WorldWideScience

Sample records for clean efficient alternative

  1. Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed, as am the major R ampersand D issues

  2. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  3. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  4. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna

    2014-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  5. Hydrogen as alternative clean fuel: Economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In analogy to biofuel production from biomasses, the electrolytic conversion of other renewable energies into hydrogen as an alternative clean fuel is considered. This solution allows the intermittent renewable energy sources, as photovoltaics and wind energy, to enhance their development and enlarge the role into conventional fuel market. A rough economic analysis of hydrogen production line shows the costs, added by electrolysis and storage stages, can be recovered by properly accounting for social and environmental costs due to whole cycle of conventional fuels, from production to use. So, in a perspective of attaining the economic competitiveness of renewable energy, the hydrogen, arising from intermittent renewable energy sources, will be able to compete in the energy market with conventional fuels, making sure that their substitution will occur in a significant amount and the corresponding environment

  6. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at ''La Primavera'' farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done

  7. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.

  8. Alternative, Green Processes for the Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.; Grandelli, Heather Eilenfield; Devor, Robert; Hintze, Paul E.; Loftin, Kathleen B.; Tomlin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    weighed again showing typical contaminant deposition levels of approximately 0.00300g per part. They were then cleaned by the solvent or process being tested and then weighed a third time which allowed for the calculation of the cleaning efficiency of the test solvent or process.Based on preliminary experiments, five solvents (ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, and tert-butyl acetate) were down selected for further testing. When coupled with ultrasonic agitation, these solvents removed hydrocarbon contaminants as well as Vertrel MCA and showed improved removal of perfluorinated greases. Supercritical carbon dioxide did an excellent job dissolving each of the five contaminants but did a poor job of removing Teflon particles found in the perfluorinated greases. Plasma cleaning efficiency was found to be dependent on which supply gas was used, exposure time, and gas pressure. Under optimized conditions it was found that breathing air, energized to the plasma phase, was able to remove nearly 100% of the contamination.These findings indicate that alternative cleaning methods are indeed able to achieve precision levels of cleanliness. Currently, our team is working with a commercial cleaning company to get independent verification of our results. We are also evaluating the technical and financial aspects of scaling these processes to a size capable of supporting the future cleaning needs of KSC.

  9. Clean and Highly Efficient Utilization of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianguo; YANG Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ Clean and highly efficient utilization of coal is an important scientific and technological issue.As the petroleum resource decreases but its consumption increases, all of the countries in the world have to face the big issue of sustainable development of energy and economy and protection of environment.Therefore, study on clean coal technology (CCT) has attracted much attention and become one of important themes of energy research.

  10. Sonochemical cleaning efficiencies in dental instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, T. Joyce; Walmsley, A. Damien; Price, Gareth J.

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasound has been widely used for cleaning purposes in a variety of situations, including in dental practice. Cleaning is achieved through a combination of acoustically driven streaming effects and sonochemical effects arising from the production of inertial cavitation in a liquid. In our work, various dental instruments used for endodontic (root canal) treatment have been evaluated for their efficiency in producing sonochemical effects in an in-vitro cleaning environment. The areas where cavitation was produced were mapped by monitoring chemiluminescence from luminol solutions and this was correlated with their cleaning efficiencies - assessed by the ability to bleach a dye, to form an emulsion by mixing immiscible components and also to remove ink from a glass surface. The results showed good correlation (Pearson's coefficient > 0.9) between the cavitation and cleaning efficiencies, suggesting that the former plays an important role in cleaning. The methods developed and the results will be beneficial in endodontics research in order to optimise future root canal instruments and treatments.

  11. Clean and Efficient Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-31

    Task 1 was to design study for fuel-efficient system configuration. The objective of task 1 was to perform a system design study of locomotive engine configurations leading to a 5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Modeling studies were conducted in GT-Power to perform this task. GT-Power is an engine simulation tool that facilitates modeling of engine components and their system level interactions. It provides the capability to evaluate a variety of engine technologies such as exhaust gas circulation (EGR), variable valve timing, and advanced turbo charging. The setup of GT-Power includes a flexible format that allows the effects of variations in available technologies (i.e., varying EGR fractions or fuel injection timing) to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, development can be driven by the simultaneous evaluation of several technology configurations.

  12. Flue Gas Cleaning With Alternative Processes and Reaction Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders; Hamma-Cugny, Hind; Rogez, Jacquez; Winnick, J.; Wassserscheid, Peter; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Alternative methods to the traditional industrial NOX and SOXflue gas cleaning processes working at lower temperatures and/orleading to useful products are desired. In this work we presentour latest results regarding the use of molten ionic media inelectrocatalytic membrane separation, ionic liquid...

  13. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, J.D.; Meltzer, M.; Miscovich, D.; Montoya, D.; Goodrich, P.; Blycker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL`s findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria.

  14. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL's findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria

  15. Burning clean fuel gas improves energetic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One the most critical problems faced by refineries nowadays is the continuous increasing of legislation urging emissions reductions specifically SO2, NOx, and particles. Therefore there is a substantial need for refineries to burn fuel gas instead of fuel oil and avoiding, if possible, the use of imported natural gas. The refinery case study presents a substantial excess of fuel gas resulting from the production of hydrogen to obtain clean flues with low sulphurs. The aim of this paper is to optimize the use of the hydrogen excess with the implementation of a gas turbine with heat recovery with a feed near 28-31% of hydrogen. The cogeneration system was modelled by GateCycle 5.34.0.r. and the results obtained for the simulation were considered optimistic. Considering a production of 13 MW of electrical power the overall efficiency reached a value of 76% and 22 t/h of vapour (17 MW) from a feed of 3 t/h of fuel gas (39 MW). These results allow a higher electrical power production and a consequent reduction in the emissions of SO2 and CO2.

  16. Burning clean fuel gas improves energetic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Andre; Gomes, Luisa A.C.N. [Chemical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida 431, P4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Tavares, Manuel L.C. [Galp Energia, Area de Tecnologia, Apartado 3015, 4451-852 Leca da Palmeira (Portugal)

    2010-03-15

    One the most critical problems faced by refineries nowadays is the continuous increasing of legislation urging emissions reductions specifically SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particles. Therefore there is a substantial need for refineries to burn fuel gas instead of fuel oil and avoiding, if possible, the use of imported natural gas. The refinery case study presents a substantial excess of fuel gas resulting from the production of hydrogen to obtain clean flues with low sulphurs. The aim of this paper is to optimize the use of the hydrogen excess with the implementation of a gas turbine with heat recovery with a feed near 28-31% of hydrogen. The cogeneration system was modelled by GateCycle 5.34.0.r. and the results obtained for the simulation were considered optimistic. Considering a production of 13 MW of electrical power the overall efficiency reached a value of 76% and 22 t/h of vapour (17 MW) from a feed of 3 t/h of fuel gas (39 MW). These results allow a higher electrical power production and a consequent reduction in the emissions of SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. (author)

  17. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  18. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: CORROSION STUDIES RESULTS: FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2010-09-29

    dilute concentration environment resulted in carbon steel corrosion rates that were less than 150 mpy. These rates are manageable in that chemical cleaning processes could proceed for limited time without significant wall loss. Further optimization of the Alternative Enhance Chemical Cleaning (AECC) process should focus on testing in solutions of this dilute concentration and low temperature regime. (2) In general, for the nitric acid based reagent, the aluminum oxide phase environments resulted in higher corrosion rates than the iron oxide phase environments. (3) In general, for the sulfuric acid based reagent, the iron oxide phase environments resulted in higher corrosion rates than the aluminum oxide phase environments. (4) In general, for the nitric acid based reagent, the HM sludge simulant environments resulted in higher corrosion rates than the PUREX sludge simulant environments. This result agrees with the previous observation that the aluminum oxide phases are more aggressive than the iron oxide phase environments in the nitric acid reagent. (5) Pitting was more likely to occur in the sulfuric acid based reagents than in the nitric acid based reagents. (6) Pitting occurred only in the iron based pure oxide phases and the sludge simulants. No pitting was observed in the aluminum based pure oxide phases. (7) Pitting tended to occur more frequently in tests that involved the dilute mineral acid reagent. (8) Pitting was more severe at the higher temperature for a given mineral acid concentration. (9) Pitting was more severe at a higher mineral acid concentration for a given temperature. (10) Based on the combined results of the open circuit potential and cathodic polarization testing, there was a low propensity for hydrogen evolution in solutions where sludge has been dissolved.

  19. Ionization Impact on the Air Cleaning Efficiency in the Interior

    OpenAIRE

    Černecký Jozef; Valentová Karina; Pivarčiová Elena; Božek Pavol

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with ionization impact on efficient cleaning of air in a measuring chamber which has been cleaned and closed against any outer impacts (e.g. impurities, dust from another room, human odours). Smoking has an impact on the number of positive and negative ions including the concentration of particulate matter PM10. We investigated the ion concentration according to the presence of cigarette smoke in the room and according to the change of lit cigarette distance from the supply of...

  20. Can propane compete in the clean alternate fuels market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the status of various clean fuels programs for fleet vehicles. It also identifies and assesses the fleet market for clean fuels in nonattainment areas and addresses the factors critical to penetrating this market. Title II of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have defined clean fuels as ethanol, methanol, other alcohols, hydrogen, electricity, natural gas, and LP-Gas (propane). Leading clean fuels are identified and discussed. This paper also assesses the advantages and disadvantages for propane versus the other clean vehicle fuel options

  1. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing......), metal industry, and vehicle repair and maintenance. There are, however, other elements that influence the possibility to substitute. The requirements to the resulting surface, depending on the following treatment of the surface. The character of the soilings to be removed. The possible presence of other...

  2. Alternative solvents for cleaning plutonium: Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic and kinetic data for selected reactions of plutonium metal are reevaluated as a basis for assessing the risk of a violent exothermic reaction during solvent-based cleaning operations. The enthalpy data are in disagreement with ΔH values reported in a recent overview of the topic. Our results show that all credible solvents, including ethers and light hydrocarbons, react spontaneously and exothermically with plutonium. The need for considering kinetic behavior of a reaction in assessing its thermal risk is demonstrated. The independence of thermodynamic and kinetic properties is discussed and the unpredictable effects of catalytic substances are described. Criteria for objectively evaluating cleaning technologies are presented. 15 refs., 3 tabs

  3. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    aluminum sludge heels may be appropriate as a means of reducing oxalic acid usage. Reagents other than oxalic acid may also be needed for removing actinide elements from the tank heels. A systems engineering evaluation (SEE) was performed on the various alternative chemical cleaning reagents and organic oxidation technologies discussed in the literature review. The objective of the evaluation was to develop a short list of chemical cleaning reagents and oxalic acid destruction methods that should be the focus of further research and development. The results of the SEE found that eight of the thirteen organic oxidation technologies scored relatively close together. Six of the chemical cleaning reagents were also recommended for further investigation. Based on the results of the SEE and plan set out in the TTQAP the following broad areas are recommended for future study as part of the AECC task: (1) Basic Chemistry of Sludge Dissolution in Oxalic Acid: A better understanding of the variables effecting dissolution of sludge species is needed to efficiently remove sludge heels while minimizing the use of oxalic acid or other chemical reagents. Tests should investigate the effects of pH, acid concentration, phase ratios, temperature, and kinetics of the dissolution reactions of sludge components with oxalic acid, mineral acids, and combinations of oxalic/mineral acids. Real waste sludge samples should be characterized to obtain additional data on the mineral phases present in sludge heels. (2) Simulant Development Program: Current sludge simulants developed by other programs for use in waste processing tests, while compositionally similar to real sludge waste, generally have more hydrated forms of the major metal phases and dissolve more easily in acids. Better simulants containing the mineral phases identified by real waste characterization should be developed to test chemical cleaning methods. (3) Oxalic Acid Oxidation Technologies: The two Mn based oxidation methods that

  4. SAGE SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS FOR SELECTING INDUSTRIAL SURFACE CLEANING ALTERNATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes computer software, called SAGE, that can provide not only cleaning recommendations but also general information on various surface cleaning options. In short, it is an advisory system which can provide users with vital information on the cleaning process optio...

  5. Annealing free, clean graphene transfer using alternative polymer scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with polymer scaffolds of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(phthalaldehyde) (PPA), and poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC). We find that optimally reactive PC scaffolds provide the cleanest graphene transfers without any annealing, after extensive comparison with optical microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Comparatively, films transferred with PLA, PPA, PMMA/PC, and PMMA have a two-fold higher roughness and a five-fold higher chemical doping. Using PC scaffolds, we demonstrate the clean transfer of CVD multilayer graphene, fluorinated graphene, and hexagonal boron nitride. Our annealing free, PC transfers enable the use of atomically-clean nanomaterials in biomolecule encapsulation and flexible electronic applications. (paper)

  6. Ionization Impact on the Air Cleaning Efficiency in the Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Černecký Jozef

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with ionization impact on efficient cleaning of air in a measuring chamber which has been cleaned and closed against any outer impacts (e.g. impurities, dust from another room, human odours. Smoking has an impact on the number of positive and negative ions including the concentration of particulate matter PM10. We investigated the ion concentration according to the presence of cigarette smoke in the room and according to the change of lit cigarette distance from the supply of ionized air. Due to the experiment there was simulated smoking at the relative air humidity φ = 37 % and φ = 39 % and temperature of 20 °C in the room. Increased PM10 concentrations were caused only by cigarette smoke pollution or more precisely by artificially created higher humidity in the measuring room excluding ambient environment impacts. The aim of the experiments was to prove influence of ionization on the elimination of cigarette smoke. The measurements showed that the highest efficiency of PM10 particulate removal was achieved when the distance of smoking cigarettes from ionization source was 3 m and the air humidity was 39 %. The consequent increase of the distance of smoking cigarettes from the ionization source significantly decreased the efficiency of particle removal. The difference between ionized and natural air is minimal at the bigger distance.

  7. Energy Efficient Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum-based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are presented. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  8. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, B.L.; Butcher, T.A.

    1994-06-01

    Almost half of the energy used for beating in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 boilerhouses with a total capacity of 1,071 MW, and about 100,000 home furnaces with a total capacity of about 300 MW. More than 600 boilerhouses and 60 percent of the home furnaces are situated near the city center. These facilities are referred to as ``low emission sources`` because they have low stacks. They are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbons in the city, and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in Krakow as the ``Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.`` Funding is provided through the US Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe.

  9. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  10. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the 'Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.' Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the 'low emission sources' and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

  11. The high efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing our steel filters, we first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, we then built prototype filters for venting compressed gases and evaluated them in our automated filter tester. 12 refs., 20 figs

  12. High efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiently particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing steel filters, they first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, prototype filters were then built for venting compressed gases and evaluated in their automated filter tester

  13. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  14. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2010-05-05

    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  15. Nuclear power generation alternative for a clean energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World Energy Council stated that to raise the efficiency in which energy is provided is a huge challenge for power engineering. Over 60% of primary energy is in effect, wasted. At present 63% of the world's electricity comes from thermal power (coal, oil and gas), 19% from hydro, 17% from nuclear, 0.5% from geothermal and 0.1% from solar, wind and biomass. Nuclear power almost completely avoids all the problems associated within fossil fuels: no greenhouse effect, no acid rain, no air pollution with sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, no oil spills, etc. Its impact on health and environment is related to radiation and is relatively minor. Without pretending a high accuracy of numbers, if the first Romanian nuclear power reactor will be replaced by a coal plant of equivalent capacity, about 5 millions tons of CO2 and large quantities of associated sulfur and nitrous oxides, would be discharged to the atmosphere each year. However, the acceptance of nuclear power is largely an emotional issue. Based on the environmental monitoring program this paper tries to demonstrate that the routine radioactive emissions of Cernavoda NPP, which are limited by competent national authority, constitutes an insignificant risk increase. The concept of sustainable development was elaborated in the late 1980s and defined as a development that fulfil the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development incorporates equity within and across countries as well as across generations, and integrates economic growth, environmental protection and social welfare. To analyze nuclear energy from a sustainable development perspective it is necessary to consider its economic, environmental and social impacts characteristics, both positive and negative. It is obvious that the development of nuclear energy broadens the natural resource base usable for energy production, and increases human and man-made capital. There are also

  16. Clean option: An alternative strategy for Hanford Tank Waste Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of high-level tank wastes at the Hanford Site is currently envisioned to divide the waste between two principal waste forms: glass for the high-level waste (HLW) and grout for the low-level waste (LLW). The draft flow diagram shown in Figure 1.1 was developed as part of the current planning process for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), which is evaluating options for tank cleanup. The TWRS has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to safely manage the Hanford tank wastes. It includes tank safety and waste disposal issues, as well as the waste pretreatment and waste minimization issues that are involved in the ''clean option'' discussed in this report. This report describes the results of a study led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine if a more aggressive separations scheme could be devised which could mitigate concerns over the quantity of the HLW and the toxicity of the LLW produced by the reference system. This aggressive scheme, which would meet NRC Class A restrictions (10 CFR 61), would fit within the overall concept depicted in Figure 1.1; it would perform additional and/or modified operations in the areas identified as interim storage, pretreatment, and LLW concentration. Additional benefits of this scheme might result from using HLW and LLW disposal forms other than glass and grout, but such departures from the reference case are not included at this time. The evaluation of this aggressive separations scheme addressed institutional issues such as: radioactivity remaining in the Hanford Site LLW grout, volume of HLW glass that must be shipped offsite, and disposition of appropriate waste constituents to nonwaste forms

  17. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: BASIC STUDIES RESULTS FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hay, M.

    2011-01-24

    In an effort to develop and optimize chemical cleaning methods for the removal of sludge heels from High Level Waste tanks, solubility tests have been conducted using nonradioactive, pure metal phases. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phase gibbsite and the iron phases hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, and wustite. Many of these mineral phases have been identified in radioactive, High Level Waste sludge at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids and a variety of other complexing organic acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that mixtures of oxalic acid with either nitric or sulfuric acid are the most effective cleaning solutions for the dissolution of the primary metal phases in sludge waste. Based on the results, optimized conditions for hematite dissolution in oxalic acid were selected using nitric or sulfuric acid as a supplemental proton source. Electrochemical corrosion studies were also conducted (reported separately; Wiersma, 2010) with oxalic/mineral acid mixtures to evaluate the effects of these solutions on waste tank integrity. The following specific conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) Oxalic acid was shown to be superior to all of the other organic acids evaluated in promoting the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. (2) All iron phases showed similar solubility trends in oxalic acid versus pH, with hematite exhibiting the lowest solubility and the slowest dissolution. (3) Greater than 90% hematite dissolution occurred in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures within one week for two hematite sources and within three weeks for a third hematite sample with a larger average particle size. This dissolution rate appears acceptable for waste tank cleaning applications. (4) Stoichiometric dissolution of iron phases in oxalic acid (based on the oxalate concentration) and the formation of the preferred 1:1 Fe to oxalate complex

  18. Evaluation of Glycol Ether as an Alternative to Perchloroethylene in Dry Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikou Hesari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Perchloroethylene (PCE is a highly utilized solvent in the dry cleaning industry because of its cleaning effectiveness and relatively low cost to consumers. According to the 2006 U.S. Census, approximately 28,000 dry cleaning operations used PCE as their principal cleaning agent. Widespread use of PCE is problematic because of its adverse impacts on human health and environmental quality. As PCE use is curtailed, effective alternatives must be analyzed for their toxicity and impacts to human health and the environment. Potential alternatives to PCE in dry cleaning include dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether (DPnB and dipropylene glycol tert-butyl ether (DPtB, both promising to pose a relatively smaller risk. To evaluate these two alternatives to PCE, we established and scored performance criteria, including chemical toxicity, employee and customer exposure levels, impacts on the general population, costs of each system, and cleaning efficacy. The scores received for PCE were 5, 5, 3, 5, 3, and 3, respectively, and DPnB and DPtB scored 3, 1, 2, 2, 4, and 4, respectively. An aggregate sum of the performance criteria yielded a favorably low score of “16” for both DPnB and DPtB compared to “24” for PCE. We conclude that DPnB and DPtB are preferable dry cleaning agents, exhibiting reduced human toxicity and a lesser adverse impact on human health and the environment compared to PCE, with comparable capital investments, and moderately higher annual operating costs.

  19. Nuclear power generation alternative for a clean energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World Energy Council stated that the raise of energy production efficiency should be a huge goal. Over 60% of primary energy is, in effect, wasted. At present 63% of the world's electricity comes from thermal power (coal, oil and gas), 19% from hydro, 17% from nuclear, 0.5% from geothermal and 0.1% from solar, wind and biomass. Nuclear power almost completely avoids all the problems associated with fossil fuels: no greenhouse effect, no acid rain, no air pollution with sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides, no oil spills, etc. Its impact on health and environment is related to radiation and is relatively minor. Without pretending a high accuracy of numbers, if the first Romanian nuclear power reactor will be replaced by a coal plant of equivalent capacity, about 5 millions tons of CO2 and large quantities of associated sulfur and nitrous oxides, would be discharged to the atmosphere each year. However the acceptance of nuclear power is largely an emotional issue. Based on the environmental monitoring program this paper tries to demonstrate that the routine radioactive emissions of Cernavoda NPP, which are limited by National Competent Authority, gives an insignificant risk increase. (authors)

  20. Nuclear power generation alternative for a clean energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: World Energy Council stated that it is a huge goal to raise the efficiency in which energy is provided. Over 60% of primary energy is, in effect, wasted. At present 63% of the world's electricity comes from thermal power (coal, oil and gas) 19% from hydro, 17% from nuclear, 0.5% from geothermal and 0.1% from solar, wind and biomass. Nuclear power almost completely avoids all the problems associated with fossil fuels: no greenhouse effect, no acid rain, no air pollution with sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides, no oil spills, etc. Its impact on health and environment is related to radiation and is relatively minor. Without pretending a high accuracy of numbers, if the Romanian nuclear power reactors will be replaced by a coal plant of equivalent capacity, about 10 millions tons of CO2 and large quantities of associated sulfur and nitrous oxides, would be discharged to the atmosphere each year. However the acceptance of nuclear power is largely and an emotional issue. In all activities in which nuclear industry is involved, it takes care of the environment. Nuclear energy can have an important contribution for the future of mankind regarding the sustainable supply of energy. Security problems are part of universal nuclear technology management and it is not risk free. The nuclear industry acknowledges responsibilities and has a unique security culture. Security is not only a technical problem, but also an emotional one. Based on the environmental monitoring program this paper tries to demonstrate that the routine radioactive emissions of Cernavoda NPP, which are limited by National Competent Authority, gives an insignificant risk increase. For assessing the environmental impacts and damage costs from exposure, IAEA's Model SIMPACTS is applied. SIMPACT is a powerful and convenient tool for evaluating external costs of human health and environmental impacts for nuclear power and other energy sources. (authors)

  1. Promoting energy efficient building in China through clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to investigate the barriers which impede the promotion of Energy Efficient Building (EEB), and to propose solutions to alleviate these barriers by capturing the benefits from Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), in the context of China. Through comprehensive literature review, eight types of significant barriers are identified, including weak enforcement of government policies, market inefficiency, information barrier, small and scattering buildings, fragmentation of the construction industry, perceived high risk, higher initial cost, and difficulty in energy management. To overcome the barriers, the potential of CDM to facilitate EEB promotion is then discussed. These barriers are verified and potential solutions are tested with a questionnaire survey conducted among five professional groups in China, i.e. designers, project managers, quantity surveyors, marketing managers and property managers. The results suggest that they generally identified with the barriers. However, their limited awareness of CDM implies that corresponding policies should be formulated and implemented to improve their capability of providing more EEBs with CDM. - Highlights: ► Eight types of significant barriers to the implement of EEB are identified. ► The sources and roots of barriers are verified with the industry professionals. ► Benefits of CDM to EEB are discussed. ► There is limited awareness of CDM in building sector. ► Overcoming or alleviating these barriers through CDM and other sources are proposed

  2. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  3. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the 'targeted' dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  4. An efficient, environmentally acceptable, clean up system for well completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Oe.; Saasen, A.

    1996-12-31

    Evaluation of different casing cleaning fluid systems has been a difficult task due to the lack of a standardised laboratory measurement technique for technical performance. In order to meet the need for a reliable evaluation of different chemicals and fluid systems used in casing cleaning, a laboratory procedure for the evaluation of casing cleaning chemicals has been developed. This procedure has been successfully applied in the development of a new environmentally acceptable casing cleaning fluid system. Two different procedures are presented. An old method where the drilling fluid was displaced down the annulus and up the drill string was found to be ineffective compared to a method where the drilling fluid was displaced up in the annulus. The application of this procedure together with the use of the new chemical additive has reduced the cost of casing cleanup operations in the range of 30-40%. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. An efficient, environmentally acceptable, clean up system for well completions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of different casing cleaning fluid systems has been a difficult task due to the lack of a standardised laboratory measurement technique for technical performance. In order to meet the need for a reliable evaluation of different chemicals and fluid systems used in casing cleaning, a laboratory procedure for the evaluation of casing cleaning chemicals has been developed. This procedure has been successfully applied in the development of a new environmentally acceptable casing cleaning fluid system. Two different procedures are presented. An old method where the drilling fluid was displaced down the annulus and up the drill string was found to be ineffective compared to a method where the drilling fluid was displaced up in the annulus. The application of this procedure together with the use of the new chemical additive has reduced the cost of casing cleanup operations in the range of 30-40%. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  6. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: A Green and Clean Alternative for Sustained Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Chennault, Kimberly Ann; Thambi, Nithya; Bitetto, Mary Anne; Hameyie, E. B.

    2008-01-01

    Providing efficient and clean power is a challenge for devices that range from the micro to macro in scale. Although there has been significant progress in the development of micro-, meso-, and macro-scale power supplies and technologies, realization of many devices is limited by the inability of power supplies to scale with the diminishing sizes…

  7. Alternative bio-based fuels for aviation: the clean airports program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has been designated as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. The U.S. Dept. of Energy (US DOE) conferred this designation in March 1996. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. The two major fuels used in aviation are the current piston engine aviation gasoline and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation gasoline (100LL), currently used in the general aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the U.S. today. Turbine engine fuel (jet fuel) produces two major environmental impacts: a local one, in the vicinity of the airports, and a global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinity of airports, through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles. (author)

  8. An Evolutionary Efficiency Alternative to the Notion of Pareto Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, Irene

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe paper argues that the notion of Pareto efficiency builds on two normative assumptions: the more general consequentialist norm of any efficiency criterion, and the strong no-harm principle of the prohibition of any redistribution during the economic process that hurts at least one person. These normative concerns lead to a constrained and static notion of efficiency in mainstream economics, ignoring dynamic efficiency gains from more equal allocations of resources. The paper ar...

  9. Nuclear energy as almost unique alternative for future clean reliable power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil peak is predicted to appear by the end of 2020, which opens a wide range of options for the mankind from self-annihilation to the smartest energetic solutions. The thermal pollution having so low efficiency is still acceptable if no carbon is burned. There is a planetary thermal limitation to several Pw (1015 W), representing less than 1% from the total power received from the sun. This shows that the energy production may grow another 1000 times without visible consequences. The need for the nuclear power replacement of the actual thermal power plants is of about 1 Tw (1012 W), representing about 1000 nuclear reactors. Knowing that 1 Gw thermal power reactor requires an average 100 tons of fuel per year, there will be a serious shortage of nuclear fuel, as soon as this program will be launched. There are other opportunities offered by the nuclear power related to the hydrogen-powered transportation, which come to solve the other aspect of the carbon-based pollution. In spite of all these advantages the nuclear power is the giant able to solve the mankind's problems for the next 1000 years. Unfortunately, this is now a giant with clay legs if the fuel and waste economy are not well set, by minimizing the amount of fuel immobilized as waste and a better waste treatment. The nuclear energy is not the unique energetic alternative, the use of renewable energie in planetary cooperation is by far the best option, but there is an imperious need to back them by strong, clean and compact nuclear sources

  10. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, No. 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quarterly magazine with articles on recent changes to the Clean Cities Program; the SuperTruck student engineering challenge; alternative fuel use in delivery fleets; and a propane vehicle rally and conference in February 2001, in Kansas City, Mo

  11. Navajo Generating Station and Clean-Energy Alternatives: Options for Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Turchi, C. S.; Burman, K.

    2012-06-01

    In January 2012, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory delivered to the Department of the Interior the first part of a study on Navajo Generating Station (Navajo GS) and the likely impacts of BART compliance options. That document establishes a comprehensive baseline for the analysis of clean energy alternatives, and their ability to achieve benefits similar to those that Navajo GS currently provides. This analysis is a supplement to NREL's January 2012 study. It provides a high level examination of several clean energy alternatives, based on the previous analysis. Each has particular characteristics affecting its relevance as an alternative to Navajo GS. It is assumed that the development of any alternative resource (or portfolio of resources) to replace all or a portion of Navajo GS would occur at the end of a staged transition plan designed to reduce economic disruption. We assume that replacing the federal government's 24.3% share of Navajo GS would be a cooperative responsibility of both the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Central Arizona Water Conservation District (CAWCD).

  12. An Evolutionary Efficiency Alternative to the Notion of Pareto Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe paper argues that the notion of Pareto efficiency builds on two normative assumptions: the more general consequentialist norm of any efficiency criterion, and the strong no-harm principle of the prohibition of any redistribution during the economic process that hurts at least one per

  13. 76 FR 21673 - Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ...-substantiation of an AEDM or ARM as a result of a change in standard or test procedure. 76 FR 12492 (March 7...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy....

  14. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center; Vol. 2, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-05-01

    Official publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center featuring alternative fuels activity in every state, the Clean Cities game plan '98, and news from the Automakers.

  15. More efficient cleaning concepts for stepping up availability of lignite-fired power plants (Ligpower)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Wiechers; B. Wessel; S. Goudanis; F. Kluger; G. Riley [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The quality of lignite extracted in various deposits differs considerably in part. The impact of changed major coal quality parameters on steam generator operation became evident in the form of increased deposit formation on the boiler's heating surfaces. Successful countermeasures were launched, but the bottleneck of the problem continues to be the cleaning of the first convection heating surfaces downstream of the furnace. As the cleaning facilities available so far (soot blowers) have not proved sufficient for these areas of application despite all optimisation efforts made, new processes have to be developed. In contrast to the methods applied so far, these processes do not use the common cleaning medium steam but work on the basis of alternative cleaning media. Within the scope of the Ligpower project, such alternative cleaning methods were selected and subjected to extensive testing on commercial utility boilers. Since a more intensive cleaning of superheater tubes involves increased stress of the tube material, we developed new, more resistant, superheater designs and installed these in a 600 MW unit. The transferability of the findings made was ensured by a comparison of the lignites used. To permit the cleaning device to be controlled as needed, we developed a programme that analyses the degree of fouling of the boiler and generates suggestions for its cleaning. In addition, a tube-fin superheater design was calculated and optimised in terms of fluid dynamics. The extensive tests showed which cleaning methods have suitable approaches to cleaning. By testing them over several years, we gained important information about equipment design. The superheater design could be tested only to a limited degree. Thus, we obtained additional findings in tests using a test heating surface that was mounted on a 300 MW boiler. 77 figs., 5 tabs., 3 apps.

  16. Efficiency of cleaning procedure of milking equipment and bacterial quality of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cleaning and sanitation of milking equipment could be consider a critical point in the milking procedure because a cleaning failure could influence the level of bacteria contamination of bulk tank milk. Aim of the study is to monitor the cleaning procedures of milking systems in 7 dairy cows farms in Lombardy and to find a relation between efficacy of cleaning system and the bacterial quality of bulk tank milk, remaining washing water through milking equipment and teat cup surface. Cleaning procedures were monitored with Lactocorder, that measured: duration, water temperature, turbulence, percentage of water in pipes, water conductivity of pre- and post-rinse and detergent phases. Results showed that the monitored farms the most of the cleaning parameters were lower than recommendations, in particular maximum water temperature (42.1±9.9°C and percentage of water during detergent phase (76.1±13.9 %. A maximum temperature of detergent phase <40°C determined a high Standard Plate Count (SPC, thermoduric bacteria and Coliform Count (CC of bulk tank milk, SPC and CC of teat cup surface. The research indicated that monitoring the efficiency of cleaning milking equipment with proper tools provide useful information about possible sources of contamination of bulk tank milk. Improving cleaning milking efficiency allow to improve milk quality.

  17. A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

    2002-11-01

    A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

  18. G20 Clean Energy, and Energy Efficiency Deployment and Policy Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    G-20 Clean Energy, and Energy Efficiency Deployment and Policy Progress, a report prepared by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in collaboration with the G-20 Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Working Group, provides an overview of clean energy and energy efficiency technology deployment and summarises support policies in place across G-20 countries. The report highlights that while clean energy technology deployment has made steady progress and energy efficiency improvements have been made, continued reliance on fossil fuels to meet growth in global energy demand presents a significant challenge. Scaling-up the deployment of renewable energy, in addition to improving end-use efficiency, enhancing the efficiency of fossil fuel based power generation, and supporting the widespread deployment of CCS will, therefore, also be crucial aspects of the transition to a cleaner energy future. Because the G-20 group of countries represent close to 80% of energy-related CO2 emissions, by developing and deploying energy efficiency and clean energy technologies, they are presented with a unique opportunity to make collective progress in transitioning the global energy system. IEA Deputy Executive Director Richard Jones emphasised the importance of G-20 efforts, saying, 'The IEA welcomes this important collaboration with the G-20. Enhanced deployment of clean energy technologies and of energy efficiency improvements offers energy security and environmental benefits. It will also enable cost savings over the medium and long term -- an aspect that is particularly relevant at a time of economic uncertainty. We believe that enhanced policy assessment and analysis, building on this initial report, will enable governments to take more cost effective and efficient policy decisions.' This report was issued on the authority of the IEA Executive Director, it does not necessarily represent the views of IEA Member countries or the G20.

  19. Efficiency of surface cleaning by a glow discharge for plasma spraying coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadyrmetov, A. M.; Kashapov, N. F.; Sharifullin, S. N.; Saifutdinov, A. I.; Fadeev, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the results of experimental studies of the quality of cleaning steel surfaces by a glow discharge for plasma spraying. Shows the results of measurements of the angle of surface wetting and bond strength of the plasma coating to the surface treated. The dependence of the influence of the glow discharge power, chamber pressure, distance between the electrodes and the processing time of the surface on cleaning efficiency. Optimal fields of factors is found. It is shown increase joint strength coating and base by 30-80% as a result of cleaning the substrate surface by a glow discharge plasma spraying.

  20. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  1. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: tsbaptista@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  2. The effect of surface cleaning on quantum efficiency in AlGaN photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In order to preparative the transmission-mode AlGaN photocathodes in the future, the photocathode has a thin emission layer, and the lattice mismatch at the back interface was eased by varying Al composition of AlGaN sub-layer. • The boiling KOH solution and the mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide can effectively remove the alumina and carbon from the AlGaN photocathode surface, respectively. • The quantum efficiency of the activated AlGaN photocathode has up to 35.1% and improved by 50% from that of cleaned by traditional cleaning technology. - Abstract: To improve the quantum efficiency of AlGaN photocathode, various surfaces cleaning techniques for the removal of alumina and carbon from AlGaN photocathode surface were investigated. The atomic compositions of AlGaN photocathode structure and surface were measured by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Ar+ ion sputtering. It is found that the boiling KOH solution and the mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide, coupled with the thermal cleaning at 850 °C can effectively remove the alumina and carbon from the AlGaN photocathode surface. The quantum efficiency of AlGaN photocathode is improved to 35.1% at 240 nm, an increase of 50% over the AlGaN photocathode chemically cleaned by only the mixed solution of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide and thermally cleaned at 710 °C

  3. The Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feibus, H.

    1995-12-31

    The joint effort by Polish and American organizations in Krakow has accomplished a great deal in just a few years. In particular, the low emission sources program has had major successes. Poland and America have a lot to learn from each other in the clean and economical use of coal. Both our countries are major producers and users of coal. Both have had to deal with the emissions of particulate and organics from coal combustion. We were fortunate, since our free market economy and democratic government helped us deal with a lot of these problems in the 1950s. In Poland, the freedom to solve these problems has evolved only in the last few years. In the first phase of the program, Polish and American engineers ran combustion tests on boilers and stoves in Krakow. They also performed analyses on the cost and feasibility of various equipment changes. The results of the first phase were used in refining the spreadsheet model to give better estimates of costs emissions. The first phase also included analyses of incentives for proceeding with needed changes. These analyses identified actions needed to create a market for the goods and services which control pollution. Such actions could include privatization, regulation, or financial incentives. The second phase of the program consisted of public meetings in Chicago, Washington, and Krakow. The purpose of the meetings was to inform U.S. and Polish firms about the results of phase 1 and to encourage them to compete to take part in phase 3. The third phase currently underway consists of the commercial ventures that were competitively selected. These ventures were consistent with recommendations unanimously made by the BSC. The three phases of the Polish-American program are discussed.

  4. Enhanced understanding of energy ratepayers: Factors influencing perceptions of government energy efficiency subsidies and utility alternative energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores factors related to energy consumers' perceptions of government subsidies for utility provided energy efficiency (EE) programs and for utility providers' use of more clean/alternative energy sources. Demographic factors, attitudes, planned purchases, and perceptions of utility provider motives in relation to governmental and utility provider EE initiatives (i.e. providing discounts and coupons for CFL bulbs), plus the influence of gain- and loss-framed messages are investigated. Over 2000 respondents completed a 16 item phone survey. Hierarchical regression explained 38% of the variance in reactions regarding government subsidies of the cost of utility provided EE programs and 43% of the variance in perceptions involving whether utility companies should use of more clean or alternative forms of energy. Gender and party differences emerged. Loss-framed messages were more important when the issue was government subsidies. Both gain- and loss-framed messages were important when clean/alternative energy was the issue. - Highlights: • Over 2000 ratepayers were surveyed on their attitudes, planned behaviors and perceptions towards energy efficiency programs. • Almost 40% of how ratepayers feel about government subsidies and utility use of clean/alternative energy was explained. • Loss-framed messages were more effective when the dependent variable was ratepayer perception of government subsidies

  5. Generating clean energy at high efficiency and low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan P.

    1991-06-01

    This paper is related to thermal energy conversion with particular attention to the utilization of thermal energy from environmental fluids according to concepts in equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The first step is to prove that a single fluid heat source can produce useful work, so that thermal energy of environmental fluids is not at 'dead state.' An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system can be easily constructed at higher efficiency and lower cost than existing OTEC systems. An atmosphere thermal energy conversion (ATEC) system of high efficiency and low cost is more sophisticated. It requires open or closed counter-clockwise cycles comprising isothermal compressible flow with or without heat transfer. Combination of one of such ATEC System and a cyclic system, and supplementation of fossil or nuclear fission fuel as an additional heat source are discussed for particular applications.

