

    Vitro Laboratories Task 2 Report developed and qualitatively evaluated 4 alternative approaches for a DOE program for the certification and enforcement of consumer-product energy efficiency standards. This Task 5 report provides supplemental resource impact analyses of the four (a minimal governmental intervention approach, a strong certification control approach, a strong enforcement audit approach, and a mixed certification/enforcement approach) approaches. This analysis derives quantitative estimates of the impacts of these alternative approaches in terms of the five key decision variables defined in Task 2 (DOE staffing requirements, DOE program costs, test costs, indirect costs, and level of compliance). Definitions and assumptions of the resource-impact analyses of the four alternative certification and enforcement approaches are described for furnaces and boilers, water heaters, refrigerators and refrigerator/freezers, kitchen ranges and ovens (gas only), central air conditioners, and freezers. The next 5 chapters are dedicated to discussions of the five key decision variables. Results of the comparative evaluation are presented in the final chapter.

  15. Emulsion Synthesis of Size-Tunable CH3NH3PbBr3 Quantum Dots: An Alternative Route toward Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hailong; Zhao, Fangchao; Liu, Lige; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Xian-gang; Shi, Lijie; Zou, Bingsuo; Pei, Qibing; Zhong, Haizheng

    2015-12-30

    We report a facile nonaqueous emulsion synthesis of colloidal halide perovskite quantum dots by controlled addition of a demulsifier into an emulsion of precursors. The size of resulting CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots can be tuned from 2 to 8 nm by varying the amount of demulsifier. Moreover, this emulsion synthesis also allows the purification of these quantum dots by precipitation from the colloidal solution and obtains solid-state powder which can be redissolved for thin film coating and device fabrication. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the quantum dots is generally in the range of 80-92%, and can be well-preserved after purification (∼80%). Green light-emitting diodes fabricated comprising a spin-cast layer of the colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots exhibited maximum current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A, power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 1.1%. This provides an alternative route toward high efficient solution-processed perovskite-based light-emitting diodes. In addition, the emulsion synthesis is versatile and can be extended for the fabrication of inorganic halide perovskite colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals.

  16. Applying for and using CMAQ funds: Putting the pieces together. A Clean Cities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This guide provides the basic concepts to aid in an alternative fuel vehicle market development program developing an application for Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program funding. The US Department of Energy`s Clean Cities Program is an aggressive, forward-thinking alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) market development program. The stakeholders in any Clean Cities Program subscribe to the common philosophy that, through participation in a team-oriented coalition, steady progress can be made toward achieving the critical mass necessary to propel the AFV market into the next century. An important component in the successful implementation of Clean Cities Program objectives is obtaining and directing funding to the capital-intensive AFV market development outside of the resources currently offered by the Department of Energy. Several state and local funding sources have been used over the past decade, including Petroleum Violation Escrow funds, vehicle registration fees, and state bond programs. However, federal funding is available and can be tapped to implement AFV market development programs across the nation. Historically, opportunities to use federal funding for AFV projects have been limited; however, the one remaining federal program that must be tapped into by Clean Cities Programs is the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program. CMAQ is a 6-year, $6 billion federal program formed by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA).

  17. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-24

    Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  18. Improved plant nitrogen nutrition contributes to higher water use efficiency in tomatoes under alternate partial root-zone irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2010-01-01

    Comparative effects of partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) and deficit irrigation (DI) on stomatal conductance (gs), nitrogen accumulation and distribution in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants were investigated in a split-root pot experiment. Results showed that both PRI and DI saved 25......% water and led to 10.0% and 17.5% decreases in dry biomass, respectively, compared with the fully irrigated (FI) controls. Consequently, water use efficiency (WUE) was increased by 18.6% and 10.8% in the PRI and DI plants, respectively. The highest WUE in the PRI plants was associated with the highest...... carbon isotope composition (δ13C), indicating that the improvement of WUE might have been a result of long-term optimisation of stomatal control over gas exchange. The constantly higher xylem sap ABA concentration in PRI compared with DI plants was seemingly responsible for the greater control over...

  19. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  20. Mechanical cleaning of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.; Calado, V.E.; Barreiro, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of graphene due to residues from nanofabrication often introduces background doping and reduces electron mobility. For samples of high electronic quality, post-lithography cleaning treatments are therefore needed. We report that mechanical cleaning based on contact mode atomic force mi

  1. Clean Energy: No Longer a Luxury! Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This learning activity provides an overview of the problem of clean energy sources and examination of alternatives. Student activity, quiz with answers, related activities, and nine references are provided. (SK)

  2. An evaluation of deeply-cleaned coals as industrial boiler fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Wincek, R.T.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1999-07-01

    AMAX Research and Development Center (AMAX) recently conducted a program for the US Department of Energy (DOE) in which processes for preparing ultra-clean coal were developed (Jha et al., 1997). The coal cleaning methods targeted were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. The goal was to develop a coal-based fuel, preferably a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF), that would be a viable alternative to fuel oil or natural gas in industrial and utility boilers, and would also be appropriate for advanced combustion systems that are under development. Additional objectives were to develop near-term applications of the advanced coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants in order to efficiently process minus 28 mesh fines and convert them into marketable products, and to determine the extent of removal of toxic trace elements from coal by the advanced cleaning technologies. AMAX cleaned three coals in an integrated advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration process development unit. The coals were from the Taggart (Virginia), Indiana VII (Indiana) and Hiawatha (Utah) seams. As a complement to the AMAX program, Penn State is evaluating the deeply-cleaned coals as industrial boiler fuels. Specifically, the handling characteristics, combustion performance, and trace element emissions of the coals are being determined. The coals are being tested in demonstration (20 million Btu/h) and research (2 million Btu/h) boilers as part of a Penn State/DOE project characterizing trace element emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers. This paper will discuss the atomization characteristics and combustion performance (in the demonstration boiler) in a 1 ton/h filter cake re-entrainment circuit. In addition, the combustion performance of the ultra-clean CWSFs is compared to that of other CWSFs prepared in Penn State's 1 ton/h single and double-stage grinding circuit.

  3. Environmentally Clean Mitigation of Undesirable Plant Life Using Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; McGrann, T J; Yamamoto, R M; Parker, J M

    2009-07-01

    This concept comprises a method for environmentally clean destruction of undesirable plant life using visible or infrared radiation. We believe that during the blossom stage, plant life is very sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, with an enhanced sensitivity to specific spectral ranges. Small doses of irradiation can arrest further plant growth, cause flower destruction or promote plant death. Surrounding plants, which are not in the blossoming stage, should not be affected. Our proposed mechanism to initiate this effect is radiation produced by a laser. Tender parts of the blossom possess enhanced absorptivity in some spectral ranges. This absorption can increase the local tissue temperature by several degrees, which is sufficient to induce bio-tissue damage. In some instances, the radiation may actually stimulate plant growth, as an alternative for use in increased crop production. This would be dependent on factors such as plant type, the wavelength of the laser radiation being used and the amount of the radiation dose. Practical, economically viable realization of this concept is possible today with the advent of high efficiency, compact and powerful laser diodes. The laser diodes provide an efficient, environmentally clean source of radiation at a variety of power levels and radiation wavelengths. Figure 1 shows the overall concept, with the laser diodes mounted on a movable platform, traversing and directing the laser radiation over a field of opium poppies.

  4. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-03-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  5. Cleaning of South African coal using a compound dry cleaning apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Haibin; Luo Zhenfu; Zhao Yuemin; Wu Wanchang; Zhang Cuiyu; Dai Ningning

    2011-01-01

    The compound dry cleaning principle is briefly described. A beneficiation test on South African coal was conducted using a model compound dry cleaning apparatus. Excellent results were obtained and the optimum operating parameters were determined. They are: an amplitude of 3.0 ram, a motor frequency of 47.5 Hz, an air volume of 50%, a transverse angle of 7°, and a longitudinal angle of -2°. These conditions yield a clean coal containing 11% ash and a coal production of 75%. The organic efficiency, η, is 95.86%. These results show that the South African coal can be separated effectively by compound dry cleaning, which will popularize the compound dry cleaning method.

  6. Supporting Clean Energy Development in Swaziland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Swaziland, a country largely dependent on regional fossil fuel imports to meet power needs, is vulnerable to supply changes and price shocks. To address this challenge, the country's National Energy Policy and Implementation Strategy prioritizes actions to enhance energy independence through scaling up renewable energy and energy efficiency. With approximately 70 percent of the country lacking electricity, Swaziland is also strongly committed to expanding energy access to support key economic and social development goals. Within this context, energy security and energy access are two foundational objectives for clean energy development in Swaziland. The partnership between the Swaziland Energy Regulatory Authority and the Clean Energy Solutions Center led to concrete outcomes to support clean energy development in Swaziland. Improving renewable energy project licensing processes will enable Swaziland to achieve key national objectives to expand clean energy access and transition to greater energy independence.

  7. Cinnamic acid, coumarin and vanillin: Alternative phenolic compounds for efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the unicellular green alga, Nannochloropsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Thye-San; Chen, Chin-Fong; Yee, Willy; Aziz, Ahmad; Loh, Saw-Hong

    2011-03-01

    The use of acetosyringone in Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer into plant hosts has been favored for the past few decades. The influence of other phenolic compounds and their effectiveness in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation systems has been neglected. In this study, the efficacy of four phenolic compounds on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the unicellular green alga Nannochloropsis sp. (Strain UMT-M3) was assessed by using β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay. We found that cinnamic acid, vanillin and coumarin produced higher percentages of GUS positive cells as compared to acetosyringone. These results also show that the presence of methoxy group in the phenolic compounds may not be necessary for Agrobacterium vir gene induction and receptor binding as suggested by previous studies. These findings provide possible alternative Agrobacterium vir gene inducers that are more potent as compared to the commonly used acetosyringone in achieving high efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in microalgae and possibly for other plants.

  8. Investigation of aluminum surface cleaning using cavitating fluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralys, Aurimas; Striška, Vytautas; Mokšin, Vadim [Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Faculty of Mechanics, Department of Machine Engineering, J. Basanavičiaus str.28, 03224, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-12-16

    This paper investigates efficiency of specially designed atomizer used to spray water and cavitate microbubbles in water flow. Surface cleaning system was used to clean machined (grinded) aluminum surface from abrasive particles. It is established that cleaning efficiency depends on diameter of the diffuser, water pressure and distance between nozzle and metal surface. It is obtained that the best cleaning efficiency (100%) is achieved at pressure 36 bar, when diameter of diffuser is 0.4 mm and distance between nozzle and surface is 1 mm. It is also established that satisfactory cleaning efficiency (80%) is achieved not only when atomizer is placed closer to metal surface, but also at larger (120 mm) distances.

  9. The impact of Moore's Law and loss of Dennard scaling: Are DSP SoCs an energy efficient alternative to x86 SoCs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, L.; Netzer, G.

    2016-10-01

    Moore's law, the doubling of transistors per unit area for each CMOS technology generation, is expected to continue throughout the decade, while Dennard voltage scaling resulting in constant power per unit area stopped about a decade ago. The semiconductor industry's response to the loss of Dennard scaling and the consequent challenges in managing power distribution and dissipation has been leveled off clock rates, a die performance gain reduced from about a factor of 2.8 to 1.4 per technology generation, and multi-core processor dies with increased cache sizes. Increased caches sizes offers performance benefits for many applications as well as energy savings. Accessing data in cache is considerably more energy efficient than main memory accesses. Further, caches consume less power than a corresponding amount of functional logic. As feature sizes continue to be scaled down an increasing fraction of the die must be “underutilized” or “dark” due to power constraints. With power being a prime design constraint there is a concerted effort to find significantly more energy efficient chip architectures than dominant in servers today, with chips potentially incorporating several types of cores to cover a range of applications, or different functions in an application, as is already common for the mobile processor market. Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), largely targeting the embedded and mobile processor markets, typically have been designed for a power consumption of 10% or less of a typical x86 CPU, yet with much more than 10% of the floating-point capability of the same technology generation x86 CPUs. Thus, DSPs could potentially offer an energy efficient alternative to x86 CPUs. Here we report an assessment of the Texas Instruments TMS320C6678 DSP in regards to its energy efficiency for two common HPC benchmarks: STREAM (memory system benchmark) and HPL (CPU benchmark)

  10. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  11. A Commercial IOTV Cleaning Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    quite clean and had a refreshing scent . The medium soiled garments (30%) also looked reasonably clean after one wash. The heavily soiled garments...and Solvair® Cleaning in cleaning soiled Improved Outer Tactical Vests (IOTV). Computer-controlled Wet Cleaning coupled with the use of LANADOL...to clean soiled IOTVs. Soldier Product Support Integration Directorate, ILSC U.S. Army Soldier Systems Center 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760

  12. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the

  13. Cleaning insertions and collimation challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Bertarelli, A; Bruce, R; Jowett, J M; Lechner, A; Losito, R

    2015-01-01

    High-performance collimation systems are essential for operating efficiently modern hadron machine with large beam intensities. In particular, at the LHC the collimation system ensures a clean disposal of beam halos in the superconducting environment. The challenges of the HL-LHC study pose various demanding requests for beam collimation. In this paper we review the present collimation system and its performance during the LHC Run 1 in 2010–2013. Various collimation solutions under study to address the HL-LHC requirements are then reviewed, identifying the main upgrade baseline and pointing out advanced collimation concept for further enhancement of the performance.

  14. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  15. Effective Cleaning Radius Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churnetski, B.V.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses results of testing done in the Savannah River Laboratory half tank and full tank mockup facilities using kaolin clay slurries and the relationship between cleaning radius and pump and slurry characteristics.

  16. Clean Power Plan Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are resources to help states as they develop state implementation plans under section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act to meet EPA's carbon pollution standards for existing power plants. Supplements www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards.

  17. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change....... Chemical cleaning can be optimized with regard to electricity, heat and methanol use for the hydrothermal washing step, and could have environmental impact comparable to that of physical cleaning if the overall resource intensiveness of chemical cleaning is reduced by a factor 5 to 10, depending...

  18. Developments in surface contamination and cleaning fundamentals and applied aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects, Second Edition, provides an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation. Each volume in this series contains a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. This volume forms the heart of the series, covering the fundamentals and application aspects, characterization of surface contaminants, and methods for removal of surface contamination. In addition, new cleaning techniques effective at smaller scales are considered and employed for removal where conventional cleaning techniques fail, along with new cleaning techniques for molecular contaminants. The Volume is edited by the leading experts in small particle surface contamination and cleaning, providing an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control, and procurement specific...

  19. On-line chemical cleaning of pipelines; Limpieza quimica de ductos en linea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Michael Brent [Brenntag Stinnes Logistics, Muelheim/Ruhr (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The concern of efficiency and maintenance in the pipeline industry, due to fluids and sediments, has led the development of new methods of cleaning. Some methods of cleaning are described in this work with their advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

  1. Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge. Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

  2. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  3. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  4. Cleaning up the future of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ CAS is making efforts to seek green solutions to address the pollution problem of the traditional forms of coal utilization. For instance, as SONG Jianlan reports, a research team from the Taiyuan-based CAS Institute of Coal Chemistry has developed clean, efficient ways to convert coal into liquefied fuels.

