Budy P. Resosudarmo
2002-01-01
Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...
Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.
Gardner, John C., Ed.
Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…
Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2009-10-01
The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.
Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2012-03-01
This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.
Carlink II: A Commuter Carsharing Pilot Program Final Report
Shaheen, Susan
2004-01-01
CarLink II was a commuter-based carsharing pilot project administered by the Institute of Transportation Studies at the University of California, Davis (ITS-Davis) in conjunction with Caltrans, American Honda Motor Company, and Caltrain. Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH) researchers conducted the evaluation. Pilot objectives included testing an advanced carsharing system, understanding user response to this service, and testing its longterm sustainability. From July 1, 2001 to...
Clean Coal Program Research Activities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty
2009-03-31
Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.
Nuclear air cleaning programs in USA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper describes air cleaning research activities in the United States nuclear program other than those described in the various papers presented at the conference. First described are those related to aerosol and particulate cleaning generic programs. Discussed next are air cleaning regulations and standards. Specific activities underway in developing air cleaning information and processes for specific areas are discussed beginning with the support of nuclear reactors, e.g., the Electric Power Research Institute programs on reactor accident phenomena and the Savannah River Site program related to aerosol and adsorber research. Finally, the limited research activities in support of air cleaning systems for nuclear fuel reprocessing are described
Walking School Buses (WSB) are groups of students, led to and from school by adults, in which students are picked up at designated "bus stops". The impact of WSB programs on students' active commuting to school (walking/cycling to school, ACS), and moderate-to vigorous-physical activity (MVPA) has n...
Features of a Health-Oriented Education Program during Daily Commutes: A Qualitative Study
Ramezankhani, Ali; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Ghaffari, Mohtasham; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Kazemi, Sadegh
2016-01-01
Introduction Today, despite scientific advances, many people spend more time and distance between home and their workplaces because of various economic and population reasons. The aim of this study was to identify features of an appropriate health education program during commutes for factory staff at Ardakan county (Yazd province, Iran). Methods This qualitative study was conducted via the phenomenological method in 2014. The population of this study was members of the staff of Ardakan Steel Company. Nineteen specialists and 11 members of the factory’s staff were invited to participate in the study, and data were collected using semi-structured interviews. The interviews took 20 to 40 minutes, and their content was analyzed using content analysis. Results Extraction of codes and themes and their placement in this study showed that an educational program during commutes should have nine features to have the desired effectiveness, i.e., the program must be audience-oriented, repeatable, participatory, technology-based, combinational, supportive, and motivational and interesting. Also, the program should have environmental and organizational support, and it must be evaluated for its effectiveness. Conclusion Considering appropriate features of a health education program in educational situations, especially interventions related to daily commutes, is very important because the effectiveness of such health-oriented educational programs must be ensured.
Distance Traveled and Cross-State Commuting to Opioid Treatment Programs in the United States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew Rosenblum
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This study examined commuting patterns among 23,141 methadone patients enrolling in 84 opioid treatment programs (OTPs in the United States. Patients completed an anonymous one-page survey. A linear mixed model analysis was used to predict distance traveled to the OTP. More than half (60% the patients traveled <10 miles and 6% travelled between 50 and 200 miles to attend an OTP; 8% travelled across a state border to attend an OTP. In the multivariate model (n=17,792, factors significantly (P<.05 associated with distance were, residing in the Southeast or Midwest, low urbanicity, area of the patient's ZIP code, younger age, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, prescription opioid abuse, and no heroin use. A significant number of OTP patients travel considerable distances to access treatment. To reduce obstacles to OTP access, policy makers and treatment providers should be alert to patients' commuting patterns and to factors associated with them.
Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2003 (Volume 1)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy
2003-12-01
Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.
Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patricia Glaza
2012-12-01
The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.
Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2000
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy
2001-04-01
Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.
Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2001
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy
2002-07-30
Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results. Also includes Power Plant Improvement Initiative Projects.
Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 1998
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy
1999-03-01
Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.
The Walking School Bus (WSB) pilot program was evaluated to determine the impact on student’s Active Commuting to School (ACS) and moderate-to vigorous- physical activity (MVPA). We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 8 low income, elementary schools in Houston, TX, USA. Students (n=149) wer...
Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milam, David
2006-12-31
This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.
Clean coal technology: Export finance programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-09-30
Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.
Smart Commute Association : commuter attitudes study 2005 : final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2005-08-01
The Smart Commute Association is a Greater Toronto Area (GTA)-wide joint municipal undertaking that has developed a range of transportation demand management strategies. This paper discussed the results of a survey conducted to gather baseline information on commuter behaviour and attitudes relating to modes of transportation and awareness of Smart Commute Association programs. Information on telecommuters was also presented. The survey consisted of telephone interviews conducted with 1000 GTA and Hamilton residents. Nearly all the survey participants commuted to work, school or places where they were volunteers. Most commuters were under the age of 45, were employed full-time and lived in households without children. Most had household incomes of under $100,000 per year, and travelled 5 days a week on a standard Monday to Friday schedule, commuting an average of 1 hour and 10 minutes a day. The 2 most popular modes of commuting were driving alone and using public transit. Commuters recognized transportation in and around the GTA and Hamilton as an important issue. Congestion, delay, and gridlock were the main problems encountered on a daily basis. Transportation by motorized vehicle was perceived to be the ideal commuting method. Motorized vehicles were considered to be the most convenient, efficient, and affordable means of travel. Commuters were satisfied with their current commute arrangement and cited the lack of alternative viable transportation options as the primary reason for not wanting to switch commuting methods. There was a significant lack of awareness of the Smart Commute program, but it was viewed as a good idea. Strategies of the Smart Commute program include ride matching for carpooling and a guaranteed ride home service; program modules such as employer vanpools; and a regional marketing and education campaign. 20 figs.
Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-04-01
The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.
Clean Coal Technology Programs: Completed Projects (Volume 2)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy
2003-12-01
Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.
Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1993
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1994-03-01
The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a $6.9 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Technology has a vital role in ensuring that coal can continue to serve U.S. energy interests and enhance opportunities for economic growth and employment while meeting the national committment to a clean and healthy global environment. These technologies are being advanced through the CCT Program. The CCT Program supports three substantive national objectives: ensuring a sustainable environment through technology; enhancing energy efficiency and reliability; providing opportunities for economic growth and employment. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program reduce the emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, greenhouse gases, hazardous air pollutants, solid and liquid wastes, and other emissions resulting from coal use or conversion to other fuel forms. These emissions reductions are achieved with efficiencies greater than or equal to currently available technologies.
Heinen, E
2011-01-01
Cycling is cheaper, healthier and in urban environments often faster than other transport modes. Nevertheless, even at short distances, many individuals do not cycle. This thesis aims to explain why commuters vary in their decision to bicycle. Results indicate that the individual (day-to-day) choice to commute by bicycle is affected by personal attitudes towards cycling to work, social norms, work situation, weather conditions and trip characteristics. Additionally, this thesis provides evide...
Making almost commuting matrices commute
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
Suppose two Hermitian matrices A, B almost commute ({parallel}[A,B]{parallel} {<=} {delta}). Are they close to a commuting pair of Hermitian matrices, A', B', with {parallel}A-A'{parallel},{parallel}B-B'{parallel} {<=} {epsilon}? A theorem of H. Lin shows that this is uniformly true, in that for every {epsilon} > 0 there exists a {delta} > 0, independent of the size N of the matrices, for which almost commuting implies being close to a commuting pair. However, this theorem does not specifiy how {delta} depends on {epsilon}. We give uniform bounds relating {delta} and {epsilon}. The proof is constructive, giving an explicit algorithm to construct A' and B'. We provide tighter bounds in the case of block tridiagonal and tridiagnonal matrices. Within the context of quantum measurement, this implies an algorithm to construct a basis in which we can make a projective measurement that approximately measures two approximately commuting operators simultaneously. Finally, we comment briefly on the case of approximately measuring three or more approximately commuting operators using POVMs (positive operator-valued measures) instead of projective measurements.
Clean coal technology demonstration program: Program update 1996-97
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-10-01
The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (known as the CCT Program) reached a significant milestone in 1996 with the completion of 20 of the 39 active projects. The CCT Program is responding to a need to demonstrate and deploy a portfolio of technologies that will assure the U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 297 billion tons could continue to supply the nation`s energy needs economically and in a manner that meets the nation`s environmental objectives. This portfolio of technologies includes environmental control devices that contributed to meeting the accords on transboundary air pollution recommended by the Special Envoys on Acid Rain in 1986. Operational, technical, environmental, and economic performance information and data are now flowing from highly efficient, low-emission, advanced power generation technologies that will enable coal to retain its prominent role into the next millennium. Further, advanced technologies are emerging that will enhance the competitive use of coal in the industrial sector, such as in steelmaking. Coal processing technologies will enable the entire coal resource base to be used while complying with environmental requirements. These technologies are producing products used by utilities and industrial processes. The capability to coproduce products, such as liquid and solid fuels, electricity, and chemicals, is being demonstrated at a commercial scale by projects in the CCT Program. In summary, this portfolio of technologies is satisfying the national need to maintain a multifuel energy mix in which coal is a key component because of its low-cost, availability, and abundant supply within the nation`s borders.
The CleanJava Language for Functional Program Verification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoonsik Cheon
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Unlike Hoare-style program verification, functional program verification supports forward reasoning by viewing a program as a mathematical function from one program state to another and proving its correctness by essentially comparing two mathematical functions, the function computed by the program and its specification. Since it requires a minimal mathematical background and reflects the way that programmers reason about the correctness of a program informally, it can be taught and practiced effectively. However, there is no formal notation supporting the functional program verification. In this article, we describe a formal notation for writing functional program specifications for Java programs. The notation, called CleanJava, is based on the Java expression syntax and is extended with a mathematical toolkit consisting of sets and sequences. The vocabulary of CleanJava can also be enriched by introducing user-specified definitions such as user-defined mathematical functions and specification-only methods. We believe that CleanJava is a good notation for writing functional specifications and expect it to promote the use of functional program verifications by being able to specify a wide range of Java programs.
Nuclear air cleaning R and D programs in Canada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
All CANDU reactor generating stations are equipped with various gas treatment systems. The off-gas management system, the reactor ventilation system (or containment exhaust system), and the heavy water vapor recovery system reduce gaseous radioactive emissions during normal station operation whereas the emergency filtered air discharge system is designed for post-accident containment clean-up. The paper discusses the following research programs studying gaseous radionuclides in Canadian facilities: carbon-14 research and development program; tritium research and development program; iodine research and development program; aerosol research program; noble gases research and development program
Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-12-01
The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.
40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.
2010-07-01
... contained in 40 CFR part 88, subpart A. (b) Program administration. (1)(i) Each state in which there is all... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-10-01
This report describes a clean coal program in which an iron making technology is paired with combined cycle power generation to produce 3300 tons per day of hot metal and 195 MWe of electricity. The COREX technology consists of a metal-pyrolyzer connected to a reduction shaft, in which the reducing gas comes directly from coal pyrolysis. The offgas is utilized to fuel a combined cycle power plant.
Nuclear air cleaning programs in progress in France
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A short presentation is given of the nuclear air cleaning programs in progress in France with respect to pressurized water reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, radioactive waste management facilities, and the dismantling of nuclear facilities. The effects of fires in rooms and ventilation ducts in all nuclear facilities is being studied and computer simulation codes are being developed. A brief review of filter development and filter testing is also presented
Tidd hot gas clean up program. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-10-01
This Final Report on the Tidd Hot Gas Clean Up Program covers the period from initial Proof-of-Concept testing in August, 1990, through final equipment inspections in May, 1995. The Tidd Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) system was installed in the Tidd Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Demonstration Plant, which is the first utility-scale PFBC plant in the United States. Detailed design work on the project began in July, 1990, and site construction began in December, 1991. Initial operation of the system occurred in May, 1992, and the hot gas filter was commissioned in October, 1992. The test program ended in March, 1995, when the Tidd Plant was shut down following its four-year test program. Section 1.0 of this report is an executive summary of the project covering the project background, system description, test results and conclusions. Section 2.0 is an introduction covering the program objectives and schedule. Section 3.0 provides detailed descriptions of the system and its major components. Section 4.0 provides detailed results of all testing including observations and posttest inspection results. Sections 5.0 and 6.0 list the program conclusions and recommendations, respectively. Appendix I is a report prepared by Southern Research Institute on the properties of Tidd PFBC ash sampled during the test program. Appendix II is a report prepared by Westinghouse STC on the performance of candle filter fail-safe regenerator devices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None, None
2002-11-30
The New York State Electric & Gas Corporation (NYSEG) demonstrated a combination of technologies at its Milliken Station in Lansing, New York, designed to: (1) achieve high sulfur dioxide (SO_{2}) capture efficiency, (2) bring nitrogen oxide (NO_{x}) emissions into compliance with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), (3) maintain high station efficiency, and (4) eliminate waste water discharge. This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. DOE sought cost-shared partnerships with industry through five nationally competed solicitations to accelerate commercialization of the most promising advance coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The CCTDP, valued at over five billion dollars, has significantly leveraged federal funding by forging effective partnerships founded on sound principles. For every federal dollar invested, CCTDP participants have invested two dollars. These participants include utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. The project presented here was one of nine selected in January 1991 from 33 proposals submitted in response to the program's fourth solicitation.
The Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feibus, H.
1995-12-31
The joint effort by Polish and American organizations in Krakow has accomplished a great deal in just a few years. In particular, the low emission sources program has had major successes. Poland and America have a lot to learn from each other in the clean and economical use of coal. Both our countries are major producers and users of coal. Both have had to deal with the emissions of particulate and organics from coal combustion. We were fortunate, since our free market economy and democratic government helped us deal with a lot of these problems in the 1950s. In Poland, the freedom to solve these problems has evolved only in the last few years. In the first phase of the program, Polish and American engineers ran combustion tests on boilers and stoves in Krakow. They also performed analyses on the cost and feasibility of various equipment changes. The results of the first phase were used in refining the spreadsheet model to give better estimates of costs emissions. The first phase also included analyses of incentives for proceeding with needed changes. These analyses identified actions needed to create a market for the goods and services which control pollution. Such actions could include privatization, regulation, or financial incentives. The second phase of the program consisted of public meetings in Chicago, Washington, and Krakow. The purpose of the meetings was to inform U.S. and Polish firms about the results of phase 1 and to encourage them to compete to take part in phase 3. The third phase currently underway consists of the commercial ventures that were competitively selected. These ventures were consistent with recommendations unanimously made by the BSC. The three phases of the Polish-American program are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mulalic, Ismir; Ommeren, Jos N. van; Pilegaard, Ninette
2011-01-01
income tax reductions associated with commuting do not apply, one kilometre increase in commuting distance induces a wage increase of about 0.42%, suggesting an hourly compensation of about half of the hourly net wage. Our findings are consistent with wage bargaining theory and suggest a bargaining power...
Final Technical Report_Clean Energy Program_SLC-SELF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henderson, Glenn; Coward, Doug
2014-01-22
This is the Final Technical Report for DOE's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant, Award No. DE-EE0003813, submitted by St. Lucie County, FL (prime recipient) and the Solar and Energy Loan Fund (SELF), the program's third-party administrator. SELF is a 501(c)(3) and a certified Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). SELF is a community-based lending organization that operates the Clean Energy Loan Program, which focuses on improving the overall quality of life of underserved populations in Florida with an emphasis on home energy improvements and cost-effective renewable energy alternatives. SELF was launched in 2010 through the creation of the non-profit organization and with a $2.9 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block (EECBG) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SELF has its main office and headquarters in St. Lucie County, in the region known as the Treasure Coast in East-Central Florida. St. Lucie County received funding to create SELF as an independent non-profit institution, outside the control of local government. This was important for SELF to create its identity as an integral part of the business community and to help in its quest to become a Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). This goal was accomplished in 2013, allowing SELF to focus on its mission to increase energy savings while serving markets that have struggled to find affordable financial assistance. These homeowners are most impacted by high energy costs. Energy costs are a disproportionate percentage of household expenses for low to moderate income (LMI) households. Electricity costs have been steadily rising in Florida by nearly 5% per year. Housing in LMI neighborhoods often includes older inefficient structures that further exacerbate the problem. Despite the many available clean energy solutions, most LMI property owners do not have the disposable income or equity in their homes necessary to afford the high upfront cost
40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the...
State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lantz, E.
2010-05-01
High initial costs can impede the deployment of clean energy technologies. Financing can reduce these costs. And, state, municipal, and utility-sponsored loan programs have emerged to fill the gap between clean energy technology financing needs and private sector lending. In general, public loan programs are more favorable to clean energy technologies than are those offered by traditional lending institutions; however, public loan programs address only the high up-front costs of clean energy systems, and the technology installed under these loan programs rarely supports clean energy production at levels that have a notable impact on the broader energy sector. This report discusses ways to increase the impact of these loan programs and suggests related policy design considerations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hemenway, A. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)
1991-12-31
The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hemenway, A. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States))
1991-01-01
The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.
Envelopes of Commutative Rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rafael PARRA; Manuel SAOR(I)N
2012-01-01
Given a significative class F of commutative rings,we study the precise conditions under which a commutative ring R has an F-envelope.A full answer is obtained when.F is the class of fields,semisimple commutative rings or integral domains.When F is the class of Noetherian rings,we give a full answer when the Krull dimension of R is zero and when the envelope is required to be epimorphic.The general problem is reduced to identifying the class of non-Noetherian rings having a monomorphic Noetherian envelope,which we conjecture is the empty class.
Hazrat, R; Vavilov, N A; Zhang, Z
2011-01-01
In the present paper we discuss some recent versions of localisation methods for calculations in the groups of points of algebraic-like and classical-like groups. Namely, we describe relative localisation, universal localisation, and enhanced versions of localisation-completion. Apart from the general strategic description of these methods, we state some typical technical results of the conjugation calculus and the commutator calculus. Also, we state several recent results obtained therewith, such as relative standard commutator formulae, bounded width of commutators, with respect to the elementary generators, and nilpotent filtrations of congruence subgroups. Overall, this shows that localisation methods can be much more efficient, than expected.
Non-commutative P-1-bundles over commutative schemes
Van den Bergh, Michel
2012-01-01
In this paper we develop the theory of non-commutative P-1-bundles over commutative (smooth) schemes. Such non-commutative P-1-bundles occur in the theory of D-modules but our definition is more general. We can show that every non-commutative deformation of a Hirzebruch surface is given by a non-commutative P-1-bundle over P-1 in our sense.
Sodium components cleaning status in the Italian fast reactor program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
As a consequence of the Italian Fast Reactor Development, mainly aimed to the PEC project and to the participation in the French Superphenix project, it is of increasing importance to set up a reliable method for specific reactor components and related test loops. The first problem was the cleaning of the PEC fuelling machine. In order to perform the routine maintenance of the machine an alcohol cleaning method based on the use of 2-butoxyethanol-NN dimethylformamide mixture has been proposed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mulalic, Ismir; Ommeren, Jos N. van; Pilegaard, Ninette
2011-01-01
We examine the causal effect of commuting distance on workers' wages in a quasi-natural experiments setting using information on all workers in Denmark. We account for endogeneity of distance by using changes in distance that are due to firms’ relocations. For the range of commuting distances where...... income tax reductions associated with commuting do not apply, one kilometre increase in commuting distance induces a wage increase of about 0.42%, suggesting an hourly compensation of about half of the hourly net wage. Our findings are consistent with wage bargaining theory and suggest a bargaining power...... parameter of about 0.50. Due to the experimental setup we are able to exclude many competing explanations of the wage-distance relationship....
US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the USAID portion of a larger dataset developed by OMB to better understand and to quanity the carbon footprint of the daily commute of government...
Final Technical Report_Clean Energy Program_SLC-SELF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henderson, Glenn; Coward, Doug
2014-01-22
This is the Final Technical Report for DOE's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant, Award No. DE-EE0003813, submitted by St. Lucie County, FL (prime recipient) and the Solar and Energy Loan Fund (SELF), the program's third-party administrator. SELF is a 501(c)(3) and a certified Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). SELF is a community-based lending organization that operates the Clean Energy Loan Program, which focuses on improving the overall quality of life of underserved populations in Florida with an emphasis on home energy improvements and cost-effective renewable energy alternatives. SELF was launched in 2010 through the creation of the non-profit organization and with a $2.9 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block (EECBG) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SELF has its main office and headquarters in St. Lucie County, in the region known as the Treasure Coast in East-Central Florida. St. Lucie County received funding to create SELF as an independent non-profit institution, outside the control of local government. This was important for SELF to create its identity as an integral part of the business community and to help in its quest to become a Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). This goal was accomplished in 2013, allowing SELF to focus on its mission to increase energy savings while serving markets that have struggled to find affordable financial assistance. These homeowners are most impacted by high energy costs. Energy costs are a disproportionate percentage of household expenses for low to moderate income (LMI) households. Electricity costs have been steadily rising in Florida by nearly 5% per year. Housing in LMI neighborhoods often includes older inefficient structures that further exacerbate the problem. Despite the many available clean energy solutions, most LMI property owners do not have the disposable income or equity in their homes necessary to afford the high upfront cost
Commutation and Darboux transformation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M V Prabhakar; H Bhate
2015-11-01
In this paper we show that the Darboux transformation for a large class of nonlinear evolution equations arises due to factorization and commutation. The factorization and commutation has been pointed out earlier for Schrödinger operator. We show that it extends to a large class of nonlinear differential equations which admit Lax pairs including Boussinesq, Davey–Stewartson, Bogoyavlensky–Schiff and -wave interaction equation.
Sequences of commutator operations
Aichinger, Erhard
2012-01-01
Given the congruence lattice L of a finite algebra A with a Mal'cev term, we look for those sequences of operations on L that are sequences of higher commutator operations of expansions of A. The properties of higher commutators proved so far delimit the number of such sequences: the number is always at most countably infinite; if it is infinite, then L is the union of two proper subintervals with nonempty intersection.
Aste, Andreas
2013-01-01
A simple exposition of the rarely discussed fact that a set of free boson fields describing different, i.e. kinematically different particle types can be quantized with mutual anticommutation relations is given by the explicit construction of the Klein transformations changing anticommutation relations into commutation relations. The analogous situation for two independent free fermion fields with mutual commutation or anticommutation relations is briefly investigated.
Determining Commuting Behaviour from Monitoring Technologies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuting You
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The study of commuting behaviour has always been one significant focus of people to reach comprehensive knowledge of transport-related scenarios. Similarly, commuting behaviour, as one of the four major physical activities people engaged in during daily life, gained much attention in aspect of health fields. This paper, with the sample data collected by The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab study, discusses the process of how to utilize data obtained from GPS and inclinometer device, along with basic information about participants to conduct travel survey, and reconstructing participant's commuting behaviour. In the analyses of the sample, the procedure of datasets integration through DELPHI programming and protocols established to determine corresponding commuting behaviour are discussed. The details of commuting behaviour illustrated in this study included travel mode, travel duration, allocation of trip stages, and corresponding level of physical activities. This paper discusses a promise for applying advanced technologies in travel survey instead of traditional ones in terms of accuracy and reliability; it discusses the feasibility to discover the coherent relationship between health outcome and commuting behaviour from travel-tracking technologies.
Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1991 (as of December 31, 1991)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of large-scale ''showcase'' facilities built across the country. The program takes the most promising advanced coal-based technologies and moves them into the commercial marketplace through demonstration. These demonstrations are on a scale large enough to generate all the data, from design, construction and operation, that are necessary for the private sector to judge commercial potential and make informed, confident decisions on commercial readiness. The CCT Program has been identified in the National Energy Strategy as major initiative supporting the strategy's overall goals to: increase efficiency of energy use; secure future energy supplies; enhance environmental quality; fortify foundations. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program when commercially available will enable coal to reach its full potential as a source of energy for the nation and the international marketplace. The goal of the program is to furnish the US and international energy marketplaces with a number of advanced, highly efficient, and environmentally acceptable coal-using technologies
State Clean Energy Policies Analysis. State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2010-05-01
This report relies on six in-depth interviews with loan program administrators to provide descriptions of existing programs. Findings from the interviews are combined with a review of relevant literature to elicit best practices and lessons learned from existing loan programs. Data collected from each of the loan programs profiled are used to quantify the impacts of these specific loan programs on the commonly cited, overarching state clean energy goals of energy security, economic development, and environmental protection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential contributions of the US Department of Energy's Clean Coal Program (CCP) to addressing the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (CAA90). Initially funded by Congress in 1985, the CCP is a government and industry co-funded effort to demonstrate a new generation of more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies in a series of full- scale ''showcase'' facilities built across the country. The CCP is expected to provide funding for more than $5 billion of projects during five rounds of competition, with at least half of the funding coming from the private sector. To date, 42 projects have been selected in the first 4 rounds of the CCP. The CAA and amendments form the basis for regulating emissions of air pollutants to protect health and the environment throughout the United States. Although the origin of the CAA can be traced back to 1955, many amendments passed since that time are testimony to the iterative process involved in the regulation of air pollution. Three key components of CAA90, the first major amendments to the CAA since 1977, include mitigation measures to reduce levels of (1) acid deposition, (2) toxic air pollutants, and (3) ambient concentrations of air pollutants. This paper focuses on the timeliness of clean coal technologies in contributing to these provisions of CAA90
Workshop on Commutative Algebra
Simis, Aron
1990-01-01
The central theme of this volume is commutative algebra, with emphasis on special graded algebras, which are increasingly of interest in problems of algebraic geometry, combinatorics and computer algebra. Most of the papers have partly survey character, but are research-oriented, aiming at classification and structural results.
Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...
Cracow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-10-01
Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.
Clean Translation of an Imperative Reversible Programming Language
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Axelsen, Holger Bock
2011-01-01
We describe the translation techniques used for the code generation in a compiler from the high-level reversible imperative programming language Janus to the low-level reversible assembly language PISA. Our translation is both semantics preserving (correct), in that target programs compute exactl...
Hazrat, R.; Zhang, Z.
2011-01-01
Let A be a quasi-finite R-algebra (i.e., a direct limit of module finite algebras) with identity. Let I_i, i=0,...,m, be two-sided ideals of A, \\GL_n(A,I_i) the principal congruence subgroup of level I_i in GL_n(A) and E_n(A,I_i) be the relative elementary subgroup of level I_i. We prove a multiple commutator formula [E_n(A,I_0),\\GL_n(A,I_1),& \\GL_n(A, I_2),..., \\GL_n(A, I_m)] = [E_n(A,I_0),E_n(A,I_1),E_n(A, I_2),..., E_n(A, I_m)], which is a broad generalization of the standard commutator fo...
Probing deformed quantum commutators
Rossi, Matteo A. C.; Giani, Tommaso; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2016-07-01
Several quantum gravity theories predict a minimal length at the order of magnitude of the Planck length, under which the concepts of space and time lose their physical meaning. In quantum mechanics, the insurgence of such a minimal length can be described by introducing a modified position-momentum commutator, which in turn yields a generalized uncertainty principle, where the uncertainty on position measurements has a lower bound. The value of the minimal length is not predicted by theories and must be estimated experimentally. In this paper, we address the quantum bound to the estimability of the minimal uncertainty length by performing measurements on a harmonic oscillator, which is analytically solvable in the deformed algebra induced by the deformed commutation relations.
Categories and Commutative Algebra
Salmon, P
2011-01-01
L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.
Hazrat, R.; Stepanov, A. V.; Vavilov, N. A.; Zhang, Z.
2011-01-01
In the present paper we discuss some recent versions of localisation methods for calculations in the groups of points of algebraic-like and classical-like groups. Namely, we describe relative localisation, universal localisation, and enhanced versions of localisation-completion. Apart from the general strategic description of these methods, we state some typical technical results of the conjugation calculus and the commutator calculus. Also, we state several recent results obtained therewith,...
Radar channel balancing with commutation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doerry, Armin Walter
2014-02-01
When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.
Alternative bio-based fuels for aviation: the clean airports program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has been designated as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. The U.S. Dept. of Energy (US DOE) conferred this designation in March 1996. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. The two major fuels used in aviation are the current piston engine aviation gasoline and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation gasoline (100LL), currently used in the general aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the U.S. today. Turbine engine fuel (jet fuel) produces two major environmental impacts: a local one, in the vicinity of the airports, and a global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinity of airports, through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles. (author)
Pennsylvania State Univ., Middletown. Inst. of State and Regional Affairs.
Described is a learning session on water conservation intended for citizen advisory groups interested in water quality planning. Topics addressed in this instructor's manual include water conservation needs, benefits, programs, technology, and problems. These materials are components of the Working for Clean Water Project. (Author/WB)
Non-Commutative Geometry, Categories and Quantum Physics
Bertozzini, Paolo; Lewkeeratiyutkul, Wicharn
2008-01-01
After an introduction to some basic issues in non-commutative geometry (Gel'fand duality, spectral triples), we present a "panoramic view" of the status of our current research program on the use of categorical methods in the setting of A.Connes' non-commutative geometry: morphisms/categories of spectral triples, categorification of Gel'fand duality. We conclude with a summary of the expected applications of "categorical non-commutative geometry" to structural questions in relativistic quantum physics: (hyper)covariance, quantum space-time, (algebraic) quantum gravity.
Clean switch: the case for prison needle and syringe programs.
Chu, Sandra
2009-12-01
In Canada and in many other countries, prisons have become incubators for the transmission of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Estimates of HIV and HCV prevalence in Canadian prisons are at least 10 and 20 times, respectively, the reported prevalence in the population as a whole--and prevalence rates have been reported to be significantly higher for people who inject drugs. Although people who inject drugs may inject less frequently while incarcerated, the risks of injection drug use are amplified because of the scarcity of sterile syringes and the sharing of injecting equipment in prison. Making sterile injection equipment available to people in prison is an important response to evidence of the risk of HIV and HCV transmission through sharing syringes to inject drugs. In this article, Sandra Chu explains why the government is obligated under international human rights standards and Canadian correctional and constitutional law to provide prison-based needle and syringe programs (PNSPs). PMID:20225504
The relationship of fluidized bed technology to the U.S. Clean Coal Technology demonstration program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fluidized Bed Combustion projects (both AFBCs and PFBCs) have a prominent role in the US DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. This program has the successful commercialization of these technologies as its primary objective and this is the basic criterion for government funding and participation in the development and demonstration of the technologies. Under the CCT program the US DOE is actively involved in the development and operation of three Fluidized Bed Technology projects, NUCLA, TIDD, and SPORN, and is in the negotiation stage on others, Dairyland, Nichols and Tallahassee. All of these projects, along with the operating information on fluidized beds in the industrial sector, will provide a basis for evaluating future utilization of Fluidized Bed Technology in the market place. Impacting upon further utilization will be the time-frame and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper presents the results of a study to ascertain the commercial readiness of Fluidized Bed Technology to meet the emissions and time-frame requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Specifically addressed are: Commercialization criteria/factors which candidate and/or existing CCTs must achieve in order to gain market acceptance. The status of Fluidized Bed Technology in achieving these commercialization criteria for market acceptance (industrial and utility) consistent with the time frame of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Recommendations of commercialization criteria for future fluidized bed CCT demonstration projects
Environmental support to the clean coal technology program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, R.L.
1996-06-01
Work during this period focused on the preparation for DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of a final Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) Project in Warren, Pennsylvania. Proposed by the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) and selected by DOE in the fifth solicitation of the CCT Program, the project would be sited at one of the two units at Penelec`s Warren Station. The EFCC Project proposes to replace two existing boilers with a new {open_quotes}power island{close_quotes} consisting of a staged coal combustor, slag screen, heat exchanger, an indirectly fired gas turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator. Subsequently, Unit 2 would operate in combined-cycle mode using the new gas turbine and the existing steam turbine simultaneously. The gas turbine would generate 25 megawatts of electricity so that Unit 2 output would increase from the existing 48 megawatts generated by the steam turbine to a total of 73 megawatts. Operation of a conventional flue gas desulfurization dry scrubber as part of the EFCC technology is expected to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions by 90% per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated, and NO{sub x} emissions are anticipated to be 60% less per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated because of the staged combustor. Because the EFCC technology would be more efficient, less carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) would be emitted to the atmosphere per kilowatt-hour of electricity produced.
Evolutionary programming CLEAN algorithm for UWB localization images of contiguous targets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Yong; LU Ying-hua
2007-01-01
In this article, a novel scattering center extraction method using genetic algorithm is proposed to deal with the ultra-wideband (UWB) localization image, which is called evolutionary programming (EP) CLEAN algorithm. Because of the UWB characters, the ideal point scattering model and EP method are used in the algorithm for optimizing the UWB localization images. After introducing the algorithm detail, the actual model is used to realize the EP CLEAN algorithm. Compared with the conventional localization imaging algorithm, this algorithm has advantages fitting the UWB characters such as accuracy, robustness, and better resolution, which are verified by the numerical simulations. Therefore the EP CLEAN algorithm could improve localization image performance to expand the UWB technique application.
The efficacy of chemical agents in cleaning and disinfection programs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silva Martins Alzira
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the growing number of outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries, it becomes essential to set up a sanitation program that indicates that the appropriate chemical agent was chosen for application in the most effective way. Method For the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of a chemical agent, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was reached by the classic method of successive broth dilutions. The reference bacteria utilized were Bacillus subtilis var. globigii ATCC 9372, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The strains of Enterobacter cloacae IAL 1976 (Adolfo Lutz Institute, Serratia marcescens IAL 1478 and Acinetobactev calcoaceticus IAL 124 (ATCC 19606, were isolated from material collected from babies involved in outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries. Results The MIC intervals, which reduced bacteria populations over 08 log10, were: 59 to 156 mg/L of quaternarium ammonium compounds (QACs; 63 to 10000 mg/L of chlorhexidine digluconate; 1375 to 3250 mg/L of glutaraldehyde; 39 to 246 mg/L of formaldehyde; 43750 to 87500 mg/L of isopropanol or ethanol; 1250 to 6250 mg/L of iodine in polyvinyl-pyrolidone complexes, 150 to 4491 mg/L of chlorine-releasing-agents (CRAs; 469 to 2500 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide; and, 2310 to 18500 mg/L of peracetic acid. Conclusions Chlorhexidine showed non inhibitory activity over germinating spores. A. calcoaceticus, was observed to show resistance to the majority of the agents tested, followed by E. cloacae and S. marcescens.
Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)
2005-03-16
Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of
Combinatorics and commutative algebra
Stanley, Richard P
1996-01-01
Some remarkable connections between commutative algebra and combinatorics have been discovered in recent years. This book provides an overview of two of the main topics in this area. The first concerns the solutions of linear equations in nonnegative integers. Applications are given to the enumeration of integer stochastic matrices (or magic squares), the volume of polytopes, combinatorial reciprocity theorems, and related results. The second topic deals with the face ring of a simplicial complex, and includes a proof of the Upper Bound Conjecture for Spheres. An introductory chapter giving background information in algebra, combinatorics and topology broadens access to this material for non-specialists. New to this edition is a chapter surveying more recent work related to face rings, focusing on applications to f-vectors. Included in this chapter is an outline of the proof of McMullen's g-conjecture for simplicial polytopes based on toric varieties, as well as a discussion of the face rings of such special ...
