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Sample records for clean coke process

  1. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-24

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR A PROCESS ANALYSIS OF A COKE OVEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhancheng Guo; Huiqing Tang

    2005-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamic model is established for a coking process analysis of a coke oven using PHOENICS CFD package. The model simultaneously calculates the transient composition, temperatures of the gas and the solid phases, velocity of the gas phase and porosity and density of the semi-coke phase. Numerical simulation is illustrated in predicting the evolution of volatile gases, gas flow paths, profiles of density, porosity of the coke oven charge,profiles of temperatures of the coke oven gas and the semi-coke bed. On the basis of above modeling, the flow of coke oven gas (COG) blown from the bottom of the coke oven into the porous semi-coke bed is simulated to reveal whether or not and when the blown COG can uniformly flow through the porous semi-coke bed for the purpose of desulfurizing the semi-coke by recycling the COG. The simulation results show that the blown COG can uniformly flow through the semi-coke bed only after the temperature at the center of the semi-coke bed has risen to above 900 ℃.

  3. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration. PMID:27270486

  4. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-06-08

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  5. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-06-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  6. Research on the evolvement of morphology of coking coal during the coking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiangyun; Wu, Shiyong; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zhenning; Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Xi, Bai

    2013-12-01

    The evolvement of morphology and structure of the coal with different metamorphic degrees during coking process in the vertical furnace was investigated by infrared Image detector. Moreover, the temperature distribution in the radial direction and the crack formation were also studied in heating process. The results show that the amount of crack and the shrinkage level of char decrease with the coal rank rising. In addition, the initial temperature of crack formation for char increases with the coal rank rising.

  7. Disposal of Waste Plastics With Traditional Coking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jiu-ju; YU Guang-wei; LIAO Hong-qiang; QIAN Kai; ZHAO Pen; HE Ya-bin

    2006-01-01

    A new technology for treating waste plastics (WP) by traditional coking process was introduced. With a thermo-balance and a 10 g atmospheric fixed bed reactor, the thermo-gravimetric behavior and product were studied during co-coking of WP with blended coal. And then, using a coke-oven with capacity of 200 kg, the characteristics of products were assessed. The results showed that there is an overlapping temperature range (200-550 ℃) of decomposition between WP and blended coal, and the pyrolysis synergism index η and synergism strength β proposed could evaluate the synergism between them. 1% of added WP results in the maximum synergism in all series experiments. The increase of added WP decreases the synergism. Tar yield in co-coking is increased with the decrease of water yield for synergism. Moreover, it was also found that the quality indexes of coke, such as M10, M40, CRI and CSR, are degraded with the increase of WP until 4%, though the quality of tar and gas is optimized for WP addition.

  8. Oil sand process-affected water treatment using coke adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamal El-Din, M.; Pourrezaei, P.; Chelme-Ayala, P.; Zubot, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands operations generate an array of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that will eventually be released to the environment. This water must be evaluated within conventional and advanced water treatment technologies. Water management strategies propose options for increased reuse and recycling of water from settling ponds, as well as safe discharge. This presentation outlined the typical composition of OSPW. Constituents of concern in OSPW include suspended solids, hydrocarbons, salts, ammonia, trace metals, and dissolved organics such as naphthenic acids (NAs). Petroleum coke is one of the by-products generated from bitumen extraction in the oil sands industry and can be used as one of the possible treatment processes for the removal of organic compounds found in OSPW. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective process, able to adsorb organic substances such as oils, radioactive compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, poly aromatic hydrocarbons and various halogenated compounds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of activated carbon from petroleum coke using steam as the activation media; to determine the factors affecting the absorption of NAs; and to evaluate the activated coke adsorption capacity for the reduction of NAs and dissolved organic carbons present in OSPW. It was concluded that petroleum non-activated coke has the ability to decrease COD, alkalinity, and NA concentration. tabs., figs.

  9. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  10. Granulation of coke breeze fine for using in the sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke breeze is the main fuel used in the sintering process. The value of -3+1 mm. represents the most favorable particle size for coke breeze in the sintering process. About 20% of total coke fines (-0.5 mm are produced during different steps of preparation. Introducing these fines during the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus ,this study aims at investigating the production of granules resulting from these fines using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of an iron ore. The results showed that the granules having the highest mechanical properties were obtained with 14.5 wt % molasses addition. The sintering experiments were performed by using coke breeze in different shapes (-3+1 mm in size, coke breeze without sieving and coke breeze granules -3+1 mm. The reduction experiments, microscopic structure and X-ray analysis for the produced sinter were carried out. The results revealed that, all sinter properties (such as shatter test, productivity of sinter machine and blast furnace, reduction time and chemical composition for produced sinter by using coke breeze with size -3+1 mm and coke breeze granules were almost the same. The iron ore sinter which was produced by using coke breeze without sieving yielded low productivity for both sinter machine and blast furnace. Furthermore, using coke breeze without sieving in sintering of an iron ore decreases the vertical velocity of sinter machine and increases the reduction time.

  11. Visualization of coke state in hydraulic decoking process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Tong, Xinglin; Deng, Chengwei; Zhang, Cui; Huang, Di; Chen, Liang; Xiong, Jiaguo

    2016-05-01

    The relationship model of the sound signal and the coke state can be established through multiple test and comparison of the noise signal and the coke operation. By collecting data, we summarize the main frequency power fluctuation range of the sound signal in kinds of state, and extract the nearest 5 decision results for reference. The weighted value of each result according to the update time has gradually increased. On the basis of that, we developed visualization software, real-time reflect out coke coking tower state. Animation refresh rate is second level, and the vertical height can be accurate to 0.1m.

  12. Application of fine-grained coke breeze fractions in the process of iron ore sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Niesler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The testing cycle, described in the paper, included fine-grained coke breeze granulation tests and iron concentrate sintering tests with the use of selected granulate samples. The use of granulated coke breeze in the sintering process results in a higher process efficiency, shorter sintering duration and fuel saving.

  13. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Konieczyński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury.

  14. Coke fouling process on the oil refining; Processo de incrustacao por coque no refino do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Fiorentin, Leila D.; Negrao, Cezar O.R.; Franco, Admilson T. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais (PPGEM)

    2004-07-01

    The heavy crude fraction processing is performed under very high vacuum to minimize thermal cracking which cause coke deposition and damage the equipment. The current tendency is to process heavier oil leading to higher process temperatures and consequently to greater fouling. This situation demands better knowledge fouling process by carbonization. This problem is pronounced in the residual gasoil region of a vacuum distillation unit because it obstructs the recirculation circuits and the spray system with serious environmental and economics implications. This paper review the main correlated published work related to coke generation and fouling and presents a discussion about the works. (author)

  15. Decomposition of Organic Compounds in Coke Plant Wastewater by Ultrasonic Irradiation and Its Combined Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jin-qiu; JIA Jin-ping; WANG Jing-wei

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the degradation of the organic compounds in the coke plant wastewater by the combined process of ultrasonic irradiation and activated sludge. The influence factors of the ultrasonic degradation effect such as air atmosphere, initial concentration, ultrasonic power density and the category and consumption of catalyst were investigated. A water quality model was used to explain the degradation of different kinds of organic compounds in the coke plant wastewater by ultrasonic irradiation. After the wastewater was treated by the combined process of ultrasonic irradiation and activated sludge, the COD degradation efficiency was 95. 74 %, which is 63. 49% higher than that by the process of activated sludge alone.

  16. Peculiarities of accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates in shoots of various species of acer genus in conditions of coke process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Bilchuk

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The research results on influence of the by-product-coking industry emission on starch and saccharose accumulation in sprouts of the Acer L. species are presented. The toxic ingredients of the coke production wastes inhibit the process of starch hydrolysis that provokes considerable decrease of the sugars content and negative influence on the plants’ winter hardiness are established.

  17. 清洁型热回收焦炉节能措施%Energy conservation measures of cleaning heat recovery coke oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    要长维; 薛恺; 李振文; 王慎国

    2011-01-01

    Based on the operation condition of SYR stamping and cleaning heat recovery coke oven, emphasize the main factors affecting energy consumption such as market factors, burn-off rate, water content of coal as fired. According to the (Access Conditions of Coking Industry) (2008 amendment) ,put forward reasonable suggestions to reduce energy consumption and improve benefit of enterprises.%结合SYR型捣固式清洁型热回收焦炉运行状况,着重分析影响其能耗的主要因素,包括市场因素、烧失率、入炉煤水分等,针对这些影响因素并根据《焦化行业准入条件》(2008年修订)相关要求,为进一步降低企业能耗,提高企业效益提出合理化建议.

  18. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-12-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  19. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  20. Effect of coking conditions on Rankin coefficient of coke cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arima, T.; Fukuda, K.; Kato, K. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd., Futtsu (Japan). Environmental & Process Technology Center

    2004-09-01

    An innovative cokemaking process, SCOPE21 (Super Coke Oven for Productivity and Environmental enhancement toward the 21st century), has been developed by JISF (The Japan Iron and Steel Federation) and CCUJ (Center for Coal Utilization, Japan). As a cokemaking process, it is important to guarantee safe and stable pushing. Coke pushing behavior was studied by using a pilot-scale coke oven and influence of coking conditions on the Rankin coefficient was investigated. It was found that Rankin coefficient was dependent on lateral shrinkage and fissure density in coke cake and that it can be controlled by controlling the fissure density in SCOPE21 process.

  1. Coal Beneficiation Technology for Coking & Non-Coking Coal Meant For Steel and Thermal Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Sharma; Gohil Priyank; Nikita Sharma

    2015-01-01

    There are 21 coking coal washeries in production both in private and public sectors. Production of clean coal in these washeries during 1989-90 was 12 million tonne and it is expected to go up to 37 million, tonne during 2015-16. Planning Commission has taken the decision that non-coking coal meant for Thermal Power Plants situated far away from feeding coalfield, should be beneficiated. Coal Washing is a process of separation mainly based on difference in Specific Gravity of Coal and associa...

  2. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs.

  3. New Coke Oven Facilities at Linhuan Coal Chemical Company Adopt LyondellBasell's Aromatics Extraction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The new 80 kt/a coal chemical unit at the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company in Anhui province will adopt the aro-matics extraction process licensed by LyondellBasell Company. This unit is expected to come on stream by 2009.This technology is suitable for manufacture of high-purity aromatics with broad adaptability and large scale produc-tion capability. In the previous year LyondellBasell was awarded six patents on aromatics extraction process. It is told that the achievements to be adopted by the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company are partly a series of aromatics extrac-tion processes for recovery of coke oven light oil performed by LyondellBasell.

  4. Meeting processing challenges in clean coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A.; Barnwal, J.P. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    2003-02-01

    The paper identifies some of the major challenges facing processing for clean coal utilization today. Some of the ongoing research at Southern Illinois University in the areas of plant optimization, fine coal cleaning and dewatering, fine coal-water slurry combustion, development of multiple products and mine-mouth utilization for lower grade products, and co-management of coal processing wastes and coal combustion byproducts underground, or as a cover material suitable for vegetation in surface mine reclamation is approaching commercialization. Additional research has been initiated recently in low cost desulfurization for SOx reduction, and/or reducing scrubbing costs. An integrated approach to evaluating processing unit operation for enhancing overall profitability of a mining complex is paying dividends. The approach is a good tool to assess role of processing for clean coal utilization in any setting. The authors have attempted to demonstrate its use for Indian coals. They plan to develop a computer program for making this integrated assessment approach more user friendly. 33 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubot, Warren [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Research and Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1H4 (Canada); MacKinnon, Michael D. [OSPM Solutions Ltd., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8H 6X2 (Canada); Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W. [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada); Gamal El-Din, Mohamed, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using petroleum coke (PC) adsorption was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC was effective at adsorbing naphthenic acids with higher cyclicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not toxic towards Vibrio fisheri and rainbow trout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of organic acids fitted the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC has the potential to be an effective adsorbent to treat OSPW either directly or as a pretreatment step.

  6. Combustion Simulation and Quick-freeze Observation of a Cupola-furnace Process Using a Bio-coke Fuel Based on Tea Scum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Murata, Hirotoshi; Kuwana, Kazunori; Mizuno, Satoru; Morita, Akihiro; Ida, Tamio

    Global environment problems have become more and more serious in recent years, and reduction of greenhouse gas emission based on Kyoto Protocol adopted at the 3rd conference of the parties of the United nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3); securement of primary energy source and development of clean and renewable energy sources have been pressingly needed in consideration of the predicted depletion of fossil fuel in the future. In this study, we explore the use of a solidified biomass-derived fuel, having the maximum compressive strength of 100MPa and calorific value of 21MJ/kg, in iron-casting or iron-making processes as an alternative fuel to be mixed with coal coke. This study, carried out for internal observation using a quick-freeze technique, observed an actual working cupola furnace under the 20% alternative coal coke operation condition. After quick freeze of the cupola furnace, the solidified biomass fuel was found to inhabit near the iron-melting zone. Especially, this solidified biomass fuel smoothly changes carbonized fuel through high-density state during the operating process. On the other hand, this study tried to simulate gasification combustion under a high temperature environment instead of actual internal combustion of solidified biomass fuel. These combustion mechanisms were confirmed to be similar to diffusion-flame phenomena in general.

  7. Quantitative analysis of ammonium salts in coking industrial liquid waste treatment process based on Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya-Nan; Wang, Gui-Shi; Tan, Tu; Cai, Ting-Dong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Gong-Dong; Mei, Jiao-Xu

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of ammonium salts in the process of coking industrial liquid waste treatment is successfully performed based on a compact Raman spectrometer combined with partial least square (PLS) method. Two main components (NH4SCN and (NH4)2S2O3) of the industrial mixture are investigated. During the data preprocessing, wavelet denoising and an internal standard normalization method are employed to improve the predicting ability of PLS models. Moreover, the PLS models with different characteristic bands for each component are studied to choose a best resolution. The internal and external calibration results of the validated model show a mass percentage error below 1% for both components. Finally, the repeatabilities and reproducibilities of Raman and reference titration measurements are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41405022 and 61475068).

  8. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  9. Processes forming Gas, Tar, and Coke in Cellulose Gasification from Gas-Phase Reactions of Levoglucosan as Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutome, Asuka; Kawamoto, Haruo; Saka, Shiro

    2015-07-01

    The gas-phase pyrolysis of levoglucosan (LG), the major intermediate species during cellulose gasification, was studied experimentally over the temperature range of 400-900 °C. Gaseous LG did not produce any dehydration products, which include coke, furans, and aromatic substances, although these are characteristic products of the pyrolysis of molten LG. Alternatively, at >500 °C, gaseous LG produced only fragmentation products, such as noncondensable gases and condensable C1 -C3 fragments, as intermediates during noncondensable gas formation. Therefore, it was determined that secondary reactions of gaseous LG can result in the clean (tar- and coke-free) gasification of cellulose. Cooling of the remaining LG in the gas phase caused coke formation by the transition of the LG to the molten state. The molecular mechanisms that govern the gas- and molten-phase reactions of LG are discussed in terms of the acid catalyst effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding to promote the molten-phase dehydration reactions.

  10. Physical cleaning of high carbon fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Killmeyer, Richard P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, Cochran Mills Roads, 15236 Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Andresen, John M. [The Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 405 Academic Activities Building, 16802-2308 University Park, PA (United States); Ciocco, Michael V.; Zandhuis, Paul H. [Parson Project Services Inc, National Energy Technology Laboratory, P.O. Box 618, 15129 Library, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-04-20

    An industrial fly ash sample was cleaned by three different processes, which were triboelectrostatic separation, ultrasonic column agglomeration, and column flotation. The unburned carbon concentrates were collected at purities ranging up to 62% at recoveries of 62%. In addition, optical microscopy studies were conducted on the final carbon concentrates to determine the carbon forms (inertinite, isotropic coke and anisotropic coke) collected from these various physical-cleaning processes. The effects of the various cleaning processes on the production of different carbon forms from high carbon fly ashes will be discussed.

  11. The triumphs of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, R.A.

    2004-07-01

    This is a reproduction of a booklet specially written by Dr R.A. Mott and designed by Mr G.E. Hall to mark the jubilee of the Coke Oven Managers' Association, founded in 1915. Whilst mentioning early methods of making coke in Great Britain, it deals particularly with the many developments in coke usage which took place before 1915 and is complementary to the 'History of coke making' written by Dr Mott in 1936. Uses covered include: for malting, for non-ferrous metal making, in an iron blast furnace, in crucible steel making, in the chafery and puddling process, in a foundry cupola, and in railway locomotives. 15 ills.

  12. An investigation for the HgCdTe cleaning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian-Yi; Wang, Nili; Zhao, Shuiping; Liu, Shi-Jia; Li, Xiang-Yang

    2014-11-01

    A new cleaning process for HgCdTe was designed - which used the improved SC-1,SC-2 and Br2- C2H5OH solutions as the main cleaning fluid and applied mega sound waves in the cleaning process. By analyzing the test results carried out on the HgCdTe surface, it was found that the material of HgCdTe for the application of new cleaning process was better than the one for the application of conventional cleaning process in the minority carrier lifetime, residual organic contamination, responsivity and specific detectivity.

  13. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  14. Limitations of the removal of cyanide from coking wastewater by ozonation and by the hydrogen peroxide-ozone process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, N; Miguel, N; Ovelleiro, J L; Ormad, M P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficiency of ozonation and the hydrogen peroxide-ozone process for the removal of cyanide from coking wastewater. The most efficient oxidation process is combined with coagulation-flocculation-decantation and lime-soda ash softening pretreatments. The oxidation in aqueous solution and industrial wastewater (at pH 9.5-12.3) by O3 was carried out using a range of concentration of consumed O3 from 10 to 290 mg/L. A molar ratio of H2O2/O3 from 0.1 to 5.2 with different concentrations of O3 constants was used for the H2O2-O3 process. The maximum cyanide removal obtained in coking wastewater was 90% using a mass ratio of O3/CN(-) of 9.5. Using lower concentrations of O3, cyanide is not removed and can even be generated due to the presence of other cyanide precursor organic micropollutants in the industrial matrix. The concentration of O3 is reduced to half for the same cyanide removal efficiency if the pretreatments are applied to reduce the carbonate and bicarbonate ions. The cyanide removal efficiency in coking wastewater is not improved if the O3 is combined with the H2O2. However, the preliminary cyanide removal treatment in aqueous solution showed an increase in the cyanide removal efficiency for the H2O2-O3 process.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis for a regenerative gas turbine cycle in coking process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelong Zhang, Lingen Chen, Yanlin Ge, Fengrui Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A regenerative gas turbine cycle driven by residual coke oven gas is proposed in this paper. The thermal efficiency and the work output (per ton of coke of the system are analyzed based on thermodynamics and the theory of gas turbine cycle. The influences of the gas release rate, the residual gas rate and the effectiveness of regenerator on the performance of the cycle are analyzed by using numerical examples. It is found that the work output increases with the increase of the residual gas rate while decreases with the increase of the gas release rate. The cycle with regenerator can reach higher thermal efficiency and bigger work output, which means that the coke oven gas is used more effectively. Moreover, there exist two optimal pressure ratios of compressor which lead the maximum thermal efficiency and the maximum specific work, respectively.