  5. Novel use of an ultrasonic cleaning device for fish reproductive studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, L. M.; van der Meulen, D. E.; Orchard, B. A.; Gray, C. A.

    2013-02-01

    A major challenge commonly faced in reproductive studies of teleosts is to cost effectively and safely separate oocytes from one another and from surrounding ovarian tissue. This challenge is exacerbated when ovarian tissue has been chemically preserved. Using Platycephalus caeruleopunctatus, a platycephalid species found within oceanic waters along the east coast of Australia, as an example species, within this study we describe and assess the utility of an ultrasonic cleaning device to separate oocytes from preserved ovarian tissue. The ultrasonic cleaning device was observed to separate oocytes from the surrounding ovarian tissue within less than 80 min of treatment and had no deleterious effects on the number of oocytes present. Treatment within the ultrasonic cleaning device reduced oocyte diameters at a constant rate of 3.9 μm per hour among the samples tested. As the ultrasonic cleaning device was able to separate oocytes from connective tissue within 80 min, this observed rate of reduction in oocyte diameters is unlikely to be detected at the resolution at which oocytes are traditionally measured and is less than that reported to occur using alternate chemically derived methods to separate oocytes from preserved connective tissue. Following the assessment of using an ultrasonic cleaning device to separate oocytes from ovarian tissue for P. caeruleopunctatus, this technique has been successfully employed to separate oocytes from preserved ovarian tissue for a variety of other teleost species including Macquaria colonorum, Platycephalus longispinis and Ratabulus diversidens. The use of an ultrasonic cleaning device to separate oocytes from preserved ovarian tissue will increase the efficiency of future investigations into teleost reproductive biology and potentially in other fields of research where particle separation and analysis are required.

  6. Self-cleaning geopolymer concrete - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsaffirah Zailan, Siti; Mahmed, Norsuria; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    Concrete is the most widely used construction materials for building technology. However, cement production releases high amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere that leads to increasing the global warming. Thus, an alternative, environmental friendly construction material such as geopolymer concrete has been developed. Geopolymer concrete applies greener alternative binder, which is an innovative construction material that replaces the Portland cement. This technology introduced nano-particles such as nanoclay into the cement paste in order to improve their mechanical properties. The concrete materials also have been developed to be functioned as self-cleaning construction materials. The self-cleaning properties of the concrete are induced by introducing the photocatalytic materials such as titania (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO). Self-cleaning concrete that contains those photocatalysts will be energized by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and accelerates the decomposition of organic particulates. Thus, the cleanliness of the building surfaces can be maintained and the air surrounding air pollution can be reduced. This paper briefly reviews about self-cleaning concrete.

  7. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  8. CPICOR{trademark}: Clean power from integrated coal-ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintrell, R.; Miller, R.N.; Harbison, E.J.; LeFevre, M.O.; England, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The US steel industry, in order to maintain its basic iron production, is thus moving to lower coke requirements and to the cokeless or direct production of iron. The US Department of Energy (DOE), in its Clean Coal Technology programs, has encouraged the move to new coal-based technology. The steel industry, in its search for alternative direct iron processes, has been limited to a single process, COREX{reg_sign}. The COREX{reg_sign} process, though offering commercial and environmental acceptance, produces a copious volume of offgas which must be effectively utilized to ensure an economical process. This volume, which normally exceeds the internal needs of a single steel company, offers a highly acceptable fuel for power generation. The utility companies seeking to offset future natural gas cost increases are interested in this clean fuel. The COREX{reg_sign} smelting process, when integrated with a combined cycle power generation facility (CCPG) and a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU), is an outstanding example of a new generation of environmentally compatible and highly energy efficient Clean Coal Technologies. This combination of highly integrated electric power and hot metal coproduction, has been designated CPICOR{trademark}, Clean Power from Integrated Coal/Ore Reduction.

  9. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  10. Research of the heliostat cleaning method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Liu, Xiaobin [Himin Solar Energy Group Co., Ltd, Dezhou City (China); Wang, Zhifeng [CAS, Beijing (China). Inst. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Heliostat is the core component of Solar Power Tower system. It can straightly affect the efficiency of whole system. Because the heliostats run outside, and are discovered in the air, dust and dirt accumulates gradually on the surface of reflector. Then, it will gradually decrease the reflectivity of mirror so that reduce the whole efficiency. The article analyzed environment factors, and researched selecting availably cleaning method of heliostat for different conditions. (orig.)

  11. Megasonic cleaning strategy for sub-10nm photomasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jyh-Wei; Samayoa, Martin; Dress, Peter; Dietze, Uwe; Ma, Ai-Jay; Lin, Chia-Shih; Lai, Rick; Chang, Peter; Tuo, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    One of the main challenges in photomask cleaning is balancing particle removal efficiency (PRE) with pattern damage control. To overcome this challenge, a high frequency megasonic cleaning strategy is implemented. Apart from megasonic frequency and power, photomask surface conditioning also influences cleaning performance. With improved wettability, cleanliness is enhanced while pattern damage risk is simultaneously reduced. Therefore, a particle removal process based on higher megasonic frequencies, combined with proper surface pre-treatment, provides improved cleanliness without the unintended side effects of pattern damage, thus supporting the extension of megasonic cleaning technology into 10nm half pitch (hp) device node and beyond.

  12. CleanFleet. Volume 2, Project Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motorfuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eight-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

  13. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  14. Cleaning with solvents methods and machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Durkee, John

    2014-01-01

    High-precision cleaning is required across many sectors, including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor/electronics, and more. In this comprehensive reference work, solvent cleaning equipment is thoroughly covered with a focus on the engineering details of its operation and selection. Key data is provided alongside practical guidance, giving scientists and engineers in multiple sectors the information they need not only to choose the correct machine in the first place, but also how to operate it effectively and efficiently. Low emission

  15. Alternative assessment of nano-TiO{sub 2} sedimentation under different conditions based on sedimentation efficiency at quasi-stable state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Guang’an; Chen, Rui; Lu, Shushen [Sun Yat-sen University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Jiang, Chengchun [Shenzhen Polytechnic, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (China); Liu, Hong, E-mail: liuhong@cigit.ac.cn [Sun Yat-sen University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Wang, Chuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology (China)

    2015-11-15

    The predictable significant increase in manufacture and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) will cause their inevitable release into environment, and the potential harmful effects of ENPs have been confirmed. As representative ENPs, sedimentation behavior of nano-titanium dioxide (n-TiO{sub 2}) should be better understood to control its environmental risk. In this study, an experimental methodology was established to set the sampling area and sampling time of n-TiO{sub 2} sedimentation. In addition, we defined a quasi-stable state and a precise index, i.e., sedimentation efficiency (SE) at this state, to describe the n-TiO{sub 2} sedimentation behavior. Both alternative concentration determination and conventional size measurement were applied to evaluate the sedimentation behavior of n-TiO{sub 2} with fulvic acid. Results showed that the sedimentation behavior described by SE was more precise and in disagreement with those predicted by particle size. Moreover, sedimentation experiments with salicylic acid (SA), under an electric field and different water temperatures or with sulfosalicylic acid under light irradiation were also performed. When the total organic carbon concentration of SA, the voltage of working electrodes, and water temperature increased, or the wavelength of light source decreased, the SE of n-TiO{sub 2} increased and n-TiO{sub 2} showed a tendency to settle in water. These findings might be important for deepening the understanding of n-TiO{sub 2} environmental behavior and exploring sedimentation behavior of other ENPs.

  16. High-voltage live cleaning robot design based on security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-peng; XIA Hong-wei; YANG Ru-qing

    2005-01-01

    High-Voltage Live Cleaning Robot works in a hot-line environment (220 kV/330 kV), and so the safety of its application and equipment is most important. In terms of safety, the designs of robot mechanism and control system have been discussed, and the test data are given regarding the control system of a model machine. The model machine of a high-voltage live cleaning robot can satisfy the needs of basic cleaning in common conditions. From manual operation to automation, the cleaning efficiency is improved. The robot can decrease the amount of work, and guarantee security. Among high-voltage live cleaning equipment in China, the cleaning robot is advanced in automation and intelligence.

  17. Affordable High Performance Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an Electromagnetically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) with enhanced performance, in Watts/kg and Watts/m2, using flight proven, high efficiency solar cells. For...

  18. EUV mask cleans comparison of frontside and dual-sided concurrent cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Lin Lee; Kindt, Louis; Turley, Christina; Leonhard, Dusty; Boyle, John; Robinson, Chris; Rankin, Jed; Corliss, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The cleaning requirements for EUV masks are more complex than optical masks due to the absence of available EUVcompatible pellicles. EUV masks must therefore be capable of undergoing more than 100 cleaning cycles with minimum impact to lithographic performance. EUV masks are created on substrates with 40 multilayers of silicon and molybdenum to form a Bragg reflector, capped with a 2.5nm-thick ruthenium layer and a tantalum-based absorber; during usage, both ruthenium and absorber are exposed to the cleaning process. The CrN layer on the backside is used to enable electrostatic clamping. This clamp side must also be free of particles that could impact printing and overlay, and particles could also potentially migrate to the frontside and create defects. Thus, the cleaning process must provide decent particle removal efficiencies on both front- and backside while maintaining reflectivity with minimal surface roughness change. In this paper, we report progress developing a concurrent patterned-side and clamped-side cleaning process that achieves minimal reflectivity change over 120 cleaning cycles, with XPS and EDS indicating the presence of ruthenium after 125 cleaning cycles. The change in surface roughness over 100 cleaning cycles is within the noise (0.0086nm) on a mask blank, and SEM inspection of 100nm and 200nm features on patterned masks after undergoing 100 cleaning cycles show no indications of ruthenium pitting or significant surface damage. This process was used on test masks to remove particles from both sides that would otherwise inhibit these masks from being used in the scanner.

  19. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning....... Chemical cleaning can be optimized with regard to electricity, heat and methanol use for the hydrothermal washing step, and could have environmental impact comparable to that of physical cleaning if the overall resource intensiveness of chemical cleaning is reduced by a factor 5 to 10, depending...

  20. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    Half the world's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020. The high human density and changes in peoples' consumption habits result in an ever-increasing amount of trash that must be handled by governing bodies. Problems created by inefficient or dysfunctional cleaning services...

  1. Neutrino Detection With CLEAN

    CERN Document Server

    McKinsey, D N

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...

  2. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  3. Una alternativa limpia para el tratamiento de las aguas residuales galvánicas: revisión bibliográfica A clean alternative for galvanic wastewater treatment: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Chávez Porras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre las aguas residuales generadas por industrias galvánicas y una posibilidad de tratamiento para disminuir los contaminantes propios de estos efluentes. La actividad produce fundamentalmente efluentes líquidos con alta carga contaminante en volúmenes relativamente pequeños, como también efluentes con cargas contaminantes diluidas en grandes volúmenes; adicionalmente a esto, la generación de desechos sólidos o semisólidos es el principal problema en importancia después de los vertidos líquidos. Se concluye que las aguas residuales pueden alcanzar un alto nivel tóxico para el medio ambiente y el hombre; se generan, así, alternativas para su tratamiento y la posible recuperación de los metales pesados, específicamente para estas industrias que son las grandes generadoras de los contaminantes, donde los tratamientos convencionales no logran eliminarlos en sus procesos, lo que requiere una combinación de alternativas tecnológicas para tratar las aguas residuales. Se considera el proceso de electrocoagulación como efectivo para eliminar contaminantes del agua residual, que permite recuperar parte de las aguas para reúso.This study presents a literature review on wastewater produced in galvanic industry, and a possible treatment alternative in order to decrease contaminants of such effluents. This industry basically generates liquid wastes with a big contaminating load in relatively small volumes. Additionally, generation of solid and semisolid wastes is the second main problem after discharge of liquids. It is concluded that wastewaters can reach a high level of toxicity for both environment and man. Then, some alternatives are proposed for treatment and possible recovery of heavy metals, especially for this industry which are important producers of contaminants, since conventional treatments are not totally effective for their elimination during the processes. This requires a

  4. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  5. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  6. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  7. Natural cleaning of the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon) in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Legraverant, Yohann; Berthe, Cécile; Brooker, Rohan M.; Lo, Cédrik; Lecchini, David

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling increases the operational and economic costs associated with pearl production. As current procedures for reducing oyster biofouling can be detrimental to survival and growth and may pollute the surrounding environment developing alternative, biologically-mediated, methods could potentially increase both production and ecological sustainability. With this in mind, the present study investigated natural cleaning of black-lipped pearl oysters, Pinctada margaritifera, by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon). The feeding behaviour of six butterflyfish species was examined at Rangiroa Atoll, French Polynesia: Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon ephippium, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon trifascialis and Chaetodon ulietensis. All species cleaned the surface of pearl oysters by removing epibionts (from 16% to 40% of total biomass), although dietary variation may explain different cleaning efficiencies. Generalist omnivores (C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. ephippium and C. ulietensis) were the most efficient cleaners (% cleaning range: 26-40% of total biomass). Within this group, C. ephippium removed the most biomass (average of 41%) targeting algae and anemones. However, C. auriga targeted the most diverse range of epibionts, removing significant amounts of algae, sponges, tunicates, and anemones. These results suggest that foraging by butterflyfishes can substantially reduce biofouling on economically-important tropical bivalves.

  8. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Clean Cities Project Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    Each Clean Cities project award under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included a diverse group of stakeholders who worked together to lay the foundation for their communities to adopt alternative fuels and petroleum reduction strategies. This document provides a snapshot of the impact of each project and highlights the partners and Clean Cities coalitions who helped transform local and regional transportation markets through 25 projects impacting 45 states.

  9. Ethyl-bridged hybrid column as an efficient alternative for HPLC analysis of plasma amino acids by pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Mar; Van Eendenburg, Cecile Van; Gubern, Carme; Sanchez, Juan M

    2016-09-01

    Conventional C18 silica columns have proven to be useful for the analysis of amino acids (AA) from protein hydrolysates but undesirable peak overlapping is usually found when analyzing body fluids given that a large number of AAs are present in the samples. As an alternative to silica packings, an ethyl-bridged packing for reversed-phase liquid chromatography of derivatized AAs with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) has been evaluated. The new packing material improves the separation efficiency allowing better separations when analyzing biological fluids. Moreover, this packing has advantages for routine AA analysis, such as a decrease in the total running time and an increase in the life-time of the columns. The pH of the mobile phase has a significant effect on the elution behavior of the AQC hydrolysis product (AMQ) and on the AA derivatives. It is not possible to elute AMQ before detecting the first AA derivative, which requires an accurate adjustment of the pH in the range of 5.30-5.35 to obtain good separation and resolution for the most polar compounds. Under the conditions proposed, it is possible to separate all AAs except the Gly-Gln pair, which is not a problem when hydrolyzed samples are analyzed. The AMQ-Ser pair requires either the use of a different mobile phase pH for its baseline separation or the use of fluorescence detection. Two different procedures for protein removal from plasma samples have been evaluated, solvent precipitation and ultrafiltration (UF) and it has been found that UF gives better results as no significant losses of AAs were observed. The validation of the proposed method with UV detection gives method detection limits in the range of 8-12μM, with repeatability values<8% (n=6) and inter-day precision in plasma samples ranging from 4 to 13% (n=4).