Rossi, Matteo A C; Paris, Matteo G A
2016-01-01
Quantum gravity theories predict a minimal length at the order of magnitude of the Planck length, under which the concepts of space and time lose every physical meaning. In quantum mechanics, the insurgence of such minimal length can be described by introducing a modified position-momentum commutator, which in turn yields a generalized uncertainty principle, where the uncertainty on the position measurement has a lower bound. The value of the minimal length is not predicted by theories and must be evaluated experimentally. In this paper, we address the quantum bound to estimability of the minimal uncertainty length by performing measurements on a harmonic oscillator, which is analytically solvable in the deformed algebra of the Hilbert subspace.
Clean Coal Technology Program: Completing the mission. Comprehensive report to Congress
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1994-05-01
With its roots in the acid rain debate of the 1980`s, the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program initially emphasized acid rain abatement technologies in its early phases. With the subsequent passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments and growing concern with global climate change, the emphasis of the Program shifted in the later rounds to highly efficient technologies. This report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the report. Chapter 2 provides a background of the CCT Program including the legislative history, the projects currently in the program, and the lessons that have been learned from the five rounds to date. Chapter 3 discusses the commercial potential of the technologies represented in the program and is based on a continuing series of interviews that have been conducted by the Department of Energy to solicit the views of senior management in those companies and organizations that will be making or affecting commercial decisions on the use of these technologies. Chapter 4 provides an accounting of the funds that have been appropriated for the CCT Program. Chapter 5 presents the options available for the Government to further assist in the commercial implementation of these technologies. Chapter 6 presents a discussion of these options with recommendations.
Topics in commutative ring theory
Watkins, John J
2009-01-01
Topics in Commutative Ring Theory is a textbook for advanced undergraduate students as well as graduate students and mathematicians seeking an accessible introduction to this fascinating area of abstract algebra. Commutative ring theory arose more than a century ago to address questions in geometry and number theory. A commutative ring is a set-such as the integers, complex numbers, or polynomials with real coefficients--with two operations, addition and multiplication. Starting from this simple definition, John Watkins guides readers from basic concepts to Noetherian rings-one of
Commutative and Non-commutative Parallelogram Geometry: an Experimental Approach
Bertram, Wolfgang
2013-01-01
By "parallelogram geometry" we mean the elementary, "commutative", geometry corresponding to vector addition, and by "trapezoid geometry" a certain "non-commutative deformation" of the former. This text presents an elementary approach via exercises using dynamical software (such as geogebra), hopefully accessible to a wide mathematical audience, from undergraduate students and high school teachers to researchers, proceeding in three steps: (1) experimental geometry, (2) algebra (linear algebr...
Non-Commutative Q-Binomial Formula
Nalci, Sengul
2012-01-01
In this paper, we found new q-binomial formula for Q-commutative operators. Expansion coefficients in this formula are given by q-binomial coefficients with two bases (q,Q), determined by Q-commutative q-Pascal triangle. Our formula generalizes all well-known binomial formulas in the form of Newton, Gauss, symmetrical, non-commutative and Binet-Fibonacci binomials. By our non-commutative q-binomial, we introduce q-analogue of function of two non-commutative variables, which could be used in study of non-commutative q-analytic functions and non- commutative q-traveling waves.
Computational linear and commutative algebra
Kreuzer, Martin
2016-01-01
This book combines, in a novel and general way, an extensive development of the theory of families of commuting matrices with applications to zero-dimensional commutative rings, primary decompositions and polynomial system solving. It integrates the Linear Algebra of the Third Millennium, developed exclusively here, with classical algorithmic and algebraic techniques. Even the experienced reader will be pleasantly surprised to discover new and unexpected aspects in a variety of subjects including eigenvalues and eigenspaces of linear maps, joint eigenspaces of commuting families of endomorphisms, multiplication maps of zero-dimensional affine algebras, computation of primary decompositions and maximal ideals, and solution of polynomial systems. This book completes a trilogy initiated by the uncharacteristically witty books Computational Commutative Algebra 1 and 2 by the same authors. The material treated here is not available in book form, and much of it is not available at all. The authors continue to prese...
Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions
Vlist, van der, Kevin; Rouwendal, J.
2002-01-01
This paper studies the interaction between commuting, job mobility, and housing mobility. Many conventional models assume that the employment location has priority over the residential location and that the latter is adapted to the former. This implies that commutes which start with a job change will often be short lived because of a change in residential location that soon follows. It is also often supposed that the change in residential location is made with the intention to avoid long comm...
Commuting projections on graphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Applied Scientific Computing; Zikatanov, Ludmil T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics
2013-02-19
For a given (connected) graph, we consider vector spaces of (discrete) functions defined on its vertices and its edges. These two spaces are related by a discrete gradient operator, Grad and its adjoint, ₋Div, referred to as (negative) discrete divergence. We also consider a coarse graph obtained by aggregation of vertices of the original one. Then a coarse vertex space is identified with the subspace of piecewise constant functions over the aggregates. We consider the ℓ_{2}-projection Q_{H} onto the space of these piecewise constants. In the present paper, our main result is the construction of a projection π _{H} from the original edge-space onto a properly constructed coarse edge-space associated with the edges of the coarse graph. The projections π _{H} and Q_{H} commute with the discrete divergence operator, i.e., we have div π _{H} = Q_{H} div. The respective pair of coarse edge-space and coarse vertexspace offer the potential to construct two-level, and by recursion, multilevel methods for the mixed formulation of the graph Laplacian which utilizes the discrete divergence operator. The performance of one two-level method with overlapping Schwarz smoothing and correction based on the constructed coarse spaces for solving such mixed graph Laplacian systems is illustrated on a number of graph examples.
Almasi, Gheorghe [Ardsley, NY; Blumrich, Matthias Augustin [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton-On-Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul [Yorktown, NY; Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk I [Ossining, NY; Singh, Sarabjeet [Mississauga, CA; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Wernau, DE; Takken, Todd [Brewster, NY; Vranas, Pavlos [Bedford Hills, NY
2008-06-03
Methods and apparatus perform fault isolation in multiple node computing systems using commutative error detection values for--example, checksums--to identify and to isolate faulty nodes. When information associated with a reproducible portion of a computer program is injected into a network by a node, a commutative error detection value is calculated. At intervals, node fault detection apparatus associated with the multiple node computer system retrieve commutative error detection values associated with the node and stores them in memory. When the computer program is executed again by the multiple node computer system, new commutative error detection values are created and stored in memory. The node fault detection apparatus identifies faulty nodes by comparing commutative error detection values associated with reproducible portions of the application program generated by a particular node from different runs of the application program. Differences in values indicate a possible faulty node.
The effect of commuting microenvironment on commuter exposures to vehicular emission in Hong Kong
Chan, L. Y.; Chan, C. Y.; Qin, Y.
Vehicular exhaust emission has gradually become the major air pollution source in modern cities and traffic related exposure is found to contribute significantly to total human exposure level. A comprehensive survey was conducted from November 1995 to July 1996 in Hong Kong to assess the effect of traffic-induced air pollution inside different commuting microenvironments on commuter exposure. Microenvironmental monitoring is performed for six major public commuting modes (bus, light bus, MTR, railway, tram, ferry), plus private car and roadside pavement. Traffic-related pollutants, CO, NO x, THC and O 3 were selected as the target pollutants. The results indicate that commuter exposure is highly influenced by the choice of commuting microenvironment. In general, the exposure level in decreasing order of measured pollutant level for respective commuting microenvironments are: private car, the group consisting light bus, bus, tram and pavement, MTR and train, and finally ferry. In private car, the CO level is several times higher than that in the other microenvironments with a trip averaged of 10.1 ppm and a maximum of 24.9 ppm. Factors such as the body position of the vehicle, intake point of the ventilation system, fuel used, ventilation, transport mode, road and driving conditions were used in the analysis. Inter-microenvironment, intra-microenvironment and temporal variation of CO concentrations were used as the major indicator. The low body position and low intake point of the ventilation system of the private car are believed to be the cause of higher intake of exhaust of other vehicles and thus result in high pollution level in this microenvironment. Compared with other metropolis around the world and the Hong Kong Air Quality Objectives (HKAQO), exposure levels of commuter to traffic-related air pollution in Hong Kong are relatively low for most pollutants measured. Only several cases of exceedence of HKAQO by NO 2 were recorded. The strong prevailing wind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL
2013-10-01
The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.
Optimization of polynomials in non-commuting variables
Burgdorf, Sabine; Povh, Janez
2016-01-01
This book presents recent results on positivity and optimization of polynomials in non-commuting variables. Researchers in non-commutative algebraic geometry, control theory, system engineering, optimization, quantum physics and information science will find the unified notation and mixture of algebraic geometry and mathematical programming useful. Theoretical results are matched with algorithmic considerations; several examples and information on how to use NCSOStools open source package to obtain the results provided. Results are presented on detecting the eigenvalue and trace positivity of polynomials in non-commuting variables using Newton chip method and Newton cyclic chip method, relaxations for constrained and unconstrained optimization problems, semidefinite programming formulations of the relaxations and finite convergence of the hierarchies of these relaxations, and the practical efficiency of algorithms.
Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-09-01
The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical
Electromagnetic Gun With Commutated Coils
Elliott, David G.
1991-01-01
Proposed electromagnetic gun includes electromagnet coil, turns of which commutated in sequence along barrel. Electrical current fed to two armatures by brushes sliding on bus bars in barrel. Interaction between armature currents and magnetic field from coil produces force accelerating armature, which in turn, pushes on projectile. Commutation scheme chosen so magnetic field approximately coincides and moves with cylindrical region defined by armatures. Scheme has disadvantage of complexity, but in return, enables designer to increase driving magnetic field without increasing armature current. Attainable muzzle velocity increased substantially.
On CNC Commuting Contractive Tuples
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
T Bhattacharyya; J Eschmeier; J Sarkar
2006-08-01
The characteristic function has been an important tool for studying completely non-unitary contractions on Hilbert spaces. In this note, we consider completely non-coisometric contractive tuples of commuting operators on a Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}$. We show that the characteristic function, which is now an operator-valued analytic function on the open Euclidean unit ball in $\\mathbb{C}^n$, is a complete unitary invariant for such a tuple. We prove that the characteristic function satisfies a natural transformation law under biholomorphic mappings of the unit ball. We also characterize all operator-valued analytic functions which arise as characteristic functions of pure commuting contractive tuples.
Non-commutative and commutative vacua effects in a scalar torsion scenario
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haidar Sheikhahmadi
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this work, the effects of non-commutative and commutative vacua on the phase space generated by a scalar field in a scalar torsion scenario are investigated. For both classical and quantum regimes, the commutative and non-commutative cases are compared. To take account the effects of non-commutativity, two well known non-commutative parameters, θ and β, are introduced. It should be emphasized, the effects of β which is related to momentum sector has more key role in comparison to θ which is related to space sector. Also the different boundary conditions and mathematical interpretations of non-commutativity are explored.
8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.
2010-01-01
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...
Sulfur dioxide emissions and market effects under the Clean Air Act Acid Rain Program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) established a national program to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from electricity generation. CAAA90's market-based approach includes trading and banking of SO2-emissions allowances. The paper presents an analysis of data describing electric utility SO2 emissions in 1995, the first year of the program's Phase I, and market effects over the 1990-95 period. Fuel switching and flue-gas desulfurization were the dominant means used in 1995 by targeted generators to reduce emissions to 51% of 1990 levels. Flue-gas desulfurization costs, emissions allowance prices, low-sulfur coal prices, and average sulfur contents of coals shipped to electric utilities declined over the 1990-95 period. Projections indicate that 13-15 million allowances will have been banked during the programs' Phase I, which ends in 1999, a quantity expected to last through the first decade of the program's stricter Phase II controls. In 1995, both allowance prices and SO2 emissions were below pre-CAAA90 expectations. The reduction of SO2 emissions beyond pre-CAAA90 expectations, combined with lower-than-expected allowance prices and declining compliance costs, can be viewed as a success for market-based environmental controls. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs
Status of EPRI SGOG steam generators chemical cleaning program in France
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sludge loading, which is a consequence of the normal working of the plants, has some important effects regarding the way the steam generators are working. First of all, flow induced vibration due to the blockage of the quatrefoils that induce water level variations in the secondary side of the steam generators. This phenomenon is a potential root cause for tubes crack initiation due to mechanical fatigue. In addition the sludge accumulation leads to plant power loss that could heavily affect the efficiency ratio of the plant. Specifically this kind of situation has been encountered in France, in 2006, and has led to implement a significant chemical cleaning program proposed by Westinghouse: the EPRI SGOG process, in order to remove the deposits present in the secondary side of the steam generators and recover their normal operations conditions. The results presented in this paper come from EDF reviews, done before and after process implementation. The results of EPRI SGOG chemical cleanings show a very high efficiency of the process in terms of blockage removal, wide range level recovery, SG pressure recovery and recirculation ratio recovery, in parallel with a very low corrosion level that ensures SG integrity over their full lifetime
Workers' marginal costs of commuting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Ommeren, Jos; Fosgerau, Mogens
2009-01-01
This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour...
On the commutator of unit quaternions
Puettmann, Thomas
2011-01-01
The quaternions are non-commutative. The deviation from commutativity is encapsulated in the commutator of unit quaternions. It is known that the k-th power of the commutator is null-homotopic if and only if k is divisible by 12. The main purpose of this paper is to construct a concrete null-homotopy of the 12-th power of the commutator. Subsequently, we construct free S^3-actions on S^7 x S^3 whose quotients are exotic 7-spheres.
2011-08-26
... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit for...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of action denying petition to reopen Title V permit... 2001 Title V permit issued by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP)...
2010-04-28
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Wheelabrator... period or that the grounds for objection or other issue arose after the comment period. EPA received...
2010-12-03
... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper... permit issued by the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) on January 22, 2009 to Luke Paper... to the issuance of the proposed title V permit for Luke Paper Company because of, (1)...
Non-commutative Nash inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kastoryano, Michael [NBIA, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Temme, Kristan [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California 91125 (United States)
2016-01-15
A set of functional inequalities—called Nash inequalities—are introduced and analyzed in the context of quantum Markov process mixing. The basic theory of Nash inequalities is extended to the setting of non-commutative L{sub p} spaces, where their relationship to Poincaré and log-Sobolev inequalities is fleshed out. We prove Nash inequalities for a number of unital reversible semigroups.
A perspective on non-commutative quantum gravity
Martins, Rachel A. D.
2015-06-01
In this paper, we present some of the concepts underlying a program of non-commutative quantum gravity and recall some of the results. This program includes a novel approach to spectral triple categorification and also a precise connection between Fell bundles and Connes' non-commutative geometry. Motivated by topics in quantization of the non-commutative standard model and introduction of algebraic techniques and concepts into quantum gravity (following for example Crane, Baez and Barrett), we define spectral C*-categories, which are deformed spectral triples in a sense made precise. This definition gives to representations of a C*-category on a small category of Hilbert spaces and bounded linear maps, the interpretation of a topological quantum field theory. The construction passes two mandatory tests: (i) there is a classical limit theorem reproducing a Riemannian spin manifold manifesting Connes' and Schücker's non-commutative counterpart of Einstein's equivalence principle, and (ii) there is consistency with the experimental fermion mass matrix. We also present an algebra invariant taking the form of a partition function arising from a C*-bundle dynamical system in connection with C*-subalgebra theory.
Street lighting disturbs commuting bats.
Stone, Emma Louise; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen
2009-07-14
Anthropogenic disturbance is a major cause of worldwide declines in biodiversity. Understanding the implications of this disturbance for species and populations is crucial for conservation biologists wishing to mitigate negative effects. Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasing global problem, affecting ecological interactions across a range of taxa and impacting negatively upon critical animal behaviors including foraging, reproduction, and communication (for review see). Almost all bats are nocturnal, making them ideal subjects for testing the effects of light pollution. Previous studies have shown that bat species adapted to foraging in open environments feed on insects attracted to mercury vapor lamps. Here, we use an experimental approach to provide the first evidence of a negative effect of artificial light pollution on the commuting behavior of a threatened bat species. We installed high-pressure sodium lights that mimic the intensity and light spectra of streetlights along commuting routes of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Bat activity was reduced dramatically and the onset of commuting behavior was delayed in the presence of lighting, with no evidence of habituation. These results demonstrate that light pollution may have significant negative impacts upon the selection of flight routes by bats. PMID:19540116
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-06-01
This report is a comprehensive overview of all proposals received and the projects that were selected in response to the Program Opportunity Notice (PON) for the Clean Coal Technology V (CCT-V) Demonstration Projects (solicitation number DE-PS01-92FE62647). The Department of Energy (DOE) issued the solicitation on July 6, 1992. Through this PON, DOE solicited proposals to conduct cost-shared Clean Coal Technology (CCT) projects that advance significantly the efficiency and environmental performance of coal-using technologies and that are applicable to either new or existing facilities.
Non-commutativity in polar coordinates
Edwards, James P
2016-01-01
We reconsider the fundamental commutation relations for non-commutative $\\mathbb{R}^{2}$ described in polar coordinates with non-commutativity parameter $\\theta$. Previous analysis found that the natural transition from Cartesian coordinates to polars led to a representation of $\\left[\\hat{r}, \\hat{\\varphi}\\right]$ as an everywhere diverging series. We compute the Borel resummation of this series, showing that it can subsequently be extended throughout parameter space and hence provide an interpretation of this commutator. Our analysis provides a complete solution for arbitrary $r$ and $\\theta$ that reproduces the earlier calculations at lowest order. We compare our results to previous literature in the (pseudo-)commuting limit, finding a surprising spatial dependence for the coordinate commutator when $\\theta \\gg r^{2}$. We raise some questions for future study in light of this progress.
Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles
Maslowski, E. A.
1981-01-01
A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.
The Quantum Commutator of a Perfect Fluid
Roberts, Mark D.
1998-01-01
A perfect fluid is quantized by the canonical method. The constraints are found and this allows the Dirac brackets to be calculated. Replacing the Dirac brackets with quantum commutators formally quantizes the system. There is a momentum operator in the denominator of some coordinate quantum commutators. It is shown that it is possible to multiply throughout by this momentum operator. Factor ordering differences can result in a viscosity term. The resulting quantum commutator algebra is \\vspa...
Product and Commutativity of Slant Toeplitz Operators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chaomei LIU; Yufeng LU
2013-01-01
In this paper,the product and commutativity of slant Toeplitz operators are discussed.We show that the product of kth1-order slant Toeplitz operators and kth2-order slant Toeplitz operators must be a (k1k2)th-order slant Toeplitz operator except for zero operators,and the commutativity and essential commutativity of two slant Toeplitz operators with different orders are the same.
Coal diesel combined-cycle project. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1994-05-01
One of the projects selected for funding is a project for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 90 ton-per-day 14-megawatt electrical (MWe), diesel engine-based, combined-cycle demonstration plant using coal-water fuels (CWF). The project, named the Coal Diesel Combined-Cycle Project, is to be located at a power generation facility at Easton Utilities Commission`s Plant No. 2 in Easton, Talbot County, Maryland, and will use Cooper-Bessemer diesel engine technology. The integrated system performance to be demonstrated will involve all of the subsystems, including coal-cleaning and slurrying systems; a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, a dry flue gas scrubber, and a baghouse; two modified diesel engines; a heat recovery steam generation system; a steam cycle; and the required balance of plant systems. The base feedstock for the project is bituminous coal from Ohio. The purpose of this Comprehensive Report is to comply with Public Law 102-154, which directs the DOE to prepare a full and comprehensive report to Congress on each project selected for award under the CCT-V Program.
A lesson program for schoolchildren about a clean and healthy life-style: a pilot study.
Hollander, C
1997-05-01
A health education project is underway in primary schools in the Wonogiri district of Indonesia. This project, implemented by the Yayasan Indonesia Sejahtera (YIS), is related to the Perilaku Hidup Bersih dan Sehat (PHBS) campaign developed by the Provincial Health Office of central Java to promote a healthy life-style. The PHBS campaign, which will eventually target households, industry, and schools, is currently promoting only 10 household-level indicators. Thus, YIS developed a curriculum for PHBS that includes those indicators that are relevant to primary school students. The longterm YIS project group includes the fifth-grade (11- and 12-year-old students) at every elementary school in the district. A single class in a village school is serving as the target group for the pilot study. Development of the pilot curriculum involved a pre/post test as well as a field test, and an evaluation is planned. The health topics chosen for the project are: clean water, use of family sanitation facilities, garbage disposal, mosquitoes, personal hygiene, dental hygiene, nutrition, smoking and alcohol, and family planning. The curriculum consists of seven lessons and is taught using visual aids and a participatory approach. Post-test results were disappointing because answers improved over pretest answers for only 5 out of 21 questions. One of the reasons may have been that the project had to begin before all of the supporting materials were ready. Evaluation is currently ongoing, and plans are underway to expand the program. PMID:12320863
EM-21 ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROGRAM FOR SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hay, M; King, W; Martino, C
2009-12-18
Preliminary studies in the EM-21 Alternative Chemical Cleaning Program have focused on understanding the dissolution of Hematite (a primary sludge heel phase) in oxalic acid, with a focus on minimizing oxalic acid usage. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control, preferably using a supplemental proton source, is critical to oxalate minimization. With pH control, iron concentrations as high as 0.103 M have been obtained in 0.11 M oxalic acid. This is consistent with the formation of a 1:1 (iron:oxalate) complex. The solubility of Hematite in oxalic acid has been confirmed to increase by a factor of 3 when the final solution pH decreases from 5 to below 1. This is consistent with literature predictions of a shift in speciation from a 1:3 to 1:1 as the pH is lowered. Above a solution pH of 6, little Hematite dissolves. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing Hematite dissolution in oxalic acid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular
Calculation of the commutator anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is well-known that, for the non-Abelian gauge theory coupled to the chiral fermions, which is described by a Lagrangian, the anomaly of the non-Abelian current is given by the descent form of the Chern-Simon five form; D*Ja = (-1/24π2)tr[d(AdA + 1/2A3)], where A = Aμdxμ = -itaAμadxμ. Recently, Faddeev argued that, for such an anomalous system, the gauge symmetry would be represented in a generalized sense of projective representation; V(g1)V(g2)Ψ(A) = exp[iα2(g1, g2; A)] X V(g1g2)Ψ(A), where Ψ(A) is the wave functional and the phase factor α2 depends on both the group elements and the gauge field configuration A. Here, it is convenient to consider the infinitesimal version of the above argument. The generator of infinitesimal gauge transformation in the temporal gauge A0 = 0 is given by Ga(x) = δiEia + gfabcAibEic - gΨ-barγ0taΨ, and the infinitesimal form of the previous product rule can be written as the equal time commutation relation; [Ga(x), Gb(y)] = ifabcGc(x)δ3(x-y) + ab(x,y,A), where is related to α2. In this equation, the first term is what is expected as the normal commutation relation of the generator, while the second term is an anomaly, which is designated here as the commutator anomaly. Then the present study concentrates on operations to determine the anomaly term. (Nogami, A.)
Happiness and Satisfaction with Work Commute
Olsson, Lars E.; Garling, Tommy; Ettema, Dick; Friman, Margareta; Fujii, Satoshi
2013-01-01
Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that satisfaction with the work commute contributes to…
On Polynomial Functions over Finite Commutative Rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian Jun JIANG; Guo Hua PENG; Qi SUN; Qi Fan ZHANG
2006-01-01
Let R be an arbitrary finite commutative local ring. In this paper, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for a function over R to be a polynomial function. Before this paper, necessary and sufficient conditions for a function to be a polynomial function over some special finite commutative local rings were obtained.
Commutativity and ideals in category crossed products
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Öinert, Per Johan; Lundström, Patrik
2010-01-01
In order to simultaneously generalize matrix rings and group graded crossed products, we introduce category crossed products. For such algebras we describe the centre and the commutant of the coefficient ring. We also investigate the connection between on the one hand maximal commutativity of the...
Non-commutative Kerr black hole
Di Grezia, Elisabetta; Esposito, Giampiero
2009-01-01
This paper applies the first-order Seiberg-Witten map to evaluate the first-order non-commutative Kerr tetrad. The classical tetrad is taken to follow the locally non-rotating frame prescription. We also evaluate the tiny effect of non-commutativity on the efficiency of the Penrose process of rotational energy extraction from a black hole.
Inferring Passenger Type from Commuter Eigentravel Matrices
Legara, Erika Fille
2015-01-01
A sufficient knowledge of the demographics of a commuting public is essential in formulating and implementing more targeted transportation policies, as commuters exhibit different ways of traveling. With the advent of the Automated Fare Collection system (AFC), probing the travel patterns of commuters has become less invasive and more accessible. Consequently, numerous transport studies related to human mobility have shown that these observed patterns allow one to pair individuals with locations and/or activities at certain times of the day. However, classifying commuters using their travel signatures is yet to be thoroughly examined. Here, we contribute to the literature by demonstrating a procedure to characterize passenger types (Adult, Child/Student, and Senior Citizen) based on their three-month travel patterns taken from a smart fare card system. We first establish a method to construct distinct commuter matrices, which we refer to as eigentravel matrices, that capture the characteristic travel routines...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldberg, M.; Cliburn, J. K.; Coughlin, J.
2011-04-01
This report examines the economic impacts (including job creation) from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program (CSLP), an example of Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The CSLP was the first test of PACE financing on a multi-jurisdictional level (involving individual cities as well as the county government). It was also the first PACE program to comprehensively address energy efficiency measures and renewable energy, and it was the first funded by a public offering of both taxable and tax-exempt bonds.
Teaching Quantum Mechanical Commutation Relations via an Optical Experiment
Billur, A Alper; Bursal, Murat
2015-01-01
The quantum mechanical commutation relations, which are directly related to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, have a crucial importance for understanding the quantum mechanics of students. During undergraduate level courses, the operator formalisms are generally given theoretically and it is documented that these abstract formalisms are usually misunderstood by the students. Based on the idea that quantum mechanical phenomena can be investigated via geometric optical tools, this study aims to introduce an experiment, where the quantum mechanical commutation relations are represented in a concrete way to provide students an easy and permanent learning. The experimental tools are chosen to be easily accessible and economic. The experiment introduced in this paper can be done with students or used as a demonstrative experiment in laboratory based or theory based courses requiring quantum physics content; particularly in physics, physics education and science education programs.
Sandia bicycle commuters group -- pollution prevention at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wrons, R.
1998-06-01
The Sandia Bicycle Commuters Group (SBCG) formed three years ago for the purpose of addressing issues that impact the bicycle commuting option. The meeting that launched the SBCG was scheduled in conjunction with National Bike-to-Work day in May 1995. Results from a survey handed out at the meeting solidly confirmed the issues and that an advocacy group was needed. The purpose statement for the Group headlines its web site and brochure: ``Existing to assist and educate the SNL workforce bicyclist on issues regarding Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) access, safety and bicycle-supporting facilities, in order to promote bicycling as an effective and enjoyable means of commuting.`` The SNL Pollution Prevention (P2) Team`s challenge to the SNL workforce is to ``prevent pollution, conserve natural resources, and save money``. In the first winter of its existence, the SBCG sponsored a winter commute contest in conjunction with the City`s Clean Air Campaign (CAC). The intent of the CAC is to promote alternative (to the single-occupant vehicle) commuting during the Winter Pollution Advisory Period (October 1--February 28), when the City runs the greatest risk of exceeding federal pollution limits.
On the interrelations between migration and commuting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukić Vesna
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we emphasise the significance of studying the interrelations between commuting and migration. The aim of the paper is to point out the factors which affect these interrelations (demographic and socio-economic characteristics of migrants and commuters, labour market, real estate market, information, life style, etc., with the special emphasis on the role of commuting distance onto the chosen mobility type. Besides theorethical frameworks and results of the selected foreign researches up to date, the overview of research of interrelations between migration and commuting in Serbia has also been presented. While earlier studies conducted by Gawryszenski (1978, Termote (1980 and Reitsma&Vergoossen (1987 pointed to the replacement of migration types between each other within country, in recent literature the interaction between migration and commuting has been studied in a trans-boundary context of the contemporary EU. Modern trend of long distance commuting instead of migration and the concept of substitution/replacement regarding migration and commuting have also been discussed. In Serbia, there is a positive correlation between commuting outflows and immigration in rural settlements of Vojvodina province. Namely, commuting and migration are complement, which is the characteristic of both processes sub-urbanisation and ex-urbanisation (Lukić, 2012. In addition to ownership of real estate and previous migration experience, marital status influenced the chosen mobility type in Serbia as well. Adjustment to changes of Serbian labour market is mostly conducted via migration (Miletić, Lukić, Miljanović, 2011. Interrelations between migration and commuting are very significant due to the tendency of transformation of some commuters into migrants. This process has its consequences, both on demographic as well as the overall socio-economic development of the area of commuters’ origin and destination. However, even though the surveys
Two-dimensional black holes and non-commutative spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the effects of non-commutative spaces on two-dimensional black hole. The event horizon of two-dimensional black hole is obtained in non-commutative space up to second order of perturbative calculations. A lower limit for the non-commutativity parameter is also obtained. The observer in that limit in contrast to commutative case see two horizon
Exploratory mapping of commuter flows in England and Wales
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Harder, Henrik
2008-01-01
The paper uses the origin–destination commute data published from the 1991 and 2001 Census to explore the developments in commuting and interaction patterns within England and Wales. Focus is on the geographical variations and a map of commuter flows is presented. Commuting is stretched out along a...
Encoding Phases using Commutativity and Non-commutativity in a Logical Framework
Amblard, Maxime
2011-01-01
This article presents an extension of Minimalist Categorial Gram- mars (MCG) to encode Chomsky's phases. These grammars are based on Par- tially Commutative Logic (PCL) and encode properties of Minimalist Grammars (MG) of Stabler. The first implementation of MCG were using both non- commutative properties (to respect the linear word order in an utterance) and commutative ones (to model features of different constituents). Here, we pro- pose to adding Chomsky's phases with the non-commutative tensor product of the logic. Then we could give account of the PIC just by using logical prop- erties of the framework.
The Optimal Choice of Commuting Speed: Consequences for Commuting Time, Distance and Costs
van Ommeren, Jos; Dargay, Joyce
2004-01-01
This discussion paper resulted in a publication in the 'Journal of Transport Economics and Policy', 2006, 40(2), 279-296. In this paper, we derive a structural model for commuting speed. We presume that commuting speed is chosen to minimise commuting costs, which encompass both monetary and time costs. At faster speed levels, the monetary costs increase, but the time costs fall. Using data from Great Britain, we demonstrate that the income elasticity of commuting speed is 0.126. The ratio of ...
Opportunities and benefits. [commuter air travel
Galloway, T. L.
1983-01-01
The service characteristics and changes affecting commuter airline operations are summarized. Community and passenger considerations are addressed and the benefits identified in NASA-sponsored aircraft studies are discussed.
Fertility and commuting behaviour in Germany
Johannes Huinink; Michael Feldhaus
2012-01-01
"Fertility behavior is closely related to other dimensions of the individual life course, which are strongly interrelated themselves. Regarding the impact of job-related spatial mobility, empirical findings show a negative correlation between having children and commuting, particularly for women. Up to now, fertility intentions have not been thoroughly investigated in this respect. Longitudinal studies are lacking, too. In this paper, the effects of commuting arrangements of men and women on ...
New commutation relations for quantum gravity
Soo, Chopin
2016-01-01
A new set of fundamental commutation relations for quantum gravity is presented. The basic variables are the eight components of the unimodular part of the spatial dreibein and eight SU(3) generators which correspond to Klauder's momentric variables. The commutation relations are not canonical, but they have well defined group theoretical meanings. All fundamental entities are dimensionless; and quantum wave functionals are preferentially selected to be in the dreibein representation.
Black Hole with Non-Commutative Hair
Klimcik, C; Kolnik, P.; Pompos, A.
1993-01-01
The specific nonlinear vector $\\sigma$-model coupled to Einstein gravity is investigated. The model arises in the studies of the gravitating matter in non-commutative geometry. The static spherically symmetric spacetimes are identified by direct solving of the field equations. The asymptotically flat black hole with the ``non-commutative'' vector hair appears for the special choice of the integration constants, giving thus another counterexample to the famous ``no-hair'' theorem.
Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404). Environmental guidance program reference book: Revision 6
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-01-15
This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).
Fertility and Commuting Behaviour in Germany
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johannes Huinink
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Fertility behaviour is closely related to other dimensions of the individual life course, which are strongly interrelated themselves. Regarding the impact of job-related spatial mobility, empirical findings show a negative correlation between having children and commuting, particularly for women. Up to now, fertility intentions have not been thoroughly investigated in this respect. Longitudinal studies are lacking, too. In this paper, the effects of commuting arrangements of men and women on the intention of having a child within the next two years as well as the probability of realising this intention are addressed. The assumption is, that after accounting for other important factors (employment status, level of qualification, type of consensual union, number of children, residential mobility, medium- and long-distance commuting is negatively related to the fertility intention of women and its realisation. For men, effects are assumed to be nonexistent or even slightly positive. Longitudinal data from the first three waves of the German “Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics” (pairfam are used to test the hypotheses. Firstly, a cross-sectional, multivariate probit-regression (with correlated errors on the intention to have a child within two years, on being childless and on medium- and long- distance commuting is applied. The model shows no significant correlation between commuting and the intention to have a child; it does however show a correlation between medium- and long distance commuting and the probability of women to be childless. Secondly, a longitudinal difference model on changing fertility intentions between panel wave 1 and wave 3 is estimated. For women, a positive effect can be found of interrupting medium- and long-distance commuting or, surprisingly, continuing medium- and long-distance commuting on the intention to have a child within two years. Thirdly, for men and women who reported a fertility
Dynamics and local policy in labour commuting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samo Drobne
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Background: In the paper, the influence of the selected parameters, which are population, travel time to work by car, employment rate and average gross earnings, to labour commuting flows in Slovenia is analysed for the period 2000 – 2009. Furthermore, the dynamics of the analysed parameters have been studied to be implemented in the local policy application. Objectives: The main goal of this research has been to study the stickiness and attractiveness of Slovenian municipalities regarding the analysed parameters to support local labour commuting policy. Methods/Approach: The influence of the analysed parameters to the labour commuting flows has been studied in the extended gravity model. The change of the influence of parameters on commuting flows has been studied separately for each year in the analysed period. Additionally, the calculation of the extended gravity model has been performed for the whole analysed period. Results: The results show that the analysed parameters more attracted than dispatched the inter-municipal labour commuting flows in Slovenia in the study period. The results of the study of the dynamics of the analysed parameters have been implemented in the case study at the local level. Conclusions: The results provide the important empirical contribution to physical planners at the state, regional and/or local level for creating development policies. The results show that some factors in the gravity model can be compensated with the change of the others and vice-versa.