  16. Coke: its constitution and utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth Callcott; Tom Callcott [Callcott Consulting (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Coke made in coke ovens from coal and used in iron blast furnaces is a strategically critical manufactured product for contemporary and future world iron production. The important physical, chemical and microscopic properties of cokes are examined and explained, drawing on both an exhaustive literature review and the extensive R&D, consulting and industrial experience of the authors. The emphasis is on characterising the family of cokes as materials rather than considering the raw materials of carbonisation and the carbonisation processes. The term 'coke' covers a wide range of materials that can be classified in a number of ways based either on properties or utilisation practices. With few exceptions, these materials are manufactured for specific industrial purposes such as metallurgical processes, making gases or filtering fluids. This report primarily concerns industrial cokes with special concern for blast furnace cokes and their utilisation in iron making. Other industrial cokes and those made in pilot plants or laboratory ovens receive attention where their properties help understand primary utilisation as blast furnace coke.

  17. Coking wastewater treatment for industrial reuse purpose: Combining biological processes with ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuewen Jin; Enchao Li; Shuguang Lu; Zhaofu Qiu; Qian Sui

    2013-01-01

    A full-scale plant using anaerobic,anoxic and oxic processes (A1/A2/O),along with a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR),nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) integrated system developed by Shanghai Baosteel Chemical Co.Ltd.,was investigated to treat coking wastewater for industrial reuse over a period of one year.The removals reached 82.5% (COD),89.6% (BOD),99.8% (ammonium nitrogen),99.9% (phenol),44.6% (total cyanide (T-CN)),99.7% (thiocyanide (SCN-)) and 8.9% (fluoride),during the A1/A2/O biological treatment stage,and all parameters were further reduced by over 96.0%,except for fluoride (86.4%),in the final discharge effluent from the currently operating plant.The pilot-scale MBR process reduced the turbidity to less than 0.65 NTU,and most of the toxic organic compounds were degraded or intercepted by the A1/A2/O followed MBR processes.In addition,parameters including COD,T-CN,total nitrogen,fluoride,chloride ion,hardness and conductivity were significantly reduced by the NF-RO system to a level suitable for industrial reuse,with a total water production ratio of 70.7%.However,the concentrates from the NF and RO units were highly polluted and should be disposed of properly or further treated before being discharged.

  18. Trends in the automation of coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

  19. Thermal and hydraulic effects of coke deposit in hydrocarbon pyrolysis process

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Fuel pyrolysis can be of benefit for regenerative cooling techniques due to its endothermic effect in ensuring the thermal resistance of hypersonic vehicles and structures. Among pyrolysis species production, there is that of coke formation. A numerical code is used in this paper to investigate the related phenomena, based on two experiments using Titanium (Ti) and Stainless Steel (SS) reactors, which present different pyrolysis rates under similar operating conditions...

  20. Clean Processing and Utilization of Coal Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如清; 王海峰

    2006-01-01

    The dominant status of coal on the energy production and consumption structure of China will not be changed in the middle period of this century. To realize highly efficient utilization of coal, low pollution and low cost are great and impendent tasks. These difficult problems can be almost resolved through establishing large-scale pithead power stations using two-stage highly efficient dry coal-cleaning system before coal burning, which is a highly efficient, clean and economical strategy considering the current energy and environmental status of China. All these will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  1. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  2. South Africa faces coke shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Iscor Vanderbijlpark in South Africa may need to import substantial tonnages of coking coal as a result of increasing quality demands on coke at Vanderbiljpark (to support the recently installed PCI process) as well as the Newcastle works. Availability of coke is not only a problem for the South African steel industry but is a global problem as the production of coke in Western countries has declined over the past three years. A massive expansion in coke-making capacity is happening in China but the Chinese beehive ovens create serious pollution problems. A world shortage of coke of 30 million t/y by 2005 is estimated, rising to over 60 million t/y by 2010 of no new capacity is created. Steelmakers have succeeded in reducing their consumption of coke, by pulverised coal injection by better distribution of components in the furnace shaft and by decline in use of the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace route, but the industry is still facing serious shortages of coke.

  3. Naphthenic acids speciation and removal during petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation of oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Fu, Hongjing; Wang, Nan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Pérez-Estrada, Leonidas; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Martin, Jonathan W; Zubot, Warren; Smith, Daniel W

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands industry produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) as a result of bitumen extraction and upgrading processes. Constituents of OSPW include chloride, naphthenic acids (NAs), aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace heavy metals, among other inorganic and organic compounds. To address the environmental issues associated with the recycling and/or safe return of OSPW into the environment, water treatment technologies are required. This study examined, for the first time, the impacts of pretreatment steps, including filtration and petroleum-coke adsorption, on ozonation requirements and performance. The effect of the initial OSPW pH on treatment performance, and the evolution of ozonation and its impact on OSPW toxicity and biodegradability were also examined. The degradation of more than 76% of total acid-extractable organics was achieved using a semi-batch ozonation system at a utilized ozone dose of 150 mg/L. With a utilized ozone dose of 100 mg/L, the treated OSPW became more biodegradable and showed no toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri. Changes in the NA profiles in terms of carbon number and number of rings were observed after ozonation. The filtration of the OSPW did not improve the ozonation performance. Petroleum-coke adsorption was found to be effective in reducing total acid-extractable organics by a 91%, NA content by an 84%, and OSPW toxicity from 4.3 to 1.1 toxicity units. The results of this study indicate that the combination of petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation is a promising treatment approach to treat OSPW.

  4. Prioritizing substitution of organic solvents in industrial cleaning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Pia Brunn; Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A method for prioritizing the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) used in industrial cleaning processes is developed. The result is a matrix, which, if all information can be obtained, gives a comprehensive description of the effects, exposure and emission of VOC, as well...... as the prospects for performing the substitution with a vegetable ester. It can be a tool for companies to decide which cleaning process has the highest demand for substitution, if there is a choice between several processes, but it may also be a tool to convince companies to use non-volatile, low-toxic cleaning...

  5. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols from coking wastewater by simultaneously synthesized organobentonite in a one-step process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua Wu; Lizhong Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The optimal condition for a one-step process removing organic compounds from coiking wastewater by simultaneously synthesized organobentonite as a pretreatment was investigated.Results showed that sorption of organic compounds by organobentonite was positively correlated to the cation surfactant exchange on the bentonite and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) of the solutes.With 0.75 g/L bentonite and 180 mg/L (60% of bentonite cation exchange capacity) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide,the removal efficiencies of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency in coking waste0water except naphthalene were more than 90%,and that of benzo(a)pyrene was 99.5%.At the same time,the removal efficiencies of CODCr,NH3-N,volatile phenols,colour and turbidity were 28.6%,13.2%,8.9%,55% and 84.3%,respectively,and the ratio of BOD5/CODcr increased from 0.31 to 0.41.These results indicated that the one-step process had high removal efficiency for toxic and refractory hydrophobic organic compounds,and could improve the biodegradability of the coking wastewater.Therefore it could be a promising technology for the pretreatment of toxic and refractory organic wastewater.

  6. Modeling the kinetics of methane conversion in steam reforming process of coke-oven gas based on experimental data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-yuan; ZHOU Jie-min

    2007-01-01

    Steam-reforming is an effective approach for upgrading methane and hydrocarbon of coke-oven gas into CO and H2, but the kinetic behavior needs more study. We investigated the conversion of methane in coke-oven gas by steam reforming process in an electric tubular flow at 14 kPa with temperature varying from 500℃ to 950℃, and developed a kenetic model for , ignoring the effects of adsorption and diffusion. The optimal dynamic conditions for methane conversion 14 kPa are as follows: the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of methane is from 1.1 to 1.3; the reaction temperature is from 1 223 K to 1 273 K. The methane conversion rate is larger than 95% when the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of methane is 1.2 at a temperature above 1 223 K with the residence time up to 0.75 s.

  7. Fissure formation in coke. 2: Effect of heating rate, shrinkage and coke strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; M.R. Mahoney [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the effects of the heating rate, coke shrinkage and coke breakage strength upon the fissure pattern developed in a coke oven charge during carbonisation. This is done principally using a mechanistic model of the formation of fissures, which considers them to be an array of equally spaced fissures, whose depth follows a 'period doubling' pattern based upon the time history of the fissures. The model results are compared with pilot scale coke oven experiments. The results show that the effect of heating rate on the fissure pattern is different to the effect of coke shrinkage, while the effect of coke breakage strength on the pattern is less pronounced. The results can be seen in both the shape and size of resulting coke lumps after stabilisation. The approach gives the opportunity to consider means of controlling the carbonisation process in order to tune the size of the coke lumps produced. 7 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. RESEARCH ON THE QUALITY PRICE RATIO OF COKING COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶树人; 王永君

    1994-01-01

    If assortment price parity of Clean coling coal and its quallty price difference is nonreasortable, it doesn't guide in improving the qualiry metaljurgical eoking coal and may be influence the economic benefit of metallurgical enterprises. This paper propose the principles and mathematic model for determination assortment parity of ciean cokingcoal and its quality difference of ash content in clean coking coa in order to urge wasberies into producing superior clean coking coal which is under condition of consideration both intorest waskcries and interest metallurgical industry. It canbe used as a method in theory to make price stra,iegics under condition of socialism maket economic for washeries of clean coking coal

  9. 对各种炼焦工艺及无回收焦炉的评述%Commentary on Various Cokemaking Process and No Recovery Coke Oven Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟英飞

    2001-01-01

    The present developing situation and direction of cokemaking processes in the counties all over the world is described and comment is made mainly on the advantages and disadvantages of no recovery coke oven batteries and on the limitation of no recovery coke oven battery developing in our country.%介绍了世界各国炼焦工艺的开发现状及发展方向,重点评述了无回收焦炉的优缺点,及在我国发展无回收焦炉的局限性。

  10. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, Edward; Spires, Renee; Davis, Neil

    2009-02-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank. During the cleaning, the oxalic acid acts as the solvent to digest sludge solids and insoluble salt solids, such that they can be suspended and pumped out of the tank. Because of the volume and concentration of acid used, a significant quantity of oxalate is added to the HLW process. This added oxalate significantly impacts downstream processing. In addition to the oxalate, the volume of liquid added competes for the limited available tank space. A search, therefore, was initiated for a new cleaning process. Using TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch or roughly translated as the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination with Ultraviolet Light (CORD-UV{reg_sign}), a mature technology used in the commercial nuclear power industry was identified as an alternate technology. Similar to BOAC, CORD-UV{reg_sign} also uses oxalic acid as the solvent to dissolve the metal (hydr)oxide solids. CORD-UV{reg_sign} is different, however, since it uses photo-oxidation (via peroxide/UV or ozone/UV to form hydroxyl radicals) to decompose the spent oxalate into carbon dioxide and water. Since the oxalate is decomposed and off-gassed, CORD-UV{reg_sign} would not have the negative downstream oxalate process impacts of BOAC. With the oxalate destruction occurring physically outside the HLW tank, re-precipitation and transfer of the solids, as well as regeneration of the cleaning solution can be performed without adding additional solids, or a significant volume of liquid to the process. With a draft of the pre-conceptual Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) flowsheet, taking full

  11. Investigations of the effectiveness of lead disposal from hard coal through the cleaning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead, belonging to the category of toxic heavy metals, poses a major threat to the environment and the health and life of living organisms. Anthropogenic sources of lead emissions to the atmosphere include coal combustion, pyrolysis and gasification processes. This metal enters the atmosphere through the fly ashes and gases, causing chemical imbalance in the ecosystem. One way of reducing the emissions of heavy metals into the atmosphere due to the thermochemical processing of coal involves removing impurities from the fuel prior to its use, e.g. through the coal cleaning processes. The removal of heavy metals from coal through these processes is possible due to the fact that these elements are mostly related to the mineral matter, which is separated from the organic matter. This paper presents the results of investigations of the removal efficiency of lead from coals through the coal cleaning processes in industrial plants. Additionally, the distribution of lead among individual products of these processes was identified. Raw coals, coal concentrates, intermediate products and waste from five plants of mechanical processing of coking coal were analyzed. The determination of the lead content was performed with the use of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. Moreover, for all the samples, a proximate analysis and ultimate analysis as well as the determination of the content of main elements of mineral matter were conducted. In order to confirm the mode of occurrence of lead in coal mineral matter, an elemental analysis was conducted with the use of an electron microprobe. The results of the investigations showed that with a significant reduction of mineral matter in the coal cleaning processes, the lead content is decreased, as a result of both, the application of the gravity and flotation methods. The analyzed metal accumulates primarily in the waste and/or intermediate products of coal cleaning. The lead content in the obtained coal

  12. Alternative, Green Processes for the Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.; Grandelli, Heather Eilenfield; Devor, Robert; Hintze, Paul E.; Loftin, Kathleen B.; Tomlin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning is necessary to ensure the proper functioning of aerospace hardware, particularly those systems that come in contact with liquid oxygen or hypergolic fuels. Components that have not been cleaned to the appropriate levels may experience problems ranging from impaired performance to catastrophic failure. Traditionally, this has been achieved using various halogenated solvents. However, as information on the toxicological and/or environmental impacts of each came to light, they were subsequently regulated out of use. The solvent currently used in Kennedy Space Center (KSC) precision cleaning operations is Vertrel MCA. Environmental sampling at KSC indicates that continued use of this or similar solvents may lead to high remediation costs that must be borne by the Program for years to come. In response to this problem, the Green Solvents Project seeks to develop state-of-the-art, green technologies designed to meet KSCs precision cleaning needs.Initially, 23 solvents were identified as potential replacements for the current Vertrel MCA-based process. Highly halogenated solvents were deliberately omitted since historical precedents indicate that as the long-term consequences of these solvents become known, they will eventually be regulated out of practical use, often with significant financial burdens for the user. Three solvent-less cleaning processes (plasma, supercritical carbon dioxide, and carbon dioxide snow) were also chosen since they produce essentially no waste stream. Next, experimental and analytical procedures were developed to compare the relative effectiveness of these solvents and technologies to the current KSC standard of Vertrel MCA. Individually numbered Swagelok fittings were used to represent the hardware in the cleaning process. First, the fittings were cleaned using Vertrel MCA in order to determine their true cleaned mass. Next, the fittings were dipped into stock solutions of five commonly encountered contaminants and were

  13. Effect of the catalyzing combustion of coke breeze on the energy saving in sinter process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of additive ZC-1 for catalyzing combustion of coke breeze in sintering of iron one fines was studied by using X-ray Diffraction, TGA and GC (Gas Chromatographer), by which energy saving was achieved on sinter pot test. The results show that the distance between cleavage planes is enlarged and the π-electrons are re-distibuted because of the insertion of cations/molecules of ZC-1 into the cleavage planes of carbon , resulting in the weakening of C-C bond, improving the adsorption of oxygen and lowering the activation energy of gasification of carbon from 25.8 kJ/mol to 18.9 kJ/mol , and the burning rate being increased and combustion residual reduced, all of which can lead to lower solid fuel consumption . Compared with the sintering test without addition of additives , the solid fuel consumption is reduced by 16.0%, meanwhile, the rate of finished sinter, the output of finished sinter and the tumbling index are increased by 2.03%, 7.0% and 3.71%, respectively, with incorporating 0.2% of additive ZC-1 in the sintering mixture, which is in agreement with the catalyzing mechanism of ZC-1.

  14. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn

    1997-01-01

    Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing...

  15. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY - CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proposed objective of the NATO/CCMS Pilot on clean products and processes is to facilitate further gains in pollution prevention, waste minimization, and design for the environment. It is anticipated that the free exchange of knowledge, experience, data, and models will fost...

  16. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...... industry, and vehicle repair and maintenance. There are, however, other elements that influence the possibility to substitute. The requirements to the resulting surface, depending on the following treatment of the surface. The character of the soilings to be removed. The possible presence of other...

  17. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin Jay [Northwestern University

    2013-05-08

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  18. Development of reduced crude processing technology in delayed coking units; Desenvolvimento da tecnologia de processamento de residuo atmosferico em unidade de coqueamento retardado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gloria Maria Gomes; Bartros, Francisco Carlos da Costa; Goncalves, Natalie Jorge; Pala, Danielle Marins; Nadolni, Aline Voigt [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Delayed Coking Technology can be described as thermal cracking of low value refinery residual streams into high-value products. This process has been applied in petroleum refining schemes in order to upgrade heavy and ultra-heavy crude oils. The typical feedstock is vacuum residue (VR). When we have an increasing medium distillates demand and refining schemes which have gas oil and VR excess, the simultaneous conversion of these streams becomes economically attractive, due mainly to the increase of diesel production. Thus, the processing of atmospheric residue (AR) in Delayed Coking Units (DCU) has fueled great interest for PETROBRAS. This work presents the results of industrial and pilot plant tests with AR and VR showing the increasing of diesel yields and decreasing of coke yields processing AR as feedstock. When we process all the AR in the DCU with high recycle rate we observe an increasing of 25% on refinery diesel production related to conventional schemes. The refining scheme of the new PETROBRAS refinery at Northeast of Brazil is based on this technology. This refinery will process heavy oils maximizing diesel production with minimum investment. (author)

  19. Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Processes for Treatment of Coking Wastewater%焦化废水的MBR处理工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国正; 何义亮

    2013-01-01

    针对焦化废水治理难题,将传统生化处理工艺A/A/O改造成A/A/O+MBR组合处理工艺,运行结果表明:A/A/O+MBR组合工艺对NH3-N去除效果好,处理出水NH3-N浓度一般为5~10 mg/L,CODcr浓度为200 mg/L左右,较A/A/O工艺有明显改善和提高;剩余污泥产量为系统改造前的10%左右,大大节约了污泥处理处置成本;MBR膜组件模块化自动控制,简化了操作维护,有效减缓了膜污染.%Advanced treatment for coking wastewater was investigated experimentally by A/A/O+MBR combination treatment process, due to the water quality usually could not meet the discharge standards after conventional biological treatment A/A/O process. The results showed that A/A/O+MBR was more effective than A/A/O process for removing ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and other refractory compounds. The concentration of NH3-N and CODGr after the treatment by A/A/O+MBR process were 5~10 mg/L and 200 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, it was found that the excessive sludge yielded reduced by 10 % relatived to the system before the transformation, which was a significant reduction in the cost of sludge treatment and disposal. Also, modular-automatic control of MBR membrane modules simplified the operation and maintenance, and eliminated the membrane fouling effectively.

  20. Flue Gas Cleaning With Alternative Processes and Reaction Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    Alternative methods to the traditional industrial NOX and SOXflue gas cleaning processes working at lower temperatures and/orleading to useful products are desired. In this work we presentour latest results regarding the use of molten ionic media inelectrocatalytic membrane separation, ionic liquid...... reversibleabsorption and supported ionic liquid deNOX catalysis. Furtherdevelopment of the methods will hopefully make them suitable forinstallation in different positions in the flue gas duct ascompared to the industrial methods available today....