  10. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  11. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  12. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  13. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  14. Multi-stage cleaning plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1980-12-09

    A cleaning plant positioned within an annular fluidized bed combustion chamber is divided into a plurality of separate cleaning stages, wherein a first stage is located adjacent the fluidized bed and additional stages are arranged within the first stage. Each stage comprises a plurality of separate cleaning devices which act in parallel, while cleaning devices of different stages act in series to remove debris from the combustion gases that exit from the fluidized bed combustion chamber.

  15. Dimethyl ether as alternative fuel for CI engine and vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen HUANG; Xinqi QIAO; Wugao ZHANG; Junhua WU; Junjun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    As a developing and the most populous country in the world, China faces major challenges in energy supply and environmental protection. It is of great importance to develop clean and alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. On the basis of researches on DME engine and vehicle at Shanghai Jiaotong University in the last twelve years, fuel injection, combustion, performance and exhaust emissions of DME engine and DME vehicle are introduced in this paper. The results indicate that DME engines can achieve high thermal efficiency and ultra low emissions, and will play a significant role in meeting the energy demand while minimizing environmental impact in China.

  16. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  17. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  18. A Clean Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAGGIECHEN

    2004-01-01

    If you have US$1 million, do you invest in car production or cleaning car emissions? More cars than ever are hitting the roads and demand is rising.Cleaner cars are being called for, as the government strives to reduce car emission. So there is an obvious market both for cars and for new emission control technologies.Theoretically, you should make money by investing in either of them in China today.

  19. CLEAN: CLustering Enrichment ANalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedovic Mario

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of biological knowledge encoded in various lists of functionally related genes has become one of the most important aspects of analyzing genome-wide functional genomics data. In the context of cluster analysis, functional coherence of clusters established through such analyses have been used to identify biologically meaningful clusters, compare clustering algorithms and identify biological pathways associated with the biological process under investigation. Results We developed a computational framework for analytically and visually integrating knowledge-based functional categories with the cluster analysis of genomics data. The framework is based on the simple, conceptually appealing, and biologically interpretable gene-specific functional coherence score (CLEAN score. The score is derived by correlating the clustering structure as a whole with functional categories of interest. We directly demonstrate that integrating biological knowledge in this way improves the reproducibility of conclusions derived from cluster analysis. The CLEAN score differentiates between the levels of functional coherence for genes within the same cluster based on their membership in enriched functional categories. We show that this aspect results in higher reproducibility across independent datasets and produces more informative genes for distinguishing different sample types than the scores based on the traditional cluster-wide analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of the CLEAN framework in comparing clusterings produced by different algorithms. CLEAN was implemented as an add-on R package and can be downloaded at http://Clusteranalysis.org. The package integrates routines for calculating gene specific functional coherence scores and the open source interactive Java-based viewer Functional TreeView (FTreeView. Conclusion Our results indicate that using the gene-specific functional coherence score improves the reproducibility of the

  20. Clean Power on Tap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adopts the most advanced nuclear power technologies to meet long-term energy needs Nuclear power has taken center stage in China’s nationwide cam-paign to develop new and clean energy sources. In the latest effort, Chinese state-owned nuclear power giants invested over 40 billion yuan ($5.86 billion) as an initial funding injection to build a new plant under the

  1. Clean steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels.

  2. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  3. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for the optimization of road surface cleaning process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; GAO Dao-ming

    2006-01-01

    The parameters affecting road surface cleaning using waterjets were researched and a fuzzy neural network method of calculating cleaning rate was provided. A genetic algorithm was used to configure the cleaning parameters of pressure, standoff distance, traverse rate and angle of nozzles for the optimization of the cleaning effectiveness, efficiency, energy and water consumption, and a multi-objective optimization model was established. After calculation, the optimized results and the trend of variation of cleaning effectiveness, efficiency, energy and water consumption in different weighting factors were analyzed.

  4. Surface modification of plasticized PVC by dry cleaning methods: Consequences for artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Muñoz, C.

    2010-03-01

    A study of dry cleaning methods for plasticized PVC has been undertaken using three commercial cloths recommended for plastics artworks, in addition to cotton swabs traditionally used in art conservation. The evaluation of the cleaning has focussed on the efficiency of the cleaners, and the physical and chemical damages caused by the cleaning. The physical and chemical modifications of the PVC surface have been studied by optical microscopy, non-contact profilometry and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, while spectrocolorimetry and non-contact profilometry have been used for evaluating the cleaning efficiency. The results have shown that the cleaner's composition and the cleaning time play an important role in damaging the plasticized PVC surface. On the contrary, it has not been completely determined if the texture of the cleaning agents' surface had an influence on the cleaning efficiency.

  5. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Singer, M.

    2014-10-01

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

  6. Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-22

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

  7. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 20, No. 1, Summer 2016 - Tackling Transportation: Clean Cities and NPS Team Up to Steer National Parks Toward a Sustainable Future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  8. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  9. Alternative Solvents through Green Chemistry Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Components in the aerospace industry must perform with accuracy and precision under extreme conditions, and surface contamination can be detrimental to the desired performance, especially in cases when the components come into contact with strong oxidizers such as liquid oxygen. Therefore, precision cleaning is an important part of a components preparation prior to utilization in aerospace applications. Current cleaning technologies employ a variety of cleaning agents, many of which are halogenated solvents that are either toxic or cause environmental damage. Thus, this project seeks to identify alternative precision cleaning solvents and technologies, including use of less harmful cleaning solvents, ultrasonic and megasonic agitation, low-pressure plasma cleaning techniques, and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Please review all data content found in the Public Data tab located at: https:techport.nasa.govview11697public

  10. Financing clean energy market creation. Clean energy ventures, venture capitalists and other investors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teppo, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Development and Management in Industry

    2006-07-01

    Many factors have emerged for change towards cleaner and more efficient technologies and services: climate change, increasing oil demands, and rising living standards in many parts of the world are putting an ever-increasing strain on the environment. Recently, these drivers have fueled the formation of a clean energy venture capital market where both independent venture capitalists (VCs) and corporate venture capitalists (CVCs) have invested in clean energy start-ups. Financing of clean energy market creation is the focus of this dissertation. The dissertation contributes to several bodies of literature in the area of entrepreneurship, new industry creation, corporate venturing, and venture capital research. The dissertation uses a grounded theory approach. The study is guided by three data collection approaches with an emphasis on the first two. First, interviews with European and North American VC and CVC firms that have invested in the clean energy sector were carried out. Second, a clean energy venture financing survey that consisted of qualitative, essay-format questions and some quantitative questions was carried out. Third, interviews with clean energy stakeholders were carried out in order to gain a better understanding of the emerging sector. The research results consist of three main findings. First, the research results suggest that clean energy ventures face the following three main entrepreneurial challenges: financing, market education, and growth management. A further study of three clean energy industry categories revealed additional challenges that varied according to the industry development stage. Second, the results demonstrate that, from a venture capitalist perspective, clean energy venture risk characteristics can be divided into two groups: generally recognized risk characteristics and cognitive risk characteristics. The identified generally recognized risk characteristics were market demand and adaptation, incompatibility with the VC model

  11. A core alternative[Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, R.H. [Chart Heat Exchangers, Wisconsin (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The development of the efficient Core-in-kettle heat exchangers by Chart Heat Exchangers as an alternative to shell and tube exchangers is reported, and its use as condensers and reboilers in ethylene plants and refrigerant condensers and chillers in natural gas processing and liquid natural gas (LNG) plants are discussed. The novel technology is described with details given of the replacement of the tube bundle with a Chart brazed aluminium plate-fin heat exchanger core, the operation of the exchanger, the savings achieved by installing these heat exchangers in new or existing plants, and Core-in-Kettle retrofits of existing shell and tube heat exchangers. The limitations of the use of Core-in-Kettle heat exchangers to clean fluids typical of hydrocarbon processing, and temperature and pressure limitations are noted.

  12. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the

  13. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere causing precipitation of acid rain resulting in death of forests and destruction of buildings and monuments in addition to human health problems. The most common state-of-the-art methods applied today industrially for cleaning of flue gases will be addressed, including wet......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  14. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  15. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    through a multi stage filtration unit on the surface. Solids greater than 50 micron are separated through a 1st stage separator and deposited into a disposal bin. Filtrate is then pumped through a series of high flow, back-flushable filters that remove particulate material greater than 5 micron. After the 1st and 2nd stage filtration the filtrate is then disinfected by passing through an automated UV reactor where the treated water is then released back into the ocean. This advancement in hull cleaning technology will allow vessels to be cleaned in areas where dry docking is not possible or viable along with being a preventive measure to reduce Biofouling in the environment. The in-water hull cleaning system certainly has earned its place as being an innovative leader in improving efficiencies and reducing environmental impact. https://www.linkedin.com/groups?mostRecent=&gid=6724648&trk=my_groups-tile-flipgrp

  16. Clean Energy in City Codes: A Baseline Analysis of Municipal Codification across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dane, Alexander [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Sivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Municipal governments in the United States are well positioned to influence clean energy (energy efficiency and alternative energy) and transportation technology and strategy implementation within their jurisdictions through planning, programs, and codification. Municipal governments are leveraging planning processes and programs to shape their energy futures. There is limited understanding in the literature related to codification, the primary way that municipal governments enact enforceable policies. The authors fill the gap in the literature by documenting the status of municipal codification of clean energy and transportation across the United States. More directly, we leverage online databases of municipal codes to develop national and state-specific representative samples of municipal governments by population size. Our analysis finds that municipal governments with the authority to set residential building energy codes within their jurisdictions frequently do so. In some cases, communities set codes higher than their respective state governments. Examination of codes across the nation indicates that municipal governments are employing their code as a policy mechanism to address clean energy and transportation.

  17. Evaluation of a novel fine coal dry cleaning process at Greenfields Coal Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratton, R.; Luttrell, G.; Kasindorf, H.; McGraw, G.; Robbins, R. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Coal mining and processing operations have in the past and continue to create large tonnages of fine coal and waste particles. While technological advances in wet processing has made it possible to efficiently recover coal fines, difficulties associated with dewatering make these fine particles unattractive economically for most coal markets. A novel system has been developed for cleaning fine raw coal utilizing a multistage dry classification process that removes the clay particles that are typically much smaller than the majority of the clean coal particles and that reduces the product surface moisture to as low as 1%. In this article, the novel dry coal-cleaning process under license to Greenfields Coal Company was evaluated. The classification process offers a viable alternative to traditional wet processing and dewatering of the fine particles, especially for operations recovering abandoned impoundments where a sufficient water source and/or a waste slurry disposal site are unavailable. This article presents the separation performance and operating results obtained from field testing with a 2t/hr pilot-scale unit located at an abandoned impoundment in southern West Virginia.

  18. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  19. Hybrid Cleaning Technology for Enhanced Post-Cu/Low-Dielectric Constant Chemical Mechanical Planarization Cleaning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Manivannan; Cho, Byoung-Jun; Kwon, Tae-Young; Park, Jin-Goo

    2013-05-01

    During chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a copper/low-k surface is often contaminated by abrasive particles, organic materials and other additives. These contaminants need to be removed in the subsequent cleaning process with minimum material loss. In this study, a dilute amine-based alkaline cleaning solution is used along with physical force in the form of megasonic energy to remove particles and organic contaminants. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) are used as an organic base and complexing agent, respectively, in the proposed solution. Ethanolamine acts as a corrosion inhibitor in the solution. Organic residue removal was confirmed through contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Electrochemical studies showed that the proposed solution increases protection against corrosion, and that the hybrid cleaning technology resulted in higher particle removal efficiency from both the copper and low-k surfaces.

  20. Investigation of laser cleaning on bronze cultural relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xiulan; Wang, Gao; Zhang, Chen

    2016-05-01

    The effects of laser cleaning on the corrosion layers of bronze cultural relics were studied using a pulsed fiber laser. The laser cleaning threshold value of the corrosion layers was obtained. It was found that the corrosion layer was removed successfully by employing a laser fluence value of 0.32 J cm-2 and scanning for three times. To obtain experimental evidence, laser con-focal scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate the cleaning efficiency of corrosion layers on specimens.

  1. Preparation for B4C/Mo2C multilayer deposition of alternate multilayer gratings with high efficiency in the 0.5-2.5 keV energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueikani, Fadi; Delmotte, Franck; Bridou, Françoise; Lagarde, Bruno; Mercere, Pascal; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Polack, François

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a study of B4C/Mo2C multilayers mirrors with the aim of using it in the achievement of Alternate MultiLayer (AML) grating. Such component allows a high efficiency in the 500-2500 eV energy range for the DEIMOS beamline. Multilayers were deposited on silicon substrate. They are characterized by reflectometry under grazing incidence. Numerical adjustments were performed with a model of two layers in the period without any interfacial. A prototype of AML grating was fabricated and characterized. The efficiency of the first order of diffraction was worth 15% at 1700 eV.

  2. Study on characteristics of pipeline transportation and sulfur fixing of cleaned coal logs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yu; LIN Qun; TANG Jun; LIU Tong-cheng

    2006-01-01

    As special cylindrical briquettes of coal for long distance pipeline transportation and directly cleaned combustion the cleaned coal logs should possess two characteristics of transportation in pipeline and cleaned combustion. In order to make cleaned coal logs a rational technology for manufacturing, cleaned coal logs was designed and compound sulfur fixing binders with high effects of binding and sulfur-fixing was selected and combined. In addition, by means of characteristic experiments of strength, wear, waterproof and sulfur-fixing five different cleaned coal logs made with different compound sulfur fixing binders in different compaction conditions was tested and measured. Experimental results indicated that the manufacturing technology of cleaned coal logs was reasonable and the combination of compound sulfur fixing binders was scientific. Cleaned coal logs made up with the fourth group of coal mixture had high strength, good waterproof property, efficient sulfur-fixing, good characteristic of transportation, and achieved the performance requirement for pipeline transportation and sulfur fixing.

  3. Influence of cleaning process on the laser-induced damage threshold of substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhengxiang; Ding, Tao; Ye, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaodong; Ma, Bin; Cheng, Xinbin; Liu, Huasong; Ji, Yiqin; Wang, Zhanshan

    2011-03-20

    The cleaning process of optical substrates plays an important role during the manufacture of high-power laser coatings. Two kinds of substrates, fused silica and BK7 glass, and two cleaning processes, called process 1 and process 2 having different surfactant solutions and different ultrasonic cleaning parameters, are adopted to compare the influence of the ultrasonic cleaning technique on the substrates. The evaluation standards of the cleaning results include contaminant-removal efficiency, weak absorption, and laser-induced damage threshold of the substrates. For both fused silica and BK7, process 2 is more efficient than process 1. Because acid and alkaline solutions can increase the roughness of BK7, process 2 is unsuitable for BK7 glass cleaning. The parameters of the cleaning protocol should be changed depending on the material of the optical components and the type of contamination.