The Influence of Contact Space on Arc Commutation Process in Air Circuit Breaker
Niu, Chunping; Ding, Juwen; Yang, Fei; Dong, Delong; Rong, Mingzhe; Xu, Dan
2016-05-01
In this paper, a 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) arc simulation model is applied to analyze the arc motion during current interruption in a certain air circuit breaker (ACB). The distributions of pressure, temperature, gas flow and current density of the arc plasma in the arc region are calculated, and the factors influencing the commutation process are analyzed according to the calculated results. Based on the airflow in the arc chamber, the causes of arc commutation asynchrony and the back commutation are investigated. It indicates that a reasonable contact space design is crucial to a successful arc commutation process. To verify the simulation results, the influence of contact space on arc voltage and arc commutation is tested. This research can provide methods and references to the optimization of ACB design. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Nos. 2015CB251002, 6132620303) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51221005, 51377128, 51577144), and Science and Technology Project Through Grid State Corporation (No. SGSNKYOOKJJS1501564)
Promoting health and safety for traveling and commuting employees.
Pochat-Debroux, Sophia
2008-09-01
In a society that relies on a growing market economy and free enterprise, Americans spend inordinate time commuting and traveling for work. Aircraft and private vehicles are the two primary modes of work-related travel, with each having its own inherit risks and hazards. Although much has been written about international travel health, little has been published about protecting the health and safety of workers during domestic business travel. The intent of this article is to highlight the statistics associated with domestic business travel and present sound rationale for an inclusive and comprehensive domestic travel health and safety program for employees. PMID:18792614
CRACOW CLEAN FOSSIL FUELS AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM. PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1998
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
PIERCE,B.
1998-10-01
Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantinos Karakatsanis
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This study assesses the commuting profiles of the principals of the schools, their views on the built environment and infrastructure around schools and active commuting (non motorized transport of students to and from school. 369 principals voluntarily participated in this survey. All principals held a position from either elementary, junior high schools or senior high schools, in the most populous prefectures of Greece (Attica and Thessaloniki during the school year 2012-2013. The results confirm that there is inadequate safety of infrastructure such as dangerous intersections-roads, lack of pedestrian roads with limited car access in front of the school entrance etc. for the active commuting of students around schools. The majority of principals consider that it is important for students to walk or cycle for commuting to and from school but on the other hand, they do not apply it to themselves. Although half of them reside in a walkable or cycle-able distance within 2000m from their work, they commute to school by motorized means and do not set a good example for the students. Principals believe that is necessary to conduct courses or programs on road safety education in schools and suggest methods to enhance the active means of commuting. In this context they reacted positively in organizing an annual event day of active commuting to and from school. Future research will be able to use geographical information systems to assist in the implementation of targeted and safety networks around the school.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)
1997-12-31
AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.
Beating the traffic with commuting alternatives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-05-01
This pamphlet describes how, by encouraging commuting options, local governments can help reduce air pollution, fuel consumption, and traffic congestion. Minimizing these problems makes the community more appealing to businesses, residents, and visitors and boosts the local economy. Approaches to alternative transportation are as varied as the communities devising and using them. But the critical factor is initiative from local governments, often one of communities largest employers. They can use and promote commuting alternatives among their employees. Local governments can also promote alternative transportation among other employers and the general public. They can provide information on commuting options, improve the infrastructure, and use local authority to require and reward those changes necessary to make alternative transportation a widely accepted part of community life. Best of all, local governments can lead by example and establish a template for other employers to follow.
Gravitomagnetism and Non-commutative Geometry
Malekolkalami, Behrooz
2014-01-01
Similarity between the gravitoelectromagnetism and the electromagnetism is discussed. We show that the gravitomagnetic field (similar to the magnetic field) can be equivalent to the non-commutative effect of the momentum sector of the phase space when one maintains only the first order of the non-commutative parameters. This is performed through two approaches. In one approach, by employing the Feynman proof, the existence of a Lorentz-like force in the gravitoelectromagnetism is indicated. The appearance of such a force is subjected to the slow motion and the weak field approximations for stationary fields. The analogy between this Lorentz-like force and the motion equation of a test particle in a non-commutative space leads to the mentioned equivalency. In fact, this equivalency is achieved by the comparison of the two motion equations. In the other and quietly independent approach, we demonstrate that a gravitomagnetic background can be treated as a Dirac constraint. That is, the gravitoelectromagnetic fie...
Commutative algebra constructive methods finite projective modules
Lombardi, Henri
2015-01-01
Translated from the popular French edition, this book offers a detailed introduction to various basic concepts, methods, principles, and results of commutative algebra. It takes a constructive viewpoint in commutative algebra and studies algorithmic approaches alongside several abstract classical theories. Indeed, it revisits these traditional topics with a new and simplifying manner, making the subject both accessible and innovative. The algorithmic aspects of such naturally abstract topics as Galois theory, Dedekind rings, Prüfer rings, finitely generated projective modules, dimension theory of commutative rings, and others in the current treatise, are all analysed in the spirit of the great developers of constructive algebra in the nineteenth century. This updated and revised edition contains over 350 well-arranged exercises, together with their helpful hints for solution. A basic knowledge of linear algebra, group theory, elementary number theory as well as the fundamentals of ring and module theory is r...
Survey of how staff commute to work
2014-01-01
A survey was initiated by the Canton of Geneva (Direction Générale des Transports) and the Swiss Permanent Mission to the United Nations, and is aimed at better understanding how staff in International Organisations commute to/from work so as to better plan future works (road access, public transport, etc.). The ILO, WHO, UNAIDs, Global Fund, IFRC, CERN and UNOG are taking part in this important survey. People living in Switzerland or France are invited to respond to this survey. The purpose of this survey is to better understand: - your commuting habits, - your willingness to explore alternative commuting options, - your expectations and needs. All data provided to this external company (www.mobilidee.ch) will be kept confidential and will only be used for this particular study. CERN has received all guarantees of confidentiality from this company. Many thanks for your collaboration! GS Department
Discrete Symmetries In Lorentz-Invariant Non-Commutative QED
Morita, K
2003-01-01
It is pointed out that the usual $\\theta$-algebra assumed for non-commuting coordinates is not $P$- and $T$-invariant, unless one {\\it formally} transforms the non-commutativity parameter $\\theta^{\\mu\
Hintze, Paul E.
2016-01-01
NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.
Happiness and Satisfaction with Work Commute
Olsson, L.E.; Gärling, T.; Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Fujii, S.
2012-01-01
Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that sati
Non-commutative Sylvester's determinantal identity
Konvalinka, Matjaz
2007-01-01
Sylvester's identity is a classical determinantal identity with a straightforward linear algebra proof. We present a new, combinatorial proof of the identity, prove several non-commutative versions, and find a $\\beta$-extension that is both a generalization of Sylvester's identity and the $\\beta$-extension of the MacMahon master theorem.
Anomalous commutator corrections to sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we consider the contributions of anomalous commutators to various QCD sum rules. Using a combination of the Bjorken-Johnson-Low limit with the operator product expansion the results are presented in terms of the vacuum condensates of gauge-invariant operators. It is demonstrated that the anomalous contributions are non-negligible and reconcile various apparently contradictory calculations
Cole, Charles A.
Described is a presentation and learning session on groundwater, which is intended to educate advisory groups interested in improving water quality decision making. Among the areas addressed are the importance of groundwater, sources of contamination, and groundwater pollution control programs. These materials are part of the Working for Clean…
Spin in the path integral: anti-commuting versus commuting variables
Scholtz, F. G.; Theron, A. N.; Geyer, H. B.
1994-01-01
We discuss the equivalence between the path integral representations of spin dynamics for anti-commuting (Grassmann) and commuting variables and establish a bosonization dictionary for both generators of spin and single fermion operators. The content of this construction in terms of the representations of the spin algebra is discussed in the path integral setting. Finally it is shown how a `free field realization' (Dyson mapping) can be constructed in the path integral.
Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick
2014-01-01
Longer distance cycling is a commuting mode that contributes to sustainability and public health objectives, but little is known about current long distance cyclist׳s motives. The paper explores longer distance commuter cyclists, their characteristics, practice and motives. Longer distance......, commuter cyclists (>5 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed......, budgets to promote active travel to work as well as the role of psychological benefits as a factor in promoting and sustaining cycling practices....
Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Sick Nielsen, Thomas
2014-01-01
Longer distance cycling is a commuting mode that contributes to sustainability and public health objectives, but little is known about current long distance cyclist's motives. The paper explores longer distance commuter cyclists, their characteristics, practice and motives. Longer distance......, commuter cyclists (45 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed......, budgets to promote active travel to work as well as the role of psychological beneﬁts as a factor in promoting and sustaining cycling practices....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Pierce, B.
1995-12-31
Since 1992 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), acting on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, executed the first stage of the Cracow Program of Energy Conservation and Clean Fossil Fuels, called also American-Polish Program of Actions for Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. The main contractor for BNL and PNL was the Cracow Development Office (BRK). The interest in improving the condition of Cracow air results from the fact that the standard for permissible air pollution was exceeded several times in Cracow and especially within the central part of the town. Therefore, air pollution appeared one of the most important problems that faced the municipal authorities. It followed from monitoring investigations that the high level of air pollutant concentration is caused by in-home coal-fired tile stoves operated in winter seasons and by coal- and coke-fired boiler houses simulated mainly in the central part of the town. The results obtained in first stage are presented. This paper is an attempt to formulate conclusions drawn from these works and recommendations with regard to the future policy of the town authorities; selected results are presented to clarify or illustrate the conclusions.
Mapping commuter cycling risk in urban areas.
Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Bennet, Scott A; Scott, Darren M
2012-03-01
Cycling is becoming an increasingly important transportation option for commuters. Cycling offers exercise opportunities and reduces the burden of motor vehicle travel on society. Mapping the risk of collision between cyclists and motor vehicles in urban areas is important to understanding safe cyclist route opportunities, making informed transportation planning decisions, and exploring patterns of injury epidemiology. To date, many geographic analyses and representations of cyclist risk have not taken the concept of exposure into account. Instead, risk is either expressed as a rate per capita, or as a count of events. Using data associated with the City of Hamilton, Canada, we illustrate a method for mapping commuter cyclist collision risk per distance travelled. This measure can be used to more realistically represent the underlying geography of cycling risk, and provide more geographically and empirically meaningful information to those interested in understanding how cycling safety varies over space. PMID:22269497
Dynamics in Braess Paradox with Nonimpulsive Commuters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arianna Dal Forno
2015-01-01
the individual rationality leads to collective irrationality. In the literature, the dynamics has been analyzed when considering impulsive commuters, i.e., those who switch choice regardless of the actual difference between costs. We analyze a dynamical version of the paradox with nonimpulsive commuters, who change road proportionally to the cost difference. When only two roads are available, we provide a rigorous proof of the existence of a unique fixed point showing that it is globally attracting even if locally unstable. When a new road is added the system becomes discontinuous and two-dimensional. We prove that still a unique fixed point exists, and its global attractivity is numerically evidenced, also when the fixed point is locally unstable. Our analysis adds a new insight in the understanding of dynamics in social dilemma.
Non-commutative time-frequency tomography
Man'ko, V I
1999-01-01
The characterization of non-stationary signals requires joint time and frequency information. However, time (t) and frequency (omega) being non-commuting variables there cannot be a joint probability density in the (t,omega) plane and the time-frequency distributions, that have been proposed, have difficult interpretation problems arising from negative or complex values and spurious components. As an alternative we propose to obtain time-frequency information by looking at the marginal distributions along rotated directions in the (t,omega) plane. The rigorous probability interpretation of the marginal distributions avoids all interpretation ambiguities. Applications to signal analysis and signal detection are discussed as well as an extension of the method to other pairs of non-commuting variables.
Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butcher, T.; Pierce, B. [eds.
1995-06-01
Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.
Health Impacts of the School Commute
Lee, Murray; Orenstein, Marla; Richardson, Maxwell J.; Ragland, David R
2008-01-01
A dramatic decline in walking and cycling to school has been observed in many geographic and cultural regions, and most children in the US are now driven to school in private vehicles. There are a number of health implications associated with the choice of commute mode, including traffic safety, exposure to air pollution, and levels of physical activity and obesity, and the risks and benefits of each must be weighed. This paper reviews current evidence on these risks and benefits for each hea...
Gradient-prolongation commutativity and graph theory
Musy, François; Nicolas, Laurent; Perrussel, Ronan
2007-01-01
6 pages International audience This Note gives conditions that must be imposed to algebraic multilevel discretizations involving at the same time nodal and edge elements so that a gradient-prolongation commutativity condition will be satisfied; this condition is very important, since it characterizes the gradients of coarse nodal functions in the coarse edge function space. They will be expressed using graph theory and they provide techniques to compute approximation bases at each level.
Commutator Criteria for Magnetic Pseudodifferential Operators
Iftimie, Viorel; Mantoiu, Marius; Purice, Radu
2009-01-01
The gauge covariant magnetic Weyl calculus has been introduced and studied in previous works. We prove criteria in terms of commutators for operators to be magnetic pseudo-differential operators of suitable symbol classes. The approach is completely intrinsic; neither the statements nor the proofs depend on a choice of a vector potential. We apply this criteria to inversion problems, functional calculus, affiliation results and to the study of the evolution group generated by a magnetic pseud...
Dynamics and local policy in labour commuting
Samo Drobne; Marija Bogataj; Anka Lisec
2012-01-01
Background: In the paper, the influence of the selected parameters, which are population, travel time to work by car, employment rate and average gross earnings, to labour commuting flows in Slovenia is analysed for the period 2000 – 2009. Furthermore, the dynamics of the analysed parameters have been studied to be implemented in the local policy application. Objectives: The main goal of this research has been to study the stickiness and attractiveness of Slovenian municipalities regarding th...
Expanded commuting in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte: evidence for reverse commuting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Lobo
2015-08-01
Full Text Available AbstractLarge Brazilian cities, particularly those that have experienced rapid population growth since the middle of the last century, have exhibited significant signs of population dispersion in their peripheries in recent decades. A study of the population’s spatial redistribution in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH confirms this finding. In the process of dispersion, the levels of urban commuting increase, and commuting becomes a relevant indicator of the degree of integration within the metropolis. This paper evaluates the current magnitude and main features of reverse commuting, as characterized by the daily displacements of the population that resides not in the periphery but rather in the core. Flows from the metropolitan core towards the peripheral municipalities are examined using sample microdata on the MRBH municipalities from the 2000 and 2010 demographic censuses by combining the variables of "municipality of residence" and "municipality of work/study." The results indicate an increase in reverse commuting in both absolute and relative terms. When this flow is compared totraditional commuting (periphery/center, the relative values are considerable. In some cases, this relationship reaches notably high values, as the case of Confins (the municipality where the international airport is located, and also municipalities that are part of a relatively old conurbation, such as Nova Lima and Betim.
Classical mechanics in non-commutative phase space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEI Gao-Feng; LONG Chao-Yun; LONG Zheng-Wen; QIN Shui-Jie; Fu Qiang
2008-01-01
In this paper the laws of motion of classical particles have been investigated in a non-commutative phase space.The corresponding non-commutative relations contain not only spatial non-commutativity but also momentum non-commutativity.First,new Poisson brackets have been defined in non-commutative phase space.They contain corrections due to the non-commutativity of coordinates and momenta.On the basis of this new Poisson brackets,a new modified second law of Newton has been obtained.For two cases,the free particle and the harmonic oscillator,the equations of motion are derived on basis of the modified second law of Newton and the linear transformation (Phys.Rev.D,2005,72:025010).The consistency between both methods is demonstrated.It is shown that a free particle in commutative space is not a free particle with zero-acceleration in the non-commutative phase space.but it remains a free particle with zero-acceleration in non-commutative space if only the coordinates are non-commutative.
On the motivic commutative ring spectrum BO
Panin, Ivan
2010-01-01
We construct an algebraic commutative ring T- spectrum BO which is stably fibrant and (8,4)- periodic and such that on SmOp/S the cohomology theory (X,U) -> BO^{p,q}(X_{+}/U_{+}) and Schlichting's hermitian K-theory functor (X,U) -> KO^{[q]}_{2q-p}(X,U) are canonically isomorphic. We use the motivic weak equivalence Z x HGr -> KSp relating the infinite quaternionic Grassmannian to symplectic $K$-theory to equip BO with the structure of a commutative monoid in the motivic stable homotopy category. When the base scheme is Spec Z[1/2], this monoid structure and the induced ring structure on the cohomology theory BO^{*,*} are the unique structures compatible with the products KO^{[2m]}_{0}(X) x KO^{[2n]}_{0}(Y) -> KO^{[2m+2n]}_{0}(X x Y). on Grothendieck-Witt groups induced by the tensor product of symmetric chain complexes. The cohomology theory is bigraded commutative with the switch map acting on BO^{*,*}(T^{2}) in the same way as multiplication by the Grothendieck-Witt class of the symmetric bilinear space .
FET commutated current-FED inverter
Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
A shunt switch comprised of a field-effect transistor (Q.sub.1) is employed to commutate a current-fed inverter (10) using thyristors (SCR1, SCR2) or bijunction transistors (Q.sub.2, Q.sub.3) in a full bridge (1, 2, 3, 4) or half bridge (5, 6) and transformer (T.sub.1) configuration. In the case of thyristors, a tapped inverter (12) is employed to couple the inverter to a dc source to back bias the thyristors during commutation. Alternatively, a commutation power supply (20) may be employed for that purpse. Diodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2) in series with some voltage dropping element (resistor R.sub.12 or resistors R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or Zener diodes D.sub.4, D.sub.5) are connected in parallel with the thyristors in the half bridge and transformer configuration to assure sharing the back bias voltage. A clamp circuit comprised of a winding (18) negatively coupled to the inductor and a diode (D.sub.3) return stored energy from the inductor to the power supply for efficient operation with buck or boost mode.
Squire, Megan
2015-01-01
If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.
Commuting Pattern with Park-and-Ride Option for Heterogeneous Commuters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chengjuan Zhu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study the effect of the parking on heterogeneous commuters' travel choice in a competitive transportation system which consists of a subway and a parallel road with a bottleneck of limited service capacity. Every morning, commuters either use their private cars only or drive their cars to the bottleneck, park there, and then take the subway to the destination. Considering the effects caused by body congestion in carriage and the parking fees, we developed a bottleneck model to describe the commuters' travel choice. There exist several types of equilibrium that corresponds to user equilibrium. We investigated the influence of the capacity of the bottleneck and the total travel demand on the travel behaviors and on the total social cost. It is shown that there exists a scheme with suitable subway fare and parking fees to implement the minimum total social cost.
Shadow of a Charged Rotating Non-Commutative Black Hole
Sharif, M
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the shadow of a charged rotating non-commutative black hole. For this purpose, we first formulate the null geodesics and study the effects of non-commutative charge on the photon orbit. We then explore the effect of spin, angle of inclination as well as non-commutative charge on the silhouette of the shadow. It is found that shape of the shadow deviates from the circle with the decrease in the non-commutative charge. We also discuss observable quantities to study the deformation and distortion in the shadow cast by the black hole which decreases for small values of non-commutative charge. Finally, we study the shadows in the presence of plasma. We conclude that the non-commutativity has a great impact on the black hole shadow.
Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Sick Nielsen, Thomas
2014-01-01
, commuter cyclists (45 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed......Longer distance cycling is a commuting mode that contributes to sustainability and public health objectives, but little is known about current long distance cyclist's motives. The paper explores longer distance commuter cyclists, their characteristics, practice and motives. Longer distance...... are very positive about their commute - pointing to positive experiences, better mood, and stress relief as experiences related to their cycle trip to work. Policy support should devote attention to unlocking the potential that may be embedded in individuals combining their exercise and travel time...
Non-commutative computer algebra and molecular computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Svetlana Cojocaru
2001-12-01
Full Text Available Non-commutative calculations are considered from the molecular computing point of view. The main idea is that one can get more advantage in using molecular computing for non-commutative computer algebra compared with a commutative one. The restrictions, connected with the coefficient handling in Grobner basis calculations are investigated. Semigroup and group cases are considered as more appropriate. SAGBI basis constructions and possible implementations are discussed.
A review of non-commutative gauge theories
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
N G Deshpande
2003-02-01
Construction of quantum ﬁeld theory based on operators that are functions of non-commutative space-time operators is reviewed. Examples of 4 theory and QED are then discussed. Problems of extending the theories to () gauge theories and arbitrary charges in QED are considered. Construction of standard model on non-commutative space is then brieﬂy discussed. The phenomenological implications are then considered. Limits on non-commutativity from atomic physics as well as accelerator experiments are presented.
On the Commutativity of a Certain Class of Toeplitz Operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Louhichi Issam
2014-01-01
Full Text Available One of the major goals in the theory of Toeplitz operators on the Bergman space over the unit disk D in the complex place C is to completely describe the commutant of a given Toeplitz operator, that is, the set of all Toeplitz operators that commute with it. Here we shall study the commutants of a certain class of quasihomogeneous Toeplitz operators defined on the harmonic Bergman space.
Associations between active commuting and physical and mental wellbeing.
Humphreys, DK; Goodman, A.; Ogilvie, D
2013-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a relationship exists between active commuting and physical and mental wellbeing. METHOD: In 2009, cross-sectional postal questionnaire data were collected from a sample of working adults (aged 16 and over) in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study. Travel behaviour and physical activity were ascertained using the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ) and a seven-day travel-to-work recall instrument from which weekly time spent in active commuting (w...
Geometry, commutation relations and the quantum fictitious force
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Botero, J.; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder;
2003-01-01
We express the commutation relation between the operators of the momentum and the radial unit vectors in D dimensions in differential and integral form. We connect this commutator with the quantum fictitious potential emerging in the radial Schrodinger equation of an s-wave.......We express the commutation relation between the operators of the momentum and the radial unit vectors in D dimensions in differential and integral form. We connect this commutator with the quantum fictitious potential emerging in the radial Schrodinger equation of an s-wave....
Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics on Non-Commutative Plane
Harikumar, E; Khare, A
2004-01-01
We study the Pauli equation on non-commutative plane. It is shown that the Supersymmetry algebra holds to all orders in the non-commutative parameter $\\theta$ in case the gyro-magnetic ratio $g$ is 2. Using Seiberg-Witten map, the first order in $\\theta$ correction to the spectrum is obtained in the case of uniform magnetic field. We find that the eigenstates in the non-commutative case are identical to the commutative case provided the magnetic field $B$ is everywhere replaced by $B(1+B\\theta)$.
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics on non-commutative plane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harikumar, E.; Kumar, V. Sunil; Khare, Avinash
2004-06-10
We study the Pauli equation on non-commutative plane. It is shown that the supersymmetry algebra holds to all orders in the non-commutative parameter {theta} in case the gyro-magnetic ratio g is 2. Using Seiberg-Witten map, the first order in {theta} correction to the spectrum is obtained in the case of uniform magnetic field. We find that the eigenstates in the non-commutative case are identical to the commutative case provided the magnetic field B is everywhere replaced by B(1+B{theta})
Self-commutating converters for high power applications
Arrillaga, Jos; Watson, Neville R; Murray, Nicholas J
2010-01-01
For very high voltage or very high current applications, the power industry still relies on thyristor-based Line Commutated Conversion (LCC), which limits the power controllability to two quadrant operation. However, the ratings of self-commutating switches such as the Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) and Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT), are reaching levels that make the technology possible for very high power applications. This unique book reviews the present state and future prospects of self-commutating static power converters for applications requiring either ultr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MFC Burbarelli
2015-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of two cleaning and disinfection programs on broiler performance and on the microbiological status of the facilities. This trial was an observational study of comparative character. Two experiments were conducted, with 960 birds each. Both experiments were carried out in a positive-pressure broiler house. Broilers were distributed in pens equipped with a bell drinker and a tube feeder each. In the first experiment, new wood shavings were used as litter material, and in the second, reused wood shavings were used. Two treatments with16 replicates of 30 birds each were evaluated. The regular treatment consisted of dry and wet organic matter removal, followed by washing. The European treatment consisted of dry organic matter removal, humidification, washing with water under high pressure, detergent application, rinsing, and application of two combined disinfectants: glutaraldehyde 250g/L + formaldehyde 185g/L; p-chlor-m-cresol 210 g/L. Biosecurity measures were adopted during daily management tasks to prevent cross contamination between treatments. The effectiveness of the treatments was evaluated by microbiological analysis performed before and after treatment applications, as well as by broiler performance results. Live performance results were similar between both treatments when broilers were reared on new litter. When reused word-shavings were used as litter material, the European treatment promoted better broiler performance. The European treatment was more effective than the regular treatment in reducing total microbial counts in the facilities when reused wood shavings were used as litter material, and positively influenced broiler performance.
Borchers' commutation relations and modular symmetries
Kuckert, B
1995-01-01
Recently Borchers has shown that in a theory of local observables, certain unitary and antiunitary operators, which are obtained from an elementary construction suggested by Bisognano and Wichmann, commute with the translation operators like Lorentz boosts and \\pct-operators, respectively. We conclude from this that as soon as the operators considered implement {\\em any} symmetry, this symmetry can be fixed up to at most some translation. As a symmetry, we admit any unitary or antiunitary operator under whose adjoint action any algebra of local observables is mapped onto an algebra which can be localized somewhere in Minkowski space.
Non-commutative tools for topological insulators
Prodan, Emil
2010-06-01
This paper reviews several analytic tools for the field of topological insulators, developed with the aid of non-commutative calculus and geometry. The set of tools includes bulk topological invariants defined directly in the thermodynamic limit and in the presence of disorder, whose robustness is shown to have nontrivial physical consequences for the bulk states. The set of tools also includes a general relation between the current of an observable and its edge index, a relation that can be used to investigate the robustness of the edge states against disorder. The paper focuses on the motivations behind creating such tools and on how to use them.
The quaternionic commutator bracket and its implications
Arbab, Arbab I
2014-01-01
A quaternionic commutator bracket for position and momentum shows that the quaternionic wave function, \\emph{viz.} $\\widetilde{\\psi}=(\\frac{i}{c}\\,\\psi_0\\,,\\vec{\\psi})$, represents a state of a particle with orbital angular momentum, $L=3\\,\\hbar$, resulting from the internal structure of the particle. This angular momentum can be attributed to spin of the particle. The vector $\\vec{\\psi}$, points along the direction of $\\vec{L}$. When a charged particle is placed in an electromagnetic fields the interaction energy reveals that the magnetic moments interact with the electric and magnetic fields giving rise to terms similar to Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects.
Bispectral algebras of commuting ordinary differential operators
Bakalov, B N; Yakimov, M T
1997-01-01
We develop a systematic way for constructing bispectral algebras of commuting ordinary differential operators of any rank N. It enables us to obtain all previously known classes or examples of bispectral operators. The suggested method is completely algorithmic, which allows us to present explicitly new examples. We conjecture that the class built in the present paper exhausts all bispectral scalar operators. This paper is the third of a series of papers (hep-th/9510211, q-alg/9602010, q-alg/9602012) on the bispectral problem.
Star products from commutative string theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sunil Mukhi
2002-01-01
A boundary-state computation is performed to obtain derivative corrections to the Chern–Simons coupling between a -brane and the RR gauge potential -3. We work to quadratic order in the gauge ﬁeld strength , but all orders in derivatives. In a certain limit, which requires the presence of a constant -ﬁeld background, it is found that these corrections neatly sum up into the *2 product of (commutative) gauge ﬁelds. The result is in agreement with a recent prediction using noncommutativity
Reducing employee travelling time through smart commuting
Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Aziz, I. S.; Omar, D.
2014-02-01
Extremely congested roads will definitely delay the arrival time of each trip.This certainly impacted the journey of employees. Tardiness at the workplace has become a perturbing issue for companies where traffic jams are the most common worker excuses. A depressing consequence on daily life and productivity of the employee occurs. The issues of commuting distance between workplace and resident area become the core point of this research. This research will emphasize the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) technique to explore the distance parameter to the employment area and will focus on the accessibility pattern of low-cost housing. The research methodology consists of interview sessions and a questionnaire to residents of low-cost housing areas in Melaka Tengah District in Malaysia. The combination of these processes will show the criteria from the selected parameter for each respondent from their resident area to the employment area. This will further help in the recommendation of several options for a better commute or improvement to the existing routes and public transportations system. Thus enhancing quality of life for employees and helping to reduce stress, decrease lateness, absenteeism and improving productivity in workplace.
Shock Waves and Commutation Speed of Memristors
Tang, Shao; Tesler, Federico; Marlasca, Fernando Gomez; Levy, Pablo; Dobrosavljević, V.; Rozenberg, Marcelo
2016-01-01
Progress of silicon-based technology is nearing its physical limit, as the minimum feature size of components is reaching a mere 10 nm. The resistive switching behavior of transition metal oxides and the associated memristor device is emerging as a competitive technology for next-generation electronics. Significant progress has already been made in the past decade, and devices are beginning to hit the market; however, this progress has mainly been the result of empirical trial and error. Hence, gaining theoretical insight is of the essence. In the present work, we report the striking result of a connection between the resistive switching and shock-wave formation, a classic topic of nonlinear dynamics. We argue that the profile of oxygen vacancies that migrate during the commutation forms a shock wave that propagates through a highly resistive region of the device. We validate the scenario by means of model simulations and experiments in a manganese-oxide-based memristor device, and we extend our theory to the case of binary oxides. The shock-wave scenario brings unprecedented physical insight and enables us to rationalize the process of oxygen-vacancy-driven resistive change with direct implications for a key technological aspect—the commutation speed.
Reducing employee travelling time through smart commuting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Extremely congested roads will definitely delay the arrival time of each trip.This certainly impacted the journey of employees. Tardiness at the workplace has become a perturbing issue for companies where traffic jams are the most common worker excuses. A depressing consequence on daily life and productivity of the employee occurs. The issues of commuting distance between workplace and resident area become the core point of this research. This research will emphasize the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) technique to explore the distance parameter to the employment area and will focus on the accessibility pattern of low-cost housing. The research methodology consists of interview sessions and a questionnaire to residents of low-cost housing areas in Melaka Tengah District in Malaysia. The combination of these processes will show the criteria from the selected parameter for each respondent from their resident area to the employment area. This will further help in the recommendation of several options for a better commute or improvement to the existing routes and public transportations system. Thus enhancing quality of life for employees and helping to reduce stress, decrease lateness, absenteeism and improving productivity in workplace
Homogeneous Buchberger algorithms and Sullivant's computational commutative algebra challenge
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauritzen, Niels
2005-01-01
We give a variant of the homogeneous Buchberger algorithm for positively graded lattice ideals. Using this algorithm we solve the Sullivant computational commutative algebra challenge.......We give a variant of the homogeneous Buchberger algorithm for positively graded lattice ideals. Using this algorithm we solve the Sullivant computational commutative algebra challenge....
The association between commuter cycling and sickness absence
Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Simons, M.; Garre, F.G.; Hildebrandt, V.H.
2010-01-01
Objective: To study the association between commuter cycling and all-cause sickness absence, and the possible dose-response relationship between absenteeism and the distance, frequency and speed of commuter cycling. Method: Cross-sectional data about cycling in 1236 Dutch employees were collected us
Weighted weak type estimates for commutators of the Marcinkiewicz integrals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING; Yong; LU; Shanzhen; ZHANG; Pu
2004-01-01
In this paper the authors give the weighted weak LlogL type estimates for a class of the higher order commutator generated by the Marcinkiewicz integral and a BMO function. In addition, the weak type norm inequalities for the Marcinkiewicz integral and its commutators with different weight functions are also discussed.
An improved 4-step commutation method application for matrix converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Yu; Guo, Yougui; Deng, Wenlang;
2014-01-01
A novel four-step commutation method is proposed for matrix converter cell, 3 phase inputs to 1 phase output in this paper, which is obtained on the analysis of published commutation methods for matrix converter. The first and fourth step can be shorter than the second or third one. The discussed...
A characterization of semiprojectivity for commutative C*-algebras
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Adam Peder Wie; Theil, Hannes
2012-01-01
Given a compact metric space X, we show that the commutative C*-algebra C(X) is semiprojective if and only if X is an absolute neighbourhood retract of dimension at most 1. This confirms a conjecture of Blackadar. Generalizing to the non-unital setting, we derive a characterization of semiproject......Given a compact metric space X, we show that the commutative C*-algebra C(X) is semiprojective if and only if X is an absolute neighbourhood retract of dimension at most 1. This confirms a conjecture of Blackadar. Generalizing to the non-unital setting, we derive a characterization...... of semiprojectivity for separable, commutative C*-algebras. As applications of our results, we prove two theorems about the structure of semiprojective commutative C*-algebras. Letting A be a commutative C*-algebra, we show firstly: If I is an ideal of A and A/I is finite-dimensional, then A is semiprojective...
Almost Commuting Unitary Matrices Related to Time Reversal
Loring, Terry A.; Sørensen, Adam P. W.
2013-11-01
The behavior of fermionic systems depends on the geometry of the system and the symmetry class of the Hamiltonian and observables. Almost commuting matrices arise from band-projected position observables in such systems. One expects the mathematical behavior of almost commuting Hermitian matrices to depend on two factors. One factor will be the approximate polynomial relations satisfied by the matrices. The other factor is what algebra the matrices are in, either for , or , the algebra of quaternions. There are potential obstructions keeping k-tuples of almost commuting operators from being close to a commuting k-tuple.We consider two-dimensional geometries and so this obstruction lives in . This obstruction corresponds to either the Chern number or spin Chern number in physics. We show that if this obstruction is the trivial element in K-theory then the approximation by commuting matrices is possible.
Inflation on a non-commutative space–time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calmet, Xavier, E-mail: x.calmet@sussex.ac.uk; Fritz, Christopher, E-mail: c.fritz@sussex.ac.uk
2015-07-30
We study inflation on a non-commutative space–time within the framework of enveloping algebra approach which allows for a consistent formulation of general relativity and of the standard model of particle physics. We show that within this framework, the effects of the non-commutativity of spacetime are very subtle. The dominant effect comes from contributions to the process of structure formation. We describe the bound relevant to this class of non-commutative theories and derive the tightest bound to date of the value of the non-commutative scale within this framework. Assuming that inflation took place, we get a model independent bound on the scale of space–time non-commutativity of the order of 19 TeV.
Commuting patterns of workers in a village of Barddhaman district, West Bengal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhaswati Mondal
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Commuting helps to keep balance between residence and workplace of workers. With growing accessibility and connectivity, the importance of commuting is increasing all over the world. It is becoming a major substitute to migration. In commute-studies, commute-pattern is an important chapter. It highlights commuters’ directions of movement, distance they cover, modes of transport they use, the time they take to commute, etc. Unlike the urban-based commute pattern, commute pattern in rural areas are relatively an under-researched issue. In fact, traditionally rural people are thought to carry a sedentary lifestyle. Using primary data, this study aims to explore the commute patterns of rural workers located in the village of Gandharbapur of Barddhaman district of West Bengal, India. All the commuters were found to be engaged in non-farm work. Commuters stem from two major groups. One group of commuters is accumulated farm-income induced. They possess sufficient agricultural land. Investing their surplus farm-income, they have established non-farm works. The second group of commuters is poverty-driven. They are landless poor or are marginal farmers and to escape poverty, they have slipped into these works. Located beyond the suburban area (Memari being the nearest town, most commuters commute to nearby rural areas. Due to non-availability of public transport, women commute less than men do. Regular-paid government employees commute longer than other workers commute. The article concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for further research.