  1. MEDIUM PRESSURE HYDROUPGRADING PROCESS (MHUG) AND PRODUCTION OF CLEAN FUELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The medium pressure hydroupgrading process (MHUG) unit with an 800 kt/a processing capacity of Jinzhou Petrochemical Company is used to hydroupgrade the mixture of FCC LCO fuel and straight-run diesel fuel in the presence of RN/RT series catalysts for improvement of the quality of the diesel fuel. Meanwhile, catalytic reforming feedstock is also obtained. The sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics contained in the hydroupgraded diesel fuel products can be minimized and the cetane number can be heightened. The produced clean fuels can meet the requirements of environmental protection.

  2. Study on occurrence of sulfur in different group components of Xinyu clean coking coal%新峪焦精煤中硫在族组分间的赋存规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦志宏; 张豪非; 戴冬瑾; 赵翠翠; 张丽芳

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates the occurrence and distribution of sulfur in coal from the perspective of composition and structure of the coal body.With the organic sulfur-rich Xinyu clean coking coal as the sample, and the method of separating all group components from coal through extraction and stripping process as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ( XPS ) and gas chromatogrpa hy/masss pectrometer ( GC/MS) analysis techniques, the content of inorganic sulfur and organic slu fur of diffre ent forms in raw cola and various group components isstudied andt he occurrence of organic sulfur in organic matter of coal is carefully observed.The results show the distribution of inorganic sulfur is mainly dependent upon its particle siez and density in coal and has less relationship wti h the structure of group components of coal.Thiophene sulfur ist he major form fo o rganic sufl ur either in raw cola or group components.The ext ernal envri onment of molecules dominated by conjugated structure can derc ease the elector n binding energy of ogr anic sulfur in conjugated structru e, whiel incrae se that of us lfur in aliphatic structure.Th e distribution of organic sulfuri n coal si balanc ed as a whole and will not be signifiac ntly infleu nced by ts rucut ral differne ces of group components. Howve er, the occurrence of organic sulfur compounds is assocai ted with the structure of group components, showing relatively small difference.And there is only one type of small molce ule orag nic sulfur compounds in light component, with small abundance.%为从煤的本体组成结构方面来阐述煤中硫的赋存与分布规律,以高含有机硫的新峪焦精煤为对象,采用萃取反萃取的煤全组分分离方法和XPS、GC/MS等分析技术,对原煤和各族组分中的不同形态无机硫和有机硫含量进行了研究,重点考察了有机硫在煤有机质本体中的赋存规律。结果表明,无机硫的分布主要依赖于其自身在煤主体中

  3. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z.; Morikawa, M.; Fujii, Y. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Full factorial DOE to determine the influence of the process parameters in cleaning water jets used in sewer cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Medan Nicolae; Lobontiu Mircea; Banica Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Industrial cleaning is a classic application of water jets technology. In the late 1950s, when reliable high pressure pumps were built, the usage of water jets spread widely in the field of pipes and sewerage cleaning. In our particular case, water jets using pressure between 100 and 200 bars are being used. The operational behaviour of these systems is dependent on the process parameters, which can vary, causing variations in the impact force. The experiment consists in the research method u...

  5. 可乐鸡翅生产工艺研究%Processing technology of chicken wing with coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓霞; 张怀珠; 冯晓群; 彭涛

    2011-01-01

    Chicken wings were taken as raw materials in this paper;single-factor and the orthogonal experiments were employed to study the effects of pickling time,coke content in soup and boiling time on epidermis chromatic difference of chicken wing and sensory quality.The result indicated that pickling for 18h,coke content of 66%,boiling for 25 min,the product was delicious,with brightly color and retained coke flavor.There will be a broad market prospect for this product.%以鸡翅为主要原料,通过单因素试验和正交试验,重点研究腌制时间、煮汤中可乐的百分含量、煮制时间等因素对可乐鸡翅表皮色差和感官品质的影响。结果表明:腌制时间18h,煮汤中可乐的百分含量66%,煮制时间25min。该产品味道鲜美,色泽艳丽,保留了可乐的香气,市场前景广阔。

  6. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  7. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    OpenAIRE

    A. Konstanciak

    2013-01-01

    In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  8. Influence of cleaning process on the laser-induced damage threshold of substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhengxiang; Ding, Tao; Ye, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaodong; Ma, Bin; Cheng, Xinbin; Liu, Huasong; Ji, Yiqin; Wang, Zhanshan

    2011-03-20

    The cleaning process of optical substrates plays an important role during the manufacture of high-power laser coatings. Two kinds of substrates, fused silica and BK7 glass, and two cleaning processes, called process 1 and process 2 having different surfactant solutions and different ultrasonic cleaning parameters, are adopted to compare the influence of the ultrasonic cleaning technique on the substrates. The evaluation standards of the cleaning results include contaminant-removal efficiency, weak absorption, and laser-induced damage threshold of the substrates. For both fused silica and BK7, process 2 is more efficient than process 1. Because acid and alkaline solutions can increase the roughness of BK7, process 2 is unsuitable for BK7 glass cleaning. The parameters of the cleaning protocol should be changed depending on the material of the optical components and the type of contamination.

  9. The coke drum thermal kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)

  10. Technical Progress of China's Delayed Coking Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lixin; Li Hejie

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the recent advances of China in the fields of process technology of delayed coking, enlarged equipment size, hydraulic decoking, automatic control and environmental protection. By the end of 2004 the total capacity of delayed coking units in China had reached 37.24Mt/a with the maximum coke drum diameter equating to 9.4 m. This article also presents the investment in delayed cokers and the current production status while pointing out the existing problems and future development trends.

  11. 电絮凝用于焦化废水脱色的研究%Study on decolorization of coking wastewater by continuous electrocoagulation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张垒; 薛改凤; 张楠; 刘尚超; 段爱民; 刘璞

    2011-01-01

    The decolorization and chemical oxygen demand(COD) reduction of coking wastewater has been carried out by electrocoagulation process.In the meanwhile effects of operating parameters,such as current density,pH of solution,electrolyte concentration and hydraulic residence time(HRT) on decolorization by continuous electrocoagulation are further studied in order to optimize process performance.The UV-Vis spectrum data proves that organic pollutants of the coking wastewater can be effectively degraded and decolorized by electrocoagulation.Results show that the effects of electrocoagulation process on the decolorization of the coking wastewater are obvious and up to 91% of color removal efficiency is obtained after 80 min reaction at 25 ℃ with a current density of 30 mA /cm2,a pH of 8.0,an electrode distance of 1.0 cm and a supporting electrolyte concentration of 0.5 g /L.%采用了连续电絮凝工艺对焦化废水进行深度处理,考察了电流密度、溶液pH值、电解质密度和水力停留时间等工艺参数对脱色效率的影响。UV-Vis谱图证实了电絮凝能有效地对有机物进行降解和脱色。结果表明,电絮凝工艺对焦化废水脱色效果明显,当电流密度为30 mA/cm2,pH值为8.0,极板距为1.0 cm,支持电解质浓度为0.5 g/L,在25℃下反应80 min后脱色效率达91%以上。

  12. Coke Oven Gas Based Methanol Production Capacity Reached 1.2 Mt/a in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coke oven gas is one of the main byproducts of coke chemicals industry.One ton of coke formed can generate 430 m3of coke oven gas.Adoption of appropriate chemical processing method can convert methane contained in the coke oven gas into CO that can be further converted into methanol.It is learned that currently China has constructed and commissioned ten projects for manufacture of methanol fromcoke oven gas with the total production capacity reaching 1.2 Mt/a methanol.More than twenty coke gas-to-methanol units are under construction or in the stage of project design with their overall production capacity reaching nearly 3.0 Mt/a methanol.Relevant experts have indicated that the enterprises provided with coke production lines are capable of constructing coke gas-to-methanol projects to realize coproduction of coke and methanol while utilizing their own coke gas resources.

  13. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  14. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof; Pyka Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse ...

  15. Advances towards a Clean Hydrometallurgical Process for Chromite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the acute toxicity of Cr(VI-bearing substances, the pollution problem caused by chromite process residue has become a worldwide concern. In the view of relevant studies, the technologies based on the alkali treatment cannot fundamentally resolve the pollution problem, because the oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI is unavoidable during chromite decomposition. In contrast, the oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI can be controlled by the sulfuric acid treatment of chromite, and the Cr(VI pollution can be eliminated from the original source of production. Many research studies focusing on the resolutions of the key obstacles hindering the development of the sulfuric acid treatment process have been carried out, and significant progress has been achieved. In this study, a clean hydrometallurgical process without the generation of hexavalent chromium is demonstrated. First, the chromite was decomposed and leached by sulfuric acid solution in the presence of an oxidant. Then, iron was hydrothermally removed from the acid solution as the precipitate of jarosite. Finally, chromium salts were obtained by adjusting the basicity of the solution, separation and drying. With the aim of realizing industrialization, future research emphasis on the development of the sulfuric acid treatment process is proposed in this study.

  16. Full factorial DOE to determine the influence of the process parameters in cleaning water jets used in sewer cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medan Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial cleaning is a classic application of water jets technology. In the late 1950s, when reliable high pressure pumps were built, the usage of water jets spread widely in the field of pipes and sewerage cleaning. In our particular case, water jets using pressure between 100 and 200 bars are being used. The operational behaviour of these systems is dependent on the process parameters, which can vary, causing variations in the impact force. The experiment consists in the research method used in the study of the impact forces that occur in the sewerage cleaning head system. To determine the influence process parameters have on impact forces, the full factorial method was used. In order to measure the impact forces between the water jet and a flat and rigid surface, a stand was designed and built for generating pressure water jets, as well as a device to measure the impact forces.

  17. Research on Method of Coke oven Gas Desulfurization Process%焦炉煤气脱硫效率分析及工艺选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛辉; 马强

    2012-01-01

    煤气中所含的硫会造成环境污染、催化剂中毒和设备腐蚀等不良影响。文章探讨了脱除焦炉煤气中硫化氢常用工艺方法的原理及利弊,总结出提高脱硫效率的方法,为选择合理、高效的脱硫工艺提供了帮助。%The sulfur contained in the gas will cause the adverse effects of environmental pollution,catalyst poisoning and equipment corrosion.The paper discussed the principle and the pros and cons of the removal of hydrogen sulfide in the coke oven gas commonly used process,summed up to improve the desulfurization efficiency for the selection of a reasonable,efficient desulfurization process has helped.

  18. Study on combustion characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu [and others

    1997-07-01

    Petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) is one of prospect substitute of oil burned in many industrial boilers and utilities in China. It is a mixture of pulverized petroleum coke, residual oil and slurry oil. We carried out a series of experiments to study its ignition and combustion mechanism. Experimental results show that the ignition temperature of petroleum coke is higher than normal anthracite and meager coal, and it is difficult to be burned in oil-fired furnace directly. The petroleum coke`s combustion property is improved greatly after mixing with residual oil and slurry oil. The combustion process of POS can be divided into three phases: preheating, kindling and homogenous combustion, burning of the petroleum coke residue. The combustion condition of POS is close to bituminous and coal-oil-mixture (COM).

  19. Electro-membrane processes for flue gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, T. F.

    1997-12-31

    , the energy consumption for regeneration of 250 kJ/mole SO{sub 2}, at a current density of 150 mA/Cm{sup 2} and 200 kJ/mole SO{sub 2}, at a current density of 50 mA/cm{sup 2}, have been achieved. This may be compared to the energy consumption of about 1200 kJ/mole SO{sub 2} for the conventional process (steam stripping) for regeneration. The problems arising from fouling of membranes due to the presence of impurities in the liquid have also been studied. These studies have then been used for evaluating the requirement for cleaning of liquids before regeneration. (EG) EFP-94. 95 refs.

  20. Separation process of coking xylene residue%焦化二甲苯残液的分离工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春玉; 唐旭博; 陆平; 华超

    2016-01-01

    针对苯加氢过程中产生的二甲苯残液进行分离,通过减压精馏实验并结合化工模拟软件PRO II 9.0建立的二甲苯残液分离模型对其工艺进行研究。研究表明:通过高效精馏,可以实现焦化二甲苯残液中组分的分离;在理论板为60,压力为10kPa,回流比为15时,可以获得w>99.0%的茚满,回流比为20时,可获得w>99.0%的四氢化萘,单程收率可以达到95%以上。实验与模拟结果为实现工业化分离二甲苯残液制备茚满和四氢化萘产品提供了必要的基础数据。%The separation process for the xylene residue from coking crude benzene hydrogenation process was investigated by vacuum distillation experiments and the xylene residue separation model established by the chemical simulation software PRO II 9.0. Results show that using efficient distillation technology, the separation of coking xylene residue could be realized. To obtain a product purity of above 99% by mass with a recovery of above 95% for indane and tetrahydronaphthalene, the reflux ratios are 15 and 20, respectively, at the theoretical plate number of 60 and pressure of 10kPa. The results provide the necessary basic data for industrial separation of indane and tetrahydronaphthalene products from the xylene residue.

  1. Functionalization of Petroleum Coke-Derived Carbon for Synergistically Enhanced Capacitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Xuejin; Huang, Jufeng; Xing, Wei; Yan, Zifeng

    2016-03-01

    Petroleum coke is a valuable and potential source for clean energy storage if it could be modified legitimately and facilely. In the present study, porous carbon with high surface area and abundant oxygen-containing groups was prepared from petroleum coke by chemical activation and modification processes. The as-prepared carbon exhibits a high surface area (1129 m2 · g-1) and stable micrographic structure. It presents a high specific capacitance and excellent rate performance in KOH electrolyte. Even at an ultrahigh current density of 50 A · g-1, the specific capacitance of the prepared carbon can still reach up to an unprecedented value of 261 F · g-1 with a superhigh retention rate of 81 %. In addition, the energy density of this material in aqueous electrolyte can be as high as 13.9 Wh · kg-1. The high energy density and excellent rate performance ensure its prosperous application in high-power energy storage system.

  2. Cleaning and Processing RSS measurements for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Handling variations in sampled Received Signal Strength (RSS) is neassary for achieving robust location fingerprinting (LF). Current research has only proposed limited system-specific models for how to handle the cleaning of RSS variations. However, this paper propose a novel model for both...

  3. A coke preparedness monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazanov, V.F.; Bannikov, L.S.; Chepurnykh, S.F.; Dobromobov, Yu.I.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Pinchuk, S.I.; Shifrin, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    A coke preparedness monitoring device for a door extractor contains sounding electrodes, a stabilized voltage source and a meter to record the electrical resistance of the coke. In order to provide monitoring capacity of the preparedness of the coke in the flow and to increase measuring accuracy the device contains sounding electrodes in the coke-treating door extractor; these are connected together with the recorder via an additional stabilized power supply to a stabilized voltage source.

  4. Coke fouling monitoring by electrical resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Mari, Livia Assis; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial (CPGEI)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental method to simulate the growth of the coke fouling that occurs in the oil processing is proposed relating the thickness of the encrusted coke to its electrical resistivity. The authors suggest the use of the fouling electrical resistivity as a transducer element for determining its thickness. The sensor is basically two electrodes in an electrically isolated device where the inlay can happen in order to compose a purely resistive transducer. Such devices can be easily constructed in a simple and robust form with features capable to face the high temperatures and pressures found in relevant industrial processes. For validation, however, it is needed a relationship between the electrical resistivity and the fouling thickness, information not yet found in the literature. The present work experimentally simulates the growth of a layer of coke on an electrically insulating surface, equipped with electrodes at two extremities to measure the electrical resistivity during thermal cracking essays. The method is realized with a series of consecutive runs. The results correlate the mass of coke deposited and its electrical resistivity, and it can be used to validate the coke depositions monitoring employing the resistivity as a control parameter. (author)

  5. Application of response surface methodology to the chemical cleaning process of ultrafiltration membrane☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caihong Wang; Aishu Wei; Hao Wu; Fangshu Qu; Weixiong Chen; Heng Liang; Guibai Li

    2016-01-01

    A numerical model was established to predict and optimise the chemical cleaning process of Polyvinylidene Fluo-ride (PVDF) Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with the results from the experiment that applied the Response Sur-face Method (RSM) and Central Composite Design (CCD). The factors considered in the experimental design were sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration, sodium hypochlorite concentration (NaClO), citric acid concentration and cleaning duration. The interactions between the factors were investigated with the numerical model. Humic acid (20 mg·L−1) was used as the model foulant, and chemical enhanced backflush (CEB) was employed to sim-ulate the chemical cleaning process. The concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, citric acid and cleaning duration tested during the experiments were in the range of 0.1%–0.3%, 100–300 mg·L−1, 1%–3%and 0.5–1.5 h, respectively. Among the variables, the sodium hypochlorite concentration and the cleaning dura-tion showed a positive relationship involving the increased efficiency of the chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning efficiency was hardly improved with increasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide. However, the data was sharply decreased when at a low level of sodium hydroxide concentration. In total, 54 sets of cleaning schemes with 80%to 100%cleaning efficiency were observed with the RSM model after calibration.

  6. Textile Dry Cleaning Using Carbon Dioxide: Process, Apparatus and Mechanical Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanto, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fabrics that are sensitive to water, may wrinkle or shrink when washed in regular washing machines and are usually cleaned by professional dry cleaners. Dry cleaning is a process of removing soils from substrate, in this case textile, using a non-aqueous solvent. The most common solvent in conventio

  7. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  8. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  9. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  10. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  11. Fine coal circuitry using advanced physical cleaning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Wang, D. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Ho, K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Recent investigations have found that enhanced gravity separators (EGS) and flotation columns are highly efficient for cleaning fine coal. The test results presented in this publication show that a circuit comprised of two advanced gravity separators, i.e., a hindered-bed classifier and an EGS, and a flotation column provides an enhanced cleaning efficiency for the treatment of {minus}16 mesh coal. From in-plant experiments, the hindered-bed classifier was found to be a more efficient separation device (E{sub p} = 0.12) than coal spirals (E{sub p} = 0.18) for the treatment of a nominally 16 x 100 mesh coal. Since its efficiency declines for particle sizes less than 48 mesh, the hindered-bed classifier overflow was screened to produce a final +48 mesh concentrate and a {minus}48 mesh fraction that was subsequently treated by circuits incorporating the EGS and flotation column in combination and separately. The best overall circuits in terms of both ash and total sulfur reductions for treating the -16 mesh coal was found to be the Hindered Bed-EGS-EGS and Hindered Bed-EGS-Column circuits. Both circuits rejected over 70% of the ash and over 60% of the pyritic sulfur while recovering over 85% of the combustible material.