  6. Evaluation Of Sludge Heel Dissolution Efficiency With Oxalic Acid Cleaning At Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical cleaning process baseline strategy at the Savannah River Site was revised to improve efficiency during future execution of the process based on lessons learned during previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning activities and to account for operational constraints imposed by safety basis requirements. These improvements were also intended to transcend the difficulties that arise from waste removal in higher rheological yield stress sludge tanks. Tank 12 implemented this improved strategy and the bulk oxalic acid cleaning efforts concluded in July 2013. The Tank 12 radiological removal results were similar to previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning campaigns despite the fact that Tank 12 contained higher rheological yield stress sludge that would make removal more difficult than the sludge treated in previous cleaning campaigns. No appreciable oxalate precipitation occurred during the cleaning process in Tank 12 compared to previous campaigns, which aided in the net volume reduction of 75-80%. Overall, the controls established for Tank 12 provide a template for an improved cleaning process

  7. Evaluation Of Sludge Heel Dissolution Efficiency With Oxalic Acid Cleaning At Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudduth, Christie; Vitali, Jason; Keefer, Mark

    2014-01-08

    The chemical cleaning process baseline strategy at the Savannah River Site was revised to improve efficiency during future execution of the process based on lessons learned during previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning activities and to account for operational constraints imposed by safety basis requirements. These improvements were also intended to transcend the difficulties that arise from waste removal in higher rheological yield stress sludge tanks. Tank 12 implemented this improved strategy and the bulk oxalic acid cleaning efforts concluded in July 2013. The Tank 12 radiological removal results were similar to previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning campaigns despite the fact that Tank 12 contained higher rheological yield stress sludge that would make removal more difficult than the sludge treated in previous cleaning campaigns. No appreciable oxalate precipitation occurred during the cleaning process in Tank 12 compared to previous campaigns, which aided in the net volume reduction of 75-80%. Overall, the controls established for Tank 12 provide a template for an improved cleaning process.

  8. Interrogating chemical variation via layer-by-layer SERS during biofouling and cleaning of nanofiltration membranes with further investigations into cleaning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li; Chen, Pengyu; Zhang, Bifeng; Zhang, Dayi; Li, Junyi; Martin, Francis L; Zhang, Kaisong

    2015-12-15

    Periodic chemical cleaning is an essential step to maintain nanofiltration (NF) membrane performance and mitigate biofouling, a major impediment in high-quality water reclamation from wastewater effluent. To target the important issue of how to clean and control biofouling more efficiently, this study developed surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a layer-by-layer tool to interrogate the chemical variations during both biofouling and cleaning processes. The fact that SERS only reveals information on the surface composition of biofouling directly exposed to cleaning reagents makes it ideal for evaluating cleaning processes and efficiency. SERS features were highly distinct and consistent with different biofouling stages (bacterial adhesion, rapid growth, mature and aged biofilm). Cleaning was performed on two levels of biofouling after 18 h (rapid growth of biofilm) and 48 h (aged biofilm) development. An opposing profile of SERS bands between biofouling and cleaning was observed and this suggests a layer-by-layer cleaning mode. In addition, further dynamic biochemical and infrastructural changes were demonstrated to occur in the more severe 48-h biofouling, resulting in the easier removal of sessile cells from the NF membrane. Biofouling substance-dependent cleaning efficiency was also evaluated using the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS appeared more efficient in cleaning lipid than polysaccharide and DNA. Protein and DNA were the predominant residual substances (irreversible fouling) on NF membrane leading to permanent flux loss. The chemical information revealed by layer-by-layer SERS will lend new insights into the optimization of cleaning reagents and protocols for practical membrane processes. PMID:26433006

  9. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  10. Needs, resources and climate change: Clean and efficient conversion technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2011-02-01

    Energy "powers" our life, and energy consumption correlates strongly with our standards of living. The developed world has become accustomed to cheap and plentiful supplies. Recently, more of the developing world populations are striving for the same, and taking steps towards securing their future energy needs. Competition over limited supplies of conventional fossil fuel resources is intensifying, and more challenging environmental problems are springing up, especially related to carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. There is strong evidence that atmospheric CO 2 concentration is well correlated with the average global temperature. Moreover, model predictions indicate that the century-old observed trend of rising temperatures could accelerate as carbon dioxide concentration continues to rise. Given the potential danger of such a scenario, it is suggested that steps be taken to curb energy-related CO 2 emissions through a number of technological solutions, which are to be implemented in a timely fashion. These solutions include a substantial improvement in energy conversion and utilization efficiencies, carbon capture and sequestration, and expanding the use of nuclear energy and renewable sources. Some of these technologies already exist, but are not deployed at sufficiently large scale. Others are under development, and some are at or near the conceptual state. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wastewater Mediated Activation of Micromotors for Efficient Water Cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sarvesh Kumar; Guix, Maria; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2016-01-13

    We present wastewater-mediated activation of catalytic micromotors for the degradation of nitroaromatic pollutants in water. These next-generation hybrid micromotors are fabricated by growing catalytically active Pd particles over thin-metal films (Ti/Fe/Cr), which are then rolled-up into self-propelled tubular microjets. Coupling of catalytically active Pd particles inside the micromotor surface in the presence of a 4-nitrophenol pollutant (with NaBH4 as reductant) results in autonomous motion via the bubble-recoil propulsion mechanism such that the target pollutant mixture (wastewater) is consumed as a fuel, thereby generating nontoxic byproducts. This study also offers several distinct advantages over its predecessors including no pH/temperature manipulation, limited stringent process control and complete destruction of the target pollutant mixture. The improved intermixing ability of the micromotors caused faster degradation ca. 10 times higher as compared to its nonmotile counterpart. The high catalytic efficiency obtained via a wet-lab approach has promising potential in creating hybrid micromotors comprising of multicatalytic systems assembled into one entity for sustainable environmental remediation and theranostics. PMID:26674098

  12. Cleaning efficiency enhancement by ultrasounds for membranes used in dairy industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Facundo, M J; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Cuartas-Uribe, B; Álvarez-Blanco, S

    2016-11-01

    Membrane cleaning is a key point for the implementation of membrane technologies in the dairy industry for proteins concentration. In this study, four ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with different molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs) (5, 15, 30 and 50kDa) and materials (polyethersulfone and ceramics) were fouled with three different whey model solutions: bovine serum albumin (BSA), BSA plus CaCl2 and whey protein concentrate solution (Renylat 45). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasounds (US) on the membrane cleaning efficiency. The influence of ultrasonic frequency and the US application modes (submerging the membrane module inside the US bath or applying US to the cleaning solution) were also evaluated. The experiments were performed in a laboratory plant which included the US equipment and the possibility of using two membrane modules (flat sheet and tubular). The fouling solution that caused the highest fouling degree for all the membranes was Renylat 45. Results demonstrated that membrane cleaning with US was effective and this effectiveness increased at lower frequencies. Although no significant differences were observed between the two different US applications modes tested, slightly higher cleaning efficiencies values placing the membrane module at the bottom of the tank were achieved. PMID:27245952

  13. Second Annual Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation: Energy Efficiency Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2011-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Second Annual Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation, the Energy Efficiency Workshop was held on 20–21 June 2011 at the Asian Development Bank. The workshop—whose proceedings are documented in this publication prepared under the Law and Policy Reform Program of the Office of the General Counsel—focused on addressing the slow uptake of energy efficiency solutions by identifying the political, governance, and financial constraints in i...

  14. Investigation of efficiency of air cleaning from acetone using a segmental construction biofilter

    OpenAIRE

    Denas Bacevičius; Alvydas Zagorskis

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds, e. g. acetone, have a direct impact on climate change, decrease of ozone in the air, and on the growth of greenhouse effect. One of the most popular air purifying methods from VOC is a biological air cleaning. Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the efficiency of the new structure of biofilter with polypropylene plates segments. During the investigations the efficiency of segmental construction biofilter of air purification at different initial ...

  15. An assessment of alternatives for replacing Freon 113 in bench type electrical circuit board cleaning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isakson, K.; Vessell, A.L.

    1994-07-01

    Fermilab is presently phasing out all solvents containing Freon-113 (CFC-113) as part of the continuing Waste Minimization Program. These solvents are used primarily in cleaning the flux off of electronic circuit boards after soldering, specifically in bench type work. Title VI of the Clean Air Act mandates a production phase-out for ozone depleting substances, like CFC-113, by the year 2000. Our study addresses this issue by evaluating and choosing alternative non-CFC solvents to replace the CFC-1 13 solvents at Fermilab. Several potential non-CFC cleaning solvents were tested. The evaluation took place in three parts: controlled experimental evaluation, chemical composition evaluation, and employee performed evaluation. First, we performed a controlled nine-step procedure with the potential solvents where each was evaluated in categories such as cleaning effectiveness, odor, residue, type of output and drying time. Next, we listed the chemical composition of each solvent. We noted which solvents contained hydrochlorofluorocarbons because they are targeted for phase-out in the future and will be recognized as interim solutions only. Finally, after preliminary testing, five solvents were chosen as the best options. These solvents were sent to be tested by Fermilab employees who use such materials. Their opinions are valuable not only because they are knowledgeable in this field, but also because they will be using the solvents chosen to replace the CFC-113 solvents. The results favored two ``best alternatives``: Safezone Solvent Flux Remover by Miller-Stephenson and E-Series CFC Free Flux-Off 2000 by Chemtech. Another possible solution also pursued is the no-clean solder option. In our study, we were not able to thoroughly investigate the many types of no-clean solders because of time and financial constraints. The testing that was done, however, showed that no-clean solder was a viable alternative in many cases.

  16. An assessment of alternatives for replacing Freon 113 in bench type electrical circuit board cleaning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermilab is presently phasing out all solvents containing Freon-113 (CFC-113) as part of the continuing Waste Minimization Program. These solvents are used primarily in cleaning the flux off of electronic circuit boards after soldering, specifically in bench type work. Title VI of the Clean Air Act mandates a production phase-out for ozone depleting substances, like CFC-113, by the year 2000. Our study addresses this issue by evaluating and choosing alternative non-CFC solvents to replace the CFC-1 13 solvents at Fermilab. Several potential non-CFC cleaning solvents were tested. The evaluation took place in three parts: controlled experimental evaluation, chemical composition evaluation, and employee performed evaluation. First, we performed a controlled nine-step procedure with the potential solvents where each was evaluated in categories such as cleaning effectiveness, odor, residue, type of output and drying time. Next, we listed the chemical composition of each solvent. We noted which solvents contained hydrochlorofluorocarbons because they are targeted for phase-out in the future and will be recognized as interim solutions only. Finally, after preliminary testing, five solvents were chosen as the best options. These solvents were sent to be tested by Fermilab employees who use such materials. Their opinions are valuable not only because they are knowledgeable in this field, but also because they will be using the solvents chosen to replace the CFC-113 solvents. The results favored two ''best alternatives'': Safezone Solvent Flux Remover by Miller-Stephenson and E-Series CFC Free Flux-Off 2000 by Chemtech. Another possible solution also pursued is the no-clean solder option. In our study, we were not able to thoroughly investigate the many types of no-clean solders because of time and financial constraints. The testing that was done, however, showed that no-clean solder was a viable alternative in many cases

  17. Triboelectrostatic Separation-an Efficient Method of Producing Low Ash Clean Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章新喜; 边炳鑫; 段超红; 熊建军

    2002-01-01

    At present, coal is mainly consumed as fuel. In fact, coal is also a kind of precious raw material in chemical industry on the premise that some harmful minerals should be removed from coal. The paper presents the results of the research on producing low ash (<2%) coal with triboelectrostatic separator used for producing high-grade active carbon. The test is conducted in bench-scale system, whose capacity is 30~100 kg/h. The results indicate that: 1) the ash content of clean coal increases with the increase of solid content of feedstock, on the contrary, the yield of clean coal is declining; 2) a high velocity may result in a good separation efficiency; 3) for the same solid content, the reunion caused by intermolecular force makes the separation efficiency drop down when the ultra-fine coal is separated; 4) the separation efficiency is improved with the increase of electric field intensity, but there is a good optimized match between the electric field intensity and yield of clean coal; 5) a low rank coal is easy-to-wash in triboelectrostatic separation process; 6) the yield of clean coal can be enhanced and the ash decreased through adapting optimized conditions according to various coals.

  18. Influence of wet chemical cleaning on quantum efficiency of GaN photocathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiao-Hui; Gao Pin; Wang Hong-Gang; Li Biao; Chang Ben-Kang

    2013-01-01

    GaN samples 1-3 are cleaned by a 2:2:1 solution of sulfuric acid (98%) to hydrogen peroxide (30%) to de-ionized water; hydrochloric acid (37%); or a 4:1 solution of sulfuric acid (98%) to hydrogen peroxide (30%).The samples are activated by Cs/O after the same annealing process.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after the different ways of wet chemical cleaning shows:sample 1 has the largest proportion of Ga,N,and O among the three samples,while its C content is the lowest.After activation the quantum efficiency curves show sample 1 has the best photocathode performance.We think the wet chemical cleaning method is a process which will mainly remove C contamination.

  19. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla

    for industrial production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesiswas to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed...... their energy efficiencies were evaluated by use of the process model. For each technology the scale-up enzyme production was simulated at industrial scale based on equal mass transfer. The technical feasibility of each technology was assessed based on prior knowledge of successful implementation at...... industrial scale and mechanical complexity of the fermentation vessel. The airlift reactor was identified as a potential high energy efficiency technology for enzyme production with excellent chances for success. Two different pilot plant configurations of the airlift reactor technology were tested in nine...

  20. Comparing the efficiency of Denture brush and Ordinary brush in complete Denture cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Fayaz; Mohaddeseh Shakerian; Ghassem Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Please cite this article as: Fayaz A, Shakerian M, Ansari GH. Comparing the Efficiency of Denture brush and Ordinary brush in complete Denture cleaning. Novel Biomed 2013;1(2):62-65.Background & objective: Denture cleansing is a key element in retaining mucosa free of any inflammation. However, many denture users usually ignore this important factor. This investigation was designed to compare the efficacy of a denture brush and an ordinary brush in cleansing process of complete dentures.M...

  1. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Carvalho Freitas Sigilião

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding.Methods:A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L, 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H, 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L, DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU, Renew System (GR and Diagloss polisher (GD. Mean roughness (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Results:In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05 was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01.Conclusion:All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness.

  2. Investigation of efficiency of air cleaning from acetone using a segmental construction biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denas Bacevičius

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds, e. g. acetone, have a direct impact on climate change, decrease of ozone in the air, and on the growth of greenhouse effect. One of the most popular air purifying methods from VOC is a biological air cleaning. Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the efficiency of the new structure of biofilter with polypropylene plates segments. During the investigations the efficiency of segmental construction biofilter of air purification at different initial concentrations of pollutants was determined. Different concentrations of pollutants were estimated during the acetone dilution with water. During the tests the efficiency of biofilter air purification from acetone vapor and its change under different concentrations of vapors was set. Based on test results, the maximum efficiency of biofilter air purification was up to 93%. Studies have shown that increasing the allowable pollutant concentration, the efficiency of air purification unit decreases. Increasing the concentration of supplied acetone vapor into the biofilter from 232 to 701 mg/m3, cleaning efficiency decreased from 92.8 to 82.3%. Since microorganisms fail to oxidize organic compounds, the filter works better at lower initial concentrations of pollutants.

  3. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  4. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  5. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various

  6. The Search for Nonflammable Solvent Alternatives for Cleaning Aerospace Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark; Lowrey, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen systems are susceptible to fires caused by particle and nonvolatile residue (NVR) contaminants, therefore cleaning and verification is essential for system safety. . Cleaning solvents used on oxygen system components must be either nonflammable in pure oxygen or complete removal must be assured for system safety. . CFC -113 was the solvent of choice before 1996 because it was effective, least toxic, compatible with most materials of construction, and non ]reactive with oxygen. When CFC -113 was phased out in 1996, HCFC -225 was selected as an interim replacement for cleaning propulsion oxygen systems at NASA. HCFC-225 production phase-out date is 01/01/2015. HCFC ]225 (AK ]225G) is used extensively at Marshall Space Flight Center and Stennis Space Center for cleaning and NVR verification on large propulsion oxygen systems, and propulsion test stands and ground support equipment. . Many components are too large for ultrasonic agitation - necessary for effective aqueous cleaning and NVR sampling. . Test stand equipment must be cleaned prior to installation of test hardware. Many items must be cleaned by wipe or flush in situ where complete removal of a flammable solvent cannot be assured. The search for a replacement solvent for these applications is ongoing.

  7. Feasibility for the medium efficiency filter as a postfilter in the air cleaning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Air Cleaning Unit (ACU) is provided in a nuclear facility to filter the radioactive materials in gaseous effluents released from the facility during normal operation and during a postulated accident. The Air Cleaning Unit (ACU) consists of pre-HEPA filters, charcoal adsorber, post HEPA filters, fans, etc. The charcoal filters keep on-site dose and off-site effluents ALARA, consistent with regulatory requirements. The function of HEPA filter downstream of charcoal(carbon) adsorber in ACU is to catch potential radioactive carbon dust and to be a backup in the event of failure of upstream HEPA. Previous Regulatory Guide use only post HEPA filter of charcoal adsorber downstream but the Regulatory Guide of current revisions allows use of 95% dust spot efficiency filters in lieu of HEPA at the downstream of the carbon adsorber. In this paper is described that the background information of filters, Current Regulatory Guide of revised by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the feasibility for the medium efficiency filter as a carbon adsorber post filter in the Air Cleaning Unit

  8. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success. PMID:26667058

  9. Effect of variable mechanical resistance on electrodynamic alternator efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Quantitative analysis on how the main parameters affect ηEA has been performed. • The significant role of frictional losses on ηEA was demonstrated. • The simulation confirms the analytical model and clarifies the gap impact on Zc. • A new evaluation method of Rm, based on direct measurement of Zc has been proposed. • The new method allows finding the system natural frequency before field operation. - Abstract: The rapidly growing energy market constantly discovers new alternatives for generating environmentally-friendly electricity from sustainable energy sources. An externally-heated traveling wave thermo acoustic Stirling heat engine is a leading candidate, operating using a variety of viable heat sources. Although this engine holds great promise for a low-cost and maintenance-free solution, its current reported efficiency still inhibits its market penetration, probably owing to the friction introduced by the single moving element – the linear alternator. This research quantifies the main parameters affecting the complex thermal–acoustical–electrical system, clarifying the critical role of frictional losses. An analytical model has been developed, enabling examination of the influence of the critical physical parameters on the electro-acoustic conversion efficiency. A measurement method for precise determination of the mechanical friction constant has been developed, which enables measuring the friction at the engine’s working frequency. A direct measurement of an engine’s transfer impedance at room temperature enables to find the exact natural frequency before field operation, and calibrate external hardware accordingly. A detailed simulation using DeltaEC™ indicates that the tight seal gap between the moving piston and its cylinder has a significant impact on the system’s overall efficiency

  10. Alternative irradiation system for efficiency manganese bath determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Manganese Sulphate Bath (MSB) is the main method used in most metrological laboratories to measure the neutron sources emission rate Q(t) . The MSB technique consists, basically, in dipping a neutron source in the center of a large tank (∼500 L) containing a concentrated aqueous solution of manganese sulphate. The neutron source emission rate is determined through the activity solution measurement produced by captured neutrons in manganese nuclei. In order to obtain the value of Q(t) it must be taken into account the detection system efficiency and still determine some corrections. The MSB system efficiency is usually determined by irradiating a solution sample from MSB system in a reactor or accelerator. This paper proposes an alternative irradiation system (Irradiation Bath), which works with a radionuclide neutron source and manganese sulphate solution volume for efficiency determination of MSB system. This irradiation system was designed by simulation with MCNP code, considering a californium neutron source in several manganese sulphate volumes and different neutron reflectors. The goal of this simulation was to determine the materials and dimensions of Irradiation Bath which will derive the maximum manganese neutron capture. Although the specific activated irradiated samples are less than those in reactors, the simulation results for optimized Irradiation Bath have showed a manganese neutron capture increase up to 100 times with dimensions less than 15 cm in diameter when it compared to manganese neutron capture in a MSB System whose diameter is about 100 cm . (author)

  11. An Experimental Study of the Quantum Efficiency and Topology of Copper Photocathode Due to Plasma Cleaning and Etching

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Denni T; Kirby, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We have developed an experimental research program to the study of the photoemission properties of copper photocathodes as a function of various plasma cleaning/etching parameters. The quantum efficiency, QE, and topology, Ra and Rpp, of Copper Photocathodes, , will be monitored while undergoing plasma cleaning/etching process. We will monitor the QE as a function of time for the various test coupons while we optimize the various plasma processing parameters. In addition, surface topology, will be studied to determine the suitability of the cleaning/etching process to produce an acceptable photoemitter. We propose to use two metrics in the evaluation of the plasma cleaning process as an acceptable cleaning method for metallic photocathodes, Quantum Efficiency versus Wavelength and Surface roughness: Ra and Rpp represent the Average Roughness and Peak to Peak Roughness parameters, respectively.

  12. 1991-92 Canadian directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1991-1992 Canadian Directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies. The three main sections cover Alternative Energy Companies, Energy Efficiency Companies and Energy Service Companies. Contact and company information is provided

  13. Radioisotope tracer technology for a hydraulic efficiency diagnosis of sludge digester after cleaning up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Kim Jong Bum; Choi, Byung Jong

    2004-03-01

    Radiotracer experiments were carried out on a cylindrical 2-stage anaerobic sludge digester in order to investigate the improvement of its efficiency by means of RTD (Residence Time Distribution) measurements before and after cleaning up the inside of the digester. The tracer was Sc-46 in an EDTA solution which forms such a stable complex compound to keep the isotope from being absorbed onto the surface of the pipelines or the wall. It was injected into the digester by pressurized nitrogen gas and its movement was monitored by NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors installed around the digester and recorded for a month by a 24-channel data acquisition system specially developed for radiotracer experiments by the Korea Tracer Group of KAERI. The experimental data was analyzed for the MRT (Mean Residence Time) and other parameters characterizing the flow behavior. After the cleaning of the digesters the variance has been decreased and the sludge dynamics was activated as a result of the increase of the effective volume from 20% to 80% after cleaning up in the secondary digester. Particularly the MRT of the secondary digester which has no mixing mechanism has been increased by 3 times.

  14. Self Cleaning High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filtration without Interrupting Process Flow - 59347

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy of protecting the traditional glass fibre HEPA filtration train from it's blinding contamination and the recovery of dust by the means of self cleaning, pre-filtration is a proven means in the reduction of ultimate disposal volumes and has been used within the Fuel Production Industry. However, there is an increasing demand in nuclear applications requiring elevated operating temperatures, fire resistance, moisture resistance and chemical composition that the existing glass fibre HEPA filtration cannot accommodate, which can be remedied by the use of a metallic HEPA filter media. Previous research suggests that the then costs to the Department of Energy (DOE), based on a five year life cycle, was $29.5 million for the installation, testing, removal and disposal of glass fibre HEPA filtration trains. Within these costs, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4, 450 was given to the peripheral activity. Development of a low cost, cleanable, metallic, direct replacement of the traditional filter train will the clear solution. The Bergman et al work has suggested that a 1000 ft3/min, cleanable, stainless HEPA could be commercially available for $5, 000 each, whereas the industry has determined that the truer cost of such an item in isolation would be closer to $15, 000. This results in a conflict within the requirement between 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA'. By proposing a system that combines metallic HEPA filtration with the ability to self clean without interrupting the process flow, the need for a tradition HEPA filtration train will be eliminated and this dramatically reduces the resources required for cleaning or disposal, thus presenting a route to reducing ultimate costs. The paper will examine the performance characteristics, filtration efficiency, flow verses differential pressure and cleanability of a self cleaning HEPA grade sintered metal filter element, together with data to prove the contention. (authors)

  15. CALCIUM CARBIDE: AN EFFICIENT ALTERNATIVE TO THE USE OF ALUMINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Carlos Pinheiro Cardoso Filho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The steel demand for fine applications have increased considerably in the last years, and the criteria for its production are even stricter, mainly in relation to the residual elements content and cleanness required. In relation to the steel cleanness, the main problem faced is the control of the amount and morphology of alumina inclusions, generated in the steel deoxidation with aluminum. Besides harming the products quality, the presence of non metallic inclusions can originate nozzle clogging, and consequently interruptions in the process flux. Aiming to improve the steel cleanness and to minimize nozzle clogging, this study is developed to evaluate the partial substitution of aluminum by calcium carbide in the steel deoxidation. Along the operational procedures, the calcium carbide was applied to 397 heats, through what the improvement in steel cleanness is confirmed, with consequent reduction in the nozzle clogging occurrence.

  16. CALCIUM CARBIDE: AN EFFICIENT ALTERNATIVE TO THE USE OF ALUMINUM

    OpenAIRE

    Amilton Carlos Pinheiro Cardoso Filho; Carlos Alberto Souza; João Domingos Guimarães de Athayde Júnior; Prudêncio Aparecido de Freitas; Sergio Henrique Rocha; Gilson Alves Menezes; Helio Gabriel de Souza

    2013-01-01

    The steel demand for fine applications have increased considerably in the last years, and the criteria for its production are even stricter, mainly in relation to the residual elements content and cleanness required. In relation to the steel cleanness, the main problem faced is the control of the amount and morphology of alumina inclusions, generated in the steel deoxidation with aluminum. Besides harming the products quality, the presence of non metallic inclusions can originate ...

  17. Introducing Energy-efficient Clean Technologies in the Brick Sector of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This study's objectives are: (i) to present the pros and cons of existing and alternative brick technologies in Bangladesh with specific focus on pollution and energy efficiency; (ii) to estimate the private and social benefits of these technologies (iii) to summarize China's experience in the development of the brick industry, as the world leader brick producer and (iv) to provide concret...

  18. Methodology and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative environmental restoration clean-up goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methodologies and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative strategies for conducting remediation of all DOE sites and facilities, but does not address issues relating to Waste Management capabilities. Clean-up strategies and their corresponding goals for contaminated media may be driven by concentration-based regulatory standards, land-use standards (e.g., residential, industrial, wild life reserve, or totally restricted), risk-based standards, or other standards determined through stakeholder input. Strategies implemented to achieve these goals usually require the deployment of (a) clean-up technologies to destroy, remove, or contain the contaminants of concern; (b) institutional controls to prevent potential receptors from coming into contact with the contaminants; or (c) a combination of the above

  19. Study of an alternative system for manganese bath efficiency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative irradiation system, using radioisotope neutron sources and a small MnSO4 solution volume, was proposed m this work to determine the Manganese Bath System (MBS) efficiency. The irradiation system was characterized through simulations with the MCNP radiation transport code from the modeling of 252Cf(f,n) and 238PuBe(alpha,n) neutron sources in several MnSO4 solution volumes and different neutron reflector medium for this solution. The parameter calculated in the simulations was the manganese neutron specific capture (MNSC), which is related to the MnSO4 solution specific activity. From the proposed systems for 252Cf (f, n) and 238PuBe (alpha,n) the NSCM was increased hundred times, in relation with that achieved in the LN/LNMRI/IRD MBS system simulation when irradiated by each these neutron sources. During study for irradiation system characterization its concept was verified using a assemble of test irradiation (ATI), which were spherical glass cavities, with few centimeter in radius, filled with MnSO4 solution, with and without presence of a neutron reflector medium. These TIA were used in four efficiency measurements and the average value was obtained. (author)

  20. Alternative Focal Spot Geometry for More Efficient HIFU Treatment Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Elena; Chen, Jing; Medan, Yoav; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2010-03-01

    In this work a more time efficient approach for tissue assessment with MR-ARFI is proposed. During HIFU treatments gadolinium-free assessment of treated tissue is highly desirable. MR-ARFI allows measuring tissue displacement in the focal spot. Therefore raster-scanning the ultrasound focal spot through the tissue of interest can give information about tissue stiffness in the "probed" area. To enhance efficiency of such ultrasound "probing," we replaced a conventional point focus with a line focus that allows greater area coverage during MR-ARFI acquisitions. This approach was tested in a phantom and in ex vivo bovine muscle. The results of the study showed that the line focus produces a fairly uniform line shape focal spot in both temperature and displacement maps. Using one line focus position, the displacement maps obtained in the muscle tissue well depicted the difference in displacement in the area where lesion was created. This shows great potential for line focus geometry combined with MR-ARFI as an alternative treatment assessment technique.

  1. Evaluation of the combined betatron and momentum cleaning in point 3 in terms of cleaning efficiency and energy deposition for the LHC Collimation upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Rossi, A; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; Wollmann, D; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A

    2011-01-01

    The Phase I LHC Collimation System Upgrade could include moving part of the Betatron Cleaning from LHC Point 7 to Point 3 to improve both operation flexibility and intensity reach. In addition, the partial relocation of beam losses from the current Betatron cleaning region at Point 7 will mitigate the risks of Single Event Upsets to equipment installed in adjacent and partly not sufficient shielded areas. The combined Betatron and Momentum Cleaning at Point 3 implies that new collimators have to be added as well as to implement a new collimator aperture layout. This paper shows the whole LHC Collimator Efficiency variation with the new layout at different beam energies. As part of the evaluation, energy deposition distribution in the IR3 region give indications about the effect of this new implementations not only on the collimators themselves but also on the other beam line elements as well as in the IR3 surrounding areas.

  2. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative Existing Building Energy Efficiency Analysis: November 17, 2009 - June 30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, P.; Potes, A.

    2010-06-01

    In June 2009, the State of Hawaii enacted an Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (EEPS) with a target of 4,300 gigawatt hours (GWh) by 2030 (Hawaii 2009). Upon setting this goal, the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, Booz Allen Hamilton (BAH), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working with select local stakeholders, partnered to execute the first key step toward attaining the EEPS goal: the creation of a high-resolution roadmap outlining key areas of potential electricity savings. This roadmap was divided into two core elements: savings from new construction and savings from existing buildings. BAH focused primarily on the existing building analysis, while NREL focused on new construction forecasting. This report presents the results of the Booz Allen Hamilton study on the existing building stock of Hawaii, along with conclusions on the key drivers of potential energy efficiency savings and on the steps necessary to attain them.

  3. Efficiency analysis of alternative refrigerants for ejector cooling cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Advantages of using alternative refrigerants as ejector refrigerants were presumed. • Computer software basing on theoretical model of Huang et al. (1999) was prepared. • Optimal temperature range of primary vapor for each working fluid was calculated. - Abstract: Computer software, basing on the theoretical model of Huang et al. with thermodynamic properties of selected refrigerants, was prepared. Investigation was focused on alternative refrigerants that belong to two groups of substances: common solvents (acetone, benzene, cyclopentane, cyclohexane and toluene) and non-flammable synthetic refrigerants applied in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) (R236ea, R236fa, R245ca, R245fa, R365mfc and RC318). Refrigerants were selected to detect a possibility to use them in ejector cooling system powered by a high-temperature heat source. A series of calculations were carried out for the generator temperature between 70 and 200 °C, with assumed temperatures of evaporation 10 °C and condensation 40 °C. Investigation revealed that there is no single refrigerant that ensures efficient operation of the system in the investigated temperature range of primary vapor. Each substance has its own maximum entrainment ratio and COP at its individual temperature of the optimum. The use of non-flammable synthetic refrigerants allows obtaining higher COP in the low primary vapor temperature range. R236fa was the most beneficial among the non-flammable synthetic refrigerants tested. The use of organic solvents can be justified only for high values of motive steam temperature. Among the solvents, the highest values of entrainment ratio and COP throughout the range of motive temperature were noted for cyclopentane. Toluene was found to be an unattractive refrigerant from the ejector cooling point of view

  4. Efficiency enhancement in IGCC power plants with air-blown gasification and hot gas clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-blown IGCC systems with hot fuel gas clean-up are investigated. In detail, the gas clean-up station consists of two reactors: in the first, the raw syngas exiting the gasifier and passed through high-temperature syngas coolers is desulfurized by means of a zinc oxide-based sorbent, whereas in the second the sulfided sorbent is duly regenerated. The hot fuel gas clean-up station releases H2S-free syngas, which is ready to fuel the combustion turbine after hot gas filtration, and a SO2-laden stream, which is successively treated in a wet scrubber. A thermodynamic analysis of two air-blown IGCC systems, the first with cold fuel gas clean-up and the second with hot fuel gas clean-up, both with a state-of-the-art combustion turbine as topping cycle, shows that it is possible to obtain a really attractive net efficiency (more than 51%) for the second system, with significant improvements in comparison with the first system. Nevertheless, higher efficiency is accomplished with a small reduction in the power output and no sensible efficiency improvements seem to be appreciated when the desulfurization temperature increases. Other IGCC systems, with an advanced 1500 °C-class combustion turbine as the result of technology improvements, are investigated as well, with efficiency as high as 53%. - Highlights: ► Hot fuel gas clean-up is a highly favorable technology for IGCC concepts. ► Significant IGCC efficiency improvements are possible with hot fuel gas clean-up. ► Size reductions of several IGCC components are possible. ► Higher desulfurization temperatures do not sensibly affect IGCC efficiency. ► IGCC efficiency as high as 53% is possible with a 1500°C-class combustion turbine

  5. Experimental researches and comparison on aerodynamic parameters and cleaning efficiency of multi-level multi-channel cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Chlebnikovas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level multi-channel cyclone – the lately designed air cleaning device that can remove ultra-fine 20 μm particulatematter (PM from dusted air and reach over 95% of the overall cleaning efficiency. Multi-channel cyclone technology is based on centrifugal forces and has the resulting additional filtering process operation. Multi-level structure of cyclone allows to achieve higher air flow cleaning capacity at the same dimensions of the device, thus saving installation space required for the job, production and operating costs. Studies have examined the air flow parameters change in one–, two– and three–levels multichannel cyclone. These constructions differ according to the productivity of cleaned air under the constant peripheral and transitional (50/50 case air flow relations. Accordance with the results of air flow dynamics – velocity distribution of multi-channel cyclone, aerodynamic resistance and efficiency can be judged on the flow turbulence, the flow channel cross-section and select the most appropriate application. Cleaning efficiency studies were carried out using fine granite and wood ashes PM. The maximum cleaning efficiency was 93.3%, at an average of 4.5 g/m3, the aerodynamic resistance was equal to 1525 Pa.

  6. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center; Vol. 5, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-04-18

    A quarterly magazine with articles on recent changes to the Clean Cities Program; the SuperTruck student engineering challenge; alternative fuel use in delivery fleets; and a propane vehicle rally and conference in February 2001, in Kansas City, Mo.

  7. An alternative clean-up column for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in solid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunda, Elizabeth N; Madadi, Vincent O; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The need for continuous monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has necessitated the development of analytical techniques that are sensitive and selective with minimal reagent requirement. In light of this, we developed a column for clean-up of soil and sediment extracts, which is less demanding in terms of the amount of solvent and sorbent. The dual-layer column consists of acidified silica gel and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). MIPs were synthesized via aqueous suspension polymerization using PCB 15 as the dummy template, 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and the obtained particles characterized via SEM, BET, and batch rebinding assays. Pre-concentration of the spiked real-world water sample using MISPE gave recoveries between 85.2 and 104.4% (RSD < 8.69). On the other hand, the specific dual-layer column designed for clean-up of extracts from complex matrices provided recoveries of 91.6-102.5% (RSD < 4%) for spiked soil, which was comparable to clean-up using acidified silica (70.4-90.5%; RSD < 3.72%) and sulfoxide modified silica (89.7-103.0%; RSD < 13.0%). However, the polymers were reusable maintaining recoveries of 79.8-111.8% after 30 cycles of regeneration and re-use, thereby availing a cost-effective clean-up procedure for continuous monitoring of PCBs. Method detection limits were 0.01-0.08 ng g(-1) and 0.002-0.01 ng mL(-1) for solid matrices and water, respectively. PMID:26560633

  8. Establishing reliable good initial quantum efficiency and in-situ laser cleaning for the copper cathodes in the RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishing good initial quantum efficiency (QE) and reliable in-situ cleaning for copper cathode in the RF gun is of critical importance for the RF gun operations. Recent studies on the SLAC RF gun test bed indicated that the pre-cleaning (plasma cleaning) in the test chamber followed by copper cathode exposure to air for cathode change leads to a very low initial QE in the RF gun, and also demonstrated that without the pre-cleaning good initial QE >4×10−5 can be routinely achieved in the RF gun with the cathodes of QE <1×10−7 measured in the test chamber. QE can decay over the time in the RF gun. The in-situ laser cleaning technique for copper cathodes in the RF gun is established and refined in comparison to previous cleaning at the linac coherent light source, resulting in an improved QE and emittance evolutions. The physics of the laser cleaning process is discussed. It is believed that the reflectivity change is one of the major factors for the QE boost with the laser cleaning

  9. Establishing reliable good initial quantum efficiency and in-situ laser cleaning for the copper cathodes in the RF gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, F., E-mail: zhoufeng@slac.stanford.edu; Sheppard, J.C.; Vecchione, T.; Jongewaard, E.; Brachmann, A.; Corbett, J.; Gilevich, S.; Weathersby, S.

    2015-05-21

    Establishing good initial quantum efficiency (QE) and reliable in-situ cleaning for copper cathode in the RF gun is of critical importance for the RF gun operations. Recent studies on the SLAC RF gun test bed indicated that the pre-cleaning (plasma cleaning) in the test chamber followed by copper cathode exposure to air for cathode change leads to a very low initial QE in the RF gun, and also demonstrated that without the pre-cleaning good initial QE >4×10{sup −5} can be routinely achieved in the RF gun with the cathodes of QE <1×10{sup −7} measured in the test chamber. QE can decay over the time in the RF gun. The in-situ laser cleaning technique for copper cathodes in the RF gun is established and refined in comparison to previous cleaning at the linac coherent light source, resulting in an improved QE and emittance evolutions. The physics of the laser cleaning process is discussed. It is believed that the reflectivity change is one of the major factors for the QE boost with the laser cleaning.

  10. Alternative approach for Article 5. Energie Efficiency Directive; Alternatieve aanpak artikel 5. Energy Efficiency Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Jablonska, B. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Article 5 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is an annual obligation to renovate 3% of the building stock of central government. After renovation the buildings will meet the minimum energy performance requirements laid down in Article 4 of the EPBD. The Directive gives room to an alternative approach to achieve the same savings. The Ministry of Interior Affairs has asked ECN to assist with this alternative approach. ECN calculated what saving are achieved with the 3% renovation obligation under the directive. Then ECN looked for the possibilities for an alternative approach to achieve the same savings [Dutch] In artikel 5 van de Energie Efficiency Directive (EED) staat een verplichting om jaarlijks 3% van de gebouwvoorraad van de centrale overheid te renoveren. Die 3% van de gebouwvoorraad moet na renovatie voldoen aan de minimum eisen inzake energieprestatie die door het betreffende lidstaat zijn vastgelegd op grond van artikel 4 in de EPBD. De verplichting betreft gebouwen die in bezit en in gebruik zijn van de rijksoverheid met een gebruiksoppervlakte groter dan 500 m{sup 2}, vanaf juli 2015 groter dan 250 m{sup 2}. De gebouwen die eigendom zijn van de Rijksgebouwendienst betreft kantoren van rijksdiensten, gerechtsgebouwen, gebouwen van douane en politie en gevangenissen. Van de gebouwen van Defensie hoeven alleen kantoren en legeringsgebouwen aan de verplichting te voldoen.

  11. Experimental researches and comparison on aerodynamic parameters and cleaning efficiency of multi-level multi-channel cyclone

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandras Chlebnikovas; Pranas Baltrėnas

    2015-01-01

    Multi-level multi-channel cyclone – the lately designed air cleaning device that can remove ultra-fine 20 μm particulatematter (PM) from dusted air and reach over 95% of the overall cleaning efficiency. Multi-channel cyclone technology is based on centrifugal forces and has the resulting additional filtering process operation. Multi-level structure of cyclone allows to achieve higher air flow cleaning capacity at the same dimensions of the device, thus saving installation space required for t...