  4. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  5. Clean coal technologies market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  6. Possibilities and impossibilites of alternative antifouling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, P.R.; Ferrari, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The following alternatives to TBT and other toxic paints are discussed in this paper: coatings based on naturally antifouling compounds, non-stick coatings and the periodic removal of fouling (cleaning). Other alternative antifouling techniques have not made significant developments in the last few

  7. Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

  8. Laser shock cleaning of radioactive particulates from glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun; Nilaya, J. P.; Biswas, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    Efficient removal of Uranium-di-oxide (UO2) particulates from glass surface was achieved by Nd-YAG laser induced airborne plasma shock waves. The velocity of the generated shock wave was measured by employing the photo-acoustic probe deflection method. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of laser pulse energy, number of laser exposures and the separation between the substrate surface and the onset point of the shock wave on the de-contamination efficiency. The efficacy of the process was estimated monitoring the alpha activity of the samples before and after laser shock cleaning using a ZnS (Ag) scintillation detector. Significant cleaning efficiency could be achieved when the substrate was exposed to multiple laser shocks that could be further improved by geometrically confining the plasma. No visual damage or loss in optical quality was observed when the shock cleaned surfaces were analysed by optical microscopy and spectrophotometry. The area cleaned by laser shock cleaning was found to be significantly larger than that possible by conventional laser cleaning. Theoretical estimate of the shock force generated has been found to exceed the van der Waal`s binding force for spherical contaminant particulate.

  9. Relações de produtividade, área folhear e alternância na macieira bravo de esmolfe: Yield efficiency, leaf area and alternate bearing indices of apple cv. bravo de esmolfe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A macieira Bravo de Esmolfe é a mais conhecida e valorizada das variedades regionais, mas o conhecimento técnico disponível é escasso e torna-se necessário aprofundá-lo, em especial no que se refere às formas de gestão e controlo de uma das suas características mais negativas, a forte tendência para alternar as produções. Assim, pretendeu-se identificar algumas relações de produtividade que não desencadeiem alternância, quando cultivada no porta-enxerto ananicante EMLA9, que tem sido considerado entre os melhores actualmente disponíveis para o seu cultivo em regime intensivo. Para o efeito foram seleccionadas 30 macieiras de 8 anos, de estatura semelhante, e que apresentaram diferentes níveis de produtividade no ano de 2004. Em Novembro de 2004 foram recolhidas as folhas e medida a sua área, e contabilizadas as respectivas inflorescências em Abril de 2005, o que forneceu uma perspectiva da produção para essa campanha. Tendo em conta tais valores, e recorrendo ao seu historial produtivo, foram calculados alguns parâmetros que permitiram a análise do comportamento e regularidade de produção das macieiras seleccionadas. Os resultados obtidos nesta primeira abordagem sugerem que intervalos de produtividade da ordem de 8 a 11 g de maçã por folha durante a campanha, a que correspondem 20 a 30 maçãs por cm de diâmetro do tronco, bem como valores entre 10 e 15 folhas por maçã produzida, evitam a alternância de produção, desde que sejam feitas mondas atempadas, conseguindo-se assim bom equilíbrio produção/vegetação.The Bravo de Esmolfe apple tree is the most reputed and valued regional variety, but the available technical knowledge about it does not suffice. It must be deepened, especially on what concerns tools for management and control of one of this cultivar’s most negative characteristics, the strong tendency to alternate bearing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify some yield relations that

  10. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  11. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while others...... filters were damaged. The results of the laboratory experiments formed background for the final design of an ultrasound transducer module for use by foodstuff filtration plants. [This work was financed by the EU Project WAMBIO PL96-3257 (FAIR Programme).]...

  12. Quick and clean cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Frank; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

    2014-01-01

    Identification of unknown sequences that flank known sequences of interest requires PCR amplification of DNA fragments that contain the junction between the known and unknown flanking sequences. Since amplified products often contain a mixture of specific and nonspecific products, the quick and clean (QC) cloning procedure was developed to clone specific products only. QC cloning is a ligation-independent cloning procedure that relies on the exonuclease activity of T4 DNA polymerase to generate single-stranded extensions at the ends of the vector and insert. A specific feature of QC cloning is the use of vectors that contain a sequence called catching sequence that allows cloning specific products only. QC cloning is performed by a one-pot incubation of insert and vector in the presence of T4 DNA polymerase at room temperature for 10 min followed by direct transformation of the incubation mix in chemo-competent Escherichia coli cells.

  13. Clean Cities 2011 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Clean Cities Light-Duty Vehicle Buyer's Guide is a consumer publication that provides a comprehensive list of commercially available alternative fuel and advanced vehicles in model year 2011. The guide allows for side-by-side comparisons of fuel economy, price, emissions, and vehicle specifications.

  14. Ozone Depleting Chemical (ODC) Replacement - Alternative Cleaning Solvents and Lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    improved adhesive performance with this substitution. For the cleaner, both Bio-T-Max (a water soluble terpene blend) and EP921 (which contains...such as carbon-carbon and carbon graphite. The composite surface presents a unique concern because of its tendency to absorb fluids (including...uniform coating of maximum adhesive strength. One negative aspect of high surface energy substrates is their tendency to absorb low energy contaminants

  15. Clean Energy Works Oregon Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Andria [City of Portland; Cyr, Shirley [Clean Energy Works

    2013-12-31

    In April 2010, the City of Portland received a $20 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy, as part of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program. This award was appropriated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), passed by President Obama in 2009. DOE’s program became known as the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The BBNP grant objectives directed the City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) as the primary grantee to expand the BPS-led pilot program, Clean Energy Works Portland, into Clean Energy Works Oregon (CEWO), with the mission to deliver thousands of home energy retrofits, create jobs, save energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.The Final Technical Report explores the successes and lessons learned from the first 3 years of program implementation.

  16. Colloidal interactions in liquid CO2 - A dry-cleaning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, S.; Sutanto, S.; Kleijn, J.M.; Roosmalen, van M.J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid CO2 is a viable alternative for the toxic and environmentally harmful solvents traditionally used in dry-cleaning industry. Although liquid CO2 dry-cleaning is being applied already at a commercial scale, it is still a relatively young technique which poses many challenges. The focus of this

  17. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, Edward; Spires, Renee; Davis, Neil

    2009-02-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank. During the cleaning, the oxalic acid acts as the solvent to digest sludge solids and insoluble salt solids, such that they can be suspended and pumped out of the tank. Because of the volume and concentration of acid used, a significant quantity of oxalate is added to the HLW process. This added oxalate significantly impacts downstream processing. In addition to the oxalate, the volume of liquid added competes for the limited available tank space. A search, therefore, was initiated for a new cleaning process. Using TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch or roughly translated as the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination with Ultraviolet Light (CORD-UV{reg_sign}), a mature technology used in the commercial nuclear power industry was identified as an alternate technology. Similar to BOAC, CORD-UV{reg_sign} also uses oxalic acid as the solvent to dissolve the metal (hydr)oxide solids. CORD-UV{reg_sign} is different, however, since it uses photo-oxidation (via peroxide/UV or ozone/UV to form hydroxyl radicals) to decompose the spent oxalate into carbon dioxide and water. Since the oxalate is decomposed and off-gassed, CORD-UV{reg_sign} would not have the negative downstream oxalate process impacts of BOAC. With the oxalate destruction occurring physically outside the HLW tank, re-precipitation and transfer of the solids, as well as regeneration of the cleaning solution can be performed without adding additional solids, or a significant volume of liquid to the process. With a draft of the pre-conceptual Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) flowsheet, taking full

  18. Efficient and Cost-Effective Alternative Treatment for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Interstitial Cystitis in Women: A Two-Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance.

  19. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  20. Blowers for clean rooms; Ventilatoren. Keine Beruehrungsaengste mit Reinraum-Planungskonzepten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schott, T. [CAT Clean Air Technology GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Anschuetz, J.; Buehrle, W. [Gebhardt-Ventilatoren, Waldenburg (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The contribution explains specifications for and components of clean rooms, describes alternative ventilation concepts and shows exemplary tests to be made prior to commissioning. Constructional measures and staff rules are left out of account. (orig.)

  1. A Note on Clean Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Wang; Jianlong Chen

    2007-01-01

    Let R be a ring and g(x) a polynomial in C[x],where C=C(R) denotes the center of R.Camillo and Sim6n called the ring g(x)-clean if every element of R can be written as the sum of a unit and a root of g(x).In this paper,we prove that for a,b (E) C,the ring R is clean and b - a is invertible in R if and only if R is g1(x)-clean,where gl(x) = (x - a)(x - b).This implies that in some sense the notion of g(x)-clean rings in the Nicholson-Zhou Theorem and in the Camillo-Sim6n Theorem is indeed equivalent to the notion of clean rings.

  2. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  3. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  4. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  5. Self-Cleaning Boudouard Reactor for Full Oxygen Recovery from CO2 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Muscatello, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen recovery from respiratory CO2 is an important aspect of human spaceflight. Methods exist to sequester the CO2, but production of oxygen needs further development. The current ISS Carbon Dioxide Reduction System (CRS) uses the Sabatier reaction to produce water (and ultimately breathing air). Oxygen recovery is limited to 50% because half of the hydrogen used in the Sabatier reactor is lost as methane, which is vented overboard. The Bosch reaction is the only real alternative to the Sabatier reaction, but in the last reaction in the cycle (Boudouard) the resulting carbon buildup will eventually foul the nickel or iron catalyst, reducing reactor life and increasing consumables. To minimize this fouling, find a use for this waste product, and increase efficiency, we propose testing various self-cleaning catalyst designs in an existing MSFC Boudouard reaction test bed and to determine which one is the most reliable in conversion and lack of fouling. Challenges include mechanical reliability of the cleaning method and maintaining high conversion efficiency with lower catalyst surface area. The above chemical reactions are well understood, but planned implementations are novel (TRL 2) and haven't been investigated at any level.

  6. Simulation of life-cycle efficiency of lamb and wool production for genetic levels of component traits and alternative management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C T; Dickerson, G E

    1991-11-01

    A deterministic computer model was used to predict effects of genetic improvements in performance and of management options on life-cycle flock TDN input per unit of empty body weight (EBW) or carcass lean (CLN) equivalent value of market lamb, cull ewe, and wool output from a pure breeding system of sheep production for sheep fed to maintain normal weight. Relative values per kilogram for market lambs, cull ewes, and clean wool were 1 to .33 to 2.04 in lamb empty body equivalent, but 1 to .33 to 1 in lamb carcass lean equivalent. A 10% increase in lamb viability improved TDN/EBW or CLN by -15 to -20% for high to low lambing rates. Corresponding smaller gains were -7 to -11% for fertility, -3 to -13% for lambing rate, -1 to -3% for wool growth rate, -1 to -5% for milk production without creep feeding, -2 to -1% for mature size to about 70 kg, and -.6 to -.9% for precocity of fertility. Increasing leanness 10% improved TDN/CLN by -3 to -1% but increased TDN/EBW 3% because of higher maintenance requirements of leaner sheep. Higher protein requirements for increased lambing rate, milk production or leanness, or greater increases in non-feed than in feed costs, would mean only slightly less reduction of TDN/output than shown. Creep feeding was beneficial only for prolific, low-milking stock. Flushing reduced adverse effects of restricted feeding. Different values for wool vs meat or for costs of feed vs non-feed inputs would change results. These estimates for relative economic importance of traits apply to derivation of optimum criteria for selection among breeds or crosses, or within-breeds used in rotation crossbreeding, but would differ for specialized terminal-sire or maternal breed roles.

  7. VIRTUAL EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON CLEANING ELEMENT OF SUGARCANE HARVESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Fanglan; Li Shangping; He Yulin; Meng Yanmei; Chen Weixu

    2005-01-01

    The laws of influence of different factors have been analyzed in order to enhance the working efficiency and fatigue life of the cleaning element in brush shape of the sugarcane harvester.Based on the principle of orthogonal experiment design, the virtual-orthogonal-experimental analysis for the cleaning element is carried out on the finite element analysis (FEA) software-ANSYS after analyzing the nonlinear structural behavior in the working procedure. The results are analyzed with the overall balancing method, and then the optimal combination is got, which is made up of different levels of different factors. Also the optimal combination of design parameters of the cleaning element received from the virtual experimental analysis is conducted an experiment to confirm that the virtual analysis model and results are right, and the effect of factors on the function of the cleaning element is obtained by more analysis and further optimizing.

  8. Enhanced Doping Efficiency of Al-Doped ZnO by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Dimethylaluminum Isopropoxide as an Alternative Aluminum Precursor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Potts, S.E.; Hermkens, P.M.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Roozeboom, F.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition offers the unique opportunity to control, at the atomic level, the 3D distribution of dopants in highly uniform and conformal thin films. Here, it is demonstrated that the maximum doping efficiency of Al in ZnO can be improved from ∼10% to almost 60% using dimethylaluminum is

  9. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  10. Energy efficiency of conventional, organic, and alternative cropping systems for food and fuel at a site in the U.S. Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Robertson, G Philip

    2010-05-15

    The prospect of biofuel production on a large scale has focused attention on energy efficiencies associated with different agricultural systems and production goals. We used 17 years of detailed data on agricultural practices and yields to calculate an energy balance for different cropping systems under both food and fuel scenarios. We compared four grain and one forage systems in the U.S. Midwest: corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) rotations managed with (1) conventional tillage, (2) no till, (3) low chemical input, and (4) biologically based (organic) practices, and (5) continuous alfalfa (Medicago sativa). We compared energy balances under two scenarios: all harvestable biomass used for food versus all harvestable biomass used for biofuel production. Among the annual grain crops, average energy costs of farming for the different systems ranged from 4.8 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the organic system to 7.1 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the conventional; the no-till system was also low at 4.9 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) and the low-chemical input system intermediate (5.2 GJ ha(-1) y(-1)). For each system, the average energy output for food was always greater than that for fuel. Overall energy efficiencies ranged from output:input ratios of 10 to 16 for conventional and no-till food production and from 7 to 11 for conventional and no-till fuel production, respectively. Alfalfa for fuel production had an efficiency similar to that of no-till grain production for fuel. Our analysis points to a more energetically efficient use of cropland for food than for fuel production and large differences in efficiencies attributable to management, which suggests multiple opportunities for improvement.

  11. Native Mannose-Dominant Extraction by Pyridine-Phenol Alternating Oligomers Having an Extremely Efficient Repeating Motif of Hydrogen-Bonding Acceptors and Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Yuki; Abe, Hajime; Inouye, Masahiko

    2015-11-09

    Pyridine-phenol alternating oligomers in which pyridine and phenol moieties are alternatingly linked through acetylene bonds at the 2,6-positions of the aromatic rings were designed and synthesized. The pyridine nitrogen atom and the neighboring phenolic hydroxyl group were oriented so that they do not form an intramolecular hydrogen bond but cooperatively act as hydrogen-bonding acceptor and donor in a push-pull fashion for the hydroxyl group of saccharides. The longer oligomer strongly bound to lipophilic glycosides in 1,2-dichloroethane, and association constants approached 10(8)  M(-1) . Moreover, the oligomer extracted native saccharides from a solid phase to apolar organic solvents up to the extent of an equal amount of the oligomer and showed mannose-dominant extraction among naturally abundant hexoses. The oligomer bound to native saccharides even in 20 % DMSO-containing 1,2-dichloroethane and exhibited association constants of greater than 10 M(-1) for D-mannose and D-glucose.