  12. Re-evaluating the roles of the cleaning process in the conservation of paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Barros García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At a time when defining the conservation of cultural heritage is undergoing important changes, it is necessary to rethink the roles of the cleaning process applied to paintings. Throughout the nineteenth and the twentieth century, the cleaning of paintings was the subject of continuous controversy which developed both in the academic field and in the pages of newspapers. In general, attempts have been made to define, one way or another, exactly what the role of cleaning should be. Four of these roles have been (and still are: cleaning as a conservation procedure, as revelation (of the original work or of the artist’s intent, as aesthetic presentation, and as a way of improving legibility. This article reviews these roles, their limitations and also raises a number of questions and issues in order to re-evaluate cleaning, taking into account contributions by the new theories of conservation.

  13. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  14. A study of surface optical properties for characterizing the cleaning process of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Barucci, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pezzati, L.; Daffara, C.

    2013-05-01

    "Cleaning" is a process of carefully identifying the cause of any deterioration or discolouration and then removing or treating these layers. The skill of the restorer is not only to understand the techniques and media used by the artist, but also to recognize what beauty lies beneath the veils of many years of neglect or adverse conditions. Surface cleaning is then one of the most important and sometimes controversial stages of the conservation process: it is an irreversible process that generally results in substantial physical changes of the object surface, raising thus a series of questions regarding aesthetics, the potential loss of historical information, and the ability to control the cleaning process adequately. Decisions have to be made regarding partial or complete removal of varnish: technical considerations include selection of a method that allows a great deal of control in the cleaning process, so that undesired layers can be removed without damaging the underlying ones by means of traditional cleaning methods, including mechanical or chemical removal. In this work we present a study of the optical properties of painting surfaces for the characterization of the cleaning process. Analyses were carried out by means of laser micro-profilometry and confocal microscopy. Measurements were carried out on a few paintings which are under repair at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure in Florence. Selected areas were surveyed with the two above mentioned techniques and results were correlated.

  15. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to

  16. Clean-up and disposal process of polluted sediments from urban rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the discussion is concentrated on the properties of the polluted sediments and the combination of clean-up and disposal process for the upper layer heavily polluted sediments with good flowability. Based on the systematic analyses of various clean-up processes, a suitable engineering process has been evaluated and recommended. The process has been applied to the river reclamation in Yangpu District of Shanghai metropolis. An improved centrifuge is used for dewatering the dredged sludge,which plays an important role in the combination of clean-up and disposal process. The assessment of the engineering process shows its environmental and technical economy feasibility, which is much better than that of traditional dredging-disposal processes.

  17. 混沌粒子群算法的烧结碳耗BP神经网络模型%BP neural network model of coke consumption of sintering process based on chaotic PSO algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鑫; 翁卫卫; 吴敏; 曹卫华

    2013-01-01

    Efficient calculation and prediction of the coke consumption of the sintering process are pivotal to optimize the sintering process to reduce the coke consumption. A reasonable coke consumption indicator is defined and its calculation mode is developed. Then, the factors affecting the consumption of coke are determined through the integrated use of the mechanism analysis and gray correlation analysis method. At last, a CPSO-BPNN predictive model is developed, in which the particle swarm optimization combined with chaotic local search is used to optimize the initial connection weights and translate scaling factors of the BP neural network model. The simulation result demonstrates that CPSO-BPNN provides an effective way to predict the coke consumption, which serves as a basis to optimize sintering process and reduce the coke consumption.%有效地计算和预测烧结碳耗,是有针对性地优化烧结生产以降低烧结碳耗的关键前提。文章首先提出了烧结过程碳耗指标--综合焦比并给出合理可行的烧结过程碳耗指标计算模型;再次,结合机理进行分析和灰色关联度分析方法,确定了影响碳耗的主要因素;最后,建立了基于混沌局部搜索粒子群算法的烧结碳耗BP神经网络预测模型(CPSO-BPNN),用带混沌局部搜索的粒子群算法对烧结碳耗BP神经网络预测模型的初始网络权值、阈值进行寻优,以克服BP算法参数寻优时陷入局部极小的缺点。仿真结果表明,CPSO-BPNN可有效地对烧结碳耗进行预测,为优化烧结生产过程,降低烧结碳耗奠定了基础。

  18. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos' kova; N.I. Shkol' naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  19. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  20. Metallurgical coke quality depending on the variability of properties of coking coal mixes components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Kaloc; S. Bartusek; S. Czudek [VSB-TU Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    The main sources for this report are the experiences acquired by the long lasting practice of the coking coal mixes preparing and tuning them in accordance with the variable qualitative properties of the coals mined in the coalfields of the OKD Company Ostrava. The systematic database, made by summarizing the values of measured indexes, became a very useful instrument for the coal mixes composing with regard on the two today very important points of view, namely: Contemporary presence and the long lasting availability of the definite coal type from any local source. Price basis influencing strongly the economics of the coke production. The method of prognostic estimating of the metallurgical coke quality dependence on the coking mixes composition, developed some time ago by authors of presented paper, was published in the Cokemaking International Vol. 13, 2/2001 (Czudek S. and al.: Simulation of Carbonization Process under Laboratory Conditions). The original procedure was newly accomplished by implementing a special method of the multi criteria evaluation of the definite coal components. New method is based on special processing of the technologic significant qualitative properties of the mined coal brands enabling deeply estimate the impacts of their application in metallurgical coke production. The importance of this evaluating system exceeds largely the well known method that is incorporated in the international coal classification. The main advantage of the new method is the fully respecting of the specialties marking the geographic different coalfields. (Abstract only)

  1. Alternative method for assessing coking coal plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzuy Nguyen; Susan Woodhouse; Merrick Mahoney [University of Adelaide (Australia). BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre

    2008-07-15

    Traditional plasticity measurements for coal have a number of limitations associated with the reproducibility of the tests and their use in predicting coking behaviour. This report reviews alternative rheological methods for characterising the plastic behaviour of coking coals. It reviews the application of more fundamental rheological measurements to the coal system as well as reviewing applications of rheology to other physical systems. These systems may act as potential models for the application of fundamental rheological measurements to cokemaking. The systems considered were polymer melts, coal ash melts, lava, bread making and ice cream. These systems were chosen because they exhibit some physically equivalent processes to the processes occurring during cokemaking, eg, the generation of bubbles within a softened system that then resolidifies. A number of recommendations were made; the steady and oscillatory shear squeeze flow techniques be further investigated to determine if the measured rheology characteristics are related to transformations within the coke oven and the characteristics of resultant coke; modification of Gieseler plastometers for more fundamental rheology measurements not be attempted.

  2. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  3. Technology of separation of hydrogen from coke oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budner, Z.; Morawiec, B.

    1989-01-01

    A process to beindustrialised at the Zdzieszowice coking plant and Kedzierzyn fertiliser works is described. Coke oven gas is scrubbed with methanol and subjected to pressure-swing adsorption. The hydrogen-rich fraction is converted with steam to reduce its CO content and then subjected again to pressure-swing adsorption. The methane-rich fraction from the first PSA stage is processed to 90% CH{sub 4} and a fraction containing 35% ethylene and 10% ethane.

  4. A novel wastewater cleaning system for the stone-crushing and sand-making process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wenjun; Li Yanfeng; Tang Jie

    2012-01-01

    The nature of the slurry from the stone-crushing and sand-making processes is analyzed to develop a novel separation process.The process comprises hydro-cyclone separation followed by screening of the fines,clarification,and filtration.Recovering fine sand and clean wastewater for recycle is demonstrated.The +0.045 mm fine sand fraction and-0.045 mm ultra-fine clay in the slurry are separated and recovered.Fine sand that was previously lost and wasted is now recoverable.The cleaned and reused water is as much as 94% of the total.

  5. Optimisation of coal blend and bulk density for coke ovens by vibrocompacting technique non-recovery ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.P.; Vinoo, D.S.; Yadav, U.S.; Ghosh, S.; Lal, J.P.N. [J.S.W. Steel Ltd, Bellary (India)

    2007-09-15

    The quality of coke produced in a coke oven depends on the coal blend characteristics and carbonisation conditions. Scarcity of good quality coking coal made it necessary to look for techniques capable of producing superior coke from inferior coals. Precarbonisation techniques improve the bulk density of the coal charge and produce good quality coke from inferior coals. The stamp charging technique, the most effective among them requires finer crushing of coal and higher moisture as binder, both requiring additional energy. JSW Steel has adopted vibrocompaction along with non-recovery ovens for its 1.2 Mtpa coke production. This is a highly ecofriendly coke making process producing excellent quality coke from inferior coals. It increases the bulk density of cake, similar to stamp charging, using compaction in place of stamping. A cake density of 1.10 t m{sup -3} has been achieved using the vibrocompacting technique with optimum moisture and crushing fineness. Coal blend containing up to 35% soft coal and coking coal, having 32% volatile matter have been successfully used to produce a coke with coke strength after reaction >65%, coke reactivity index <25% and M10 <6%. The paper discusses the experience of operating vibrocompaction non-recovery coke ovens.

  6. Investigation of the impact of cleaning on the adhesive bond and the process implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EMERSON,JOHN A.; GUESS,TOMMY R.; ADKINS,CAROL L. JONES; CURRO,JOHN G.; REEDY JR.,EARL DAVID; LOPEZ,EDWIN P.; LEMKE,PAUL A.

    2000-05-01

    While surface cleaning is the most common process step in DOE manufacturing operations, the link between a successful adhesive bond and the surface clean performed before adhesion is not well understood. An innovative approach that combines computer modeling expertise, fracture mechanics understanding, and cleaning experience to address how to achieve a good adhesive bond is discussed here to develop a capability that would result in reduced cleaning development time and testing, improved bonds, improved manufacturability, and even an understanding that leads to improved aging. A simulation modeling technique, polymer reference interaction site model applied near wall (Wall PRISM), provided the capability to include contaminants on the surface. Calculations determined an approximately 8% reduction in the work of adhesion for 1% by weight of ethanol contamination on the structure of a silicone adhesive near a surface. The demonstration of repeatable coatings and quantitative analysis of the surface for deposition of controlled amounts of contamination (hexadecane and mineral oil) was based on three deposition methods. The effect of the cleaning process used on interfacial toughness was determined. The measured interfacial toughness of samples with a Brulin cleaned sandblasted aluminum surface was found to be {approximately} 15% greater than that with a TCE cleaned aluminum surface. The sensitivity of measured fracture toughness to various test conditions determined that both interfacial toughness and interface corner toughness depended strongly on surface roughness. The work of adhesion value for silicone/silicone interface was determined by a contact mechanics technique known as the JKR method. Correlation with fracture data has allowed a better understanding between interfacial fracture parameters and surface energy.

  7. Solar photocatalysis. A clean process for water detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, Didier [LCA: Environnement et procedes propres, Universite de Metz, Rue Victor Demange, 57500 Saint Avold (France); Malato, Sixto [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas (Spain)

    2002-05-27

    The photocatalytic degradation of various toxic organic compounds has been proposed as a viable process to detoxify drinking water. Irradiating pulverulent semi-conductors like TiO{sub 2} in suspension or fixed to various supports in aqueous solutions containing organic pollutants, creates a redox environment able to destroy these pollutants. Solar photocatalytic mineralization of organic water pollutants has a strong potential in the industrial destruction of toxic organics in water as this has been widely demonstrated in recent years, and the applications and target compounds are numerous. The aim of this paper is to present the basic principle of the photocatalysis and especially to show the various applications of the solar photocatalysis in the field of the decontamination of wastewater.

  8. Solar photocatalysis: a clean process for water detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Didier; Malato, Sixto

    2002-05-27

    The photocatalytic degradation of various toxic organic compounds has been proposed as a viable process to detoxify drinking water. Irradiating pulverulent semi-conductors like TiO2 in suspension or fixed to various supports in aqueous solutions containing organic pollutants, creates a redox environment able to destroy these pollutants. Solar photocatalytic mineralization of organic water pollutants has a strong potential in the industrial destruction of toxic organics in water as this has been widely demonstrated in recent years, and the applications and target compounds are numerous. The aim of this paper is to present the basic principle of the photocatalysis and especially to show the various applications of the solar photocatalysis in the field of the decontamination of wastewater.

  9. Femtosecond pulses cleaning by transient-grating process in Kerr-optical media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Kotaro Okamura; Yuichiro Kida; Takayoshi Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    We use a transient-grating (TG) process in a Kerr bulk medium to clean a femtosecond laser pulse. Using the technique, the temporal contrast of the generated TG signal is improved by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with the incident pulse in a 0.5-mm-thick fused silica plate. The laser spectrum is smoothed and broadened, and the pulse duration is shortened simultaneously. We expect to extend this technique to a clean pulse with broadband spectral bandwidth at a wide spectral range because it is a phase-matched process.%@@ We use a transient-grating (TG) process in a Kerr bulk medium to clean a femtosecond laser pulse.Using the technique, the temporal contrast of the generated TG signal is improved by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with the incident pulse in a 0.5-mm-thick fused silica plate.The laser spectrum is smoothed and broadened, and the pulse duration is shortened simultaneously.We expect to extend this technique to a clean pulse with broadband spectral bandwidth at a wide spectral range because it is a phase-matched process.

  10. NATO CCMS PILOT STUDY ON CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES -(PHASE I) - 2002 ANNUAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual report summarizes the activities of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study on clean products and processes for 2002, including the proceedings of the 2002 annual meeting held in Vilnius, Lithuania. The report presents a wealth of information on cleaner production activities in ove...

  11. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE II) 2003 ANNUAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 6th annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes, was held in Cetraro, Italy, from May 11 to 15, 2003. This was also the first meeting of its Phase II study. 24 country representatives attended this meeting. This meeting was very ably run by th...

  12. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY - CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE I) 2000 ANNUAL REPORT, NUMBER 242

    Science.gov (United States)

    This annual report presents the proceedings of the Third Annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the area of research of clean products and processes, life cycle analysis, computer tools and pollution prevention.

  13. Assessment of thermal efficiency of heat recovery coke making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, H. P.; Saxena, V. K.; Haldar, S. K.; Sriramoju, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    The heat recovery stamp charge coke making process is quite complicated due to the evolved volatile matter during coking, is partially combusted in oven crown and sole flue in a controlled manner to provide heat for producing metallurgical coke. Therefore, the control and efficient utilization of heat in the oven crown, and sole flue is difficult, which directly affects the operational efficiency. Considering the complexity and importance of thermal efficiency, evolution of different gases, combustion of gasses in oven crown and sole flue, and heating process of coke oven has been studied. A nonlinear regression methodology was used to predict temperature profile of different depth of coal cake during the coking. It was observed that the predicted temperature profile is in good agreement with the actual temperature profile (R2 = 0.98) and is validated with the actual temperature profile of other ovens. A complete study is being done to calculate the material balance, heat balance, and heat losses. This gives an overall understanding of heat flow which affects the heat penetration into the coal cake. The study confirms that 60% heat was utilized during coking.

  14. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  15. The effect of wash cleaning and demagnetization process on the fly ash physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Problems related in this study concern the possibility of improving the physico-chemical properties of fly ash used as a base granular material in moulding mixtures. The investigations were carried out mainly to evaluate the process of the fly ash modification performed in order to stabilize its mineralogical and chemical composition. Changes in chemical composition, specific surface and helium density of fly ash after the process of its wash cleaning and demagnetization were examined. The analysis of the data has proved that the process of wash cleaning considerably reduces the content of sodium and potassium. Calcium and magnesium are washed out, too. The wash cleaning process of fly ash reduces also its true density. This fact can be due to the washing out of illite as well as some fractions of haematite (the grains weakly bonded to the glassy phase. The process of demagnetization allows removing about 25.7% of the magnetic phase calculated in terms of Fe2O3. The process of demagnetization is accompanied by a decrease in the content of aluminium, sodium, potassium and calcium, and a reduction in the size of the specific surface by over one half. The possible processes of transformation have also been discussed.

  16. PROSPECTS FOR COKE BREEZE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Mihnovets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches give grounds to believe in the possibility of receiving briquettes from coke waste mixed with peat dry coal and their use for smelting iron in the cupola or as a household fuel.

  17. Automation of a coke battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, N.F.; Bannikov, L.S.; Yakushina, E.N.; Mil' ko, M.S.

    1980-10-01

    This paper discusses methods of remote control of machines used for discharging coke ovens. The system, developed by the Construction Office of AiM Giprokoks, consists of a number of detecting and transmitting coupling coils and oscillators installed at various places on a coke battery. A scheme of the automated remote control system is given. Method of placing coupling coils and covering them to prevent damages is explained. Principles of coupling coil operation are described. By means of coupling coils exact position of a quenching car, coke discharging machine, and machine removing the coke oven door, can be controlled. When the position of a machine is not exact, operation of other machines is blocked. Operation of the system is regarded as satisfactory. Principles of operation of another system in which, instead of coupling coils coupling bars are installed, are evaluated. Bars control position of machines. The system has numerous weak points and its introduction is not recommended. (In Russian)

  18. CO-PROCESSING OF WASTE POLYETHYLENE PLASTICS WITH VACUUM RESIDUE IN DELAYED COKING%废聚乙烯塑料与减压渣油混合延迟焦化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀霞; 冯成武; 耿春香; 田秀凤

    2001-01-01

    在实验室将废聚乙烯塑料、减压渣油以及它们的混合物,在反应温度455~495℃、氢气压力0.1~4.0MPa和反应时间2~8h的临氢条件下进行延迟焦化反应。结果表明,由于废聚乙烯焦化的液体产物组成主要为链烷烃和链α-烯烃,占10%的废聚乙烯塑料和减压渣油混合原料的延迟焦化加工过程,可以得到性质较好的焦化柴油馏分。废聚乙烯塑料的加入,还可以减少焦化炉管的生焦,延长装置的运转周期,有望成为回收废塑料减少环境污染的一种途径。%Delayed coking tests of waste polyethylene plastics, Shenglivacuum residue and their mixture of were conducted on a coking unit in the laboratory. The coking conditions were under a hydrogen pressure of 0.1-4.0 Mpa, a reaction temperatur e range of 455-495 ℃ and a reaction time of 2-8 h. Since the liquid product of the waste polyethylene plastics mainly consisted of alkanes and α-alkenes, bet ter quality gas oil could be obtained from processing the vacuum residue blended with 10% waste polyethylene plastics in comparison with processing vacuum resid ue alone. The co-processing could also reduce the coking in the furnace tubes a nd prolong the running cycle. The said method is expected to be a waste plastics -processing route for reducing environmental pollution.

  19. Evaluation of a novel fine coal dry cleaning process at Greenfields Coal Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratton, R.; Luttrell, G.; Kasindorf, H.; McGraw, G.; Robbins, R. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Coal mining and processing operations have in the past and continue to create large tonnages of fine coal and waste particles. While technological advances in wet processing has made it possible to efficiently recover coal fines, difficulties associated with dewatering make these fine particles unattractive economically for most coal markets. A novel system has been developed for cleaning fine raw coal utilizing a multistage dry classification process that removes the clay particles that are typically much smaller than the majority of the clean coal particles and that reduces the product surface moisture to as low as 1%. In this article, the novel dry coal-cleaning process under license to Greenfields Coal Company was evaluated. The classification process offers a viable alternative to traditional wet processing and dewatering of the fine particles, especially for operations recovering abandoned impoundments where a sufficient water source and/or a waste slurry disposal site are unavailable. This article presents the separation performance and operating results obtained from field testing with a 2t/hr pilot-scale unit located at an abandoned impoundment in southern West Virginia.