Satisfaction with transport and enjoyment of the commute by commuting mode in inner Sydney.
Rissel, Chris; Crane, Melanie; Wen, Li Ming; Greaves, Stephen; Standen, Chris
2016-04-01
Issue addressed Travel satisfaction has become an increasingly popular construct for the assessment and monitoring of transport systems and services. However, satisfaction may not adequately assess emotion or mood towards walking and cycling, especially when infrastructure is biased towards motor vehicle modes. In this exploratory study we sought to examine the associations of both satisfaction with transport and enjoyment from the commute to work or study by commute mode in an Australian inner city context where transport mode choices are readily available. Methods As part of the Sydney Transport and Health Study, 675 baseline study participants (2013) were invited to complete an online questionnaire in September/October 2014 and 512 did so (76% response rate). Participants who did not travel to work were removed from analyses, giving complete data for 473. Participants provided data on usual travel mode to work or study, satisfaction with transport, enjoyment from their commute, and demographics and neighbourhood factors. Results The main mode of travel to work or study in this inner city sample was public transport (41%), followed by motor vehicle (27%), walking (21%) and cycling (10%). Most participants were satisfied with their transport (82%), with little variation by mode. Walkers (49%) and cyclists (52%) reported far higher levels of enjoyment from their commute than car drivers (14%) or public transport users (10%), with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.18 (95% confidence interval 3.10-12.29, Pactive travel. So what? Focusing on 'enjoyment' associated with walking or cycling to work may be a positive motivator to encourage active travel. PMID:26650670
The use of ultraproducts in commutative algebra
Schoutens, Hans
2010-01-01
In spite of some recent applications of ultraproducts in algebra, they remain largely unknown to commutative algebraists, in part because they do not preserve basic properties such as Noetherianity. This work wants to make a strong case against these prejudices. More precisely, it studies ultraproducts of Noetherian local rings from a purely algebraic perspective, as well as how they can be used to transfer results between the positive and zero characteristics, to derive uniform bounds, to define tight closure in characteristic zero, and to prove asymptotic versions of homological conjectures in mixed characteristic. Some of these results are obtained using variants called chromatic products, which are often even Noetherian. This book, neither assuming nor using any logical formalism, is intended for algebraists and geometers, in the hope of popularizing ultraproducts and their applications in algebra.
A non-commuting stabilizer formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ni, Xiaotong; Van den Nest, Maarten [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Buerschaper, Oliver [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Dahlem Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)
2015-05-15
We propose a non-commutative extension of the Pauli stabilizer formalism. The aim is to describe a class of many-body quantum states which is richer than the standard Pauli stabilizer states. In our framework, stabilizer operators are tensor products of single-qubit operators drawn from the group 〈αI, X, S〉, where α = e{sup iπ/4} and S = diag(1, i). We provide techniques to efficiently compute various properties related to bipartite entanglement, expectation values of local observables, preparation by means of quantum circuits, parent Hamiltonians, etc. We also highlight significant differences compared to the Pauli stabilizer formalism. In particular, we give examples of states in our formalism which cannot arise in the Pauli stabilizer formalism, such as topological models that support non-Abelian anyons.
Lowrey, Nikki M.; Mitchell, Mark A.
2016-01-01
Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance chlorofluorocarbon-113 was banned, NASA's propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center and Stennis Space Center have relied upon the solvent Asahiklin AK-225 (hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225ca/cb or HCFC-225ca/cb) and, more recently AK-225G (the single isomer form, HCFC-225cb) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of Class II Ozone Depleting Substances, including AK-225G, was prohibited in the United States by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, NASA test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a solvent replacement for AK-225G that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. This paper summarizes the tests performed, results, and lessons learned.
Exploratory mapping of commuter flows in England and Wales
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lassen, Claus
2005-01-01
within England and Wales and in more details around a number of cities. In the city “cases” specific attention is given to the “range of influence” of each metropolitan area, measured through the variation in commute distances and the directionality of commuting. The cities are London, Manchester...... and Birmingham. These are chosen for their size and differences in regional context. In the general analysis – at the country-wide scale - special emphasis is put on deriving a representation of the scale and the corridors of interaction from the relatively disaggregate data. A map of commuter flows in England...
A remark on generalized commutation relation and subnormality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerzy Bartłomiej Stochel
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Tillmann [Tillmann H. G., Zur Eindeutigkeit der Losungen der quanten mechanischen vertauschungrelationen, Acta Sci. Math. (Szeged 24 (1963, 258-270] proved that every operator \\(A\\ which fulfils the canonical commutation relation \\(A^{*}A - AA^{*} = Id\\ is an orthogonal sum of canonical creation operators. We extend this result for operators which fulfil generalized commutation relation \\[A^{*}A - AA^{*}= E^2,\\text{ where }EA = AE.\\] In addition, some inequalities which are helpful in describing analytic vectors of operators \\(A^{*}A\\, where \\(A\\ fulfils the generalized commutation relation, are established.
Emergent Classicality via Commuting Position and Momentum Operators
Halliwell, J. J.
2009-01-01
Any account of the emergence of classicality from quantum theory must address the fact that the quantum operators representing positions and momenta do not commute, whereas their classical counterparts suffer no such restrictions. To address this, we revive an old idea of von Neumann, and seek a pair of commuting operators $X,P$ which are, in a specific sense, "close" to the canonical non-commuting position and momentum operators, $x,p$. The construction of such operators is related to the pr...
Gauge transformation and symmetries of the commutative multicomponent BKP hierarchy
Li, Chuanzhong
2016-01-01
In this paper, we defined a new multi-component B type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (BKP) hierarchy that takes values in a commutative subalgebra of {gl}(N,{{C}}). After this, we give the gauge transformation of this commutative multicomponent BKP (CMBKP) hierarchy. Meanwhile, we construct a new constrained CMBKP hierarchy that contains some new integrable systems, including coupled KdV equations under a certain reduction. After this, the quantum torus symmetry and quantum torus constraint on the tau function of the commutative multi-component BKP hierarchy will be constructed.
Introduction to Dubois-Violette's non-commutative differential geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work, one presents a detailed review of Dubois-Violette et al. approach to non-commutative differential calculus. The non-commutative differential geometry of matrix algebras and the non-commutative Poisson structures are treated in some details. We also present the analog of the Maxwell's theory and the new models of Yang-Mills-Higgs theories that can be constructed in this framework. In particular, some simple models are compared with the standard model. Finally, we discuss some perspectives and open questions. (author). 32 refs
Generalized Uncertainty Relation in the Non-commutative Quantum Mechanics
Chung, Won Sang
2016-06-01
In this paper the non-commutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) with the generalized uncertainty relations {Δ } x1 {Δ } x2 ≥ {θ}/{2}, {Δ} p1 {Δ } p2 ≥ {bar{θ}}/{2}, {Δ } xi {Δ } pi ≥ {hbar _{eff}}/{2} is discussed. Four each uncertainty relation, wave functions saturating each uncertainty relation are explicitly constructed. The unitary operators relating the non-commutative position and momentum operators to the commutative position and momentum operators are also investigated. We also discuss the uncertainty relation related to the harmonic oscillator.
Modelling the relation between income and commuting distance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carra, Giulia; Mulalic, Ismir; Fosgerau, Mogens;
2016-01-01
We discuss the distribution of commuting distances and its relation to income. Using data from Denmark, the UK and the USA, we show that the commuting distance is (i) broadly distributed with a slow decaying tail that can be fitted by a power law with exponent γ ≈ 3 and (ii) an average growing...... of the worker and decreases with the wage. The predicted distribution of commuting distances decays as 1/r3 and is independent of the distribution of the quality of jobs. We find our alternative model to be in agreement with our data. This type of approach opens new perspectives for the modelling of mobility....
Approximating macroscopic observables in quantum spin systems with commuting matrices
Ogata, Yoshiko
2011-01-01
Macroscopic observables in a quantum spin system are given by sequences of spatial means of local elements $\\frac{1}{2n+1}\\sum_{j=-n}^n\\gamma_j(A_{i}), \\; n\\in{\\mathbb N},\\; i=1,...,m$ in a UHF algebra. One of their properties is that they commute asymptotically, as $n$ goes to infinity. It is not true that any given set of asymptotically commuting matrices can be approximated by commuting ones in the norm topology. In this paper, we show that for macroscopic observables, this is true.
Subgroup s-commutativity degree of finite groups
Otera, Daniele Ettore
2010-01-01
In a recent contribution, Tarnauceanu has introduced the subgroup commutativity degree of a finite group, adapting to the context of the lattice theory some ideas and some techniques, which were known by the studies of Lescot on the commutativity degree. This new notion allows us to detect how a group is far from having all subgroups which are permutable. In the present paper we investigate a probability, which generalizes the subgroup commutativity degree, and find some numerical restrictions on groups which are rich in S-permutable subgroups in the sense of Kegel.
Non-Commutative Mechanics in Mathematical & in Condensed Matter Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter A. Horváthy
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Non-commutative structures were introduced, independently and around the same time, in mathematical and in condensed matter physics (see Table 1. Souriau's construction applied to the two-parameter central extension of the planar Galilei group leads to the ''exotic'' particle, which has non-commuting position coordinates. A Berry-phase argument applied to the Bloch electron yields in turn a semiclassical model that has been used to explain the anomalous/spin/optical Hall effects. The non-commutative parameter is momentum-dependent in this case, and can take the form of a monopole in momentum space.
Commutative algebra with a view toward algebraic geometry
Eisenbud, David
1995-01-01
Commutative Algebra is best understood with knowledge of the geometric ideas that have played a great role in its formation, in short, with a view towards algebraic geometry. The author presents a comprehensive view of commutative algebra, from basics, such as localization and primary decomposition, through dimension theory, differentials, homological methods, free resolutions and duality, emphasizing the origins of the ideas and their connections with other parts of mathematics. Many exercises illustrate and sharpen the theory and extended exercises give the reader an active part in complementing the material presented in the text. One novel feature is a chapter devoted to a quick but thorough treatment of Grobner basis theory and the constructive methods in commutative algebra and algebraic geometry that flow from it. Applications of the theory and even suggestions for computer algebra projects are included. This book will appeal to readers from beginners to advanced students of commutative algebra or algeb...
On the renormalization of non-commutative field theories
Blaschke, Daniel N.; Garschall, Thomas; Gieres, François; Heindl, Franz; Schweda, Manfred; Wohlgenannt, Michael
2013-01-01
This paper addresses three topics concerning the quantization of non-commutative field theories (as defined in terms of the Moyal star product involving a constant tensor describing the non-commutativity of coordinates in Euclidean space). To start with, we discuss the Quantum Action Principle and provide evidence for its validity for non-commutative quantum field theories by showing that the equation of motion considered as insertion in the generating functional Z c [ j] of connected Green functions makes sense (at least at one-loop level). Second, we consider the generalization of the BPHZ renormalization scheme to non-commutative field theories and apply it to the case of a self-interacting real scalar field: Explicit computations are performed at one-loop order and the generalization to higher loops is commented upon. Finally, we discuss the renormalizability of various models for a self-interacting complex scalar field by using the approach of algebraic renormalization.
Non-commutativity from coarse grained classical probabilities
Wetterich, C
2010-01-01
Non-commutative quantum physics at the atom scale can arise from coarse graining of a classical statistical ensemble at the Planck scale. Position and momentum of an isolated particle are classical observables which remain computable in terms of the coarse grained information. However, the commuting classical product of position and momentum observables is no longer defined in the coarse grained system, which is therefore described by incomplete statistics. The microphysical classical statistical ensemble at the Planck scale admits an alternative non-commuting product structure for position and momentum observables which is compatible with the coarse graining. Measurement correlations for isolated atoms are based on this non-commutative product structure. We present an explicit example for these ideas. It also realizes the discreteness of the spin observable within a microphysical classical statistical ensemble.
Strong Planck constraints on braneworld and non-commutative inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We place observational likelihood constraints on braneworld and non-commutative inflation for a number of inflaton potentials, using Planck, WMAP polarization and BAO data. Both braneworld and non-commutative scenarios of the kind considered here are limited by the most recent data even more severely than standard general-relativity models. At more than 95 % confidence level, the monomial potential V(φ)∝φp is ruled out for p ≥ 2 in the Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld cosmology and, for p > 0, also in the high-curvature limit of the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) braneworld and in the infrared limit of non-commutative inflation, due to a large scalar spectral index. Some parameter values for natural inflation, small-varying inflaton models and Starobinsky inflation are allowed in all scenarios, although some tuning is required for natural inflation in a non-commutative spacetime
On the road : Social aspects of commuting long distances to work
Sandow, Erika
2011-01-01
With its point of departure of increasing numbers of people being engaged in commuting, the aim of this thesis is to reveal prerequisites for and consequences of long-distance commuting in Sweden for the individual and his or her partner. Special attention has been given to prerequisites for long-distance commuting in sparsely populated areas, and to social consequences related to long-distance commuting in terms of gender differences in commuting patterns, earnings and separation. The thesis...
Classical limits of quantum mechanics on a non-commutative configuration space
Benatti, Fabio
2013-01-01
We consider a model of non-commutative Quantum Mechanics given by two harmonic oscillators over a non-commutative two dimensional configuration space. We study possible ways of removing the non-commutativity based on the classical limit context known as anti-Wick quantization. We show that removal of non-commutativity from the configuration space and from the canonical operators are not commuting operations.
Monocentric and Polycentric Density Functions and Their Required Commutes
Song, Shunfeng
1992-01-01
This paper examines the relationship between urban structure and commuting behavior. Analyzing the 1980 journey-to-work data for the Los Angeles region, this paper has shown that polycentric density functions fit the actual urban structure better than the conventional monocentric model. This finding indicates the preeminence of accessibility to major employment centers in location choices. This paper also estimates commute flows implied by the polycentric and monocentric functions. I...
Non-commutativity, teleology and GRB time delay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Miao, E-mail: mli@itp.ac.c [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Pang Yi, E-mail: yipang@itp.ac.c [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang Yi, E-mail: wangyi@itp.ac.c [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2010-01-04
We propose a model in which an energy-dependent time delay of a photon originates from space-time non-commutativity, the time delay is due to a non-commutative coupling between dilaton and photon. We predict that in our model, high energy photons with different momentum can either be delayed or superluminal, this may be related to a possible time delay reported by the Fermi LAT and Fermi GBM Collaborations.
Non-commutativity, teleology and GRB time delay
Li, Miao; Pang, Yi; Wang, Yi
2010-01-01
We propose a model in which an energy-dependent time delay of a photon originates from space-time non-commutativity, the time delay is due to a non-commutative coupling between dilaton and photon. We predict that in our model, high energy photons with different momentum can either be delayed or superluminal, this may be related to a possible time delay reported by the Fermi LAT and Fermi GBM Collaborations.
A Homemade Autosampler/Injector Commutator for Flow Injection Analysis
de Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; de Souza, Leandro Ruela; de Magalhães, Cristiana Schmidt; Wisniewski, Célio
2006-01-01
An autosampler/injector commutator for flow injection analysis (FIA) was constructed with electronic components of used equipments. The apparatus is controlled by commercially available multifunctional interface (PCL711B) connected to a personal computer, and the software was written in Visual Basic language. The system was applied to water analysis and it presented satisfactory results. The low cost and simplicity are the principal characteristics of the autosampler/injector commutator. PMID:17671617
Commutators in real interpolation with quasi-power parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Fan
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The basic higher order commutator theorem is formulated for the real interpolation methods associated with the quasi-power parameters, that is, the function spaces on which Hardy inequalities are valid. This theorem unifies and extends various results given by Cwikel, Jawerth, Milman, Rochberg, and others, and incorporates some results of Kalton to the context of commutator estimates for the real interpolation methods.
On the role of the commutator algebra for nonlinear supersymmetry
Shima, Kazunari
2016-01-01
We discuss the closure of commutator algebra for general functionals in terms of Nambu-Goldstone fermions and their derivative terms under nonlinear supersymmetry (NLSUSY) both in flat spacetime and in curved spacetime. We show that the variations of the general functionals (uniquely) determine the general structure of linear supermutiplets with general auxiliary fields for arbitrary $N$ SUSY, where the closure of the commutator algebra for NLSUSY plays a crucial role.
Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...
Trace Dynamics and a non-commutative special relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lochan, Kinjalk, E-mail: kinjalk@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Singh, T.P., E-mail: tpsingh@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)
2011-10-17
Trace Dynamics is a classical dynamical theory of non-commuting matrices in which cyclic permutation inside a trace is used to define the derivative with respect to an operator. We use the methods of Trace Dynamics to construct a non-commutative special relativity. We define a line-element using the Trace over space-time coordinates which are assumed to be operators. The line-element is shown to be invariant under standard Lorentz transformations, and is used to construct a non-commutative relativistic dynamics. The eventual motivation for constructing such a non-commutative relativity is to relate the statistical thermodynamics of this classical theory to quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: → Classical time is external to quantum mechanics. → This implies need for a formulation of quantum theory without classical time. → A starting point could be a non-commutative special relativity. → Such a relativity is developed here using the theory of Trace Dynamics. → A line-element is defined using the Trace over non-commuting space-time operators.
Clean coal technologies market potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drazga, B. (ed.)
2007-01-30
Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.
On the continuity of the commutative limit of the 4d N=4 non-commutative super Yang–Mills theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masanori Hanada
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We study the commutative limit of the non-commutative maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory in four dimensions (N=4 SYM, where non-commutativity is introduced in the two spacelike directions. The commutative limits of non-commutative spaces are important in particular in the applications of non-commutative spaces for regularisation of supersymmetric theories (such as the use of non-commutative spaces as alternatives to lattices for supersymmetric gauge theories and interpretations of some matrix models as regularised supermembrane or superstring theories, which in turn can play a prominent role in the study of quantum gravity via the gauge/gravity duality. In general, the commutative limits are known to be singular and non-smooth due to UV/IR mixing effects. We give a direct proof that UV effects do not break the continuity of the commutative limit of the non-commutative N=4 SYM to all order in perturbation theory, including non-planar contributions. This is achieved by establishing the uniform convergence (with respect to the non-commutative parameter of momentum integrals associated with all Feynman diagrams appearing in the theory, using the same tools involved in the proof of finiteness of the commutative N=4 SYM.
Shirley, Lindsey; Weller, Chanae
2010-01-01
Despite its name, commercial dry cleaning is not actually a “dry” process. Clothes are immersed in a solvent, most commonly perchlorethylene (perc), instead of in water. Perc or other similar solvents are effective in the removal of oil and grease-based stains without damaging or shrinking sensitive fabrics, unlike a regular detergents and fabric softeners.
Can carpooling clean the air? The economics of HOV lanes, hybrid cars and the Clean Air Act.
Shewmake, Sharon
2010-01-01
Private vehicles are a significant source of air pollution in many areas of the United States. Areas with already high levels of air pollution are required by the Clean Air Act to take steps to reduce automobile use and the associated emissions. The behavioral implications of many travel demand management techniques are poorly understood. In this dissertation I focus on carpooling. Policy makers encourage commuters to carpool through High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes, fre...
2011-07-11
... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for nominations for Clean Air Excellence Awards. ] SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in...
2010-06-21
... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for nominations for Clean Air Excellence Awards. SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in...
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2014-04-01
The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.
Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2015-01-19
This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2010-05-01
This overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program describes the program's focus and goals, along with current fuel cell applications and future potential. The program focuses on research and development of fuel cell systems for diverse applications in the stationary power, portable power, and transportation sectors. It works to reduce costs and improve technologies to advance fuel cell uses in areas such as combined heat and power, auxiliary power units, portable power systems, and stationary and backup power. To help ensure that fuel cell advances are realized, the program rigorously analyzes energy efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits of fuel cells and seeks to optimize synergies among fuel cell applications and other renewable technologies.
Active commuting to school: How far is too far?
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Nelson, Norah M
2008-01-01
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Walking and cycling to school provide a convenient opportunity to incorporate physical activity into an adolescent\\'s daily routine. School proximity to residential homes has been identified as an important determinant of active commuting among children. The purpose of this study is to identify if distance is a barrier to active commuting among adolescents, and if there is a criterion distance above which adolescents choose not to walk or cycle. METHODS: Data was collected in 2003-05 from a cross-sectional cohort of 15-17 yr old adolescents in 61 post primary schools in Ireland. Participants self-reported distance, mode of transport to school and barriers to active commuting. Trained researchers took physical measurements of height and weight. The relation between mode of transport, gender and population density was examined. Distance was entered into a bivariate logistic regression model to predict mode choice, controlling for gender, population density socio-economic status and school clusters. RESULTS: Of the 4013 adolescents who participated (48.1% female, mean age 16.02 +\\/- 0.661), one third walked or cycled to school. A higher proportion of males than females commuted actively (41.0 vs. 33.8%, chi2 (1) = 22.21, p < 0.001, r = -0.074). Adolescents living in more densely populated areas had greater odds of active commuting than those in the most sparsely populated areas (chi2 (df = 3) = 839.64, p < 0.001). In each density category, active commuters travelled shorter distances to school. After controlling for gender and population density, a 1-mile increase in distance decreased the odds of active commuting by 71% (chi2 (df = 1) = 2591.86, p < 0.001). The majority of walkers lived within 1.5 miles and cyclists within 2.5 miles. Over 90% of adolescents who perceived distance as a barrier to active commuting lived further than 2.5 miles from school. CONCLUSION: Distance is an important perceived barrier to active commuting and a predictor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alejandro Dorado-García
Full Text Available With the ultimate aim of containing the emergence of resistant bacteria, a Dutch policy was set in place in 2010 promoting a reduction of antimicrobial use (AMU in food-producing animals. In this context, a study evaluated strategies to curb livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA. Fifty-one veal calf farms were assigned to one of 3 study arms: RAB farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol; RAB-CD farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol and applying a cleaning and disinfection program; and Control farms without interventions. MRSA carriage was tested in week 0 and week 12 of 2 consecutive production cycles in farmers, family members and veal calves. Interventions were validated and a cyclic rise in MRSA-prevalence in animals was shown with a more moderate increase in RAB farms. Prevalence in humans declined parallel over time in the study arms but RAB farms were at the lowest MRSA levels from the beginning of the study. In RAB-CD farms, human and animal prevalence did not differ from Control farms and MRSA air loads were significantly higher than in the other study arms. Mimicking the national trend, an overall AMU decrease (daily dosages per animal per cycle (DDDA/C was observed over 4 pre-study and the 2 study cycles; this trend did not have a significant effect on a set of evaluated farm technical parameters. AMU was positively associated with MRSA across study arms (ORs per 10 DDDA/C increase = 1.26 for both humans (p = 0.07 and animals (p = 0.12 in first cycle. These results suggest that AMU reduction might be a good strategy for curbing MRSA in veal calf farming, however the specific cleaning and disinfecting program in RAB-CD farms was not effective. The drop in MRSA prevalence in people during the study could be attributed to the observed long-term AMU decreasing trend.
Dorado-García, Alejandro; Graveland, Haitske; Bos, Marian E H; Verstappen, Koen M; Van Cleef, Brigitte A G L; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Heederik, Dick J J
2015-01-01
With the ultimate aim of containing the emergence of resistant bacteria, a Dutch policy was set in place in 2010 promoting a reduction of antimicrobial use (AMU) in food-producing animals. In this context, a study evaluated strategies to curb livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). Fifty-one veal calf farms were assigned to one of 3 study arms: RAB farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol; RAB-CD farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol and applying a cleaning and disinfection program; and Control farms without interventions. MRSA carriage was tested in week 0 and week 12 of 2 consecutive production cycles in farmers, family members and veal calves. Interventions were validated and a cyclic rise in MRSA-prevalence in animals was shown with a more moderate increase in RAB farms. Prevalence in humans declined parallel over time in the study arms but RAB farms were at the lowest MRSA levels from the beginning of the study. In RAB-CD farms, human and animal prevalence did not differ from Control farms and MRSA air loads were significantly higher than in the other study arms. Mimicking the national trend, an overall AMU decrease (daily dosages per animal per cycle (DDDA/C)) was observed over 4 pre-study and the 2 study cycles; this trend did not have a significant effect on a set of evaluated farm technical parameters. AMU was positively associated with MRSA across study arms (ORs per 10 DDDA/C increase = 1.26 for both humans (p = 0.07) and animals (p = 0.12 in first cycle)). These results suggest that AMU reduction might be a good strategy for curbing MRSA in veal calf farming, however the specific cleaning and disinfecting program in RAB-CD farms was not effective. The drop in MRSA prevalence in people during the study could be attributed to the observed long-term AMU decreasing trend. PMID:26305895
Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.
Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter
2014-11-01
Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.
U.S. Near-Zero Emissions Program: CCS - Clean Coal R&D, FutureGen, & Demonstrations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
K Der, Victor [Department of Energy (United States)
2008-07-15
In this paper a projection of the CO{sub 2} emissions in the United States is shown; the technical challenges in the capture and sequestration of the CO{sub 2}; what is understood by carbon sequestration; the three elements of the capture and CO{sub 2} storage that are: capture, transport, and storage; the FutureGen project; plants of coal combustion with sequestration, and at the end an initiative for the generation with clean coal is presented. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se muestra una proyeccion de las emisiones de CO{sub 2} en los Estados Unidos; los retos tecnicos en la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2}; que entendemos por secuestro de carbono; los tres elementos de la captura y almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} que son captura, transporte y almacenamiento; el proyecto FutureGen; plantas de combustion de carbon con secuestro, y al final se presenta una iniciativa para la generacion con carbon limpio.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piffaretti, M.
2008-07-01
This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.
Large N limit of non-commutative gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the correspondence between gauge theories and string theory in curved backgrounds, we investigate aspects of the large N limit of non-commutative gauge theories by considering gravity solutions with B fields. We argue that the total number of physical degrees of freedom at any given scale coincides with the commutative case. We then compute a two-point correlation function involving momentum components in the directions of the B-field. In the infrared regime it reproduces the usual behavior of the commutative gauge theory (i.e. of the form k4 log k2). In the UV regime, we find that the two-point function decays exponentially with the momentum. A calculation of Wilson lines suggests that strings cannot be localized near the boundary. We also find string configurations that are localized in a finite region of the radial direction. These are worldsheet instantons. (author)
Harmonic-free line-commutated ac/dc rectifiers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villablanca, Miguel E. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Santiago, P.O. Box 10233, Santiago (Chile)
2009-11-15
In this paper both a method and apparatus are applied to different configurations of line-commutated ac/dc rectifiers to reduce the distortion of currents flowing from the ac supply. The load may be either inductive or capacitive. The technology involves an accurate shaping of the dc current by using two self-commutated switches. This dc-current shaping is reflected back into the shaping of the ac input currents, which become pure sine waves. Thyristor-based rectifying operation is possible with a simple control circuit, which is able to deal with both rapid load variations and failures in the self-commutated switches. Furthermore, the overlap conduction of bridge thyristors is eliminated completely. Experimental verification is provided from a 400-V 30-kVA 50-Hz laboratory prototype. (author)
Seasonal and socio-demographic determinants of school commuting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørkelund Børrestad, Line Anita; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bere, Elling
2011-01-01
to twelve-year-old children from 27 schools. The participants were categorized according to main mode of commuting to school in the three different school seasons (fall, winter and spring) and for the full school year if more than 50% of all trips were conducted by one specific mode. RESULTS: Most pupils...... (75%) were categorized as active commuters for the full school year. However, large seasonal variances were observed, especially for cycling. A total of 52%, 3% and 51% were categorized as cyclists in fall, winter and spring, respectively. Girls were more likely to be walkers (32% vs.24%) and less......OBJECTIVE: To report prevalence of commuting to school in Norway with regard to season, gender, parental education level, ethnicity and distance to school. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire data from the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks project collected in 2008, including 1,339 ten...
Non-commutative flux representation for loop quantum gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baratin, A [Triangle de la Physique, CPHT Ecole Polytechnique, IPhT Saclay, LPT Orsay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, CNRS UMR 8627, Universite Paris XI, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Dittrich, B; Oriti, D [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14467 Golm (Germany); Tambornino, J, E-mail: aristide.baratin@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: bianca.dittrich@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: daniele.oriti@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: johannes.tambornino@ens-lyon.fr [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, CNRS-UMR 5672, 46 Allee d' Italie, Lyon 69007 (France)
2011-09-07
The Hilbert space of loop quantum gravity is usually described in terms of cylindrical functionals of the gauge connection, the electric fluxes acting as non-commuting derivation operators. It has long been believed that this non-commutativity prevents a dual flux (or triad) representation of loop quantum gravity to exist. We show here, instead, that such a representation can be explicitly defined, by means of a non-commutative Fourier transform defined on the loop gravity state space. In this dual representation, flux operators act by *-multiplication and holonomy operators act by translation. We describe the gauge invariant dual states and discuss their geometrical meaning. Finally, we apply the construction to the simpler case of a U(1) gauge group and compare the resulting flux representation with the triad representation used in loop quantum cosmology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-04-01
In the context of the greenhouse effect gases decrease, the french government developed a support policy towards the territorial authorities in the domain of the transport, which accounts for 25% of the energy consumption. This policy aims at develop the clean vehicles program by studying technical and financial solutions. In this framework the Government asked the Committee a report on the state of the art of the clean vehicles chain development. The concerned energies are the LPG, the GNV and the electric power. The report proposes also a strategical planning to support this sector. (A.L.B.)
Commuting, CO2 and the location of offices
P. Wyatt
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the extent to which office activity contributes to travel-related CO2 emission. Using ‘end-user’ figures[1], travel accounts for 32% of UK CO2 emission (Commission for Integrated Transport, 2007) and commuting and business travel accounts for a fifth of transport-related CO2 emissions, equating to 6.4% of total UK emissions (Building Research Establishment, 2000). Figures from the Department for Transport (2006) report that 70% of commuting trips were made by car, acco...
Modular Theory, Non-Commutative Geometry and Quantum Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wicharn Lewkeeratiyutkul
2010-08-01
Full Text Available This paper contains the first written exposition of some ideas (announced in a previous survey on an approach to quantum gravity based on Tomita-Takesaki modular theory and A. Connes non-commutative geometry aiming at the reconstruction of spectral geometries from an operational formalism of states and categories of observables in a covariant theory. Care has been taken to provide a coverage of the relevant background on modular theory, its applications in non-commutative geometry and physics and to the detailed discussion of the main foundational issues raised by the proposal.
Exotic Galilean Symmetry and Non-Commutative Mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter A. Horváthy
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Some aspects of the ''exotic'' particle, associated with the two-parameter central extension of the planar Galilei group are reviewed. A fundamental property is that it has non-commuting position coordinates. Other and generalized non-commutative models are also discussed. Minimal as well as anomalous coupling to an external electromagnetic field is presented. Supersymmetric extension is also considered. Exotic Galilean symmetry is also found in Moyal field theory. Similar equations arise for a semiclassical Bloch electron, used to explain the anomalous/spin/optical Hall effects.
Simplicity and maximal commutative subalgebras of twisted generalized Weyl algebras
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartwig, J.T.; Öinert, Per Johan
2013-01-01
In this paper we prove three theorems about twisted generalized Weyl algebras (TGWAs). First, we show that each non-zero ideal of a TGWA has non-zero intersection with the centralizer of the distinguished subalgebra R . This is analogous to earlier results known to hold for crystalline graded rings....... Second, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the centralizer of R to be commutative (hence maximal commutative), generalizing a result by V. Mazorchuk and L. Turowska. And third, we generalize results by D.A. Jordan and V. Bavula on generalized Weyl algebras by giving necessary and sufficient...
Constraining non-commutative space-time from GW150914
Kobakhidze, Archil; Manning, Adrian
2016-01-01
The gravitational wave signal GW150914, recently detected by LIGO and Virgo collaborations, is used to place a bound on the scale of quantum fuzziness of non-commutative space-time. We show that the leading non-commutative correction to the phase of the gravitational waves produced by a binary system appears at the 2nd order of the post- Newtonian expansion. This correction is proportional to $\\Lambda^2 \\equiv |\\theta^{0i}|^2/(l_P t_P)^2$, where $\\theta^{\\mu \
Decreasing the commutation failure frequency in HVDC transmission systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen (retired June, 2000), Arne; Havemann (retired June, 2000), Henrik
2000-01-01
In this paper we show how a fairly large proportion of those commutation failures that are due to single-phased short circuits to earth can be avoided. In a control circuit based on a digital signal processor (DSP) it is possible, with instantaneous results, to switch from a normal control strategy...... with equidistant firing pulses to a strategy that takes into consideration the potentially dangerous voltage changes on the supply lines, If the supply voltages are monitored continuously, it is possible to calculate the necessity of advancing the firing pulses to avoid commutation failures. In the paper...
Bispectral commuting difference operators for multivariable Askey-Wilson polynomials
Iliev, Plamen
2008-01-01
We construct a commutative algebra A_z, generated by d algebraically independent q-difference operators acting on variables z_1, z_2,..., z_d, which is diagonalized by the multivariable Askey-Wilson polynomials P_n(z) considered by Gasper and Rahman [6]. Iterating Sears' transformation formula, we show that the polynomials P_n(z) possess a certain duality between z and n. Analytic continuation allows us to obtain another commutative algebra A_n, generated by d algebraically independent differ...
Multiple commutation relations in the models with gl(2|1) symmetry
Slavnov, N A
2016-01-01
We consider quantum integrable models with $\\mathfrak{gl}(2|1)$ symmetry. We derive a set of multiple commutation relations between the monodromy matrix entries. These multiple commutation relations allow us to obtain different representations for Bethe vectors.
Another version of “exotic characterization of a commutative H∗-algebra”
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parfeny P. Saworotnow
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Commutative H∗-algebra is characterized in a somewhat unusual fashion without assuming either Hilbert space structure or commutativity. Existence of an involution is not postulated also.
Changes to urban form and commuting patterns: trends in two Danish city regions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick
2015-01-01
This paper compares indicators of polycentricity in a monocentric (MUR) and a polycentric urban region (PUR) in Denmark at two points in time (1982 and 2002). It describes how population, jobs and commuting indicators of polycentricity develop and interact over time. Both the MUR and the PUR tend...... towards more balanced development. The increasing size of the main node in the PUR is the only deviation from the general trend. The general tendency towards a more polycentric regional structure was most marked in changing interaction and commuting patterns. Inter-urban commuting increased, while intra-urban...... commuting decreased, leading to dispersion of commuters and a rapid increase in commuting across the region. Commuting distances were shortest in the polycentric region, but it also had the highest growth rates. In both regions, the balancing trend leads to a dispersal of commuting demand over...
Schantz Peter; Wahlgren Lina
2011-01-01
Abstract Background Route environments can positively influence people's active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters' perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning ...
Associations between long commutes and subjective health complaints among railway workers in Norway.