  12. Electrolysis Propulsion Provides High-Performance, Inexpensive, Clean Spacecraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroot, Wim A.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolysis propulsion system consumes electrical energy to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. These gases are stored in separate tanks and used when needed in gaseous bipropellant thrusters for spacecraft propulsion. The propellant and combustion products are clean and nontoxic. As a result, costs associated with testing, handling, and launching can be an order of magnitude lower than for conventional propulsion systems, making electrolysis a cost-effective alternative to state-of-the-art systems. The electrical conversion efficiency is high (>85 percent), and maximum thrust-to-power ratios of 0.2 newtons per kilowatt (N/kW), a 370-sec specific impulse, can be obtained. A further advantage of the water rocket is its dual-mode potential. For relatively high thrust applications, the system can be used as a bipropellant engine. For low thrust levels and/or small impulse bit requirements, cold gas oxygen can be used alone. An added innovation is that the same hardware, with modest modifications, can be converted into an energy-storage and power-generation fuel cell, reducing the spacecraft power and propulsion system weight by an order of magnitude.

  13. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  14. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  15. Clean hydrogen and power from impure water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Canan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Naterer, Greg F.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a new photoelectrochemical (PEC) H2 production system which is capable of providing clean energy and water, and multi-generation of H2, electricity, heat and industrial chemicals from a single clean, abundant and renewable source: sun. This novel system maximizes solar spectrum utilization and increases system efficiencies by generating more outputs from solar energy alone. The hybrid PEC-chloralkali system, coupled with PV/T (Photovoltaic Thermal), is capable of producing H2, Cl2, electricity, and heat simultaneously. Incoming solar light is split into high-energy photons (with wavelengths lower than 400 nm) and low-energy photons. The high-energy portion is used to generate photocurrent in the reactor, and the remaining part is sent to the PV/T. This PV/T supports the electricity needs of the system and also provides electricity output for the end user. Moreover, the heat recovered from PV/T is a system output. The findings suggest that this system is capable of producing H2 and Cl2 as well as heat and electricity with higher efficiencies than the reported PV electrolysis and PEC-based H2 production efficiencies in the literature.

  16. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martorella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  17. Cleaning of biomass derived product gas for engine applications and for co-firing in PC-boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies] [and others

    1997-10-01

    The conventional fluidized-bed combustion has become commercially available also to relatively small scale (5 MWe), but this technology has rather low power-to-heat ratio and consequently it`s potential is limited to applications where district or process heat is the main product. Thus, there seems to be a real need to develop more efficient methods for small-scale power production from biomass. Gasification diesel power plant is one alternative for the small-scale power production, which has clearly higher power-to-heat ratio than can be reached in conventional steam cycles. The main technical problem in this process is the gas cleaning from condensable tars. In addition to the diesel-power plants, there are several other interesting applications for atmospheric-pressure clean gas technology. One alternative for cost-effective biomass utilization is co-firing of biomass derived product gas in existing pulverized coal fired boilers (or other types of boilers and furnaces). The aim of the project is to develop dry gas cleaning methods for gasification-diesel power plants and for other atmospheric-pressure applications of biomass and waste gasification. The technical objectives of the project are as follows: To develop and test catalytic gas cleaning methods for engine. To study the removal of problematic ash species of (CFE) gasification with regard to co-combustion of the product gas in PC boilers. To evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of different small-scale power plant concepts based on fixed-bed updraft and circulating fluidized- bed gasification of biomass and waste. (orig.)

  18. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  19. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 7: Metal vapor Rankine topping-steam bottoming cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    Adding a metal vapor Rankine topper to a steam cycle was studied as a way to increase the mean temperature at which heat is added to the cycle to raise the efficiency of an electric power plant. Potassium and cesium topping fluids were considered. Pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized (with an integrated low-Btu gasifier) boilers were assumed. Included in the cycles was a pressurizing gas turbine with its associated recuperator, and a gas economizer and feedwater heater. One of the ternary systems studied shows plant efficiency of 42.3% with a plant capitalization of $66.7/kW and a cost of electricity of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh).

  20. A Clean Break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Many education institutions have embraced the growing push for sustainable design and have built environmentally friendly facilities that use resources more efficiently. But the plaudits that administrators receive for LEED certification and other recognition of their efforts may be meaningless if the green commitment ends when a building is…

  1. Irradiation alternative method of manganese sulfate solution by a Pu-Be source for efficiency measurements; Metodo alternativo de irradiacao da solucao de sulfato de manganes por uma fonte de Pu-Be para medicoes de eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Martins, Marcelo Marques; Pereira, Walsan Wagner, E-mail: fellipess@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This study intends to create an alternative irradiation system from a Plutonium-Beryllium source for manganese sulphate solution using the Monte Carlo code. Thus seeking to eliminate the issue of institutes that do not have reactors or particle accelerators in its infrastructure, in order to optimize and provide independence for them to carry out efficiency measurements of MnSO{sub 4} solution in their own locality. The Monte Carlo simulations defined the technical features of this new system so that the solution reaches the maximum neutron capture by manganese in solution. (author)

  2. Enhancement of the Excitation Efficiency of the Non-Contact Magnetostrictive Sensor for Pipe Inspection by Adjusting the Alternating Magnetic Field Axial Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-contact magnetostrictive sensor (MsS has been widely used in the guided wave testing of pipes, cables, and so on. However, it has a disadvantage of low excitation efficiency. A new method for enhancing the excitation efficiency of the non-contact MsS for pipe inspection using guided waves, by adjusting the axial length of the excitation magnetic field, is proposed. A special transmitter structure, in which two copper rings are added beside the transmitter coil, is used to adjust the axial length at the expense of weakening the excitation magnetic field. An equivalent vibration model is presented to analyze the influence of the axial length variation. The final result is investigated by experiments. Results show that the excitation efficiency of the non-contact MsS is enhanced in the whole inspection frequency range of the L(0,2 mode if the axial length is adjusted to a certain value. Moreover that certain axial length is the same for pipes of different sizes but made of the same material.

  3. Facts for improving the efficiency and quality of alternating current transmission systems; Facts para mejorar la eficacia y la calidad de los sistemas de transmision de corriente alterna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunbaum, R.

    2008-07-01

    The power supply industry is undergoing change as a result of deregulation and political and economical detente in many parts of the world. This new market environment puts growing demands for flexibility and power quality into focus. Also, trade of electric power between countries is gaining momentum, and wind power is starting to yield serious contributions to the generation balance. With Facts (Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems), more power can be transmitted with unimpeded availability at an investment cost and time expenditure lower, or in cases even far lower than it would cost to achieve the same with more extensive grids. Also, in many cases, money can be saved on a decrease of power transmission losses. From an environmental point of view, Facts enables the transmission of power with less right-of-way impact than would otherwise be possible. Furthermore, the saving in transmission losses may well bring about a correspond decrease in need of power generation. (Author)

  4. The Efficient Use of the Productive Potential of Technical Plant Cultures With the Purpose of Providing an Alternative Energetic Fuel Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of secure, non-polluting and renewable sources of biofuel, as an alternative to the fossil fuel, which are finite in time, constituted a concern of scientists long before the energetic crisis of 1973. According to Directive 2003/30/CE, the European Union policy considers the decrease of dependency and of the energetic import, as well as the decrease of gas emissions. By 2020, EU Member States, need to replace gasoline and diesel at a rate of 20%, with renewable fuels. In our country, in order to obtain biodiesel from vegetable oils researches are made on some crops such as sunflower, soybean, apeseed. In Mures County, have done research on the composition and production of oil of rapeseed cultivation for autumn and spring. As a mean value for the three years, varieties Bolero (spring and Digger (autumn accumulated the highest oil content.

  5. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline  precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015. We plan to develop  a new...

  6. Clean coal - a national urgency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.M.; Sahai, R. [Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur (India). Technical Consultancy Division

    2000-07-01

    India is the third largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Coal generally has a high ash content, thereby requiring that it be cleaned for proper use. Technological advances now make it possible to reduce pollution considerably, even as energy use increases. However, to reduce environmental impacts, technologies for cleaning coal before combustion need to be developed. The paper focuses on the need for clean coal production and the benefits associated with it. Although the country is rich in coal reserves, the generally inferior quality of coal will lead to its depletion if it is not used cleanly. Increasing the proportion of prepared coal from the current level of less than 5% (i.e. 10-11 million tonnes per annum) of all coal consumed will lead to a massive saving. This can be achieved if new washeries are set up, preferably near the coalfields. 2 figs.

  7. Essays in Efficiency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchuk, Pavlo

    Today a standard procedure to analyze the impact of environmental factors on productive efficiency of a decision making unit is to use a two stage approach, where first one estimates the efficiency and then uses regression techniques to explain the variation of efficiency between different units. It is argued that the abovementioned method may produce doubtful results which may distort the truth data represent. In order to introduce economic intuition and to mitigate the problem of omitted variables we introduce the matching procedure which is to be used before the efficiency analysis. We believe that by having comparable decision making units we implicitly control for the environmental factors at the same time cleaning the sample of outliers. The main goal of the first part of the thesis is to compare a procedure including matching prior to efficiency analysis with straightforward two stage procedure without matching as well as an alternative of conditional efficiency frontier. We conduct our study using a Monte Carlo simulation with different model specifications and despite the reduced sample which may create some complications in the computational stage we strongly agree with a notion of economic meaningfulness of the newly obtained results. We also compare the results obtained by the new method with ones previously produced by Demchuk and Zelenyuk (2009) who compare efficiencies of Ukrainian regions and find some differences between the two approaches. Second part deals with an empirical study of electricity generating power plants before and after market reform in Texas. We compare private, public and municipal power generators using the method introduced in part one. We find that municipal power plants operate mostly inefficiently, while private and public are very close in their production patterns. The new method allows us to compare decision making units from different groups, which may have different objective schemes and productive incentives. Despite

  8. 2012 Clean Energy: Project Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2012, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  10. Final Technical Report_Clean Energy Program_SLC-SELF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Glenn; Coward, Doug

    2014-01-22

    This is the Final Technical Report for DOE's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant, Award No. DE-EE0003813, submitted by St. Lucie County, FL (prime recipient) and the Solar and Energy Loan Fund (SELF), the program's third-party administrator. SELF is a 501(c)(3) and a certified Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). SELF is a community-based lending organization that operates the Clean Energy Loan Program, which focuses on improving the overall quality of life of underserved populations in Florida with an emphasis on home energy improvements and cost-effective renewable energy alternatives. SELF was launched in 2010 through the creation of the non-profit organization and with a $2.9 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block (EECBG) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SELF has its main office and headquarters in St. Lucie County, in the region known as the Treasure Coast in East-Central Florida. St. Lucie County received funding to create SELF as an independent non-profit institution, outside the control of local government. This was important for SELF to create its identity as an integral part of the business community and to help in its quest to become a Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). This goal was accomplished in 2013, allowing SELF to focus on its mission to increase energy savings while serving markets that have struggled to find affordable financial assistance. These homeowners are most impacted by high energy costs. Energy costs are a disproportionate percentage of household expenses for low to moderate income (LMI) households. Electricity costs have been steadily rising in Florida by nearly 5% per year. Housing in LMI neighborhoods often includes older inefficient structures that further exacerbate the problem. Despite the many available clean energy solutions, most LMI property owners do not have the disposable income or equity in their homes necessary to afford the high upfront cost

  11. Variation in the extraction efficiency of estradiol and progesterone in moist and lyiphilized feces of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra: alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianey Del Rocio Torres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available several fecal steroid extraction techniques have been developed to measure the ovary function in different species of mammals. However, regardless of the method of extraction and the sample type chosen, is has been observed that they can yield results with different percentages of recuperation. The objective of this study was to determine whether the type of substratum, solvent and extraction method used have any influence on the extraction efficiency in the feces of Alouatta pigra (black howler monkey. For this purpose we used two methods: agitation and ebullition. With each method, we utilized moist and lyophilized feces. The validation of radioimmunoassay method was accurate and precise for quantify estradiol and progesterone in lyophilized feces of Alouatta pigra. To both of which ethanol and methanol, absolute and at 80%, were added, besides the hormones 125I-Estradiol and 125I-Progesterone. The extraction efficiency for 125I-Estradiol was from 87.72 ± 3.97% to 41.24 ± 2.67%, and for 125I-Progesterone from 71.15 ± 4.24% to 42.30 ± 1.19% when we used the agitation method. Whereas with the ebullition method, the extraction efficiency for 125I-Estradiol ranged from 86.89 ± 2.66% to 71.68 ± 3.02% and for 125I-Progesterone from 98.31 ± 1.26% to 85.40 ± 1.98%. Due to the differences found in these assays, which depend on the method used, the type of feces employed and the type of solvent added to them, we recommend the ebullition method and the lyophilized feces of Alouatta pigra for extracting the hormones, since in moist feces there may exist variables which might interfere in the quantification of 125I-Estradiol and 125I-Progesterone.

  12. Do new wipe materials outperform traditional lead dust cleaning methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Roger D; Ong, Kee Hean; Emo, Brett; Kennedy, Jason; Brown, Christopher A; Condoor, Sridhar; Thummalakunta, Laxmi

    2012-01-01

    Government guidelines have traditionally recommended the use of wet mopping, sponging, or vacuuming for removal of lead-contaminated dust from hard surfaces in homes. The emergence of new technologies, such as the electrostatic dry cloth and wet disposable clothes used on mopheads, for removal of dust provides an opportunity to evaluate their ability to remove lead compared with more established methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative differences exist between two new and two older methods for removal of lead-contaminated dust (LCD) from three wood surfaces that were characterized by different roughness or texture. Standard leaded dust, cleaned using an automated device. Electrostatic dry cloths (dry Swiffer), wet Swiffer cloths, paper shop towels with non-ionic detergent, and vacuuming were used for cleaning LCD from the specimens. Lead analysis was by anodic stripping voltammetry. After the cleaning study was conducted, a study of the coefficient of friction was performed for each wipe material. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the surface and cleaning methods. There were significant interactions between cleaning method and surface types, p = 0.007. Cleaning method was found be a significant factor in removal of lead, p cleaning methods is different. However, cleaning was not affected by types of surfaces. The coefficient of friction, significantly different among the three wipes, is likely to influence the cleaning action. Cleaning method appears to be more important than texture in LCD removal from hard surfaces. There are some small but important factors in cleaning LCD from hard surfaces, including the limits of a Swiffer mop to conform to curved surfaces and the efficiency of the wetted shop towel and vacuuming for cleaning all surface textures. The mean percentage reduction in lead dust achieved by the traditional methods (vacuuming and wet wiping) was greater and more consistent compared to the new methods (electrostatic

  13. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 6: Closed-cycle gas turbine systems. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Fentress, W. K.; Stahl, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Both recuperated and bottomed closed cycle gas turbine systems in electric power plants were studied. All systems used a pressurizing gas turbine coupled with a pressurized furnace to heat the helium for the closed cycle gas turbine. Steam and organic vapors are used as Rankine bottoming fluids. Although plant efficiencies of over 40% are calculated for some plants, the resultant cost of electricity was found to be 8.75 mills/MJ (31.5 mills/kWh). These plants do not appear practical for coal or oil fired plants.