  20. Development of advanced coal cleaning process; Kodo sekitan kaishitsu gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, S. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, A.; Yamashita, T. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper aims to develop a clean coal production process which excellently removes environmental pollutant, is low-costed, and need no particular systems for distribution of products. The result of the development was described paying attention to column flotation which is a technology to high-efficiently select particulate regions, particulate heavy media cyclone, magnetic separation, and the basic design of the process into which those above were integrated. The two-stage selection process, which is an integration of column flotation and particulate heavy media cyclone into the conventional coal preparation equipment, can produce low-ash clean coal at high separation efficiency and also suppress the rise in processing cost. This process was also effective for removal of sulfur content and trace metal elements. The use of clean coal at power plant can be effective for not only the reduction in ash treatment amount, but the aspect of boiler operation characteristics such as heat transfer efficiency of boiler furnace wall, ash related troubles, loads of electrostatic precipitator, loads of flue gas desulfurization facilities. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Corrosion resistance of AISI 304 and 444 stainless steel pipes in sanitizing solutions of clean-in-place process

    OpenAIRE

    Lins,Vanessa de Freitas Cunha; Gonçalves,Giselle Aline dos Santos; Leão,Tiago Paschoalin; Soares,Renata Braga; Costa,Cíntia Gonçalves Fonseca; Viana,Adolfo Kalergis do Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Stainless steel (SS) is successfully used in food industries due to the characteristics of its surface, which is essential for the maintenance of the properties of food. Tanks and stainless steel pipes, which come into direct contact with food and drink, undergo a process of cleaning and disinfecting called CIP (Clean-in-Place). This method consists of automatic recirculation of a detergent solution for a controlled time followed by a rinsing with water, and finally a cleaning and sanitizing ...

  2. Biodegradability Improvement of Processes of Activated Carbon Catalyzed Ozonation for Coking Wastewater Treatment%活性炭催化臭氧氧化工艺对焦化废水可生化性的改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常功法; 刘勃; 洪卫; 陈爱忠; 刘杰; 孙淑杰; 苏颖; 刘战修

    2015-01-01

    预氧化工艺常用来提高难降解工业废水的可生化性,其中以芬顿、臭氧应用最多。该文对这两种工艺提高煤化工行业焦化废水可生化性的性能做了对比,并提出了活性炭臭氧催化预氧化的改进工艺。试验表明单纯芬顿和臭氧预氧化并不能改善焦化废水的可生化性,而活性炭臭氧催化预氧化可以改善焦化废水的可生化性。经活性炭臭氧催化预氧化的焦化废水,BOD5/ COD从0.16增加到0.24,COD去除率从72.5%提高到83.0%。%Coking wastewater is hard to treat because of its low biodegradability,but pre-oxidation measurements such as Fenton and ozone can elevate its biodegradability. Two processes for improving biodegradability of coking wastewater were compared,and improvement methods of activated carbon catalyzed ozonation for coking wastewater treatment were got. The results show that neither Fenton oxidation nor ozonation can improve the biodegradability,but activated carbon catalyzed ozonation (AC-ozonation)can effectively improve biodegradability better. After AC-ozone,BOD 5 / COD increases from 0. 16 to 0. 25,and rate of COD increases from 72. 5% to 83% .

  3. Experimental study on delayed coking process with coal tar pitch%煤焦油沥青延迟焦化工艺试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪彬; 黄新龙; 李节; 刘淑芳

    2012-01-01

    在选定的条件下,对煤焦油沥青进行了延迟焦化工艺试验,结果表明:以煤沥青直接作为焦化进料时,可以获得质量分数为10% ~ 20%的液体产品;以煤沥青混兑蒽油为延迟焦化进料时,其液体收率大幅提高,达到28.89%,同时改善了加热炉进料性质,从而可延长装置的运行周期.由于以煤沥青作为焦化的进料,其所产的焦炭符合石油焦1B的标准,可在炼铝工业中使用,从而提高了煤沥青的附加值,增加了煤焦油加工企业的经济效益.针对煤沥青焦化液体产品性质差的特点,应采用较高氢分压、较高反应温度和较低空速对其进行加氢处理.%The experiment of delayed coking of coal tar pitch has been performed at the selected conditions. The results showed that the liquid product yield of 10% to 20% could be achieved with the feed of coal tar pitch, and it could be greatly increased to 28. 89% with the coal tar pitch feed mixed with anthracene oil. The feed properties of heaters were improved and operating cycle of the unit was extended. As the coal tar pitch was used as the feed of delayed coker, the coke product met the 1B standard for petroleum coke, which could be used in aluminum industry. As the result, the added value of coal tar pitch was raised and the economic benefits of the company were improved. The liquid products from coal tar pitch coking should be hydro-treated at a higher hydrogen partial pressure, higher reactor temperature and lower space velocity because of the low quality.

  4. Effectiveness of bone cleaning process using chemical and entomology approaches: time and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Poh Soon; Khoo, Lay See; Mohd Hilmi, Saidin; Ahmad Hafizam, Hasmi; Mohd Shah, Mahmood; Nurliza, Abdullah; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Skeletal examination is an important aspect of forensic pathology practice, requiring effective bone cleaning with minimal artefact. This study was conducted to compare between chemical and entomology methods of bone cleaning. Ten subjects between 20 and 40 years old who underwent uncomplicated medico-legal autopsies at the Institute of Forensic Medicine Malaysia were randomly chosen for this descriptive cross sectional study. The sternum bone was divided into 4 parts, each part subjected to a different cleaning method, being two chemical approaches i.e. laundry detergent and a combination of 6% hydrogen peroxide and powder sodium bicarbonate and two entomology approaches using 2nd instar maggots of Chrysomyia rufifacies and Ophyra spinigera. A scoring system for grading the outcome of cleaning was used. The effectiveness of the methods was evaluated based on average weight reduction per day and median number of days to achieve the average score of less than 1.5 within 12 days of the bone cleaning process. Using maggots was the most time-effective and costeffective method, achieving an average weight reduction of 1.4 gm per day, a median of 11.3 days to achieve the desired score and an average cost of MYR 4.10 per case to reach the desired score within 12 days. This conclusion was supported by blind validation by forensic specialists achieving a 77.8% preference for maggots. Emission scanning electron microscopy evaluation also revealed that maggots especially Chrysomyia rufifacies preserved the original condition of the bones better allowing improved elucidation of bone injuries in future real cases.

  5. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment.

  6. Assessment of coke oven emissions exposure among coking workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.L.; Mao, I.F.; Wu, M.T.; Chen, J.R.; Ho, C.K.; Smith, T.J.; Wypij, D.; Christiani, D.C. [National Yang Ming University, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. of Public Health

    1999-01-01

    Coking workers are regularly exposed to coke oven emissions, which consist primarily of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. This study measured the workers` exposure to the benzene soluble fraction of total particulates (BSF). Personal breathing-zone samples of BSF and total particulates were taken from all study subjects for 3 consecutive days. The highest BSF concentrations were found among the topside oven workers. Among the samples at the topside oven 84% exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard (150 {mu}g/m{sup 3} BSF). The percentage of BSF in total particulates varied across job classifications, ranging from 0.3% in wharf men to 24% in tar chasers. Area sampling indicated that the BSF concentration at the topside area was sixty fold higher than that at the administrative area, which was approximately 2 km from the coke oven plant.

  7. Extensive separations (CLEAN) processing strategy compared to TRUEX strategy and sludge wash ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, B.J.; Jansen, G.; Zimmerman, B.D.; Seeman, S.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Lauerhass, L.; Hoza, M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Numerous pretreatment flowsheets have been proposed for processing the radioactive wastes in Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks. The CLEAN Option is examined along with two other flowsheet alternatives to quantify the trade-off of greater capital equipment and operating costs for aggressive separations with the reduced waste disposal costs and decreased environmental/health risks. The effect on the volume of HLW glass product and radiotoxicity of the LLW glass or grout product is predicted with current assumptions about waste characteristics and separations processes using a mass balance model. The prediction is made on three principal processing options: washing of tank wastes with removal of cesium and technetium from the supernatant, with washed solids routed directly to the glass (referred to as the Sludge Wash C processing strategy); the previous steps plus dissolution of the solids and removal of transuranic (TRU) elements, uranium, and strontium using solvent extraction processes (referred to as the Transuranic Extraction Option C (TRUEX-C) processing strategy); and an aggressive yet feasible processing strategy for separating the waste components to meet several main goals or objectives (referred to as the CLEAN Option processing strategy), such as the LLW is required to meet the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class A limits; concentrations of technetium, iodine, and uranium are reduced as low as reasonably achievable; and HLW will be contained within 1,000 borosilicate glass canisters that meet current Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glass specifications.

  8. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE 1) 1998 ANNUAL REPORT (EPA/600/R-98/065)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This annual report presents the proceedings of the first annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Cincinnati in March 1998. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, life cycle analysis, ecolabeling, and pollution prevention tools.

  9. Automated cleaning and pre-processing of immunoglobulin gene sequences from high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri eMichaeli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available High throughput sequencing (HTS yields tens of thousands to millions of sequences that require a large amount of pre-processing work to clean various artifacts. Such cleaning cannot be performed manually. Existing programs are not suitable for immunoglobulin (Ig genes, which are variable and often highly mutated. This paper describes Ig-HTS-Cleaner (Ig High Throughput Sequencing Cleaner, a program containing a simple cleaning procedure that successfully deals with pre-processing of Ig sequences derived from HTS, and Ig-Indel-Identifier (Ig Insertion – Deletion Identifier, a program for identifying legitimate and artifact insertions and/or deletions (indels. Our programs were designed for analyzing Ig gene sequences obtained by 454 sequencing, but they are applicable to all types of sequences and sequencing platforms. Ig-HTS-Cleaner and Ig-Indel-Identifier have been implemented in Java and saved as executable JAR files, supported on Linux and MS Windows. No special requirements are needed in order to run the programs, except for correctly constructing the input files as explained in the text. The programs' performance has been tested and validated on real and simulated data sets.

  10. Application of non-invasive optical monitoring methodologies to follow and record painting cleaning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Dal Fovo, A.; Striova, J.; Pezzati, L.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Barucci, M.

    2015-11-01

    The cleaning of painted artworks, i.e. the critical operation whereby materials are selectively removed from a painted surface by partial thinning or complete elimination of varnish, is one of the most debated conservation operations, being an irreversible process, which may result in chromatic and morphological variations in the painted surface. Due to ageing, the upper layer is subject to darkening and yellowing because of blanching and fading from ultraviolet exposure, dust deposition, and overpainted layers due, for instance, to restoration interventions. This degradation can either alter the original appearance of painting polychromy or cause mechanical failure of the finishes. To address these adverse conditions, a process of examination and analysis is critical to the definition and interpretation of the varnish layer. When investigating the ageing process of old paintings, it is of great importance to obtain insight into the painting technique as practiced in the past, and the first step in gaining this knowledge is, to a large extent, based on the study of the varnish film. An effective control of the process and objective evaluation of its outcome requires therefore instrumental/analytical support. The present study illustrates the successful application of non-invasive optical techniques—such as colorimetry, multispectral reflectography, laser scanning micro-profilometry, and optical coherence tomography—to the monitoring of an Italian fourteenth-century painting cleaning process. Results presented here confirm that optical techniques play a pivotal role in artwork diagnostics, especially with regard to conservation operations, while also indicating their validity when applied to the monitoring of the cleaning process.

  11. 77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Foundry Coke From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4326 (May 2012), entitled Foundry Coke from...

  12. 焦化酚氰废水深度处理工艺的改进%Improvement of Coking Phenol Cyanogen Wastewater Advanced Treatment Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竹英

    2015-01-01

    焦化废水中含有大量的氨氮、酚类及油分物质,其中以酚氰类化合物为主。由于浓度高,有毒及生物抑制性物质较多,成分复杂,生化处理难以实现有机污染物的完全降解,对环境造成了严重污染,随着环保工作要求的逐年提高,酚氰废水的处理效果问题愈发凸显。本文针对目前焦化行业水处理现状,对国内焦化废水处理与利用情况进行了调研,采用新技术“初级电催化氧化+中和曝气池+强化沉淀池+二级电催化氧化+电絮凝+电气浮+超滤系统+反渗透系统”的工艺进行深度处理回用,经过生产实践,取得了良好的社会和经济效益。%Coking wastewater contains large amounts of ammonia nitrogen,phenols an d oil content material, which is given priority to with phenol cyanogen compounds.Because of high concentration,the toxic and biological inhibitory substances are more,composition is complex,biochemical treatment is difficult to realize the complete deg-radation of organic pollutants,it causes serious pollution to the environment,as the requirement of environmental pro-tection increase year by year,phenol cyanogen waste water treatment effect problem is increasingly protruding.In view of the present situation of coking industry water treatment,domestic coking wastewater treatment and utilization for the research,adopt new technology primary electric catalytic oxidation +neutralization aeration tank +strengthen sedimentation basin +secondary electric catalytic oxidation +electric flocculation tank +electric floating +ultra-filtration system +reverse osmosis system for advanced treatment and recycling.Through production practice,it a-chieves good social and economic benefits.

  13. Fouling of a spiral-wound reverse osmosis membrane processing swine wastewater: effect of cleaning procedure on fouling resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri-Rumbau, M S; Masse, L; Dubreuil, J; Mondor, M; Christensen, K V; Norddahl, B

    2016-01-01

    Swine manure is a valuable source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. After solid-liquid separation, the resulting swine wastewater can be concentrated by reverse osmosis (RO) to produce a nitrogen-potassium rich fertilizer. However, swine wastewater has a high fouling potential and an efficient cleaning strategy is required. In this study, a semi-commercial farm scale RO spiral-wound membrane unit was fouled while processing larger volumes of swine wastewater during realistic cyclic operations over a 9-week period. Membrane cleaning was performed daily. Three different cleaning solutions, containing SDS, SDS+EDTA and NaOH were compared. About 99% of the fouling resistance could be removed by rinsing the membrane with water. Flux recoveries (FRs) above 98% were achieved for all the three cleaning solutions after cleaning. No significant differences in FR were found between the cleaning solutions. The NaOH solution thus is a good economical option for cleaning RO spiral-wound membranes fouled with swine wastewater. Soaking the membrane for 3 days in permeate water at the end of each week further improved the FR. Furthermore, a fouling resistance model for predicting the fouling rate, permeate flux decay and cleaning cycle periods based on processing time and swine wastewater conductivity was developed.

  14. Study on purge gas generated in coke oven gas boilers mixing-firing process%焦炉气锅炉掺烧弛放气探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔

    2012-01-01

    It' s not an environmental friendly and economy way to discharged purge gas from methanol plant into the atmosphere. How to recycle methanol purge gas? The treatment of purge gas had been a general concern problem. The problem could be solved by incorpo- rating the decompression purge gas into boilers burning coke oven gas used as burning gas.%甲醇厂弛放气直接排人大气,既对环境产生污染,又无法实现经济价值。通过将弛放气减压掺入焦炉煤气中供锅炉燃烧使用的方法,可以解决弛放气的去向问题。

  15. Pollution characteristics of residues from coal coking process%煤焦化固体残渣污染特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章丽萍; 刘青; 崔炜; 张凯霞; 何绪文

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce residue from coal coking,tar,tar slag,coke powder,precipitator dustⅠ andⅡ were as test objects. Two dif-ferent leaching solutions were obtained from five residues using sulfuric and nitric acid method and horizontal vibration method respective-ly. These leaching solutions were tested for the 13 heavy metal ion concentrations using inductive coupling plasma emission spectrograph. Meanwhile,16 prior pollutants of all PAHs,listed by US EPA,from residues were analyzed through ultrasonic extraction and GC-MS. The composition of PAHs,different ring distribution of PAHs and∑BEQ were investigated. The results showed that,only Cr6+was not detected,the other 12 heavy metal ion concentrations of the ten leaching solutions did not exceed the limitation concentration of national standard. The∑PAHs concentrations (mg/kg) of five residues in sequence from high to low was tar(175000),tar slag(75630),precipita-tor dustⅠ(405. 76),coke powder(210. 35),precipitator dustⅡ(37. 69),and the PAHs concentrations were much higher than the regula-tions of international public environment organization. The∑BEQ ( mg/kg ) of five residues in sequence from high to low was tar (5761. 3),tar slag(2058. 42),coke powder(6. 59),precipitator dustⅠ(0. 99),precipitator dustⅡ(0. 07). Tar slag and tar were poten-tially more carcinogenic.%为减少煤焦化过程中产生的残渣,以某企业煤焦化过程中产生的煤焦油、焦油渣、焦粉、除尘灰等为研究对象,采用硫酸硝酸法和水平振荡法对5种残渣样品进行重金属浸出,通过电感耦合等离子体发射光谱仪分析浸出液中13种重金属离子浓度. 同时采用超声波仪对5种残渣中的多环芳烃进行萃取并采用气-质联用仪分析参考美国环保部优先控制的16类多环芳烃,探讨了多环芳烃的组分、单体环数分布以及等效致癌毒性等. 结果表明:5种残渣浸出液中除Cr6+未检出,其余12种重金属均未超出国家标准

  16. Intercalation mechanisms of lithium into graphitized needle cokes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏玉长; 尹志民; 徐仲榆

    2001-01-01

    A needle coke was graphitized at different heat treatment temperature (2000℃ to 3000℃). The electrochemical intercalation mechanism of Li into the graphitized coke has been studied in Li|1mol*L-1 LiClO4+ethylene carbonate/diethylene carbonate|graphite cells, using an in-situ X-Ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The study of Li-C intercalation processes of the graphitized coke reveals that there are three major types of intercalation behavior. The first is uniformly intercalated at all Li-C compounds in graphitized coke heated at 2250℃; the second is obviously staging phenomenon during intercalating for the graphitized coke heated at 2750℃; the third is cointercalation of solvated Li-ion at high potential (>0.3V) and then lithium electrochemical intercalation at lower potential for that heated at 3000℃, resulting in the decrease of capacity and efficiency of graphite negative electrode for lithium-ion secondary battery.