Urhonen, Terhi; Lie, Arve; Aamodt, Geir
2016-12-01
Commuting is an important aspect of daily life for many employees, but there is little knowledge of how this affects individual commuters' health and well-being. The authors investigated the relationship between commuting and subjective health complaints, using data from a web-based questionnaire. In a sample of 2126 railway employees, 644 (30.3%) had long commute times. A 29-item inventory was used to measure the number and degree of the subjective health complaints. Those who commuted 60 min or more each way were characterized by significantly higher numbers and degrees of subjective health complaints compared with their peers with short commutes. The mean number of complaints was 7.5 among the former group and 6.4 for the latter group (p = 0.009). In a regression model, in which the authors controlled for age, gender, education, self-rated health, and coping, the employees with long commutes reported more complaints than those with short commutes. Significant associations were found between those with long commutes and the number and degree of incidences of self-reported musculoskeletal pain, pseudo-neurologic complaints, and gastrointestinal problems. Commuters who had had long commutes for more than 10 years reported more gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal complaints than those with long commutes for less than 2 years. Also, commuters with long commutes spent less time with their families and leisure activities compared with those with short commutes. The authors conclude that the association between long commute times and higher levels of subjective health complaints should attract the attention of transport planners, employers, and public health policymaker.
"Estimation of Fatigue Cost of Commuting Congestion and Optimal Congestion Fare" (in Japanese)
Hisaki Yamaga; Tatsuo Hatta
2000-01-01
This paper has three aims. First, we estimate a hedonic housing rent function along the Chuo Line in Tokyo with (i) commuting time distance and (ii) congestion degree as explanatory variables. Second, from the hedonic rent function thus estimated, we measure time cost and fatigue cost of commuting in terms of Equivalent Variation. We show that the fatigue cost of commuting is 5-29% of total commuting cost. Third, from the fatigue cost thus estimated, we measure marginal external congestion co...
Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reategui, S.
2012-07-01
The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.
2012 Clean Energy: Project Summaries
Asian Development Bank
2013-01-01
This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2012, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.
Long-Distance Relationships in Dual-Career Commuter Couples: A Review of Counseling Issues.
Rhodes, Angel R.
2002-01-01
The dual-career commuter couple is an alternative family configuration that continues to grow in number. Reviews the literature on dual-career commuter couples that has been published since 1982. Addresses the counseling issues of marital and family characteristics, commuting characteristics, and decision-making styles. Counseling implications and…
Active commuting and habit strength: an interactive and discriminant analyses approach
G.-J. de Bruijn; B. Gardner
2011-01-01
Purpose. Habits may be a mechanism linking environmental variables with active commuting. This study investigated the role of habit strength in the explanation of active commuting across profiles based on current active commuting, motivation, and habit strength within the framework of the theory of
The commuter family as a geographical adaptive strategy for the work-family balance
M. van der Klis; L. Karsten
2009-01-01
In this paper we raise the question of how commuter families create a work-family balance in a situation of incongruity of the geographical scales of work and family. Commuter families combine the work location of a commuting parent on the (inter)national scale, with the home-based parent's work loc
20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...
Shen, Y.; Kwan, M.-P.; Chai, Y.
2013-01-01
Using the notion of commuting flexibility, this paper investigates the intra-personal day-to-day variability and flexibility of commuting behavior using a 7-day GPS dataset collected in Beijing, China. Four dimensions of commuting variability are evaluated: space, time, travel mode, and travel route
2011-09-19
... station-based lifts. On commuter, intercity, or high-speed rail lines or systems in which track passing... serves new or altered stations on the line or system. For example, if a new commuter or high-speed rail..., Commuter, and High Speed Passenger Railroad Station Platforms; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Office...
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2014-06-01
This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.
The non-commutative geometry of string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyse the geometry of string field theory in exactly the same way as one would analyse the geometry of Yang-Mills theory. We find that a version of non-commutative geometry, where the differential forms are considered as infinite matrices, seems to provide a suitable context for studying string field theory. (author)
On W algebras commuting with a set of screenings
Litvinov, Alexey
2016-01-01
We consider the problem of classification of all W algebras which commute with a set of exponential screening operators. Assuming that the W algebra has a nontrivial current of spin 3, we find equations satisfied by the screening operators and classify their solutions.
The Business Case for Commuter Benefits at Colleges and Universities
Klavon, Patty
2005-01-01
Transportation and parking-related issues are common challenges for many colleges and universities today. Most institutions have far fewer parking spaces than they do commuters, and constructing and maintaining new parking facilities can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. In this article, an Environmental Protection Agency representative…
Generic simplicity of certain families of almost commutative algebras
Tikaradze, Akaki
2011-01-01
We discuss generic simplicity and Bernstein's inequality for families of almost commutative algebras. We also relate completions of infinitesimal Hecke algebras of sl_2 to noncommutative deformations of Kleinian singularities of type D of Crawley-Boevey and Holland. As a consequence, we show an analogue of Bernstein's inequality and simplicity of generic maximal primitive quotients of these algebras.
A commuting network model: going to the bulk
Gargiulo, Floriana; Huet, Sylvie; Espinosa, Omar Baqueiro
2011-01-01
The influence of commuting in socio-economic dynamics increases constantly. Analysing and modelling the networks formed by commuters to help decision-making regarding the land-use has become crucial. This paper presents a simple spatial interaction simulated model with only one parameter. The proposed algorithm considers each individual who wants to commute, starting from their living place to all their workplaces. It decides where the location of the workplace following the classical rule inspired from the gravity law consisting in a compromise between the job offers and the distance to the jobs. The further away the job offer is, the more important it must be in order to be considered. Inversely, only the quantity of offers is important for the decision when these offers are close. The paper also presents a comparative analysis of the structure of the commuting networks of the four European regions to which we apply our model. The model is calibrated and validated on these regions. Results from the analysis...
On the commutator length of a Dehn twist
Szepietowski, Blazej
2010-01-01
We show that on a nonorientable surface of genus at least 7 any power of a Dehn twist is equal to a single commutator in the mapping class group and the same is true, under additional assumptions, for the twist subgroup, and also for the extended mapping class group of an orientable surface of genus at least 3.
Procreating Tiles of Double Commutative-Step Digraphs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian-qin Zhou
2008-01-01
Double commutative-step digraph generalizes the double-loop digraph. A double commutative-step digraph can be represented by an L-shaped tile, which periodically tessellates the plane. Given an initial tile L(l, h,x, y), Agniló et al. define a discrete iteration L(p) = L(l + 2p, h + 2p, x + p, y + p),p = 0, 1, 2,…, over L-shapes (equivalently over double commutative-step digraphs), and obtain an orbit generated by L(l, h, x, y),which is said to be a procreating k-tight tile if L(p)(p= 0, 1, 2,… ) are all k-tight tiles. They classify the set of L-shaped tiles by its behavior under the above-mentioned discrete dynamics and obtain some procreating tiles of double commutative-step digraphs. In this work, with an approach proposed by Li and Xu et al., we define some new discrete iteration over L-shapes and classify the set of tiles by the procreating condition. We also propose some approaches to find infinite families of realizable k-tight tiles starting from any realizable k-tight L-shaped tile L(l, h, x, y), 0≤|y - x|≤ 2k + 2. As an example, we present an infinite family of 3-tight optimal double-loop networks to illustrate our approaches.
A multipurpose switched reluctance motor with a series commutation buffer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L.A. Vasil'ev
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a power-supply circuit for a multipurpose switched reluctance motor with a series commutation buffer is presented. It is shown that a series buffer improves output characteristics of multipurpose switched reluctance motors under supply from a single-phase circuit and also lifts necessity of switching capacitors according to the motor power supply modes.
Compactness of the commutators of parabolic singular integrals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper,the authors prove that the commutator [b,T] of the parabolic singular integrals is a compact operator on Lp(Rn)(1 < p < ∞) if and only if b ∈ VMO(Rn,ρ).The result is substantial improvement and extension of some known results.
Non-commutative Solitons in Finite Quantum Mechanics
Floratos, Emmanuel G
2002-01-01
We construct the unitary evolution operators that realize the quantization of linear maps of SL(2,R) over phase spaces of arbitrary integer discretization N and show the non-trivial dependence on the arithmetic nature of N. We discuss the corresponding uncertainty principle and construct the corresponding coherent states, that may be interpreted as non-commutative solitons.
coincidentally commuting mappings in D-metric spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. C. Dhage
2003-01-01
pairs of a single-valued and a multivalued coincidentally commuting mappings in D-metric spaces satisfying a certain generalized contraction condition. Our result generalizes more than a dozen known fixed-point theorems in D-metric spaces including those of Dhage (2000 and Rhoades (1996.
How well do cognitive and environmental variables predict active commuting?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Godin Gaston
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there has been growing interest in theoretical studies integrating cognitions and environmental variables in the prediction of behaviour related to the obesity epidemic. This is the approach adopted in the present study in reference to the theory of planned behaviour. More precisely, the aim of this study was to determine the contribution of cognitive and environmental variables in the prediction of active commuting to get to and from work or school. Methods A prospective study was carried out with 130 undergraduate and graduate students (93 females; 37 males. Environmental, cognitive and socio-demographic variables were evaluated at baseline by questionnaire. Two weeks later, active commuting (walking/bicycling to get to and from work or school was self-reported by questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to predict intention and behaviour. Results The model predicting behaviour based on cognitive variables explained more variance than the model based on environmental variables (37.4% versus 26.8%; Z = 3.86, p p p Conclusion The results showed that cognitive variables play a more important role than environmental variables in predicting and explaining active commuting. When environmental variables were significant, they were mediated by cognitive variables. Therefore, individual cognitions should remain one of the main focuses of interventions promoting active commuting among undergraduate and graduate students.
Weak estimates for commutators of fractional integral operators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
By introducing a kind of maximal operator of the fractional order associated with the mean Luxemburg norm and using the technique of the sharp function,the weak type LlogL estimates for the commutators of the fractional integral operator and the related maximal operator are established.
Regenerative Snubber For GTO-Commutated SCR Inverter
Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.
1992-01-01
Proposed regenerative snubbing circuit substituted for dissipative snubbing circuit in inverter based on silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's) commutated by gate-turn-off thyristor (GTO). Intended to reduce loss of power that occurs in dissipative snubber. Principal criteria in design: low cost, simplicity, and reliability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires promulgation of regulations to reduce and prevent damage to the earth's protective ozone layer. Regulations pursuant to Title VI of the CAA are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40 CFR, Part 822. The regulations include ambitious production phaseout schedules for ozone depleting substances (ODS) including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform under 40 CFR 82, Subpart A. The regulations also include requirements for recycling and emissions reduction during the servicing of refrigeration equipment and technician certification requirements under Subpart F; provisions for servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners under Subpart B; a ban on nonessential products containing Class 1 ODS under Subpart C; restrictions on Federal procurement of ODS under Subpart D; labeling of products using ODS under Subpart E; and the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program under Subpart G. This paper will provide details of initiatives undertaken at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program. The Stratospheric Ozone Protection Plans include internal DOE requirements for: (1) maintenance of ODS inventories; (2) ODS procurement practices; (3) servicing of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; (4) required equipment modifications or replacement; (5) technician certification training; (6) labeling of products containing ODS; (7) substitution of chlorinated solvents; and (8) replacement of halon fire protection systems. The plans also require establishment of administrative control systems which assure that compliance is achieved and maintained as the regulations continue to develop and become effective
Active commuting to school: How far is too far?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moyna Niall M
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking and cycling to school provide a convenient opportunity to incorporate physical activity into an adolescent's daily routine. School proximity to residential homes has been identified as an important determinant of active commuting among children. The purpose of this study is to identify if distance is a barrier to active commuting among adolescents, and if there is a criterion distance above which adolescents choose not to walk or cycle. Methods Data was collected in 2003–05 from a cross-sectional cohort of 15–17 yr old adolescents in 61 post primary schools in Ireland. Participants self-reported distance, mode of transport to school and barriers to active commuting. Trained researchers took physical measurements of height and weight. The relation between mode of transport, gender and population density was examined. Distance was entered into a bivariate logistic regression model to predict mode choice, controlling for gender, population density socio-economic status and school clusters. Results Of the 4013 adolescents who participated (48.1% female, mean age 16.02 ± 0.661, one third walked or cycled to school. A higher proportion of males than females commuted actively (41.0 vs. 33.8%, χ2 (1 = 22.21, p 2 (df = 3 = 839.64, p 2 (df = 1 = 2591.86, p Conclusion Distance is an important perceived barrier to active commuting and a predictor of mode choice among adolescents. Distances within 2.5 miles are achievable for adolescent walkers and cyclists. Alternative strategies for increasing physical activity are required for individuals living outside of this criterion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Privault, N. [Universite d`Evry, 91 (France)
1996-05-20
Using two different constructions of the chaotic and variational calculus on Poisson space, we show that the Wiener and Poisson processes have a non-commutative representation which is different from the one obtained by transfer of the Fock space creation and annihilation operators. We obtain in this way an extension of the non-commutative It calculus. The associated commutation relations show a link between the geometric and exponential distributions. (author). 11 refs.
Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Ussery, Emily N; Riordan, Brian; Wendel, Arthur M
2016-01-01
Creating environments that support all types of physical activity, including active transportation, is a public health priority (1). Public health surveillance that identifies the locations where community members walk and bicycle (i.e., engage in active transportation) can inform such efforts. Traditional population-representative active transportation surveillance incurs a considerable time lag between data collection and dissemination, and often lacks geographic specificity (2). Conversely, user-generated active transportation data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-based activity tracking devices and mobile applications can provide near real-time information, but might be subject to self-selection bias among users. CDC analyzed the association between GPS-based commuting data from a company that allows tracking of activity with a mobile application (Strava, Inc., San Francisco, California) and population-representative commuting data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) (3) for four U.S. cities. The level of analysis was the Census block group. The number of GPS-tracked commuters in Strava was associated with the number of ACS active commuters (Spearman's rho = 0.60), suggesting block groups were ranked similarly based on these distinct but related measurements. The correlation was higher in high population density areas. User-generated active transportation data might complement traditional surveillance systems by providing near real-time, location-specific information on where active transportation occurs. PMID:27632357
Interpretation of the classical limits of quantum mechanics on a non-commutative configuration space
Benatti, Fabio
2014-01-01
The classical limits of quantum mechanics on a non-commutative configuration space has been recently studied through the possible ways of removing the non-commutativity based on the classical limit context known as anti-Wick quantization. The conclusion is that the removal of non-commutativity from the configuration space and from the canonical operators are not commuting operations. In order to give an interpretation to the non-exchangeability of the limits, we calculate the Wigner functions of the gaussian-like states of the non-commutative quantum harmonic oscillators and their limits when $\\hbar \\rightarrow 0$ and $\\theta\
THE NEXT GENERATION OF VMT REDUCTION PROGRAMS
This research is structured to provide a clear delineation of factors that influence trip chaining, identify levels of flexibility in commuter travel, present a market segmentation of commuters in terms of their flexibility levels, and estimate the reach of current programs. ...
The equationally-defined commutator a study in equational logic and algebra
Czelakowski, Janusz
2015-01-01
This monograph introduces and explores the notions of a commutator equation and the equationally-defined commutator from the perspective of abstract algebraic logic. An account of the commutator operation associated with equational deductive systems is presented, with an emphasis placed on logical aspects of the commutator for equational systems determined by quasivarieties of algebras. The author discusses the general properties of the equationally-defined commutator, various centralization relations for relative congruences, the additivity and correspondence properties of the equationally-defined commutator, and its behavior in finitely generated quasivarieties. Presenting new and original research not yet considered in the mathematical literature, The Equationally-Defined Commutator will be of interest to professional algebraists and logicians, as well as graduate students and other researchers interested in problems of modern algebraic logic.
True Cost of Amateur Clean rooms
Ramsey, W. Lawrence
2005-01-01
This viewgraph document reviews the cost factors for clean rooms that are not professionally built, monitored or maintained. These amateur clean rooms are built because scientist and engineers desire to create a clean room to build a part of an experiment that requires a clean room, and the program manager is looking to save money. However, in the long run these clean rooms may not save money, as the cost of maintenance may be higher due to the cost of transporting the crews, and if the materials were of lesser quality, the cost of modifications may diminish any savings, and the product may not be of the same quality. Several examples are shown of the clean rooms that show some of the problems that can arise from amateur clean rooms.
Limit Algebras of Differential Forms in Non-Commutative Geometry
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S J Bhatt; A Inoue
2008-08-01
Given a C∗-normed algebra A which is either a Banach ∗-algebra or a Frechet ∗-algebra, we study the algebras ∞A and A obtained by taking respectively the projective limit and the inductive limit of Banach ∗-algebras obtained by completing the universal graded differential algebra ∗A of abstract non-commutative differential forms over A. Various quantized integrals on ∞A induced by a K-cycle on A are considered. The GNS-representation of ∞A defined by a d-dimensional non-commutative volume integral on a d+-summable K-cycle on A is realized as the representation induced by the left action of A on ∗A. This supplements the representation A on the space of forms discussed by Connes (Ch. VI.1, Prop. 5, p. 550 of [C]).
A commuting generation model requiring only aggregated data
Lenormand, Maxime; Gargiulo, Floriana
2011-01-01
We recently proposed, in (Gargiulo et al., 2011), an innova tive stochastic model with only one parameter to calibrate. It reproduces the complete network by an iterative process stochastically choosing, for each commuter living in the municipality of a region, a workplace in the region. The choice is done considering the job offer in each municipality of the region and the distance to all the possible destinations. The model is quite effective if the region is sufficiently autonomous in terms of job offers. However, calibrating or being sure of this autonomy require data or expertise which are not necessarily available. Moreover the region can be not autonomous. In the present, we overcome these limitations, extending the job search geographical base of the commuters to the outside of the region, and changing the deterrence function form. We also found a law to calibrate the improvement model which does not require data.
Macdonald polynomials in superspace as eigenfunctions of commuting operators
Blondeau-Fournier, O; Lapointe, L; Mathieu, P
2012-01-01
A generalization of the Macdonald polynomials depending upon both commuting and anticommuting variables has been introduced recently. The construction relies on certain orthogonality and triangularity relations. Although many superpolynomials were constructed as solutions of highly over-determined system, the existence issue was left open. This is resolved here: we demonstrate that the underlying construction has a (unique) solution. The proof uses, as a starting point, the definition of the Macdonald superpolynomials in terms of the Macdonald non-symmetric polynomials via a non-standard (anti)symmetrization and a suitable dressing by anticommuting monomials. This relationship naturally suggests the form of two family of commuting operators that have the defined superpolynomials as their common eigenfunctions. These eigenfunctions are then shown to be triangular and orthogonal. Up to a normalization, these two conditions uniquely characterize these superpolynomials. Moreover, the Macdonald superpolynomials ar...
Application of variable-sweep wings to commuter aircraft
Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Price, J. E.; Turriiziani, R. V.; Washburn, F. F.
1983-01-01
The effects of using variable-sweep wings on the riding quality and mission-performance characteristics of commuter-type aircraft were studied. A fixed-wing baseline vehicle and a variable-sweep version of the baseline were designed and evaluated. Both vehicles were twin-turboprop, pressurized-cabin, 30-passenger commuter aircraft with identical mission requirements. Mission performance was calculated with and without various ride-quality constraints for several combinations of cruise altitude and stage lengths. The variable-sweep aircraft had a gross weight of almost four percent greater than the fixed-wing baseline in order to meet the design-mission requirements. In smooth air, the variable sweep configuration flying with low sweep had a two to three percent fuel-use penalty. However, the imposition of quality constraints in rough air can result in advantages in both fuel economy and flight time for the variable-sweep vehicle flying with high sweep.
AC system stabilization via phase shift transformer with thyristor commutation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Jose Carlos de; Guimaraes, Geraldo Caixeta; Moraes, Adelio Jose [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil); Abreu, Jose Policarpo G. de [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Edimar Jose de [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil)
1994-12-31
This article aims to present initially the constructive and operative forms of a phase-shift autotransformer which provides both magnitude and phase angle change through thyristor commutation, including a technic to reduce the number of thyristors. Following, it is proposed a control system to make such equipment an efficient AC system stabilizing tool. It is presented some simulation results to show the operation of this transformer in an electrical system. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.
Rapid commutation duplexer with phase-related outputs
Roveda, R.; Cattarin, G.; Digregorio, C.; Parrucci, U.
Design criteria and the realization of an X-band waveguide rapid commutation duplexer, in production, are presented. By means of a digital TTL command it is capable of operating in three different conditions: all the power is conveyed to a single output; the poweer is equally divided between two in-phase outputs; and it is equally divided between two counter-phase outputs. In a monopulse radar this permits the electronic scanning of the antenna beam.
Commutator-based linearization of $N = 1$ nonlinear supersymmetry
Tsuda, Motomu
2016-01-01
We consider the linearization of $N = 1$ nonlinear supersymmetry (NLSUSY) based on a commutator algebra in Volkov-Akulov NLSUSY theory. We show explicitly that $U(1)$ gauge and scalar supermultiplets in addition to a vector supermultiplet with general auxiliary fields in linear SUSY theories are obtained from a same set of bosonic and fermionic functionals (composites) which are expressed as simple products of the powers of a Nambu-Goldstone fermion and a fundamental determinant in the NLSUSY theory.
Commuters' valuation of travel time variability in Barcelona
Matas i Prat, Anna; Asensio Ruiz de Alda, Francisco Javier
2007-01-01
The value given by commuters to the variability of travel times is empirically analysed using stated preference data from Barcelona (Spain). Respondents are asked to choose between alternatives that differ in terms of cost, average travel time, variability of travel times and departure time. Different specifications of a scheduling choice model are used to measure the influence of various socioeconomic characteristics. Our results show that travel time variability.
Overreporting vs. Overreacting: Commuters' Perceptions of Travel Times
Peer, Stefanie; Knockaert, Jasper; Koster, Paul; Verhoef, Erik
2013-01-01
We asked participants of a large-scale, real-life peak avoidance experiment to provide estimates of their average in-vehicle travel time for their morning commute. Comparing these reported travel times to the corresponding actual travel times, we find that travel times are overstated by a factor of 1.5 on average. We show that driver- and link-speci c characteristics partially explain the overstating. Using stated and revealed preference data, we investigate whether the driverspecific reporti...
From non commutative sphere to non relativistic spin
Deriglazov, A A
2009-01-01
Reparametrization invariant dynamics on a sphere, being parameterized by angular momentum coordinates, represents an example of non commutative system. It can be quantized according to Berezin-Marinov prescription, replacing the coordinates by Pauli matrices. Following the scheme, we present two semiclassical models for description of spin without use of Grassman variables. The first model implies Pauli equation upon the canonical quantization. The second model produces non relativistic limit of the Dirac equation implying correct value for the electron spin magnetic moment.
Computing Small 1-Homological Models for Commutative Differential Graded Algebras
Alvarez, Victor; Armario, Jose Andres; Frau, Maria Dolores; Gonzalez-Diaz, Rocio; Jimenez, Maria Jose; Real, Pedro; Silva, Beatriz
2001-01-01
We use homological perturbation machinery specific for the algebra category [P. Real. Homological Perturbation Theory and Associativity. Homology, Homotopy and Applications vol. 2, n. 5 (2000) 51-88] to give an algorithm for computing the differential structure of a small 1--homological model for commutative differential graded algebras (briefly, CDGAs). The complexity of the procedure is studied and a computer package in Mathematica is described for determining such models.
Non-commutative black holes in $D$ dimensions
Klimcik, C; Kolnik, P.; Pompos, A.
1994-01-01
Recently introduced classical theory of gravity in non-commutative geometry is studied. The most general (four parametric) family of $D$ dibensional static spherically symmetric spacetimes is identified and its properties are studied in detail. For wide class of the choices of parameters, the corresponding spacetimes have the structure of asymptotically flat black holes with a smooth event horizon hiding the curvature singularity. A specific attention is devoted to the behavior of components ...
Commutability of Cytomegalovirus WHO International Standard in Different Matrices.
Jones, Sara; Webb, Erika M; Barry, Catherine P; Choi, Won S; Abravaya, Klara B; Schneider, George J; Ho, Shiaolan Y
2016-06-01
Commutability of quantitative standards allows patient results to be compared across molecular diagnostic methods and laboratories. This is critical to establishing quantitative thresholds for use in clinical decision-making. A matrix effect associated with the 1st cytomegalovirus (CMV) WHO international standard (IS) was identified using the Abbott RealTime CMV assay. A commutability study was performed to compare the CMV WHO IS and patient specimens diluted in plasma and whole blood. Patient specimens showed similar CMV DNA quantitation values regardless of the diluent or extraction procedure used. The CMV WHO IS, on the other hand, exhibited a matrix effect. The CMV concentration reported for the WHO IS diluted in plasma was within the 95% prediction interval established with patient samples. In contrast, the reported DNA concentration of the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood was reduced approximately 0.4 log copies/ml, and values fell outside the 95% prediction interval. Calibrating the assay by using the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood would introduce a bias for CMV whole-blood quantitation; samples would be reported as having higher measured concentrations, by approximately 0.4 log IU/ml. Based on the commutability study with patient samples, the RealTime CMV assay was standardized based on the CMV WHO IS diluted in plasma. A revision of the instructions for use of the CMV WHO IS should be considered to alert users of the potential impact from the diluent matrix. The identification of a matrix effect with the CMV WHO IS underscores the importance of assessing commutability of the IS in order to achieve consistent results across methods. PMID:27030491
Derivations, Products of Derivations, and Commutativity in Near-rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Howard E. Bell; Nurcan Argac
2001-01-01
For a zero-symmetric 3-prime near-ring N, we study three kinds of conditions: (a) conditions involving two derivations d1, d2 which imply that d1 = 0 or d2 = 0; (b) conditions involving derivations which force (N, +) to be abelian or N to be a commutative ring; (c) the condition that dn (S) is multiplicatively central for some derivation d and subset S of N.
Non-Commutativity, Teleology and GRB Time Delay
Li, Miao; Wang, Yi
2009-01-01
We propose a model in which an energy-dependent time delay of a photon originates from space-time non-commutativity, the time delay is due to a noncommutative coupling between dilaton and photon. We predict that in our model, high energy photons with different momenta can either be delayed or superluminal, this may be related to a possible time delay reported by the Fermi LAT and Fermi GBM Collaborations.
A norm inequality for pairs of commuting positive semidefinite matrices
Audenaert, Koenraad M.R.
2014-01-01
For $k=1,\\ldots,K$, let $A_k$ and $B_k$ be positive semidefinite matrices such that, for each $k$, $A_k$ commutes with $B_k$. We show that, for any unitarily invariant norm, \\[ |||\\sum_{k=1}^K A_kB_k||| \\le ||| (\\sum_{k=1}^K A_k)\\;(\\sum_{k=1}^K B_k)|||. \\
Dynamics as the preservation of a constant commutator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torres-Vega, Gabino [Departamento de Fisica, Cinvestav, apartado postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)], E-mail: gabino@fis.cinvestav.mx
2007-10-01
Some properties involving two operators with a constant commutator are derived. They include a definition of derivatives of operator functions, their conjugate spaces, and the associated translation generators. The cases of real functions, quantum coordinate and momentum operators, time and Liouville operator, and quantum time and energy operators, are analyzed within this formalism. This procedure allows the elucidation of the properties of time in classical and quantum mechanics.
Commutative Prospect Theory and Stopped Behavioral Processes for Fair Gambles
Cadogan, Godfrey
2010-01-01
We augment Tversky and Khaneman (1992) (“TK92”) Cumulative Prospect Theory (“CPT”) function space with a sample space for “states of nature”, and depict a commutative map of behavior on the augmented space. In particular, we use a homotopy lifting property to mimic behavioral stochastic processes arising from deformation of stochastic choice into outcome. A psychological distance metric (in the class of Dudley-Talagrand inequalities) popularized by Norman (1968); Nosofsky and Palmeri (1997), ...
Commutative Prospect Theory and Stopped Behavioral Processes for Fair Gambles
Cadogan, Godfrey
2010-01-01
We augment Tversky and Khaneman (1992) (TK92) Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT) function space with a sample space for states of nature, and depict a commutative map of behavior on the augmented space. In particular, we use a homotopy lifting property to mimic behavioral stochastic processes arising from deformation of stochastic choice into outcome. A psychological distance metric (in the class of Dudley-Talagrand inequalities) for stochastic learning, was used to characterize stopping tim...
Commutative Prospect Theory and Stopped Behavioral Processes for Fair Gambles
Cadogan, Godfrey
2010-01-01
We augment Tversky and Khaneman (1992) (“TK92”) Cumulative Prospect Theory (“CPT”) function space with a sample space for “states of nature”, and depict a commutative map of behavior on the augmented space. In particular, we use a homotopy lifting property to mimic behavioral stochastic processes arising from deformation of stochastic choice into outcome. A psychological distance metric (in the class of Dudley-Talagrand inequalities) for stochastic learning, was used to characterize stopping ...
State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)
1997-12-31
State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.
Take part in the Commute-Another-Way Challenge!
CERN Bulletin
2015-01-01
Ring the changes on Thursday, 4 June by commuting another way! CERN has signed up for the 5th “challenge mobilité Rhône-Alpes”, the aim of which is to encourage people to use modes of transport other than their car to get to work. Are you up for the challenge? Join in the challenge! Sign up using the dedicated CERN form. "Commute another way!" is an initiative launched by the Rhône-Alpes regional authorities and the French environment agency ADEME (l’Agence de l’environnement et de la maîtrise de l’énergie française) to promote alternative ways of travelling to work than the car (excluding carpooling), in private and public-sector organisations across the region. We love this idea and CERN has been signed up to a similar scheme - Bike to Work - for several years. That’s why we’ve decided that CERN should join the Commute-A...
Modeling the relation between income and commuting distance
Carra, Giulia; Fosgerau, Mogens; Barthelemy, Marc
2016-01-01
We discuss the distribution of commuting distances and its relation to income. Using data from Great Britain, US and Denmark, we show that the commuting distance is (i) broadly distributed with a tail decaying typically as $1/r^\\gamma$ with $\\gamma \\approx 3$ and (ii) an average growing slowly as a power law with an exponent less than one that depends on the country considered. The classical theory for job search is based on the idea that workers evaluate potential jobs on the wage as they arrive sequentially through time. Extending this model with space, we obtain predictions that are strongly contradicted by our empirical findings. We then propose an alternative model that is based on the idea that workers evaluate potential jobs based on a quality aspect and that workers search for jobs sequentially across space. We assume that the density of potential jobs depends on the skills of the worker and decreases with the wage. The predicted distribution of commuting distances decays as $1/r^3$ and is independent...
Modelling the relation between income and commuting distance.
Carra, Giulia; Mulalic, Ismir; Fosgerau, Mogens; Barthelemy, Marc
2016-06-01
We discuss the distribution of commuting distances and its relation to income. Using data from Denmark, the UK and the USA, we show that the commuting distance is (i) broadly distributed with a slow decaying tail that can be fitted by a power law with exponent γ ≈ 3 and (ii) an average growing slowly as a power law with an exponent less than one that depends on the country considered. The classical theory for job search is based on the idea that workers evaluate the wage of potential jobs as they arrive sequentially through time, and extending this model with space, we obtain predictions that are strongly contradicted by our empirical findings. We propose an alternative model that is based on the idea that workers evaluate potential jobs based on a quality aspect and that workers search for jobs sequentially across space. We also assume that the density of potential jobs depends on the skills of the worker and decreases with the wage. The predicted distribution of commuting distances decays as 1/r(3) and is independent of the distribution of the quality of jobs. We find our alternative model to be in agreement with our data. This type of approach opens new perspectives for the modelling of mobility. PMID:27278365
Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation.
Reiskarimian, Negar; Krishnaswamy, Harish
2016-01-01
Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time. PMID:27079524
Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System
Kinney, Frank
1996-01-01
The Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System Research Project consisted mainly of a feasibility study, including theoretical and engineering analysis, of a proof-of-concept prototype of this particular cleaning system developed by NASA-KSC. The cleaning system utilizes gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the device to be cleaned. The cleaning fluid being accelerated to these high velocities may consist of any solvent or liquid, including water. Compressed air or any inert gas is used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid, as well as substantially reduce the total amount of liquid needed to perform adequate surface cleaning and cleanliness verification. This type of aqueous cleaning system is considered to be an excellent way of conducting cleaning and cleanliness verification operations as replacements for the use of CFC 113 which must be discontinued by 1995. To utilize this particular cleaning system in various cleaning applications for both the Space Program and the commercial market, it is essential that the cleaning system, especially the supersonic nozzle, be characterized for such applications. This characterization consisted of performing theoretical and engineering analysis, identifying desirable modifications/extensions to the basic concept, evaluating effects of variations in operating parameters, and optimizing hardware design for specific applications.
Active commuting of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukáš Rubín
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Active commuting in terms of everyday transport to school or work can have a significant effect on physical activity. Active commuting can be influenced by the environment, and examples from abroad show that current environmental changes tend mostly to promote passive forms of commuting. A similar situation of decreasing active commuting might be expected in the Czech Republic. However, little information has been published to date about the issue of active commuting among the inhabitants of our country. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to describe the active commuting patterns of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas. Methods: A total of 23,621 economically active inhabitants or students of Liberec city aged 6-87 years (34.77 ± 14.39 participated in the study. The data about commuting were retrieved from the national Population and Housing Census of 2011. Geographic information systems were used to objectively analyze the built environment and to calculate the walkability index. Results: Active commuting to/from school or work is used by 17.41% of inhabitants. Active commuting is dominated by walking (16.60% as opposed to cycling (0.81%. Inhabitants who lived in high walkability areas were more likely to actively commute than those living in low walkability areas (OR = 1.54; 95% CI [1.41, 1.68]. Conclusions: This study confirmed the findings of international studies about the effect of the built environment on active commuting among Liberec inhabitants. Active commuters are often those living near or in the city center, which is characterized by high walkability. In Liberec city, walking as a means of active commuting significantly prevails over cycling. One of the reasons might be the diverse topography of the city and the insufficiently developed cycling network.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Commuting is one of the main contributors to the high energy consumption patterns in modern economies. The need to reduce the energy spent in commuting has attracted the attention of academics and policy makers. The main goal of this research is to improve knowledge of the economic, social, energy and environmental opportunity costs of inter-municipality commuting and to support policy-oriented strategies that explicitly take them into account. For this, we use hypothetical assumptions based on the baseline scenario that Portuguese households do not travel between municipalities for commuting purposes coupled with the expected changes in private final consumption. Accordingly, the direct, indirect and induced opportunity costs of inter-municipality commuting are assessed using an input–output model. The significance of the estimated virtual net benefits of commuting is analyzed according to their macroeconomic (GVA, taxes, international imports and employment), energy (primary energy consumption) and environmental (CO2 emissions) dimensions. The results obtained empirically indicate that inter-municipality commuting has significant opportunity costs in the GVA and GDP as well as in primary energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The results also indicate that commuters in metropolitan regions and long-distance commuters are responsible for a major share of these opportunity costs. - Highlights: • This paper provides an insight into the magnitude of opportunity costs of commuting. • Input–output modeling is valuable to assess changes in final consumption patterns. • About 25% of household's fuel consumption is due to inter-municipality commuting. • Inter-municipality commuting has net negative effects on GDP, GVA and employment. • The main opportunity costs come from metropolitan and long distance commuting
Robert Pollin; James Heintz; Heidi Garrett-Peltier
2009-01-01
This study, commissioned by the Center for American Progress, examines broader economic considerations—jobs, incomes, and economic growth—through the lens of two government initiatives this year by the Obama administration and Congress. The first is the set of clean-energy provisions incorporated within the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The second is the proposed American Clean Energy and Security Act which is now before Congress. Our analysis in this paper shows that these measures...