  14. Multi-turn losses and cleaning in 2011 and 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Valentino, G; Bellodi, G; Bruce, R; Burkart, F; Cauchi, M; Deboy, D; Jowett, J M; Lari, L; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Salvachua Ferrando, B; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    LHC beam collimation is based on a hierarchical multistage cleaning system. Maintaining the correct hierarchy ensures maximal cleaning efficiency and machine protection. The operational collimator positions are established from the beam centres and sizes at each collimator measured in beam-based alignments. These are verified periodically during the year. The improvements made to the collimator alignment algorithm in 2011 are described. The time spent on setup and qualification by loss maps is summarized in detail. The stability of the collimator setup and cleaning efficiency is presented. An outlook to 2012 is given, including detailed considerations on improved setup speed, required frequency of setup and qualification and other possible improvements overall reducing beam time consumption for collimation.

  15. The fuel cells: Truths on the generation of clean and efficient electricity electrochemical way; Las celdas de combustible: Verdades sobre la generacion de electricidad limpia y eficiente via electroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In the search of alternative technologies for the generation of electrical energy, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has put special attention in a technology that promises to be key in the next years: The fuel cells, it is for this reason that in this article a review of this type of cells is presented, as well as its basic characteristics and benefits as a result of its use for the generation of electrical energy. [Spanish] En la busqueda de tecnologias alternativas de generacion de energia electrica, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha puesto atencion especial en una tecnologia que promete ser clave en los proximos anos: Las celdas de combustible, es por ello que en este articulo se presenta una resena de este tipo de celdas, asi como sus caracteristicas principales y beneficios como resultado de su utilizacion para la generacion de energia electrica.

  16. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 12: Fuel cells. [energy conversion efficiency of, for use in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde, C. J.; Ruka, R. J.; Isenberg, A. O.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric assessment of four fuel cell power systems -- based on phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide, molten carbonate, and stabilized zirconia -- has shown that the most important parameters for electricity-cost reduction and/or efficiency improvement standpoints are fuel cell useful life and power density, use of a waste-heat recovery system, and fuel type. Typical capital costs, overall energy efficiencies (based on the heating value of the coal used to produce the power plant fuel), and electricity costs are: phosphoric acid $350-450/kWe, 24-29%, and 11.7 to 13.9 mills/MJ (42 to 50 mills/kWh); alkaline $450-700/kWe, 26-31%, and 12.8 to 16.9 mills/MJ (46 to 61 mills/kWh); molten carbonate $480-650/kWe, 32-46%, and 10.6 to 19.4 mills/MJ (38 to 70 mills/kWh), stabilized zirconia $420-950/kWe, 26-53%, and 9.7 to 16.9 mills/MJ (35 to 61 mills/kWh). Three types of fuel cell power plants -- solid electrolytic with steam bottoming, molten carbonate with steam bottoming, and solid electrolyte with an integrated coal gasifier -- are recommended for further study.

  17. High-efficiency B₄C/Mo₂C alternate multilayer grating for monochromators in the photon energy range from 0.7 to 3.4 keV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueikani, Fadi; Lagarde, Bruno; Delmotte, Franck; Krumrey, Michael; Bridou, Françoise; Thomasset, Muriel; Meltchakov, Evgueni; Polack, François

    2014-04-01

    An alternate multilayer (AML) grating has been prepared by coating an ion etched lamellar grating with a B4C/Mo2C multilayer (ML) having a layer thickness close to the groove depth. Such a structure behaves as a 2D synthetic crystal and can reach very high efficiencies when the Bragg condition is satisfied. This AML coated grating has been characterized at the SOLEIL Metrology and Tests Beamline between 0.7 and 1.7 keV and at the four-crystal monochromator beamline of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II between 1.75 and 3.4 keV. A peak diffraction efficiency of nearly 27% was measured at 2.2 keV. The measured efficiencies are well reproduced by numerical simulations made with the electromagnetic propagation code CARPEM. Such AML gratings, paired with a matched ML mirror, constitute efficient monochromators for intermediate energy photons. They will extend the accessible energy for many applications as x-ray absorption spectroscopy or x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments.

  18. Application of response surface methodology to the chemical cleaning process of ultrafiltration membrane☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caihong Wang; Aishu Wei; Hao Wu; Fangshu Qu; Weixiong Chen; Heng Liang; Guibai Li

    2016-01-01

    A numerical model was established to predict and optimise the chemical cleaning process of Polyvinylidene Fluo-ride (PVDF) Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with the results from the experiment that applied the Response Sur-face Method (RSM) and Central Composite Design (CCD). The factors considered in the experimental design were sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration, sodium hypochlorite concentration (NaClO), citric acid concentration and cleaning duration. The interactions between the factors were investigated with the numerical model. Humic acid (20 mg·L−1) was used as the model foulant, and chemical enhanced backflush (CEB) was employed to sim-ulate the chemical cleaning process. The concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, citric acid and cleaning duration tested during the experiments were in the range of 0.1%–0.3%, 100–300 mg·L−1, 1%–3%and 0.5–1.5 h, respectively. Among the variables, the sodium hypochlorite concentration and the cleaning dura-tion showed a positive relationship involving the increased efficiency of the chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning efficiency was hardly improved with increasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide. However, the data was sharply decreased when at a low level of sodium hydroxide concentration. In total, 54 sets of cleaning schemes with 80%to 100%cleaning efficiency were observed with the RSM model after calibration.

  19. Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Zhou, Yuyu; Rice, Jennie S.; Patel, Pralit L.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Kyle, G. Page; Kim, Son H.; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-05-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of the building stock, commercial equipment and household appliances can have a major impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Subnational regions such as U.S. states wish to increase their energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions or adapt to climate change. Evaluating subnational policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change may undercut such policies. Assessing these uncertainties can be a significant modeling and computation burden. As part of this uncertainty assessment, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy using fractional factorial methods can be applied to reveal the important drivers for detailed uncertainty analysis.

  20. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γsubstrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1substrate, but acts with cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by the jet flow and the flow induced by the bubble wall oscillation. Furthermore, the observations reveal that the extent of direct bubble gas phase contact to the solid is partially smaller than the

  1. Megasonic cleaning: effect of dissolved gas properties on cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Hrishi; Singh, Sherjang; Baugh, James; Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current and future lithography techniques require complex imaging improvement strategies. These imaging improvement strategies require printing of sub-resolution assist-features (SRAF) on photomasks. The size of SRAF's has proven to be the main limiting factor in using high power Megasonic cleaning process on photomasks. These features, due to high aspect ratio are more prone to damage at low Megasonic frequencies and at high Megasonic powers. Additionally the non-uniformity of energy dissipated during Megasonic cleaning is a concern for exceeding the damage threshold of the SRAFs. If the cavitation events during Megasonic cleaning are controlled in way to dissipate uniform energy, better process control can be achieved to clean without damage. The amount and type of gas dissolved in the cleaning liquid defines the cavitation behavior. Some of the gases possess favourable solubility and adiabatic properties for stable and controlled cavitation behaviour. This paper particularly discusses the effects of dissolved Ar gas on Megasonic characteristics. The effect of Ar Gas is characterized by measuring acoustic energy and Sonoluminscense. The phenomenon is further verified with pattern damage studies.

  2. Benzotriazole removal on post-Cu CMP cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiying, Tang; Yuling, Liu; Ming, Sun; Shiyan, Fan; Yan, Li

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates systematically the effect of FA/O II chelating agent and FA/O I surfactant in alkaline cleaning solutions on benzotriazole (BTA) removal during post-Cu CMP cleaning in GLSI under the condition of static etching. The best detergent formulation for BTA removal can be determined by optimization of the experiments of single factor and compound cleaning solution, which has been further confirmed experimentally by contact angle (CA) measurements. The resulting solution with the best formulation has been measured for the actual production line, and the results demonstrate that the obtained cleaning solution can effectively and efficiently remove BTA, CuO and abrasive SiO2 without basically causing interfacial corrosion. This work demonstrates the possibility of developing a simple, low-cost and environmentally-friendly cleaning solution to effectively solve the issues of BTA removal on post-Cu CMP cleaning in a multi-layered copper wafer. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308).

  3. Cleanliness is next to godliness: mechanisms for staying clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Guillermo J; Hu, David L

    2015-10-01

    Getting dirty is a fundamental problem, and one for which there are few solutions, especially across the enormous range of animal size. How do both a honeybee and a squirrel get clean? In this Review, we discuss two broad types of cleaning, considered from the viewpoint of energetics. Non-renewable cleaning strategies rely upon the organism as an energy source. Examples include grooming motions, wet-dog shaking or the secretion of chemicals. Renewable cleaning strategies depend on environmental sources of energy, such as the use of eyelashes to redirect incoming wind and so reduce deposition onto the eye. Both strategies take advantage of body hair to facilitate cleaning, and honeybees and squirrels, for example, each have around 3 million hairs. This hair mat increases the area on which particles can land by a factor of 100, but also suspends particles above the body, reducing their adhesion and facilitating removal. We hope that the strategies outlined here will inspire energy-efficient cleaning strategies in synthetic systems.

  4. Variation in the Extraction Efficiency of Estradiol and Progesterone in Moist and Lyophilized Feces of the Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra): Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pelayo, Vianey del R.; Rovirosa-Hernández, M. J.; García-Orduña, F.; Chavira-Ramírez, R. D.; Boeck, L.; Canales-Espinosa, D.; Rodríguez-Landa, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Several fecal steroid extraction techniques have been developed to measure the ovary function in different species of mammals. However, regardless of the method of extraction and the sample type chosen, it has been observed that they can yield results with different percentages of recuperation. The objective of this study was to determine whether the type of substratum, solvent and extraction method used have any influence on the extraction efficiency in the feces of Alouatta pigra (black howler monkey). For this purpose we used two methods: agitation and ebullition. With each method, we utilized moist and lyophilized feces. The validation of radioimmunoassay method was accurate and precise for quantify estradiol and progesterone in lyophilized feces of A. pigra. To both of which ethanol and methanol, absolute and at 80%, were added, besides the hormones 125I-Estradiol and 125I-Progesterone. The extraction efficiency for 125I-Estradiol was from 87.72 ± 3.97 to 41.24 ± 2.67%, and for 125I-Progesterone from 71.15 ± 4.24 to 42.30 ± 1.19% when we used the agitation method. Whereas with the ebullition method, the extraction efficiency for 125I-Estradiol ranged from 86.89 ± 2.66 to 71.68 ± 3.02% and for 125I-Progesterone from 98.31 ± 1.26 to 85.40 ± 1.98%. Due to the differences found in these assays, which depend on the method used, the type of feces employed and the type of solvent added to them, we recommend the ebullition method and the lyophilized feces of A. pigra for extracting the hormones, since in moist feces there may exist variables which might interfere in the quantification of 125I-Estradiol and 125I-Progesterone. PMID:22194723

  5. Development and Demonstration of a High Efficiency, Rapid Heating, Low NOx Alternative to Conventional Heating of Round Steel Shapes, Steel Substrate (Strip) and Coil Box Transfer Bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurek, Harry; Wagner, John

    2010-01-25

    Direct Flame Impingement involves the use of an array of very high-velocity flame jets impinging on a work piece to rapidly heat the work piece. The predominant mode of heat transfer is convection. Because of the locally high rate of heat transfer at the surface of the work piece, the refractory walls and exhaust gases of a DFI furnace are significantly cooler than in conventional radiant heating furnaces, resulting in high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. A DFI furnace is composed of a successive arrangement of heating modules through or by which the work piece is conveyed, and can be configured for square, round, flat, and curved metal shapes (e.g., billets, tubes, flat bars, and coiled bars) in single- or multi-stranded applications.

  6. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  7. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  8. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  9. 76 FR 34041 - Clean Technologies Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... technologies including wind, hydro, waste-to-energy, solar power generation and clean coal; energy efficiency... of 15%. Wind, hydro, solar, biomass, and waste-to-energy all have huge potential. Only 19,973 MW of... concern for the Indian energy sector, threatening to slow the growth of the Indian economy. To keep...

  10. Feasibility of zeolitic imidazolate framework membranes for clean energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, A. W.; Dubbeldam, D.; Liu, M. S.; Ladewig, B. P.; Hill, A. J.; Hill, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Gas separation technologies for carbon-free hydrogen and clean gaseous fuel production must efficiently perform the following separations: (1) H2/CO2 (and H2/N2) for pre-combustion coal gasification, (2) CO2/N2 for post-combustion of coal, (3) CO2/CH4 for natural gas sweetening and biofuel purificat

  11. Are Breast Surgical Operations Clean or Clean Contaminated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Kamal; Bagdia, Amit; Srivastava, Anurag

    2015-12-01

    The breast surgeries are classically taught as clean surgical procedures. The infection rates following breast surgery ranges from 3 to 15 %, which is much higher than infection rates after clean surgery (ranging from 1.5 to 3 %). This high infection rate following breast surgery can be explained by opening of the ductal system to outside world through nipple similar to the gastrointestinal and genitourinary system. We conducted a systematic review of infection following breast surgeries. We searched various randomized controlled trials, meta-analysis, and Cochrane Reviews over PubMed and Medline via the Internet. These evidences were found to support the thesis, "Breast surgeries need to be reclassified as clean-contaminated". We recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics in breast surgery.

  12. Comparative evaluation of UV-vis-IR Nd:YAG laser cleaning of beeswax layers on granite substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, A.; Chiussi, S.; González, P.; Serra, J.; León, B.

    2011-04-01

    The beeswax treatment applied in the sixties to prevent rain water from penetrating the outer stone surface of valuable granitic Galician monuments is contributing to the acceleration of the superficial degradation process of these monuments. At present, the northern sector of the renaissance frieze in the Cloister of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is one of the most representative examples. Conventional wax removal methods (water, chemical and mechanical cleaning) can possibly destruct important details of the relief. Therefore laser removal is considered as a good alternative. In this work, we report systematic investigations of the effect of laser cleaning at different Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm) on representative samples of the real historical surfaces. Laser removal of beeswax on granite at neither of the four wavelengths of the Nd:YAG laser is not a layer by layer removal process. For each irradiance and wavelength there is a maximum thickness that can be completely removed by a single pulse. Above this thickness the waxy material is not removed, although it undergoes thermal modifications; since the fraction of radiation that reaches the granite substrate is not enough to trigger the ejection of material. Our results show that the wax-granite interface plays a fundamental role in granite cleaning, and when the wax is weakened by absorption of radiation at 266 nm, the removal process becomes more efficient.