  17. Development of the super coke oven for productivity and environment enhancement toward the 21st century (SCOPE 21); Sekitan kodo tenkan cokes seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Nakashima, Y.; Nishioka, K.; Otsuka, J. [The Japan Iron and Steel Federation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Serious shortage is predicted on cokes for blast furnaces in the first half of the 21st century. In order to deal flexibly with the fluid world market in the future, it is necessary to have a technology developed, by which coals from coking coal to non-coking dust coal can be used. The Japan Iron and Steel Federation and the Center for Coal Utilization, Japan are working on research and development of a new process with enhanced environmentality and economy (SCOPE 21) as a coke manufacturing process to respond to the requirements arisen from the above situation. The process is assessed basing on basic technological seeds such as rapid coal heating and high-speed carbonization and reformation of middle to low temperature cokes. The organizations are moving forward an eight-year development program which has started in fiscal 1994. This paper reports the summary of the development, and results of investigations and researches performed during fiscals 1994 and 1995. Rapid heating tests, middle to low temperature coke reformation tests, and tests for plug transportation of high-temperature coal have been performed. It has been verified, for example, that rapid coal heating can improve coke strength. The development work is being promoted toward grain size distribution and upscaling problems. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Bio-coke as an alternative to petroleum coke and metallurgical coke; Bio-cokes als alternatief voor petroleumcokes en metallurgische cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.J.; Van Lieshout, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Sevenster, M.N. [Sevenster Environmental Consultancy, Australian Capital Territory ACT (Australia)

    2012-11-15

    In the framework of elaborating the Dutch Roadmap Chemistry 2030), CE Delft has conducted an exploratory study for the Association of the Dutch Chemical Industry (VNCI) on the options of replacing (petroleum) coke in the chemical sector by biocokes. Coke is used as a reducing agent and/or raw material in four companies in the Dutch chemical industry (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Replacing coke at these four companies can potentially yield a direct CO2 reduction of expectedly several hundreds of kilotons per year. For a first exploration of the options of bio-coke, CE Delft first conducted a desk study to get information on the quality and production costs for bio-coke. Subsequently, CE Delft had contact with the four chemical companies and a made a number of company visits. Moreover, the technical, economic and organizational capabilities, constraints and requirements with regard to a possible (partial) switch to biocokes have been explored. Based on the information available so far it can be concluded that biocokes seems to be a technically and economically interesting innovation. For implementation to finally take place, it is necessary to gain better insight in the technical and economic potential [Dutch] In verband met de uitwerking van de Routekaart Chemie 2030 heeft CE Delft voor VNCI een verkenning uitgevoerd naar de mogelijkheden voor vervanging van (petroleum)cokes in de chemische sector door biocokes. Cokes wordt gebruikt als reductiemiddel en/of grondstof bij een viertal bedrijven in de Nederlandse chemie (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Het vervangen van cokes bij deze vier bedrijven kan in potentie een directe CO2-reductie van naar verwachting enkele honderden kilotonnen/jaar opleveren. Voor een eerste verkenning van de mogelijkheden van bio-cokes heeft CE Delft eerst een bureaustudie uitgevoerd naar informatie over kwaliteit van en productiekosten voor bio-cokes. Vervolgens heeft CE Delft contact gehad met de vier chemische

  19. 一种再生铅低温清洁冶金的绿色工艺%A Clean and Green Process of Low-Temperature for Smelting of Secondary Lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宇杰; 唐朝波; 唐谟堂; 杨建广; 陈永明; 杨声海; 何静

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种低温、低碳、无二氧化硫烟气排放、清洁环保的绿色再生铅冶金新工艺.该工艺以纯碱为熔盐介质,含铅次氧化锌烟灰为固硫剂,以焦粉为还原剂,在800~900℃还原固硫熔炼废铅酸蓄电池胶泥生产粗铅,同时以合格的硫化锌精矿回收锌.在理论分析的基础上,考察了熔炼温度、纯碱用量、氧化锌和焦粉用量对金属铅回收率及固硫率的影响.结果表明,在880℃、纯碱与固体物的质量比为2.84、氧化锌用量为理论量的1.1倍、焦粉与胶泥的质量比为16%的优化条件下,铅直收率为96.64%,总回收率为98.06%,94.70%的元素硫被氧化锌固定.%A new green process of low-temperature,low discharge of carbon dioxide,no emission of sulfur oxide,clean and environment friendly smelting of secondary lead was proposed.In the process,with leadbearing secondary zinc oxide dusts as sulfur-fixing agent and coke powders as reducing agent,spent leadacid battery colloid sludge was reduced into crude lead and zinc was recovered as standard or marketable zinc sulfide concentrates in the molten salt of Na2CO3 at 800~900 ℃.The effects of smelting temperature,dosage of sodium carbonate,zinc oxide and coke powders on lead recovery and sulfur-fixing rate were investigated based on thermodynamic analysis.The results show that direct recovery and total recovery of lead is 96.64% and 98.06% respectively and sulfur-fixing rate is 94.70% under the optimum conditions including mass ratio of sodium carbonate and solid of 2.84,dosage of zinc oxide of 1.1 times of theoretical value,mass ratio of coke powders and colloid sludge of 16%,and temperature of 880 ℃.

  20. New chamber walls conditioning and cleaning strategies to improve the stability of plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunge, G.; Pelissier, B.; Joubert, O.; Ramos, R.; Maurice, C.

    2005-08-01

    One major challenge in plasma etching processes for integrated circuit fabrication is to achieve a good wafer-to-wafer repeatability. This requires a perfect control of the plasma chamber wall conditions. For silicon etching processes, which deposit SiOyClz layers on the chamber walls, this is achieved by cleaning the interior surfaces of the plasma chamber with an SF6-based plasma after each wafer is etched. However, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the reactor wall surfaces shows that the inner parts of the Al2O3 chamber are strongly fluorinated (formation of Al-F bonds) during the SF6 plasma. At the same time the AlFx layer is sputtered from some parts of the chamber (mostly from the roof, which is bombarded by high energy ions), and AlF redeposition is observed on other parts of the reactor body. Hence, the cleaning process of the reactor leaves AlF residues on the chamber wall on its own. This leads to several issues including flake off of AlxFy particles on the wafer and process drifts (due both to the progressive growth of AlF material on the SiO2 windows and to the release of F atoms from the chamber walls during the etching process). This indicates that a strategy other than dry-cleaning the Al2O3 chamber walls in fluorine-based plasmas should be found. In this paper we have investigated two different strategies. The first one consists of replacing Al2O3 covering the chamber walls by another material for the chamber walls inner coating. In particular, we have investigated the surface modification of several types of organic polymers (Teflon, Parylene and carbon-rich polymers), when exposed to SF6-based plasmas. We show that these materials can be reset to their original condition after exposure to a dry-cleaning process because carbon containing polymers are slowly etched away by the SF6/O2 plasma. This suggests that the replacement of the conventional Al2O3 chamber wall material by a carbon-coated liner should be possible. Alternatively, we

  1. A Facile in Situ and UV Printing Process for Bioinspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. González Lazo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A facile in situ and UV printing process was demonstrated to create self-cleaning synthetic replica of natural petals and leaves. The process relied on the spontaneous migration of a fluorinated acrylate surfactant (PFUA within a low-shrinkage acrylated hyperbranched polymer (HBP and its chemical immobilization at the polymer-air interface. Dilute concentrations of 1 wt. % PFUA saturated the polymer-air interface within 30 min, leading to a ten-fold increase of fluorine concentration at the surface compared with the initial bulk concentration and a water contact angle (WCA of 108°. A 200 ms flash of UV light was used to chemically crosslink the PFUA at the HBP surface prior to UV printing with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS negative template of red and yellow rose petals and lotus leaves. This flash immobilization hindered the reverse migration of PFUA within the bulk HBP upon contacting the PDMS template, and enabled to produce texturized surfaces with WCA well above 108°. The synthetic red rose petal was hydrophobic (WCA of 125° and exhibited the adhesive petal effect. It was not superhydrophobic due to insufficient concentration of fluorine at its surface, a result of the very large increase of the surface of the printed texture. The synthetic yellow rose petal was quasi-superhydrophobic (WCA of 143°, roll-off angle of 10° and its self-cleaning ability was not good also due to lack of fluorine. The synthetic lotus leaf did not accurately replicate the intricate nanotubular crystal structures of the plant. In spite of this, the fluorine concentration at the surface was high enough and the leaf was superhydrophobic (WCA of 151°, roll-off angle below 5° and also featured self-cleaning properties.

  2. AN ELECTROLYTIC CIP-CLEANING PROCESS FOR REMOVING IMPURITIES FROM THE INNER SURFACE OF A METALLIC CONTAINER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a novel electrolytic process for removing impurities from the inner surface of a metallic container. The process is particularly useful for cleaning process reactors used for culturing microorganisms, and storage tanks used for storing metabolites formed in the process...... reactor, as well as containers for dairy products....

  3. A Research and Discussion on UHR Process in Advanced Treatment of Coking Wastewater%UHR工艺在深度处理焦化废水中的研究与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙泽勇

    2016-01-01

    The UHR process flow, characteristics and technical research on UHR advanced treatment of coking wastewater are introduced. Research results showed that UHR system operates very stably with good water quality, which fully meets national secondary discharge standard, and low COD and ammonia nitrogen content in the reverse osmosis concentrated water, which can satisfy the requirements of casting slag.%介绍了UHR工艺流程、特点及在深度处理焦化废水中的技术研究。研究表明:UHR系统运行十分稳定,出水水质良好,完全达到国家二级排放标准;反渗透浓水COD和氨氮含量小,能够满足浇渣的要求。

  4. 甲烷无氧芳构化反应器及催化剂积炭的研究进展%Process in Reactor and Catalyst Coke of Methane Dehydroaromatization Under the Condition of Oxyger Free

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁钊; 陆江银

    2012-01-01

    Concluded the research progress of non - oxidative aromatization of methane on the reaction mechanism, the choice of reactor and catalysts, catalyst coke and regeneration, which were significant in the fields of process development , energy utilization and catalysis science.%综述了甲烷无氧芳构化反应的研究进展,对甲烷无氧芳构化反应机理、反应器的选择、催化剂的选择、催化剂积炭失活与再生等方面做了讨论,对甲烷无氧芳构化的工艺开发、对能源利用、催化科学均具有重大意义。

  5. Fenton氧化法处理焦化纳滤浓水中COD及TN的研究%An Experimental Study on Treatment of COD and TN in Nanofiltration Concentrate from Coking Wastewater with Fenton Oxidation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶倩; 李恩超

    2016-01-01

    以焦化废水"三膜法"深度处理工艺产生的实际高电导率纳滤浓盐水为研究对象,考察不同PH值、Fe2+和H2O2条件下"芬顿法"去除焦化纳滤浓水中COD及TN的效率.%Deepened treatment of nanofiltration (NF) concentrated water with high con-ductivity from coking wastewater with three membranes method was studied. The efficiency of removing COD and total nitrogen (TN) from NF concentrate under different pH value, Fe2+and H202 condition by applying Fenton reagent oxidation process was investigated.

  6. Achieving clean epitaxial graphene surfaces suitable for device applications by improved lithographic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, A., E-mail: anath@gmu.edu; Rao, M. V. [George Mason University, 4400 University Dr., Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Koehler, A. D.; Jernigan, G. G.; Wheeler, V. D.; Hite, J. K.; Hernández, S. C.; Robinson, Z. R.; Myers-Ward, R. L.; Eddy, C. R.; Gaskill, D. K. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Garces, N. Y. [Sotera Defense Solutions, 2200 Defense Hwy. Suite 405, Crofton, Maryland 21114 (United States)

    2014-06-02

    It is well-known that the performance of graphene electronic devices is often limited by extrinsic scattering related to resist residue from transfer, lithography, and other processes. Here, we report a polymer-assisted fabrication procedure that produces a clean graphene surface following device fabrication by a standard lithography process. The effectiveness of this improved lithography process is demonstrated by examining the temperature dependence of epitaxial graphene-metal contact resistance using the transfer length method for Ti/Au (10 nm/50 nm) metallization. The Landauer-Buttiker model was used to explain carrier transport at the graphene-metal interface as a function of temperature. At room temperature, a contact resistance of 140 Ω-μm was obtained after a thermal anneal at 523 K for 2 hr under vacuum, which is comparable to state-of-the-art values.

  7. The use of process plasmas for cleaning PCB substrates for fluxless soldering of electronic assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philpott, J.D

    1999-12-01

    In this thesis the ability of single and multiple gas plasmas to improve the solderability of PCB substrates, and hence allow the removal of flux from the soldering process for electronic assemblies has been investigated. It has been shown that asymmetric electrode plasma chambers allow the use of single gas plasmas for this purpose due to their greater efficiency compared to symmetric systems. It has also been shown that the use of triple gas plasmas results in improved cleaning ability when using symmetric electrode systems. Dynamic contact angle (DCA) analysis was the primary analytical technique used in this work. This technique produces two contact angles, advancing and receding. The advancing contact angle determines the surface energy of a solid. It has been shown using Auger analysis that contact angles of approximately 48 deg indicate low levels of hydrocarbon contamination. It has also been shown that plasma cleaning processes giving advancing contact angles of this magnitude result in the ability to solder Hot Air Solder Leveled (HASL) PCB substrates without the use of flux. In addition it has been shown that, whilst it is possible to reduce the advancing contact angle of copper substrates considerably, the reduction is not as great as for HASL substrates. Analytical models of RF plasma chambers have also been reviewed, and these adapted for the plasma chambers used in this work. The experimental work carried out in this research also shows that these models hold true. (author)

  8. ``Clean'' processing of polymers and smoothing of ceramics by pulsed laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarev, V. N.; Marine, W.; Prat, C.; Sentis, M.

    1995-05-01

    Surface stability during laser pulsed melting of polymers and ceramics is studied theoretically. Irradiation conditions and material parameters are found giving rise to the suppression of surface wavy relief of a nonresonant type (with period Λ≫λ, where λ is the radiation wavelength) and thus to the smooth flat irradiation spots. For example, for the polymers considered this process takes place for wavelengths where the absorption coefficient is sufficiently high: α(λ)≳105 cm-1. Thus, it is shown that the formation of such spots, previously referred to as ``clean ablation,'' can be explained using only a thermal mechanism without reference to the concept of ``photodecomposition.'' Moreover, laser smoothing and polishing of a surface, if it had roughness before irradiation, can be achieved by appropriate matching of the characteristic size of this roughness along the surface with the values of α(λ) and laser fluence. Methods are proposed to decrease the parasitic influence of droplets on the deposition of thin films by laser ablation of massive ceramic pellets. The results of theoretical modeling are shown to be in good agreement with experiments on smoothing of rough alumina ceramics and ``clean'' processing of polymers by excimer laser radiation.

  9. Data Cleaning In Data Warehouse: A Survey of Data Pre-processing Techniques and Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anosh Fatima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A Data Warehouse is a computer system designed for storing and analyzing an organization's historical data from day-to-day operations in Online Transaction Processing System (OLTP. Usually, an organization summarizes and copies information from its operational systems to the data warehouse on a regular schedule and management performs complex queries and analysis on the information without slowing down the operational systems. Data need to be pre-processed to improve quality of data, before storing into data warehouse. This survey paper presents data cleaning problems and the approaches in use currently for preprocessing. To determine which technique of preprocessing is best in what scenario to improve the performance of Data Warehouse is main goal of this paper. Many techniques have been analyzed for data cleansing, using certain evaluation attributes and tested on different kind of data sets. Data quality tools such as YALE, ALTERYX, and WEKA have been used for conclusive results to ready the data in data warehouse and ensure that only cleaned data populates the warehouse, thus enhancing usability of the warehouse. Results of paper can be useful in many future activities like cleansing, standardizing, correction, matching and transformation. This research can help in data auditing and pattern detection in the data.

  10. Practice of Advanced Treatment Process for Coking Wastewater in Bayuquan Company of Ansteel%鞍钢鲅鱼圈焦化废水深度处理工艺实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 赵恒波; 杨大立; 孙大鹏

    2015-01-01

    针对鞍钢股份有限公司鲅鱼圈钢铁分公司焦化废水A2/O生物系统处理后出水COD、总氰及氨氮仍很难达标,生物处理段处理效果不好等问题,对臭氧催化氧化及电絮凝焦化废水深度处理工艺进行了研究。工业实践表明,将原A2/O生物系统出水经臭氧催化氧化深度处理后,COD和总氰化物去除率分别达到66%和84%,出水指标达到设计要求,环境效益显著。%The advanced treatment processes for coking wastewater based on the catalytic ozonation method and the electric coagulation method were studied with regard to the problems that the content of COD, total cyanide and ammonia nitrogen in effluent water obtained by the A2/O biological treatment system for coking wastewater in Bayuquan Iron &Steel Subsidiary Company of Angang Steel Co., Ltd. was far away from meeting the standard values and the treatment efficiency in biological treatment stage was not favorable. The practice shows that the removal rates of COD and total cyanide of effluent water which was obtained by the A2/O biological treatment system retreated by the advanced treatment process based on catalytic ozonation method were improved to 66% and 84% respectively and therefore indexes of effluent water can meet the values required by design standards while the environmental benefits are remarkable.

  11. Minimization of water and chemical usage in the cleaning in place process of a milk pasteurization plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathit Niamsuwan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning in place (CIP is a method of cleaning inner surfaces of piping, vessel, equipment, and associated fitting withdisassembly. Although, the CIP processes have been studied continually to improve efficiency for chemical and water consumption,the real conventional plant operations of this process still have been considered as a large amount of consumption.The objectives of this work are to study process behaviors and to find out the optimal draining ratio of the CIP cleaningchemicals in a pasteurized milk plant. To achieve these, mathematical models of the CIP process have been developed andvalidated by the actual process data. With these models, simulation study has been carried out to describe the dynamicbehaviors of the process with respect to the concentrations and contaminations in CIP cleaning chemicals. The optimizationproblem has been formulated and solved using written programs based on MATLAB application program.

  12. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY A new cleaning process for the metallic contaminants on a post-CMP wafer's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baohong, Gao; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Yadong, Zhu; Shengli, Wang; Qiang, Zhou; Baimei, Tan

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a new cleaning process using boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anode electrochemical oxidation for metallic contaminants on polished silicon wafer surfaces. The BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can efficiently prepare pyrophosphate peroxide, pyrophosphate peroxide can oxidize organic contaminants, and pyrophosphate peroxide is deoxidized into pyrophosphate. Pyrophosphate, a good complexing agent, can form a metal complex, which is a structure consisting of a copper ion, bonded to a surrounding array of two pyrophosphate anions. Three polished wafers were immersed in the 0.01 mol/L CuSO4 solution for 2 h in order to make comparative experiments. The first one was cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide, the second by RCA (Radio Corporation of America) cleaning, and the third by deionized (DI) water. The XPS measurement result shows that the metallic contaminants on wafers cleaned by the RCA method and by pyrophosphate peroxide is less than the XPS detection limits of 1 ppm. And the wafer's surface cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide is more efficient in removing organic carbon residues than RCA cleaning. Therefore, BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can be used for microelectronics cleaning, and it can effectively remove organic contaminants and metallic contaminants in one step. It also achieves energy saving and environmental protection.