  12. Energy efficient biological air cleaning for farm stable ventilation; Energieffektiv biologisk luftrensning til staldventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenborg Nicolaisen, C.; Hansen, Mads P.R. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark); Stroem, J.; Soerensen, Keld [DXT. Danish Exergy Technology A/S, Skoerping (Denmark); Goetke, C. [Lokalenergi Aarhus, Viby J. (Denmark); Morsing, S.; Soerensen, Lars C. [SKOV A/S, Roslev (Denmark); Ladegaerd Jensen, T.; Pedersen, Poul [Videncenter for svineproduktion, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    The project has been designed to reduce energy consumption for air purification by 30% while having a payback period of maximum 3 years. The project has achieved very significant results which are far above the target. Particularly satisfying is the wide range of new components that are launched in late 2012. By implementing the newly developed system at 100% cleaning (LPC 13 ventilators and Dynamic multistep control) in relation to Best Practice (SKOV's original system with DA600 fans) in a concrete pigsty, a saving of 61% and a simple payback of 1.7 years is achieved. Similarly, it is found that the energy used for pump operation can be reduced by 37% with the new Dynamic sprinkling control. At 20% cleaning a potential saving of 15% per year and a payback period of between 0 and 5 years was found, which is dependent on the desired performance as the capacities in the bio-filter's upper capacity range between 26 thousand to 30 thousand m3 / h entails costs for an additional extraction unit in the new solution. Furthermore, the newly developed components proved highly suitable for standard installations without air cleaning where a savings potential is 53% and the payback period 1.5 years. Product-wise, the project formed the basis for the development of: 1. New energy-efficient ventilation units (LPC11, 12,13) that are suitable for air purification; 2. A new energy-saving control principle (Dynamic Multi-Step) which is particularly suitable for low-energy ventilators; 3. A new energy-saving flow measurement system for ventilating ducts (Dynamic air to the central exhaust); 4. An energy-saving pressure control in common ducts (pressure control as a function of outside temperature); 5. Proposal for a new energy-saving pump operation for sprinkling of biological filters (Dynamic sprinkling). (LN)

  13. Highly Efficient Synthesis of Clean Biofuels from Biomass Using FeCuZnAIK Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-bai Qiu; Yong Xu; Tong-qi Ye; Fei-yan Gong; Zhi Yang; Mitsuo Yamamoto; Yong Liu; Quan-xin Li

    2011-01-01

    Highly efficient synthesis of clean biofuels using the bio-syngas obtained from biomass gasification was performed over Fe1.5Cu1Zn1Al1K0.117 catalyst.The maximum biofuel yield from the bio-syngas reaches about 1.59 kg biofuels/(kgcatal·h) with a contribution of 0.57 kg alcohols/(kgcatal·h) and 1.02 kg liquid hydrocarbons/(kgcatal·h).The alcohol products in the resulting biofuels were dominated by the C2+ alcohols (mainly C2-C6 alcohols) with a content of 73.55%-89.98%.The selectivity of the liquid hydrocarbons (C5+) in the hydrocarbon products ranges from 60.37% to 70.94%.The synthesis biofuels also possess a higher heat value of 40.53-41.49 MJ/kg.The effects of the synthesis conditions,including temperature,pressure,and gas hourly space velocity,on the biofuel synthesis were investigated in detail.The catalyst features were characterized by inductively coupled plasma and atomic emission spectroscopy,X-ray diffraction,temperature programmed reduction,and the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms measurements.The present biofuel synthesis with a higher biofuel yield and a higher selectivity of liquid hydrocarbons and C2+ alcohols may be a potentially useful route to produce clean biofuels and chemicals from biomass.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Mmmm... - Alternative Capture Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... portion of the coating and the efficiency of the capture system. The organic carbon content of the control... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alternative Capture Efficiency and... and Products Pt. 63, Subpt. MMMM, App. A Appendix A to Subpart MMMM of Part 63—Alternative...

  15. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaek, M.O.

    2012-03-15

    Enzymes are used in an increasing number of industries. The application of enzymes is extending into the production of lignocellulosic ethanol in processes that economically can compete with fossil fuels. Since lignocellulosic ethanol is based on renewable resources it will have a positive impact on for example the emission of green house gasses. Cellulases and hemi-cellulases are used for enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass, and fermentable sugars are released upon the enzymatic process. Even though many years of research has decreased the amount of enzyme needed in the process, the cost of enzymes is still considered a bottleneck in the economic feasibility of lignocellulose utilization. The purpose of this project was to investigate and compare different technologies for production of these enzymes. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is currently used for industrial production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesis was to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed-batch fermentation. The process was carried out in pilot scale stirred tank reactors and based on a range of different process conditions, a process model was constructed which satisfactory described the course of fermentation. The process was governed by the rate limiting mass transfer of oxygen from the gas to the liquid phase. During fermentation, filamentous growth of the fungus lead to increased viscosity which hindered mass transfer. These mechanisms were described by a viscosity model based on the biomass concentration of the fermentation broth and a mass transfer correlation that incorporated a viscosity term. An analysis of the uncertainty and sensitivity of the model indicated the biological parameters to be responsible for most of the model uncertainty. A number of alternative

  16. EM-31 ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROGRAM FOR SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL - 11220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hay, M.; Wiersma, B.; Pennebaker, F.

    2010-12-10

    Mixtures of oxalic acid with nitric acid have been shown to be superior to oxalic acid alone for the dissolution of iron-rich High Level Waste sludge heels. Optimized conditions resulting in minimal oxalate usage and stoichiometric iron dissolution (based on added oxalate ion) have been determined for hematite (a primary sludge iron phase) in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures. The acid mixtures performed better than expected based on the solubility of hematite in the individual acids through a synergistic effect in which the preferred 1:1 Fe:oxalate complex is formed. This allows for the minimization of oxalate additions to the waste stream. Carbon steel corrosion rates were measured in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures to evaluate the impacts of chemical cleaning with these solutions on waste tank integrity. Manageable corrosion rates were observed in the concentration ranges of interest for an acid contact timescale of 1 month. Kinetics tests involving hematite and gibbsite (a primary sludge aluminum phase) have confirmed that {ge}90% solids dissolution occurs within 3 weeks. Based on these results, the chemical cleaning conditions recommended to promote minimal oxalate usage and manageable corrosion include: 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid/0.175 M nitric acid mixture, 50 C, 2-3 week contact time with agitation.

  17. Efficiency of cleaning procedure of milking equipment and bacterial quality of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sandrucci; Lucio Zanini; Milena Brasca; Maddalena Zucali; Luciana Bava

    2010-01-01

    The cleaning and sanitation of milking equipment could be consider a critical point in the milking procedure because a cleaning failure could influence the level of bacteria contamination of bulk tank milk. Aim of the study is to monitor the cleaning procedures of milking systems in 7 dairy cows farms in Lombardy and to find a relation between efficacy of cleaning system and the bacterial quality of bulk tank milk, remaining washing water through milking equipment and teat cup surface. Cleani...

  18. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S02 emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms

  19. Excess-air incineration with high temperature filtering for efficient off-gas cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When SGN started work on volume reduction of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the early 1960s, in collaboration with the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), incineration was relatively undeveloped but its potential efficiency was immediately recognized. The incinerators then available divided more or less into proven designs used in municipal refuse incineration and so-called advanced systems: SGN's initial impression was that systems for municipal refuse incineration could be readily adapted to handle combustible nuclear wastes. These systems mainly employed excess-air fixed-bed combustion, rotary furnaces or fluidized-bed combustion, sometimes with partial or total pyrolysis. The ''advanced'' systems proposed by various inventors were far more sophisticated but, due to a lack of industrial experience, were often designed with inadequate regard to human safety. The result was a number of serious accidents, including some deaths. Nuclear-grade incineration was a rather esoteric subject at the time. Standard incinerators were not designed to handle radioactive wastes. They lacked essential safety features (e.g. leaktightness) and did not provide for repair and maintenance after contamination nor for affordable dismantling at end of life. Off-gas cleaning had neither the efficiency nor safety required in the nuclear industry. Extensive automation of control and monitoring was not envisaged, because unnecessary in traditional applications

  20. Air cleaning efficiency of deodorant materials under dynamic conditions: effect of air flow rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizutani, Chiyomi; Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2014-01-01

    evaluated as deodorant materials neutralising ammonia in air. The deodorant material efficiency was tested in a special experimental set-up consisting of a straight pipe section, an ammonia gas generator, a fan and a textile frame. The deodorant materials, placed in the pipe, were exposed to a flow of air......Unpleasant odor is a serious problem in hospitals and elderly facilities. One of the unpleasant odors is ammonia originating from human urine and sweat. The air cleaning efficiency of porous activated carbon fiber fabric which has been treated with acid, and porous activated carbon fiber fabric was...... mixed with ammonia gas at a concentration of 20 ppm and velocities of 0.05, 0.15, 0.3 and 1.2 m/s. The activated carbon fibers treated with acid had a high deodorizing effect for ammonia (0.8) at a velocity of 0.05 m/s. The deodorizing effect of this material decreased with the increase in the velocity...

  1. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  2. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  3. 76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi Arabia April 14-18, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice....

  4. Catalyst in alternate energy resources for producing environment friendly clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide, a by-product of the Chemical Process Industries, is a deadly poisonous gas; if released into the atmosphere causes irreparable damage to the environment. A bimetallic catalyst system Ru: Mn doped with different concentrations of 'K' (Potassium) and supported on high surface area alumina support was prepared by co impregnation method, dispersed and reduced at 450 deg. C under hydrogen flow using a closed reactor system at atmospheric pressure for the utilization of poisonous CO gas to produce environmental friendly clean energy. Fischer Tropsch catalyst, when subjected to CO/hydrogenation, gives methane and other hydrocarbon products. The main purpose of this research work was two fold: 1. The powder catalyst when dispersed/reduced on a high surface area oxide support spreads on the surface of the system in a different orientations and shapes. The particle size of the prepared catalysts ranges from 5.0-25.0 nm. The whole system forms a complicated mixture of numerous particles and hence becomes very complicated to study. The characterisation of these randomly oriented particles having different sizes and shapes is a difficult job. This required sensitive UHV spectroscopic techniques like SSIMS, XPS, EEls, XRD and TEM. Their operations needs strong skills. Hence the first aim was to utilize these techniques for the characterization of the prepared catalysts and to establish the usefulness of these techniques in studying such complicated systems. 2. Since Ru is a very good Fischer Tropsch catalyst for the production of aliphatic hydrocarbons product. Our other aim was to find out whether if by surface modification through additives or by surface reconstructing through chemical treatment, we could alter the path of this CO/hydrogenation reaction to produce potentially important unsaturated/aromatic hydrocarbon products. This would serve our dual purpose in which we could use poisonous CO for useful purpose. Hence 'K' potassium as surface modifier is

  5. Low-cost, flexible, and self-cleaning 3D nanocone anti-reflection films for high-efficiency photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Kwong-Hoi; Lin, Qingfeng; Chou, Hungtao; Zhang, Qianpeng; Fu, Huiying; Qi, Pengfei; Fan, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Low-cost engineered nanotemplates are used to mold flexible nanocone anti-reflection (AR) films. Both optical reflectance measurements and photovoltaics characterizations demonstrate that the flexible nanocone AR films can considerably suppress device front-side reflectance and thus improve the power conversion efficiency of high-efficiency thin-film CdTe solar cells. Additionally, these nanocone AR films are found to be superhydrophobic and thus possess self-cleaning capability. PMID:24448979

  6. Comparing the efficiency of Denture brush and Ordinary brush in complete Denture cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Fayaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Fayaz A, Shakerian M, Ansari GH. Comparing the Efficiency of Denture brush and Ordinary brush in complete Denture cleaning. Novel Biomed 2013;1(2:62-65.Background & objective: Denture cleansing is a key element in retaining mucosa free of any inflammation. However, many denture users usually ignore this important factor. This investigation was designed to compare the efficacy of a denture brush and an ordinary brush in cleansing process of complete dentures.Materials & Methods: A group of 31 individuals aged 44-76 years were included in this study. Each patient was then instructed to use the denture brush for a period of 4 weeks while an ordinary brush was to be used for the following 4 weeks. Dentures were photographed and evaluated at every two week intervals using a computer photographic software assessment method. Pictures were compared using the image tool for plaque remaining on the denture surfaces. Student t-test was used to analyse data collected.Results: Comparison of the brush type efficacy at 2 and 4 weeks did not show any significant difference ( P>0.05 , however , clinical evaluation indicated that denture brush leaves much less plaque bio-film compare to the ordinary one, with mean plaque traced at 6.88 to 9.24 in 4 weeks.Conclusion: There were no significant differences found between the two brushes’ efficacy, with clinical evaluation significantly in favor of denture brush.

  7. Efficiency Testing of the Air Cleaning System for a High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Ultra High Temperature Reactor Experiment (UHTREX) utilizes a helium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor, employing refractory fuel elements. Under accident conditions, the effluent that may be released from this reactor requires an air-cleaning system capable of reducing radioactive gas and particulate contaminants to safe levels. Dioctyl phthalate and iodine-131 were used as test aerosols for the HEPA and activated carbon filters, respectively. Methods of aerosol generation and test procedures are detailed for the preinstallation tests of the carbon and in-place testing of the carbon and HEPA filters. The importance of visual inspection of the HEPA filters prior to installation and supervision of filter installation is discussed. In-place tests indicated desirable design changes which would (1) simplify in-place testing procedures, (2) expedite installation and future changing of the filters, and (3) ensure operation of a more efficient system. Problems encountered during in-place testing, recommendations for the design of similar systems, and acceptance criteria used at LASL are discussed. (author)

  8. Efficient production and economics of the clean fuel hydrogen. Paper no. IGEC-1-Keynote-Elnashaie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnashaie, S. [Auburn Univ., Chemical Engineering Dept., Auburn, Alabama (United States)]|[Univ. of British Columbia, Chemical and Biological Engineering Dept., Vancouver, British Columbia, (Canada)]. E-mail: nashaie@eng.auburn.edu.; nashaie@chml.ubc.ca

    2005-07-01

    This paper/plenary lecture to this green energy conference briefly discusses six main issues: 1) The future of hydrogen economy; 2) Thermo-chemistry of hydrogen production for different techniques of autothermic operation using different feedstocks; 3) Improvement of the hydrogen yield and minimization of reformer size through combining fast fluidization with hydrogen and oxygen membranes together with CO{sub 2} sequestration; 4) Efficient production of hydrogen using novel Autothermal Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformer (ACFBMR); 5) Economics of hydrogen production; and, 6) Novel gasification process for hydrogen production from biomass. It is shown that hydrogen economy is not a Myth as some people advocate, and that with well-directed research it will represent a bright future for humanity utilizing such a clean, everlasting fuel, which is also free of deadly conflicts for the control of energy sources. It is shown that autothermic production of hydrogen using novel reformers configurations and wide range of feedstocks is a very promising route towards achieving a successful hydrogen economy. A novel process for the production of hydrogen from different renewable biomass sources is presented and discussed. The process combines the principles of pyrolysis with the simultaneous use of catalyst, membranes and CO{sub 2} sequestration to produce pure hydrogen directly from the unit. Some of the novel processes presented are essential components of modern bio-refineries. (author)

  9. Efficient production and economics of the clean fuel hydrogen. Paper no. IGEC-1-Keynote-Elnashaie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper/plenary lecture to this green energy conference briefly discusses six main issues: 1) The future of hydrogen economy; 2) Thermo-chemistry of hydrogen production for different techniques of autothermic operation using different feedstocks; 3) Improvement of the hydrogen yield and minimization of reformer size through combining fast fluidization with hydrogen and oxygen membranes together with CO2 sequestration; 4) Efficient production of hydrogen using novel Autothermal Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformer (ACFBMR); 5) Economics of hydrogen production; and, 6) Novel gasification process for hydrogen production from biomass. It is shown that hydrogen economy is not a Myth as some people advocate, and that with well-directed research it will represent a bright future for humanity utilizing such a clean, everlasting fuel, which is also free of deadly conflicts for the control of energy sources. It is shown that autothermic production of hydrogen using novel reformers configurations and wide range of feedstocks is a very promising route towards achieving a successful hydrogen economy. A novel process for the production of hydrogen from different renewable biomass sources is presented and discussed. The process combines the principles of pyrolysis with the simultaneous use of catalyst, membranes and CO2 sequestration to produce pure hydrogen directly from the unit. Some of the novel processes presented are essential components of modern bio-refineries. (author)

  10. New progresses in safe, clean and efficient development technologies for high-sulfur gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In China, there are a lot of high-sulfur gas reservoirs with total proved reserves of over 1 trillion m3, most of which were discovered in the Sichuan Basin. Most high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China, distributed in marine carbonate zones, are characterized by great buried depths, complex geologic conditions, high temperatures, high pressures, high H2S and CO2 content, presenting various challenges in gas field development engineering and production safety. Since the development of Sinian high-sulfur gas reservoirs in the Weiyuan area of the Sichuan Basin started in the 1960s, Wolonghe, Zhongba and other medium to small-scale gas reservoirs with medium to low sulfur content have been developed. Ever since 2009, successful production of Longgang and Puguang in the Sichuan Basin, together with some other high-sulfur gas reservoirs highlighted the breakthroughs in development technologies for high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China. This paper reviews the progress made in gas reservoir engineering, drilling and completion engineering, gas production, pipeline transportation, corrosion control, natural gas purification, HSE and other aspects with consideration of specific requirements related to safe, clean and high-efficient development of high-sulfur gas reservoirs since the “12th Five-Year Plan” period. Finally, considering the challenges in the development of high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China, we summarized the trend in future technological development with the following goals of reducing risks, minimizing environmental damages, and enhancing the efficiency of high-sulfur gas reservoir development.

  11. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  12. The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI)

  13. Energy Efficient Indoor VOC Air Cleaning with Activated Carbon Fiber (ACF) Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sidheswaran, Meera

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the potential environmental and energy benefits of using activated carbon fiber (ACF) filters for air cleaning in HVAC systems. The parallel aims for the air cleaning system were to enable reduced indoor exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and to simultaneously allow reduced rates and energy consumption for outdoor-air ventilation. We evaluated the use of ACF media to adsorb VOCs from indoor air during repeated simulated 12-hour to 24-hour periods of occupancy. ...

  14. Amorphous metal distribution transformers: The energy-efficient alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrity, T.F. [GE Power Systems, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Amorphous metal distribution transformers have been commercially available for the past 13 years. During that time, they have realized the promise of exceptionally high core efficiency as compared to silicon steel transformer cores. Utility planners today must consider all options available to meet the requirements of load growth. While additional generation capacity will be added, many demand-side initiatives are being undertaken as complementary programs to generation expansion. The efficiency improvement provided by amorphous metal distribution transformers deserves to be among the demand-side options. The key to understanding the positive impact of amorphous metal transformer efficiency is to consider the aggregate contribution those transformers can make towards demand reduction. It is estimated that distribution transformer core losses comprise at least 1% of the utility`s peak demand. Because core losses are continuous, any significant reduction in their magnitude is of great significance to the planner. This paper describes the system-wide economic contributions amorphous metal distribution transformers can make to a utility and suggests evaluation techniques that can be used. As a conservation tool, the amorphous metal transformer contributes to reduced power plant emissions. Calibration of those emissions reductions is also discussed in the paper.

  15. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Grosso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  16. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  17. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  18. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  19. Development of multicriteria models to classify energy efficiency alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at describing a novel constructive approach to develop decision support models to classify energy efficiency initiatives, including traditional Demand-Side Management and Market Transformation initiatives, overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of Cost-Benefit Analysis. A multicriteria approach based on the ELECTRE-TRI method is used, focusing on four perspectives: - an independent Agency with the aim of promoting energy efficiency; - Distribution-only utilities under a regulated framework; - the Regulator; - Supply companies in a competitive liberalized market. These perspectives were chosen after a system analysis of the decision situation regarding the implementation of energy efficiency initiatives, looking for the main roles and power relations, with the purpose of structuring the decision problem by identifying the actors, the decision makers, the decision paradigm, and the relevant criteria. The multicriteria models developed allow considering different kinds of impacts, but avoiding difficult measurements and unit conversions due to the nature of the multicriteria method chosen. The decision is then based on all the significant effects of the initiative, both positive and negative ones, including ancillary effects often forgotten in cost-benefit analysis. The ELECTRE-TRI, as most multicriteria methods, provides to the Decision Maker the ability of controlling the relevance each impact can have on the final decision. The decision support process encompasses a robustness analysis, which, together with a good documentation of the parameters supplied into the model, should support sound decisions. The models were tested with a set of real-world initiatives and compared with possible decisions based on Cost-Benefit analysis

  20. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. PMID:27070382

  1. Influence of flue gas cleaning system on the energetic efficiency and on the economic performance of a WTE plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, A; Grieco, E

    2010-07-01

    Gas cleaning systems of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) incinerators are characterised by the process employed to remove acid gases. The commonly used technologies for acid gas removal are: (1) dry treatment with Ca(OH)(2) or (2) with NaHCO(3), (3) semi-dry process with Ca(OH)(2) and (4) wet scrubbing. In some recent plants beside a wet cleaning system, a dry neutralization with Ca(OH)(2) is used. The goal is to reduce the amount of acid to be removed in the wet treatment and the liquid effluents produced. The influence of these different technologies on the electrical efficiency was investigated by a detailed simulation of a WTE (Waste To Energy) plant with a capacity of about 100,000 t/y of MSW. The effects of the different gas cleaning systems on electrical efficiency were significant. The difference of efficiency between the most advantageous technology, which is dry treatment with NaHCO(3), and the least advantageous technology which is semi-dry treatment, is about 0.8%. A simple economic analysis showed that the few advantages of dry technologies can often be lost if the costs of chemicals and the disposal of products are considered. PMID:19822412

  2. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors elaborate the economical efficiency evaluation technique that could be universal and applied for technical-and-economic feasibility study of the ball-cleaning system installation on the steam turbines of the electric power plants. Besides the effect from reducing the exhaust steam pressure in the condenser by means of the ball-cleaning system implementation, this technique also accounts for the effect of lowering the condenser hydraulic pressure.The article refers to the practical results of the ball-cleaning system introduction on the steam turbines of Gomel CHP-2. As a result of regular application of the ball-cleaning system the temperature difference of the condensers of all blocks Т-180/210-130-1 confined into the regulatory values and the cleanness coefficient of all three turbine units reached 0,85. The authors consider the working results, implementation experience of the ball-cleaning system at Gomel CHP-2 and its efficiency evaluation technique to be worth disseminating when introducing the analogous systems at the plants of Belarusian power network.The authors suggest measures on the condenser automatic-cleaning system improvement with the turbine mathematical-simulation model employment that will make it possible to optimize the condenser cleaning regimes and to increase the ball-cleaning system effectiveness with the condenser cleanness coefficient growing up to 0,90–0,92.

  3. The energy efficiency and renewable energy market and the potential for clean development mechanism projects in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a market overview of the energy efficiency and renewable energy market in Malaysia, and also examines the potential for clean development mechanism projects in that country. As a result of a steadily growing economy, Malaysia's net energy demand is increasing. It is expected that Malaysia will become a net importer of oil by 2008 and that the nation's gas supplies will be completely depleted by 2040. It has forced the government to look for sources of renewable energy and to improve energy efficiency. The Kyoto Protocol was ratified by Malaysia in September 2002. Programs aimed at promoting energy efficiency in the industrial sector and small renewable energy power plants were implemented with help from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the private sector. It offers opportunities for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in that country. Energy efficiency (EE) activities have been allocated $120 million while renewable energy initiatives have been allocated another $120 million in the eighth Malaysia Plan (2001-2005). Opportunities exist for Canadian companies to participate in the Malaysian Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement Project (MIEEIP) and some building recommissioning projects. Expertise in biomass fuel power and solar power technologies is sought after under the umbrella of the Biogen programme. It was suggested that interested Canadian companies enter the market as an energy service company. Consultation and management services are also required, as are environmental technologies. 14 refs., 1 fig

  4. Fuel flexible distributed combustion for efficient and clean gas turbine engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Examined distributed combustion for gas turbines applications using HiTAC. • Gaseous, liquid, conventional and bio-fuels are examined with ultra-low emissions. • Novel design of fuel flexibility without any atomizer for liquid fuel sprays. • Demonstrated fuel flexibility with emissions x and CO, low noise, enhanced stability, higher efficiency and alleviation of combustion instability. Distributed reaction conditions were achieved using swirl for desirable controlled mixing between the injected air, fuel and hot reactive gases from within the combustor prior to mixture ignition. In this paper, distributed combustion is further investigated using a variety of fuels. Gaseous (methane, diluted methane, hydrogen enriched methane and propane) and liquid fuels, including both traditional (kerosene) and alternate fuels (ethanol) that cover a wide range of calorific values are investigated with emphasis on pollutants emission and combustor performance with each fuel. For liquid fuels, no atomization or spray device was used. Performance evaluation with the different fuels was established to outline the flexibility of the combustor using a wide range of fuels of different composition, phase and calorific value with specific focus on ultra-low pollutants emission. Results obtained on pollutants emission and OH* chemiluminescence for the specific fuels at various equivalence ratios are presented. Near distributed combustion conditions with less than 8 PPM of NO emission were demonstrated under novel premixed conditions for the various fuels tested at heat (energy) release intensity (HRI) of 27 MW/m3-atm. and a rather high equivalence ratio of 0.6. Higher equivalence ratios lacked favorable distributed combustion conditions. For the same conditions, CO emission varied for each fuel; less than 10 ppm were demonstrated for methane based fuels, while heavier liquid fuels provided less than 40 ppm CO emissions. Lower emissions of NO (x can be possible by

  5. Alternating Anderson-Richardson method: An efficient alternative to preconditioned Krylov methods for large, sparse linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, Phanish; Pask, John E

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the recently proposed Alternating Anderson-Jacobi (AAJ) method (Pratapa et al., J. Comput. Phys. (2016), 306, 43--54) to include preconditioning, and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling in the solution of large, sparse linear systems on parallel computers. The resulting preconditioned Alternating Anderson-Richardson (AAR) method reduces to the AAJ method for a particular choice of preconditioner. The AAR method employs Anderson extrapolation at periodic intervals within a preconditioned Richardson iteration to accelerate convergence. In this work, we develop a version of the method that is particularly well suited for scalable high-performance computing. In applications to Helmholtz and Poisson equations, we show that the strong and weak parallel scaling of AAR is superior to both Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) and Conjugate Gradient (CG) methods, using the same preconditioning, in large-scale parallel calculations employing up to 110,592 computational cores. Moreover, we find that the ...

  6. Using a Clean Energy Version of Moore's Law to Plan for the Extreme Efficiency of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buskirk, Robert

    2014-03-01

    In 1965, Gordon Moore predicted a decade of exponential growth in the transistor density growth (and hence computing power) for integrated circuits that--with some modification--has held to the present day. In this talk, we discuss to what extent clean energy technologies are subject to similar laws of long term exponential improvement and how these improvement rates may be accelerating due to recent developments. We review a range of long term energy efficiency and technology productivity improvement trends ranging from lighting, televisions, refrigerators, HVAC, batteries, motors, power electronics and solar PV. After reviewing historical and recent trends, we discuss several factors that may lead to an acceleration of improvement rates in the clean energy technology sector. Finally, we discuss the Baumol effect which predicts how differential trends in technology productivity may affect trends in relative prices in the economy. We conclude with a discussion of some of the implications that Baumol's theories may have for the development of extreme levels of energy efficiency in the coming decades.

  7. Potential impacts of energy efficiency policies in the U.S. industry: Results from the clean energy futures study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) studied the role that efficient clean energy technologies can play in meeting the economic and environmental challenges for our future energy supply. The study describes a portfolio of policies that would motivate energy users and businesses to invest in innovative energy efficient technologies. On the basis of the portfolios, two policy scenarios have been developed, i.e. a moderate scenario and an advanced scenario. We focus on the industrial part of the CEF-study. The studied policies include a wide scope of activities, which are organized under the umbrella of voluntary industrial sector agreements. The policies for the policy scenarios have been modeled using the National Energy Modeling System (CEF-NEMS). Under the reference scenario industrial energy use would grow to 41 Quads in 2020, compared to 34.8 Quads in 1997, with an average improvement of the energy intensity by 1.1% per year. In the Moderate scenario the annual improvement is a bout 1.5%/year, leading to primary energy use of 37.8 Quads in 2020, resulting in 10% lower CO2 emissions by 2020 compared to the reference scenario. In the Advanced scenario the annual improvement increases to 1.8% per year, leading to primary energy use of 34.3 Quads in 2020, and 29% lower CO2 emissions. We report on the policies, assumptions and results for industry

  8. Procedures for Efficient and Economic Recovery of Heat for Reuse in Batch Processes for Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    The expenditure of primary energy can be reduced and the economics of process plants in the food industry can be improved by intelligent application of Process Integration (PI). Since a greater part of the products in the food industry is processed in batches, the use of Thermal- Energy Storage...... (TES) may be required to achieve these improvements. Further improvements may be achieved if there is a need, in the plant, for heating water at low-or-medium-level temperatures for cleaning purposes and there are significant quantities of medium-to-lowtemperature heat recoverable. Such conditions are......, could increase the use and usefulness of PI by incorporating TES, thus fulfilling PI’s promises of improved operation, reduced energy consumption, reduced environmental impact, and improved economics. The application of these procedures is illustrated through the description of two cases. Keywords: Heat...

  9. Procedures for Efficient and Economic Recovery of Heat for Reuse in Batch Processes for Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    The expenditure of primary energy can be reduced and the economics of process plants in the food industry can be improved by intelligent application of Process Integration (PI). Since a greater part of the products in the food industry is processed in batches, the use of Thermal- Energy Storage...... (TES) may be required to achieve these improvements. Further improvements may be achieved if there is a need, in the plant, for heating water at low-or-medium-level temperatures for cleaning purposes and there are significant quantities of medium-to-lowtemperature heat recoverable. Such conditions are......, could increase the use and usefulness of PI by incorporating TES, thus fulfilling PI’s promises of improved operation, reduced energy consumption, reduced environmental impact, and improved economics. The application of these procedures is illustrated through the description of two cases. Keywords: Heat...

  10. Alternate partial root-zone irrigation improves fertilizer-N use efficiency in tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Liu, Fulai; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the comparative effects of alternative partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) and deficit irrigation (DI) on fertilizer-N use efficiency in tomato plants under mineral N and organic N fertilizations. The plants were grown in split-root pots in a climate...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE SYSTEMS TO ENHANCE THE SELECTION OF LOW POLLUTING SURFACE CLEANING OPTIONS, SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (SAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    FY03 Task Description: This is not a new task; only a newly assigned number to split SAGE from the other tools task. SAGE is interactive PC-based expert software system that recommend low polluting surface cleaning options and process costs. SAGE is used by Federal, State, and ...

  12. Basic Research Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlroy, A.; McRae, G.; Sick, V.; Siebers, D. L.; Westbrook, C. K.; Smith, P. J.; Taatjes, C.; Trouve, A.; Wagner, A. F.; Rohlfing, E.; Manley, D.; Tully, F.; Hilderbrandt, R.; Green, W.; Marceau, D.; O' Neal, J.; Lyday, M.; Cebulski, F.; Garcia, T. R.; Strong, D.

    2006-11-01

    To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying utilization of evolving transportation fuels, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges that have the potential for significant long-term impact on fuel efficiency and emissions.

  13. Tuning 3D topography on biomimetic surface for efficient self-cleaning and microfluidic manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, micro-/nanotopography on polymeric replica is generally limited to 2D when a mechanical demolding approach is applied. In this work, one-step replication of bio-inspired 3D topography is achieved using microinjection compression molding with novel dual-layer molds. Using a proposed flexible template, the replica topography and wettability are highly tunable during molding. Moreover, dual-scale topography on the mold is developed by coating the micropatterned insert with submicron silica particles. Contact angle and roll-off angle measurements indicate the lotus leaf, rose petal and rice leaf effects on biomimetic surfaces. Among the three kinds of surfaces, the petal-inspired surface possesses the superior performance in self-cleaning submicron contaminants and mechanical robustness, which is highly correlated to the low roughness-induced adhesive superhydrophobicity and the absence of fragile submicron-/nanostructure, respectively. Furthermore, a multi-layer mold structure is proposed for fabricating the open microfluidic devices. The embedment of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic silica particles in the microstructured open channel and the hydrophobic silica particles in the background area during replication renders the wettability contrast sharp, realizing the self-driven flow of microfluid confined within the open microchannel. (paper)

  14. Evaluation of alternative PCB clean-up strategies using an individual-based population model of mink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population models can be used to place observed toxic effects into an assessment of the impacts on population-level endpoints, which are generally considered to provide greater ecological insight and relevance. We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate the population-level effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the impact that different remediation strategies had on mink population endpoints (population size and extinction risk). Our simulations indicated that the initial population size had a strong impact on mink population dynamics. In addition, mink populations were extremely responsive to clean-up scenarios that were initiated soon after the contamination event. In fact, the rate of PCB clean-up did not have as strong a positive effect on mink as did the initiation of clean-up (start time). We show that population-level approaches can be used to understand adverse effects of contamination and to also explore the potential benefits of various remediation strategies. - Highlights: → We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate population-level impacts of PCB contamination. → The model was also used to explore the population responses to different PCB remediation strategies. → Population size had a large impact on whether mink populations persisted or went extinct. → Starting remediation sooner had a stronger positive effect on mink populations than did the rate of PCB clean-up. → Individual-based models are useful in understanding effects of contamination and different remediation strategies. - An individual-based model of mink showed strong population-level effects of PCB contamination and provided insight into optimal PCB remediation strategies.

  15. Trend analysis air pollution. The effects of the working programme 'Clean and Efficient' on the emission of air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explores the effects of the Dutch Climate Programme 'Clean and Efficient - Opportunities for Tomorrow' on the emissions of air pollutants, as included in the National Emissions Ceilings. The starting point for the analysis is the ex ante evaluation of Clean and Efficient as published in September 2007. On the national level, the relative effects on air pollutant emissions are invariably much smaller than those on domestic greenhouse gas emissions. With a 1% decrease in domestic greenhouse emissions, SO2 emission decrease between 0.3 and 0.5%, NOx emissions between 0.1 and 0.2%, NMVOC emissions decrease about 0.02 % and PM10 emissions decrease about 0.1%. Some general causes explain the differences between the effects on GHG emissions and NEC-emissions. Only part of both the NEC-emissions and the GHG-emissions is linked to energy use. Further, replacement of fossil fuels by biomass results in lower fossil CO2 emissions, but NEC-emissions remain roughly the same. Finally, emission factors of NEC-emissions vary strongly with energy carriers and processes, and reduction of energy use is unevenly divided among energy carriers and processes. Specifically for the Netherlands, the role of electricity exports is important. Strong climate policies and high CO2 prices are likely to result in lower electricity demand, more renewable electricity generation and more cogeneration. However, they are likely to improve the international competitiveness of the Dutch electricity generation as well. As a result, electricity exports rise and part of the emission reductions materialize outside the Netherlands, rather than within its borders. In the case of GHG-emissions, burden sharing mechanisms and trade in emission right make sure that this is not a real problem. As comparable mechanisms for NEC-emissions do not exist, the GHG burden sharing and emission trading pose a risk for the attainment of Dutch NEC-targets

  16. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  17. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Belošević Srđan V.; Tomanović Ivan D.; Crnomarković Nenad Đ.; Milićević Aleksandar R.; Tucaković Dragan R.

    2016-01-01

    Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by c...

  18. Highly Efficient Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells with Antireflection and Self-Cleaning Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Tsui, Kwong-Hoi; Zhang, Qianpeng; He, Jin; Yao, Yan; Li, Dongdong; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-27

    Flexible thin film solar cells have attracted a great deal of attention as mobile power sources and key components for building-integrated photovoltaics, due to their light weight and flexible features in addition to compatibility with low-cost roll-to-roll fabrication processes. Among many thin film materials, organometallic perovskite materials are emerging as highly promising candidates for high efficiency thin film photovoltaics; however, the performance, scalability, and reliability of the flexible perovskite solar cells still have large room to improve. Herein, we report highly efficient, flexible perovskite solar cells fabricated on ultrathin flexible glasses. In such a device structure, the flexible glass substrate is highly transparent and robust, with low thermal expansion coefficient, and perovskite thin film was deposited with a thermal evaporation method that showed large-scale uniformity. In addition, a nanocone array antireflection film was attached to the front side of the glass substrate in order to improve the optical transmittance and to achieve a water-repelling effect at the same time. It was found that the fabricated solar cells have reasonable bendability, with 96% of the initial value remaining after 200 bending cycles, and the power conversion efficiency was improved from 12.06 to 13.14% by using the antireflection film, which also demonstrated excellent superhydrophobicity. PMID:26284607

  19. A Floquet description of phase alternated sequences for efficient homonuclear recoupling in solid perdeuterated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Sundaresan; Akbey, Ümit; Uluca, Boran; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Vega, Shimon

    2013-09-01

    A Floquet description of a phase alternated homonuclear recoupling scheme for perdeuterated systems is presented. As a result, we demonstrate improvements in the recoupling efficiency of the DOuble Nucleus Enhanced Recoupling [DONER; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131 (2009) 17054] technique by utilizing Phase Alternated Recoupling Irradiation Schemes [PARIS; Chem. Phys. Lett. 469 (2009) 342]. The effect of proton and deuterium radio frequency irradiation during recoupling has been systematically studied and theoretical observations have been verified experimentally using a deuterated model compound, L-Alanine, at 10 and 20 kHz magic angle spinning frequency. Experimental results are well in agreement with theoretical observations, thereby significantly increasing the recoupling efficiency of conventional DONER in perdeuterated systems.

  20. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes: The case of Dutch horticulture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter environmental regulation reduces technical inefficiency. For this purpose, we use a stochastic production frontier framework allowing for inclusion of policy variables to measure the effect of alternative environmental policy regimes on firms' performance. The main result is that stricter environmental policy regimes have indeed reduced technical inefficiencies in Dutch horticulture. The estimation results indicate amongst others that the 1997 agreement on energy, nutrient and pesticides use enhances technical efficiency. Firms under the strict environmental policy regime are found to be more technically efficient than those under a lax regime, thereby supporting the claims by Porter and Van der Linde (Porter, M., Van der Linde, C., 1995. Green and Competitive: Ending the stalemate. Harvard Business Review 73, pp. 120-137) concerning Dutch horticulture. (author)

  1. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Project Financing Alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W. D.; Hail, John C.; Sullivan, Gregory P.

    2000-02-14

    This document provides findings and recommendations that resulted from an assessment of the Brookhaven National Laboratory by a team from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the site's potential for various alternative financing options as a means to implement energy-efficiency improvements. The assessment looked for life-cycle cost-effective energy-efficiency improvement opportunities, and through a series of staff interviews, evaluated the various methods by which these opportunities may be financed, while considering availability of funds, staff, and available financing options. This report summarizes the findings of the visit and the resulting recommendations.

  2. Challenges of efficient and clean use of fossil fuels for power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vortmeyer, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Gerhard

    2010-09-15

    Constantly increasing resource efficiency together with the broad introduction of CCS technologies is fundamental for a continuous use of fossil fuels in power generation against the background of up-coming requirements for CO2 emission reduction. In principle, CCS means up-grading conventional power plant technology with proven CO2 removal processes. However, this leads to additional losses, auxiliary power demand and cost. System integration, development or at least adaption of components and processes are the main requirements in this context. Different technology solutions and recent developments will be addressed as well as challenges when implementing in demonstration projects.