  13. Comparative evaluation of UV-vis-IR Nd:YAG laser cleaning of beeswax layers on granite substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, A., E-mail: aldarapan@uvigo.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, E.T.S.I Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n. Campus Universitario Lagoas-Marcosende, E-36310 Vigo (Spain); Chiussi, S.; Gonzalez, P.; Serra, J.; Leon, B. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, E.T.S.I Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n. Campus Universitario Lagoas-Marcosende, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    The beeswax treatment applied in the sixties to prevent rain water from penetrating the outer stone surface of valuable granitic Galician monuments is contributing to the acceleration of the superficial degradation process of these monuments. At present, the northern sector of the renaissance frieze in the Cloister of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is one of the most representative examples. Conventional wax removal methods (water, chemical and mechanical cleaning) can possibly destruct important details of the relief. Therefore laser removal is considered as a good alternative. In this work, we report systematic investigations of the effect of laser cleaning at different Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm) on representative samples of the real historical surfaces. Laser removal of beeswax on granite at neither of the four wavelengths of the Nd:YAG laser is not a layer by layer removal process. For each irradiance and wavelength there is a maximum thickness that can be completely removed by a single pulse. Above this thickness the waxy material is not removed, although it undergoes thermal modifications; since the fraction of radiation that reaches the granite substrate is not enough to trigger the ejection of material. Our results show that the wax-granite interface plays a fundamental role in granite cleaning, and when the wax is weakened by absorption of radiation at 266 nm, the removal process becomes more efficient.

  14. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Energy Rebates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-03-01

    This report functions as a primer for renewable energy rebate programs. It highlights the impacts of specific renewable energy rebate programs on renewable energy markets around the country, as well as rebate program impacts on overarching energy policy drivers. It also discusses lessons learned, challenges, ideal applications, keys to success, and complementary and alternative policies. Results indicate that rebate programs can have a strong deployment impact on emerging renewable energy markets. This report focuses on renewable energy rebate programs, which are being analyzed as part of the State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project. SCEPA is being used to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states.

  15. State Clean Energy Practices. Renewable Energy Rebates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This report functions as a primer for renewable energy rebate programs. It highlights the impacts of specific renewable energy rebate programs on renewable energy markets around the country, as well as rebate program impacts on overarching energy policy drivers. It also discusses lessons learned, challenges, ideal applications, keys to success, and complementary and alternative policies. Results indicate that rebate programs can have a strong deployment impact on emerging renewable energy markets. This report focuses on renewable energy rebate programs, which are being analyzed as part of the State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project. SCEPA is being used to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states.

  16. Cleaning properties of dry adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.; P.; DíAZ; TéLLEZ; D.; SAMEOTO; C.; MENON

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a study into the cleaning properties of synthetic dry adhesives. We have manufactured the adhesive micro-fibres through a low-cost, high yield fabrication method using Sylgard 184 Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the structural material. We deliberately contaminated the adhesive samples with different sized particles in the micro and macro scales and tested different cleaning methods for their efficacy with respect to each particle size. We investigated different cleaning methods, which included the use of wax moulding, vibration and pressure sensitive adhesives. For adhesion testing we used a custom system with a linear stage and a force sensor indenting a hemispherical probe into the adhesive surface and measuring the pull-off force. To characterize the cleaning efficacy we visually inspected each sample in a microscope and weighed the samples with a microgram-accuracy analytical balance. Results showed that the moulding method induced adhesion recovery in a greater percentage than the other cleaning methods and even helped with the recovery of collapsed posts in some cases. On the other hand pressure sensitive adhesives seem to have the upper hand with regards to certain particle sizes that can potentially pose problems with the moulding method.

  17. Practical risk-based decision making: Good decisions made efficiently

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Guthrie, V.; Walker, D. [JBF Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Singer, R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Robotics and Process Systems Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company have teamed with JBF Associates, Inc. to address risk-based robotic planning. The objective of the project is to provide systematic, risk-based relative comparisons of competing alternatives for solving clean-up problems at DOE facilities. This paper presents the methodology developed, describes the software developed to efficiently apply the methodology, and discusses the results of initial applications for DOE. The paper also addresses current work in applying the approach to problems in other industries (including an example from the hydrocarbon processing industry).

  18. Alternative metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    As the old 'publish or perish' adage is brought into question, additional research-impact indices, known as altmetrics, are offering new evaluation alternatives. But such metrics may need to adjust to the evolution of science publishing.

  19. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

  20. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Aniruddha, E-mail: nontee65@rediffmail.com [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Sonar, V.R.; Das, D.K.; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Nilaya, J.P.; Biswas, D.J. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, 400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  1. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S

    2012-01-01

    We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields, the average divergence error in the system is reduced by an order of magnitude with our cleaning algorithm. Divergence errors in SPMHD are maintained to < 1%, even for realistic 3D applications with a corresponding gain in numerical stability. Density errors for an oscillating elliptic water drop using weakly compressible SPH are reduced by a factor of two.

  2. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  3. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  4. 多次喷油实现清洁高效柴油预混燃烧的机理%Mechanism of Multiple Injections on Clean and High Efficiency Diesel PCCI Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿盈盈; 苏万华; 于文斌

    2012-01-01

    采用试验和数值模拟方法研究了多次喷油模式耦合高EGR率和进气增压实现高效清洁柴油机预混燃烧的潜力.结果表明,EGR可以推迟高温反应定时,降低化学反应速率,特别是在较高负荷时,EGR还明显降低NOx排放.平均指示压力(IMEP)为0.4,MPa左右时,较少的喷油量使得单次喷油和多次喷油模式着火前一时刻形成的混合气均在当量比φ〈2之内,故排放差别不大.氧体积分数为10%左右时,提高喷油量,进入侧隙内的气相燃油量增加并形成φ〉2的浓区,两模式的碳烟、CO和UHC排放均升高.但IMEP为0.7 MPa左右时,多次喷油更有利于生成稀且均匀的混合气,减少局部过浓区,故其碳烟、CO和UHC排放远低于单次喷油.高EGR率时,多次喷油耦合进气增压,混合气形成得到进一步改善,可在更高负荷下实现高效清洁燃烧.%Comparing with single fuel injection,the superiority of multi-injection combined with high exhaust gas recirculation(EGR)rate and intake boost in reducing emissions and increasing indicated thermal efficiency of diesel premixed charge compression ignition(PCCI)combustion is studied experimentally and numerically.It is found that EGR can delay the start of hot temperature reactions,reduce the reaction speed at higher load.EGR can also reduce NOx emissions.There are no significant differences in emissions and indicated thermal efficiency using single and multi-injection at IMEP around 0.4 MPa due to the small quantity of the fuel injected,and the mixture formed just before ignition distributes within φ2.At approximately 10% oxygen concentration,when increasing the fuel mass injected,more fuel will enter the side clearance,where rich mixture with φ2 is formed.As a result,the soot,CO and UHC emissions are increased using both injection modes.However,at IMEP of 0.7 MPa around,CO and UHC emissions using multi-injection are much lower than those using single injection.The mechanism

  5. Laser paper cleaning: the method of cleaning historical books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekou, Evangelini; Tsilikas, Ioannis; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of cultural heritage treasures is the most important issue for transferring knowledge to the public through the next generation of students, academics, and researchers. Although this century is authenticating e-books and information by means of electronic text, still historical manuscripts as content as well as objects are the main original recourses of keeping a record of this transformation. The current work focuses on cleaning paper samples by the application of pulsed light, which is interventional. Experiments carried out using paper samples that are artificially colonized with Ulocladium chartarum. Paper is treated by Nd:YAG laser light. The available wavelength is 1064 nm, at various fluences, repetition rates and number of pulses. Two types of paper are stained with fungi colonies, which grow on substrates of clean paper, as well as on paper with ink text. The first type of paper is Whatman No.1056, which is closer to pure cellulose. The second type of paper is a page of a cultural heritage book published in 1926. Cleaning is performed using laser irradiation, thus defining the damage threshold of each sample. The treatment on paper Watman showed a yellowing, especially on areas with high concentration of fungi. The second sample was more durable to the exposure, performing the best results at higher fluences. Eventually, the paper samples are characterized, with optical microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses, prior to and after cleaning.

  6. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  7. Sonic Soot Cleaning Head Electrical Precipitator in Sintering Efficiency Modification Research and Application%声波清灰在烧结机头电除尘器上增效改造研究应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟国坚

    2016-01-01

    This article is the result of minxi vocational and technical college and longyan city rings environmental protection equipment co., LTD., university-enterprise cooperation projects, the service object is the emerging casting pipe co., LTD., sintering plant in xinjiang. This research mainly solve the 340 m2 sintering machine head anode lower lateral oscillation, the cathode electric filter at the top of the electromagnetic hammer vibrating dust, problems that influence efficiency of dust removal by the end of the electric field as the sound wave sootblower auxiliary means of technical renovation, implements the chimney emission concentration of 80 mg/Nm3 or less intended target.%主要解决340 m2烧结机头电除尘器阳极下部侧部振打、阴极顶部电磁锤振打清灰力不足影响除尘效率的问题,通过采用电除尘末电场声波清灰技术作为辅助手段进行技术改造,实现了烟囱排放浓度≤80 mg/Nm3的预定目标。

  8. Steam generator chemical cleaning at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevec, J.M. [Babcock and Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States). R and D Division; Knollmeyer, P.M. [B and W Nuclear Technologies, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Paramithas, P. [Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Tonopah, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The secondary side of the Palo Verde Units 2 and 3 steam generators were chemically cleaned in 1994. The primary purpose of the chemical cleaning was to remove deposits bridging between adjacent tubes and also to remove bulk tube and tubesheet deposits. A secondary objective was to remove deposits from the flow distribution plate-to-tube crevice. The chemical cleaning consisted of a magnetite dissolution step, a separate step aimed at removing deposits in the flow distribution plate crevices, and a final step to remove residual copper and passivate the carbon steel surfaces of the steam generator. Corrosion monitoring was employed during the cleaning to ensure that the cleaning resulted in corrosion to steam generator materials of construction that was below the predetermined chemical cleaning corrosion allowances. The process application, removal efficiency, and corrosion results are presented in this paper.

  9. MIT Clean Energy Prize: Final Technical Report May 12, 2010 - May 11, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Chris [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Campbell, Georgina [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Salony, Jason [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Aulet, Bill [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2011-08-09

    The MIT Clean Energy Prize (MIT CEP) is a venture creation and innovation competition to encourage innovation in the energy space, specifically with regard to clean energy. The Competition invited student teams from any US university to submit student-led ventures that demonstrate a high potential of successfully making clean energy more affordable, with a positive impact on the environment. By focusing on student ventures, the MIT CEP aims to educate the next generation of clean energy entrepreneurs. Teams receive valuable mentoring and hard deadlines that complement the cash prize to accelerate development of ventures. The competition is a year-long educational process that culminates in the selection of five category finalists and a Grand Prize winner and the distribution of cash prizes to each of those teams. Each entry was submitted in one of five clean energy categories: Renewables, Clean Non-Renewables, Energy Efficiency, Transportation, and Deployment.

  10. Control system design of high-voltage live cleaning robot based on security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢霄鹏; 夏红卫; 杨汝清

    2004-01-01

    High-voltage live cleaning robot works in the hot-line environment (220 kV/330 kV), and so the safety of its application and equipment is most important. In terms of safety, the designs of robot mechanism and control system have been discussed, and the test data are given in control system of model machine. The model machine of high-voltage live cleaning robot can meet the need of cleaning basically in common condition. From manual operation to automation, the cleaning efficiency is improved. The robot can decrease amount of work, and ensure the security. Among high-voltage live cleaning equipment in China, the cleaning robot is advanced in automation and intelligence.

  11. Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas. Drivers and fleet managers across the country are looking for ways to reduce petroleum use, fuel costs, and vehicle emissions. As you'll find in this guide, these goals are easier to achieve than ever before, with an expanding selection of vehicles that use gasoline or diesel more efficiently, or forego them altogether. Plug-in electric vehicles made a grand entrance onto U.S. roadways in model year (MY) 2011, and their momentum in the market is poised for continued growth in 2012. Sales of the all-electric Nissan Leaf surpassed 8,000 in the fall of 2011, and the plug-in hybrid Chevy Volt is now available nationwide. Several new models from major automakers will become available throughout MY 2012, and drivers are benefiting from a rapidly growing network of charging stations, thanks to infrastructure development initiatives in many states. Hybrid electric vehicles, which first entered the market just a decade ago, are ubiquitous today. Hybrid technology now allows drivers of all vehicle classes, from SUVs to luxury sedans to subcompacts, to slash fuel use and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel attractive and convenient choices for many consumers and fleets. And because fuel availability is the most important factor in choosing an alternative fuel vehicle, this growth opens up new possibilities for vehicle ownership. This guide features model-specific information about vehicle specs, manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP), fuel economy, and emissions. You can use this information to compare vehicles and help inform your buying

  12. 节能节材、绿色低碳、清洁环保的直流焊接电源%High efficiency, energy-saving, material-saving, green and low carbon, clean and environmental protection DC welding power source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月涛

    2012-01-01

    通过对直流电焊机发展历程的回顾,逐一分析了传统旋转式直流焊机、硅整流直流焊接电源、电子式的晶闸管直流焊接电源和逆变式直流焊接电源,总结出“高效、节能节材、绿色低碳、清洁环保”是直流焊接电源今后发展的必然方向.通过分析逆变焊机电源主电路中的电源噪声滤波电路、一次侧工频整流电路和中频逆变电路等拓扑结构,归纳出“高效、节能节材、绿色低碳、清洁环保”电源的具体技术方案是:逆变式直流焊接电源加装电磁骚扰滤波器以之降低电磁骚扰信号幅度,使电源清洁环保;采用具有功率因素校正电路的一次侧工频整流电路替代一般的工频整流滤波电路提高功率因素,降低电源对电网的谐波干扰;采用合适的软开关逆变技术降低开关损耗,提高电源的效率.%By the review of the development history of DC welder,and the analysis of traditional rotary DC welding & silicon rectifier DC welding power source,electronic SCR DC welding power source and inverter DC welding power source,we can make a conclusion:" high efficiency, energy-saving, material-saving, green and low carbon, clean and environmental protection" is inevitable development direction of the DC welding power source in the future.By the analysis of the power supply noise filter circuit in the main circuit of the inverter welding power source,the topological structure of primary side power frequency rectifier circuit and medium frequency inverter circuit,we conclude that the detail technical proposal of "high efficiency .energy-saving, material-saving, green and low carbon, clean and environmental protection" is:Inverter DC welding power with EMI filter makes it to reduce the EMI signal amplitude,by this it becomes much cleaner and more clean and environmental protection.Adopt primary side power frequency rectifier circuit with PFC instead of ordinary power frequency rectifier filter

  13. NREL's Clean Energy Policy Analyses Project: 2009 U.S. State Clean Energy Data Book, October 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.; Hummon, M.; McLaren, J.; Doris, E.

    2010-10-01

    This data book provides a summary of the status of state-level energy efficiency and renewable energy (taken together as clean energy) developments and supporting policy implementation. It is intended as a reference book for those interested in the progress of the states and regions toward a clean energy economy. Although some national-scale data are given in the initial section, the data are mostly aggregated by states and region, and no data on federal- or utility-level policies are presented here.