  13. Project exampIe of reuse of coking wastewater treated by A2O-Fenton process%A2O-Fenton工艺处理焦化废水回用工程实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁元宝; 梁荣华; 杜娟; 刘海波

    2015-01-01

    As coking wastewater has characteristics of high toxicity, high phenol cyanide index, high ammo-nia nitrogen concentration, large fluctuation of water quality, poor biodegradability and so on, A2O-Fenton pro-cess was used for its treatment. The results of engineering operation showed that, the mass concentration of CODCr decreased from 3 500 - 5 000 mg/L to below 150 mg/L, the mass concentration of ammonia nitrogen decreased from 200 - 350 mg/L to below 5 mg/L, the removal rates reached 95% and 97% respectively, the effluent water quality was stable and met the specification of GB 16171-2012 Emission Standard of Pollutants for Coking Chemical Industry, which could be reused for iron smelting slag washing.%针对焦化废水毒性大、酚氰指数高、氨氮高、水质波动大、可生化性差的特点,采用A2O-Fenton工艺进行处理。工程运行结果表明, CODCr的质量浓度从3500~5000 mg/L下降到150 mg/L以下,氨氮质量浓度从200~350 mg/L下降到5 mg/L以下,去除率分别达到了95%和97%,出水水质稳定达到GB 16171-2012《炼焦化学工业污染物排放标准》的要求,可回用于炼铁冲渣。

  14. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for the optimization of road surface cleaning process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; GAO Dao-ming

    2006-01-01

    The parameters affecting road surface cleaning using waterjets were researched and a fuzzy neural network method of calculating cleaning rate was provided. A genetic algorithm was used to configure the cleaning parameters of pressure, standoff distance, traverse rate and angle of nozzles for the optimization of the cleaning effectiveness, efficiency, energy and water consumption, and a multi-objective optimization model was established. After calculation, the optimized results and the trend of variation of cleaning effectiveness, efficiency, energy and water consumption in different weighting factors were analyzed.

  15. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Cleaning Process Research of MVR High Concentration Salty Wastewater Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Na

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical vapor re-compression (MVR evaporation system for the treatment of the highly-concentrated inorganic salt wastewater was investigated, and its process characteristics were analyzed taking sodium chloride salt wastewater as the treated solution. In this paper, by adding “H2O2 oxidation + filter +flash evaporation + hot filter” technology on the basis of original traditional MVR treatment system, the optimum technological conditions were determined through the experiment: The pH value is 8.5; the oxidation time is 24.0h; H2O2 amount accounting for 1% of the total wastewater under the condition of outlet test MVR system respectively fell 88.5% and 90.1% than the traditional process of effluent COD and NH3-N removal rate. MVR system for the sodium chloride salt qualified rate was increased from 83.2% to 98.2%. On the other hand, this process avoided the highly-concentrated outside of mother liquor by flashing evaporation recycling volatile solvent; the optimization process results were found to be consistent with published practical industrial data. Compared with the new process MVR system, the operation load of MVR system was lower. Therefore, the system can be used to treat the highly-concentrated inorganic salt wastewater and save energy. Therefore, the cleaning process can achieve remarkable energy saving and consumption, and reduce the pollution and the pollution and environmental protection effect.

  18. Active biopolymers in green non-conventional media: a sustainable tool for developing clean chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Pedro; Bernal, Juana M; Nieto, Susana; Gomez, Celia; Garcia-Verdugo, Eduardo; Luis, Santiago V

    2015-12-21

    The greenness of chemical processes turns around two main axes: the selectivity of catalytic transformations, and the separation of pure products. The transfer of the exquisite catalytic efficiency shown by enzymes in nature to chemical processes is an important challenge. By using appropriate reaction systems, the combination of biopolymers with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and ionic liquids (ILs) resulted in synergetic and outstanding platforms for developing (multi)catalytic green chemical processes, even under flow conditions. The stabilization of biocatalysts, together with the design of straightforward approaches for separation of pure products including the full recovery and reuse of enzymes/ILs systems, are essential elements for developing clean chemical processes. By understanding structure-function relationships of biopolymers in ILs, as well as for ILs themselves (e.g. sponge-like ionic liquids, SLILs; supported ionic liquids-like phases, SILLPs, etc.), several integral green chemical processes of (bio)catalytic transformation and pure product separation are pointed out (e.g. the biocatalytic production of biodiesel in SLILs, etc.). Other developments based on DNA/ILs systems, as pathfinder studies for further technological applications in the near future, are also considered.

  19. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  20. Treatment of Semi-coke Production Wastewater by Emulsion Liquid Membrane Process%乳状液膜法处理煤制兰炭废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 程迪; 李鹏

    2013-01-01

    The semi-coke production wastewater was treated by emulsion liquid membrane method using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as carrier,kerosene as membrane solvent,and NaOH solution as aqueous phase.The experimental results show that when the TBP volume fraction is 4%,the surfactant mass fraction is 4%,the mass concentration of NaOH in the internal phase is 12%,the volume ratio of oil to internal phase is 3 ∶ 2,the volume ratio of emulsion liquid to wastewater is 1 ∶ 5 and the extraction time is 15 min,the removal rats of phenols (calculated in phenol) and COD are above 85% and 83% respectively.%以磷酸三丁酯(TBP)为载体、煤油为膜溶剂、NaOH水溶液为内水相,采用乳状液膜法处理兰炭废水.实验结果表明:当TBP体积分数为4%、表面活性剂质量分数为4%、内水相NaOH质量分数为12%、油内比(乳状液的油相与内水相的体积比)为3∶2、乳水比为1∶5、萃取时间为15 min时,废水中的酚类(以苯酚计)去除率达到85%以上,COD去除率达83%以上.

  1. The history of a unique South Wales coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.

    2006-07-01

    During 1914 the Coppee Company was contracted to build two batteries of 30 coke ovens, a washery and by-product plant at Coed Ely in the Ely Valley, South Wales, near to a productive colliery. The coal was formed into a cake by stamping it into a mould slightly smaller than the oven. Straw was used as a binder. The coke produced was ideal for iron making. The article describes the stamp charging process, the cooling process, and the by-product plant producing a 'tar oil winter wash' (ammonium sulphateude benzol and coal gas). It describes the construction and later extensions of the batteries. It recounts the history of the rail system linking the coking plant and the mine and has illustrated descriptions of Locomotive Coedely, Locomotive Ferndale, Locomotive Tynycoed and Locomotive Austerity 0-6-OST. The coking works was finally closed in October 1983, following the 1979 change of government which shut the industry from all sides. Today the hillside is landscaped and grass is beginning to grow where the works once was. This article was fist published in the Archive Magazine, No. 41, of March 2004, pp 3-26. 25 figs.

  2. Investigation on activated semi-coke desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANGGUAN Ju; LI Zhuan-li; LI Chun-hu

    2005-01-01

    An activated semi-coke with industrial-scale size was prepared by high-pressure hydrothermal chemistry activation, HNO3oxidation and calcination activation in proper order from Inner Mongolia Zhalainuoer semi-coke, which is rich in resource and cheap in sale.SO2 adsorption capacity on this activated semi-coke was assessed in the fixed bed in the temperature range of 60-170℃, space velocity range of 500-1300 h-1, SO2 concentration of 1000-3000 ppmv, and N2 as balance. The surface area, elemental and proximate analysis for both raw semi-coke and activated semi-cokes were measured. The experimental results showed that the activated semi-coke has a high adsorption capacity for sulfur dioxide than the untreated semi-coke. This may be the result of increase of surface area on activated semi-coke and surface oxygen functional groups with basicity characteristics. Comparison to result of FTIR, it is known that group of-C-O-C- may be active center of SO2 catalytic adsorption on activated semi-coke.

  3. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modification of the Rectisol process. Several different process configurations were evaluated using Aspen plus, including PC-SAFT for the thermodynamic modeling. The developed configuration takes advantage of only one methanol wash column, compared to two columns in a conventional Rectisol process. Results from modeling show the ability of the proposed configuration to remove impurities to a sufficiently low concentrations - almost zero concentration for H2S, CS2, HCl, NH3 and HCN, and approximately 0.01 mg/Nm3 for COS. These levels are acceptable for further upgrading of the gas in a methanation process. Simultaneously, up to 92% of the original CO2 is preserved in the final cleaned syngas stream. No process integration or economic consideration was performed within the scope of the present study, but will be investigated in future projects to improve the overall process.

  4. Improvement of Heat Exchanger Cleaning Process%热交换器在线清洗流程改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晓君; 尚彦芝; 刘湘晨; 张建军; 肖涤; 欧阳子劲; 张圆圆; 张文喜

    2012-01-01

    The cleaning of heat exchanger is an important part in industrial production, especially in oil chemical and thermoelectric factory production. So a simple cleaning process of heat exchanger for regular cleaning is very necessary. Based on the most basic online cleaning process and the test in the plant, a more practical, more concise and more convenient cleaning process will be put into application.%热交换器清洗是工业生产,尤其是石油化工及热电工厂生产中不可缺少的重要环节,采用简单可行的清洗流程对热交换器进行定期清洗很有必要.在最基本的在线清洗流程设计基础上,结合现场试验情况,通过不断改进,得到了更加实用、简洁、方便的清洗流程.

  5. DEVELOPING AN OPTIMIZED PROCESS STRATEGY FOR ACID CLEANING OF THE SAVANNAH RIVERSITE HLW TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E

    2006-12-04

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), there remains approximately 35 million gallons of High Level Waste (HLW) that was mostly created from Purex and SRS H-Area Modified (HM) nuclear fuel cycles. The waste is contained in approximately forty-nine tanks fabricated from commercially available carbon steel. In order to minimize general corrosion, the waste is maintained as very-alkaline solution. The very-alkaline chemistry has caused hydrated metal oxides to precipitate and form a sludge heel. Over the years, the sludge waste has aged, with some forming a hardened crust. To aid in the removal of the sludge heels from select tanks for closure the use of oxalic acid to dissolve the sludge is being investigated. Developing an optimized process strategy based on laboratory analyses would be prohibitively costly. This research, therefore, demonstrates that a chemical equilibrium based software program can be used to develop an optimized process strategy for oxalic acid cleaning of the HLW tanks based on estimating resultant chemistries, minimizing resultant oxalates sent to the evaporator, and minimizing resultant solids sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

  6. Pre-commissioning of 120 kt/a Unit for Hydrotreating Crude Coke Oven Benzene Implemented at Baoyuan Chemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Baoyuan Chemical Company, Ltd. in Taiyuan has per-formed the precommissioning of a 120 kt/a unit for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene. This unit is the phase II construction of the 300 kt/a crude benzene hydrotreating project, which adopts the process technology for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene developed indepen-dently by our own efforts.

  7. Final Report of NATO/SPS Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I and II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early in 1998 the NATO Committee for Challenges to Modern Society (SPS) (Science for Peace and Security) approved the Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes for an initial period of five years. The pilot was to provide a forum for member country representatives to discuss t...

  8. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coking industries in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Mu; Lin Peng; Junji Cao; Qiusheng He; Fan Li; Jianqiang Zhang; Xiaofeng Liu

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to assess the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from coking industries,with field samplings conducted at four typical coke plants.For each selected plant,stack flue gas samples were collected during processes that included charging coal into the ovens (CC),pushing coke (PC) and the combustion of coke-oven gas (CG).Sixteen individual PAHs on the US EPA priority list were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).Results showed that the total PAH concentrations in the flue gas ranged from 45.776 to 414.874 μg/m3,with the highest emission level for CC (359.545 μg/m3).The concentration of PAH emitted from the CC process in CP1 (stamp charging) was lower than that from CP3 and CP4 (top charging).Low-molecular-weight PAHs (i.e.,two-to three-ring PAHs) were predominant contributors to the total PAH contents,and Nap,AcPy,Flu,PhA,and AnT were found to be the most abundant ones.Total BaPeq concentrations for CC (2.248 iμg/m3) were higher than those for PC (1.838 μg/m3) and CG (1.082 μg/m3),and DbA was an important contributor to carcinogenic risk as BaP in emissions from coking processes.Particulate PAH accounted for more than 20% of the total BaPeq concentrations,which were significantly higher than the corresponding contributions to the total PAH mass concentration (5%).Both particulate and gaseous PAH should be taken into consideration when the potential toxicity risk of PAH pollution during coking processes is assessed.The mean total-PAH emission factors were 346.132 and 93.173 μg/kg for CC and PC,respectively.

  9. Optimization of the process of steel strip perforation and nickel platting for the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Aleksandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the production of pocket type electrodes for Ni-Cd batteries perforation of proper steel strips and then nickel platting of perforated steel strips were made. In the nickel platting process, the organic solvent, trichloroethylene, has previously been used for cleaning. Due to the carcinogenic nature of trichloroethylene and the many operations previously required during cleaning, it was considered to do cleaning of perforated steel strips without use of the mentioned organic solvent. In the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strips, the tests of perforation of steel strips with use of oils of different viscosity were made. It was shown that there was no dysfunction during the work of the perforation plants, meaning there was no additional heating of the strips, deterring of the steel filings, nor excessive wearing of the perforation apparatus. The perforation percent was the same irrelevant of the viscosity of the used oil. Before being perforated using the oils with different viscosity, the nickel platting steel strips were cleaned in different degreasers (based on NaOH as well as on KOH. It was shown that efficient cleaning without the use of trichloroethylene is possible with the use of oil with smaller viscosity in the perforated steel strips process and the degreaser based on KOH in the cleaning process, before nickel platting. It also appeared that the alkali degreaser based on KOH was more efficient, bath corrections were made less often and the working period of the baths was longer, which all in summary means less quantity of chemicals needed for degreasing of perforated steel strips.

  10. Integrated hot fuel gas cleaning for advanced gasification combined cycle process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Kangasmaa, K.; Laatikainen, J.; Staahlberg, P.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1996-12-01

    The fate of halogens in pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and hot gas filtration is determined. Potential halogen removal sorbents, suitable for integrated hot gas cleaning, are screened and some selected sorbents are tested in bench scale. Finally, halogen removal results are verified using the PDU-scale pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and integrated hot gas cleaning facilities of VTT. The project is part of the JOULE II Extension programme of the European Union. (author)

  11. Selection and Execution for Process Scheme of Synthetic Ammonia Made by Coke-Oven Gas%焦炉煤气制合成氨工艺方案的选取和实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文德国; 苏庆贺; 陈世通

    2014-01-01

    介绍了山东临沂恒昌化工科技有限公司焦炉煤气制合成氨装置的立项背景;确定了装置的工艺方案和主要设备;简述了装置节能降耗的主要措施。结果表明:该装置一次试车成功,吨氨电耗约1000 kW· h,制造成本约1500元/t,经济效益明显。%Author has introduced the project approval background for plant of synthetic ammonia made by coke-oven gas in the Shandong Linyi Hengchang Chemical Engineering Science and Technology Company Ltd .; has determined the process scheme and main equipment; has described the main measures about energy saving and consume lowering.Result indicates that the trial run of plant was succesful in one time, the electricity power per ton of ammonia is saved by 1 000 kW· h, fabrication cost is saved by 1 500 Yuan RMB per ton, the economic benefit is obvious.

  12. Integration of natural pollutant retention and degradation processes in groundwater sanitation at LMBV MBH. The former Profen coking plant; Praxis der Einbindung von natuerlichem Schadstoffrueckhalt und -abbau in die Grundwasser-Sanierung der LMBV MBH. Am Beispiel der ehemaligen Schwelerei Profen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, A. [LMBV mbH, Ingenieurbereich Technik, Bitterfeld (Germany); Hahlbeck, S. [Staatliche Baumanagement Hannover II, Hannover (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Using the example of the former Profen coking plant, practical experience is presented as follows: Description of the contamination situation and the relevant aspects of pollutant degradation; management of licenses for stopping active groundwater decontamination; experience in three years of monitoring after stopping active groundwater decontamination in April 2002; questions and problems concerning the applicability of the results to other contaminated sites and general conclusions concerning the integration of natural pollutant retention and degradation processes in sanitation measures. (orig.)

  13. Influence of carbonization conditions on micro-pore structure of foundry formed coke produced with char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Qiao; Jianjun Wu; Jingru Zu; Zhiyuan Gao; Guoli Zhou

    2009-07-01

    There are few studies on coke's micro-pore structure in recent years, however, micro-pore structure of foundry coke determines its macroscopically quality index and reactivity in cupola furnace. Effect of such factors on micro-pore structure were investigated under different carbonization conditions with certain ratio of raw materials and material forming process in this article as charging temperature (A); braised furnace time (B); heating rate of the first stage (C)and the second stage (D) and holding time of ultimate temperature (E). Research showed that charging temperature was the most influential factor on the coke porosity, pore volume, pore size and specific surface area. It is suggested that formation of plastic mass and releasing rate of volatile during carbonization period are two main factors on microstructure of foundry coke while charging temperature contributes most to the above factors. 6 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Analysis of gas-phase mercury sorption with coke and lignite dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marczak Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of mercury emission became a widely discussed topic. Its high impact is caused by its toxicity and ability to accumulate in living organisms, properties that justified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA to classify mercury as hazardous pollutant. The problem of mercury emission is crucial for countries like Poland, where the most of the emission is caused by coaldepended energy sector. Current technology of mercury removal utilizes adsorption of mercury on the surface of activated carbon. Due to high price of activated carbon, this technological approach seems to be uneconomical and calls for cheaper alternative. One possible solution can be usage of other sorptive materials obtained from thermal processes like coke production. Example of such material is coke dust obtained from dry quenching of coke. The aim of this work was to analyse the sorption potential of lignite and coke dust and determine parameters influencing mercury behaviour during combustion.

  15. The New Method of XRD Measurement of the Degree of Disorder for Anode Coke Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis by X-ray powder diffraction of two cokes (pitch coke and petroleum coke shows that their crystal structure changed with increasing temperature. The crystal data processing of the crystallization degree of disorder is used with further improvement of the proposed microcrystalline-stacking fault calculation method. With this improvement it is now possible to obtain the degree of stacking disorder of two cokes applied as anode materials at different graphitization temperatures. Raman spectroscopy verified the accuracy of this method, which is more reliable than the crystal structure refinement using the d002 method. This paper provides the theoretical analysis and interpretation of the relationship between the microstructure model of the material and quantitative data, discharge capacity, and the first charge-discharge efficiency.

  16. REINVESTIGATING THE PROCESS IMPACTS FROM OXALIC ACIDHIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-01-22

    The impacts and acceptability of using oxalic acid to clean the Savannah River Site, High Level Waste Tanks 1-8, were re-investigated using a two-phased approach. For the first phase, using a representative Tank 1-8 sludge, the chemical equilibrium based software, OLI ESP{copyright} and Savannah River Site laboratory test results were used to develop a chemically speciated material balance and a general oxalate mass balance. Using 8 wt% oxalic acid with a 100% molar excess, for every 1 kg of sludge solid that was dissolved, about 3.4 kg of resultant solids would form for eventual vitrification, while about 0.6 kg of soluble oxalate would precipitate in the evaporator system, and form a salt heel. Using available analyses, a list of potential safety and process impacts were developed, screened, and evaluated for acceptability. The results showed that the use of oxalic acid had two distinct types of impacts, those which were safety based and required potential upgrades or additional studies. Assuming such were performed and adequate, no further actions were required. The second type of impacts were also acceptable, but were long-term, and as such, would need to be managed. These impacts were directly caused by the solubility characteristics of oxalate in a concentrated sodium solution and, occurred after pH restoration. Since oxalate destruction methods are commonly available, their use should be considered. Using an oxalate destruction method could enable the benefits of oxalic to applied, while eliminating the long-term impacts that must be managed, and hence should be considered.