  3. Ultra Clean 1.1MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James; Lueck, Steve

    2011-08-31

    Dresser, Inc. (GE Energy, Waukesha gas engines) will develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize a 1.1 Megawatt (MW) natural gas fueled combined heat and power reciprocating engine powered package. This package will feature a total efficiency > 75% and ultra low CARB permitting emissions. Our modular design will cover the 1 – 6 MW size range, and this scalable technology can be used in both smaller and larger engine powered CHP packages. To further advance one of the key advantages of reciprocating engines, the engine, generator and CHP package will be optimized for low initial and operating costs. Dresser, Inc. will leverage the knowledge gained in the DOE - ARES program. Dresser, Inc. will work with commercial, regulatory, and government entities to help break down barriers to wider deployment of CHP. The outcome of this project will be a commercially successful 1.1 MW CHP package with high electrical and total efficiency that will significantly reduce emissions compared to the current central power plant paradigm. Principal objectives by phases for Budget Period 1 include: • Phase 1 – market study to determine optimum system performance, target first cost, lifecycle cost, and creation of a detailed product specification. • Phase 2 – Refinement of the Waukesha CHP system design concepts, identification of critical characteristics, initial evaluation of technical solutions, and risk mitigation plans. Background

  4. Inter-relationships among alternative definitions of feed efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, A M; López-Villalobos, N; McParland, S; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E; O'Donovan, M; Burke, J L; Berry, D P

    2016-01-01

    International interest in feed efficiency, and in particular energy intake and residual energy intake (REI), is intensifying due to a greater global demand for animal-derived protein and energy sources. Feed efficiency is a trait of economic importance, and yet is overlooked in national dairy cow breeding goals. This is due primarily to a lack of accurate data on commercial animals, but also a lack of clarity on the most appropriate definition of the feed intake and utilization complex. The objective of the present study was to derive alternative definitions of energetic efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows and to quantify the inter-relationships among these alternative definitions. Net energy intake (NEI) from pasture and concentrate intake was estimated up to 8 times per lactation for 2,693 lactations from 1,412 Holstein-Friesian cows. Energy values of feed were based on the French Net Energy system where 1 UFL is the net energy requirements for lactation equivalent of 1kg of air-dry barley. A total of 8,183 individual feed intake measurements were available. Energy balance was defined as the difference between NEI and energy expenditure. Efficiency traits were either ratio-based or residual-based; the latter were derived from least squares regression models. Residual energy intake was defined as NEI minus predicted energy to fulfill the requirements for the various energy sinks. The energy sinks (e.g., NEL, metabolic live weight) and additional contributors to energy kinetics (e.g., live weight loss) combined, explained 59% of the variation in NEI, implying that REI represented 41% of the variance in total NEI. The most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI (n=709), on average were associated with a 7.59 UFL/d less NEI (average NEI of the entire population was 16.23 UFL/d) than the least efficient 10% of test-day records based on REI (n=709). Additionally, the most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI, were associated with

  5. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  6. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.; Pierce, B. [eds.

    1995-06-01

    Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

  7. Alternative geometry for cylindrical natural draft cooling tower with higher cooling efficiency under crosswind condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Alternative cross sections for natural draft cooling tower were proposed. • Numerical solution was applied to study thermal and hydraulic performances. • Thermal and hydraulic performances were assessed by comparative parameters. • Cooling tower with elliptical cross section had better thermal performance under crosswind. • It could successfully used at the regions with invariant wind direction. - Abstract: Cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower may significantly decrease under crosswind condition. Therefore, many researchers attempted to improve the cooling efficiency under this condition by using structural or mechanical facilities. In this article, alternative shell geometry with elliptical cross section is proposed for this type of cooling tower instead of usual shell geometry with circular cross section. Thermal performance and cooling efficiency of the two types of cooling towers are numerically investigated. Numerical simulations show that cooling tower with elliptical cross section improves the cooling efficiency compared to the usual type with circular cross section under high-speed wind moving normal to the longitudinal diameter of the elliptical cooling tower

  8. High efficiency fluorescent excimer lamps: An alternative to mercury based UVC lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoud, N. M. [UV Solutions Inc, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States); Physics and Chemistry Department, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202 (United States); Murnick, D. E. [UV Solutions Inc, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States); Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    A high efficiency xenon excimer lamp radiating at 172 nm, with an internal phosphor coating shifting to UVC has been demonstrated, showing the feasibility of a cost effective alternative to UVC mercury lamps. Fluorescent lamps so designed can be fabricated in various geometries with high efficiency. Unlike other xenon excimer lamps based on dielectric barrier discharges this new system is highly compatible with existing and proposed phosphors as it operates in an inert gas environment at modest temperature and is subject only to 172 nm primary radiation. Using a lamp coated with a UVC phosphor we have demonstrated the feasibility of germicidal and curing lamps with 40% energy conversion efficiency and high power density. These lamps are rapidly switchable, have long projected lifetimes and are compatible with dimmers.

  9. High efficiency fluorescent excimer lamps: an alternative to mercury based UVC lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, N M; Murnick, D E

    2013-12-01

    A high efficiency xenon excimer lamp radiating at 172 nm, with an internal phosphor coating shifting to UVC has been demonstrated, showing the feasibility of a cost effective alternative to UVC mercury lamps. Fluorescent lamps so designed can be fabricated in various geometries with high efficiency. Unlike other xenon excimer lamps based on dielectric barrier discharges this new system is highly compatible with existing and proposed phosphors as it operates in an inert gas environment at modest temperature and is subject only to 172 nm primary radiation. Using a lamp coated with a UVC phosphor we have demonstrated the feasibility of germicidal and curing lamps with 40% energy conversion efficiency and high power density. These lamps are rapidly switchable, have long projected lifetimes and are compatible with dimmers. PMID:24387421

  10. Energy Efficiency Under Alternative Carbon Policies. Incentives, Measurement, and Interregional Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boyd, Erin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-28

    In this report, we examine and compare how tradable mass-based polices and tradable rate-based policies create different incentives for energy efficiency investments. Through a generalized demonstration and set of examples, we show that as a result of the output subsidy they create, traditional rate-based policies, those that do not credit energy savings from efficiency measures, reduce the incentive for investment in energy efficiency measures relative to an optimally designed mass-based policy or equivalent carbon tax. We then show that this reduced incentive can be partially addressed by modifying the rate-based policy such that electricity savings from energy efficiency measures are treated as a source of zero-carbon generation within the framework of the standard, or equivalently, by assigning avoided emissions credit to the electricity savings at the rate of the intensity target. These approaches result in an extension of the output subsidy to efficiency measures and eliminate the distortion between supply-side and demand-side options for GHG emissions reduction. However, these approaches do not address electricity price distortions resulting from the output subsidy that also impact the value of efficiency measures. Next, we assess alternative approaches for crediting energy efficiency savings within the framework of a rate-based policy. Finally, we identify a number of challenges that arise in implementing a rate-based policy with efficiency crediting, including the requirement to develop robust estimates of electricity savings in order to assess compliance, and the requirement to track the regionality of the generation impacts of efficiency measures to account for their interstate effects.

  11. Efficiency versus cost of alternative fuels from renewable resources: outlining decision parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the discussion of traditional versus renewable energies and alternatives to conventional crude oil-based fuels in the transportation sector, efficiency calculations are but one decision making parameter. Comparing the assets and liabilities of fossil-based and renewable fuels in the transportation sector, further aspects such as centralized versus decentralized technologies, cost evaluations, taxation, and ecological/social benefits have to be taken into account. This paper outlines the driving parameters for shifting toward alternative fuels based on fossil or renewable resources and their use in innovative vehicle technologies such as advanced internal combustion and fuel cell electric drive systems. For the decision in favor or against an alternative fuel to be introduced to the mass market, automotive technologies and the energy supply system have to be examined in an integrated way. From an economic and technological perspective, some fuels may be even incompatible with the trend toward using renewable resources that have advantages in decentralized systems. Beyond efficiency calculations, political and industrial interests arise and may be influential to reshaping our currently crude oil-based mobility sector

  12. A research needs assessment: Energy efficient alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Final reprot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum -- based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are present. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  13. Heterogeneous photocatalysis on construction materials: effect of catalyst properties on the efficiency for degrading NOx and self cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson, N.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of some properties of different catalysts on the photocatalytic activity. The efficiency has been determined for two different processes: NOx abatement and self-cleaning for Rhodamine B and tobacco extract being, the TiO2 based photocatalyst, supported as coatings on white mortar. Eight different catalysts were tested, seven commercial ones and one home-made catalyst with improved visible light absorption properties. Additionally, some of them were submitted to exposition to water and/or calcinations to alter their physical properties. A kinetic approach was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity, being the first reaction constant (for NO and just empirical constants (for self-cleaning the parameters used for the comparison of the different materials. As a result, the efficiency, even for ranking, is dependent on the type of contaminant used in the experiment. In general, NO oxidation and tobacco followed similar trends while no clear relations were found for Rhodamine B.En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de las propiedades de distintos catalizadores en la actividad fotocatalítica de degradación de NOx y autolimpieza, para Rodamina B y extracto de tabaco. Se han ensayado ocho fotocatalizadores, basados en TiO2 y soportados sobre mortero blanco; siete de ellos comerciales y uno sintetizado en el laboratorio con absorción mejorada en el visible. Adicionalmente, las propiedades físicas de algunos de ellos se alteraron mediante tratamientos con agua y/o por calcinación. La actividad fotocatalítica se ha evaluado mediante aproximación cinética, siendo la constante de reacción de primer orden (para NO y constantes empíricas de ajuste (para autolimpieza los parámetros de comparación entre materiales. Como resultado, la eficiencia depende del contaminante utilizado en el experimento de evaluación. En general, en este estudio, oxidación de NO y de extracto de tabaco presentan tendencias similares

  14. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce losses in the cooling source (condenser and to increase effectiveness of fuel-and-power resources utilization, the authors present a modern automatic ball-cleaning system for the pipes of condenser 180-KTsS-1 of turbine unit Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ of Gomel CHP-2. The article examines exploitation challenges of the steam turbine condensers and methods of clearing them from sedimentations. Depending on the sedimentation character and composition, and the quality of cooling water at the power plant, they apply various methods of the condenser tubes clearing: heat drying, vacuum dehydration, acid-washing, pipes-shooting with water and water-air pistols, ablution with high-pressure water jet etc. All the applied cleaning methods are the periodical means to fight the sedimentations and require the turbine halting or unloading, predetermine the equipment operating between clearings with constantly smearing cooling surfaces of the condensers, i.e. with reduced efficiency of equipment operation.The installation of the ball-cleaning system practically excludes defects of the chemical and mechanical cleaning methods, which leads to the condenser pipes life-in-service increase, the full-flow condensate quality improvement, reliability and efficient performance enhancement of the steam turbines equipment. The authors consider developed algorithms of data processing and designed system control of the condenser cleaning that allowed realizing its operation in automatic mode.

  15. Use of biomass for clean and efficient production of heat and power. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Lans, R. van der; Frandsen, J.B.F.; Johnsson, J.E.; Jensen, A.; Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2001-03-01

    measurement and mathematical modelling of limestone reactivity were conducted. The influence of pH, type and size of limestone and the bulk composition of the solution on the dissolution rate of limestone was investigated. FGD pilot scale experiments were conducted to compare two methods of optimising the wet FGD process, i.e. 1) the use of adipic acid with limestone, and 2) exchange of the limestone with a chalk. Both methods were found to improve the desulphurization efficiency. Presence of HCl in the flue gas was shown to inhibit the limestone dissolution. Mathematical modelling of the FGD process was carried out to obtain a better understanding of the rate determining parameters in the desulphurization process and to provide a tool to aid in process optimization. The modeling results compared favourably with pilot scale results. (au)

  16. Economic efficiency of alternative and conventional energy resources - a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With more people in the world seeking improved living standard, businesses are using more and more energy to meet growing demand. Within a few years, easily accessible reserves of conventional energy will not be able to match this pace of growth. Consequences for nature, in terms of CO2 emission, depletion and degradation of natural resources are severe. From the standpoint of economic efficiency, many economies are in favor of conventional resources, but for a cleaner and safer world, alternative energy should make up a larger share of the energy mix

  17. Irradiation alternative method of manganese sulfate solution by a Pu-Be source for efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study intends to create an alternative irradiation system from a Plutonium-Beryllium source for manganese sulphate solution using the Monte Carlo code. Thus seeking to eliminate the issue of institutes that do not have reactors or particle accelerators in its infrastructure, in order to optimize and provide independence for them to carry out efficiency measurements of MnSO4 solution in their own locality. The Monte Carlo simulations defined the technical features of this new system so that the solution reaches the maximum neutron capture by manganese in solution. (author)

  18. Efficiency and concordance of alternative methods for minimizing opportunity costs in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Susan E; Williams, Kristen J; Mitchell, David K

    2008-08-01

    Scarce resources and competing land-use goals necessitate efficient biodiversity conservation. Combining multicriteria analysis with conservation decision-support tools improves efficiency of conservation planning by maximizing outcomes for biodiversity while minimizing opportunity costs to society. An opportunity cost is the benefit that could have been received by taking an alternative course of action (i.e., costs to society of protecting an area for biodiversity rather than developing it for some other use). Although different ways of integrating multiple opportunity costs into conservation planning have been suggested, there have been no tests as to which method is most efficient. We compared the relative efficiency of 3 such procedures(Faith & Walker [1996], Sarkar et al. [2004], and a procedure of our own design) in a systematic conservation-planning framework for the Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea. We devised 14 opportunity costs and assigned these to 3 scenarios representing different conservation planning concerns: food security, macro-economic development, and biodiversity persistence. For each scenario, we compared the efficiency of the 3 methods in terms of amount of biodiversity protected relative to total expenditure for each opportunity cost. All 3 methods captured similar amounts of biodiversity, but differed in total cost. Our method had the least overall cost and was therefore most efficient. Nevertheless, there was a high correlation and geographical concordance among all 3 methods, indicating a high degree of spatial overlap. This suggests that choosing an appropriate approach may often depend on contextual factors related to the design of the planning question, rather than efficiency alone. PMID:18637906

  19. Lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals to achieve high-efficient and clean combustion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes full lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals launched to support selection an appropriate combustion technology and to support optimization of the boiler design. Tested mix of Middle-Bosnia brown coals is projected coal for new co-generation power plant Kakanj Unit 8 (300-450 MWe, EP B&H electricity utility. The basic coal blend consisting of the coals Kakanj: Breza: Zenica at approximate mass ratio of 70:20:10 is low grade brown coal with very high percentage of ash - over 40%. Testing that coal in circulated fluidized bed combustion technique, performed at Ruhr-University Bohum and Doosan Lentjes GmbH, has shown its inconveniency for fluidized bed combustion technology, primarily due to the agglomeration problems. Tests of these coals in PFC (pulverized fuel combustion technology have been performed in referent laboratory at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Sarajevo University, on a lab-scale PFC furnace, to provide reliable data for further analysis. The PFC tests results are fitted well with previously obtained results of the burning similar Bosnian coal blends in the PFC dry bottom furnace technique. Combination of the coals shares, the process temperature and the air combustion distribution for the lowest NOx and SO2 emissions was found in this work, provided that combustion efficiency and CO emissions are within very strict criteria, considering specific settlement of lab-scale furnace. Sustainability assessment based on calculation economic and environmental indicators, in combination with Low Cost Planning method, is used for optimization the power plant design. The results of the full lab-scale investigation will help in selection optimal Boiler design, to achieve sustainable energy system with high-efficient and clean combustion technology applied for given coals.

  20. Replacement of Natural Sand with Efficient Alternatives: Recent Advances in Concrete Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzar Hamid Mir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most undisputable material being used in infrastructure development throughout the world. It is a globally accepted construction material in all types of Civil Engineering structures. Natural sand is a prime material used for the preparation of concrete and also plays an important role in Mix Design. Now a day‟s river erosion and other environmental issues have led to the scarcity of river sand. The reduction in the sources of natural sand and the requirement for reduction in the cost of concrete production has resulted in the increased need to find new alternative materials to replace river sand so that excess river erosion is prevented and high strength concrete is obtained at lower cost. Partial or full replacement of natural sand by the other alternative materials like quarry dust, foundry sand and others are being researched from past two decades, in view of conserving the ecological balance. This paper summarizes conclusions of experiments conducted for the properties like strength, durability etc. It was observed the results have shown positive changes and improvement in mechanical properties of the conventional concrete due to the addition or replacement of fine sand with efficient alternatives.

  1. Distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency as alternatives to grid capacity enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for investment in capital intensive electricity networks is on the rise in many countries. A major advantage of distributed resources is their potential for deferring investments in distribution network capacity. However, utilizing the full benefits of these resources requires addressing several technical, economic and regulatory challenges. A significant barrier pertains to the lack of an efficient market mechanism that enables this concept and also is consistent with business model of distribution companies under an unbundled power sector paradigm. This paper proposes a market-oriented approach termed as “contract for deferral scheme” (CDS). The scheme outlines how an economically efficient portfolio of distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency can be integrated as network resources to reduce the need for grid capacity and defer demand driven network investments. - Highlights: • The paper explores a practical framework for smart electricity distribution grids. • The aim is to defer large capital investments in the network by utilizing and incentivising distributed generation, demand response, energy efficiency and storage as network resources. • The paper discusses a possible new market model that enables integration of distributed resources as alternative to grid capacity enhancement

  2. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes: The case of Dutch horticulture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Vlist, Arno J. [Wageningen University and Agricultural Economics Research Institute (Netherlands); Withagen, Cees [Tilburg University and Free University Amsterdam (Netherlands); Folmer, Henk [Groningen University and Wageningen University (Netherlands)

    2007-06-15

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter environmental regulation reduces technical inefficiency. For this purpose, we use a stochastic production frontier framework allowing for inclusion of policy variables to measure the effect of alternative environmental policy regimes on firms' performance. The main result is that stricter environmental policy regimes have indeed reduced technical inefficiencies in Dutch horticulture. The estimation results indicate amongst others that the 1997 agreement on energy, nutrient and pesticides use enhances technical efficiency. Firms under the strict environmental policy regime are found to be more technically efficient than those under a lax regime, thereby supporting the claims by Porter and Van der Linde (Porter, M., Van der Linde, C., 1995. Green and Competitive: Ending the stalemate. Harvard Business Review 73, pp. 120-137) concerning Dutch horticulture. (author)

  3. Using energy efficiency and alternative energy to extend fossil resources or what if tomorrow actually comes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the role of energy in maintaining and advancing society, and what happens if we run out of energy. The author provided a glimpse into the energy world through the display of a series of graphs depicting world energy consumption, world energy production, world population distribution, growth rates in Asia, coal use per capita, the United States energy consumption by source, percent of air emissions in the United States from fossil fuel use, and others. It was argued that alternative energy and energy efficiency diminish growth in demand and peak load, supports portfolio diversity, lowers cost, and diminishes environmental impacts. The advances in wind power and solar power were reviewed, as well as advances in bioenergy and hydrogen. The author also argued the case for energy efficiency and conservation. A discussion of various pricing schemes was offered. The first option examined was time of use price, defined as 3 time blocks published in advance for entire seasons. The second option was critical peak pricing, involving a high price imposed for a few days per year when system conditions are critical or near critical. The third option discussed was real-time prices, implying an hourly real-time marginal cost of a kilowatt hour. It was suggested that the system should be changed, since subsidizing energy consumption distorts demand. Energy efficiency and renewables extend fossil energy availability, helping in the transition to a more sustainable world. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Use of ultrasonic and acoustic sensors for characterization of liquid-particle flow and evaluation of hole cleaning efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fredagsvik, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The transportation of solids by suspension can cause severe damage to pipelines and infrastructures if not handled correctly. An adequate system for monitoring multiphase flow can be used to get early indications of erosion and poor hole cleaning. The use of ultrasonic and acoustic sensors has been reviewed for the application of slurry monitoring and evaluation of hole cleaning. The theories of slurry flow in pipes are quite extensive and are mostly based on fluid mechanics. The various a...

  5. Influence of sonication conditions on the efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning with flowing micrometer-sized air bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziuti, Toru

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the sizes of cleaned areas under different sonication conditions with the addition of flowing micrometer-sized air bubbles. The differences in the cleaned area of a glass plate pasted with silicon grease as a dirty material under different sonication conditions were investigated after tiny bubbles were blown on the dirty plate placed in an underwater sound field. The ultrasound was applied perpendicular to the bubble flow direction. The shape of the cleaned areas was nearly elliptical, so the lengths of the minor and major axes were measured. The length of the minor axis under sweep conditions (amplitude modulation), for which the average power was lower than that for continuous wave (CW) irradiation, was comparable to that for CW irradiation and was slightly larger than under bubble flow only. Not only the relatively high power for CW irradiation, but also the larger angular change of the bubble flow direction under sweep conditions contributed to the enlargement of the cleaned area in the direction of the minor axis. The combination of bubble flow and sonication under sweep or CW conditions produced a larger cleaned area compared with bubble flow only, although the increase was not higher than 20%. A rapid change from an air to water interface caused by the bubble flow and water jets caused by the collapse of bubbles due to violent pulsation is the main cleaning mechanism under a combination of ultrasound and bubble flow. PMID:26422770

  6. Determination of loss of efficiency photovoltaic panel function of cleaning; Influencia do acumulo de poeira sobre a eficiencia de um painel fotovoltaico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, Roger N. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Catarinense (IFC), Luzerna, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: roger@ifc-videira.edu.br; Gnoatto, Estor; Ferruzzi, Yuri; Kavanagh, Edward [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Melo, Dirceu de [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Chapeco, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The use of photovoltaic panels to generate electricity is growing into a worldwide basis. This generation system has a low efficiency, so it is necessary to know the panels will be used, the load will be fed and factors that may influence the operation and performance. The main factors are: radiation, temperature, angle of installation and level the dirt on the surface of the panel. This study aimed to show the difference in efficiency between two sets of photovoltaic panels, one clean and one dirty, the average difference is 16.26%, thus demonstrating the importance of making regular cleaning of photovoltaic panels, and these data can extended to other types of photovoltaic modules. (author)

  7. Efficiency and exhaust gas analysis of variable compression ratio spark ignition engine fuelled with alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Seshaiah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering energy crises and pollution problems today, investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products. In the present work, the variable compression ratio spark ignition engine designed to run on gasoline has been tested with pure gasoline, LPG (Isobutene, and gasoline blended with ethanol 10%, 15%, 25% and 35% by volume. Also, the gasoline mixed with kerosene at 15%, 25% and 35% by volume without any engine modifications has been tested and presented the result. Brake thermal and volumetric efficiency variation with brake load is compared and presented. CO and CO2 emissions have been also compared for all tested fuels.

  8. Alternative methods for the efficient construction of short hairpin RNA expression vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Zhang, Tingting; Guo, Lijun; Xin, Ying; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-06-01

    Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated RNA interference has become a basic technique in modern molecular biology and biochemistry for studying gene function and biological pathways. Here, we report two alternative and efficient methods to construct shRNA expression vectors based respectively on multiple-step sequential PCR and primer extension-homologous recombination (PE-HR). Neither method requires synthesizing long oligonucleotides containing hairpin sequences as used in traditional approaches. The hairpin sequences may produce mutations during oligo synthesis, pose problems in annealing, and lead to inefficient cloning. The PE-HR method further provides rapid and economical construction of shRNA expression vectors without needing the ligation procedure. PMID:25794926

  9. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  10. Development of Alternate Soil Clean-Up Goals for Hanford Waste Sites Using Fate and Transport Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remedial Action Goals (RAGs) for soil contaminant levels that are protective of groundwater have been determined for the Removal/Treatment/Disposal (RTD) sites at the 200-UW-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site. The RAG values were determined using a methodology involving the back-calculation of soil contaminant levels protective of groundwater (i.e., resulting groundwater concentrations are ≤ MCLs) in conjunction with the fate and transport modeling as a risk-based alternative to the currently prescribed use of background or detection limit default values. This methodology is important for waste management activities at the Hanford Site because it provides risk-based metrics and a technical basis for determining the levels of contamination 'left in place' in the Hanford Site vadose zone that are protective of human health and the environment. The methodology and the use of fate and transport modeling described here comply with federal guidelines for the use of environmental models. This approach is also consistent with one of several allowable methods identified in State guidelines for deriving soil concentrations for ground water protection. Federal and state guidelines recommend the use of site-specific information and data in risk-based assessments of risk and/or protectiveness. The site-specific characteristics of the Hanford Site, which include consideration of the semi-arid climate, an unsaturated zone thickness of over 80 m (262 feet), and associated/other site features and processes, are integral for the risk-based assessments associated with the protection of groundwater pathway. This methodology yields soil cleanup values (RAGs) for the 200-UW-1 OU waste sites selected for the removal/treatment/disposal (RTD) remedy. These proposed RAGs for uranium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are derived from soil concentrations calculated not to cause contamination of groundwater at levels that exceed the ground water MCLs, and are 40 to 200 times greater than

  11. Beyond centrality-classifying topological significance using backup efficiency and alternative paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In complex networks characterized by broad degree distribution, node significance is often associated with its degree or with centrality metrics which relate to its reachability and shortest paths passing through it. Such measures do not consider availability of efficient backup of the node and thus often fail to capture its contribution to the functionality and resilience of the network operation. In this paper, we suggest the quality of backup (QoB) and alternative path centrality (APC) measures as complementary methods which enable analysis of node significance in a manner which considers backup. We examine the theoretical significance of these measures and use them to classify nodes in social interaction networks and in the Internet AS (autonomous system) graph while applying the valley-free routing restrictions which reflect the economic relationships between the AS nodes in the Internet. We show that both node degree and node centrality are not necessarily evidence of its significance. In particular, we show that social structures do not necessarily depend on highly central nodes and that medium degree nodes with medium centrality measure prove to be crucial for efficient routing in the Internet AS graph

  12. Dry efficient cleaning of poly-methyl-methacrylate residues from graphene with high-density H2 and H2-N2 plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphene is the first engineering electronic material, which is purely two-dimensional: it consists of two exposed sp2-hybridized carbon surfaces and has no bulk. Therefore, surface effects such as contamination by adsorbed polymer residues have a critical influence on its electrical properties and can drastically hamper its widespread use in devices fabrication. These contaminants, originating from mandatory technological processes of graphene synthesis and transfer, also impact fundamental studies of the electronic and structural properties at the atomic scale. Therefore, graphene-based technology and research requires “soft” and selective surface cleaning techniques dedicated to limit or to suppress this surface contamination. Here, we show that a high-density H2 and H2-N2 plasmas can be used to selectively remove polymeric residues from monolayer graphene without any damage on the graphene surface. The efficiency of this dry-cleaning process is evidenced unambiguously by a set of spectroscopic and microscopic methods, providing unprecedented insights on the cleaning mechanisms and highlighting the role of specific poly-methyl-methacrylate residues at the graphene interface. The plasma is shown to perform much better cleaning than solvents and has the advantage to be an industrially mature technology adapted to large area substrates. The process is transferable to other kinds of two-dimensional material and heterostructures

  13. Elaboration of a Program to Facilitate the Implementation of the Directive 2009/33/EC on the Promotion of Clean and Energy-Efficient Road Motor Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztián Uhlik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption, carbon-dioxide and other air pollutant emissions of motor vehicles can be reduced substantially by various recently developed technical solutions. The use of these new technologies increases the price of the vehicles which causes an unwanted economic burden for the purchasers of such vehicles. The market competition between manufacturers requires low prices which delays the adaptation of the new, more efficient technologies. The recently enacted legislation, aimed at the promotion of purchasing clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles, intends to remedy this problem.

  14. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  15. Energy efficiency and CDM (Clean Development Mechanism): an attractive combination?; Eficiencia energetica e MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo): uma combinacao atrativa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de; Silva, Pedro Paulo [Programa GERBI - Reducao da Emissao de Gases Causadores do Efeito Estufa na Industria Brasileira, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti [PETROBRAS S.A., Pojuca, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Gas Natural (UNGN)

    2004-07-01

    The agreements that defined associated practices to the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) include energy efficiency in end users as a possible candidate to CDM eligibility. Worldwide, the experience of using 'carbon credits' resulted from reduced emissions in end users, as consequence of increased energy efficiency in processes, is limited. The paper presents preliminary conclusions of case studies developed by GERBI, evaluating the emissions reduction potential achieved by energy efficiency improvements in industrial processes, as well as financial impacts due to emissions reduction certificates traded. The paper considers a simplified methodology for feasibility analysis, but with necessary information to demonstrate how CDM and Energy Efficiency combination can support the decision for project implementation. (author)

  16. Impact of emerging clean vehicle system on water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Clean vehicles may increase US water consumption up to 2810 billion gallons/year. • Large-scale clean vehicle adoption could lead to severe regional water stress. • Fuel choice for clean vehicle is crucial in minimizing regional water stress. • Regional optimization illustrated the importance of regional consideration. - Abstract: While clean vehicles (i.e., vehicles powered by alternative fuels other than fossil fuels) offer great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from gasoline-based vehicles, the associated impact on water resources has not yet been fully assessed. This research provides a systematic evaluation of the impact of a fully implemented clean vehicle system on national and state-level water demand and water stress. On the national level, based on existing policies, transitioning the current gasoline-based transportation into one with clean vehicles will increase national annual water consumption by 1950–2810 billion gallons of water, depending on the market penetration of electric vehicles. On the state level, variances of water efficiency in producing different fuels are significant. The fuel choice for clean vehicle development is especially crucial for minimizing water stress increase in states with already high water stress, high travel demands, and significant variations in water efficiency in producing different alternative fuels. Current development of clean vehicle infrastructure, however, has not reflected these state-level variations. This study takes an optimization approach to further evaluate impacts on state-level water stress from a fully implemented clean vehicle system and identified potential roles (fuel producer or consumer) states may play in real world clean vehicle development scenario. With an objective of minimizing overall water stress impact, our optimization model aims to provide an analytical framework to better assess impacts on state-level water

  17. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  18. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalov, Vyacheslav Vasilievich; Pozharnitskaya, Olga Vyacheslavovna; Rostovshchikova, А.; Matveenko, Irina Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative a...

  19. Novel-structured electrospun TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers for high efficient photocatalytic cogeneration of clean water and energy from dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Siang; Bai, Hongwei; Liu, Zhaoyang; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-08-01

    It is still a challenge to photocatalytically cogenerate clean water and energy from dye wastewater owing to the relatively low photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts. In this study, novel-structured TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated via facile electrospinning. For the first time, the TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers demonstrated multifunctional ability for concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and H2 generation from dye wastewater. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers was ascribed to its excellent synergy of physicochemical properties: 1) mesoporosity and large specific surface area for efficient substrate adsorption, mass transfer and light harvesting; 2) red-shift of the absorbance spectra for enhanced light utilization; 3) long nanofibrous structure for efficient charge transfer and ease of recovery, 4) TiO2/CuO heterojunctions which enhance the separation of electrons and holes and 5) presence of CuO which serve as co-catalyst for the H2 production. The TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers also exhibited rapid settleability by gravity and uncompromised reusability. Thus, the as-synthesized TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers represent a promising candidate for highly efficient concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and clean energy production from dye wastewater. PMID:23541306

  20. Research into the Cleaning Efficiency of 300 m3/h Maintained by the Spiral Multi-Channel Cyclone in the Process of Removing Solid Particles of <20 µm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranas Baltrėnas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tests on the cleaning efficiency of an experimental spiral cyclone have been conducted to determine the removal efficiency of the solid particles the dispersion of which makes <20 µm in the streamlined multi-channel cyclone. The introduced device is adapted to removing ultrafine particulate matter from contaminated air (gas flow. A multi-channel cyclone with spiral casing has been designed at the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. Experimental studies have disclosed that air (gas flow cleaning efficiency of the spiral multi-cyclone (capacity 300 m3 depend on the internal structure of the device, i.e. on the number of channels and air (gas flow distribution ratio of transit and peripheral channels. Also, the treatment efficiency of the applied equipment has been evaluated removing solid particles of different nature. AFA-VP-20 filters have been employed for conducting experimental tests. The obtained results have disclosed that solid granite particles – 95.1%, glass – 91.4% and wood – 92.2% are removed most effectively.

  1. An alternative approach to modeling genetic merit of feed efficiency in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Vandehaar, M J; Spurlock, D M; Weigel, K A; Armentano, L E; Staples, C R; Connor, E E; Wang, Z; Bello, N M; Tempelman, R J

    2015-09-01

    Genetic improvement of feed efficiency (FE) in dairy cattle requires greater attention given increasingly important resource constraint issues. A widely accepted yet occasionally contested measure of FE in dairy cattle is residual feed intake (RFI). The use of RFI is limiting for several reasons, including interpretation, differences in recording frequencies between the various component traits that define RFI, and potential differences in genetic versus nongenetic relationships between dry matter intake (DMI) and FE component traits. Hence, analyses focusing on DMI as the response are often preferred. We propose an alternative multiple-trait (MT) modeling strategy that exploits the Cholesky decomposition to provide a potentially more robust measure of FE. We demonstrate that our proposed FE measure is identical to RFI provided that genetic and nongenetic relationships between DMI and component traits of FE are identical. We assessed both approaches (MT and RFI) by simulation as well as by application to 26,383 weekly records from 50 to 200 d in milk on 2,470 cows from a dairy FE consortium study involving 7 institutions. Although the proposed MT model fared better than the RFI model when simulated genetic and nongenetic associations between DMI and FE component traits were substantially different from each other, no meaningful differences were found in predictive performance between the 2 models when applied to the consortium data. PMID:26210274

  2. Water Use Efficiency and Physiological Response of Rice Cultivars under Alternate Wetting and Drying Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the technology options that can help farmers cope with water scarcity at the field level is alternate wetting and drying (AWD. Limited information is available on the varietal responses to nitrogen, AWD, and their interactions. Field experiments were conducted at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI farm in 2009 dry season (DS, 2009 wet season (WS, and 2010 DS to determine genotypic responses and water use efficiency of rice under two N rates and two water management treatments. Grain yield was not significantly different between AWD and continuous flooding (CF across the three seasons. Interactive effects among variety, water management, and N rate were not significant. The high yield was attributed to the significantly higher grain weight, which in turn was due to slower grain filling and high leaf N at the later stage of grain filling of CF. AWD treatments accelerated the grain filling rate, shortened grain filling period, and enhanced whole plant senescence. Under normal dry-season conditions, such as 2010 DS, AWD reduced water input by 24.5% than CF; however, it decreased grain yield by 6.9% due to accelerated leaf senescence. The study indicates that proper water management greatly contributes to grain yield in the late stage of grain filling, and it is critical for safe AWD technology.

  3. Gas Cleaning System with a Pre-Unloading Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevsky, Michail; Razva, Aleksandr; Roman, Baev; Alibek, Asan

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of the causes and mechanisms reduce the efficiency of processes separation in cyclone devices, the results of field surveys of industrial cyclone. It offers an alternative solution to clean the flue gases from the boiler KE-10/14.

  4. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 2014 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    Spring 2014 edition of the biannual newsletter of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program. Each issue contains program news, success stories, and information about tools and resources to assist in the deployment of alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, idle reduction, fuel efficiency improvements, and other measures to cut petroleum use in transportation.

  5. Gas Cleaning System with a Pre-Unloading Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilevsky Michail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the causes and mechanisms reduce the efficiency of processes separation in cyclone devices, the results of field surveys of industrial cyclone. It offers an alternative solution to clean the flue gases from the boiler KE-10/14.

  6. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 survey. R and D of high efficiency clean energy vehicles; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu clean energy jidosha no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of developing an automobile which keeps low pollution using petroleum substituting clean energy, decreases the running energy consumption to a half at least, and reduces the CO2 emission to less than a half of the conventional one at the same time, the R and D started in fiscal 1997. As to the study of a high efficiency hybrid power system, conducted were the prediction of fuel consumption performance of the system proposed, evaluation of element technology using hybrid simulator, evaluation experiment on a new hybrid vehicle, and grasp of overseas trends. In relation to the development of hybrid vehicles, the following were studied: methanol fuel cell loading hybrid vehicle, CNG engine loading hybrid vehicle, CNG ceramic engine loading hybrid truck, CNG lean burn engine loading hybrid truck, LNG engine loading hybrid bus, and DME engine loading hybrid bus. Besides, a survey on synthetic fuel and the related survey were carried out. 17 refs., 185 figs., 101 tabs.

  7. 高效路面油污清洗剂的研制%Development of road grease cleaning agent with high decontamination efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文; 蔡卫权; 李玉军; 涂文辉

    2013-01-01

    A new weakly alkaline road grease cleaning agent with high decontamination efficiency was developed by choosing appropriate surfactants, auxiliary solvent and alkaline auxiliaries via analysis of the composition, properties and forming process of the road surface grease. Based on orthogonal experiment, the best ingredients and their percentage contents of AES 6%, LAS 1%, APG 4%, AEO-9 1%, mandarin oil 1.5%, triethanolamine 4% and trisodium citrate 3% were determined b further experiments of performance optimization, and its decontamination rate could reach 99.8% at dry temperature of 150℃. Comparison study of the cleaning performance between commercial multipurpose cleaning agent "Mr Muscle" for kitchen and the as-prepared road grease cleaning agent showed that the latter cleaning agent had higher comprehensive decontamination capacity, and also broad application prospect in the field of thick road grease cleaning.%通过对美食街路面油污组成、性质及形成过程进行分析,选择合适的表面活性剂、辅助溶剂和碱性助剂等原料成功地复配成弱碱性高效路面油污清洗剂.在正交实验的基础上,对所选配方进行性能优化实验,确定最佳实验配方组成分别为脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚硫酸钠6%、直链烷基苯磺酸钠1%、烷基糖苷4%、脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚1%、桔子油1.5%、三乙醇胺4%和柠檬酸三钠3%,在150℃的干燥温度下其去污力可达99.8%.与市售厨房多用清洗剂“威猛先生”清洗性能的对比研究表明,该清洗剂的综合去污能力更强,在路面稠油垢清洗领域显示出广阔的应用前景.

  8. Impact of the recession on the realization of the Kyoto target and the 2011 target of the working programme 'Clean and Efficient'. Memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By request of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment the Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) drew up this memo on the impact of the recession on the realization of the Kyoto target and the intermediate target for 2011 from the working programme Clean and Efficient. The main conclusion of this memo is that both with and without the recession the Kyoto target will probably be realized. The main difference lies in the volume of emission allowances deployed by the government to realize the target [mk

  9. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  10. 我国煤炭高效洁净利用新技术%New Technology of Coal High Efficient and Cleaning Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金华

    2012-01-01

    The high efficient and clean utilization of coal is the effective access to realize the energy saving and emission reduction.Based on the circumstances,the paper introduced the technical principle,innovations,technical advantage and promotion conditions of the three new technologies of the coal high efficient and clean utilization,including the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology,the coal water mixture preparation and new technology application and the dry flue gas cleaning technology of the active coke.In combination with the present actual conditions,the development orientation of the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology as pointed would be finally to set up the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology system with the deep systematic study on the clean pulverized coal preparation technology,the pulverized coal logistic and distribution technology,the pulverized coal boiler combustion and cleaning technology as well as the commercialized operation mode.The gasification coal water mixture prepared with the mine water and the long distance pipeline transportation would be the development orientation of the gasification coal water mixture.The dry flue gas cleaning technology of active coke would be suitable applied to the zone lacking of water resources and the development direction in the near future would be to improve the performances of the active coke,to reduce the technique cost,to improve the de-nitre capacity,to simplify the technique procedure and to have the removing and regeneration completed in a device.%煤炭的高效洁净利用是实现节能减排的有效途径,基于此,对我国目前煤炭高效洁净利用3项新技术(高效煤粉工业锅炉技术、水煤浆制备和应用新技术、活性焦干法烟气净化技术)的技术原理、创新点、技术优点及推广情况进行了介绍。结合当前实际,指出高效煤粉工业锅炉技术的发展方向是通过对

  11. Efficient and cost-reduced glucoamylase fed-batch production with alternative carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongzhen; Liu, Han; He, Zhenni; Zhou, Cong; Shi, Zhongping

    2015-02-01

    Glucoamylase is an important industrial enzyme. Glucoamylase production by industrial Aspergillus niger strain featured with two major problems: (i) empirical substrate feeding methods deteriorating the fermentation performance; and (ii) the high raw materials cost limiting the economics of the glucoamylase product with delegated specification. In this study, we first proposed a novel three-stage varied-rate substrate feeding strategy for efficient glucoamylase production in a 5 L bioreactor using the standard feeding medium, by comparing the changing patterns of the important physiological parameters such as DO, OUR, RQ, etc., when using different substrate feeding strategies. With this strategy, the glucoamylase activity and productivity reached higher levels of 11,000 U/ml and 84.6 U/ml/h, respectively. The performance enhancement in this case was beneficial from the following results: DO and OUR could be controlled at the higher levels (30%, 43.83 mmol/l/h), while RQ was maintained at a stable/lower level of 0.60 simultaneously throughout the fed-batch phase. Based on this three-stage varied-rate substrate feeding strategy, we further evaluated the economics of using alternative carbon sources, attempting to reduce the raw materials cost. The results revealed that cornstarch hydrolysate could be considered as the best carbon source to replace the standard and expensive feeding medium. In this case, the production cost of the glucoamylase with delegated specification (5,000 U/ml) could be saved by more than 61% while the product quality be ensured simultaneously. The proposed strategy showed application potential in improving the economics of industrial glucoamylase production. PMID:25262682

  12. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  13. Prepsolv (TM): The optimum alternative to 1,1,1-trichloroethane and methyl ethyl ketone for hand-wipe cleaning of aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. Scott; Purvis, John A.; Moran, Wade W.