Partnership for a Clean Future
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG HAIRONG
2010-01-01
@@ Having lived in China for almost three decades,Sabina Brady is a de facto China hand.Currently,she is the cxecutive director of the U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program (ECP),a nonprofit organization that engages in market development and promotion of clean energy within the framework of China-U.S.bilateral government commitments on the environrnent and energy.
Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, C.
2012-10-01
This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.
Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, C.
2012-12-01
This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.
Transition to Clean Technology
Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Kerr,William Robert
2014-01-01
We develop a microeconomic model of endogenous growth where clean and dirty technologies compete in production and innovation-in the sense that research can be directed to either clean or dirty technologies. If dirty technologies are more advanced to start with, the potential transition to clean technology can be difficult both because clean research must climb several steps to catch up with dirty technology and because this gap discourages research effort directed towards clean technologies....
Are commuting and residential mobility decisions simultaneous? : the case of Catalonia (Spain)
Romaní Fernández, Javier, 1969-; Suriñach Caralt, Jordi; Artís Ortuño, Manuel
2001-01-01
In this paper we study the commuting and moving decisions of workers in Catalonia (Spain) and its evolution in the 1986-1996 period. Using a microdata sample from the 1991 Spanish Population Census, we estimate a simultaneous, discrete choice model of commuting and moves, thus indirectly addressing the home and job location decisions. The econometrical framework is a simultaneous, binary probit model with a commute equation and a move equation
Non-commutative U(1) Gauge Theory on R**4 with Oscillator Term
Blaschke, Daniel N; Schweda, Manfred
2007-01-01
Inspired by the renormalizability of the non-commutative $\\Phi^4$ model with added oscillator term, we formulate a non-commutative gauge theory, where the oscillator enters as a gauge fixing term. All propagators turn out to be essentially given by the Mehler kernel and the bilinear part of the action is invariant under the Langmann-Szabo duality. The model is a promising candidate for a renormalizable non-commutative U(1) gauge theory.
A Novel Hybrid Solution for Load Commutated Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Drives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
continued
2004-01-01
Load commutated inverter (LCI)based synchronous motor drives have been traditionally used in very high power applications such as pumps, compressors and fans drives. The merits oft he load commutated inverter based system are resulted from the fact that since it employs converter grade thyristors and utilizes natural commutation of the thyristors. It provides simplicity, robustness, cost effectiveness, and very low switching losses.. Moreover, be-cause it has the currentsource inverter (CSI) topology, it has inherent advantages of CSI:
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sune eDjurhuus
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Background: Active commuters have lower risk of chronic disease. Understanding which of the, to some extent, modifiable characteristics of public transportation that facilitate its use is thus important in a public health perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the association between individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age and gender. Methods: 28,928 commuters in the Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multimodal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the association between accessibility, expressed as access area, and being an active commuter.Results: Public transport accessibility area based on all stops within walking and cycling distance was positively associated with being an active commuter. Distance to work, age and gender modified the associations. Residing within 10 km commuting distance and in areas of high accessibility was associated with being an active commuter and meeting the recommendations of physical activity. For the respondents above 29 years, Individual public transportation accessibility was positively associated with being an active commuter. Women having high accessibility had significantly higher odds of being an active commuter compared to having a low accessibility. For men the associations were insignificant.Conclusions: This study extends the knowledge about the driving forces of using public transportation for commuting by examining the individual public transportation accessibility. Findings suggest that transportation accessibility supports active commuting and planning of improved public transit
Changes in active commuting and changes in physical activity in adults: a cohort study
Foley, Louise; Panter, Jenna; Heinen, Eva; Prins, Richard; Ogilvie, David
2015-01-01
Background Active travel is associated with greater physical activity, but there is a dearth of research examining this relationship over time. We examined the longitudinal associations between change in time spent in active commuting and changes in recreational and total physical activity. Methods Adult commuters working in Cambridge, United Kingdom completed questionnaires in 2009 and 2012, and a sub-set completed objective physical activity monitoring in 2010 and 2012. Commuting was assess...
National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2012-01-01
Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.
Concentration Versus Re-Matching? Evidence About the Locational Effects of Commuting Costs
Michael J. Boehm
2013-01-01
Using administrative employer-employee data from Germany, I exploit two reductions of tax breaks for commuting in 2003/4 and 2006/7 to estimate commuting costs’ effect on the decision to switch job and move house. Standard theory predicts that higher commuting costs should lead to increased concentration in urban centers. However, I find that re-matching of existing jobs and houses to reduce commuting distances is much more prevalent in the data. With these estimates I calculate the effect of...
Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, C.
2011-08-01
Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.
SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is...
BOUNDEDNESS CRITERION FOR SOME COMMUTATORS OF LINEAR OPERATORS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Wengu; Hu Guoen
2001-01-01
The paper is to establish a boundedness criterion for somecommutators of linear operators when these linear operators don't satisfy the general Ap weight estimates but satisfy some radial weight estimates. CLC Number：O17 Document ID：AFoundation Item：The paper was partly supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 19901021) and Beijing Education Commission Foundation, Natural Science Foundation of Beijing (1013006). References：[1]Coifman,R. and Meyer,Y. ,Au déla Des Opérateurs Pseudo-Différentiles,Astérisque 57(1978),1-185.[2]Alvarez,J. ,Bagby,R. ,Kurtz,D. and Pérez,C. ,Weighted Estimates for Commutators of Linear Operators,Studia Math. 104 (1993),195-[2]09.[3]Hu G. and Lu S. Z. ,The Commutator of the Bochner-Riesz Operator,Tohoku Math. J. 48(1996) ,259-266.[4]Duoandikoetxea,J. ,Weighted Norm Inequalities for Homogeneous Singular Integrals,Trans.Amer,Math. Soc.[3]36(1993),869-880.[5]Stein,E. M. and Weiss,G. ,Interpolation of Operators with Change of Measures,Trans.Amer. Math. Soc. 87(1958),159-172.[6]Zaanea,A. C. ,Interpolation,North-Holland,1967.[7]Ding Y. and Lu S. Z. ,Weighted Lp-Bounedness for Higher Order Commutators of Oscillatory Singular Integrals,Tohoku Math. J. 48(1996),437-449.Manuscript Received：1999年12月22日Published：2001年9月1日
Clean Cities Technical Assistance Project (Tiger Teams)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-02-01
This two-page fact sheet describes Clean Cities' technical assistance (Tiger Teams) capabilities and projects, both completed and ongoing. Tiger Teams are a critical element of the Clean Cities program, providing on-the-ground consultation to help inform program strategies. The knowledge Tiger Team experts gain from these experiences often helps inform other alternative fuels activities, such as needed research, codes and standards revisions, and new training resources.
Number-to-voltage converter on commutated condensers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A code-voltage converter using precision voltage dividers based on commutated capacitors [1] is described which is distinguished by the absence of precision elements. Each digit includes eight field-effect transistors in two 1KT682 microcircuit assemblies and three microcapacitors with a conventional unstable capacitance 6200 pF +- 50%. The converter has a speed of response that is not inferior to that of converters based on R-2R matrices, while in time stability of the characteristics, low interference level, and low output impedance it is superior to such converters
Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector
2016-01-01
The ubiquitous trend toward miniaturized sensing systems demands novel concepts for compact and versatile spectroscopic tools. Conventional optical sensing setups include a light source, an analyte interaction region, and a separate external detector. We present a compact sensor providing room-temperature operation of monolithic surface-active lasers and detectors integrated on the same chip. The differentiation between emitter and detector is eliminated, which enables mutual commutation. Proof-of-principle gas measurements with a limit of detection below 400 ppm are demonstrated. This concept enables a crucial miniaturization of sensing devices. PMID:27785455
Two weight norm inequalities for fractional integrals and commutators
Cruz-Uribe, David
2014-01-01
In this course we will survey recent work on two weight norm inequalities for the fractional integral operator and its commutator with BMO functions. We are interested in finding sufficient (and necessary and sufficient) conditions on pairs of weights (u,σ) for the weak and strong-type inequalities. Recently, using the machinery developed to prove the A2 conjecture, there has been a great deal of progress in this area. We will first survey the history of this problem, starting with the ...
Intertwining and commutation relations for birth-death processes
Chafai, Djalil
2010-01-01
Given a birth-death process on N with semigroup P_t and a discrete gradient D depending on a positive weight u, we establish intertwining relations of the form D P_t = Q_t D, where Q_t is the Feynman-Kac semigroup with potential V_u of another birth-death process. We provide applications when V_u is positive and uniformly bounded from below, including Lipschitz contraction and Wasserstein curvature, various functional inequalities, and stochastic orderings. The proofs are remarkably simple and rely on interpolation, commutation, and convexity.
Subgroup S-commutativity degrees of finite groups
Otera, Daniele Ettore; Russo, Francesco G.
2012-01-01
The so-called subgroup commutativity degree $sd(G)$ of a finite group $G$ is the number of permuting subgroups $(H,K) \\in \\mathrm{L}(G) \\times \\mathrm{L}(G)$, where $\\mathrm{L}(G)$ is the subgroup lattice of $G$, divided by $|\\mathrm{L}(G)|^2$. It allows to measure how $G$ is far from the celebrated classification of quasihamiltonian groups of K. Iwasawa. Here we generalize $sd(G)$, looking at suitable sublattices of $\\mathrm{L}(G)$, and show some new lower bounds. More p...
Non-commutative geometry inspired charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We find a new, non-commutative geometry inspired, solution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell field equations describing a variety of charged, self-gravitating objects, including extremal and non-extremal black holes. The metric smoothly interpolates between de Sitter geometry, at short distance, and Reissner-Nordstrom geometry far away from the origin. Contrary to the ordinary Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime there is no curvature singularity in the origin neither 'naked' nor shielded by horizons. We investigate both Hawking process and pair creation in this new scenario
The Commutant of Analytic Toeplitz Operators on Bergman Space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Cheng LI
2008-01-01
In this paper,using the matrix skills and operator theory techniques we characterize the commutant of analytic Toeplitz operators on Bergman space.For f(z) = zng(z) (n≥1),g(z) = bo +b1zP1+b2zP2+...,bk≠0 (k = 0,1,2...),our main result is (Mf) = (Mzn)∩ (Mg) = (Mzs),where s = g.c.d.(n,p1,p2,...).In the last section,we study the relation between strongly irreducible curve and the winding number W(f,f(a) ),a ∈ D.
Rotating turkeys and self-commutating artificial muscle motors
O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Gisby, Todd A.; Anderson, Iain A.
2012-02-01
Electrostatic motors—first used by Benjamin Franklin to rotisserie a turkey—are making a comeback in the form of high energy density dielectric elastomer artificial muscles. We present a self-commutated artificial muscle motor that uses dielectric elastomer switches in the place of bulky external electronics. The motor simply requires a DC input voltage to rotate a shaft (0.73 Nm/kg, 0.24 Hz) and is a step away from hard metallic electromagnetic motors towards a soft, light, and printable future.
Quasi--bases for Modules over a Commutative Ring
Shi, Guang
2012-01-01
In this paper we present the definition of quasi-bases for modules over a ring that is commutative but not necessarily division and discuss properties that guarantee the existence of quasi-bases. Based on this result we further prove that every finitely generated module over $L^{0}(\\mathcal{F},K)$ has a quasi-basis, where $K$ is the scalar field of real numbers or complex numbers and $L^{0}(\\mathcal{F},K)$ is the algebra of equivalence classes of $K$--valued random variables defined on a prob...
Supergravity and Light-Like Non-commutativity
Alishahiha, M; Russo, Jorge G; Alishahiha, Mohsen; Oz, Yaron; Russo, Jorge G.
2000-01-01
We construct dual supergravity descriptions of field theories and little string theories with light-like non-commutativity. The field theories are realized on the world-volume of Dp branes with light-like NS $B$ field and M5 branes with light-like $C$ field. The little string theories are realized on the world-volume of NS5 branes with light-like RR $A$ fields. The supergravity backgrounds are closely related to the $A=0,B=0,C=0$ backgrounds. We discuss the implications of these results. We also construct dual supergravity descriptions of ODp theories realized on the worldvolume of NS5 branes with RR backgrounds.
Commutators of Integral Operators with Variable Kernels on Hardy Spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Pu Zhang; Kai Zhao
2005-11-01
Let $T_{,}(0≤ < n)$ be the singular and fractional integrals with variable kernel $(x,z)$, and $[b, T_{,}]$ be the commutator generated by $T_{,}$ and a Lipschitz function . In this paper, the authors study the boundedness of $[b, T_{,}]$ on the Hardy spaces, under some assumptions such as the $L^r$-Dini condition. Similar results and the weak type estimates at the end-point cases are also given for the homogeneous convolution operators $T_{\\overline{},}(0≤ < n)$. The smoothness conditions imposed on $\\overline{}$ are weaker than the corresponding known results.
Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert
2012-08-31
The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation) (Fact Sheet)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2014-04-01
This is the Chinese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation) (Fact Sheet)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2014-11-01
This is the Vietnamese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.
Cleaning supplies and equipment
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...
Non-commutative multiple-valued logic algebras
Ciungu, Lavinia Corina
2014-01-01
This monograph provides a self-contained and easy-to-read introduction to non-commutative multiple-valued logic algebras; a subject which has attracted much interest in the past few years because of its impact on information science, artificial intelligence and other subjects. A study of the newest results in the field, the monograph includes treatment of pseudo-BCK algebras, pseudo-hoops, residuated lattices, bounded divisible residuated lattices, pseudo-MTL algebras, pseudo-BL algebras and pseudo-MV algebras. It provides a fresh perspective on new trends in logic and algebras in that algebraic structures can be developed into fuzzy logics which connect quantum mechanics, mathematical logic, probability theory, algebra and soft computing. Written in a clear, concise and direct manner, Non-Commutative Multiple-Valued Logic Algebras will be of interest to masters and PhD students, as well as researchers in mathematical logic and theoretical computer science.
Examining the Link Between Public Transit Use and Active Commuting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melissa Bopp
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Background: An established relationship exists between public transportation (PT use and physical activity. However, there is limited literature that examines the link between PT use and active commuting (AC behavior. This study examines this link to determine if PT users commute more by active modes. Methods: A volunteer, convenience sample of adults (n = 748 completed an online survey about AC/PT patterns, demographic, psychosocial, community and environmental factors. t-test compared differences between PT riders and non-PT riders. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effect of multiple factors on AC and a full logistic regression model was conducted to examine AC. Results: Non-PT riders (n = 596 reported less AC than PT riders. There were several significant relationships with AC for demographic, interpersonal, worksite, community and environmental factors when considering PT use. The logistic multivariate analysis for included age, number of children and perceived distance to work as negative predictors and PT use, feelings of bad weather and lack of on-street bike lanes as a barrier to AC, perceived behavioral control and spouse AC were positive predictors. Conclusions: This study revealed the complex relationship between AC and PT use. Further research should investigate how AC and public transit use are related.
COULOMB SCATTERING IN NON-COMMUTATIVE QUANTUM MECHANICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Veronika Gáliková
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Recently we formulated the Coulomb problem in a rotationally invariant NC configuration space specified by NC coordinates xi, i = 1, 2, 3, satisfying commutation relations [xi, xj ] = 2iλεijkxk (λ being our NC parameter. We found that the problem is exactly solvable: first we gave an exact simple formula for the energies of the negative bound states Eλn < 0 (n being the principal quantum number, and later we found the full solution of the NC Coulomb problem. In this paper we present an exact calculation of the NC Coulomb scattering matrix Sλj (E in the j-th partial wave. As the calculations are exact, we can recognize remarkable non-perturbative aspects of the model: 1 energy cut-off — the scattering is restricted to the energy interval 0 < E < Ecrit = 2/λ2; 2 the presence of two sets of poles of the S-matrix in the complex energy plane — as expected, the poles at negative energy EIλn = Eλn for the Coulomb attractive potential, and the poles at ultra-high energies EIIλn = Ecrit − Eλn for the Coulomb repulsive potential. The poles at ultra-high energies disappear in the commutative limit λ→0.
Commuting mode and pulmonary function in Shanghai, China.
Gaffney, Adam W; Hang, Jing-Qing; Lee, Mi-Sun; Su, Li; Zhang, Feng-Ying; Christiani, David C
2016-03-01
Exposure to air pollution can be particularly high during commuting and may depend on the mode of transportation. We investigated the impact of commuting mode on pulmonary function in Shanghai, China.The Shanghai Putuo Study is a cross-sectional, population-based study. Our primary outcomes were forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted, and the secondary outcome was spirometric airflow obstruction. We tested the association between mode of transportation and these outcomes after adjusting for confounders.The study population consisted of 20 102 subjects. After adjusting for confounders, the change (95% CI) in FEV1 was -2.15% pred (-2.88- -1.42% pred) among pedestrians, -1.32% pred (-2.05- -0.59% pred) among those taking buses without air conditioning, -1.33% pred (-2.05- -0.61% pred) among those taking buses with air conditioning and -2.83% pred (-5.56- -0.10% pred) among those using underground railways, as compared to cyclists (the reference group). The effects of mode on FVC % predicted were in the same direction. Private car use had a significant protective effect on FVC % predicted and the risk of airflow obstruction (defined by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease but not by lower limit of normal criteria).Mode of transportation is associated with differences in lung function, which may reflect pollution levels in different transportation microenvironments. PMID:26541519
Commuting nonselfadjoint operators in Hilbert space two independent studies
Livšic, Moshe S
1987-01-01
Classification of commuting non-selfadjoint operators is one of the most challenging problems in operator theory even in the finite-dimensional case. The spectral analysis of dissipative operators has led to a series of deep results in the framework of unitary dilations and characteristic operator functions. It has turned out that the theory has to be based on analytic functions on algebraic manifolds and not on functions of several independent variables as was previously believed. This follows from the generalized Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, due to M.S.Livsic: "Two commuting operators with finite dimensional imaginary parts are connected in the generic case, by a certain algebraic equation whose degree does not exceed the dimension of the sum of the ranges of imaginary parts." Such investigations have been carried out in two directions. One of them, presented by L.L.Waksman, is related to semigroups of projections of multiplication operators on Riemann surfaces. Another direction, which is presented here by M.S...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)
2002-07-01
The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.
Non-commutative Poisson Algebra Structures on the Lie Algebra son(CQ)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jie Tong; Quanqin Jin
2007-01-01
Non-commutative Poisson algebras are the algebras having both an associativealgebra structure and a Lie algebra structure together with the Leibniz law.In this paper,the non-commutative poisson algebra structures on son(CQ) are determined.
NON-COMMUTATIVE POISSON ALGEBRA STRUCTURES ON LIE ALGEBRA sln(fCq) WITH NULLITY M
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jie TONG; Quanqin JIN
2013-01-01
Non-commutative Poisson algebras are the algebras having both an associa-tive algebra structure and a Lie algebra structure together with the Leibniz law. In this paper, the non-commutative poisson algebra structures on the Lie algebras sln(fCq) are determined.
Numerical examination of commutativity between Backus and Gazis et al. averages
Dalton, David R
2016-01-01
Dalton and Slawinski (2016) show that, in general, the Backus (1962) average and the Gazis et al. (1963) average do not commute. Herein, we examine the extent of this noncommutativity. We illustrate numerically that the extent of noncommutativity is a function of the strength of anisotropy. The averages nearly commute in the case of weak anisotropy.
Wages and commuting: quasi-natural experiments' evidence from firms that relocate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; van Ommeren, Jos N.
We examine the causal effect of commuting distance on workers' wages in a quasi-natural experiments setting using information on all workers in Denmark. We account for endogeneity of distance by using changes in distance that are due to firms’ relocations. A one kilometre increase in commuting...
New PWM method and commutation strategy for HF-link converters for fuel cells and photovoltaics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.
2005-01-01
This paper presents a new PWM method and commutation strategy for HF-link converters, which leads to safe commutation of the load current in the output bidirectional bridge. The proposed implementation is independent of the particular HF-link converter topology and bidirectional switch selection...
Influence of PWM Modes on Commutation Torque Ripples in Sensorless Brushless DC Motor Control System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANGXiang－jun; CHENBo－shi; 等
2001-01-01
This paper introduces four PWM modes used in the sensorless brushless DC motor control system,analyzes their different influences on the commutation torque ripple in detail,and selects the best PWM mode in four given types to reduce commutation torque ripple of Brushless OC( BLDC) motors,Simulation and experimental results show that the selection is correct and practical.
14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.
2010-01-01
... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and wind... person may take off an airplane type certificated in the commuter category at a weight greater than...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bryukhovetskiy AS
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Andrey S Bryukhovetskiy Center for Biomedical Technologies, Federal Research and Clinical Center for Specialized Types of Medical Assistance and Medical Technologies of the Federal Medical Biological Agency, NeuroVita Clinic of Interventional and Restorative Neurology and Therapy, Moscow, Russia Abstract: Based on the methodology of the informational approach and research of the genome, proteome, and complete transcriptome profiles of different cells in the nervous tissue of the human brain, the author proposes a new theory of information-commutation organization and architecture of the human brain which is an alternative to the conventional systemic connective morphofunctional paradigm of the brain framework. Informational principles of brain operation are defined: the modular principle, holographic principle, principle of systematicity of vertical commutative connection and complexity of horizontal commutative connection, regulatory principle, relay principle, modulation principle, “illumination” principle, principle of personalized memory and intellect, and principle of low energy consumption. The author demonstrates that the cortex functions only as a switchboard and router of information, while information is processed outside the nervous tissue of the brain in the intermeningeal space. The main structural element of information-commutation in the brain is not the neuron, but information-commutation modules that are subdivided into receiver modules, transmitter modules, and subscriber modules, forming a vertical architecture of nervous tissue in the brain as information lines and information channels, and a horizontal architecture as central, intermediate, and peripheral information-commutation platforms. Information in information-commutation modules is transferred by means of the carriers that are characteristic to the specific information level from inductome to genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, secretome, and magnetome
The commutation error of the space averaged Navier-Stokes equations on a bounded domain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunca, A.; Layton, W.J. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; John, V. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Analysis und Numerik
2002-01-01
In Large Eddy Simulation of turbulent flows, the Navier-Stokes equations are convolved with a filter and differentiation and convolution are interchanged, introducing an extra commutation error term, which is nearly universally dropped from the resulting equations. We show that the commutation error is asymptotically negligible in L{sup p}(R{sup d}) (i.e., it vanishes as the averaging radius {delta}{yields}0) if and only if the fluid and the boundary exert exactly zero force on each other. Next, we show that the commutation error tends to zero in H{sup -1}({omega}) as {delta}{yields}0. Convergence is proven also for a weak form of the commutation error. The order of convergence is studied in both cases. Last, we study the influence of the commutation error on the energy balance of the filtered equations. (orig.)
The Influence of Contact Space on Arc Commutation Process in Air Circuit Breaker
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NIU Chunping; DING Juwen; YANG Fei; DONG Delong; RONG Mingzhe; XU Dan
2016-01-01
In this paper,a 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) arc simulation model is applied to analyze the arc motion during current interruption in a certain air circuit breaker (ACB).The distributions of pressure,temperature,gas flow and current density of the arc plasma in the arc region are calculated,and the factors influencing the commutation process are analyzed according to the calculated results.Based on the airflow in the arc chamber,the causes of arc commutation asynchrony and the back commutation are investigated.It indicates that a reasonable contact space design is crucial to a successful arc commutation process.To verify the simulation results,the influence of contact space on arc voltage and arc commutation is tested.This research can provide methods and references to the optimization of ACB design.
Commuter Transport Mode Choice and Typologies in the Bicycle City Copenhagen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, Anne Vingaard; Kjems, Erik; Reinau, Kristian Hegner;
2016-01-01
“Bicycle Cities” such as Copenhagen can serve as role models: how far can we push the commuter modal shares in the direction of more sustainable transport? This paper presents a study that aims to give a state-of-the-art picture of a Copenhagen that provides wide cycling highways and the politica...... restricted our analysis to commuters both living and working within the city center. The characterization of these commuter types was strikingly short of personal attitudes about environmental concerns....... transport and car use. Furthermore, we derived a typology of four commuter types: “cyclists because of short distances” (40 percent), ”commuters by car or public transport out of necessity” (35 percent), ”more eco-oriented cyclists and others” (16 percent) and ”passionate motorists” (8 percent) when we...
Bethany A Caruso; Freeman, Matthew C.; Garn, Joshua V.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Saboori, Shadi; Muga, Richard; Rheingans, Richard
2014-01-01
Improving school water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions has been shown to be effective in reducing pupil absence and illness. However, the benefit of sanitation and hygiene promotion improvements at school may depend on the conditions of the latrines and availability of consumables. We employed a three-arm, cluster-randomized trial to determine if a low-cost, policy-relevant, environmental-level latrine cleaning intervention could a) improve latrine cleanliness, b) increase latrine u...
Rungeling, Brian Scott
This study analyzed what effect commuters had on wage levels, employment, and industrial locations, and the relative importance of the commuter as part of the work force. A questionnaire was administered to 190 workers and to their 20 employers in the apparel industry of El Paso, Texas. The questionnaires revealed that the commuters were paid the…
Preperation for a Clean Surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aurimas Ralys
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian
Preperation for a Clean Surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aurimas Ralys
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian
Preperation for a Clean Surface
Aurimas Ralys; Valdemar Prokopovič; Vytautas Striška
2013-01-01
The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitati...
Criterion distances and environmental correlates of active commuting to school in children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D'Haese Sara
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Active commuting to school can contribute to daily physical activity levels in children. Insight into the determinants of active commuting is needed, to promote such behavior in children living within a feasible commuting distance from school. This study determined feasible distances for walking and cycling to school (criterion distances in 11- to 12-year-old Belgian children. For children living within these criterion distances from school, the correlation between parental perceptions of the environment, the number of motorized vehicles per family and the commuting mode (active/passive to school was investigated. Methods Parents (n = 696 were contacted through 44 randomly selected classes of the final year (sixth grade in elementary schools in East- and West-Flanders. Parental environmental perceptions were obtained using the parent version of Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y. Information about active commuting to school was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire for parents. Distances from the children's home to school were objectively measured with Routenet online route planner. Criterion distances were set at the distance in which at least 85% of the active commuters lived. After the determination of these criterion distances, multilevel analyses were conducted to determine correlates of active commuting to school within these distances. Results Almost sixty percent (59.3% of the total sample commuted actively to school. Criterion distances were set at 1.5 kilometers for walking and 3.0 kilometers for cycling. In the range of 2.01 - 2.50 kilometers household distance from school, the number of passive commuters exceeded the number of active commuters. For children who were living less than 3.0 kilometers away from school, only perceived accessibility by the parents was positively associated with active commuting to school. Within the group of active commuters, a longer distance to school
Ceramic high temperature superconductor levitating motor with laser commutator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The design of a magnetically levitating motor using a ceramic high temperature superconductor with laser commutator is discussed. A YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-δ high temperature superconductor with 25 mm diameter and 6 mm thickness is used to levitate a Nd-Fe-B magnet (19.0 mm diameter and 4.8 mm thickness) which is attached symmetrically to a 150 mm long graphite rod. A smaller magnet (5.5 mm diameter and 2.0 mm thickness) is attached at each end of the rod with the appropriate poles arrangements. A suitable laser beam chopper is used to optically drive a solenoid which repels the smaller magnets thus driving the motor. A simple and efficient liquid nitrogen supply system is designed to cool the superconductor. The stability of the bearing is provided by the flux pinning in this type-II superconductor. Some characteristics of the motor are discussed
A non-commutative time-frequency tomography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The characterization of non-stationary signal requires joint time and frequency information. However, time and frequency are a pair of non-commuting variables that cannot constitute a joint probability density in the time-frequency plane. The time-frequency distributions have difficult interpretation problems arising from negative and complex values or spurious components. In this paper, we get time-frequency information from the marginal distributions in rotated directions in the time-frequency plane. The rigorous probability interpretation of the marginal distributions is without any ambiguities. This time-frequency transformation is similar to the computerized axial tomography (CT or CAT) and is applied to signal analysis and signal detection and reveals a lot of advantages especially in the signal detection of the low signal/noise (S/N).
The Return of Organisation Man: Commuter Narratives and Suburban Critique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melissa Gregg
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This article considers the significance of suburban commuter imagery in a selection of screen visions of mid-century modernity. A number of examples, including Mad Men, and the screen adaptations of The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit (1956 and Revolutionary Road (2008, will be shown to echo key themes, symbols and scenes in their depictions of suburbia and the cultural impact of the corporation. Taken together, these narratives indicate the resilience of the “Organization Man” (Whyte 1956 as a figure marking the tension between individualism and conformity. It is this tension that the archetypal businessman’s uniform continues to symbolise in popular culture, even if, as this paper will argue, it is no longer the most fitting expression available.
Non-commuting variations in mathematics and physics a survey
Preston, Serge
2016-01-01
This text presents and studies the method of so –called noncommuting variations in Variational Calculus. This method was pioneered by Vito Volterra who noticed that the conventional Euler-Lagrange (EL-) equations are not applicable in Non-Holonomic Mechanics and suggested to modify the basic rule used in Variational Calculus. This book presents a survey of Variational Calculus with non-commutative variations and shows that most basic properties of conventional Euler-Lagrange Equations are, with some modifications, preserved for EL-equations with K-twisted (defined by K)-variations. Most of the book can be understood by readers without strong mathematical preparation (some knowledge of Differential Geometry is necessary). In order to make the text more accessible the definitions and several necessary results in Geometry are presented separately in Appendices I and II Furthermore in Appendix III a short presentation of the Noether Theorem describing the relation between the symmetries of the differential equa...
Singular Magnetic Field and a new Non-Commutative Space
Ghosh, S
2005-01-01
In this paper we have studied a new Non-Commutative (NC) space with an operatorial form of noncommutativity. A point particle in this space feels the interaction of a magnetic field, that is singular at a specific position $\\theta^{-1}$. Here $\\theta $ is the NC parameter and plays the role of particle charge as well. The magnetic moment of the particle is computed and its dynamics is studied in detail, both from Lagrangian and symplectic (Hamiltonian) points of view. The canonical (Darboux) variables are also identified. Our model can play interesting role in the context of (recently observed) {\\it{real}} space Berry curvature in material systems. This is in analogy to recent works in NC particle mechanics that induce a monopole singularity in {\\it{momentum}} space, that is related to the Berry curvature in anomalous Hall effect.
Weak estimates for commutators of fractional integral operators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING; Yong
2001-01-01
［1］Stein,E.M.,Singular Integrals and Differentiability Properties of Functions,Princeton:Princeton University Press,1970.［2］Muckenhoupt,B.,Wheeden,R.L.,Weighted norm inequalities for fractional integrals,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,1974,192:261-274.［3］Taibleson,M.H.,Weiss,G.,The molecular characterization of certain Hardy spaces,Astérisque,1980,77:67-149.［4］Chanillo,S.,Watson,D.K.,Wheeden,R.L.,Some integral and maximal operators related to starlike sets,Studia Math.,1993,107:223-255.［5］Ding,Y.,Lu,S.Z.,Weighted norm inequalities for fractional integral operators with rough kernel,Canad.J.Math.,1998,50:29-39.［6］Ding,Y.,Weak type bounds for a class of rough operators with power weights,Proc.Amer.Math.Soc.,1997,125:2939-2942.［7］Chanillo,S.,A note on commutators,Indiana Univ.Math.J.,1982,31:7-16.［8］Ding,Y.,Lu,S.Z.,Higher order commutators for a class of rough operators,Ark.Mat.,1999,37:33-44.［9］Pérez,C., Endpoint estimates for commutators of singular integral operators,J.Funct.Anal.,1995,128:163-185.［10］Rao,M.M.,Ren,Z.D.,Theorey of Orlicz Spaces,New York:Marcel Dekker,1991.［11］Fefferman,C.,Stein,E.M.,Hp spaces of several variables,Acta Math.,1972,129:137-193.［12］Garcia-Cuerva,J.,Rubio de Francia,J.L.,Weighted Norm Inequalities and Related Topics, Amsterdam:North-Holland,1985.［13］Adams,D.R.,A note on Riesz potentials,Duke Math.J.,1975,42:765-778.［14］Stein,E.M.,Note on the class Llog L,Studia Math.,1969,32:305-310.［15］Pérez,C.,Weighted norm inequalities for singular integral operators,J.London Math.Soc.,1994,49:296-308.［16］Stein,E.M.,Harmonic Analysis:Real-Variable Methods,Orthogonality,and Oscillatory Integrals,Princeton:Princeton University Press,1993.［17］Pérez,C.,On sufficient conditions for the boundedness of the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator between weighted Lp-spaces with different weights,Proc.London Math.Soc.,1995,71:135-157.［18］Garcia-Cuerva,J.,Harboure,E.,Segovia,C.et al.,Weighted norm
SUSY Quantum Hall Effect on Non-Anti-Commutative Geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuki Hasebe
2008-02-01
Full Text Available We review the recent developments of the SUSY quantum Hall effect [hep-th/0409230, hep-th/0411137, hep-th/0503162, hep-th/0606007, arXiv:0705.4527]. We introduce a SUSY formulation of the quantum Hall effect on supermanifolds. On each of supersphere and superplane, we investigate SUSY Landau problem and explicitly construct SUSY extensions of Laughlin wavefunction and topological excitations. The non-anti-commutative geometry naturally emerges in the lowest Landau level and brings particular physics to the SUSY quantum Hall effect. It is shown that SUSY provides a unified picture of the original Laughlin and Moore-Read states. Based on the charge-flux duality, we also develop a Chern-Simons effective field theory for the SUSY quantum Hall effect.
On weakly periodic-like rings and commutativity theorems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abu-Khuzam Hazar
2006-12-01
Full Text Available A ring $R$ is called periodic if, for every $x$ in $R$, there exist distinct positive integers $m$ and $n$ such that $x^m=x^n$. An element $x$ of $R$ is called potent if $x^k=x$ for some integer $k>1$. A ring $R$ is called weakly periodic if every $x$ in $R$ can be written in the form $x=a+b$ for some nilpotent element $a$ and some potent element $b$ in $R$. A ring $R$ is called weakly periodic-like if every element $x$ in $R$ which is not in the center $C$ of $R$ can be written in the form $x=a+b$, with $a$ nilpotent and $b$ potent. Some structure and commutativity theorems are established for weakly periodic-like rings $R$ satisfying certain torsion-freeness hypotheses along with conditions involving some elements being central.