  14. NREL's Clean Energy Policy Analyses Project. 2009 U.S. State Clean Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, Racel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This data book provides a summary of the status of state-level energy efficiency and renewable energy (taken together as clean energy) developments and supporting policy implementation. It is intended as a reference book for those interested in the progress of the states and regions toward a clean energy economy. Although some national-scale data are given in the initial section, the data are mostly aggregated by states and region, and no data on federal- or utility-level policies are presented here.

  15. Effects of alternate different irrigation amount modes on yield and water use efficiency of Cassava%不同水量交替灌溉对木薯产量和水分利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵馀; 杨启良; 王亓剑; 刘小刚; 王卫华

    2016-01-01

    为探讨作物旱后复水的补偿效应,采用不同水量交替灌溉方式研究木薯的生长、产量及水分利用效率的变化规律,设计了5种水分处理模式,分别为3种常规灌水处理(处理 T1,T2和 T3的灌水定额分别为10,20,30 mm)和2种交替灌水处理(处理 T4:即对灌水定额10和20 mm 进行轮回交替;处理 T5:即对灌水定额10和30 mm 进行轮回交替).结果表明:与处理 T2相比,处理 T5的总叶面积、总干物质量、产量和水分利用效率分别显著增加31.1%,20.3%,64.6%和114.0%.与处理 T3相比,处理 T5节水33.3%,其总干物质量下降较小,而根系干物质量、水分利用效率和产量分别显著增加11.2%,119.0%和13.3%.因此,处理 T5是有利于木薯产量和水分利用效率提高的最佳灌溉模式.%In order to explore a compensatory effect of crops after encountering drought stress and then rehydration,the change of growth,yield and water use efficiency of Cassava under alternate different irrigation amount modes was studied.Five watering treatment modes were designed in this experiment, three conventional watering treatments:T1,T2,T3 (every time the irrigation amount of 10,20,30 mm, respectively),and two alternate watering treatments:T4 (repeated alternate two kinds of combined irrigation amount as 10 or 20 mm),T5(repeated alternate two kinds of combined irrigation amount as 10 or 30 mm).The results show that compared to T2 treatment,T5 treatment significantly increased total leaf area,total dry mass,yield and total water use efficiency by 31.1%,20.3%,64.6% and 114.0%,respectively.Compared to T3 treatment,T5 treatment saved irrigation water by 33.3%,the total dry mass reduced a little,but the root mass,total water use efficiency and yield significantly increased by 11.2%,119.0% and 13.3%,respectively.Therefore,T5 treatment is the best mode to improve yield and water use efficiency of Cassava in greenhouse.

  16. Electrodeposited ZnO thin film as an efficient alternative blocking layer for TiCl4 pre-treatment in TiO2-based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhestanian, E.; Mozaffari, S. A.; Ranjbar, M.; SalarAmoli, H.; Armanmehr, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    Recently, ZnO nanostructures have received considerable attention in fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes due to their unique transport properties. In the present study, a chronoamperometric method was performed to fabricate the ZnO nanostructures as an appropriate alternative of TiCl4 pre-treatment to reduce the recombination reactions, while retaining the TiO2-based DSSC performance. The effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on ZnO electrodeposition to control the growth and crystallization of ZnO nanostructures was investigated. ZnO/TiO2 based-DSSCs were fabricated using N719 ruthenium dye and all photovoltaic parameters were characterized. Incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and VOC decay techniques were employed for studying the cell properties which is resulted in a significant enhancement in cell performance.

  17. Flux recovery of ceramic tubular membranes fouled with whey proteins: Some aspects of membrane cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Svetlana S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of membrane processes is greatly affected by the flux reduction due to the deposits formation at the surface and/or in the pores of the membrane. Efficiency of membrane processes is affected by cleaning procedure applied to regenerate flux. In this work, flux recovery of ceramic tubular membranes with 50 and 200 nm pore size was investigated. The membranes were fouled with reconstituted whey solution for 1 hour. After that, the membranes were rinsed with clean water and then cleaned with sodium hydroxide solutions or formulated detergents (combination of P3 Ultrasil 67 and P3 Ultrasil 69. Flux recovery after the rinsing step was not satisfactory although fouling resistance reduction was significant so that chemical cleaning was necessary. In the case of 50 nm membrane total flux recovery was achieved after cleaning with 1.0% (w/w sodium hydroxide solution. In the case of 200 nm membrane total flux recovery was not achieved irrespective of the cleaning agent choice and concentration. Cleaning with commercial detergent was less efficient than cleaning with the sodium hydroxide solution.

  18. Sociology: Clean-energy conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCright, Aaron M.

    2017-03-01

    US conservatives receive a steady stream of anti-environmental messaging from Republican politicians. However, clean-energy conservatives sending strong counter-messages on energy issues could mobilize moderate conservatives to break away from the dominant right-wing defence of fossil fuels.

  19. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  20. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  1. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  2. Pollute first, clean up later?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, Hossein; Verheijke, Gijs; Witlox, Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing concern with regard to sustainability in emerging economies like China. The Chinese growth is characterized by a strategy which is known as "pollute first, clean up later". Here we show that based on this strategy, the pollution alarm can often be postponed by a tremendous economi

  3. Partnership for a Clean Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Having lived in China for almost three decades,Sabina Brady is a de facto China hand.Currently,she is the cxecutive director of the U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program (ECP),a nonprofit organization that engages in market development and promotion of clean energy within the framework of China-U.S.bilateral government commitments on the environrnent and energy.

  4. Teaming up for Clean Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On October 22, the China Institute of Strategy and Management and the U.S. Brookings Institution jointly held the China-U.S. Strategic Forum on Clean Energy Cooperation. At the opening session of the forum, Zheng Bijian, Chairman of the China Institute of Strategy and Management, gave a keynote speech. Edited excerpts follow:

  5. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforc...

  6. Elements of Clean-room Technology and Contamination Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Kapoor

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart of the clean room is the high efticiency particualte air (HEPA/ultra-low penetration air (ULPA filter, which provides the highest level of air cleaning ever achieved by a singleprocess step. Filter technology has seen tremendous growth in terms of ultimate performance and air handling capacity. Mere installation of ULPA filters of 99.99995 per cent efficiency for 0.2 um aerosol is not sufficient for achieving the desired performance of a clean room. Other design aspects like flow fields, face velocity, number of air changes, make-up air fractions and precise control of other environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, airflow, noise, vibrations, electrostatic discharge, etc. are equally important.

  7. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Fuel Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Kreycik, C.

    2008-07-01

    The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, renewable fuel standards (RFS) policies are a mechanism for developing a market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. This flexible market-based policy, when properly executed, can correct for market failures and promote growth of the renewable fuels industry better than a more command-oriented approach. The policy attempts to correct market failures such as embedded fossil fuel infrastructure and culture, risk associated with developing renewable fuels, consumer information gaps, and lack of quantification of the non-economic costs and benefits of both renewable and fossil-based fuels. This report focuses on renewable fuel standards policies, which are being analyzed as part of this project.

  8. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify

  9. Review on Characterization and Mechanical Performance of Self-cleaning Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailan Siti Norsaffirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-cleaning concrete is an effective alternative to provide cleaner environment which contribute to sustainability and towards a green environment. It is in accordance with the requirements of environmental issues on huge energy consumption and air pollution from carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. Photocatalyst in self-cleaning concrete accelerates the decomposition of organic particulates, hence pollution could be reduced through photocatalytic degradation of gaseous pollutants. Mechanical performances of self-cleaning concrete were improved by adding photocatalytic materials. Self cleaning abilities were evaluated in the photocatalytic activity test under UV light and photocatalytic degradation of gaseous pollutant was measured by depollution test. This review aims to give an overview about the characteristics of photocatalytic materials and mechanical performances of self-cleaning concrete.

  10. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  11. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triglyceride (fat) produced by processing coconut oil or palm kernel oil. The body breaks down caprylic acid into substances called “ketone bodies.” The theory behind Axona is that the ketone bodies derived from caprylic acid may provide an alternative energy source for brain cells that have lost ...

  12. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  13. Laser cleaning of 19th century Congo rattan mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, N.; Oujja, M.; Roemich, H.; Castillejo, M.

    2011-09-01

    There is a growing interest by art conservators for laser cleaning of organic materials, such as wooden artworks, paper and textiles, since traditional cleaning with solvents can be a source of further decay and mechanical cleaning may be too abrasive for sensitive fibers. In this work we present a successful laser cleaning approach for 19th century rattan mats from the Brooklyn Museum collection of African Art, now part of the study collection at the Conservation Center in New York. Tests were carried out using the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelength of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to measure threshold values both for surface damage and color changes for different types of rattan samples. The irradiated substrates were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and by UV-vis spectroscopy in order to determine the efficiency of laser cleaning and to assess possible deterioration effects that may have occurred as a result of laser irradiation. The study showed that by using the laser emission at 532 nm, a wavelength for which photon energy is below the bond dissociation level of the main cellulosic compounds and the water absorption is negligible, it is possible to select a range of laser fluences to remove the black dust layer without damaging the rattan material.

  14. Laser cleaning of 19th century Congo rattan mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, N., E-mail: carmona@fis.ucm.es [Materials Physics Department, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oujja, M. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica ' Rocasolano' , C/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Roemich, H. [Conservation Center, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, 14 East 78th Street, 10075 New York (United States); Castillejo, M. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica ' Rocasolano' , C/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    There is a growing interest by art conservators for laser cleaning of organic materials, such as wooden artworks, paper and textiles, since traditional cleaning with solvents can be a source of further decay and mechanical cleaning may be too abrasive for sensitive fibers. In this work we present a successful laser cleaning approach for 19th century rattan mats from the Brooklyn Museum collection of African Art, now part of the study collection at the Conservation Center in New York. Tests were carried out using the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelength of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to measure threshold values both for surface damage and color changes for different types of rattan samples. The irradiated substrates were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and by UV-vis spectroscopy in order to determine the efficiency of laser cleaning and to assess possible deterioration effects that may have occurred as a result of laser irradiation. The study showed that by using the laser emission at 532 nm, a wavelength for which photon energy is below the bond dissociation level of the main cellulosic compounds and the water absorption is negligible, it is possible to select a range of laser fluences to remove the black dust layer without damaging the rattan material.

  15. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hemenway, A. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  16. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hemenway, A. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  17. Agronomic efficiency of potassium fertilization in lettuce fertilized with alternative nutrient sources Eficiência agronômica da adubação potássica na alface adubada com fontes alternativas de nutrientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Guelfi-Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of alternative sources of nutrients on the nutrition, yield and efficiency of potassium fertilization in lettuce. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, using 3.7 kg pots filled with a dystrophic red-yellow Latosol of medium texture. The experimental design was randomized, with treatments divided into a 4 x 6 factorial: four doses of potassium (0; 200; 400; 600 kg ha-1 K2O and six alternative sources of nutrients (breccia, ultramafic, biotite schist, phlogopite, and mining and Chapada by-products, with four replications. Content and accumulation were determined for potassium (K, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn and nickel (Ni in the lettuce shoots, and from these data two indices were calculated for the efficiency of potassium as a fertilizer. The application of increasing values of alternative sources of nutrients promoted improvements in nutrition and increases in lettuce yield. The efficiency of potassium fertilization decreased with the increase in values of potassium taken from alternative nutrient sources, with the mining by-products and the ultramafic being superior to the other sources. Crushed silicate rocks and mining by-products can therefore both be used as fertilizer in organic and conventional production systems.O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de fontes alternativas de nutrientes na nutrição, produção e eficiência da adubação potássica na alface. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos com 3,7 kg preenchidos com um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico de textura média. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado e os tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 4 x 6, sendo quatro doses de potássio (0; 200; 400; 600 kg ha-1 de K2O e seis fontes alternativas de nutrientes (brecha, ultramáfica, biotita xisto, flogopitito, subproduto de mineração e subproduto de chapada, com quatro repetições. Foram

  18. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  19. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  20. Public-Private roundtables at the fourth Clean Energy Ministerial, 17-18 April 2013, New Delhi, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, Tracey [Energetics, Incorporated, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-06-30

    The Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) is a high-level global forum to share best practices and promote policies and programs that advance clean energy technologies and accelerate the transition to a global clean energy economy. The CEM works to increase energy efficiency, expand clean energy supply, and enhance clean energy access worldwide. To achieve these goals, the CEM pursues a three-part strategy that includes high-level policy dialogue, technical cooperation, and engagement with the private sector and other stakeholders. Each year, energy ministers and other high-level delegates from the 23 participating CEM governments come together to discuss clean energy, review clean energy progress, and identify tangible next steps to accelerate the clean energy transition. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a crucial role in launching the CEM, hosted the first annual meeting of energy ministers in Washington, DC, in June 2010. The United Arab Emirates hosted the second Clean Energy Ministerial in 2011, and the United Kingdom hosted the third Clean Energy Ministerial in 2012. In April 2013, India hosted the fourth Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM4) in New Delhi. Key insights from CEM4 are summarized in the report. It captures the ideas and recommendations of the government and private sector leaders who participated in the discussions on six discussion topics: reducing soft costs of solar PV; energy management systems; renewables policy and finance; clean vehicle adoption; mini-grid development; and power systems in emerging economies.

  1. Denitrification-Efficiencies of Alternate Carbon Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    organic carbon was around 70%. Skrinde and Bhagat (1982) investigated a number of carbon sources (methanol, spent sufite liquor, yeast, corn silage , acid...sludge treated by acid hydrolysis); (5) corn steep liquor (a 4concentrated solution of maize solubles obtained from the lactic fermentation process...during the steeping of maize prior to wet milling, Grain Processing Corporation, Muscatine, IA), (6) soluble fish condensates, (Sharpley Laboratories Inc

  2. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nathanael; Aliev, Ali; Baughman, Ray

    2015-03-01

    There is a large promise for thermophones in high power sonar arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding aerogel-like carbon nanotube sheets demonstrate the best performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large size freestanding carbon nanotube sheets and other even more exotic materials published recently, hampers the field. We present here new alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly and cost effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanoscale materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed.

  3. The MiniCLEAN Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Jen (Ryan); Gold, Michael; Miniclean Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MiniCLEAN (Cryogenic Low-Energy Astrophysics with Noble liquid) dark matter experiment will exploit a single-phase liquid argon detector instrumented with 92 photomultiplier tubes placed in the cryogen with 4- π coverage of a 500 kg (150 kg) target (fiducial) mass. The detector design strategy emphasizes scalability to target masses of order 10 tons or more. It is designed also for a liquid neon target that allows for an independent verification of signal and background and a test of the expected dependence of the WIMP-nucleus interaction rate. For MiniCLEAN, PMT stability and calibration are essential. The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) based light injection system provide single photon for the calibration which can be performed in near real-time, providing a continuous monitor on the condition of the detector. This talk will summarize the status of detector and upcoming commissioning at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Canada.

  4. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  5. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  6. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  7. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based on an...

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  10. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  11. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  13. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  14. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1316 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1316 Section 51.1316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1316 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust,...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  19. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...