    1995-01-01

    Engineers at Hercules Aerospace, a rocket motor manufacturer in Utah, have worked closely with chemists at Glidco Organics to study the feasibility of using terpenes for zero-residue wipe cleaning. The result of this work is a technological breakthrough, in which the barrier to ultra-low non-volatile residue formation has been broken. After 2 years of development and testing, SCM Glidco Organics has announced the availability of Glidsafe(registered trademark) Prepsolv(TM): a state-of-the-art ultra-low residue terpene wipe cleaning agent that does not require rinsing. Prepsolv(TM) can successfully be used in simple hand-wipe cleaning processes without fear of leaving surface residues. Industry testing has confirmed that Prepsolv(TM) is not only highly effective, but can even be less expensive to use than traditional cleaning solvents like methyl chloroform. This paper addresses the features and benefits of Prepsolv(TM), and presents performance and material compatibility data that characterizes this unique cleaning agent. Since its commercialization, Hercules Aerospace has chosen Prepsolv(TM) as the optimum cleaning agent to replace ozone-depleting solvents in their weapons factory in Magna, UT. Likewise, Boeing has approved Prepsolv(TM) for cleaning components in the manufacture of commercial aircraft at their facilities in Seattle, WA and Wichita, KS. Additional approvals are forthcoming for this uniquely safe and effective solvent.

  14. Effects of boundary conditions on the cleaning efficiency of riverbank filtration and artificial groundwater recharge systems regarding bulk parameters and trace pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Florian R; Schmidt, Carsten K; Wülser, Richard; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is often produced from surface water by riverbank filtration (RBF) or artificial groundwater recharge (AGR). In this study, an AGR system was exemplarily investigated and results were compared with those of RBF systems, in which the effects of redox milieu, temperature and surface water discharge on the cleaning efficiency were evaluated. Besides bulk parameters such as DOC (dissolved organic carbon), organic trace pollutants including iodinated X-ray contrast media, personal care products, complexing agents, and pharmaceuticals were investigated. At all studied sites, levels of TOC (total organic carbon), DOC, AOX (adsorbable organic halides), SAC (spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm), and turbidity were reduced significantly. DOC removal was stimulated at higher groundwater temperatures during AGR. Several substances were generally easily removable during both AGR and RBF, regardless of the site, season, discharge or redox regime. For some more refractory substances, however, removal efficiency turned out to be significantly influenced by redox conditions. PMID:22678210

  15. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  16. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  17. Eco-efficient Value Creation: An Alternative Perspective on Packaging and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Vogtländer, J.

    2012-01-01

    The classical sustainability perspective on packaging is to reduce the environmental impact or eco burden of the packaging, using life cycle assessment to evaluate different design alternatives. Simultaneously, the classical marketing perspective on packaging is to generate value through differentia

  18. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes : The case of Dutch horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, Arno J.; Withagen, Cees; Folmer, Henk

    2007-01-01

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter environ

  19. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes: The case of Dutch horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der A.J.; Withagen, C.; Folmer, H.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter environ

  20. The Efficiency of the Treasury Bill Futures Market: An Analysis of Alternative Specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Vignola, Anthony; Dale, Charles

    1980-01-01

    Until the existence of financial futures, testing the determinants and the informational content of futures market prices has been difficult because of the vagaries associated with commodity markets. In the case of Treasury bill futures, the existence of an active secondary market and the resulting term structure of interest rates enables one to test alternative hypotheses about the prices of futures contracts. This study compares two alternative specifications of equilibrium futures prices...

  1. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Ralph [Auburn University, AL (United States); Schindler, Anton [Auburn University, AL (United States); Duke, Steve [Auburn University, AL (United States); Burch, Thom [Auburn University, AL (United States); Bransby, David [Auburn University, AL (United States); Stafford, Don [Lafarge North America, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  2. Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts of Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Satchwell, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2010-08-06

    Increased interest by state (and federal) policymakers and regulatory agencies in pursuing aggressive energy efficiency efforts could deliver significant utility bill savings for customers while having long-term implications for ratepayers (e.g. potential rate impacts). Equity and distributional concerns associated with the authorized recovery of energy efficiency program costs may necessitate the pursuit of alternative program funding approaches. In 2008, Massachusetts passed the Green Communities Act which directed its energy efficiency (EE) program administrators to obtain all cost-effective EE resources. This goal has translated into achieving annual electric energy savings equivalent to a 2.4% reduction in retail sales from energy efficiency programs in 2012. Representatives of electricity consumer groups supported the new portfolio of EE programs (and the projected bill savings) but raised concerns about the potential rate impacts associated with achieving such aggressive EE goals, leading policymakers to seek out alternative funding sources which can potentially mitigate these effects. Utility administrators have also raised concerns about under-recovery of fixed costs when aggressive energy efficiency programs are pursued and have proposed ratemaking policies (e.g. decoupling) and business models that better align the utility's financial interests with the state's energy efficiency public policy goals. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other states looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. We use a pro-forma utility financial model to quantify the bill and rate impacts on electricity customers when very aggressive annual energy efficiency savings goals ({approx}2.4%) are achieved over the long-term and also assess the impact of

  3. Synergetic Effect between Lighting Efficiency Enhancement and Building Energy Reduction Using Alternative Thermal Operating System of Indoor LED Lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Byung-Lip Ahn; Ji-Woo Park; Seunghwan Yoo; Jonghun Kim; Hakgeun Jeong; Seung-Bok Leigh; Cheol-Yong Jang

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the synergetic effect between light-emitting diode (LED) lighting efficiency and building energy savings in heating and cooling using an alternative thermal operating system (ATOS) of indoor LED lighting integrated with the ventilation system of a building as an active cooling device. The heat generated from LED lighting and the indoor lighting illuminance were experimentally determined. The indoor heat gains in cooling and heating periods were determined using measurement dat...

  4. Efficient training protocol for rapid learning of the two‐alternative forced‐choice visual stimulus detection task

    OpenAIRE

    Soma, Shogo; Suematsu, Naofumi; Shimegi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The potential of genetically engineered rodent models has accelerated demand for training procedures of behavioral tasks. Such training is generally time consuming and often shows large variability in learning speed between animals. To overcome these problems, we developed an efficient and stable training system for the two‐alternative forced‐choice (2AFC) visual stimulus detection task for freely behaving rodents. To facilitate the task learning, we introduced a spout‐lever as the o...

  5. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  6. Efficient on-the-fly Algorithm for Checking Alternating Timed Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Chatain, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    of building a symbolic turn-based two-player game such that the existence of a winning strategy is equivalent to the simulation being satisfied. We also propose an on-the-fly algorithm for solving this game. This simulation checking method can be applied to the case of non-alternating or strong simulations...

  7. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  8. Solar fuel processing efficiency for ceria redox cycling using alternative oxygen partial pressure reduction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar-driven non-stoichiometric thermochemical redox cycling of ceria for the conversion of solar energy into fuels shows promise in achieving high solar-to-fuel efficiency. This efficiency is significantly affected by the operating conditions, e.g. redox temperatures, reduction and oxidation pressures, solar irradiation concentration, or heat recovery effectiveness. We present a thermodynamic analysis of five redox cycle designs to investigate the effects of working conditions on the fuel production. We focused on the influence of approaches to reduce the partial pressure of oxygen in the reduction step, namely by mechanical approaches (sweep gassing or vacuum pumping), chemical approaches (chemical scavenger), and combinations thereof. The results indicated that the sweep gas schemes work more efficient at non-isothermal than isothermal conditions, and efficient gas phase heat recovery and sweep gas recycling was important to ensure efficient fuel processing. The vacuum pump scheme achieved best efficiencies at isothermal conditions, and at non-isothermal conditions heat recovery was less essential. The use of oxygen scavengers combined with sweep gas and vacuum pump schemes further increased the system efficiency. The present work can be used to predict the performance of solar-driven non-stoichiometric redox cycles and further offers quantifiable guidelines for system design and operation. - Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis was conducted for ceria-based thermochemical cycles. • Five novel cycle designs and various operating conditions were proposed and investigated. • Pressure reduction method affects optimal operating conditions for maximized efficiency. • Chemical oxygen scavenger proves to be promising in further increasing efficiency. • Formulation of quantifiable design guidelines for economical competitive solar fuel processing

  9. Improved cotyledonary node method using an alternative explant derived from mature seed for efficient Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Margie M; Martinez, Juan Carlos; Kalvig, Andrea B; Fonger, Tina M; Wang, Kan

    2006-03-01

    The utility of transformation for soybean improvement requires an efficient system for production of stable transgenic lines. We describe here an improved cotyledonary node method using an alternative explant for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated soybean transformation. We use the term "half-seed" to refer to this alternative cotyledonary explant that is derived from mature seed of soybean following an overnight imbibition and to distinguish it from cotyledonary node derived from 5-7-day-old seedlings. Transformation efficiencies using half-seed explants ranged between 1.4 and 8.7% with an overall efficiency of 3.8% based on the number of transformed events that have been confirmed in the T1 generation by phenotypic assay using the herbicide Liberty (active ingredient glufosinate) and by Southern analysis. This efficiency is 1.5-fold higher than the cotyledonary node method used in our laboratory. Significantly, the half-seed system is simple and does not require deliberate wounding of explants, which is a critical and technically demanding step in the cotyledonary node method. PMID:16249869

  10. Economic efficiency or self-sufficiency: alternative strategies for oil consumers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ideal energy source is low cost (efficient) and reliable (secure). The high price and perceived political unreliability of Middle East oil supplies prompted a nearly worldwide trend towards energy self-sufficiency. Gains in energy efficiency, which have been most marked in the OECD, are permanent and, prompted by environmental concern, probably progressive. But the opportunity that is still available to low cost oil suppliers to regain lost markets will only be realized if those supplies are demonstrably reliable. (author)

  11. Energy efficiency of the oil transportation processes and alternative energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : The energy efficiency of the transportation processes of Azerbaijan oil by pipelines on Western routes has been assessed. It was shown that the surface facilities of oil pipelines in many cases, the power supply is realized through autonomous energy sources. This report dedicated to analysis of organic fuel combustion processes in the autonomic generators and turbogenerators, definition of energy efficiency of these facilities. The facilities are grouped by energy capacity

  12. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  13. Laser cleaning of oil spill on coastal rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittiboonanan, Phumipat; Rattanarojpan, Jidapa; Ratanavis, Amarin

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, oil spills have become a significant environmental problem in Thailand. This paper presents a laser treatment for controlled-clean up oil spill from coastal rocks. The cleaning of various types of coastal rocks polluted by the spill was investigated by using a quasi CW diode laser operating at 808 nm. The laser power was attempted from 1 W to 70 W. The result is shown to lead to the laser removal of oil spill, without damaging the underlying rocks. In addition, the cleaning efficiency is evaluated using an optical microscope. This study shows that the laser technology would provide an attractive alternative to current cleaning methods to remove oil spill from coastal rocks.

  14. Comparative evaluation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions for alternate iron- and steelmaking process technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Y.; Kumar, S; Freislich, M.; Yaroshenko, Yu.

    2014-01-01

    In the changing global market scenario for raw materials for the steel industry, a number of novel iron- and steelmaking process technologies are being developed to provide the steel companies with economically-sustainable alternatives for iron- and steel-making. In addition, the steel industry is also focusing on reduction of energy consumption as well as green-house gas (GHG) emissions to address the crucial subject of climate change. In this context, it is important to assess these critica...

  15. IMPROVING IRRIGATION WATER ALLOCATION EFFICIENCY USING ALTERNATIVE POLICY OPTIONS IN EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    He, Lixia; Tyner, Wallace E.; Siam, Gamal

    2004-01-01

    This study provides an empirical perspective on alternative irrigation policies for allocating limited water to agricultural production in Egypt. Positive mathematical programming is used for model calibration. Three policy options for Egypt are tested: water pricing, water complementary input factor taxes, and output taxes. The results of the research show that: 1) water pricing needs to be much higher than the recovery cost in order to be effective in limiting irrigation water use; 2) at a ...

  16. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  17. Assessment of energy efficiency project financing alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WDM Hunt; JC Hail; GP Sullivan

    2000-03-13

    Energy reduction goals for Federal agencies were first established in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1988, and directed 10{percent} reduction in facility energy use based on a 1985 baseline. Since that time, Federal sites have been actively seeking and implementing a wide variety of energy-efficiency measures in facilities across the Federal sector. In the intervening years this energy reduction goal has been progressively increased to 20{percent} through legislation (Public Law 102-486, The Energy Policy Act of 1992) and a number of Executive Orders. Executive Order 13123, Greening the Government Through Efficient Energy management (signed June 3, 1999), further increased the facility energy-efficiency improvement goal from 30{percent} in 2005 to 35{percent} by 2010 relative to the 1985 baseline.

  18. Polyphosphonium polymers for siRNA delivery: An efficient and nontoxic alternative to polyammonium carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Cátia

    2012-02-01

    A water-soluble polyphosphonium polymer was synthesized and directly compared with its ammonium analog in terms of siRNA delivery. The triethylphosphonium polymer shows transfection efficiency up to 65% with 100% cell viability, whereas the best result obtained for the ammonium analog reaches only 25% transfection with 85% cell viability. Moreover, the nature of the alkyl substituents on the phosphonium cations is shown to have an important influence on the transfection efficiency and toxicity of the polyplexes. The present results show that the use of positively charged phosphonium groups is a worthy choice to achieve a good balance between toxicity and transfection efficiency in gene delivery systems. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  20. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  1. Evaluation of the combination of dimethyl disulfide and dazomet as an efficient methyl bromide alternative for cucumber production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liangang; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Liu, Pengfei; Shen, Jin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2014-05-28

    The combination of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dazomet (DZ) is a potential alternative to methyl bromide (MB) for soil disinfestation. The efficacy of DMDS plus DZ in controlling key soilborne pests was evaluated in a laboratory study and in two commercial cucumber greenhouses. Laboratory studies found that all of the combinations had positive synergistic effects on root-knot nematodes, two key soilborne fungi, and two major weed seeds. Greenhouse trials revealed that the combination of DMDS and DZ (30 + 25 g m(-2)) successfully suppressed Meloidogyne spp. root galling, sharply reduced the colony-forming units of Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. on media, maintained high cucumber yields, and was not significantly different from MB or DMDS alone, but better than DZ alone. All of the chemical treatments provided significantly better results than the nontreated control. The results indicate that the combination of DMDS and DZ is an efficient MB alternative for cucumber production. PMID:24820184

  2. An alternative to evaluate the efficiency of in vitro culture medium using a logistic regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Furtado Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of a culture medium for the in vitro culture of a species is performed using its physical and/or chemical properties. However, the analysis of the experimental results makes it possible to evaluate its quality. In this sense, this work presents an alternative using a logistic model to evaluate the culture medium to be used in vitro. The probabilities provided by this model will be used as a medium evaluator index. The importance of this index is based on the formalization of a statistical criterion for the selection of the adequate culture medium to be used on in vitro culture without excluding its physical and/or chemical properties. To demonstrate this procedure, an experiment determining the ideal medium for the in vitro culture of primary explants of Ipeca [Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. Stokes] was evaluated. The differentiation of the culture medium was based on the presence and absence of the growth regulator BAP (6-benzilaminopurine. A logistic model was adjusted as a function of the weight of fresh and dry matter. Minimum, medium and maximum probabilities obtained with this model showed that the culture medium containing BAP was the most adequate for the explant growth. Due to the high discriminative power of these mediums, detected by the model, their use is recommended as an alternative to select culture medium for similar experiments.

  3. Acute medical assessment units: an efficient alternative to in-hospital acute medical care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watts, M

    2011-02-01

    Acute Medical Assessment Units (AMAUs) are being proposed as an alternative to congested Emergency Departments (EDs for the assessment of patients with a range of acute medical problems. We retrospectively reviewed the discharge destination of patients referred to a newly established AMAU during a six-month period. During the same period we contrasted activity in the ED for a similar group of patients. 1,562 patients were assessed in the AMAU. 196 (12.5%) were admitted to an in-patient bed and 1,148 (73.5%) were entered into specific diagnosis-driven out-patient pathways. 1,465 patients attended the ED and 635 (43.3%) were admitted. Out-patient alternatives to expensive in-patient care need to be provided at the \\'coal face" of acute referral. The AMAU provides this, and as a consequence admission rates are relatively low. This is achieved by directly communicating with GPs, accessing senior clinical decision makers, and providing immediate access to diagnostically driven outpatient pathways.

  4. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Heat and Power for the 21st Century, Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    This overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program describes the program's focus and goals, along with current fuel cell applications and future potential. The program focuses on research and development of fuel cell systems for diverse applications in the stationary power, portable power, and transportation sectors. It works to reduce costs and improve technologies to advance fuel cell uses in areas such as combined heat and power, auxiliary power units, portable power systems, and stationary and backup power. To help ensure that fuel cell advances are realized, the program rigorously analyzes energy efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits of fuel cells and seeks to optimize synergies among fuel cell applications and other renewable technologies.

  5. An Energy-efficient and Clean Spray Drying Technology%节能型清洁喷雾干燥技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志远; 贾敏

    2016-01-01

    The traditional catalyst spray drying system usually uses direct drying process, the carrier gas contacts with materials directly, this method can pollute some special catalysts to influence the quality of the final product, and direct discharge of the high temperature exhaust gas into the atmosphere can cause heat loss. So an energy-efficient and clean spray drying technology for catalyst preparation has been developed. The spray drying technology uses the indirect stove with new structure to supply clean and dry hot air, and uses the half-cycle technology to reuse part of the high temperature exhaust gas.%传统的催化剂喷雾干燥系统多采用直接干燥工艺,载气与待干燥物料直接接触换热,这样会对某些特性的催化剂造成污染,影响产品的最终品质,且高温尾气不经回收直接排入大气,造成热量损失。基于此,开发了一种节能型催化剂清洁喷雾干燥技术,即:利用新型结构的间接式热风炉提供清洁的干燥热风,利用尾气半循环使部分高温清洁尾气回用,实现了节能型、清洁型喷雾干燥工艺。

  6. Multimodal nested sampling: an efficient and robust alternative to MCMC methods for astronomical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Feroz, Farhan

    2007-01-01

    In performing a Bayesian analysis of astronomical data, two difficult problems often emerge. First, in estimating the parameters of some model for the data, the resulting posterior distribution may be multimodal or exhibit pronounced (curving) degeneracies, which can cause problems for traditional MCMC sampling methods. Second, in selecting between a set of competing models, calculation of the Bayesian evidence for each model is computationally expensive. The nested sampling method introduced by Skilling (2004), has greatly reduced the computational expense of calculating evidences and also produces posterior inferences as a by-product. This method has been applied successfully in cosmological applications by Mukherjee et al. (2006), but their implementation was efficient only for unimodal distributions without pronounced degeneracies. Shaw et al. (2007), recently introduced a clustered nested sampling method which is significantly more efficient in sampling from multimodal posteriors and also determines the ...

  7. Feed alternatives and phosphorus efficiency of the Norwegian fisheries and aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Vestrum, Magnus Inderberg

    2013-01-01

    With the worlds reserves of rock phosphate expected to be depleted within 50-100 years, the mapping of the flows of phosphorus in the world is crucial. The Norwegian fisheries and aquaculture industry is one of the largest industries in Norway, and is predicted to grow significantly the coming decades. This opens up to many challenges and opportunities regarding sustainability and efficient use of the available resources. In this thesis a material flow analysis (MFA) is utilized in order to i...

  8. Putting renewables and energy efficiency to work: How many jobs can the clean energy industry generate in the US?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical job creation model for the US power sector from 2009 to 2030 is presented. The model synthesizes data from 15 job studies covering renewable energy (RE), energy efficiency (EE), carbon capture and storage (CCS) and nuclear power. The paper employs a consistent methodology of normalizing job data to average employment per unit energy produced over plant lifetime. Job losses in the coal and natural gas industry are modeled to project net employment impacts. Benefits and drawbacks of the methodology are assessed and the resulting model is used for job projections under various renewable portfolio standards (RPS), EE, and low carbon energy scenarios We find that all non-fossil fuel technologies (renewable energy, EE, low carbon) create more jobs per unit energy than coal and natural gas. Aggressive EE measures combined with a 30% RPS target in 2030 can generate over 4 million full-time-equivalent job-years by 2030 while increasing nuclear power to 25% and CCS to 10% of overall generation in 2030 can yield an additional 500,000 job-years.

  9. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  10. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  11. Amorphous Ni-B alloy nanoparticle film on Ni foam: rapid alternately dipping deposition for efficient overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanhui; Sun, Xuping; Asiri, Abdullah M.; He, Yuquan

    2016-03-01

    It is highly attractive, but still remains challenging, to develop noble metal-free bifunctional electrocatalysts efficient for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media. In this letter, we describe the rapid electroless deposition of amorphous Ni-B nanoparticle film on Ni foam (Ni-B/Ni foam) by alternative dipping of Ni foam into Ni precursor and reducing solutions. This Ni-B/Ni foam acts as an efficient and durable 3D catalytic electrode for water splitting, affording 100 mA cm-2 at 360 mV overpotential for the OER and 20 mA cm-2 at 125 mV overpotential for the HER in 1.0 M KOH, and its two-electrode electrolyzer demands a cell voltage of 1.69 V to afford 15 mA cm-2 water-splitting current. Moreover, the catalyst loading can be easily tuned and this alternately dipping deposition technique works universally for other conductive substrates.

  12. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  13. Online soot cleaning using infrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torra i Fernandez, Eric; Ellebro, Martin [Infrafone AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-10-01

    The company Infrafone has been using infrasound as a soot cleaning method for more than 30 years. Infrasonic soot cleaning increases the efficiency, the availability and the lifetime of marine and industrial boilers. The properties and the description of infrasound and Infrafone's soot cleaning method are presented. Moreover, a brief comparison with audible sonic horns is carried out. The results and the savings of installing Infrafone's infrasonic cleaners are presented here with several case studies. (orig.)

  14. An alternative approach to efficient simulation of micro/nanoscale phonon transport

    CERN Document Server

    Peraud, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the recently proposed energy-based deviational formulation for solving the Boltzmann equation [J.-P. Peraud and N. G. Hadjiconstantinou, Phys. Rev. B 84, 2011], which provides significant computational speedup compared to standard Monte Carlo methods for small deviations from equilibrium, we show that additional computational benefits are possible in the limit that the governing equation can be linearized. The proposed method exploits the observation that under linearized conditions (small temperature differences) the trajectories of individual deviational particles can be decoupled and thus simulated independently; this leads to a particularly simple and efficient algorithm for simulating steady and transient problems in arbitrary three-dimensional geometries, without introducing any additional approximation.

  15. An Alternative and Efficient Cluster-Link Approach for Declustering of Earthquake Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibi, R.; Blanco, J.; Fatehi, A.

    2011-12-01

    Poisson model is widely used to describe the temporal occurrence of earthquakes in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) studies for various reasons. The most important of these is that Poisson model is simple, yet adequate enough to describe a complex phenomenon. Studies of temporal earthquake distribution show that earthquake sequences are Poissonian only after foreshocks and aftershocks have been removed from the listing. Hence, the identification and removal of foreshocks and aftershocks from earthquake catalogs, a process referred to as declustering, are a prerequisite for any PSHA study based on a Poissonian model for earthquake occurrence. Two main approaches and their variants are widely used in the seismic hazard assessment community for catalog declustering: (1) the standard space-time windowing technique, such as Gardner and Knopoff (1974) method, and (2) the cluster-link scheme, such as Reasenberg (1985) algorithm or Davis and Frohlich (1991) method. Each of these methods possesses some advantages as well as shortcomings. We propose a cluster-link declustering approach that is adapted from Reasenberg's (1985) technique, in which the interaction time window based on Poisson's probability is replaced by a simple, but more efficient magnitude-dependent time criterion. Application of the proposed scheme to earthquake catalogs of Slovenia and the Middle East suggests that, depending on the character of the original catalog in terms of event sizes, the proposed approach identifies up to13% more dependent events, more efficiently depletes or removes clusters of earthquakes, and, as consequence, dramatically improves the fit to the expected Poisson model, with respect to Reasenberg's (1985) method.

  16. SAGE--SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAGE is a comprehensive guide designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing. SAGE does not recommend any ozone depleting chemicals. SAGE was developed by the Surface Cleaning Program at Research Triang...

  17. Increasing the efficiency of NMR by multiplex data acquisition and alternative probe tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool to investigate the structure and dynamics of molecular systems. But it is justifiably perceived as a costly and time-consuming technology. Within this thesis the author presents novel approaches to improve the technique regarding sensitivity and efficiency, and their implementations on commercial NMR spectrometers. The time requirements of multi-dimensional NMR experiments are usually determined by: 1. The number of transients that have to be accumulated to get sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. 2. The coherence selection process required to filter the desired information. 3. The number of indirect time increments to achieve enough resolution. Often, especially for structure determination of bigger molecules, a single experiment does not provide enough information and a set of different experiments has to be recorded. Based on that the author adds a fourth item to the list: 4. The number of different experiments that have to be recorded to obtain the necessary information about the sample. Within this thesis several approaches to improve the overall sensitivity (i.e. signal-to-noise ratios; ad 1) by optimizing the detection conditions in NMR using NMR noise and radiation damping are shown. Exploiting the latter it is possible to enhance tiny signals, which normally cannot be detected in the vicinity of a big signal, through non-linear signal enhancement. Efficiency can be enhanced using ideas based on cogwheel and multiplex phase cycling. During an NMR experiment pulses, delays and coherence selection methods are applied to obtain exactly the structurally relevant information required. This selection almost inevitably goes along with a waste of information or sensitivity in most conventional measurement protocols. To improve on that situation Multiplex Quadrature Detection (MQD) is developed, which significantly accelerates the coherence selection process (item 2) and the sampling in the indirect

  18. Precision Cleaning of Oxygen Systems and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Currently, NASA uses Dichloropentafluoropropane (HCFC-225), a Class II ozone depleting substance (ODs), to clean contaminated oxygen systems. Starting in 20 15, the Montreal Protocols and Clean Air Act prohibit the production and importation of all hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), except for limited use in refrigeration applications. Thus, a new non-ozone depleting solvent needs to be developed for use in cleaning. Optimally, such a solvent should also be environmentally benign or green to avoid needing to replace the new solvent with yet another solvent in the future due to other environmental concerns. Work for the first year consisted of two parts. The first part was developing a method of testing the cleaning efficiency of potential solvents. Stainless steel coupons were contaminated with a known weight of various contaminants and contaminant combinations and then immersed in solvent for ten minutes. The coupons were then removed and dried in an oven until all solvent had evaporated. Once dry, the coupons were weighed and the mass of the non-volatile residue (NVR) left on the coupon was determined. The cleaning efficiency of the solvents is reported as percent cleaning, with 100% cleaning being zero NVR left on the test coupon. The second half of the first goal was to use the develop method to perform baseline testing on current solvents. The second part of the work was to begin exploring alternative cleaning solvents. A variety of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were tested. Preliminary testing was also performed with ionic liquids and aqueous surfactant solutions. Once potential solvents were identified, an analysis of the performance and environmental characteristics of each was to be conducted. Four contaminants were specified for use in testing. These are Mil-Spec-H-5606 (5606), a hydraulic fluid, Mil-H-83282B (83282), another hydraulic fluid, diethylhexyl sebacate (Sebacate), and WD-40. The structures of these contaminants are all similar, with long aliphatic

  19. Functionalized dicationic ionic liquids: Green and efficient alternatives for catalysts in phthalate plasticizers preparation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NEGAR ZEKRI; REZA FAREGHI-ALAMDARI; ZAHRA KHODARAHMI

    2016-08-01

    Two highly acidic, imidazolium-based, functionalized dicationic ionic liquids (FDCILs) were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, ¹H NMR and¹³ C NMR. The synthesized FDCILs were used as efficient and green catalysts in the synthesis of phthalate plasticizers through esterification of phthalic anhydride (PhA)with ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol. Among these two FDCILs, (dimethyl-4-sulfobutyl-ammonium) 1,2- ethan-1-methyl-imidazolium-sulfonic acid hydrogen sulfate performed better. The catalytic activity of FDCIL is related to the density of acidic groups on it and the length of the carbon chain in the cationic part. Theinfluences of the reaction temperature, catalyst dosage, and molar ratio of phthalic anhydride to alcohol on the esterification reaction were investigated. The reusability of the catalyst in these reactions was studied too. Theb diester phthalates were obtained up to 98.8% yield. The products can be separated easily by decantation from the reaction mixture.

  20. A study on the introduction of a demonstration plant for the clean and efficient production of water and electricity in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BATAN is interested to develop a nuclear reactor that has a high degree of safety and a broad spectrum of process heat application including for electricity to be introduced in Indonesia and in the Asia Pacific Region. In order to have nuclear reactor technology that meets those requirements, a flexible direct marketing in the short and long term with a minimum adaptation could be done. Nuclear process heat applications such as for synthetic fuel production require supply of energy at high temperature levels up to 950 deg. C in order to achieve a sufficiently high reaction rate. The high temperature reactor is the only reactor system working in this temperature range. However, as the first step of development of the reactor technology in Indonesia, introduction (in the near time) of demo plant for the clean and efficient production of water and electricity may be a realistic strategy. Therefore, the study is focused on the high temperature gas cooled reactor technology coupled with the proven desalination plant. The scope of study to be done includes reactor technology, safety system evaluation, fuel cycle technology, waste management and decommissioning, economic and financing, licensing process, project development, site and environmental study, and plant layout. BATAN and related parties are preparing the study. In this report the scope of study and its progress is briefly presented. (author)

  1. Reliable wet-chemical cleaning of natively oxidized high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, Cu-containing chalcopyrite-based solar cells provide the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies. They have reached efficiency values above 20%, the same performance level as multi-crystalline silicon-wafer technology that dominates the commercial PV market. Chalcopyrite thin-film heterostructures consist of a layer stack with a variety of interfaces between different materials. It is the chalcopyrite/buffer region (forming the p-n junction), which is of crucial importance and therefore frequently investigated using surface and interface science tools, such as photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. To ensure comparability and validity of the results, a general preparation guide for “realistic” surfaces of polycrystalline chalcopyrite thin films is highly desirable. We present results on wet-chemical cleaning procedures of polycrystalline Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin films with an average x = [Ga]/([In] + [Ga]) = 0.29, which were exposed to ambient conditions for different times. The hence natively oxidized sample surfaces were etched in KCN- or NH3-based aqueous solutions. By x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we find that the KCN treatment results in a chemical surface structure which is – apart from a slight change in surface composition – identical to a pristine as-received sample surface. Additionally, we discover a different oxidation behavior of In and Ga, in agreement with thermodynamic reference data, and we find indications for the segregation and removal of copper selenide surface phases from the polycrystalline material

  2. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  3. Synergetic Effect between Lighting Efficiency Enhancement and Building Energy Reduction Using Alternative Thermal Operating System of Indoor LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Lip Ahn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the synergetic effect between light-emitting diode (LED lighting efficiency and building energy savings in heating and cooling using an alternative thermal operating system (ATOS of indoor LED lighting integrated with the ventilation system of a building as an active cooling device. The heat generated from LED lighting and the indoor lighting illuminance were experimentally determined. The indoor heat gains in cooling and heating periods were determined using measurement data; the annual energy savings of an office building in heating and cooling were calculated through simulation. The LED lighting illuminance increased by approximately 40% and the lighting contribution for indoor heat gain was 7.8% in summer, while 69.8% in winter with the ATOS. Consequently, the annual total energy use of the office building could be reduced by 5.9%; the energy use in cooling and heating was reduced by 18.4% and 3.3%, respectively.

  4. Efficient RFID Data Cleaning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology transfers data between movable tagged objects and readers without line of sight, and the captured data tends to be noisy. The inherent unreliability makes the data unreliable to application. Nowadays, the main solution is to use sliding window, but it is difficult to decide the window size, especially when the tag moves frequently or with high false positive. To solve the mentioned problems, SWKF (Sliding Window based on Kalman Filter Pre-processing is proposed. It preprocesses the RFID data to make the read rate close to the real one, detects and filters the mobile tags. Then, the preprocessed data is smoothed to further improve accuracy. At the same time, the mid-window slide point reduces the output. Through the combination of Kalman Filter and sliding window, SWKF provides accurate RFID data to application.

  5. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  6. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert

    2013-09-30

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  7. A superlattice of alternately stacked Ni-Fe hydroxide nanosheets and graphene for efficient splitting of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Renzhi; Wang, Chengxiang; Liang, Jianbo; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhou, Kechao; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2015-02-24

    Cost-effective electrocatalysts based on nonprecious metals for efficient water splitting are crucial for various technological applications represented by fuel cell. Here, 3d transition metal layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with varied contents of Ni and Fe were successfully synthesized through a homogeneous precipitation. The exfoliated Ni-Fe LDH nanosheets were heteroassembled with graphene oxide (GO) as well as reduced graphene oxide (rGO) into superlattice-like hybrids, in which two kinds of oppositely charged nanosheets are stacked face-to-face in alternating sequence. Heterostructured composites of Ni2/3Fe1/3 LDH nanosheets and GO (Ni2/3Fe1/3-GO) exhibited an excellent oxygen evolution reaction (OER) efficiency with a small overpotential of about 0.23 V and Tafel slope of 42 mV/decade. The activity was further improved via the combination of Ni2/3Fe1/3 LDH nanosheets with more conductive rGO (Ni2/3Fe1/3-rGO) to achieve an overpotential as low as 0.21 V and Tafel plot of 40 mV/decade. The catalytic activity was enhanced with an increased Fe content in the bimetallic Ni-Fe system. Moreover, the composite catalysts were found to be effective for hydrogen evolution reaction. An electrolyzer cell powered by a single AA battery of 1.5 V was demonstrated by using the bifunctional catalysts. PMID:25605063

  8. A modified ABC model in InGaN MQW LED using compositionally step graded Alternating Barrier for efficiency improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajoon, P.; Nirmal, D.; Anuja Menokey, M.; Charles Pravin, J.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) with compositionally step graded (CSG) Alternating Barriers (AB) of InGaN-AlGaN with p-doped GaN barrier is designed and analysed. The improved crystal structure and modified band bending in the device enhances the carrier confinement and diminishes the polarization-related efficiency reduction. Furthermore, the good crystalline quality increases the hole injection and transportation; this significantly improves the radiative recombination rate and reduces the non-radiative recombination as well as carrier leakage out of the active region. Simulation result show mitigated efficiency droop of 3% and light output power of 1500 mW at the injection current of 500 mA. A modified ABC model is also developed to model the carrier leakage mechanism at high injection current density. In the model, total carrier leakage currents from the active region due to thermionic emission and electron overflow at high injection current are considered. Also, the obtained result of the modelled conventional LED shows a good fit with experimental data. Moreover, the SiC substrate technology in the design is attributed with improved crystal structure, reduced polarization effect and thermal conductivity, which improve the optical performance of the device.

  9. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; T. Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-07-01

    After rapid growth in economic development and energy demand over the last three decades, China has undertaken energy efficiency improvement efforts to reduce its energy intensity under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP). Since becoming the world's largest annual CO{sub 2} emitter in 2007, China has set reduction targets for energy and carbon intensities and committed to meeting 15% of its total 2020 energy demand with non-fossil fuel. Despite having achieved important savings in 11th FYP efficiency programs, rising per capita income and the continued economic importance of trade will drive demand for transport activity and fuel use. At the same time, an increasingly 'electrified' economy will drive rapid power demand growth. Greater analysis is therefore needed to understand the underlying drivers, possible trajectories and mitigation potential in the growing industrial, transport and power sectors. This study uses scenario analysis to understand the likely trajectory of China's energy and carbon emissions to 2030 in light of the current and planned portfolio of programs, policies and technology development and ongoing urbanization and demographic trends. It evaluates the potential impacts of alternative transportation and power sector development using two key scenarios, Continued Improvement Scenario (CIS) and Accelerated Improvement Scenario (AIS). CIS represents the most likely path of growth based on continuation of current policies and meeting announced targets and goals, including meeting planned appliance efficiency standard revisions, fuel economy standards, and industrial targets and moderate phase-out of subcritical coal-fired generation with additional non-fossil generation. AIS represents a more aggressive trajectory of accelerated improvement in energy intensity and decarbonized power and transport sectors. A range of sensitivity analysis and power technology scenarios are tested to evaluate the impact of additional actions such as

  10. Atomistic Modelling of Materials for Clean Energy Applications : hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, a number of clean-energy materials for hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery energy storage applications have been investigated through state-of-the-art density functional theory. As an alternative fuel, hydrogen has been regarded as one of the promising clean energies with the advantage of abundance (generated through water splitting) and pollution-free emission if used in fuel cell systems. However, some key problems such as finding efficient ways to prod...

  11. Coal desulfurization during the combustion of coal/oil/water emulsions: an economic alternative clean liquid fuel. Interim report, October 1978-November 15, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J. P.

    1979-11-15

    The rheological and combustion properties of coal/water/oil mixtures have been investigated. In addition the use of alkaline additives to remove the sulfur oxide gases has been studied. Results on stability and pumpability indicate that mixtures of 50% by weight of coal and stoichiometric concentrations of alkaline absorbents are pumpable. Correlation between viscometer data and pumping data follows a power law behavior for these mixtures. Thermal efficiencies are about the same as for pure oil. Combustion efficiencies are approximately 97%. It is possible to remove in a small scale combustion from 50 to 80% of the sulfur dioxide gases.

  12. Dry Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Lindsey; Weller, Chanae

    2010-01-01

    Despite its name, commercial dry cleaning is not actually a “dry” process. Clothes are immersed in a solvent, most commonly perchlorethylene (perc), instead of in water. Perc or other similar solvents are effective in the removal of oil and grease-based stains without damaging or shrinking sensitive fabrics, unlike a regular detergents and fabric softeners.