Non(anti)commutative gauge theories in harmonic superspace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we study the properties of non-singlet Q-deformed N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories, from a field-theoretical point of view. Starting from the supersymmetry breaking pattern induced by a general deformation matrix, we embark on the construction of the non-singlet deformed gauge transformation laws for all vector multiplet fields and their corresponding minimal Seiberg-Witten map. Several deformes super-Yang-Mills actions in components corresponding to different choices of the non-singlet deformation tensor are built. For a particular decomposition ansats of such tensor, we obtain exact actions describing the bosonic sector of the deformed N=(1,0) and the full action for enhances N=(1,1/2) residual supersymmetry. A tuned supersymmetry breaking of this enhanced action down to the N=(1,0) case is found by weakly restoring some discarded degrees of freedom of the deformation. Finally we find the associated residual supersymmetry transformations for the cases studied. The first part of this work, gives an overview of noncommutativity in quantum field theory and of harmonic superspace as needed to define noncommutative generalizations of extended gauge field theories. A study of general properties of non(anti)commutative structures in N=2 euclidean superspace and the (super)symmetry breaking pattern induced by Q-deformations follows. in addition, singlet-deformed super-Yang-Mills is given as an example. The second part deals with non-singlet Q-deformations of gauge theories. We introduce a decomposition ansatz for the deformation matrix, allowing an exact study of the deformed gauge transformations, and develop a general algorithm to solve the harmonic equations associated to this decomposition. A close expression for the gauge transformations of component fields is derived, along with the corresponding minimal Seiberg-Witten map to an equivalent commutative gauge theory. Finally we build deformed super-Yang-Mills actions and their corresponding
Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum
Ha, Dong Keun
The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.
Determining the intensity and energy expenditure during commuter cycling
de Geus, B; De Smet, S; Nijs, J; Meeusen, R
2007-01-01
Objectives To determine the intensity and energy expenditure during commuter cycling, and to investigate whether cycling to work at a self‐chosen intensity corresponds to recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) for health improvement and ACSM recommendations for fitness improvement. Methods 18 healthy, untrained middle‐aged people, who did not cycle to work, underwent two maximal exercise tests (MT and MT2) in order to measure their maximal heart rate and oxygen consumption (VO2). MT2 was performed 24 weeks after MT. Participants were asked to cycle at least three times a week to their workplace over a one‐way minimum distance of 2 km. Data on cycling were recorded in a diary. 12 weeks after MT, a field test was conducted, where participants had to cycle to or from their workplace. The same measurements were taken as during MT as markers of exercise intensity. Metabolic equivalents (METs) and energy expenditure were calculated. Results The intensity during the field test was >75% of their maximal aerobic capacity. The mean (SD) MET value was 6.8 (1.9). The energy expenditure during the field test was 220 (115) kcal or 540 (139) kcal/h and 1539 (892) kcal/week. Men consumed significantly (p<0.01) more energy per hour than women. Conclusion Commuter cycling at a self‐selected intensity meets the CDC and ACSM recommendations for health improvement and the ACSM recommendations for improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. However, as the participants cycled faster during the field test than during daily cycling, the results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:17021003
Quantum groups, non-commutative differential geometry and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The topic of this thesis is the development of a versatile and geometrically motivated differential calculus on non-commutative or quantum spaces, providing powerful but easy-to-use mathematical tools for applications in physics and related sciences. A generalization of unitary time evolution is proposed and studied for a simple 2-level system, leading to non-conservation of microscopic entropy, a phenomenon new to quantum mechanics. A Cartan calculus that combines functions, forms, Lie derivatives and inner derivations along general vector fields into one big algebra is constructed for quantum groups and then extended to quantum planes. The construction of a tangent bundle on a quantum group manifold and an BRST type approach to quantum group gauge theory are given as further examples of applications. The material is organized in two parts: Part I studies vector fields on quantum groups, emphasizing Hopf algebraic structures, but also introducing a ''quantum geometric'' construction. Using a generalized semi-direct product construction we combine the dual Hopf algebras A of functions and U of left-invariant vector fields into one fully bicovariant algebra of differential operators. The pure braid group is introduced as the commutant of Δ(U). It provides invariant maps A → U and thereby bicovariant vector fields, casimirs and metrics. This construction allows the translation of undeformed matrix expressions into their less obvious quantum algebraic counter parts. We study this in detail for quasitriangular Hopf algebras, giving the determinant and orthogonality relation for the ''reflection'' matrix. Part II considers the additional structures of differential forms and finitely generated quantum Lie algebras -- it is devoted to the construction of the Cartan calculus, based on an undeformed Cartan identity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krisztián Uhlik
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The energy consumption, carbon-dioxide and other air pollutant emissions of motor vehicles can be reduced substantially by various recently developed technical solutions. The use of these new technologies increases the price of the vehicles which causes an unwanted economic burden for the purchasers of such vehicles. The market competition between manufacturers requires low prices which delays the adaptation of the new, more efficient technologies. The recently enacted legislation, aimed at the promotion of purchasing clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles, intends to remedy this problem.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1992-03-01
This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (Section 404) and the Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10) and those regulations that implement those sections of the statutes and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, IH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).
Geoprocessing Journey-to-Work Data: Delineating Commuting Regions in Dalarna, Sweden
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Landré
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Delineation of commuting regions has always been based on statistical units, often municipalities or wards. However, using these units has certain disadvantages as their land areas differ considerably. Much information is lost in the larger spatial base units and distortions in self-containment values, the main criterion in rule-based delineation procedures, occur. Alternatively, one can start from relatively small standard size units such as hexagons. In this way, much greater detail in spatial patterns is obtained. In this paper, regions are built by means of intrazonal maximization (Intramax on the basis of hexagons. The use of geoprocessing tools, specifically developed for the processing of commuting data, speeds up processing time considerably. The results of the Intramax analysis are evaluated with travel-to-work area constraints, and comparisons are made with commuting fields, accessibility to employment, commuting flow density and network commuting flow size. From selected steps in the regionalization process, a hierarchy of nested commuting regions emerges, revealing the complexity of commuting patterns.
Simulation of Population-Based Commuter Exposure to NO2 Using Different Air Pollution Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martina S. Ragettli
2014-05-01
Full Text Available We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland, and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Our approach includes spatially and temporally resolved data on actual commuter routes, travel modes and three air pollution models. Annual mean NO2 commuter exposures were similar between models. However, we found more within-city and within-subject variability in annual mean (±SD NO2 commuter exposure with a high resolution dispersion model (40 ± 7 µg m−3, range: 21–61 than with a dispersion model with a lower resolution (39 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–51, and a land use regression model (41 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–54. Highest median cumulative exposures were calculated along motorized transport and bicycle routes, and the lowest for walking. For estimating commuter exposure within a city and being interested also in small-scale variability between roads, a model with a high resolution is recommended. For larger scale epidemiological health assessment studies, models with a coarser spatial resolution are likely sufficient, especially when study areas include suburban and rural areas.
The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-Reported Active Commuting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sune Djurhuus
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928. Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amini, Nina H. [Stanford University, Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States); CNRS, Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes (L2S) CentraleSupelec, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miao, Zibo; Pan, Yu; James, Matthew R. [Australian National University, ARC Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Research School of Engineering, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Mabuchi, Hideo [Stanford University, Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States)
2015-12-15
The purpose of this paper is to study the problem of generalizing the Belavkin-Kalman filter to the case where the classical measurement signal is replaced by a fully quantum non-commutative output signal. We formulate a least mean squares estimation problem that involves a non-commutative system as the filter processing the non-commutative output signal. We solve this estimation problem within the framework of non-commutative probability. Also, we find the necessary and sufficient conditions which make these non-commutative estimators physically realizable. These conditions are restrictive in practice. (orig.)
Challenges and opportunities for clean coal technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A report is given of some presentations and discussions at the Sixth Clean Coal Technology Conference held in Reno, Nevada, 28 April - 1 May 1998. Accomplishments in 18 projects in the US DOE's Clean Coal Technology Programme were reported upon. The CCT Program has provided a portfolio of technologies to deal effectively with acid rain concerns but challenges remain in achieving ozone standards (an NOx control issue), fine particulate control of PM2.5 and CO2 emission reduction per the Kyoto Protocol in the absence of trading between developed and developing countries under a proposed Clean Development Mechanism and/or sequestration. 9 photos
Case study of establishing a clean production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Yong Kun; Nam, Yoon Mi [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)
1998-12-01
This study was implemented to derive suggestions for improving policies in Korea through the examination and analysis on the present policies related to the clean production and its establishment in enterprises. The characters of concept on clean production presented in pollution prevention, waste minimization, zero emission, environmental friendly design, and industrial ecology were analyzed and the mechanism for implementing clean production and government policy were arranged comprehensively. The related policies of major countries with international organizations including UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) and EU (European Union) were reviewed and compared to those of Korea to propose future policy plan. 73 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.
2013 Clean Energy Investments: Project Summaries
Asian Development Bank
2014-01-01
This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the AsianDevelopment Bank (ADB) in 2013, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.
Getting there and back again : Commuting and ICT in six cities across the globe
Börjesson Rivera, Miriam; Henriksson, Greger; Åkerlund, Maria
2012-01-01
Ericsson ConsumerLab performed a qualitative exploratory study of how people experience daily commuting in three different countries. This report aims to present the outcome of the study in such a way that the data can be useful for further analyses and studies of commuting in relation to ICT use and environmental sustainability. Based on the study’s findings this report will present analytical data on: i) how ICT can be linked to everyday travel in order to facilitate commuting from the user...
WAGES AND COMMUTING: QUASI-NATURAL EXPERIMENTS’ EVIDENCE FROM FIRMS THAT RELOCATE
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mulalic, Ismir; N. Van Ommeren, Jos; Pilegaard, Ninette
2014-01-01
We examine individual-level compensating differentials for commuting distance in a quasi-natural experiment setting by examining how wages respond to changes in commuting distance induced by firm relocations. This set-up enables us to test for the relevance of job search frictions within labour...... market models. Due to the quasi-experimental set-up, we are able to avoid a range of endogeneity issues. We demonstrate that a 1 km increase in commuting distance induces an almost negligible wage increase in the year after the relocation but a more substantial wage increase of about 0.15% three years...
Non-commutative Geometry of Homogenized Quantum $\\mathfrak{sl}(2,\\mathbb{C})$
Chirvasitu, Alex; Smith, S. Paul; Wong, Liang Ze
2016-01-01
This paper examines the relationship between certain non-commutative analogues of projective 3-space, $\\mathbb{P}^3$, and the quantized enveloping algebras $U_q(\\mathfrak{sl}_2)$. The relationship is mediated by certain non-commutative graded algebras $S$, one for each $q \\in \\mathbb{C}^\\times$, having a degree-two central element $c$ such that $S[c^{-1}]_0 \\cong U_q(\\mathfrak{sl}_2)$. The non-commutative analogues of $\\mathbb{P}^3$ are the spaces $\\operatorname{Proj}_{nc}(S)$. We show how th...
Non-Commutative Space-Times, Black Hole, and Elementary Particle
Park, Mu- in
2001-01-01
It is shown that elementary black hole can not be distinguished from an elementary particle in the non-commutative space-times (space/space and space/time) at the Planck scale. But, the non-commutative space-times can not be ``directly'' measured in the elementary black hole system. A time-varying non-commutative parameter $\\theta(t)$ is suggested in accordance with the time-varying-G scenario. By identifying the elementary black hole with an elementary particle, the large hierarchy between t...
AdS-CFT Correspondence, Non-commutative Geometry and Holographic Superconductor in Magnetic Field
Pramanik, Souvik; Ghosh, Subir
2015-01-01
In this work, the effects of magnetic field on a Holographic Superconductor have been studied in non-commutative background through the AdS-CFT correspondence. The non-commutative correction has been incorporated here is the generalization of the Schwarzschild black hole metric in AdS. It has been found that the non-commutative effects tend to work against the black hole hair formation. This in turn shows negative effect on holographic superconductors. Indeed, it reduces the value of the crit...
Towards renormalizable models for gauge fields in non-commutative space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: When trying to construct a quantum field theory on non-commutative space-time, e.g. by employing the so-called Groenewold-Moyal star product, one inevitably runs into the infamous UV/IR mixing problem: new kinds of non-local infrared divergences prevent the model from being renormalizable. In fact, so far only some modified scalar field theories on Euclidean non-commutative spaces have been found to be renormalizable by successfully circumventing problems due to UV/IR mixing. Here we present a promising candidate for a renormalizable non-commutative gauge theory. (author)
AdS-CFT Correspondence, Non-commutative Geometry and Holographic Superconductor in Magnetic Field
Pramanik, Souvik
2015-01-01
In this work, the effects of magnetic field on a Holographic Superconductor have been studied in non-commutative background through the AdS-CFT correspondence. The non-commutative correction has been incorporated here is the generalization of the Schwarzschild black hole metric in AdS. It has been found that the non-commutative effects tend to work against the black hole hair formation. This in turn shows negative effect on holographic superconductors. Indeed, it reduces the value of the critical magnetic field and furthermore the critical magnetic field vanishes before the temperature reaches to its critical value.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2011-07-01
For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.
Frank, Pascal; Lang, Florian; Mosbacher, Mario; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul
2008-01-01
Steam Laser Cleaning with a pulsed infrared laser source is investigated. The infrared light is tuned to the absorption maximum of water (λ = 2.94 µm, 10 ns), whereas the substrates used are transparent (glass, silicon). Thus a thin liquid water layer condensed on top of the contaminated substrate is rapidly heated. The pressure generated during the subsequent phase explosion generates a cleaning force which exceeds the adhesion of the particles. We examine the cleaning threshold in single sh...
Cleaning and surface properties
Taborelli, M
2007-01-01
Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.
What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2011-10-01
Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
安冬云; 李建国; 廖潇; 寇宝庆; 张华芬
2013-01-01
Small cross-section shield-driven tunneling projects are characterized by minor diameters.Consequently,it is not possible to deploy large-scale equipment for excavation and cleaning-up operations.With consideration to pressurized slurry balance principles of shield machine,and with the background in clean-up of certain small cross-section collapse from shielddriven tunneling project,this paper reviews the techniques related to the cleaning-up of small cross-section collapse.In the newly developed program,sludge shall be agitated in water before pumping to sludge-water separator on ground surface.Upon completion of sludge separation,produced water shall be pumped back to the tunnel for reusing.The program involves water pumping by using vertical wells,water discharging through tunnels,sand discharging through upward and downward sections of tunnels,construction of safe doors in the tunnel and other techniques.The newly developed technique is applicable for cleaning up of materials with high solid contents and with uneven distribution of solid particles.In addition,the program is applicable to the working conditions with environmental humidity of 95 ％,temperatures from-20 ℃ to 50 ℃ and with lower demands for human operators and water consumption.At the same time,the program may have high accessibility and applicability in cleaning-up operations in working conditions similar with limited spaces.%针对小断面盾构隧道直径小、无法采用大型机械设备挖掘清理的实际情况,借鉴盾构机泥水加压平衡模式原理,以某小断面盾构隧道塌方清理为工程背景,探讨了小断面盾构隧道塌方清理技术,制定了用水搅拌淤砂后由泵抽吸至地面泥水分离设备,析出淤砂后的水再返回隧道循环使用的清理方案,包括竖井抽水、隧道排水、隧道上下行段排砂以及设置隧道口安全门等措施.该技术适用于固体颗粒分布不均匀,固相含量较高
Commutators, eigenvalue gaps, and mean curvature in the theory of Schrodinger operators
Harrell, E M
2003-01-01
Commutator relations are used to investigate the spectra of Schr\\"odinger Hamiltonians, $H = -\\Delta + V\\left({x}\\right),$ acting on functions of a smooth, compact $d$-dimensional manifold $M$ immersed in $\\bbr^{\
A Realization of Hom-Lie Algebras by Iso-Deformed Commutator Bracket
Xiuxian Li
2013-01-01
We construct classical Iso-Lie and Iso-Hom-Lie algebras in $gl(V)$ by twisted commutator bracket through Iso-deformation. We prove that they are simple. Their Iso-automorphisms and isotopies are also presented.
Commuting Local Hamiltonians on Expanders, Locally Testable Quantum codes, and the qPCP conjecture
Aharonov, Dorit; Eldar, Lior
2013-01-01
Understanding commuting local Hamiltonians (CLHs) is at the heart of many questions in quantum computational complexity and quantum physics: quantum error correcting codes, quantum NP, the PCP conjecture, topological order and more.
An alternative way to explain how non-commutativity arises in the bosonic string theory
De Andrade, M A
2015-01-01
In this work we will investigate how the non-commutativity arises into the string theory, \\textit{i.e.}, how the bosonic string theory attaches to a D3-brane in the presence of magnetic fields. In order to accomplish the proposal, we departure from the commutative two-dimensional harmonic oscillator, which after the application of the general Bopp's shifts Matrix Method, the non-commutative version of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator is obtained. After that, this non-commutative harmonic oscillator will be mapped into the bosonic string theory in the light cone frame, which it now appears as a bosonic string theory attached to a D3-brane.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette;
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND: Active commuters have lower risk of chronic disease. Understanding which of the, to some extent, modifiable characteristics of public transportation that facilitate its use is thus important in a public health perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the association between...... individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age, and gender. METHODS: Twenty-eight thousand nine hundred twenty-eight commuters in The Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking...... or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multi-modal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression was used...
Traveling Faster than the Speed of Light in Non-Commutative Geometry
Hashimoto, Akikazu; Itzhaki, N.
2000-01-01
We study various dynamical aspects of solitons in non-commutative gauge theories and find surprising results. Among them is the observation that the solitons can travel faster than the speed of light for arbitrarily long distances.
A New Method for Reducing Commutation Torque Ripples in BLDC Motors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A new compensation method and an algorithm for compensating for the commutation torque ripples of the trapezoidal EMF brushless DC motor are put forward. Simulation and experimental results show that this method is correct and practical.
THE BOUNDEDNESS OF MAXIMAL BOCHNER-RIESZ OPERATOR AND MAXIMAL COMMUTATOR ON MORREY TYPE SPACES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuqing Liu; Dongxiang Chen
2008-01-01
The boundedness of maximal Bochner-Riesz operator Bδ*and that of maximal commutator Bb,δ.* generated by this operator and Lipschitz function on the classical Morrey space and generalized Morrey space are established.
20 CFR 702.142 - Commutation of payments; aliens not residents or about to become nonresidents.
2010-04-01
... surviving spouse or child or children, to surviving father or mother whom the employee has supported, either..., OWCP, may, at his option, or upon the application of the insurance carrier he shall, commute all...
EnviroAtlas - Commute Time to Work by Census Block Group for the Conterminous United States
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the commute time of workers to their workplace for each Census Block Group (CBG) during 2008-2012. Data were compiled from the...
WEIGHTED ESTIMATES FOR COMMUTATORS OF POTENTIAL OPERATORS ON SPACES OF HOMOGENEOUS TYPE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wenming Li; Xiaowu Yu; Xuefang Yan
2009-01-01
We derive some strong type and weak type weighted norm estimates which relate the commutators of potential integral operators to the corresponding maximal operators in the context of spaces of homogeneous type.
Negative heat capacity for a Klein-Gordon oscillator in non-commutative complex phase space
Zaim, Slimane
2015-01-01
We obtain exact solutions of the two-dimensionl Klein-Gordon oscillator in a noncommutative (NC) complex phase space up to the first order of noncommutativity parameter. We derive the exact non-commutative energy levels and show that the energy is shifted to 2m levels. We have found that the non-commutativity plays the role of a magnetic field interacting automatically with the spin of a particle indused by the noncommutativity of complex phase space. The effect of the NC parameters on thermal properties was discussed. It is found that the dependence of C{V} on the non-commutative parameters gives rise to a negative quantity. Phenomenologically, this effectively confirms the presence the effects of a self-gravitating induced by the non-commutativity of complex phase space.
Non-commutative quantum field theory - physics at very small distances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: As of today, there are no indications, that at small distances space time behaves in the same manner we are used to. Indeed, a granular structure of space time could be expected, which would naturally lead to a consistent combination of quantum field theories and gravity. Motivated by this fact, numerous models of quantum field theories using non-commuting space-time coordinates have been studied in recent years. In order to guarantee physical significance such theories have to be renormalizable, i.e. one should be able to control the divergences appearing in loop integrals in a consistent manner. Yet, so far only some non-commutative scalar models in Euclidean space have been found to be renormalizable. In a recent letter, however, we proposed a promising candidate for a renormalizable non-commutative U(1) gauge field model in Euclidean space, which is a first and important step towards non-commutative theories relevant for particle physics. (author)
Associations between active commuting to school and objectively measured physical activity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Børrestad L, Anita Bjørkelund; Ostergaard, Lars; Andersen, Lars Bo;
2013-01-01
, b) compare moderate vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children cycling vs. walking to school, and c) thus calculate possible underestimated MVPA, when using accelerometers to measure commuter cycling. Methods: A total of 78 children, average age 11.4 (SD = 0.5), participated in the study....... Physical activity was measured with cycle computers and accelerometers for 4 days. Mode of commuting and demographic information was self-reported in a questionnaire. Results: Children who reported to cycle to school spent significantly more time cycling than those who walked to school, 53.6 (SD = ± 33......Background: To provide more accurate assessment of commuting behavior and potential health effect, it is important to have accurate methods. Therefore, the current study aimed to a) compare questionnaire reported mode of commuting with objectively measured data from accelerometer and cycle computer...
Landau-like Atomic Problem on a Non-commutative Phase Space
Mamat, Jumakari; Dulat, Sayipjamal; Mamatabdulla, Hekim
2016-06-01
We study the motion of a neutral particle in symmetric gauge and in the framework of non-commutative Quantum Mechanics. Starting from the corresponding Hamiltonian we derive the eigenfunction and eigenvalues.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
praveen kumar sharma
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract:In this paper we prove common fixed point theorem under the condition of R-weak commutativity without taking any function continuous. We extend results of Sharma and Deshpande [33].
Cubical homology and the Leech dimension of free partially commutative monoids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper is devoted to problems arising when applying homological algebra to computer science. It is proved that the Leech dimension of a free partially commutative monoid is equal to the least upper bound of the cardinalities of finite subsets of pairwise commuting generators of the monoid. For an arbitrary free partially commutative monoid M(E,I) in which every subset of pairwise commuting generators is finite and for any contravariant natural system F on M(E,I) we construct a semicubical set T(E,I) with a homological system F-bar on this set such that the Leech homology groups Hn(M(E,I),F) are isomorphic to the cubical homology groups H-n(T(E,I),F-bar). Complexes of Abelian groups are also constructed enabling one to obtain (under additional finiteness conditions) algorithms for computing the Leech homology groups and homology groups with coefficients in right M(E,I)-modules. Bibliography: 16 titles.
Cubical homology and the Leech dimension of free partially commutative monoids
Khusainov, Akhmet A.
2008-12-01
The paper is devoted to problems arising when applying homological algebra to computer science. It is proved that the Leech dimension of a free partially commutative monoid is equal to the least upper bound of the cardinalities of finite subsets of pairwise commuting generators of the monoid. For an arbitrary free partially commutative monoid M(E,I) in which every subset of pairwise commuting generators is finite and for any contravariant natural system F on M(E,I) we construct a semicubical set T(E,I) with a homological system \\overline F on this set such that the Leech homology groups H_n(M(E,I),F) are isomorphic to the cubical homology groups H_n(T(E,I),\\overline F). Complexes of Abelian groups are also constructed enabling one to obtain (under additional finiteness conditions) algorithms for computing the Leech homology groups and homology groups with coefficients in right M(E,I)-modules. Bibliography: 16 titles.
The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-reported Active Commuting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette;
2014-01-01
Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate...... and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS......-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian
2002-02-05
The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.
Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2013-04-01
The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.
Quantum Groups, Non-Commutative Differential Geometry and Applications
Schupp, Peter
The topic of this thesis is the development of a versatile and geometrically motivated differential calculus on non-commutative or quantum spaces, providing powerful but easy-to-use mathematical tools for applications in physics and related sciences. A generalization of unitary time evolution is proposed and studied for a simple 2-level system, leading to non-conservation of microscopic entropy, a phenomenon new to quantum mechanics. A Cartan calculus that combines functions, forms, Lie derivatives and inner derivations along general vector fields into one big algebra is constructed for quantum groups and then extended to quantum planes. The construction of a tangent bundle on a quantum group manifold and an BRST type approach to quantum group gauge theory are given as further examples of applications. The material is organized in two parts: Part I studies vector fields on quantum groups, emphasizing Hopf algebraic structures, but also introducing a 'quantum geometric' construction. Using a generalized semi-direct product construction we combine the dual Hopf algebras {cal A} of functions and {cal U} of left-invariant vector fields into one fully bicovariant algebra of differential operators. The pure braid group is introduced as the commutant of Delta({cal U}). It provides invariant maps {cal A} to{cal U} and thereby bicovariant vector fields, casimirs and metrics. This construction allows the translation of undeformed matrix expressions into their less obvious quantum algebraic counter parts. We study this in detail for quasitriangular Hopf algebras, giving the determinant and orthogonality relation for the 'reflection' matrix. Part II considers the additional structures of differential forms and finitely generated quantum Lie algebras--it is devoted to the construction of the Cartan calculus, based on an undeformed Cartan identity. We attempt a classification of various types of quantum Lie algebras and present a fairly general example for their construction
The decay-time of non-commutative micro-black holes
Casadio, Roberto(Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, Bologna, 40126, Italy); Nicolini, Piero
2008-01-01
Non-commutative black holes are characterised by a minimum mass which would result in a remnant after the Hawking evaporation ends. We numerically study the decay of neutral non-commutative black holes for up to ten spatial dimensions and typical parameters that would make their production possible at the LHC. Neglecting possible accretion mechanism, we find that decay-times are extremely short.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hansson Erik
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for a mobile workforce inevitably means that the length of the total work day (working and traveling time will increase, but the health effects of commuting have been surprisingly little studied apart from perceived stress and the benefits of physically active commuting. Methods We used data from two cross-sectional population-based public health surveys performed in 2004 and 2008 in Scania, Sweden (56% response rate. The final study population was 21, 088 persons aged 18-65, working > 30 h/week. Duration (one-way and mode of commuting were reported. The outcomes studied were perceived poor sleep quality, everyday stress, low vitality, mental health, self-reported health, and absence from work due to sickness during the past 12 months. Covariates indicating socioeconomic status and family situation, overtime, job strain and urban/rural residency were included in multivariate analyses. Subjects walking or cycling to work Results Monotonous relations were found between duration of public transport commuting and the health outcomes. For the category commuting > 60 min odds ratios (ORs ranged from 1.2 - 1.6 for the different outcomes. For car commuting, the relationships were concave downward or flat, with increasing subjective health complaints up to 30-60 min (ORs ranging from 1.2 - 1.4, and lower ORs in the > 60 min category. A similar concave downward relationship was observed for sickness absence, regardless of mode of transport. Conclusions The results of this study are concordant with the few earlier studies in the field, in that associations were found between commutation and negative health outcomes. This further demonstrates the need to consider the negative side-effects of commuting when discussing policies aimed at increasing the mobility of the workforce. Studies identifying population groups with increased susceptibility are warranted.
Exponential or power distance-decay for commuting? An alternative specification
Vries, de, H.J.C.; P. Nijkamp; Rietveld, P.
2009-01-01
In this paper we investigate the form of the distance-decay function for commuting, on the basis of an analysis of home-to-work relationships between municipalities in Denmark. The equation for the number of commuters is taken from Alonso's Theory of Movements, in which the Spatial Interaction Models of Wilson's Family are nested. Our estimation method separates the decay function F from the balancing factors, and includes a weighting procedure that takes specification error and heteroscedast...
A Hybrid Solution for Load-Commutated-Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Drives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
THE load-commutated-inverter (LCI)-based induction motor drives have been traditionally used in very-high-power applications such as pumps, compressors, and fans drives. The drives are based on economical and reliable current-source inverters (CSIs) using thyristors, and rugged squirrel-cage induction motor. The merits of the LCI-based system result from the fact that it employs converter-grade thyristors and utilizes natural commutation of the thyristors.
“LISTENING AND REMEMBERING”: NETWORKED OFF-LINE IMPROVISATION FOR FOUR COMMUTERS
Ximena Alarcón
2011-01-01
This paper analyses the experience of the networked off-line improvisation ‘Listening and Remembering’, a performance for four commuters using voices and sounds from the Mexico City and Paris metros. It addresses the question: how can an act of collective remembering, inspired by listening to metro soundscapes, lead to the creation of networked voice-and sound-based narratives about the urban commuting experience? The networked experience is seen here from the structural perspective (telemati...
Hansson Erik; Mattisson Kristoffer; Björk Jonas; Östergren Per-Olof; Jakobsson Kristina
2011-01-01
Abstract Background The need for a mobile workforce inevitably means that the length of the total work day (working and traveling time) will increase, but the health effects of commuting have been surprisingly little studied apart from perceived stress and the benefits of physically active commuting. Methods We used data from two cross-sectional population-based public health surveys performed in 2004 and 2008 in Scania, Sweden (56% response rate). The final study population was 21, 088 perso...
The impact of metropolitan structure on commute behavior in the Netherlands: a multilevel approach
Schwanen, T.; F M Dieleman; Dijst, M.J.
2002-01-01
The effect of decentralization of land uses on travel behavior remains an unresolved issue in the academic literature. Some US researchers argue that a tendency towards polycentrism is associated with decreasing commute times and distances. Others have, however, suggested and shown the opposite commute times and distances tend to be longer in polycentric than in monocentric urban areas. Using this controversy as a starting point, we analyse how monocentric and polycentric urban structures aff...
The decay-time of non-commutative micro-black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Non-commutative black holes are characterised by a minimum mass which would result in a remnant after the Hawking evaporation ends. We numerically study the decay of neutral non-commutative black holes for up to ten spatial dimensions and typical parameters that would make their production possible at the LHC. Neglecting possible accretion mechanism, we find that decay-times are extremely short.
Moving mirrors and black hole evaporation in non-commutative space-times
Casadio, R.; Cox, P. H.; Harms, B.; Micu, O.
2005-01-01
We study the evaporation of black holes in non-commutative space-times. We do this by calculating the correction to the detector's response function for a moving mirror in terms of the noncommutativity parameter $\\Theta$ and then extracting the number density as modified by this parameter. We find that allowing space and time to be non-commutative increases the decay rate of a black hole.
Note on commutativity in double semigroups and two-fold monoidal categories
Kock, Joachim
2006-01-01
A concrete computation -- twelve slidings with sixteen tiles -- reveals that certain commutativity phenomena occur in every double semigroup. This can be seen as a sort of Eckmann-Hilton argument, but it does not use units. The result implies in particular that all cancellative double semigroups and all inverse double semigroups are commutative. Stepping up one dimension, the result is used to prove that all strictly associative two-fold monoidal categories (with weak units) are degenerate sy...
Forced Time-Dependent Harmonic Oscillators in Non-Commutative Space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIANG Mai-Lin
2011-01-01
For the time-dependent harmonic oscillator and generalized harmonic oscillator with or without external forces in non-commutative space, wave functions, and geometric phases are derived using the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant.Coherent states are obtained as the ground state of the forced system. Quantum fluctuations are calculated too. It is seen that geometric phases and quantum fluctuations are greatly affected by the non-commutativity of the space.
Eléments de mathématique algèbre commutative
Bourbaki, Nicolas
Les élements de mathématique de Nicolas Bourbaki ont pour objet une présentation rigoureuse, systématique et sans prérequis des mathématiques depuis leurs fondements. Ce premier volume du Livre d'Algèbre commutative, septième Livre du traité, est consacré aux concepts fondamentaux de l'algèbre commutative.
An exploration of the determinants and health impacts of active commuting
Martin, Adam
2015-01-01
Encouraging more walking or cycling amongst commuters in the United Kingdom could help reduce physical inactivity and contribute various health, environmental and other economic benefits. Existing empirical studies of the determinants and impact of active commuting are limited however, since they typically use cross-sectional, observational study designs or focus on small scale behavioural interventions. This thesis explored how the impact of larger scale population-level changes in the de...
On Non-Commutative Correction of the G\\"odel-type Metric
Ulhoa, S C; Amorim, R G G
2015-01-01
In this paper, we will study non-commutative corrections in the metric tensor for the G\\"{o}del-type universe, a model that has as its main characteristic the possibility of violation of causality, allowing therefore time travel. We also find that the critical radius in such a model, which eventually will determine the time travel possibility, is modified due to the non commutativity of spatial coordinates.
How do people choose their commuting mode? An evolutionary approach to transport choices
Borghesi, Simone; Calastri, Chiara; Fagiolo, Giorgio
2014-01-01
The issue of transportation is of primary importance in our societies. A large share of green-house gases is generated by the transport sector, and road casualties are one am ong the most common causes of death. In the present work, we study commuter choice between alternative transport modes using an evolutionary-game model, wherein commuters can choose between using their private car or taking the bus. We examine the possible dynamics that can emerge in a homogeneous urban population, where...
Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil
2016-01-01
Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID
T-duality and closed string non-commutative (doubled) geometry
Lust, Dieter
2010-01-01
We provide some evidence that closed string coordinates will become non-commutative turning on H-field flux background in closed string compactifications. This is in analogy to open string non-commutativity on the world volume of D-branes with B- and F-field background. The class of 3-dimensional backgrounds we are studying are twisted tori (fibrations of a 2-torus over a circle) and the their T-dual H-field, 3-form flux backgrounds (T-folds). The spatial non-commutativity arises due to the non-trivial monodromies of the toroidal Kahler resp. complex structure moduli fields, when going around the closed string along the circle direction. In addition we study closed string non-commutativity in the context of doubled geometry, where we argue that in general a non-commutative closed string background is T-dual to a commutative closed string background and vice versa. Finally, in analogy to open string boundary conditions, we also argue that closed string momentum and winding modes define in some sense D-branes i...
Regular Routes: Deep Mapping a Performative Counterpractice for the Daily Commute 1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Bissell
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This article offers a textual “deep map” of a series of experimental commutes undertaken in the west of Scotland in 2014. Recent developments in the field of transport studies have reconceived travel time as a far richer cultural experience than in previously utilitarian and economic approaches to the “problem” of commuting. Understanding their own commutes in these terms—as spaces of creativity, productivity and transformation—the authors trace the development of a performative “counterpractice” for their daily journeys between home and work. Deep mapping—as a form of “theory-informed story-telling”—is employed as a productive strategy to document this reimagination of ostensibly quotidian and functional travel. Importantly, this particular stage of the project is not presented as an end-point. Striving to develop an ongoing creative engagement with landscape, the authors continue this exploratory mobile research by connecting to other commuters’ journeys, and proposing a series of “strategies” for reimagining the daily commute; a list of prompts for future action within the routines and spaces of commuting. A range of alternative approaches to commuting are offered here to anyone who regularly travels to and from work to employ or develop as they wish, extending the mapping process to other routes and contexts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lina Wahlgren
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery, as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.