  13. A comparative study on efficiency of different methods for medical device moisturizing and cleaning%不同方法保湿清洗医疗器械效果的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常香远; 郝淑芹

    2012-01-01

    目的 检测分析3种不同保湿方法清洗医疗器械的效果.方法 选择<7d全院临床科室使用后的医疗器械,采用3种不同的保湿和清洗方法处理;A组:0.5%含氯消毒剂保湿+手工清洗,B组:酶清洗剂保湿+机洗,C组:碱性清洗液+酶清洗剂保湿+超声+升级后的清洗机清洗;清洗后的器械用目测方法:裸视和带光源5倍放大镜下观察及隐血试验法检测其清洗效果.结果 3种方法处理器械裸视目测合格率A组:为92.01%,B组:为96.07%,C组:为99.14%,C组明显高于A组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 医院应根据新标准的要求,选择合适的保湿清洗器械方法,建立正确的清洗流程.%OBJECTIVE To analyze the efficiency of 3 different medical devices moisturizing and cleaning methods before and after the implementation of new national industrial standard for central sterile supply department issued by the MOH. METHODS The medical devices from the clinics after use within 7days were chosen, and three different moisturizing and cleaning methods were applied. Group A: the medical devices were moisturized with 0. 5% chlorine disinfectant and cleaned by hand. Group B were moisturized with enzyme detergent and cleaned by machine. Group C were moisturized with alkaline cleaning liquid and enzyme detergent and then cleaned with ultrasound machine and upgraded washer. The cleaning effect on the medical devices was evaluated by visual examination (observed with naked eyes and with 5 times magnifying glass with light) and occult blood test. RESULTS The qualified rates of the three methods evaluated with naked eyes were;Group A (92. 01%) , Group B (96. 07%) , and Group C (99. 14%). The qualified rate of Group C was significantly higher than that of Group A (P<0. 01). CONCLUSION Hospitals should select appropriate moisturizing and cleaning method for medical devices to establish correct cleaning procedure under the new national standard requirements.

  14. Otimização da eficiência de limpeza em equipamento de beneficiamento de tomate de mesa Optimizing cleaning efficiency at a fresh market tomato packing line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele C. Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A etapa de limpeza no sistema de beneficiamento do tomate de mesa é essencial para a aceitação do produto pelo consumidor, pois o grau de limpeza dos frutos está diretamente relacionado com a qualidade do produto. Entretanto, a etapa de lavagem, nos atuais equipamentos de limpeza, utilizada em unidades comerciais de beneficiamento, demanda volume excessivo de água, trazendo sérias preocupações ambientais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a eficiência de limpeza em dois sistemas, avaliando diferentes configurações operacionais relacionadas com a rotação de escovas, vazão do sistema e tempo de permanência do fruto sobre o jato. Comparou-se o sistema convencional utilizado em equipamentos comerciais com o sistema composto por um bocal de spray do tipo cone cheio. Os resultados demonstraram que a eficiência de limpeza não está diretamente relacionada com o volume de água utilizado, mas, sim, à pressão da água, associado ao tempo de permanência dos frutos e à rotação das escovas. Portanto, o uso de spray em sistemas de limpeza de frutos de tomate pode trazer benefícios tanto para a eficiência de limpeza, com incrementos superiores a 13%, como para o meio ambiente, trazendo redução no consumo de água.The post-harvesting cleaning process in fresh market tomatoes production is essential to the consumer acceptance, since the degree of dirtiness of the fruits is directly related to its quality. However, the washing stage of the cleaning process of commercial packinghouse demands an excessive water volume, bringing serious environmental concerns. The objective of this work was to compare the cleaning efficiency in two cleaning systems through the evaluation of different operational conditions of the cleaning process, related with the brush rotation, water flow and fruit standing time under the system. It was compared the conventional system utilized in commercial equipment with a system using commercial sprays. The

  15. Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Song, Bo [China Academy of Building Research; Zhang, Sisi [China Academy of Building Research

    2012-08-01

    In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and

  16. Alternative Processing Technology for Converting Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats to Clean Fuels and Light Olefins%动植物油生产清洁燃料和低碳烯烃的替代加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华; 李春义; 杨朝合; 山红红

    2008-01-01

    Since the production cost of biodiesel is now the main hurdle limiting their applicability in some areas, catalytic cracking reactions represent an alternative route to utilization of vegetable oils and animal fats. Hence, catalytic transformation of oils and fats was carried out in a laboratory-scale two-stage riser fluid catalytic cracking (TSRFCC) unit in this work. The results show that oils and fats can be used as FCC feed singly or co-feeding with vacuum gas oil (VGO), which can give high yield (by mass) of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), C2-C4 olefins, for example 45% LPG, 47% C2-C4 olefins, and 77.6% total liquid yield produced with palm oil cracking. Co-feeding with VGO gives a high yield of LPG (39.1%) and propylene (18.1%). And oxygen element content is very low (about 0.5%) in liquid products, hence, oxygen is removed in the form of H2O, CO and CO2. At the same time, high concentration of aromatics (C7-C9 aromatics predominantly) in the gasoline fraction is obtained after TSRFCC reaction of palm oil, as a result of large amount of hydrogen-transfer, cyclization and aromatization reactions. Additionally, most of properties of produced gasoline and diesel oil fuel meet the requirements of national standards, containing little sulfur. So TSRFCC technology is thought to be an alternative processing technology leading to production of clean fuels and light olefins.

  17. More efficiency required in Russia's heat sector. Russian heat supply without alternatives; Mehr Effizienz in Russlands Waermesektor notwendig. Russlands Waermeversorgung ohne Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger-Kanne, Josephine

    2009-01-15

    Not only because of the current economic and financial crisis will Russia be forced to enhance the efficiency of its power generation sector. A study of the world bank shows that the potential of heat supply is of utmost importance here. The subject was discussed in December 2008, among others, at a Round Table on Russian heat supply and energy efficiency law. (orig.)

  18. Roadmap 2030 Dutch Glass Industry. Towards a clean, efficient and cost-effective future; Routekaart 2030 Nederlandse Glasindustrie. Naar een schone, zuinige en rendabele toekomst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    This Roadmap is the result of the covenant signed by the Dutch glass industry and the Dutch national government in 2009 on a Long Term Agreement on Energy Efficiency. Participating companies committed to continuous improvement in energy performance in both manufacturing processes as well as the supply chain from raw material to final product. The Dutch glass industry has undertaken a strategic study regarding the possibilities of achieving far-reaching energy efficiency improvement by 2030. The overall industry's target is to realise an energy efficiency improvement of 25%, compared to its energy consumption and production level of 2009. Several related areas were identified for actions and measures for energy efficiency improvement: (1) Alternatives to primary raw materials; (2) Intensified use of secondary raw materials (cullet); (3) Innovations in batch preparation; (4) Innovations in glass composition; (5) Innovations in process control; (6) Innovations in furnace design; (7) New methods of waste heat recovery; (8) Improved performance of glass products [Dutch] Dit rapport is tot stand gekomen in het kader van de Meerjarenafspraak Energie-Efficientie ETS (Emission Trading System) ondernemingen, ook wel het MEE-convenant genoemd. Dit convenant nodigt de deelnemende sectoren uit tot het opstellen van een Routekaart voor 2030. De Routekaart is een strategische studie die inzichtelijk maakt hoe invulling wordt gegeven aan het realiseren van energie-efficientie verbeteringen binnen de bedrijven en in de keten op de route naar 2030. Hoofdstuk 1 is een introductie op de Routekaart 2030 en de wijze waarop de Routekaart tot stand is gekomen. Hoofdstuk 2 beschrijft in vogelvlucht de sector, op welke manier nu al invulling wordt gegeven aan duurzame ontwikkeling en energie, en geeft een beschrijving van de Vereniging van Nederlandse Glasfabrikanten (VNG). Hoofdstuk 3 beschrijft algemene trends en de visie van de sector op de toekomst. Daarnaast wordt de markt in 2030

  19. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  20. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF PEAT FAST PYROLYSIS PROJECTS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF RAW ENERGY RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Tcvetkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to find ecologically and economically reasonable method of biomass processing to produce electricity and thermal energy. The major causes of the annual increase in the volume of consumed electricity and thermal energy are the current pace of scientific and technological progress, the overcrowding of cities and industrial agglomeration. Traditional energy sources (coal, oil, gas have a significant negative impact on the environment, which leads to the deterioration of sanitary-hygienic indicators of the human environment. Besides, prices for traditional energy resources are increasing due to the decline of easy produced stocks. The goal of this article is the investigation and evaluation of environmental and economic efficiency of biomass fast pyrolysis methods for as modern energy resources. The result of the review is the choice of biomass fast pyrolysis as the most environmentally reasonable and economically viable local method of producing electricity and thermal energy in Russia. This method is more eco-friendly, compared to other alternative energy sources, for example using peat as solid fuel.

  1. Efficient and robust 3D CT image reconstruction based on total generalized variation regularization using the alternating direction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianlin; Wang, Linyuan; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Hanming; Cheng, Genyang

    2015-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction algorithms for computed tomography (CT) through total variation regularization based on piecewise constant assumption can produce accurate, robust, and stable results. Nonetheless, this approach is often subject to staircase artefacts and the loss of fine details. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce a family of novel image regularization penalties called total generalized variation (TGV) for the effective production of high-quality images from incomplete or noisy projection data for 3D reconstruction. We propose a new, fast alternating direction minimization algorithm to solve CT image reconstruction problems through TGV regularization. Based on the theory of sparse-view image reconstruction and the framework of augmented Lagrange function method, the TGV regularization term has been introduced in the computed tomography and is transformed into three independent variables of the optimization problem by introducing auxiliary variables. This new algorithm applies a local linearization and proximity technique to make the FFT-based calculation of the analytical solutions in the frequency domain feasible, thereby significantly reducing the complexity of the algorithm. Experiments with various 3D datasets corresponding to incomplete projection data demonstrate the advantage of our proposed algorithm in terms of preserving fine details and overcoming the staircase effect. The computation cost also suggests that the proposed algorithm is applicable to and is effective for CBCT imaging. Theoretical and technical optimization should be investigated carefully in terms of both computation efficiency and high resolution of this algorithm in application-oriented research. PMID:26756406

  2. The Development of Mini Portable Digester Designs for Domestic and Restaurant Solid Waste Processing to be Clean Biogas as Energy's Alternative to Replace LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Janari dan, D.; Setiawan, N.

    2016-02-01

    Biofuel is developed as an alternative source of second generation energy that could be attained from organic waste. This research is purposed to create applicative and cheap Portable digester unit for society. The design concepts’ screening that was made under considerations of the experts is finally resumed. Design 1 with final weight score of 1, design 2 with final weight score of -1, design 3 with final weight score of 2, design 4 with final weight score 3, design 5 with final weight score of -1, design 6 with final weight score of 0. Accepted designs for further concept assessment are design 1, 2 and 6. The result of concept assessment applies weighting for the scoring. Design 1 resulting 2.67, design 2 results 2.15 while design 3 results 2.52. Design 1 is concluded as the design with biggest result, which is 2.67. Its specification is explained as follows: tank capacity of 60 liters, manual rotating crank pivot, tank's material is plastic with symbol 1, material of axle swivel arm is grey cast iron, 2 mm rotary blades with hole. The experiment 1 contained 23.78% methane and 13.65 carbon dioxide that resulted from content test.

  3. Dry efficient cleaning of poly-methyl-methacrylate residues from graphene with high-density H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunge, G., E-mail: gilles.cunge@cea.fr; Petit-Etienne, C.; Davydova, A. [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique, CNRS-UJF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Ferrah, D.; Renault, O. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Okuno, H. [CEA, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Kalita, D.; Bouchiat, V. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF-INP, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-09-28

    Graphene is the first engineering electronic material, which is purely two-dimensional: it consists of two exposed sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon surfaces and has no bulk. Therefore, surface effects such as contamination by adsorbed polymer residues have a critical influence on its electrical properties and can drastically hamper its widespread use in devices fabrication. These contaminants, originating from mandatory technological processes of graphene synthesis and transfer, also impact fundamental studies of the electronic and structural properties at the atomic scale. Therefore, graphene-based technology and research requires “soft” and selective surface cleaning techniques dedicated to limit or to suppress this surface contamination. Here, we show that a high-density H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasmas can be used to selectively remove polymeric residues from monolayer graphene without any damage on the graphene surface. The efficiency of this dry-cleaning process is evidenced unambiguously by a set of spectroscopic and microscopic methods, providing unprecedented insights on the cleaning mechanisms and highlighting the role of specific poly-methyl-methacrylate residues at the graphene interface. The plasma is shown to perform much better cleaning than solvents and has the advantage to be an industrially mature technology adapted to large area substrates. The process is transferable to other kinds of two-dimensional material and heterostructures.

  4. Electrical field assisted matrix solid phase dispersion as a powerful tool to improve the extraction efficiency and clean-up of fluoroquinolones in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Orlando, Ricardo Mathias; Faria, Adriana Ferreira

    2016-08-26

    This work presents a new method by electrical matrix solid phase dispersion for the extraction and clean-up of marbofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, difloxacin and sarafloxacin in bovine milk. Composition and pH of the eluent, applied electrical potential and polarity were optimized by experimental designs. The combination of the chromatographic and electrophoretic mechanisms allowed the extraction and clean-up in one step with low organic solvent consumption, high extraction throughput and elution automation. Linearity, precision, trueness and limit of quantification were evaluated and provided values in accordance with other methods recently developed for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in milk. This technique proved to be promising for the extraction and clean-up of ionizable analytes in different milk matrices. PMID:27492598

  5. Application of State and Federal Guidelines for Establishing Alternate Soil Clean-Up Levels for the Protection of Groundwater at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk-based soil cleanup levels that are protective of groundwater have been calculated for use in environmental remediation activities at the Hanford Site using vadose zone fate and transport modeling. The determination of soil cleanup levels is important because it involves the technical basis for the levels of contamination that can be left in place, which are protective of human health and the environment. The determination of risk-based soil cleanup levels is an especially important issue at the Hanford Site where site conditions such as a semi-arid climate, and a thick vadose zone of over 100 meters necessitate the use of appropriate risk-based methods. In the absence of an alternative risk-based approach, the cleanup levels default to background, detection limits, or simplistic formulas not intended for applications involving these distinctive site conditions. However, the use of vadose zone fate and transport modeling for risk-based applications such as the determination of soil cleanup levels in the vadose zone are not as well established as modeling for groundwater applications. Thus, the use of models in this manner involves additional challenges for the demonstration of the efficacy of its use for risk-based applications, in accordance with federal and state regulatory requirements and guidelines. An approach has been developed to integrate with federal and state regulatory guidelines in conjunction with the development of the risk-based methodology. Demonstration of integration with these guidelines primarily involves documentation of the objectives of the problem to be solved, the technical basis and rationale associated with the selection of an appropriate risk-based method (e.g., model type and code selection), and documentation associated with the use of the model, e.g., conceptual site model, parameter estimation, uncertainty and assumptions analyses, and model results. (authors)

  6. On clean ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Miaosen Chen; Huanyin Chen

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the notion of clean ideal, which is a natural generalization of clean rings. It is shown that every matrix ideal over a clean ideal of a ring is clean. Also we prove that every ideal having stable range one of a regular ring is clean. These generalize the corresponding results for clean rings.

  7. Decision document on the revision of the VERA protocol on air cleaning technologies. Measuring techniques for the determination of the removal efficiency for ammonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera Losada, J.; Edouard, N.; Guiziou, F.; Melse, R.W.; Riis, A.L.; Sommer, S.; Brusselman, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the project “ICT-AGRI: Development of harmonized sampling and measurement methods for odour, ammonia and dust emissions” different subgroups have been formed focusing on either ammonia, odour or dust. In this report, the conclusions of the ammonia subgroup regarding harmonization of measurement methods for the estimation of the ammonia removal from air cleaning technologies are summarized.

  8. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  9. Selling Australia as 'Clean and Green'

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hui-Shung (Christie); Kristiansen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    'Green and clean' has been used as a key marketing tool to promote Australian products overseas. The rationale is that consumers are generally concerned about personal health and the environment and will choose, and pay price premiums, for products that are, or perceived to be, clean (good for them) and green (good for the environment) over alternative products. But is Australia seen as clean and green? Is it really why people buy Australian products? And how effective is it as a marketing to...

  10. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative two-tier nucleus breeding systems designed to improve meat sheep in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicheha, M G; Kosgey, I S; Bebe, B O; Kahi, A K

    2006-08-01

    A deterministic approach was used to genetically and economically evaluate the efficiency of five two-tier nucleus breeding systems for meat sheep in Kenya. The nucleus breeding systems differed in terms of whether the system was closed or open, in the type of animals that were involved in the movement of genetic superiority and in the number of selection pathways in each system. These systems were compared under four alternative breeding objectives based on monetary genetic gain and profit per ewe. The first objective simulated a situation where the flock size cannot be increased due to non-feed related constraints (FLOCK). The second specifically assumed that the flock size is restricted due to limited amount of feed resources (FEED). The third and fourth objectives assumed that sheep performed only tangible roles (TR) and both tangible and intangible roles (IR) in the production system respectively. Monetary genetic gains were highest for all objectives in an open nucleus system with a certain proportion of commercial-born ewes being introduced in the nucleus while at the same time utilizing young rams from the nucleus to breed sires and dams for the nucleus and commercial sector (ONyre). Utilizing young rams in a closed nucleus system for the dissemination of superior genes resulted in higher annual monetary genetic gain than utilization of old rams. Profit per ewe was significantly higher for FLOCK and IR in ONyre. In a closed system that allowed for downward movement of dams from the nucleus to the commercial sector to breed sires and dams, profit per ewe was highest for FEED and TR. The success of a nucleus breeding system should also focus on the profitability and logistics of establishing it. The implication of these results on the choice of two-tier nucleus breeding systems for the improvement of meat sheep is discussed. PMID:16882091

  11. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  12. 身体清洁对低龄幼儿选择扩散效应的消除%Physical Cleanness Eliminates Children's Spreading-alternatives-effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅于玲; 秦启文; 冯缙; 杨帅

    2012-01-01

    研究以105名4岁幼儿为被试,采用选择扩散范式的盲选-双选法考察身体清洁能否消除低龄幼儿的选择扩散效应。通过操纵自变量(洗手vs.不洗手),观察幼儿是否出现选择扩散。结果发现,不洗手组的被试出现明显的选择扩散效应,洗手组则没有。说明4岁幼儿已经表现出选择扩散效应,且能通过身体清洁得以消除。除了自我心理学和行为倾向的解释之外,研究结果说明,具身认知可能也是影响选择扩散效应的心理机制。%The Spreading-alternatives-effect is a form of attitude , hange caused by post-decision dissonance. After choosing between two equally attractive alternatives, people tend to evaluate the chosen alternative more positively or devaluate the rejected alternative. It can be observed in both adults and children. Recent studies found that the spreading-alternatives-effict was eliminated by hand-washing in adults. The purpose uf this study was to explore whether physical clean behavior such as hand-washing could eliminate children' s post decision dissonance as it did in adults. A total of' 1104-year-old kindergarten children participated in this experiment. Five of them refused to cooperate and 105 of them finished the experiment as designed (M = 53.4month, SD = 2.98, 49boys). In blind-two-fhoice tasks preferences would not guide choices and such tasks are applicable to children, too. 3 brightly cohn'ed plastic toys were used as the stimuli. The toys were the same except for their colors, which were mainly red, blue and orange. Each of the three toys were put in three stockings to hide their main identities ; two of the the stockings were the same colore and the remaining one was different. Children firstly chose between two toys in the same colored stocking, while the color of the toys cannot be seen, and secondly chose between the rejected alternative and the third one. To manipulate the independent

  13. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  14. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  15. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  16. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  17. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  18. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  19. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2008, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  20. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation; Stromeffizienz und erneuerbare Energien - Wirtschaftliche alternative zu Grosskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettli, B.; Hammer, S.; Moret, F.; Iten, R. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nordmann, T. [TNC Consulting AG, Erlenbach (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  1. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  2. First cleaning with LHC collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Wollmann, D; Arnau-Izquiedo, G; Assmann, R; Bacher, J P; Baglin, V; Bellodi, G; Bertarelli, A; Bouzoud, A; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Brugger, M; Calatroni, S; Cerruti, F; Chamizo, R; Cherif, A; Chiaveri, E; Chiggiato, P; Dallochio, A; Dehning, B; Donze, M; Ferrari, A; Folch, R; Francon, P; Gander, P; Geisser, J M; Grudiev, A; Holzer, EB; Jacquet, D; Jeanneret, J B; Jimenez, J M; Jonker, M; Jowett, J; Kershaw, K; Lari, L; Lendaro, J; Loprete, F; Losito, R; Magistris, M; Malabaila, M; Mayer, M; Marsili, A; Masi, A; Mathot, S; Métral, E; Mitifiot, C; Mounet, N; de Morais Amaral, R; Nordt, A; Perret, R; Perrollaz, S; Rathjen, C; Redaelli, S; Robert-Demolaize, G; Roesler, S; Rossi, A; Salvant, B; Santana, M; Sexton, I; Sievers, P; Tardy, T; Timmins, M; Tsoulou, K; Veyrunes, E; Vincke, H; Vlachoudis, V; Vuillemin, V; Weiler, T; Zimmermann, F; Baishev, I; Kurochkin, I; Kaltchev, D; Caspers, F; Kadi, Y

    2010-01-01

    The LHC has two dedicated cleaning insertions: IR3 for momentum cleaning and IR7 for betatron cleaning. The collimation system has been specified and built with tight mechanical tolerances (e.g. jaw flatness ~ 40 μm ) and is designed to achieve a high accuracy and reproducibility of the jaw positions (~ 20 μm). The practically achievable cleaning efficiency of the present Phase-I system depends on the precision of the jaw centering around the beam, the accuracy of the gap size and the jaw parallelism against the beam. The reproducibility and stability of the collimation system is important to avoid the frequent repetition of beam based alignment which is currently a lengthy procedure. Within this paper we describe the method used for the beam based alignment of the LHC collimation system, its achieved accuracy and stability and its performance at 450GeV.

  3. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy; A. Yu. Naumov; A. Yu. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskaya

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce losses in the cooling source (condenser) and to increase effectiveness of fuel-and-power resources utilization, the authors present a modern automatic ball-cleaning system for the pipes of condenser 180-KTsS-1 of turbine unit Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ of Gomel CHP-2. The article examines exploitation challenges of the steam turbine condensers and methods of clearing them from sedimentations. Depending on the sedimentation character and composition, and the quality of cooling wate...

  4. Adoption of clean coal technologies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is a major Indian energy resource. It is being utilized in conventional power stations now. Considerable coal resources are not located near load centers and therefore involve transport by rail. India is becoming more concerned with environmental matters and particularly with the health of its population. Clean coal electricity generation technologies are at the commercial demonstration stage in Europe and the USA in unit capacities appropriate to Indian needs. These technologies minimize environmental problems and promise 25% more efficiency. This competitive technology can be introduced to India in greenfield power stations, in repowering older power stations and in providing an enviable alternative for existing and new power stations presently depending on liquid or gas as fuel. (author)

  5. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  6. Efficiency of enzymatic and other alternative clarification and fining treatments on turbidity and haze in cherry juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Köser, C.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    function. Individual and interactive effects on turbidity and haze formation in precentrifuged and uncentrifuged cherry juice of treatments with pectinase, acid protease, bromelain, gallic acid, and gelatin-silica sol were investigated in a factorial experimental design with 32 different parameter...... cherry juice with Novozym 89L protease and co- addition of pectinase and gallic acid improved cherry juice clarity and diminished haze levels. None of the alternative treatments produced the unwieldy colloids notorious to gelatin- silica sol treatment. The data suggest that several alternative...

  7. P-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Weixing Chen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we unify the structures of various clean rings by introducing the notion of P-clean rings. Some properties of P-clean rings are investigated, which generalize the known results on clean rings, semiclean rings, n-clean rings, and so forth. By the way, we answer a question of Xiao and Tong on n-clean rings in the negative.

  8. 75 FR 6180 - Mission Statement; Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; May 16-21, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... International Trade Administration Mission Statement; Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development... following sectors: clean energy, energy efficiency, and electric energy storage and transmission and... has made clean energy and energy efficiency strategic priorities. In the 11th Five- Year Plan,...

  9. Optimalisasi Of Efficiency Terms And Test The Value Kalor Of Perfomansi Boiler Use The Energi Biomassa Upon Which Burn Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Kholiq

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTION Especial Fuel used by Boiler PG MODJO PANGGUNG TULUNGAGUNG PTPN X is bagasse and oil burn the residu MFO. A lot of PG in Indonesia which exactly use the very costly fossil fuel so that generate the inefisiensi. Research by enhancing fiber cangkang fiber chaff to efficiency termis perfomansi and performance of boiler PG MODJO PODIUM. Assess the kalor of every-every fuel calculated given the composition of every fuel by using existing equation from literature calculation consume the fuel space volume burn the efficiency from every fuel to boiler and expense efficiency from every fuel used. From calculation of every fuel is hence got by result that Fuel efficiency use the smaller dregs fuel compared to from fuel of fiber and oil burn the residu MFO. LaterThen from facetof material cost burn the bagasse more efficient from at fuel of fiber and oil burn the residu MFO. To reply the the problem hence researcher use the indirect method. This method own the advantage that is can know the balance of complete and energi substance to eachevery stream which can facilitate in identifying opdon to increase is optimal of efficiency of termis boiler.

  10. Efficiency of enzymatic and other alternative clarification and fining treatments on turbidity and haze in cherry juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Köser, C.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    function. Individual and interactive effects on turbidity and haze formation in precentrifuged and uncentrifuged cherry juice of treatments with pectinase, acid protease, bromelain, gallic acid, and gelatin-silica sol were investigated in a factorial experimental design with 32 different parameter...... combinations. Gelatin-silica sol consistently had the best effect on juice clarity. Centrifugation of cherry juice (10000g for 15 min) prior to clarification treatment significantly improved juice clarity and diminished the rate of haze formation during cold storage of juice. Both treatment of precentrifuged...... cherry juice with Novozym 89L protease and co- addition of pectinase and gallic acid improved cherry juice clarity and diminished haze levels. None of the alternative treatments produced the unwieldy colloids notorious to gelatin- silica sol treatment. The data suggest that several alternative...

  11. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov; Kappas Kussaynov; Аyanbergen К. Khassenov

    2013-01-01

    This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  12. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  13. Non-Gasoline Alternative Fueling Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Through a nationwide network of local coalitions, Clean Citiesprovides project assistance to help stakeholders in the public and private sectors deploy alternative...

  14. Regulating Greenhouse Gases from Coal Power Plants under the Clean Air Act

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Linn; Erin Mastrangelo; Dallas Burtraw

    2014-01-01

    The Clean Air Act has assumed the central role in US climate policy, directing the development of regulations governing greenhouse gas emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. This paper uses a model of power plant operation and efficiency investments to compare the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal plants. We empirically estimate the key model parameters from a data set of the operation of coal-fired generating units over 25 years...

  15. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D.

    2008-07-01

    The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) mandates an increase in the use of wind, solar, biomass, and other alternatives to fossil and nuclear electric generation. This paper provides a summary of the policy objectives that commonly drive the establishment of an RPS, the key issues that states have encountered in implementing an RPS, and the strategies that some of the leading states have followed to address implementation challenges. The factors that help an RPS function best generally have been explored in other analyses. This study complements others by comparing empirical outcomes, and identifying the policies that appear to have the greatest impact on results.

  16. The effects of window alternatives on energy efficiency and building economy in high-rise residential buildings in moderate to humid climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We investigated energy and economy efficiency of window alternatives in Trabzon. ► Energy consumptions of eight window alternatives were simulated and discussed. ► Window alternatives’s life cycle costs were calculated and compared. ► We suggested appropriate energy and economy efficient window alternatives. ► The study defines useful guidelines to select appropriate window alternatives. - Abstract: Currently, focused efforts are being made to determine the influence of windows on the energy consumption and economy of high-rise buildings. Certain window designs and appropriate glazing systems reduce building energy consumption for heating and cooling and contribute to building economy. This paper addresses double-glazed window units that are composed of tinted glass; clear reflective glass; low emissivity (low-e) glass; and smart glass (one surface consists of a high-performance, heat-reflective glass, and other surface has a low-emissivity coated). These materials reduce the heating and cooling loads of buildings by providing solar control and heat conservation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these alternative units, rather than readily available double-glazed units, in two types of flats. The flats have the same construction and operating system, but they have different plan types with regard to building energy consumption and building economy as it relates to life cycle cost analysis. For this study, we selected buildings in Trabzon, in Climate Region II of Turkey, due to its moderate-humid climate. F- and C-type high-rise residential blocks, with flats composed of two to three bedrooms, constructed by the Republic of Turkey’s Prime Ministry Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKİ) are used as models for the simulation. The flat plans in these blocks are modeled using DesignBuilder v.1.8 energy simulation software. The simulation results show that smart-glazed units and those with low emissivity

  17. r-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, Nahid; Nasibi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    An element of a ring R is called clean if it is the sum of an idempotent and a unit. A ring R is called clean if each of its element is clean. An element r \\in R called regular if r = ryr for some y \\in R. The ring R is regular if each of its element is regular. In this paper we define a ring is r-clean if each of its elements is the sum of a regular and an idempotent element. We give some relations between r-clean and clean rings. Finally we investigate some properties of r-clean rings.

  18. Canada-US collaborations in clean energy research: a scientometric analysis (2005-2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, T.; Picard-Aitken, M.; Hillman-Beauchesne, O.; Campbell, D.; Archambault, E.

    2010-03-31

    In February 2009, the U.S. and Canada established the Clean Energy Dialogue, aiming at identifying ways to reduce greenhouse gases, in order to fight against global warming. This initiative led to the development of an action plan by joint Canada-U.S. working groups that comprise activities in three defined areas: the development of clean energy technology, the construction of a more efficient energy grid, and the expansion of research and development (R&D). The objective is to improve available modes of environmentally responsible energy production, minimize waste in energy transportation and delivery, and set up new alternatives. This document is a study used as a source of information by the working group. It will allow a better understanding of the scientific production, give an overview of the various collaboration and trends around the world in the field of clean energy R&D and in three subfields of interest: future generation biofuels, clean engines/vehicles and energy efficiency homes and buildings. This scientometric study shows that, in clean energy R&D, the U.S. and Canada are among the 15 leading countries. In clean energy R&D and in the three subfields, Canada's strongest affinities are generally with the U.S., Turkey and China. Sweden and Turkey stand out as having levels of impact and specialization that are above the world level. Clean energy R&D is examined as a whole before focusing on scientific activity in future generation biofuels, clean energy vehicles and green buildings. An insight of the relative strengths and weaknesses of Canada and the U.S. in these areas appears within the presented data. Leading Canadian and U.S. research institutions are also considered for a better understanding of their involvement in these fields and to determine those that were the most active in terms of Canada/U.S. cross-border collaborations. 19 tabs., 15 figs.

  19. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  20. Ultrasound-guided Thrombin Injection: An Alternative Treatment for Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm with Better Efficiency and Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghai YAO; Hongliang CONG; Shangqin WU; Shan SUN; Qike DONG; Dongmei CHEN; Peng LI

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and safety of ultrasound-guided thrombin injection on femoral pseudoaneurysm (FPA) as compared to ultrasound-guided local oppression. Eleven cases of FPA were enrolled and 7 cases received ultrasound-guide thrombin injection (injection group), and the remaining 4 cases were treated with local oppression (oppression group). Efficiency and safety were analyzed by ultrasound and subsequent follow-up. The results showed that 1 case relapsed in oppression group while no relapse occurred in thrombin injection group. Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection is better for treatment of FPA in terms of effectiveness and safety.

  1. Transition to Clean Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Kerr,William Robert

    2014-01-01

    We develop a microeconomic model of endogenous growth where clean and dirty technologies compete in production and innovation-in the sense that research can be directed to either clean or dirty technologies. If dirty technologies are more advanced to start with, the potential transition to clean technology can be difficult both because clean research must climb several steps to catch up with dirty technology and because this gap discourages research effort directed towards clean technologies....

  2. Land Rental Markets as an Alternative to Government Reallocation? Equity and Efficiency Considerations in the Chinese Land Tenure system

    OpenAIRE

    Deininger, Klaus; Jin, Songqing

    2002-01-01

    The authors develop a model of land leasing with agents characterized by unobserved heterogeneity in ability and presence of an off-farm labor market. In this case, decentralized land rental may contribute to equity and efficiency goals and may have several advantages over administrative reallocation. The extent to which this is true empirically is explored using data from three of China's...

  3. Variable Circular Collimator in Robotic Radiosurgery: A Time-Efficient Alternative to a Mini-Multileaf Collimator?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Water, S.; Hoogeman, M.S.; Breedveld, S.; Nuyttens, J.J.M.E.; Schaart, D.R.; Heijmen, B.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    urpose Compared with many small circular beams used in CyberKnife treatments, beam’s eye view-shaped fields are generally more time-efficient for dose delivery. However, beam’s eye view-shaping devices, such as a mini-multileaf collimator (mMLC), are not presently available for CyberKnife, although

  4. The BC energy plan : a vision for clean energy leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming is a pertinent environmental issue. This report presented a vision and plan for clean energy leadership in British Columbia (BC). The intent of the plan is make the province energy self-sufficient while taking responsibility for the natural environment and climate. The BC energy plan set out targets as well as a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The plan outlines the steps that industry, environmental agencies, communities and citizens must take to reach goals for conservation, energy efficiency and clean energy. This report provided highlights of the BC energy plan and discussed energy conservation and efficiency targets. It also discussed electricity security and public ownership of electricity in addition to strategies and policy options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from electricity. The report presented several policy options for alternative energy including an innovative clean energy fund; generating electricity from mountain pine beatlewood to turn wood waste into energy; and transportation strategies. The report also discussed electricity options such as bioenergy; coal thermal power; geothermal; hydrogen and fuel cell technology; large hydroelectric dams; natural gas; small hydro; solar; tidal energy; and wind. Other topics that were addressed in the report included skills, training and labour; and, oil and gas policy actions. A summary of policy actions was also presented. tabs., figs

  5. Chitosan and Sodium Alginate Combinations Are Alternative, Efficient, and Safe Natural Adjuvant Systems for Hepatitis B Vaccine in Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelAllah, Nourhan H.; Boseila, Abeer A.; Amin, Magdy A.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infections represent major public health problem and are an occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Current alum-adjuvanted HBV vaccine is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection. However, the vaccine has some limitations including poor response in some vaccinee and being a frost-sensitive suspension. The goal of our study was to use an alternative natural adjuvant system strongly immunogenic allowing for a reduction in dose and cost. We tested HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) adjuvanted with chitosan (Ch) and sodium alginate (S), both natural adjuvants, either alone or combined with alum in mouse model. Mice groups were immunized subcutaneously with HBsAg adjuvanted with Ch or S, or triple adjuvant formula with alum (Al), Ch, and S, or double formulations with AlCh or AlS. These were compared to control groups immunized with current vaccine formula or unadjuvanted HBsAg. We evaluated the rate of seroconversion, serum HBsAg antibody, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels. The results showed that the solution formula with Ch or S exhibited comparable immunogenic responses to Al-adjuvanted suspension. The AlChS gave significantly higher immunogenic response compared to controls. Collectively, our results indicated that Ch and S are effective HBV adjuvants offering natural alternatives, potentially reducing dose. PMID:27493674

  6. Confine Clay in an Alternating Multilayered Structure through Injection Molding: A Simple and Efficient Route to Improve Barrier Performance of Polymeric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feilong; Deng, Hua; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Ke; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2015-05-20

    Various methods have been devoted to trigger the formation of multilayered structure for wide range of applications. These methods are often complicated with low production efficiency or require complex equipment. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for the fabrication of polymeric sheets containing multilayered structure with enhanced barrier property through high speed thin-wall injection molding (HSIM). To achieve this, montmorillonite (MMT) is added into PE first, then blended with PP to fabricate PE-MMT/PP ternary composites. It is demonstrated that alternating multilayer structure could be obtained in the ternary composites because of low interfacial tension and good viscosity match between different polymer components. MMT is selectively dispersed in PE phase with partial exfoliated/partial intercalated microstructure. 2D-WAXD analysis indicates that the clay tactoids in PE-MMT/PP exhibits an uniplanar-axial orientation with their surface parallel to the molded part surface, while the tactoids in binary PE-MMT composites with the same overall MMT contents illustrate less orientation. The enhanced orientation of nanoclay in PE-MMT/PP could be attributed to the confinement of alternating multilayer structure, which prohibits the tumbling and rotation of nanoplatelets. Therefore, the oxygen barrier property of PE-MMT/PP is superior to that of PE-MMT because of increased gas permeation pathway. Comparing with the results obtained for PE based composites in literature, outstanding barrier property performance (45.7% and 58.2% improvement with 1.5 and 2.5 wt % MMT content, respectively) is achieved in current study. Two issues are considered responsible for such improvement: enhanced MMT orientation caused by the confinement in layered structure, and higher local density of MMT in layered structure induced denser assembly. Finally, enhancement in barrier property by confining impermeable filler into alternating multilayer structure through such

  7. Technological roadmap for production, clean and efficient use of Brazilian mineral coal: 2012 to 2035; Roadmap tecnologico para producao, uso limpo e eficiente do carvao mineral nacional: 2012 a 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Brazil has one of the largest coal reserves in the world, but it is not among the largest producers in the world. Coal in Brazil, has two main applications: use as fuel for power generation, including industrial energy use, and in the iron and steel industry for production of coke, pig iron and steel. In the updated rates of use, the coal reserves can provide coal for more than 500 years. A public policy to better take advantage of the mineral coal, with horizons in 2022 and 2035 and the guidelines and strategies proposed for the country to reach the production, clean and efficient use of the expressive quantity of the mineral national coal are presented.

  8. Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murawski, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.murawski@iapp.de; Fuchs, Cornelius; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Gather, Malte C. [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the properties of N,N′-[(Diphenyl-N,N′-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N′-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2′-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4 wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35 .1 lm/W (74 .0 lm/W) at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} and reach a very high brightness of 10 000 cd/m{sup 2} at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  9. INTENSIVE THERAPY FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: IS IT REAL EFFICIENCY OR A NEED IN THE ABSENCE OF ANY ALTERNATIVE?

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficiency of different intensive therapy (IT) regimens for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in real clinical practice. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 104 patients receiving different modalities of IT and 115 control patients having the standard basic therapy only. The time course of changes in the articular syndrome (Ritchie articular index, counts of tender and swollen joints, pain levels and global disease activity by the visual analogue scale, morning stiffne...

  10. Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the properties of N,N′-[(Diphenyl-N,N′-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N′-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2′-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4 wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35 .1 lm/W (74 .0 lm/W) at 1000 cd/m2 and reach a very high brightness of 10 000 cd/m2 at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  11. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...... relatively simple and thus practically efficient, partly due to the development of a new simple algorithm for computing the connected components of a graph embedded in the plane. A version of our cleaning algorithm has already been incorporated in a commercial product....

  12. US Clean Energy Sector and the Opportunity for Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, Carole Cameron

    2011-01-01

    The following paper sets forth the current understanding of the US clean energy demand and opportunity. As clean energy systems come online and technology is developed, modeling and simulation of these complex energy programs provides an untapped business opportunity. The US Department of Defense provides a great venue for developing new technology in the energy sector because it is demanding lower fuel costs, more energy efficiencies in its buildings and bases, and overall improvements in its carbon footprint. These issues coupled with the security issues faced by foreign dependence on oil will soon bring more clean energy innovations to the forefront (lighter batteries for soldiers, alternative fuel for jets, energy storage systems for ships, etc).

  13. Clean Cities Technical Assistance Project (Tiger Teams)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    This two-page fact sheet describes Clean Cities' technical assistance (Tiger Teams) capabilities and projects, both completed and ongoing. Tiger Teams are a critical element of the Clean Cities program, providing on-the-ground consultation to help inform program strategies. The knowledge Tiger Team experts gain from these experiences often helps inform other alternative fuels activities, such as needed research, codes and standards revisions, and new training resources.