Quantization maps, algebra representation, and non-commutative Fourier transform for Lie groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guedes, Carlos; Oriti, Daniele [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Raasakka, Matti [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); LIPN, Institut Galilée, Université Paris-Nord, 99, av. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)
2013-08-15
The phase space given by the cotangent bundle of a Lie group appears in the context of several models for physical systems. A representation for the quantum system in terms of non-commutative functions on the (dual) Lie algebra, and a generalized notion of (non-commutative) Fourier transform, different from standard harmonic analysis, has been recently developed, and found several applications, especially in the quantum gravity literature. We show that this algebra representation can be defined on the sole basis of a quantization map of the classical Poisson algebra, and identify the conditions for its existence. In particular, the corresponding non-commutative star-product carried by this representation is obtained directly from the quantization map via deformation quantization. We then clarify under which conditions a unitary intertwiner between such algebra representation and the usual group representation can be constructed giving rise to the non-commutative plane waves and consequently, the non-commutative Fourier transform. The compact groups U(1) and SU(2) are considered for different choices of quantization maps, such as the symmetric and the Duflo map, and we exhibit the corresponding star-products, algebra representations, and non-commutative plane waves.
Think City Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ford Motor Company
2005-03-01
The THINK city Electric Vehicle (EV) Demonstration Program Project, initiated late 2001, has been successfully completed as of April 2005. US. Partners include Federal, State and Municipal agencies as well as commercial partners. Phase I, consisting of placement of the vehicles in demonstration programs, was completed in 2002. Phase II, the monitoring of these programs was completed in 2004. Phase III, the decommissioning and/or exporting of vehicles concluded in 2005. Phase I--the Program successfully assigned 192 EV's with customers (including Hertz) in the state of California, 109 in New York (including loaner and demo vehicles), 16 in Georgia, 7 to customers outside of the US and 52 in Ford's internal operations in Dearborn Michigan for a total of 376 vehicles. The Program was the largest operating Urban EV Demonstration Project in the United States. Phase II--the monitoring of the operational fleet was ongoing and completed in 2004, and all vehicles were returned throughout 2004 and 2005. The Department of Energy (DOE) was involved with the monitoring of the New York Power Authority/THINK Clean Commute Program units through partnership with Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC), which filed separate reports to DOE. The remainder of the field fleet was monitored through Ford's internal operations. Vehicles were retired from lease operation throughout the program for various operator reasons. Some of the vehicles were involved in re-leasing operations. At the end of the program, 376 vehicles had been involved, 372 of which were available for customer use while 4 were engineering prototype and study vehicles. Phase III--decommissioning and/or export of vehicles. In accordance with the NHTSA requirement, City vehicles could not remain in the United States past their three-year allowed program timeframe. At the end of leases, City vehicles have been decommissioned and/or exported to KamKorp in Norway.
Urban commuter parking demand management%城市通勤停车需求管理
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张秀媛; 董苏华; 柳昌江
2012-01-01
为了缓解我国大城市交通拥堵,调控通勤高峰时段中心区停车需求,给出城市不同功能的停车场不同的停车收费方法和价格.结合北京城市中心区实行累进停车收费的政策,开展居民多模式出行的意愿调查,构建政府指定停车票价与居民交通出行方式选择的双层规划模型方法,通过数值计算给出了停车价格调整范围与通勤机动车出行转移到停车换乘10%～20%比例的相互关系.在城市机动化发展中,通过＂以静制动＂停车价格政策可以有效地缓解中心区通勤交通拥堵,同时为城市中心区停车价格政策制定和完善停车市场化运作提供参考.%To alleviate the traffic congestion in major urbam cities in China,the regulation of parking demand and parking price is given in central areas during peak hours.Based on the implementation of the regulation at Beijing downtown area,a multi-modal travel survey was carried out and a bi-level programming model for adjesting the government-designated parking fares and the cheaper and convenient way for residents to travel is set up.The numerical calculation provide a proper relationship between the parking price and the use of parking facilities and commuter vehicles.The parking pricing policies can effectively alleviate the commuter traffic congestion at central area and provide references to other cities.
Fast Katz and commuters : efficient estimation of social relatedness.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
On, Byung-Won; Lakshmanan, Laks V. S.; Esfandiar, Pooya; Bonchi, Francesco; Grief, Chen; Gleich, David F.
2010-12-01
Motivated by social network data mining problems such as link prediction and collaborative filtering, significant research effort has been devoted to computing topological measures including the Katz score and the commute time. Existing approaches typically approximate all pairwise relationships simultaneously. In this paper, we are interested in computing: the score for a single pair of nodes, and the top-k nodes with the best scores from a given source node. For the pairwise problem, we apply an iterative algorithm that computes upper and lower bounds for the measures we seek. This algorithm exploits a relationship between the Lanczos process and a quadrature rule. For the top-k problem, we propose an algorithm that only accesses a small portion of the graph and is related to techniques used in personalized PageRank computing. To test the scalability and accuracy of our algorithms we experiment with three real-world networks and find that these algorithms run in milliseconds to seconds without any preprocessing.
Weinberg-Salam theory in non-commutative geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morita, Katsusada (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Okumura, Yoshitaka
1994-05-01
Ordinary differential calculus on smooth manifold is generalized so as to construct gauge theory coupled to fermions on discrete space M[sub 4]xZ[sub 2] which is an underlying space-time in the non-commutative geometry for the standard model. We can reproduce not only the bosonic sector but also the fermionic sector of the Weinberg-Salam theory without recourse to the Dirac operator at the outset. Treatment of the fermionic sector is based on the generalized spinor one-forms from which the Dirac lagrangian is derived through taking the inner product. Two model constructions are presented using our formalism, both giving the classical mass relation m[sub H] = [radical]2m[sub w]. The first model leaves the Weinberg angle arbitrary as usual, while the second one predicts sin[sup 2][theta][sub w] = 1/4 in the tree level. This prediction is the same as that of Connes but we obtain it from correct hypercharge assignment of 2x2 matrix-valued Higgs field and from vanishing photon mass, thereby dispensing with Connes' 0-trace condition or the equivalent. (author).
Representations of Canonical Commutation Relations Describing Infinite Coherent States
Joye, Alain; Merkli, Marco
2016-10-01
We investigate the infinite volume limit of quantized photon fields in multimode coherent states. We show that for states containing a continuum of coherent modes, it is mathematically and physically natural to consider their phases to be random and identically distributed. The infinite volume states give rise to Hilbert space representations of the canonical commutation relations which we construct concretely. In the case of random phases, the representations are random as well and can be expressed with the help of Itô stochastic integrals. We analyze the dynamics of the infinite state alone and the open system dynamics of small systems coupled to it. We show that under the free field dynamics, initial phase distributions are driven to the uniform distribution. We demonstrate that coherences in small quantum systems, interacting with the infinite coherent state, exhibit Gaussian time decay. The decoherence is qualitatively faster than the one caused by infinite thermal states, which is known to be exponentially rapid only. This emphasizes the classical character of coherent states.
McCarty, Kaley Corinne
2013-01-01
One of the projects that I am completing this summer is a Launch Services Program intern 'How to' set up a clean room informational video. The purpose of this video is to go along with a clean room kit that can be checked out by employees at the Kennedy Space Center and to be taken to classrooms to help educate students and intrigue them about NASA. The video will include 'how to' set up and operate a clean room at NASA. This is a group project so we will be acting as a team and contributing our own input and ideas. We will include various activities for children in classrooms to complete, while learning and having fun. Activities that we will explain and film include: helping children understand the proper way to wear a bunny suit, a brief background on cleanrooms, and the importance of maintaining the cleanliness of a space craft. This project will be shown to LSP management and co-workers; we will be presenting the video once it is completed.
40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.
2010-07-01
...-fuel fleet vehicles. 88.308-94 Section 88.308-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schantz Peter
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Route environments can positively influence people's active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES was developed to study active commuters' perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the ACRES and the representativity using an advertisement-recruited sample. Furthermore, by comparing commuting route environment profiles of inner urban and suburban areas, we provide a novel basis for understanding the relationship between environment and bikeability. Methods Bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, advertisement- (n = 1379 and street-recruited (n = 93, responded to the ACRES. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm (n = 24 responded to a modified version of the ACRES. The criterion-related validity assessments were based on whether or not differences between the inner urban and the suburban route environments, as indicated by the experts and by four existing objective measurements, were reflected by differences in perceptions of these environments. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for the assessments of representativity. Finally, ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles. Results Differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban route environments by the advertisement-recruited participants were in accord with the existing objective measurements and corresponded reasonably well with those of the experts. Overall, there was a reasonably good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants' ratings
Clean Energy Works Oregon Final Technical Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacob, Andria [City of Portland; Cyr, Shirley [Clean Energy Works
2013-12-31
In April 2010, the City of Portland received a $20 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy, as part of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program. This award was appropriated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), passed by President Obama in 2009. DOE’s program became known as the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The BBNP grant objectives directed the City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) as the primary grantee to expand the BPS-led pilot program, Clean Energy Works Portland, into Clean Energy Works Oregon (CEWO), with the mission to deliver thousands of home energy retrofits, create jobs, save energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.The Final Technical Report explores the successes and lessons learned from the first 3 years of program implementation.
Abdulqadir M. Suleiman; Svendsen, Kristin V.H.
2015-01-01
Background Goal-oriented communication of risk of hazards is necessary in order to reduce risk of workers' exposure to chemicals. Adequate training of workers and enterprise priority setting are essential elements. Cleaning enterprises have many challenges and the existing paradigms influence the risk levels of these enterprises. Methods Information on organization and enterprises' prioritization in training programs was gathered from cleaning enterprises. A measure of enterprises' conceptual...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...
Blaschke, D. N.; Grosse, H.; Schweda, M.
2007-09-01
Inspired by the renormalizability of the non-commutative Φ4 model with added oscillator term, we formulate a non-commutative gauge theory, where the oscillator enters as a gauge fixing term in a BRST invariant manner. All propagators turn out to be essentially given by the Mehler kernel and the bilinear part of the action is invariant under the Langmann-Szabo duality. The model is a promising candidate for a renormalizable non-commutative U(1) gauge theory.
Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately
Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C
2016-01-15
A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon.
Electric–magnetic dualities in non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun-Kai Ho
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Electric–magnetic dualities are equivalence between strong and weak coupling constants. A standard example is the exchange of electric and magnetic fields in an abelian gauge theory. We show three methods to perform electric–magnetic dualities in the case of the non-commutative U(1 gauge theory. The first method is to use covariant field strengths to be the electric and magnetic fields. We find an invariant form of an equation of motion after performing the electric–magnetic duality. The second method is to use the Seiberg–Witten map to rewrite the non-commutative U(1 gauge theory in terms of abelian field strength. The third method is to use the large Neveu Schwarz–Neveu Schwarz (NS–NS background limit (non-commutativity parameter only has one degree of freedom to consider the non-commutative U(1 gauge theory or D3-brane. In this limit, we introduce or dualize a new one-form gauge potential to get a D3-brane in a large Ramond–Ramond (R–R background via field redefinition. We also use perturbation to study the equivalence between two D3-brane theories. Comparison of these methods in the non-commutative U(1 gauge theory gives different physical implications. The comparison reflects the differences between the non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories in the electric–magnetic dualities. For a complete study, we also extend our studies to the simplest abelian and non-abelian p-form gauge theories, and a non-commutative theory with the non-abelian structure.
Electric-magnetic dualities in non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories
Ho, Jun-Kai; Ma, Chen-Te
2016-08-01
Electric-magnetic dualities are equivalence between strong and weak coupling constants. A standard example is the exchange of electric and magnetic fields in an abelian gauge theory. We show three methods to perform electric-magnetic dualities in the case of the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory. The first method is to use covariant field strengths to be the electric and magnetic fields. We find an invariant form of an equation of motion after performing the electric-magnetic duality. The second method is to use the Seiberg-Witten map to rewrite the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory in terms of abelian field strength. The third method is to use the large Neveu Schwarz-Neveu Schwarz (NS-NS) background limit (non-commutativity parameter only has one degree of freedom) to consider the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory or D3-brane. In this limit, we introduce or dualize a new one-form gauge potential to get a D3-brane in a large Ramond-Ramond (R-R) background via field redefinition. We also use perturbation to study the equivalence between two D3-brane theories. Comparison of these methods in the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory gives different physical implications. The comparison reflects the differences between the non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories in the electric-magnetic dualities. For a complete study, we also extend our studies to the simplest abelian and non-abelian p-form gauge theories, and a non-commutative theory with the non-abelian structure.
Asian Development Bank
2010-01-01
In response to the growing demand of energy policy makers and regulators in the Asia and Pacific region for additional knowledge support on clean energy, this publication—prepared under the Law and Policy Reform Program of the Office of the General Counsel—presents lessons learned from countries’ clean energy policy and regulatory measures and approaches discussed during the Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation held on 21–22 June 2010 at the Asian...
On Non-commuting Sets in a Finite p-group with Derived Subgroup of Prime Order
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Yu-lei; Liu He-guo
2016-01-01
Let G be a finite group. A nonempty subset X of G is said to be non-commuting if xy = yx for any x, y ∈ X with x = y. If |X| ≥ |Y| for any other non-commuting set Y in G, then X is said to be a maximal non-commuting set. In this paper, we determine upper and lower bounds on the cardinality of a maximal non-commuting set in a finite p-group with derived subgroup of prime order.
Clean Elements in Abelian Rings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Angelina Y M Chin
2009-04-01
Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.
The commuters' exposure to volatile chemicals and carcinogenic risk in Mexico City
Shiohara, Naohide; Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián A.; Blanco Jiménez, Salvador; Yanagisawa, Yukio
The commuters' exposure levels to volatile organic compounds were investigated in the following public transport modes: private car, microbus, bus, and metro along three commuting routes in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City. The target chemicals were benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/ p-xylene, and formaldehyde. Integrated samples were taken while traveling during the morning rush hour (weekdays 7:00-9:00 a.m.) for six consecutive weeks in June and July, 2002. Scheffe test showed that the average concentrations of all chemicals inside cars and microbuses were statistically higher than in metro trains ( Pautomobiles were significantly higher than in metro trains and buses ( Pcar, bus, and metro ( Pcar and microbus passengers are exposed to higher levels of volatile organic compounds than bus and metro commuters. These findings are consistent with previous studies looking at exposure of commuters to carbon monoxide. The lifetime carcinogenic risk from commuting by car was 2.0×10 -5-3.1×10 -5, that by microbus was 3.1×10 -5-4.0×10 -5, that by bus was 2.0×10 -5-2.7×10 -5, and that by metro was 1.3×10 -5-1.7×10 -5 in Mexico City.
Your First Stop for Clean Energy Policy Support (Fact Sheet)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2012-06-01
The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial and UN-Energy, helps governments design and adopt policies and programs that support the deployment of transformational low-carbon technologies. The Solutions Center serves as a first-stop clearinghouse of clean energy policy reports, data, and tools and provides expert assistance and peer-to-peer learning forums. This factsheet highlights key Solutions Center offerings, including 'ask an expert' assistance on clean energy policy matters, training and peer learning, and technical resources for policy makers worldwide.
Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone
Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.
2003-01-01
Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount of literature has been devoted to the effect of laser cleaning on marble and limestone, research into the effects on sandstone is limited. In the present paper, the effect of two cleaning methods, v...
Wucknitz, O
2004-01-01
We discuss the LensClean algorithm which for a given gravitational lens model fits a source brightness distribution to interferometric radio data in a similar way as standard Clean does in the unlensed case. The lens model parameters can then be varied in order to minimize the residuals and determine the best model for the lens mass distribution. Our variant of this method is improved in order to be useful and stable even for high dynamic range systems with nearly degenerated lens model parameters. Our test case B0218+357 is dominated by two bright images but the information needed to constrain the unknown parameters is provided only by the relatively smooth and weak Einstein ring. The new variant of LensClean is able to fit lens models even in this difficult case. In order to allow the use of general mass models with LensClean, we develop the new method LenTil which inverts the lens equation much more reliably than any other method. This high reliability is essential for the use as part of LensClean. Finally...
Non-Commutative Integration, Zeta Functions and the Haar State for SU q (2)
Matassa, Marco
2015-12-01
We study a notion of non-commutative integration, in the spirit of modular spectral triples, for the quantum group SU q (2). In particular we define the non-commutative integral as the residue at the spectral dimension of a zeta function, which is constructed using a Dirac operator and a weight. We consider the Dirac operator introduced by Kaad and Senior and a family of weights depending on two parameters, which are related to the diagonal automorphisms of SU q (2). We show that, after fixing one of the parameters, the non-commutative integral coincides with the Haar state of SU q (2). Moreover we can impose an additional condition on the zeta function, which also fixes the second parameter. For this unique choice the spectral dimension coincides with the classical dimension.
Double Compactified d = 11 Supermembrane Dual as a Non-Commutative Super-Maxwell Theory
Martin, I; Restuccia, A
2000-01-01
The physical hamiltonian of the double compactified D=11 supermembrane dual with non trivial wrapping is explicitly obtained. It contains cubic and quartic interacting terms. It exactly agrees with the hamiltonian formulation of non-commutative super-Maxwell theory on the world volume, minimally coupled to seven scalars fields corresponding to the transverse coordinates to the brane. The non commutative star product is intrinsically obtained from the simplectic 2-form defined by the minimal configuration of the hamiltonian, that is by the pull-back to the world volume of the canonical conection 1-form on the Hopf fibring over $CP_n$. The constraint generating the area preserving diffeomorphism is reformulated as the Gauss constraint of the non-commutative super-Maxwell theory.
Twisted rings and moduli stacks of "fat" point modules in non-commutative projective geometry
Chan, Daniel
2010-01-01
The Hilbert scheme of point modules was introduced by Artin-Tate-Van den Bergh to study non-commutative graded algebras. The key tool is the construction of a map from the algebra to a twisted ring on this Hilbert scheme. In this paper, we study moduli stacks of more general "fat" point modules, and show that there is a similar map to a twisted ring associated to the stack. This is used to provide a sufficient criterion for a non-commutative projective surface to be birationally PI. It is hoped that such a criterion will be useful in understanding Mike Artin's conjecture on the birational classification of non-commutative surfaces.
Simulation Results for U(1) Gauge Theory on Non-Commutative Spaces
Bietenholz, W; Nishimura, J; Susaki, Y; Torrielli, A; Volkholz, J
2007-01-01
We present numerical results for U(1) gauge theory in 2d and 4d spaces involving a non-commutative plane. Simulations are feasible thanks to a mapping of the non-commutative plane onto a twisted matrix model. In d=2 it was a long-standing issue if Wilson loops are (partially) invariant under area-preserving diffeomorphisms. We show that non-perturbatively this invariance breaks, including the subgroup SL(2,R). In both cases, d=2 and d=4, we extrapolate our results to the continuum and infinite volume by means of a Double Scaling Limit. In d=4 this limit leads to a phase with broken translation symmetry, which is not affected by the perturbatively known IR instability. Therefore the photon may survive in a non-commutative world.
Commutation effect of Adjustable Speed Drives due to installation of active harmonic filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asiminoaei, Lucian; Kalaschnikow, Sergej; Hansen, Steffan;
2011-01-01
The success of designing an industrial installation with Active Filters depends on how precise the load profile of the application is known, because this determines the amount of harmonic currents to be compensated. However, once the Active Filter is added to the installation, the harmonic currents...... may increase due to changes in the commutation behavior of diode rectifier converters. The change of natural commutation determines higher harmonics currents of the diode rectifiers and therefore higher harmonic loading of the Active Filter in the installation. This paper presents a method to estimate...... the commutation behavior of Adjustable Speed Drives when their harmonic currents are compensated by a Shunt Active Filter. The method is formulated as an analytical computation algorithm verified by simulations. Further on the method is implemented in a Harmonic Calculation Toolbox which facilitates calculation...
Two Phases of the Non-Commutative Quantum Mechanics with the Generalized Uncertainty Relations
Chung, Won Sang
2016-04-01
We consider the quantum mechanics on the noncommutative plane with the generalized uncertainty relations {Δ } x1 {Δ } x2 ge frac {θ }{2}, {Δ } p1 {Δ } p2 ge frac {bar {θ }}{2}, {Δ } xi {Δ } pi ge frac {hbar }{2}, {Δ } x1 {Δ } p2 ge frac {η }{2}. We show that the model has two essentially different phases which is determined by kappa = 1 + frac {1}{hbar 2 } (η 2 - θ bar {θ }). We construct a operator hat {π }i commuting with hat {x}j and discuss the harmonic oscillator model in two dimensional non-commutative space for three case κ > 0, κ = 0, κ < 0. Finally, we discuss the thermodynamics of a particle whose hamiltonian is related to the harmonic oscillator model in two dimensional non-commutative space.
Suicides in commuting railway systems: The case of Stockholm county, Sweden.
Ceccato, Vania; Uittenbogaard, Adriaan
2016-07-01
The objective of this study is to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of suicides in commuting railway environments. Data on suicides in Stockholm commuting railway from 2006 to 2013 was analysed. The study sets out to identify significant clusters in suicides then evaluate whether commuting railway environments affect variations in suicide rates. Fieldwork inspection, spatial cluster techniques (NNHC and Getis-Ord statistics) and regression models underlie the methodology of study. Findings show no seasonality was observed in suicide cases, but winter months concentrate a larger share of events. Suicides do not occur evenly throughout the day but tend to take place more often in weekdays. Modelling findings shows that suicide rates increase with speed trains and decrease where barriers along tracks are installed. Although high speed trains are still a motive of concern for suicide prevention, findings call for a whole railway-approach to safety - one that extends maintenance beyond the platforms and stations' vicinities. PMID:27018939
Late time acceleration in a non-commutative model of modified cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malekolkalami, B., E-mail: b.malakolkalami@uok.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atazadeh, K., E-mail: atazadeh@azaruniv.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 53714-161, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vakili, B., E-mail: b-vakili@iauc.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-12-12
We investigate the effects of non-commutativity between the position–position, position–momentum and momentum–momentum of a phase space corresponding to a modified cosmological model. We show that the existence of such non-commutativity results in a Moyal Poisson algebra between the phase space variables in which the product law between the functions is of the kind of an α-deformed product. We then transform the variables in such a way that the Poisson brackets between the dynamical variables take the form of a usual Poisson bracket but this time with a noncommutative structure. For a power law expression for the function of the Ricci scalar with which the action of the gravity model is modified, the exact solutions in the commutative and noncommutative cases are presented and compared. In terms of these solutions we address the issue of the late time acceleration in cosmic evolution.
Suicides in commuting railway systems: The case of Stockholm county, Sweden.
Ceccato, Vania; Uittenbogaard, Adriaan
2016-07-01
The objective of this study is to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of suicides in commuting railway environments. Data on suicides in Stockholm commuting railway from 2006 to 2013 was analysed. The study sets out to identify significant clusters in suicides then evaluate whether commuting railway environments affect variations in suicide rates. Fieldwork inspection, spatial cluster techniques (NNHC and Getis-Ord statistics) and regression models underlie the methodology of study. Findings show no seasonality was observed in suicide cases, but winter months concentrate a larger share of events. Suicides do not occur evenly throughout the day but tend to take place more often in weekdays. Modelling findings shows that suicide rates increase with speed trains and decrease where barriers along tracks are installed. Although high speed trains are still a motive of concern for suicide prevention, findings call for a whole railway-approach to safety - one that extends maintenance beyond the platforms and stations' vicinities.
Spectra originated from semi-B-Fredholm theory and commuting perturbations
Zeng, Qingping; Zhong, Huaijie
2012-01-01
Burgos, Kaidi, Mbekhta and Oudghiri provided an affirmative answer to a question of Kaashoek and Lay and proved that an operator $F$ is power finite rank if and only if $\\sigma_{dsc}(T+F) =\\sigma_{dsc}(T)$ for every operator $T$ commuting with $F$. Later, several authors extended this result to the essential descent spectrum, the left Drazin spectrum and the left essentially Drazin spectrum. In this paper, using the theory of operator with eventual topological uniform descent and the technique used in Burgos, Kaidi, Mbekhta, and Oudghiri, we generalize this result to various spectra originated from seni-B-Fredholm theory. As immediate consequences, we give affirmative answers to several questions posed by Berkani, Amouch and Zariouh. Besides, we provide a general framework which allows us to derive in a unify way commuting perturbational results of Weyl-Browder type theorems and properties (generalized or not). These commuting perturbational results, in particular, improve many recent results of Berkani and A...
Rohwer, CM
2012-01-01
In this thesis we shall demonstrate that a measurement of position alone in non-commutative space cannot yield complete information about the quantum state of a particle. Indeed, the formalism used entails a description that is non-local in that it requires all orders of positional derivatives through the star product that is used ubiquitously to map operator multiplication onto function multiplication in non-commutative systems. It will be shown that there exist several equivalent local descriptions, which are arrived at via the introduction of additional degrees of freedom. Consequently non-commutative quantum mechanical position measurements necessarily confront us with some additional structure which is necessary to specify quantum states completely. The remainder of the thesis, will involve investigations into the physical interpretation of these additional degrees of freedom. For one particular local formulation, the corresponding classical theory will be used to demonstrate that the concept of extended...
Non-Commutative Integration, Zeta Functions and the Haar State for SU{sub q}(2)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matassa, Marco, E-mail: marco.matassa@gmail.com [SISSA (Italy)
2015-12-15
We study a notion of non-commutative integration, in the spirit of modular spectral triples, for the quantum group SU{sub q}(2). In particular we define the non-commutative integral as the residue at the spectral dimension of a zeta function, which is constructed using a Dirac operator and a weight. We consider the Dirac operator introduced by Kaad and Senior and a family of weights depending on two parameters, which are related to the diagonal automorphisms of SU{sub q}(2). We show that, after fixing one of the parameters, the non-commutative integral coincides with the Haar state of SU{sub q}(2). Moreover we can impose an additional condition on the zeta function, which also fixes the second parameter. For this unique choice the spectral dimension coincides with the classical dimension.
A non-perturbative study of non-commutative U(1) gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study U(1) gauge theory on a 4d non-commutative torus, where two directions are non-commutative. Monte Carlo simulations are performed after mapping the regularized theory onto a U(N) lattice gauge theory in d=2. At intermediate coupling strength, we find a phase in which open Wilson lines acquire non-zero vacuum expectation values, which implies the spontaneous breakdown of translational invariance. In this phase, various physical quantities obey clear scaling behaviors in the continuum limit with a fixed non- commutativity parameter θ, which provides evidence for a possible continuum theory. In the weak coupling symmetric phase, the dispersion relation involves a negative IR-singular term, which is responsible for the observed phase transition. (orig.)
Effectiveness and implementation of interventions to increase commuter cycling to school
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, Lars; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard; Andersen, Lars Bo
2015-01-01
on cycling to school. METHODS: Interventions at public schools in three different regions in Denmark were based on planned infrastructural changes near schools (e.g. road surface and traffic regulation) and school-motivation for promoting commuter cycling. Participants were pupils from control schools (n......BACKGROUND: Active transportation to school has been positively associated with various health parameters whereas only sparse evidence exists on risk of injury while commuting to school. This study investigated the overall effectiveness of cycling promotion combined with structural changes...... = 12) or intervention schools (n = 13). All children (n = 2415) from the 4(th) and 5(th) grade were measured at baseline during spring 2010 and at follow-up one year later. RESULTS: No significant differences in commuter cycling were detected in the adjusted analyses comparing the intervention...
NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan
2005-12-01
Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the
Clean Energy Application Center
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freihaut, Jim
2013-09-30
The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive
Commuting behaviour and urban form: a longitudinal study of a polycentric urban region in Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grunfelder, Julien; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick
2012-01-01
This paper is an empirical investigation of the relation between urban form and commuting behaviour in a polycentric urban region. It explores to what extent urban form and location variables help to explain commuting time, distance and mode based on an empirical case, East Jutland, which is a...... polycentric urban region in Denmark. Data from the National Transport Survey of Denmark were used for this quantitative analysis and two time periods were selected to highlight any potential changes over time. Empirical findings indicate that urban form and location variables help to explain the three...
On the linearization of nonlinear supersymmetry based on the commutator algebra
Tsuda, Motomu
2016-01-01
We discuss a linearization procedure of nonlinear supersymmetry (NLSUSY) based on the closure of the commutator algebra for variations of functionals of Nambu-Goldstone fermions and their derivative terms under NLSUSY transformations in Volkov-Akulov NLSUSY theory. In the case of a set of bosonic and fermionic functionals, which leads to (massless) vector linear supermultiplets, we explicitly show that general linear SUSY transformations of basic components defined from those functionals are uniquely determined by examining the commutation relation in the NLSUSY theory.
Application of magnetic switch for commutation of heavy-current pulsed circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One studied commutation of heavy-current pulsed circuits with application of a magnetic switch - inductance coil coiled round a toroidal ferromagnetic core. Application of the magnetic switch enables to use simpler and more reliable two-electrode dischargers actuated by high-volt initiating pulse. The switch nonlinear inductance serves for decoupling of heavy-current electric circuit and low-current circuit of initiation. Device was tested at commutation of up to 100 kJ energy and pulse millisecond duration capacitance accumulator discharge
On prime and semiprime rings with generalized derivations and non-commutative Banach algebras
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MOHD ARIF RAZA; NADEEM UR REHMAN
2016-08-01
Let $R$ be a prime ring of characteristic different from 2 and $m$ a fixed positive integer. If $R$ admits a generalized derivation associated with a nonzero deviation $d$ such that $[F(x), d(y)]_m = [x, y]$ for all $x$, $y$ in some appropriate subset of $R$, then $R$ is commutative. Moreover, we also examine the case $R$ is a semiprime ring. Finally, we apply the above result to Banach algebras, and we obtain a non-commutative version of the Singer--Werner theorem.
Evaluation of the Axial Vector Commutator Sum Rule for Pion-Pion Scattering
Adler, Stephen L
2007-01-01
We consider the sum rule proposed by one of us (SLA), obtained by taking the expectation value of an axial vector commutator in a state with one pion. The sum rule relates the pion decay constant to integrals of pion-pion cross sections, with one pion off the mass shell. We remark that recent data on pion-pion scattering allow a precise evaluation of the sum rule. We also discuss the related Adler--Weisberger sum rule (obtained by taking the expectation value of the same commutator in a state with one nucleon), especially in connection with the problem of extrapolation of the pion momentum off its mass shell.
A new inverter topology using GTO commutation. [Gate Turn Off thyristor
Rippel, W. E.
1983-01-01
A new N-phase, forced commutated bridge inverter topology has been developed wherein a single Gate Turn Off Thyristor (GTO) is used to commutate each of 2N main Thyristors (SCRs). Since, for most applications, the primary loss mechanism is the SCR forward drop, very high efficiencies are possible. Compared with conventional pure SCR and pure GTO inverters, cost per kW is lower - in the former case due to the large cost differential between GTOs and SCRs. Other advantages of the new inverter include high power density, low switching losses and stresses, modulation flexibility and amenability to high voltage and high frequency operation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jones Caroline HD
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoting walking or cycling to work (active commuting could help to increase population physical activity levels. According to the habit discontinuity and residential self-selection hypotheses, moving home or workplace is a period when people (reassess, and may be more likely to change, their travel behavior. Research in this area is dominated by the use of quantitative research methods, but qualitative approaches can provide in-depth insight into the experiences and processes of travel behavior change. This qualitative study aimed to explore experiences and motivations regarding travel behavior around the period of relocation, in an effort to understand how active commuting might be promoted more effectively. Methods Participants were recruited from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort in the UK. Commuters who had moved home, workplace or both between 2009 and 2010 were identified, and a purposive sample was invited to participate in semi-structured interviews regarding their experiences of, and travel behavior before and after, relocating. A grounded theory approach was taken to analysis. Results Twenty-six commuters participated. Participants were motivated by convenience, speed, cost and reliability when selecting modes of travel for commuting. Physical activity was not a primary motivation, but incidental increases in physical activity were described and valued in association with active commuting, the use of public transport and the use of park-and-ride facilities. Conclusions Emphasizing and improving the relative convenience, cost, speed and reliability of active commuting may be a more promising approach to promoting its uptake than emphasizing the health benefits, at least around the time of relocation. Providing good quality public transport and free car parking within walking or cycling distance of major employment sites may encourage the inclusion of active travel in the journey to work
A non-commutative Path Space approach to stationary free Stochastic Differential Equations
Dabrowski, Yoann
2010-01-01
By defining tracial states on a non-commutative analogue of a path space, we construct Markov dilations of certain conservative completely Markov semigroups on finite von Neumann algebras. For well chosen semigroups they solve certain stationary free SDEs previously considered by D. Shlyakhtenko. Among applications, we prove a non-commutative Talagrand's inequality for non-microstate free entropy. We also use those new deformations in conjunction with Popa's deformation/rigidity techniques. For instance, combining our results with techniques of Popa-Ozawa and Peterson, we prove that the von Neumann algebra of a countable discrete group with CMAP and positive first L^2 Betti number has no Cartan subalgebras.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.
2004-01-01
This paper presents an alternative safe commutation principle for a single phase bidirectional bridge, for use in the new generation of direct single-stage AC-AC audio power amplifiers. As compared with the bridge commutation with load current or source voltage sensing, in this approach...
E. de Meester; M. van Ham
2009-01-01
Time spent on work and commuting within dual-earner households is often analysed separately for individuals, but this does no justice to the reality of dual-earner households where decisions on work and commuting are made in a household context. This paper reports on a quantitative study of the impa
Abrahamse, Wokje; Steg, Linda; Gifford, Robert; Vlek, Charles
2009-01-01
Car use for commuting Contributes to various environmental and traffic problems, such as pollution and congestion. Policies aimed at reducing commuter car use will be more effective when they target important determinants of car use and willingness to reduce it. This study examined whether variables
APSIC Guidelines for environmental cleaning and decontamination.
Ling, Moi Lin; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Thu, Le Thi Anh; Villanueva, Victoria; Pandjaitan, Costy; Yusof, Mohamad Yasim
2015-01-01
This document is an executive summary of APSIC Guidelines for Environmental Cleaning and Decontamination. It describes best practices in routine cleaning and decontamination in healthcare facilities as well as in specific settings e.g. management of patients with isolation precautions, food preparation areas, construction and renovation, and following a flood. It recommends the implementation of environmental hygiene program to keep the environment safe for patients, staff and visitors visiting a healthcare facility. Objective assessment of cleanliness and quality is an essential component of this program as a method for identifying quality improvement opportunities. Recommendations for safe handling of linen and bedding; as well as occupational health and safety issues are included in the guidelines. A training program is vital to ensure consistent adherence to best practices. PMID:26719796
Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)
2008-02-15
The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.
Appalachian clean coal technology consortium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)
1995-11-01
The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.
McKinsey, D N
2005-01-01
This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...
Roman, Harry T.
2014-01-01
Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…
Cleanly: trashducation urban system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie;
are exacerbated by a poor personal trash management culture. In this paper we present Cleanly, an urban trashducation system aimed at creating awareness of garbage production and management, which may serve as an educational plat-form in the urban environment. We report on data collected from an online survey...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2014-12-19
The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.
Environmental Section / ST-TFM
2001-01-01
The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...
77 FR 60962 - Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information
2012-10-05
... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 2 Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information AGENCY... Clean Water Act and in connection with various programs and are providing notice and an opportunity to... under the Clean Water Act (CWA). The information being transferred was or will be collected under...
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-03-01
The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.