  14. Financing clean energy market creation : clean energy ventures, venture capitalists and other investors

    OpenAIRE

    Teppo, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Many factors have emerged for change towards cleaner and more efficient technologies and services: climate change, increasing oil demands, and rising living standards in many parts of the world are putting an ever-increasing strain on the environment. Recently, these drivers have fueled the formation of a clean energy venture capital market where both independent venture capitalists (VCs) and corporate venture capitalists (CVCs) have invested in clean energy start-ups. Financing of clean ener...

  15. On Perfectly Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Halicioglu, S.; Kose, H.

    2013-01-01

    An element $a$ of a ring $R$ is called perfectly clean if there exists an idempotent $e\\in comm^2(a)$ such that $a-e\\in U(R)$. A ring $R$ is perfectly clean in case every element in $R$ is perfectly clean. In this paper, we investigate conditions on a local ring $R$ that imply that $2\\times 2$ matrix rings and triangular matrix rings are perfectly clean. We shall show that for these rings perfect cleanness and strong cleanness coincide with each other, and enhance many known results. We also ...

  16. Weak Nil Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Basnet, Dhiren Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a weak nil clean ring, a generalization of nil clean ring, which is nothing but a ring with unity in which every element can be expressed as sum or difference of a nilpotent and an idempotent. Further if the idempotent and nilpotent commute the ring is called weak* nil clean. We characterize all $n\\in \\mathbb{N}$, for which $\\mathbb{Z}_n$ is weak nil clean but not nil clean. We show that if $R$ is a weak* nil clean and $e$ is an idempotent in $R$, then the corner r...

  17. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  18. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  19. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  20. Heterogeneous catalysis and the challenges of powering the planet, securing chemicals for civilised life, and clean efficient utilization of renewable feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews, first, the prospects, practices and principles of generating solar fuels. It does so with an analysis of recent progress in the light-driven emission of H2 (and other fuels) as well as O2 from water. To place this challenge in perspective, some current practices entailing the use of well-proven solid catalysts developed for fossil-based feedstocks, are described. The massive differences between proven methods of generating fuel and chemicals from non-renewable and from solar radiation are emphasized with the aid of numerous quantitative examples. Whilst it is acknowledged that a key action in reducing the liberation of greenhouse gases (GHG) is to tackle the challenge of decreasing their evolution in power generation and in the production of steel, aluminium and other bulk commodities (metals, alloys, concrete and ceramics), nevertheless much can be done to diminish the emission of CO2 (and to use it as feedstock) through the agency of new, designed solid catalysts and microalgae. Solar-thermal converters are also attractive alternatives, even though they are more likely to be used centrally rather than in small modular units like 'artificial leaves,' some of which are promising for the purposes of generating energy (and perhaps fuel) in a delocalized, modular manner. PMID:24988917

  1. COOLCEP (cool clean efficient power): A novel CO2-capturing oxy-fuel power system with LNG (liquefied natural gas) coldness energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled power plant is proposed, which has virtually zero CO2 and other emissions and a high efficiency. The plant operates as a subcritical CO2 Rankine-like cycle. Beside the power generation, the system provides refrigeration in the CO2 subcritical evaporation process, thus it is a cogeneration system with two valued products. By coupling with the LNG evaporation system as the cycle cold sink, the cycle condensation process can be achieved at a temperature much lower than ambient, and high-pressure liquid CO2 can be withdrawn from the cycle without consuming additional power. Two system variants are analyzed and compared, COOLCEP-S and COOLCEP-C. In the COOLCEP-S cycle configuration, the working fluid in the main turbine expands only to the CO2 condensation pressure; in the COOLCEP-C cycle configuration, the turbine working fluid expands to a much lower pressure (near-ambient) to produce more power. The effects of some key parameters, the turbine inlet temperature and the backpressure, on the systems' performance are investigated. It was found that at the turbine inlet temperature of 900 oC, the energy efficiency of the COOLCEP-S system reaches 59%, which is higher than the 52% of the COOLCEP-C one. The capital investment cost of the economically optimized plant is estimated to be about 750 EUR/kWe and the payback period is about 8-9 years including the construction period, and the cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.031-0.034 EUR/kWh.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy clean cities five-year strategic plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambridge Concord Associates

    2011-02-15

    Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program, which is part of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Working with its network of about 100 local coalitions and more than 6,500 stakeholders across the country, Clean Cities delivers on its mission to reduce petroleum consumption in on-road transportation. In its work to reduce petroleum use, Clean Cities focuses on a portfolio of technologies that includes electric drive, propane, natural gas, renewable natural gas/biomethane, ethanol/E85, biodiesel/B20 and higher-level blends, fuel economy, and idle reduction. Over the past 17 years, Clean Cities coalitions have displaced more than 2.4 billion gallons of petroleum; they are on track to displace 2.5 billion gallons of gasoline per year by 2020. This Clean Cities Strategic Plan lays out an aggressive five-year agenda to help DOE Clean Cities and its network of coalitions and stakeholders accelerate the deployment of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles, while also expanding the supporting infrastructure to reduce petroleum use. Today, Clean Cities has a far larger opportunity to make an impact than at any time in its history because of its unprecedented $300 million allocation for community-based deployment projects from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) (see box below). Moreover, the Clean Cities annual budget has risen to $25 million for FY2010 and $35 million has been requested for FY2011. Designed as a living document, this strategic plan is grounded in the understanding that priorities will change annually as evolving technical, political, economic, business, and social considerations are woven into project decisions and funding allocations. The plan does not intend to lock Clean Cities into pathways that cannot change. Instead, with technology deployment at its core, the plan serves as a guide for decision-making at both the

  3. Clean and efficient application of biomass for production of power and heat - Phase 3 in a long-term strategic research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Jensen, A.D.; Jensen, P.A.; Johnsson, J.E.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2002-06-01

    This project contains activities on: Rheology of ashes from co-firing of coal and biomass; Investigation of ash and deposit formation in full-scale utility boilers; and Selective catalytic reduction: Deactivation under biomass combustion. A fly ash and deposit investigation was carried out as part of the SK Power Company test programme on co-firing of biomasses in a grate-fired boiler. The alternative biomasses (wood chips, olive stones and shea nuts) contain more K, S, and Cl, than wheat straw, and higher fly ash mass loading (mass of fly ash/volume of flue gas) was observed when co-firing alternative biomasses with wheat straw. Anyhow, no significant change in deposit structure when co-firing alkali-rich biomass was observed: KCl is glues residual ash particles together, independent of the feedstock mixture. Thus it can be concluded that co-firing of the actual biomasses in boilers designed for straw-firing, at the present shares is not problematic, from an ash formation and/or deposit build-up point-of-view. Anyhow the increase in ash mass loading in the flue gas, may cause increased build-up of particulate deposits in the convective pass of the boiler. Mature deposit samples from the Masnedoe and Ensted straw-fired boilers were investigated by SEM and EDX. Each deposit sample was classified into an inner, an intermediate, and an outer main layer. The outermost deposit layers at Masnedoe and Ensted looked chemically quite similar, even though they were of different colours. The intermediate layer at Ensted contained many Si- and Ca-rich particles glued together by melted KCI, while the intermediate deposit layers at Masnedoe were different. Since the straw fuels probably are similar, the differences observed in the deposit chemistry must be induced by the higher temperature of the Masnedoe deposit. An experimental method has been set up for viscosity determinations on ashes from co-firing with wheat straw. The method contains a pre-treatment of the ashes, where

  4. Gas bubbling cleaning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a gas bubbling cleaning method for objects to be cleaned having complicate shapes such as reactor equipments. For instance, air is used as the gas, while water is used as the cleaning fluid. A jetting air is jetted out to an object to be cleaned from an air bubbling nozzle disposed below the object. This constitutes air/water two phase flow near the object to be cleaned, to generate a three dimensional circulating flow. The distance between the inner wall surface of a cleaning vessel and the object to be cleaned is set to greater than 5 mm, and the ratio between the air flow rate and the horizontal cross section of the cleaning vessel is set to 0.1 to 0.4m/sec. This enables to enter an appropriate amount of bubbles to the air at the inside of the object to be cleaned having a complicate shape. Accordingly, deposits adhered to the inside of the object to be cleaned can be eliminated and cleaned effectively. (I.N.)

  5. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Aurimas Ralys; Valdemar Prokopovič; Vytautas Striška

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitati...

  6. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Environmental and economic benefits resulting from citizens' participation in CO2 emissions trading: An efficient alternative solution to the voluntary compensation of CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few months in the emerging and lucrative carbon project market, a growing number of organizations have proposed to offset citizens' greenhouse gas emissions. The target of these carbon-offset initiatives is to satisfy the increasing demand of individuals wishing to take part in the fight against climate change. In this paper, we review and criticize these carbon-offsetting programs in general terms. We then propose an alternative that, in our opinion, should prove to be a better solution for citizens who are willing to pay for protecting the environment. This alternative is to organize citizens' participation in carbon emissions trading on a large scale in order to purchase and retire (destroy) CO2 permits. To do so, a benevolent Regulator or non-governmental organization must correct certain CO2 emissions market failures; this particularly concerns the high transaction costs, which represent an entry barrier and prevent citizens from purchasing and withholding permits. Based on theoretical findings, we demonstrate that implementing citizens' participation in emissions trading is an economically efficient and a morally preferable option. (author)

  8. Environmental and economic benefits resulting from citizens' participation in CO2 emissions trading: An efficient alternative solution to the voluntary compensation of CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few months in the emerging and lucrative carbon project market, a growing number of organizations have proposed to offset citizens' greenhouse gas emissions. The target of these carbon-offset initiatives is to satisfy the increasing demand of individuals wishing to take part in the fight against climate change. In this paper, we review and criticize these carbon-offsetting programs in general terms. We then propose an alternative that, in our opinion, should prove to be a better solution for citizens who are willing to pay for protecting the environment. This alternative is to organize citizens' participation in carbon emissions trading on a large scale in order to purchase and retire (destroy) CO2 permits. To do so, a benevolent Regulator or non-governmental organization must correct certain CO2 emissions market failures; this particularly concerns the high transaction costs, which represent an entry barrier and prevent citizens from purchasing and withholding permits. Based on theoretical findings, we demonstrate that implementing citizens' participation in emissions trading is an economically efficient and a morally preferable option

  9. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the moderate processing conditions of 323 K, 13.8 MPa, 30 min and 750 rpm.

  10. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  11. Applying for and using CMAQ funds: Putting the pieces together. A Clean Cities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This guide provides the basic concepts to aid in an alternative fuel vehicle market development program developing an application for Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program funding. The US Department of Energy`s Clean Cities Program is an aggressive, forward-thinking alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) market development program. The stakeholders in any Clean Cities Program subscribe to the common philosophy that, through participation in a team-oriented coalition, steady progress can be made toward achieving the critical mass necessary to propel the AFV market into the next century. An important component in the successful implementation of Clean Cities Program objectives is obtaining and directing funding to the capital-intensive AFV market development outside of the resources currently offered by the Department of Energy. Several state and local funding sources have been used over the past decade, including Petroleum Violation Escrow funds, vehicle registration fees, and state bond programs. However, federal funding is available and can be tapped to implement AFV market development programs across the nation. Historically, opportunities to use federal funding for AFV projects have been limited; however, the one remaining federal program that must be tapped into by Clean Cities Programs is the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program. CMAQ is a 6-year, $6 billion federal program formed by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA).

  12. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  13. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  14. CO2-pellet cleaning process cuts costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Non Destructive Cleaning (NDC) process is truly a ''dry process'' that generates no secondary waste streams. Since no solid grit or aggregate is used, there is no need for bulk radioactive solid waste handling equipment. Moreover, since no chemicals are used, the mobile decontamination facility requires no radioactive chemical processing or mixed waste handling facilities. Instead the NDC process uses solid carbon dioxide particles propelled by dry compressed air as the cleaning medium. The carbon dioxide particles shatter upon impact with the surface of the material to be cleaned and flash into dry carbon dioxide gas. This flashing into gas results in a rapid volume expansion of about ten to one. The cleaning action is due to the rapidly expanding carbon dioxide gas flashing into the surface of the item to be cleaned (which is porous at the microscopic level) and flushing foreign materials out. The microscopic particles of foreign material are captured on high efficiency particulate filters. Larger sized fragments are lifted off the surface by the flashing carbon dioxide gas, fall to the bottom of the cleaning area and are vacuumed away to dry air filters. The NDC process also has the advantage that it does not attack the surface of the material being cleaned, making it unique among cleaning processes. (author)

  15. Clean Processing and Utilization of Coal Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如清; 王海峰

    2006-01-01

    The dominant status of coal on the energy production and consumption structure of China will not be changed in the middle period of this century. To realize highly efficient utilization of coal, low pollution and low cost are great and impendent tasks. These difficult problems can be almost resolved through establishing large-scale pithead power stations using two-stage highly efficient dry coal-cleaning system before coal burning, which is a highly efficient, clean and economical strategy considering the current energy and environmental status of China. All these will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  16. CAFE compliance by light trucks: economic impacts of clean diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the popularity of light trucks increasing in the United States, their share of the US light vehicle market had doubled between 1980 and 1996, climbing from 20 to 40%. By 1996, annual energy consumption for light trucks had risen to 5.97 x 1015 Btu [5.97 quadrillion Btu, or ''quad'', or 6.30 x 1018 joule (J)], compared to 7.94 quad (8.38 x 1018 J) for cars. In recent years (since 1995), the fuel economy of US-manufactured light trucks (almost 99% of which use gasoline engines) has been below the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. This paper analyzes a strategy to reduce the CAFE shortfalls by adopting the new, highly energy-efficient clean diesel engine. Research on such engines has been funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, under its Light Truck Clean Diesel Engine Program. A clean diesel engine market penetration trajectory is developed, representing an industry response to meet the CAFE standards. Whether the engine will be produced inside the country or imported remains uncertain, so two cases are defined. Values of exports/imports of clean diesel engines/trucks under these cases are estimated. The macroeconomic benefits are estimated by using a model of the US economy developed by Standard and Poor's Data Resources, Inc. On the basis of gains in the gross domestic product projected under the alternative cases, domestic production of the clean diesel engine is favored over importing it. (author)

  17. Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, P.; Meirans, L.

    1998-05-01

    The phase-out of the ozone-depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as the ozone-depleting solvents in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. Key to the project`s success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned.

  18. Brushless Cleaning of Solar Panels and Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    Machine proposed for cleaning solar panels and reflectors uses multiple vortexes of air, solvent, and water to remove dust and dirt. Uses no brushes that might abrade solar surfaces and thereby reduce efficiency. Machine can be readily automated and can be used on curved surfaces such as aparbolic reflectors as well as on flat ones. Cleaning fluids are recycled, so that large quantities of water and solvent are not needed.

  19. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-24

    Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  20. Aqueous cleaning of flux residue from solder joints. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krska, C.M.

    1992-08-01

    Solder joints have traditionally been cleaned using chlorinated or fluorinated solvents. This study addressed alternate processing. One process involved using a saponifier/water solution to remove rosin flux residues; the other process involved using a water-soluble flux and water to remove the residues. Although both processes were satisfactory, the water-soluble flux with water cleaning proved to be the best.

  1. Aqueous cleaning of flux residue from solder joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krska, C.M.

    1992-08-01

    Solder joints have traditionally been cleaned using chlorinated or fluorinated solvents. This study addressed alternate processing. One process involved using a saponifier/water solution to remove rosin flux residues; the other process involved using a water-soluble flux and water to remove the residues. Although both processes were satisfactory, the water-soluble flux with water cleaning proved to be the best.

  2. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  3. Infrared steam laser cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Pascal; Lang, Florian; Mosbacher, Mario; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Steam Laser Cleaning with a pulsed infrared laser source is investigated. The infrared light is tuned to the absorption maximum of water (λ = 2.94 µm, 10 ns), whereas the substrates used are transparent (glass, silicon). Thus a thin liquid water layer condensed on top of the contaminated substrate is rapidly heated. The pressure generated during the subsequent phase explosion generates a cleaning force which exceeds the adhesion of the particles. We examine the cleaning threshold in single sh...

  4. Cleaning and surface properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  5. Clean Energy: No Longer a Luxury! Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This learning activity provides an overview of the problem of clean energy sources and examination of alternatives. Student activity, quiz with answers, related activities, and nine references are provided. (SK)

  6. Environmentally Clean Mitigation of Undesirable Plant Life Using Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; McGrann, T J; Yamamoto, R M; Parker, J M

    2009-07-01

    This concept comprises a method for environmentally clean destruction of undesirable plant life using visible or infrared radiation. We believe that during the blossom stage, plant life is very sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, with an enhanced sensitivity to specific spectral ranges. Small doses of irradiation can arrest further plant growth, cause flower destruction or promote plant death. Surrounding plants, which are not in the blossoming stage, should not be affected. Our proposed mechanism to initiate this effect is radiation produced by a laser. Tender parts of the blossom possess enhanced absorptivity in some spectral ranges. This absorption can increase the local tissue temperature by several degrees, which is sufficient to induce bio-tissue damage. In some instances, the radiation may actually stimulate plant growth, as an alternative for use in increased crop production. This would be dependent on factors such as plant type, the wavelength of the laser radiation being used and the amount of the radiation dose. Practical, economically viable realization of this concept is possible today with the advent of high efficiency, compact and powerful laser diodes. The laser diodes provide an efficient, environmentally clean source of radiation at a variety of power levels and radiation wavelengths. Figure 1 shows the overall concept, with the laser diodes mounted on a movable platform, traversing and directing the laser radiation over a field of opium poppies.

  7. Response of carbon assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence to soybean leaf phosphorus across CO2: Alternative electron sink, nutrient efficiency and critical concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K; Reddy, Vangimalla R

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the response of CO2 assimilation rate (PN) and various chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) parameters to phosphorus (P) nutrition, soybean plants were grown in controlled environment with sufficient (0.50mM) and deficient (0.10 and 0.01 mM) phosphate (P) supply under ambient and elevated CO2 (aCO2, 400 and eCO2, 800 μmol mol(-1), respectively). Measurements were made at ambient (21%) and low (2%) O2 concentrations. Results showed strong correlation of leaf P concentration with PN and CF parameters. The P deficiency showed parallel decreases in PN, and CF parameters including quantum efficiency (Fv'/Fm'), quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), electron transport rate (JF), and photochemical quenching (qP). The Fv'/Fm' decreased as a result of greater decline in maximal (Fm') than minimal (Fo') fluorescence. The eCO2 stimulated PN especially under higher leaf P concentrations. Low O2 also stimulated PN but only at aCO2. The photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR, signified by PN) and photorespiratory carbon oxidation cycles (PCO, signified photorespiration as indicated by ratio of JF to gross PN and % increase in PN at 2% O2) was the major electron sinks. However, the presence of alternative electron sink was also evident as determined by the difference between the electron transport calculated from chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange measurements. Alternative electron sink declined at lower leaf P concentration suggesting its minor role in photochemical energy consumption, thus dissipation of the excess excitation pressure of PSII reaction center under P deficiency. The JF/PG and % increase in PN at 2 versus 21% O2 remained consistent across leaf P concentration suggesting PCO cycle as an important mechanism to dissipate excess excitation energy in P deficient leaves. The severe decline of Fv'/Fm', ΦPSII, JF and qP under P deficiency also suggested the occurrences of excess radiant energy dissipation by non-photochemical quenching mechanisms. Critical

  8. Classes of almost clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Akalan, Evrim; Vas, Lia

    2013-01-01

    A ring is clean (almost clean) if each of its elements is the sum of a unit (regular element) and an idempotent. A module is clean (almost clean) if its endomorphism ring is clean (almost clean). We show that every quasi-continuous and nonsingular module is almost clean and that every right CS and right nonsingular ring is almost clean. As a corollary, all right strongly semihereditary rings, including finite $AW^*$-algebras and noetherian Leavitt path algebras in particular, are almost clean...

  9. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  10. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  11. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  12. Nil-clean matrix rings

    OpenAIRE

    S. Breaz; Călugăreanu, G.; Danchev, P.; Micu, T.

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the nil clean matrix rings over fields. As a by product, it is proved that the full matrix rings with coefficients in commutative nil-clean rings are nil-clean, and we obtain a complete characterization of the finite rank Abelian groups with nil clean endomorphism ring and the Abelian groups with strongly nil clean endomorphism ring, respectively.

  13. Investigation of aluminum surface cleaning using cavitating fluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralys, Aurimas; Striška, Vytautas; Mokšin, Vadim [Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Faculty of Mechanics, Department of Machine Engineering, J. Basanavičiaus str.28, 03224, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-12-16

    This paper investigates efficiency of specially designed atomizer used to spray water and cavitate microbubbles in water flow. Surface cleaning system was used to clean machined (grinded) aluminum surface from abrasive particles. It is established that cleaning efficiency depends on diameter of the diffuser, water pressure and distance between nozzle and metal surface. It is obtained that the best cleaning efficiency (100%) is achieved at pressure 36 bar, when diameter of diffuser is 0.4 mm and distance between nozzle and surface is 1 mm. It is also established that satisfactory cleaning efficiency (80%) is achieved not only when atomizer is placed closer to metal surface, but also at larger (120 mm) distances.

  14. Investigation of aluminum surface cleaning using cavitating fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates efficiency of specially designed atomizer used to spray water and cavitate microbubbles in water flow. Surface cleaning system was used to clean machined (grinded) aluminum surface from abrasive particles. It is established that cleaning efficiency depends on diameter of the diffuser, water pressure and distance between nozzle and metal surface. It is obtained that the best cleaning efficiency (100%) is achieved at pressure 36 bar, when diameter of diffuser is 0.4 mm and distance between nozzle and surface is 1 mm. It is also established that satisfactory cleaning efficiency (80%) is achieved not only when atomizer is placed closer to metal surface, but also at larger (120 mm) distances

  15. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  16. Supporting Clean Energy Development in Swaziland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Swaziland, a country largely dependent on regional fossil fuel imports to meet power needs, is vulnerable to supply changes and price shocks. To address this challenge, the country's National Energy Policy and Implementation Strategy prioritizes actions to enhance energy independence through scaling up renewable energy and energy efficiency. With approximately 70 percent of the country lacking electricity, Swaziland is also strongly committed to expanding energy access to support key economic and social development goals. Within this context, energy security and energy access are two foundational objectives for clean energy development in Swaziland. The partnership between the Swaziland Energy Regulatory Authority and the Clean Energy Solutions Center led to concrete outcomes to support clean energy development in Swaziland. Improving renewable energy project licensing processes will enable Swaziland to achieve key national objectives to expand clean energy access and transition to greater energy independence.

  17. Alternative assessment of nano-TiO2 sedimentation under different conditions based on sedimentation efficiency at quasi-stable state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predictable significant increase in manufacture and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) will cause their inevitable release into environment, and the potential harmful effects of ENPs have been confirmed. As representative ENPs, sedimentation behavior of nano-titanium dioxide (n-TiO2) should be better understood to control its environmental risk. In this study, an experimental methodology was established to set the sampling area and sampling time of n-TiO2 sedimentation. In addition, we defined a quasi-stable state and a precise index, i.e., sedimentation efficiency (SE) at this state, to describe the n-TiO2 sedimentation behavior. Both alternative concentration determination and conventional size measurement were applied to evaluate the sedimentation behavior of n-TiO2 with fulvic acid. Results showed that the sedimentation behavior described by SE was more precise and in disagreement with those predicted by particle size. Moreover, sedimentation experiments with salicylic acid (SA), under an electric field and different water temperatures or with sulfosalicylic acid under light irradiation were also performed. When the total organic carbon concentration of SA, the voltage of working electrodes, and water temperature increased, or the wavelength of light source decreased, the SE of n-TiO2 increased and n-TiO2 showed a tendency to settle in water. These findings might be important for deepening the understanding of n-TiO2 environmental behavior and exploring sedimentation behavior of other ENPs

  18. Alternative assessment of nano-TiO{sub 2} sedimentation under different conditions based on sedimentation efficiency at quasi-stable state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Guang’an; Chen, Rui; Lu, Shushen [Sun Yat-sen University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Jiang, Chengchun [Shenzhen Polytechnic, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (China); Liu, Hong, E-mail: liuhong@cigit.ac.cn [Sun Yat-sen University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Wang, Chuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology (China)

    2015-11-15

    The predictable significant increase in manufacture and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) will cause their inevitable release into environment, and the potential harmful effects of ENPs have been confirmed. As representative ENPs, sedimentation behavior of nano-titanium dioxide (n-TiO{sub 2}) should be better understood to control its environmental risk. In this study, an experimental methodology was established to set the sampling area and sampling time of n-TiO{sub 2} sedimentation. In addition, we defined a quasi-stable state and a precise index, i.e., sedimentation efficiency (SE) at this state, to describe the n-TiO{sub 2} sedimentation behavior. Both alternative concentration determination and conventional size measurement were applied to evaluate the sedimentation behavior of n-TiO{sub 2} with fulvic acid. Results showed that the sedimentation behavior described by SE was more precise and in disagreement with those predicted by particle size. Moreover, sedimentation experiments with salicylic acid (SA), under an electric field and different water temperatures or with sulfosalicylic acid under light irradiation were also performed. When the total organic carbon concentration of SA, the voltage of working electrodes, and water temperature increased, or the wavelength of light source decreased, the SE of n-TiO{sub 2} increased and n-TiO{sub 2} showed a tendency to settle in water. These findings might be important for deepening the understanding of n-TiO{sub 2} environmental behavior and exploring sedimentation behavior of other ENPs.

  19. Solar photocatalytic cleaning of polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternatively to biological, physical and chemical methods of waste water cleaning, photocatalysis can be employed. In this residue-free method, titanium dioxide particles are brought into contact with polluted water as photocatalysts. Under UV irradiation at wave-lengths below 400 nm, change carriers are generated in the semiconductor particles that act so intensely oxidizing as to completely degrade almost all organic pollutants in waste water. In this process, the ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum can be harnessed to generate oxidation equivalents. Thus, solar photocatalytic waste water cleaning is excellently suited for developing countries. (BWI)

  20. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of

  1. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.

    2002-02-28

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the

  2. Cleaning insertions and collimation challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Bertarelli, A; Bruce, R; Jowett, J M; Lechner, A; Losito, R

    2015-01-01

    High-performance collimation systems are essential for operating efficiently modern hadron machine with large beam intensities. In particular, at the LHC the collimation system ensures a clean disposal of beam halos in the superconducting environment. The challenges of the HL-LHC study pose various demanding requests for beam collimation. In this paper we review the present collimation system and its performance during the LHC Run 1 in 2010–2013. Various collimation solutions under study to address the HL-LHC requirements are then reviewed, identifying the main upgrade baseline and pointing out advanced collimation concept for further enhancement of the performance.

  3. Developments in surface contamination and cleaning fundamentals and applied aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects, Second Edition, provides an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation. Each volume in this series contains a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. This volume forms the heart of the series, covering the fundamentals and application aspects, characterization of surface contaminants, and methods for removal of surface contamination. In addition, new cleaning techniques effective at smaller scales are considered and employed for removal where conventional cleaning techniques fail, along with new cleaning techniques for molecular contaminants. The Volume is edited by the leading experts in small particle surface contamination and cleaning, providing an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control, and procurement specific...

  4. Domestic energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These alternatives include biomass, clean coal, geothermal, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear, solar and photovoltaic, and wind. With the current, volatile situation in the Middle East, this nation's political leaders appear to be left scratching their heads in their attempts to come up with new, sound, energy policies to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Therefore, the FORTNIGHTLY's editorial staff thought that this might be an opportune time to briefly examine some home-grown and environmentally responsible fuel alternatives to black gold. While some of these electricity-producing technologies are still on the horizon, others are available now

  5. Cleaning methods and philosophy of cleaning to prevent or mitigate microbiological influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that clean material surfaces remain free of most forms of debilitating corrosion, including microbiological influenced corrosion (MIC). Therefore, the prevention of MIC depends on effective treatments and service conditions which precludes various fouling mechanisms, especially biofouling. Mitigation of MIC must begin by removal of fouling deposits which contribute to colonization of material surfaces by bacteria which influence corrosion. There are many cleaning methods and alternatives to consider which can be generally classified as chemical or mechanical processes. Selection of the cleaning process(es) involves technical, economic, and practical factors. Deposit characterization and cleaning trials are essential tot he success of any cleaning project. Procedures should identify all major steps of the cleaning, however, the project manager must have the latitude and technical support to facilitate changes to protect plant equipment and optimize the cleaning effectiveness. This review is most applicable to raw cooling water systems, where much of the emphasis on mitigation of MIC is needed. Closed loop cooling water systems are discussed briefly, as are fire protection systems and high purity water systems

  6. Cleaning of porous filters in fossilized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report are established the optimum working conditions of a filter cleaning system by blow back. For this purpose it was determined in the first place the blow back air rate necessary to have a good cleaning. The reasons for which it was not possible until now to control the pressure in a fluidized bed calcination reactor are analyzed and a criteria is established to calculate the optimum floe necessary to clean efficiently a porous by this procedures. (Author)

  7. On-line chemical cleaning of pipelines; Limpieza quimica de ductos en linea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Michael Brent [Brenntag Stinnes Logistics, Muelheim/Ruhr (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The concern of efficiency and maintenance in the pipeline industry, due to fluids and sediments, has led the development of new methods of cleaning. Some methods of cleaning are described in this work with their advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Generalization of Strongly Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Abhay K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, strongly clean ring defined by W. K. Nicholson in 1999 has been generalized to n-strongly clean, {\\Sigma}-strongly clean and with the help of example it has been shown that there exists a ring, which is n-strongly clean and {\\Sigma}-strongly clean but not strongly clean. It has been shown that for a commutative ring R formal power series R[(x)] of R is n-strongly clean if and only if R is n- strongly clean. We also discussed the structure of homomorphic image of n- strongly cle...

  9. Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge. Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

  10. Chemical cleaning of the condenser tubes of Baersebaeck 2 - Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the summer of 1980 the condenser tubes of Barsebaeck 2 were acid cleaned due to the following reasons: 1) significant heat transfer losses 2) possible passivation of attacks filled with corrosion products 3) encouraging experiences from acid cleaning of Danish units 4) less encouraging experiences from mechanical cleaning. Prior to the acid cleaning some laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pH-value and temperature on the time required for cleaning. In spite of practical problems including loss of acid and cavitating pumps the acid cleaning was performed in less than 24 hours/condenser section. The result of the acid cleaning was better than the result of mechanical methods employed earlier. There was a significant increase in heat transfer efficiency. In two of the condenser sections the tubes were completely free of corrosion products after acid cleaning and cleaning with the Taprogge system. In the two remaining condenser sections some corrosion products were observed in a few deep attacks. This is due to a higher pH-value suring the cleaning of these two sections than during the cleaning of the two first sections. There were no indications of any acid leaking to the steam side of the condenser. (Author)

  11. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  12. Efficient Hilbert transform-based alternative to Tofts physiological models for representing MRI dynamic contrast-enhanced images in computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Kevin M.; Wang, Shijun; Burtt, Karen E.; Turkbey, Baris; Weisenthal, Samuel; Pinto, Peter; Choyke, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    In computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for prostate cancer, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging is useful for distinguishing cancerous and benign tissue. The Tofts physiological model is a commonly used representation of the DCE image data, but the parameters require extensive computation. Hence, we developed an alternative representation based on the Hilbert transform of the DCE images. The time maximum of the Hilbert transform, a binary metric of early enhancement, and a pre-DCE value was assigned to each voxel and appended to a standard feature set derived from T2-weighted images and apparent diffusion coefficient maps. A cohort of 40 patients was used for training the classifier, and 20 patients were used for testing. The AUC was calculated by pooling the voxel-wise prediction values and comparing with the ground truth. The resulting AUC of 0.92 (95% CI [0.87 0.97]) is not significantly different from an AUC calculated using Tofts physiological models of 0.92 (95% CI [0.87 0.97]), as validated by a Wilcoxon signed rank test on each patient's AUC (p = 0.19). The time required for calculation and feature extraction is 11.39 seconds (95% CI [10.95 11.82]) per patient using the Hilbert-based feature set, two orders of magnitude faster than the 1319 seconds (95% CI [1233 1404]) required for the Tofts parameter-based feature set (pfeatures proposed herein appear useful for CAD systems integrated into clinical workflows where efficiency is important.

  13. Ethyl-bridged hybrid column as an efficient alternative for HPLC analysis of plasma amino acids by pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Mar; Van Eendenburg, Cecile Van; Gubern, Carme; Sanchez, Juan M

    2016-09-01

    Conventional C18 silica columns have proven to be useful for the analysis of amino acids (AA) from protein hydrolysates but undesirable peak overlapping is usually found when analyzing body fluids given that a large number of AAs are present in the samples. As an alternative to silica packings, an ethyl-bridged packing for reversed-phase liquid chromatography of derivatized AAs with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) has been evaluated. The new packing material improves the separation efficiency allowing better separations when analyzing biological fluids. Moreover, this packing has advantages for routine AA analysis, such as a decrease in the total running time and an increase in the life-time of the columns. The pH of the mobile phase has a significant effect on the elution behavior of the AQC hydrolysis product (AMQ) and on the AA derivatives. It is not possible to elute AMQ before detecting the first AA derivative, which requires an accurate adjustment of the pH in the range of 5.30-5.35 to obtain good separation and resolution for the most polar compounds. Under the conditions proposed, it is possible to separate all AAs except the Gly-Gln pair, which is not a problem when hydrolyzed samples are analyzed. The AMQ-Ser pair requires either the use of a different mobile phase pH for its baseline separation or the use of fluorescence detection. Two different procedures for protein removal from plasma samples have been evaluated, solvent precipitation and ultrafiltration (UF) and it has been found that UF gives better results as no significant losses of AAs were observed. The validation of the proposed method with UV detection gives method detection limits in the range of 8-12μM, with repeatability values<8% (n=6) and inter-day precision in plasma samples ranging from 4 to 13% (n=4). PMID:27428457

  14. Novel use of an ultrasonic cleaning device for fish reproductive studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, L. M.; van der Meulen, D. E.; Orchard, B. A.; Gray, C. A.

    2013-02-01

    A major challenge commonly faced in reproductive studies of teleosts is to cost effectively and safely separate oocytes from one another and from surrounding ovarian tissue. This challenge is exacerbated when ovarian tissue has been chemically preserved. Using Platycephalus caeruleopunctatus, a platycephalid species found within oceanic waters along the east coast of Australia, as an example species, within this study we describe and assess the utility of an ultrasonic cleaning device to separate oocytes from preserved ovarian tissue. The ultrasonic cleaning device was observed to separate oocytes from the surrounding ovarian tissue within less than 80 min of treatment and had no deleterious effects on the number of oocytes present. Treatment within the ultrasonic cleaning device reduced oocyte diameters at a constant rate of 3.9 μm per hour among the samples tested. As the ultrasonic cleaning device was able to separate oocytes from connective tissue within 80 min, this observed rate of reduction in oocyte diameters is unlikely to be detected at the resolution at which oocytes are traditionally measured and is less than that reported to occur using alternate chemically derived methods to separate oocytes from preserved connective tissue. Following the assessment of using an ultrasonic cleaning device to separate oocytes from ovarian tissue for P. caeruleopunctatus, this technique has been successfully employed to separate oocytes from preserved ovarian tissue for a variety of other teleost species including Macquaria colonorum, Platycephalus longispinis and Ratabulus diversidens. The use of an ultrasonic cleaning device to separate oocytes from preserved ovarian tissue will increase the efficiency of future investigations into teleost reproductive biology and potentially in other fields of research where particle separation and analysis are required.

  15. CPICOR{trademark}: Clean power from integrated coal-ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintrell, R.; Miller, R.N.; Harbison, E.J.; LeFevre, M.O.; England, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The US steel industry, in order to maintain its basic iron production, is thus moving to lower coke requirements and to the cokeless or direct production of iron. The US Department of Energy (DOE), in its Clean Coal Technology programs, has encouraged the move to new coal-based technology. The steel industry, in its search for alternative direct iron processes, has been limited to a single process, COREX{reg_sign}. The COREX{reg_sign} process, though offering commercial and environmental acceptance, produces a copious volume of offgas which must be effectively utilized to ensure an economical process. This volume, which normally exceeds the internal needs of a single steel company, offers a highly acceptable fuel for power generation. The utility companies seeking to offset future natural gas cost increases are interested in this clean fuel. The COREX{reg_sign} smelting process, when integrated with a combined cycle power generation facility (CCPG) and a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU), is an outstanding example of a new generation of environmentally compatible and highly energy efficient Clean Coal Technologies. This combination of highly integrated electric power and hot metal coproduction, has been designated CPICOR{trademark}, Clean Power from Integrated Coal/Ore Reduction.

  16. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  17. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  18. Textile Dry Cleaning Using Carbon Dioxide: Process, Apparatus and Mechanical Action

    OpenAIRE

    Sutanto, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fabrics that are sensitive to water, may wrinkle or shrink when washed in regular washing machines and are usually cleaned by professional dry cleaners. Dry cleaning is a process of removing soils from substrate, in this case textile, using a non-aqueous solvent. The most common solvent in conventional dry cleaning is perchloroethylene (PER). Despite its satisfactory cleaning performance, PER has several drawbacks. One approach is to develop an alternative solvent for PER. CO2 is chosen in th...

  19. Cleaning of GaN(2110) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cleaning of GaN(2110) surfaces was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction. Two different two-step cleaning methods, performed under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, were carried out and compared. The first cleaning step of both methods is thermal degassing. The second step is either the deposition of metallic gallium followed by redesorption or an exposure to active nitrogen from a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source. Upon storage in a glovebox (N2 atmosphere) and transfer to ultrahigh vacuum under dry nitrogen, carbon and oxygen were identified as the major contaminants. A significant decrease in oxygen and carbon was achieved by thermal degassing at 750 deg. C under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. By applying a subsequent Ga deposition/redesorption or N2-plasma cleaning step, a further reduction in oxygen and carbon could be achieved. In comparison, the Ga deposition/redesorption cleaning showed a better performance in oxygen removal, whereas the N2 plasma exhibits a better efficiency in carbon removal. Furthermore scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction investigations showed a drastic improvement of the morphology and atomic structure of the clean surfaces in contrast to the sample surfaces after N2 storage and transfer.

  20. Cleaning of GaN(2110) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Ch.; Kuhr, S.; Geffers, H.; Schmidt, Th.; Flege, J. I.; Aschenbrenner, T.; Hommel, D.; Falta, J. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, Bremen 28334 (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The cleaning of GaN(2110) surfaces was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction. Two different two-step cleaning methods, performed under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, were carried out and compared. The first cleaning step of both methods is thermal degassing. The second step is either the deposition of metallic gallium followed by redesorption or an exposure to active nitrogen from a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source. Upon storage in a glovebox (N{sub 2} atmosphere) and transfer to ultrahigh vacuum under dry nitrogen, carbon and oxygen were identified as the major contaminants. A significant decrease in oxygen and carbon was achieved by thermal degassing at 750 deg. C under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. By applying a subsequent Ga deposition/redesorption or N{sub 2}-plasma cleaning step, a further reduction in oxygen and carbon could be achieved. In comparison, the Ga deposition/redesorption cleaning showed a better performance in oxygen removal, whereas the N{sub 2} plasma exhibits a better efficiency in carbon removal. Furthermore scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction investigations showed a drastic improvement of the morphology and atomic structure of the clean surfaces in contrast to the sample surfaces after N{sub 2} storage and transfer.

  1. Copper elimination during secondary side chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory tests have been carried out to evaluate the capability of EDF chemical cleaning solution to dissolve copper. If laboratory air bubbling is not efficient, oxygen bubbling was used in these tests with success. The results concerning the copper dissolution capacity of the gluconic-citric solution are very interesting: the copper concentration can reach the value of 15 g/l. (author)

  2. Morphologically intelligent underactuated robot for underwater hull cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souto, Daniel; Faina, Andres; López-Peña, Fernando;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a new type of robot for underwater hull cleaning on ships with non-magnetic hulls. This robot is based on the concept that cleaning hulls regularly, without waiting to take them out of the water, will improve the efficiency of the ships and will permit a reduction in the...

  3. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Clean Cities Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.

  4. Mechanisms of self-cleaning in fluid-based smooth adhesive pads of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressure-sensitive adhesives such as tapes become easily contaminated by dust particles. By contrast, animal adhesive pads are able to self-clean and can be reused millions of times over a lifetime with little reduction in adhesion. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this ability are still unclear. Here we test in adhesive pads of stick insects (Carausius morosus) (1) whether self-cleaning is enhanced by the liquid pad secretion, and (2) whether alternating push–pull movements aid the removal of particles. We measured attachment forces of insect pads on glass after contamination with 10 µm polystyrene beads. While the amount of fluid present on the pad showed no effect on the pads' susceptibility to contamination, the recovery of adhesive forces after contamination was faster when higher fluid levels were present. However, this effect does not appear to be based on a faster rate of self-cleaning since the number of spheres deposited with each step did not increase with fluid level. Instead, the fluid may aid the recovery of adhesive forces by filling in the gaps between contaminating particles, similar to the fluid's function on rough surfaces. Further, we found no evidence that an alternation of pushing and pulling movements, as found in natural steps, leads to a more efficient recovery of adhesion than repeated pulling slides. (paper)

  5. CleanFleet. Volume 2, Project Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motorfuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eight-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

  6. Self-cleaning geopolymer concrete - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsaffirah Zailan, Siti; Mahmed, Norsuria; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    Concrete is the most widely used construction materials for building technology. However, cement production releases high amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere that leads to increasing the global warming. Thus, an alternative, environmental friendly construction material such as geopolymer concrete has been developed. Geopolymer concrete applies greener alternative binder, which is an innovative construction material that replaces the Portland cement. This technology introduced nano-particles such as nanoclay into the cement paste in order to improve their mechanical properties. The concrete materials also have been developed to be functioned as self-cleaning construction materials. The self-cleaning properties of the concrete are induced by introducing the photocatalytic materials such as titania (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO). Self-cleaning concrete that contains those photocatalysts will be energized by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and accelerates the decomposition of organic particulates. Thus, the cleanliness of the building surfaces can be maintained and the air surrounding air pollution can be reduced. This paper briefly reviews about self-cleaning concrete.

  7. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  8. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  9. Dimethyl ether as alternative fuel for CI engine and vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen HUANG; Xinqi QIAO; Wugao ZHANG; Junhua WU; Junjun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    As a developing and the most populous country in the world, China faces major challenges in energy supply and environmental protection. It is of great importance to develop clean and alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. On the basis of researches on DME engine and vehicle at Shanghai Jiaotong University in the last twelve years, fuel injection, combustion, performance and exhaust emissions of DME engine and DME vehicle are introduced in this paper. The results indicate that DME engines can achieve high thermal efficiency and ultra low emissions, and will play a significant role in meeting the energy demand while minimizing environmental impact in China.

  10. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  11. Air Cleaning at the USAEC Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some of the air-cleaning requirements of production, research, development and biological facilities in the Y-12 area. Problems and their solutions in hazardous-material containment, air cleaning, contamination control, and air pollution control are enumerated. Bioclean and laminar-flow clean rooms, germ-free supply air systems, exhaust systems for handling toxic and radioactive materials, virus containment and exhaust facilities are described. The Plant's practices regarding air cleaning are discussed including standardization of specifications for high-efficiency particulate air filters and mounting frames, DOP testing of air filter systems, and the replacement of sub-standard filter installations. (author)

  12. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  13. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    OpenAIRE

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount of literature has been devoted to the effect of laser cleaning on marble and limestone, research into the effects on sandstone is limited. In the present paper, the effect of two cleaning methods, v...

  14. LensClean revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wucknitz, O

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the LensClean algorithm which for a given gravitational lens model fits a source brightness distribution to interferometric radio data in a similar way as standard Clean does in the unlensed case. The lens model parameters can then be varied in order to minimize the residuals and determine the best model for the lens mass distribution. Our variant of this method is improved in order to be useful and stable even for high dynamic range systems with nearly degenerated lens model parameters. Our test case B0218+357 is dominated by two bright images but the information needed to constrain the unknown parameters is provided only by the relatively smooth and weak Einstein ring. The new variant of LensClean is able to fit lens models even in this difficult case. In order to allow the use of general mass models with LensClean, we develop the new method LenTil which inverts the lens equation much more reliably than any other method. This high reliability is essential for the use as part of LensClean. Finally...

  15. Physiologic responses and gene diversity indicate olive alternative oxidase as a potential source for markers involved in efficient adventitious root induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Macedo, Elisete; Cardoso, Hélia G; Hernández, Alejandro; Peixe, Augusto A; Polidoros, Alexios; Ferreira, Alexandre; Cordeiro, António; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2009-12-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees are mainly propagated by adventitious rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings. However, efficient commercial propagation of valuable olive tree cultivars or landraces by semi-hardwood cuttings can often be restricted by a low rooting capacity. We hypothesize that root induction is a plant cell reaction linked to oxidative stress and that activity of stress-induced alternative oxidase (AOX) is importantly involved in adventitious rooting. To identify AOX as a source for potential functional marker sequences that may assist tree breeding, genetic variability has to be demonstrated that can affect gene regulation. The paper presents an applied, multidisciplinary research approach demonstrating first indications of an important relationship between AOX activity and differential adventitious rooting in semi-hardwood cuttings. Root induction in the easy-to-root Portuguese cultivar 'Cobrançosa' could be significantly reduced by treatment with salicyl-hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of AOX activity. On the contrary, treatment with H2O2 or pyruvate, both known to induce AOX activity, increased the degree of rooting. Recently, identification of several O. europaea (Oe) AOX gene sequences has been reported from our group. Here we present for the first time partial sequences of OeAOX2. To search for polymorphisms inside of OeAOX genes, partial OeAOX2 sequences from the cultivars 'Galega vulgar', 'Cobrançosa' and 'Picual' were cloned from genomic DNA and cDNA, including exon, intron and 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) sequences. The data revealed polymorphic sites in several regions of OeAOX2. The 3'-UTR was the most important source for polymorphisms showing 5.7% of variability. Variability in the exon region accounted 3.4 and 2% in the intron. Further, analysis performed at the cDNA from microshoots of 'Galega vulgar' revealed transcript length variation for the 3'-UTR of OeAOX2 ranging between 76 and 301 bp. The identified polymorphisms and 3'-UTR

  16. Fluid dynamic effects on precision cleaning with supercritical fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, M.R.; Hogan, M.O.; Silva, L.J.

    1994-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff have assembled a small supercritical fluids parts cleaning test stand to characterize how system dynamics affect the efficacy of precision cleaning with supercritical carbon dioxide. A soiled stainless steel coupon, loaded into a ``Berty`` autoclave, was used to investigate how changes in system turbulence and solvent temperature influenced the removal of test dopants. A pulsed laser beam through a fiber optic was used to investigate real-time contaminant removal. Test data show that cleaning efficiency is a function of system agitation, solvent density, and temperature. These data also show that high levels of cleaning efficiency can generally be achieved with high levels of system agitation at relatively low solvent densities and temperatures. Agitation levels, temperatures, and densities needed for optimal cleaning are largely contaminant dependent. Using proper system conditions, the levels of cleanliness achieved with supercritical carbon dioxide compare favorably with conventional precision cleaning methods. Additional research is currently being conducted to generalize the relationship between cleaning performance and parameters such as contaminant solubilities, mass transfer rates, and solvent agitation. These correlations can be used to optimize cleaning performance, system design, and time and energy consumption for particular parts cleaning applications.

  17. Cleaning with solvents methods and machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Durkee, John

    2014-01-01

    High-precision cleaning is required across many sectors, including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor/electronics, and more. In this comprehensive reference work, solvent cleaning equipment is thoroughly covered with a focus on the engineering details of its operation and selection. Key data is provided alongside practical guidance, giving scientists and engineers in multiple sectors the information they need not only to choose the correct machine in the first place, but also how to operate it effectively and efficiently. Low emission

  18. High-voltage live cleaning robot design based on security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-peng; XIA Hong-wei; YANG Ru-qing

    2005-01-01

    High-Voltage Live Cleaning Robot works in a hot-line environment (220 kV/330 kV), and so the safety of its application and equipment is most important. In terms of safety, the designs of robot mechanism and control system have been discussed, and the test data are given regarding the control system of a model machine. The model machine of a high-voltage live cleaning robot can satisfy the needs of basic cleaning in common conditions. From manual operation to automation, the cleaning efficiency is improved. The robot can decrease the amount of work, and guarantee security. Among high-voltage live cleaning equipment in China, the cleaning robot is advanced in automation and intelligence.

  19. Affordable High Performance Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an Electromagnetically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) with enhanced performance, in Watts/kg and Watts/m2, using flight proven, high efficiency solar cells....

  20. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  1. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  2. On f-clean rings and f-clean elements

    OpenAIRE

    Ali H. Handam

    2011-01-01

    An associative ring R with identity is called f -clean ring if every element in R is the sum of an idempotent and a full element. In this paper, various basic properties of f -clean rings and f -clean elements are proved. Also, we give some new charaterizations of f -clean rings. In addition, we prove that the ring of skew Hurwitz series T = (HR, σ) where σ is an automorphism of R is f -clean if and only if R is f -clean.

  3. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  4. Lead-bismuth coolant cleaning from solid impurities using filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors, influencing the efficiency of the circuit cleaning of the lead-bismuth coolant from the solid phase impurities through filtration, are analyzed. The choice of the filtration material is substantiated proceeding from the properties of the given coolant as a dispersion system. The results of the experiments on determining the efficiency of cleaning capacity by retained impurities, throughput and regeneration made it possible to develop the industrial filters for the NPU needs

  5. EUV mask cleans comparison of frontside and dual-sided concurrent cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Lin Lee; Kindt, Louis; Turley, Christina; Leonhard, Dusty; Boyle, John; Robinson, Chris; Rankin, Jed; Corliss, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The cleaning requirements for EUV masks are more complex than optical masks due to the absence of available EUVcompatible pellicles. EUV masks must therefore be capable of undergoing more than 100 cleaning cycles with minimum impact to lithographic performance. EUV masks are created on substrates with 40 multilayers of silicon and molybdenum to form a Bragg reflector, capped with a 2.5nm-thick ruthenium layer and a tantalum-based absorber; during usage, both ruthenium and absorber are exposed to the cleaning process. The CrN layer on the backside is used to enable electrostatic clamping. This clamp side must also be free of particles that could impact printing and overlay, and particles could also potentially migrate to the frontside and create defects. Thus, the cleaning process must provide decent particle removal efficiencies on both front- and backside while maintaining reflectivity with minimal surface roughness change. In this paper, we report progress developing a concurrent patterned-side and clamped-side cleaning process that achieves minimal reflectivity change over 120 cleaning cycles, with XPS and EDS indicating the presence of ruthenium after 125 cleaning cycles. The change in surface roughness over 100 cleaning cycles is within the noise (0.0086nm) on a mask blank, and SEM inspection of 100nm and 200nm features on patterned masks after undergoing 100 cleaning cycles show no indications of ruthenium pitting or significant surface damage. This process was used on test masks to remove particles from both sides that would otherwise inhibit these masks from being used in the scanner.

  6. Alternative Solvents through Green Chemistry Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Components in the aerospace industry must perform with accuracy and precision under extreme conditions, and surface contamination can be detrimental to the desired performance, especially in cases when the components come into contact with strong oxidizers such as liquid oxygen. Therefore, precision cleaning is an important part of a components preparation prior to utilization in aerospace applications. Current cleaning technologies employ a variety of cleaning agents, many of which are halogenated solvents that are either toxic or cause environmental damage. Thus, this project seeks to identify alternative precision cleaning solvents and technologies, including use of less harmful cleaning solvents, ultrasonic and megasonic agitation, low-pressure plasma cleaning techniques, and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Please review all data content found in the Public Data tab located at: https:techport.nasa.govview11697public

  7. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Clean Cities Project Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    Each Clean Cities project award under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included a diverse group of stakeholders who worked together to lay the foundation for their communities to adopt alternative fuels and petroleum reduction strategies. This document provides a snapshot of the impact of each project and highlights the partners and Clean Cities coalitions who helped transform local and regional transportation markets through 25 projects impacting 45 states.

  8. Clean air strategy for Alberta: Background project reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a background to the development of a clean air strategy for Alberta, reports are presented which cover the definition of what clean air is, the applicability of full cost accounting to this strategy, market-based approaches to managing Alberta air emissions, gas and electric utility incentives programs for energy efficiency, energy efficiency legislation in Alberta and other jurisdictions, initiatives which address emissions reduction in the transportation sector, coordination of science and technology relevant to clean air issues, and initiatives in energy and environmental education

  9. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  10. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  11. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  12. Chemical cleaning processes - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion products and impurities can accumulate in the secondary side of steam generators causing accelerated corrosion, steam flow disruption and heat transfer loss. Traditionally, chemical cleaning processes have been performed using multi-step processes that employ relatively concentrated reagents (e.g. EPRI-SGOG, 10-20 wt.%), that are applied at elevated temperatures. The use of such reagents dictates the use of large and relatively complex reagent handling systems for both reagent preparation and disposal. The significant duration and cost of each chemical clean has dictated that these cleaning processes are only applied on a remedial basis. An assessment of existing technology was carried out and improvements to the EPRI-SGOG processes are being developed. Results of these assessments are reported. Advanced processes are being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited that use lower concentrations of reagents, require shorter application times and generate lower amounts of waste. This technology can be used on a preventive basis to keep steam generators clean. Included are: A dilute regenerative process that is applied during shutdown. The dilute reagent is continuously recirculated and regenerated during the cleaning process, resulting in shorter application times using modular and portable equipment. The low reagent concentration results in a significantly reduced waste volume. For deposits containing both magnetite and copper a pseudo one-step process (using the same base electrolyte and pH) is used with alternate addition of oxidizing or reducing agents; A dilute on-line process that can be used while the reactor is operating. Such a process would be used on a periodic basis and dislodged oxides removed by blowdown or by mechanical means; Additives that can be used to keep steam generators clean. A demonstration of this technology is currently being planned. Details of these technologies will be described. (author)

  13. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent developments and implementations in clean coal technologies foe power generation and industry are reviewed in the present work. The requirements of the Clean Air Act in the United States, and the Directives of the European communities, on the limitations of emissions of pollutants from coal uses are firstly briefly reviewed, and later technological means that are available to coal producers and utilizers to comply with them. Coal cleaning, before combustion may be achieved by physical, chemical and biotechnological methods, these technologies are then examined as well as coal refining. The developments in clean coal combustion are extremely rapid, particularly in regard to poor coals, they are reviewed and in particular fluidized bed combustion, in its varieties, as well as coal gasification and combined cycle and the utilization of the gas in fuel cells. A further chapter is devoted to the control of emissions of gases from coal combustion, to reduce SO2 and NOx emitted in the atmosphere. The economic implications of the technologies are evaluated according to the most recent information available from published literature and from industry publications, and the results compared. The implications of meand to reduced the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere are also evaluated. (authors)

  14. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  15. Mechanism of clean development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of clean development represents an opportunity to attract significant foreign investment for the realization of projects in a country like Colombia, characterized by its forest vocation and with enormous potential to reduce emissions in sectors of energy generation, industry, transport and agro-industry

  16. Burning clean and green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new style of oil burner has been developed for use on exploration platforms offshore. The design improves oil combustion through enhanced air induction, producing stable flames in the clean burn region which do not generate smoke and oil fallout. Successful tests have led to it now being ready for commercial exploitation. (UK)

  17. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  18. Neutrino Detection With CLEAN

    CERN Document Server

    McKinsey, D N

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...

  19. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  20. CLEAN_LNAME: Stata module to clean lastname variables

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien Bouguen

    2015-01-01

    This program removes blanks, accents, full stops, hyphens and apostrophes within a string variable. It also returns the uppercased version of the variable. clean_lname (together with clean_fname) is particularly useful for name matching procedure.

  1. CLEAN_FNAME: Stata module to clean firstname variables

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien Bouguen

    2015-01-01

    This program removes blanks, accents, full stops, hyphens and apostrophes from a string variable. It returns the proper version of the variable. clean_fname (together with clean_lname) is particularly useful for name matching procedure.

  2. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  3. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO2 interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  4. Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na202 and Na0H aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na202 and Na0H and >99.7% for NaI

  5. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  6. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for the optimization of road surface cleaning process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; GAO Dao-ming

    2006-01-01

    The parameters affecting road surface cleaning using waterjets were researched and a fuzzy neural network method of calculating cleaning rate was provided. A genetic algorithm was used to configure the cleaning parameters of pressure, standoff distance, traverse rate and angle of nozzles for the optimization of the cleaning effectiveness, efficiency, energy and water consumption, and a multi-objective optimization model was established. After calculation, the optimized results and the trend of variation of cleaning effectiveness, efficiency, energy and water consumption in different weighting factors were analyzed.

  7. Relações de produtividade, área folhear e alternância na macieira bravo de esmolfe: Yield efficiency, leaf area and alternate bearing indices of apple cv. bravo de esmolfe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A macieira Bravo de Esmolfe é a mais conhecida e valorizada das variedades regionais, mas o conhecimento técnico disponível é escasso e torna-se necessário aprofundá-lo, em especial no que se refere às formas de gestão e controlo de uma das suas características mais negativas, a forte tendência para alternar as produções. Assim, pretendeu-se identificar algumas relações de produtividade que não desencadeiem alternância, quando cultivada no porta-enxerto ananicante EMLA9, que tem sido considerado entre os melhores actualmente disponíveis para o seu cultivo em regime intensivo. Para o efeito foram seleccionadas 30 macieiras de 8 anos, de estatura semelhante, e que apresentaram diferentes níveis de produtividade no ano de 2004. Em Novembro de 2004 foram recolhidas as folhas e medida a sua área, e contabilizadas as respectivas inflorescências em Abril de 2005, o que forneceu uma perspectiva da produção para essa campanha. Tendo em conta tais valores, e recorrendo ao seu historial produtivo, foram calculados alguns parâmetros que permitiram a análise do comportamento e regularidade de produção das macieiras seleccionadas. Os resultados obtidos nesta primeira abordagem sugerem que intervalos de produtividade da ordem de 8 a 11 g de maçã por folha durante a campanha, a que correspondem 20 a 30 maçãs por cm de diâmetro do tronco, bem como valores entre 10 e 15 folhas por maçã produzida, evitam a alternância de produção, desde que sejam feitas mondas atempadas, conseguindo-se assim bom equilíbrio produção/vegetação.The Bravo de Esmolfe apple tree is the most reputed and valued regional variety, but the available technical knowledge about it does not suffice. It must be deepened, especially on what concerns tools for management and control of one of this cultivar’s most negative characteristics, the strong tendency to alternate bearing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify some yield relations that

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  9. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are ...

  10. A microwave plasma cleaning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. C.; Nelson, W. D.; Schechter, D. E.; Thompson, L. M.; Glover, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    In a microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source, reactive plasmas of oxygen and its mixtures of argon have been used for evaluating plasma cleaning technologies. Small aluminum samples (0.95 x 1.9 cm) were coated with thin films (less than or equal to 20 micrometers in thickness) of Shell Vitrea oil and cleaned with reactive plasmas. The discharge parameters, such as gas pressure, magnetic field, substrate biasing, and microwave power, were varied to change cleaning conditions. A mass spectroscopy (or residual gas analyzer) was used to monitor the status of plasma cleaning. Mass loss of the samples after plasma cleaning was measured to estimate cleaning rates. Measured cleaning rates of low-pressure (0.5-m torr) argon/oxygen plasmas were as high as 2.7 micrometers/min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine cleanliness of the sample surfaces. In this paper, significant results of the plasma cleaning are reported and discussed.

  11. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  12. Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

  13. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 20, No. 1, Summer 2016 - Tackling Transportation: Clean Cities and NPS Team Up to Steer National Parks Toward a Sustainable Future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  14. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount o

  15. Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-22

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

  16. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Singer, M.

    2014-10-01

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

  17. Method of cleaning solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a solvent cleanup step for regenerating solvents released from the solvent extraction process in a reprocessing plan, fuel production plant, etc., extracted solvents are separated by means of freeze vacuum drying method into liquid concentrate comprising water, nitric acid, sublimaitng nuclides, n-dodecane, etc. and TPB residues, etcc. comprising tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl phosphate (MBP) and not-sublimating nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products. Then, the liquid concentrates are separated into an aqueous phase comprising water, nitric acid, etc. and an organic phase comprising n-dodecane, etc. The TBP residues, etc. are cleaned with a nitric acid solution to separate entraining nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products to re-utilize TBP. This can avoid the use of cleaning liquid and decrease the amount of liquid wastes generated to moderate burdens in the liquid wastes processing. Further, apparatus safety for corrosion, fire or explosion can be improved. (T.M.)

  18. Fuel assemblies chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP Paks found a thermal-hydraulic anomaly in the reactor core during cycle 14 that was caused by corrosion product deposits on fuel assemblies (FAs) that increased the hydraulic resistance of the FAs. Consequently, the coolant flow through the FAs was insufficient resulting in a temperature asymmetry inside the reactor core. Based on this fact NPP Paks performed differential pressure measurements of all fuel assemblies in order to determine the hydraulic resistance and subsequently the limit values for the hydraulic acceptance of FAs to be used. Based on the hydraulic investigations a total number of 170 FAs was selected for cleaning. The necessity for cleaning the FAs was explained by the fact that the FAs were subjected to a short term usage in the reactor core only maximum of 1,5 years and had still a capacity for additional 2 fuel cycles. (authors)

  19. A Clean Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAGGIECHEN

    2004-01-01

    If you have US$1 million, do you invest in car production or cleaning car emissions? More cars than ever are hitting the roads and demand is rising.Cleaner cars are being called for, as the government strives to reduce car emission. So there is an obvious market both for cars and for new emission control technologies.Theoretically, you should make money by investing in either of them in China today.

  20. Clean Power on Tap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adopts the most advanced nuclear power technologies to meet long-term energy needs Nuclear power has taken center stage in China’s nationwide cam-paign to develop new and clean energy sources. In the latest effort, Chinese state-owned nuclear power giants invested over 40 billion yuan ($5.86 billion) as an initial funding injection to build a new plant under the

  1. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie;

    exacerbated by a poor personal trash management culture. In this paper we present Cleanly, an urban trashducation system aimed at creating awareness of garbage production and management, which may serve as an educational plat-form in the urban environment. We report on data collected from an online survey......, which not only motivates our research but also provides useful information on reasons and possible solutions for trash problems....

  2. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  3. Clean energy deployment: addressing financing cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New methods are needed to accelerate clean energy policy adoption. To that end, this study proposes an innovative financing scheme for renewable and energy efficiency deployment. Financing barriers represent a notable obstacle for energy improvements and this is particularly the case for low income households. Implementing a policy such as PACE—property assessed clean energy—allows for the provision of upfront funds for residential property owners to install electric and thermal solar systems and make energy efficiency improvements to their buildings. This paper will inform the design of better policies tailored to the creation of the appropriate conditions for such investments to occur, especially in those countries where most of the population belongs to the low–middle income range facing financial constraints. (letter)

  4. Efficient and Cost-Effective Alternative Treatment for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Interstitial Cystitis in Women: A Two-Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance.

  5. Efficient and cost-effective alternative treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections and interstitial cystitis in women: a two-case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Anthony; Hariri, Essa; Shelh, Samar; Irani, Ralph; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance. PMID:25587284

  6. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  7. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  8. Efficient and Cost-Effective Alternative Treatment for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Interstitial Cystitis in Women: A Two-Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Mansour; Essa Hariri; Samar Shelh; Ralph Irani; Mohamad Mroueh

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This re...

  9. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO2 reduction.

  10. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, Igor [The University of Manchester, Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, Manchester (United Kingdom); Klemes, Jiri Jaromir [University of Pannonia, Centre for Process Integration and Intensification (CPI2), Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprem (Hungary)

    2011-08-15

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  11. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  12. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the

  13. Chemistry in Clean Marine Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundja, J. O.; Tshiala, M.

    2009-05-01

    Model-measurement comparisons of HOx in extremely clean air ([NO]Measurements were made during the second Southern Ocean Photochemistry Experiment (SOAPEX-2), The free-radical chemistry was studied using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). Two versions of the model were used, with different levels of chemical complexity, to explore the role of hydrocarbons upon free-radical budgets under very clean conditions. The "detailed" model was constrained to measurements of CO, CH4 and 17 NMHCs, while the "simple" model contained only the CO and CH4 oxidation mechanisms, together with inorganic chemistry. The OH and HO2 (HOx) concentrations predicted by the two models agreed to within 5-10%. The model results were compared with the HOx concentrations measured by the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique during four days of clean Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL) air. The models overestimated OH concentrations by about 10% on two days and about 20% on the other two days. HO2 concentrations were measured during two of these days and the models overestimated the measured concentrations by about 40%. Better agreement with measured HO2 was observed by using data from several MBL aerosol measurements to estimate the aerosol surface area and by increasing the HO2 uptake coefficient to unity. This reduced the modelled HO2 overestimate by ~40%, with little effect on OH, because of the poor HO2 to OH conversion at the low ambient NOx concentrations. Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the "simple" model, and showed the importance of reliable measurements of j(O1D) and [HCHO] and of the kinetic parameters that determine the efficiency of O(1D) to OH and HCHO to HO2 conversion. A 2σ standard deviation of 30-40% for OH and 25-30% for HO2 was estimated for the model calculations using a Monte Carlo technique coupled with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS).

  14. Flux recovery of ceramic tubular membranes fouled with whey proteins: Some aspects of membrane cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Popović Svetlana S.; Milanović Spasenija D.; Iličić Mirela D.; Lukić Nataša Lj.; Šijački Ivana M.

    2008-01-01

    Efficiency of membrane processes is greatly affected by the flux reduction due to the deposits formation at the surface and/or in the pores of the membrane. Efficiency of membrane processes is affected by cleaning procedure applied to regenerate flux. In this work, flux recovery of ceramic tubular membranes with 50 and 200 nm pore size was investigated. The membranes were fouled with reconstituted whey solution for 1 hour. After that, the membranes were rinsed with clean water and then cleane...

  15. Evaluation of Cleaning Strategies for Removal of Biofilms from Reverse-Osmosis Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Whittaker, C.; Ridgway, H.; Olson, B H

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the efficiency of five classes of chemical cleaning agents for removing biofilm from spirally wound cellulose acetate reverse-osmosis membranes receiving influent with high or low levels of combined chlorine. Each cleaning regimen utilized one or more of the following types of chemical: (i) surfactants and detergents, (ii) chaotropic agents, (iii) bactericidal agents, (iv) enzymes, and (v) antiprecipitants. Cleaning efficiency was tested in the laboratory on membrane...

  16. Determination of self attenuation coefficient and relative TL efficiency of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs - An alternate approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakshi, A.K., E-mail: akbakshi123@yahoo.com; Chatterjee, S.; Palani Selvam, T.; Joshi, V.J.; Chougaonkar, M.P.

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: {yields} Relative TL efficiency in the energy range 10-34 keV has been determined using an alternate approach for CaSO{sub 4}:Dy disc, MTS disc and MCP-N chip. {yields} For CaSO{sub 4}:Dy disc, it was found that light attenuation coefficient increases with the proportion of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy phosphor in the disc. {yields} The light attenuation coefficient of MTS disc and MCP-N chip was found to be 23.4 and 45.5 cm{sup -1}, respectively. {yields} Relative TL efficiency in the photon energy range of 10-34 keV for MTS discs and MCP-N chips matches well with the reported values in the literature. - Abstract: Self attenuation of TL and relative TL efficiency of polytetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE) embedded CaSO{sub 4}:Dy disc, LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS) disc and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) chip were determined in the present study for photons of energy 10-34 keV. The relative TL efficiency was determined using an alternative approach in which ratio of experimental response and corrected theoretical response was used instead of measuring the absolute TL emission in photon counting mode. For CaSO{sub 4}:Dy disc, it was found that with increasing the proportion of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy phosphor in the disc, the light attenuation coefficient increases. The light attenuation coefficient of MTS disc and MCP-N chip was found to be 23.4 and 45.5 cm{sup -1}, respectively. The relative TL efficiency in the photon energy range of 10-34 keV for MTS discs and MCP-N chips, evaluated in the present study matches well with the reported values in the literature.

  17. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    through a multi stage filtration unit on the surface. Solids greater than 50 micron are separated through a 1st stage separator and deposited into a disposal bin. Filtrate is then pumped through a series of high flow, back-flushable filters that remove particulate material greater than 5 micron. After the 1st and 2nd stage filtration the filtrate is then disinfected by passing through an automated UV reactor where the treated water is then released back into the ocean. This advancement in hull cleaning technology will allow vessels to be cleaned in areas where dry docking is not possible or viable along with being a preventive measure to reduce Biofouling in the environment. The in-water hull cleaning system certainly has earned its place as being an innovative leader in improving efficiencies and reducing environmental impact. https://www.linkedin.com/groups?mostRecent=&gid=6724648&trk=my_groups-tile-flipgrp

  18. Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-28

    This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

  19. Hybrid Cleaning Technology for Enhanced Post-Cu/Low-Dielectric Constant Chemical Mechanical Planarization Cleaning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Manivannan; Cho, Byoung-Jun; Kwon, Tae-Young; Park, Jin-Goo

    2013-05-01

    During chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a copper/low-k surface is often contaminated by abrasive particles, organic materials and other additives. These contaminants need to be removed in the subsequent cleaning process with minimum material loss. In this study, a dilute amine-based alkaline cleaning solution is used along with physical force in the form of megasonic energy to remove particles and organic contaminants. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) are used as an organic base and complexing agent, respectively, in the proposed solution. Ethanolamine acts as a corrosion inhibitor in the solution. Organic residue removal was confirmed through contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Electrochemical studies showed that the proposed solution increases protection against corrosion, and that the hybrid cleaning technology resulted in higher particle removal efficiency from both the copper and low-k surfaces.

  20. Fabric compatibility and cleaning effectiveness of drycleaning with carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, S.B.; Laintz, K.E.; Spall, W.D.; bustos, L.; Taylor, C.

    1996-04-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) offers an environmentally sound replacement solvent to the currently used drycleaning solvent, perchloroethylene (PERC). In addition to the health and safety benefits of a CO{sub 2} based cleaning system, large savings in solvent costs provide an incentive for conversion to the new system. Lower operating costs for the new technology provide further incentive. Experimental studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} in both small scale and pilot scale test systems in order to address fabric compatibility with this alternative cleaning method. Results from these tests show that fabric shrinkage using CO{sub 2} is controlled to the same level as current drycleaning methods. In addition, tests to evaluate the cleaning performance of liquid CO{sub 2} drycleaning were also conducted. These results show the prototype liquid CO{sub 2} cleaning system to be better than PERC at soil removal, and worse than PERC at inorganic salt removal.

  1. Investigation of laser cleaning on bronze cultural relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xiulan; Wang, Gao; Zhang, Chen

    2016-05-01

    The effects of laser cleaning on the corrosion layers of bronze cultural relics were studied using a pulsed fiber laser. The laser cleaning threshold value of the corrosion layers was obtained. It was found that the corrosion layer was removed successfully by employing a laser fluence value of 0.32 J cm-2 and scanning for three times. To obtain experimental evidence, laser con-focal scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate the cleaning efficiency of corrosion layers on specimens.

  2. Elements of Clean-room Technology and Contamination Control

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Kapoor; Meenakshi Gupta

    2003-01-01

    The heart of the clean room is the high efticiency particualte air (HEPA)/ultra-low penetration air (ULPA) filter, which provides the highest level of air cleaning ever achieved by a singleprocess step. Filter technology has seen tremendous growth in terms of ultimate performance and air handling capacity. Mere installation of ULPA filters of 99.99995 per cent efficiency for 0.2 um aerosol is not sufficient for achieving the desired performance of a clean room. Other design aspects like flow ...

  3. Clean fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  4. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Archer, Mary D

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells provide clean, reversible electrical power from the sun. Made from semiconductors, they are durable, silent in operation and free of polluting emissions. In this book, experts from all sectors of the PV community - materials scientists, physicists, production engineers, economists and environmentalists - give their critical appraisals of where the technology is now and what its prospects are. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 2.1: Introduction (306 KB). Chapter 2.2: Semiconductor device equations (121 KB). Chapter 2.3: The p-n junction model of Shockley (1,017 KB). Chapter 2.4: Rea

  5. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere causing precipitation of acid rain resulting in death of forests and destruction of buildings and monuments in addition to human health problems. The most common state-of-the-art methods applied today industrially for cleaning of flue gases will be addressed, including wet......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  6. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is the major source of energy in India at present as well as in foreseeable future. With gradual deterioration in coal quality as well as increased awareness on environmental aspects, clean coal technologies have to be adopted by major coal consuming sectors. The probable routes of restricting environmental degradation in power generation include beneficiation of power coal for maintaining consistency in coal supply and reducing pollutant emission, adoption of fluidized bed combustion on a larger scale, adoption of technologies for controlling SOx and NOx emission during and after combustion, adoption of larger capacity and improved and non-recovery type coke ovens

  7. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... September 21, 1994 (59 FR 48472) and are located in 40 CFR part 85, subpart F (``the subpart F regulations....'' \\16\\ \\16\\ 59 FR 48478 (Sep. 21, 1994). Today's proposal is based on EPA's interpretation that section....503 and 85.504 and 59 FR 48478. EPA plans to audit conversion manufacturers and enforce...

  8. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... May 26, 2010, (75 FR 29606) EPA proposed rule changes to simplify and streamline the process \\5\\ by... on September 21, 1994 (59 FR 48472) and located in 40 CFR part 85, subpart F. \\6\\ See Response to... vehicle as a condition of being exempt from prosecution for tampering violations.'' \\21\\ \\21\\ 59 FR...

  9. 40 CFR 63.447 - Clean condensate alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effluent limitation guidelines and standards in 40 CFR part 430, subparts A, B, D, and E; and (iii) All... in the pulping, bleaching, causticizing, and papermaking systems (exclusive of HAP emissions... other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed. (3) Papermaking system means...

  10. Study on characteristics of pipeline transportation and sulfur fixing of cleaned coal logs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yu; LIN Qun; TANG Jun; LIU Tong-cheng

    2006-01-01

    As special cylindrical briquettes of coal for long distance pipeline transportation and directly cleaned combustion the cleaned coal logs should possess two characteristics of transportation in pipeline and cleaned combustion. In order to make cleaned coal logs a rational technology for manufacturing, cleaned coal logs was designed and compound sulfur fixing binders with high effects of binding and sulfur-fixing was selected and combined. In addition, by means of characteristic experiments of strength, wear, waterproof and sulfur-fixing five different cleaned coal logs made with different compound sulfur fixing binders in different compaction conditions was tested and measured. Experimental results indicated that the manufacturing technology of cleaned coal logs was reasonable and the combination of compound sulfur fixing binders was scientific. Cleaned coal logs made up with the fourth group of coal mixture had high strength, good waterproof property, efficient sulfur-fixing, good characteristic of transportation, and achieved the performance requirement for pipeline transportation and sulfur fixing.

  11. The clean development mechanism in a globalized carbon market

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Bréchet; Yann Ménière; Picard, Pierre M

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of the Clean DevelopmentMechanisms (CDM) on the market for carbon quotas and countries' commitments to reduce their carbon emission levels. We show that the CDM contributes to an efficient funding of clean technology investments in least developed countries. How- ever, the CDM is not neutral on the global level of carbon emissions as it entices countries to raise their emission caps. The CDM may also make inap- propriate the inclusion of any country that makes no...

  12. Mathematical model of dust cleaning process in centrifugal-inertial dust collector

    OpenAIRE

    Batluk, V.; Paranyak, N.; Makarchuk, V.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of providing air cleaning from dust in various industries, using highly efficient apparatus, with the aim of bringing the volume of harmful emissions to the sanitary standards. The article presents new directions in creating of dust cleaning apparatus, based on the usage of centrifugal, inertial forces, by which the efficiency of dust collection could be significantly increased.

  13. The Efficient Use of the Productive Potential of Technical Plant Cultures With the Purpose of Providing an Alternative Energetic Fuel Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of secure, non-polluting and renewable sources of biofuel, as an alternative to the fossil fuel, which are finite in time, constituted a concern of scientists long before the energetic crisis of 1973. According to Directive 2003/30/CE, the European Union policy considers the decrease of dependency and of the energetic import, as well as the decrease of gas emissions. By 2020, EU Member States, need to replace gasoline and diesel at a rate of 20%, with renewable fuels. In our country, in order to obtain biodiesel from vegetable oils researches are made on some crops such as sunflower, soybean, apeseed. In Mures County, have done research on the composition and production of oil of rapeseed cultivation for autumn and spring. As a mean value for the three years, varieties Bolero (spring and Digger (autumn accumulated the highest oil content.

  14. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  15. Clean Cities 2011 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Clean Cities Light-Duty Vehicle Buyer's Guide is a consumer publication that provides a comprehensive list of commercially available alternative fuel and advanced vehicles in model year 2011. The guide allows for side-by-side comparisons of fuel economy, price, emissions, and vehicle specifications.

  16. [Interstate Clean Transportation]. Final Report for FG02-99EE50591

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Lee

    2002-07-19

    The Interstate Clean Transportation (ICTC) purpose is to develop a public-private partnership dedicated to accelerating the market penetration of clean, alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in interstate goods movement. In order to foster project development, the ICTC activity sought to increase awareness of heavy-duty AFVs among truck fleet operators.

  17. Colloidal interactions in liquid CO2 - A dry-cleaning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, S.; Sutanto, S.; Kleijn, J.M.; Roosmalen, van M.J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid CO2 is a viable alternative for the toxic and environmentally harmful solvents traditionally used in dry-cleaning industry. Although liquid CO2 dry-cleaning is being applied already at a commercial scale, it is still a relatively young technique which poses many challenges. The focus of this

  18. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  19. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  20. Essays in Efficiency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchuk, Pavlo

    Today a standard procedure to analyze the impact of environmental factors on productive efficiency of a decision making unit is to use a two stage approach, where first one estimates the efficiency and then uses regression techniques to explain the variation of efficiency between different units. It is argued that the abovementioned method may produce doubtful results which may distort the truth data represent. In order to introduce economic intuition and to mitigate the problem of omitted variables we introduce the matching procedure which is to be used before the efficiency analysis. We believe that by having comparable decision making units we implicitly control for the environmental factors at the same time cleaning the sample of outliers. The main goal of the first part of the thesis is to compare a procedure including matching prior to efficiency analysis with straightforward two stage procedure without matching as well as an alternative of conditional efficiency frontier. We conduct our study using a Monte Carlo simulation with different model specifications and despite the reduced sample which may create some complications in the computational stage we strongly agree with a notion of economic meaningfulness of the newly obtained results. We also compare the results obtained by the new method with ones previously produced by Demchuk and Zelenyuk (2009) who compare efficiencies of Ukrainian regions and find some differences between the two approaches. Second part deals with an empirical study of electricity generating power plants before and after market reform in Texas. We compare private, public and municipal power generators using the method introduced in part one. We find that municipal power plants operate mostly inefficiently, while private and public are very close in their production patterns. The new method allows us to compare decision making units from different groups, which may have different objective schemes and productive incentives. Despite