  17. Investigate the Effects of Different Cleaning Process of Cleaning Quality of Gynecological Instruments%探讨不同清洗流程对妇科器械清洗质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素美

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the different cleaning processes used in the cleaning of gynecological instruments,to get the best quality of cleaning process to ensure quality sterile surgical instruments to ensure patient safety,reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections.Method:The gynecological instruments used were divided into A,B and C group,A group was given automatic washing machine cleaning,B group was given pure hand washing,C group was given ultrasonic cleaning hand scrub+automatic washing machine cleaning.The visual method, white gauze pad method and ATP fluorescence detection were used to compare three groups cleaning quality.Result:The quality of cleaning in group B and C were significantly higher than that in group A(P0.05). Conclusion:Gynecological equipment due to the special structure can not rely entirely on washing machine cleaning,can not be purely manual cleaning, manual cleaning and ultrasonic cleaning must be matched to ensure the quality of cleaning.%目的:探讨不同清洗流程应用于妇科器械的清洗,选择能够获取最佳质量的清洗流程,确保器械的灭菌质量保证手术患者的安全,降低院内感染的发生。方法:将已使用的妇科器械分为A、B、C组,A组妇科器械全自动清洗机清洗,B组妇科器械纯手工清洗,C组妇科器械采用超声清洗+手工刷洗+全自动清洗机清洗,利用目测法、白纱垫法、ATP荧光检测法比较三组妇科器械清洗质量。结果:三组清洗器械方法中清洗质量比较,B、C组清洗方法下的质量明显高于A组,比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:妇科器械因结构特殊不能完全依赖清洗机清洗,也不可以纯手工清洗,必须将手工清晰与超声清洗相配合才能保证清洗质量。

  18. Morphological stability of the atomically clean surface of silicon (100) crystals after microwave plasma-chemical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yafarov, R. K., E-mail: pirpc@yandex.ru; Shanygin, V. Ya. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The morphological stability of atomically clean silicon (100) surface after low-energy microwave plasma-chemical etching in various plasma-forming media is studied. It is found that relaxation changes in the surface density and atomic bump heights after plasma processing in inert and chemically active media are multidirectional in character. After processing in a freon-14 medium, the free energy is minimized due to a decrease in the surface density of microbumps and an increase in their height. After argon-plasma processing, an insignificant increase in the bump density with a simultaneous decrease in bump heights is observed. The physicochemical processes causing these changes are considered.

  19. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianhu; Huang, Xiaoming; Pan, Min; Jin, Song; Peng, Suchuan; Fallgren, Paul H

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD)(,) and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  20. Computational study of a self-cleaning process on superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhirad, Samaneh

    All substances around us are bounded by interfaces. In general, interface between different phases of materials are categorized as fluid-fluid, solid-fluid, and solid-solid. Fluid-fluid interfaces exhibit a distinct behavior by adapting their shape in response to external stimulus. For example, a liquid droplet on a substrate can undergo different wetting morphologies depending on topography and chemical composition of the surface. Fundamentally, interfacial phenomena arise at the limit between two immiscible phases, namely interface. The interface dynamic governs, to a great extent, physical processes such as impact and spreading of two immiscible media, and stabilization of foams and emulsions from break-up and coalescence. One of the recent challenging problems in the interface-driven fluid dynamics is the self-propulsion mechanism of droplets by means of different types of external forces such as electrical potential, or thermal Marangoni effect. Rapid removal of self-propelled droplet from the surface is an essential factor in terms of expense and efficiency for many applications including self-cleaning and enhanced heat and mass transfer to save energy and natural resources. A recent study on superhydrophobic nature of micro- and nanostructures of cicada wings offers a unique way for the self-propulsion process with no external force, namely coalescence-induced self-propelled jumping of droplet which can act effectively at any orientation. The biological importance of this new mechanism is associated with protecting such surfaces from long term exposure to colloidal particles such as microbial colloids and virus particles. Different interfacial phenomena can occur after out-of-plane jumping of droplet. If the departed droplet is landed back by gravity, it may impact and spread on the surface or coalesce with another droplet and again self-peopled itself to jump away from the surface. The complete removal of the propelled droplet to a sufficient distance

  1. FY1995 development of a clean CVD process by evaluation and control of gas phase nucleation phenomena; 1995 nendo kisokaku seisei gensho no hyoka to seigyo ni yoru clean CVD process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a high-rate and clean chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process as a breakthrough technique to overcome the problems that particles generated in the gas phase during CVD process for preparation of functional thin films cause reduced product yield and deterioration of the films. In the CVD process proposed here, reactant gas and generated particles are electrically charged to control the motion of them with an electric field. In this study, gas-phase nucleation phenomena are evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. A high-rate, ionized CVD method is first developed, in which reactant gas and generated particles are charged with negative ions generated from a radioisotope source and the UV/photoelectron method, and the motion of the charged gas and particles is controlled with an electric field. Charging and transport processes of fine particles are then investigated experimentally and theoretically to develop a clean CVD method in which generated particles are removed with the electric forces. As a result, quantitative evaluation of the charging and transport process was made possible. We also developed devices for measuring the size distribution and concentration of fine particles in low pressure gas such as those found in plasma CVD processes. In addition, numerical simulation and experiments in this study for a TEOS/O{sub 3} CVD process to prepare thin films could determine reaction rates which have not been known so far and give information on selecting good operation conditions for the process. (NEDO)

  2. Human health risk characterization of petroleum coke calcining facility emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Davinderjit; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2015-12-01

    Calcining processes including handling and storage of raw petroleum coke may result in Particulate Matter (PM) and gaseous emissions. Concerns have been raised over the potential association between particulate and aerosol pollution and adverse respiratory health effects including decrements in lung function. This risk characterization evaluated the exposure concentrations of ambient air pollutants including PM10 and gaseous pollutants from a petroleum coke calciner facility. The ambient air pollutant levels were collected through monitors installed at multiple locations in the vicinity of the facility. The measured and modeled particulate levels in ambient air from the calciner facility were compared to standards protective of public health. The results indicated that exposure levels were, on occasions at sites farther from the facility, higher than the public health limit of 150 μg/m(3) 24-h average for PM10. However, the carbon fraction demonstrated that the contribution from the calciner facility was de minimis. Exposure levels of the modeled SO2, CO, NOx and PM10 concentrations were also below public health air quality standards. These results demonstrate that emissions from calcining processes involving petroleum coke, at facilities that are well controlled, are below regulatory standards and are not expected to produce a public health risk.

  3. Cleaning method of the oil field wastewater treatment by UF process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This article introduces experiments and researches of polysulphone ultrafiltration membrane' s effect on oil field polluted water and approaches renewing oil field polluted water and approaches renewing of membrane' s flux by different detergents and cleaning method. Good result has been achieved by doing experiments and the renewal rate of membrane is over 90%.

  4. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Discrete Element Method Modeling of the Rheological Properties of Coke/Pitch Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Majidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of pitch and pitch/coke mixtures at temperatures around 150 °C are of great interest for the carbon anode manufacturing process in the aluminum industry. In the present work, a cohesive viscoelastic contact model based on Burger’s model is developed using the discrete element method (DEM on the YADE, the open-source DEM software. A dynamic shear rheometer (DSR is used to measure the viscoelastic properties of pitch at 150 °C. The experimental data obtained is then used to estimate the Burger’s model parameters and calibrate the DEM model. The DSR tests were then simulated by a three-dimensional model. Very good agreement was observed between the experimental data and simulation results. Coke aggregates were modeled by overlapping spheres in the DEM model. Coke/pitch mixtures were numerically created by adding 5, 10, 20, and 30 percent of coke aggregates of the size range of 0.297–0.595 mm (−30 + 50 mesh to pitch. Adding up to 30% of coke aggregates to pitch can increase its complex shear modulus at 60 Hz from 273 Pa to 1557 Pa. Results also showed that adding coke particles increases both storage and loss moduli, while it does not have a meaningful effect on the phase angle of pitch.

  6. Effect of mechanochemical treatment on petroleum coke-CO{sub 2} gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianhui Zou; Boli Yang; Kaifeng Gong; Shiyong Wu; Zhijie Zhou; Fuchen Wang; Zunhong Yu [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

    2008-05-15

    The effect of mechanochemical treatment during the grinding of petroleum coke on its gasification by CO{sub 2} was studied. An additive derived by drying the black liquor in papermaking industry is adopted in grinding process. Results show that the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke is effectively improved by grinding, and the activation by wet grinding is more noticeable than that by dry grinding. Besides, by wet grinding petroleum coke and additive together, the active metal species in additive are not easily volatilized in gasification, and retain a high catalytic reactivity to the coke-CO{sub 2} reaction throughout most of the conversion range. Changes in crystal structure of the petroleum coke induced by mechanochemical treatment is related to its gasification reactivity. In general, the crystalline-amorphous phase transition is the tendency of long time mechanical grinding, while a crystal structure re-formation stage is observed after wet grinding of petroleum coke with and without additive for some time. Similar phenomenon has also been found in the reported data, but not given attention. Some discussion is made in the paper, and more work should be undertaken to disclose the mechanism. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Results of the simulation of gasification of the mexican petroleum coke from the refineries of Ciudad Madero and Cadereyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Urquiza–Beltrán

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates in terms of energy the gasification of the petroleum coke from the refineries of Cd Madero and Cadereyta in Mexico. The energy evaluation of the synthetic gas (syngas focuses mainly on the chemical composition of the clean syngas (gasl and its energy characteristics: heating value, the energy power, the cold gas efficiency and the thermal efficiency of gasification. The results of the simulation indicate that the gasification of the petroleum coke from Cadereyta called CRC, produces a gasl with better performance and energy characteristics than those obtained when gasifying the coke of petroleum from Cd. Madero, called CRM. When the CRC is gasified, the rate of production of gasl obtained is of 2.07 kggasl/kgcoque, while the rate of production of gasl for the CRM is 1.89 kggasl/kgcoque. The HHV of the gasl of the CRC is 12 729.56 kJ/kggasl while for the CRM is 11 639.13 kJ/kggasl. The energy power of the gasl of the CRC is greater, with a difference of 25.87 GJ/h, with regard to the energy power of the gasl of the CRM. Under the specified conditions of operation, energy is generated ata rate of 26.46 MJ/kgcoque coke in the gasification of the CRC coke of petroleum, while when gasifying the CRM coke of petroleum 22.09 MJ/kgcoque are generated. Currently, the petroleum coke produced in the refinery of Madero is consumed in the power plants of Tamuín, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, while the petroleum coke produced by the refinery of Cadereyta is used in the cement industry.

  8. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  9. Coking Mechanism During the Process of Acetylene Preparation from Coal Pyrolysis in Hydrogen Plasma%氢等离子体裂解煤制乙炔结焦物形成机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方世东; 李绪奇; 赵颖; 陈龙威; 沈洁; 孟月东

    2013-01-01

    For further understanding the mechanism of coking,we analyzed coke samples at the mixing section,the first reaction section,and the second reaction section of a reactor by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The results show that the micro structural aspects and the degree of graphitization of the cokes at different locations were different.The coke samples at the mixing section were dominated by carbon nanotubes and carbon microbeads,with the highest degree of graphitization among the three sections; at the first reaction section,the particles of carbon microbeads in sample were relatively coarse,and the degree of graphitization was relatively high; and at the second reaction section,the coke samples contained carbon black particles,but the degree of their graphitization was relatively low.In combination with chemical equilibrium theoretical analysis,it was speculated that the cause of different cokes was that the pyrolysis product had undergone different ways of formation of carbon deposits.The coal powder particles,gaseous carbon,solid-state carbon,and ionic carbon at the mixing section were on the wall surface; the effect of vapor deposition of gaseous carbon at the first reaction section on the coke on wall surface increased; the coke at the second reaction section took place in the form of solid-state adsorption.By conducting pyrolysis of coal with two different kinds of volatiles,it was found that the coking of the coal with high volatiles content was severe.In order to reduce or inhibit coke formation,low volatile coal should be adopted.%为研究氢等离子体裂解煤制乙炔过程中的结焦物形成机理,用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和X射线衍射(XRD)对反应器内混合段和反应段结焦物进行了分析.结果表明不同位置的结焦物形貌和石墨化程度不同:混合段结焦物以碳纳米管和碳微球为主,石墨化程度最高;第一反应段结焦物中碳微球颗粒较大,石墨化程度较高;

  10. An additive for a petroleum coke and water suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiguti, K.; Igarasi, T.; Isimura, Y.; Kharaguti, S.; Tsudzina, T.

    1983-03-04

    The patent covers an additive for a petroleum coke and watersuspension which contains soap of an aliphatic acid (AM) and or a salt of a maleic acid copolymer (SMK). The aliphatic acid soap is a salt of an alkaline earth metal of C6 to C22 aliphatic acid, an ammonium salt or a salt of a lower amine. The maleic acid copolymer is a salt (sodium, NH4) of a lower amine of a maleic anhydride copolymer with a copolymerizing vinyl additive. Capric acid, lauric acid, palmatic acid, aleic and other acids may be used as the aliphatic acid, while methylamine, trimethylamine, diethanolamine, morpholine and so on may be used as the lower amine salt. Ethylene, vinylchloride, methyl(meta)acrylate and so on are used as the polymerizing vinyl compound. The molar ratio of the maleic anhydride to the polymerizing vinyl compound is in a range from 1 to 1 to 1 to 10 (preferably 1 to 1 to 1 to 3). The maleic acid copolymer has a mean molecular mass within 1,000 to 5,000. The additive with the optimal composition contains a solvent, a thickener, an anticorrosion substance, anticoagulants, surfacants (PAV) and so on. A highly concentrated suspension of oil coke and water with a 50 to 75 percent concentration of powder form petroleum coke may be produced using the patented additive. Such a suspension is characterized by low viscosity, high stability and forms no foam during processing.

  11. Factors affecting coke size and fissuring during cokemaking part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrick Mahoney; Jeff Keating; Susan Woodhouse [BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    This work addressed the mechanism of fissuring during metallurgical cokemaking and extends on a previous ACARP project. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanism by an integrated modelling work; experimental program. The work points to opportunities for controlling the carbonisation process to achieve required outcomes in terms of coke lump size and distribution. Key outcomes of the work included: A methodology for determination of the minimum spacing between fissures, and the time at which period doublings (i.e. every second fissure stopping) occur, has been developed and implemented. Implementation of the methodology allows the determination of the complete fissure pattern (at least those perpendicular to the oven walls) for a given coke oven/charge configuration. A plausible mechanistic explanation of the formation of lateral fissures (those that are parallel to the oven walls) has been developed. Knowledge of the fissure pattern, combined with the lateral fissuring explanation, enables the determination of typical size and shape of lumps after stabilisation of the coke.

  12. Torrefaction reduction of coke formation on catalysts used in esterification and cracking of biofuels from pyrolysed lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Hilten, Roger; Das, Keshav C

    2015-11-04

    A bio-oil production process involving torrefaction pretreatment, catalytic esterification, pyrolysis, and secondary catalytic processing significantly reduces yields of reactor char, catalyst coke, and catalyst tar relative to the best-case conditions using non-torrefied feedstock. The reduction in coke as a result of torrefaction was 28.5% relative to the respective control for slow pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading. In fast pyrolysis bio-oil processing, the greatest reduction in coke was 34.9%. Torrefaction at 275.degree. C. reduced levels of acid products including acetic acid and formic acid in the bio-oil, which reduced catalyst coking and increased catalyst effectiveness and aromatic hydrocarbon yields in the upgraded oils. The process of bio-oil generation further comprises a catalytic esterification of acids and aldehydes to generate such as ethyl levulinate from lignified biomass feedstock.

  13. [Cleaning and disinfection in nursing homes. Data on quality of structure, process and outcome in nursing homes in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorf, U; Gasteyer, S; Samoiski, Y; Voigt, K

    2012-08-01

    Due to the Infectious Disease Prevention Act, public health services in Germany are obliged to check the infection prevention in hospitals and other medical facilities as well as in nursing homes. In Frankfurt/Main, Germany, standardized control visits have been performed for many years. In 2011 focus was laid on cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. All 41 nursing homes were checked according to a standardized checklist covering quality of structure (i.e. staffing, hygiene concept), quality of process (observation of the cleaning processes in the homes) and quality of output, which was monitored by checking the cleaning of fluorescent marks which had been applied some days before and should have been removed via cleaning in the following days before the final check. In more than two thirds of the homes, cleaning personnel were salaried, in one third external personnel were hired. Of the homes 85% provided service clothing and all of them offered protective clothing. All homes had established hygiene and cleaning concepts, however, in 15% of the homes concepts for the handling of Norovirus and in 30% concepts for the handling of Clostridium difficile were missing. Regarding process quality only half of the processes observed, i.e. cleaning of hand contact surfaces, such as handrails, washing areas and bins, were correct. Only 44% of the cleaning controls were correct with enormous differences between the homes (0-100%). The correlation between quality of process and quality of output was significant. There was good quality of structure in the homes but regarding quality of process and outcome there was great need for improvement. This was especially due to faults in communication and coordination between cleaning personnel and nursing personnel. Quality outcome was neither associated with the number of the places for residents nor with staffing. Thus, not only quality of structure but also quality of process and outcome should be checked by the public health

  14. Electrolytic Plasma Processing for Sequential Cleaning and Coating Deposition for Cadmium Plating Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Al(OH)3 precipitation pH≈5 to 8. Bulk pH of 0.1M aluminium sulphate solution is about 3.5, and it is further reduced due to collateral hydrogen...a surface. For cleaning, the electrolyte can be a simple sodium bicarbonate solution (typically 10%) or ammonium chloride. As measured by SEM and...reduction of the metallic ions. Sodium sulphate and Al powder was added in the bath for one experiment and produced a more uniform coating. The intention

  15. Technical trend and prospect for wafer cleaning on LSI manufacturing process; LSI seizo kotei ni okeru weha senjo gijutsu no saikin no doko totenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, Y. [Dan Science Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-31

    Presently used cleaning process of silicone wafer is based on the modification of so called RCA method from the knowhow point of view, presented by W.Kern and others 25 years ago. On the other hand, with the progress of development of element for next generation, it was already clarified to be required on the process, demanded for high degree control of silicone surface. When considered the practical measure for this, there is a movement towards the establishment of new silicone wafer cleaning concept for new generation instead of making difficult process by precise RCA cleaning. One of the new proposed method is IMEC cleaning. Further, in Tohoku University, new cleaning process, alternative to RCA method is proposed, in which treatment of all chemicals is carried out at room temperature, types of chemicals used for cleaning are limited to minimum and also, concentration of these chemicals is kept as minimum as possible, amount of used superpure wafer is saved by effective recycling and reutilization of spent chemicals. With these tecnologies, there has appeared the sign for new development for cleaning technology. 36 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Gasification Reaction Characteristics of Ferro-Coke at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jian-liang; Gao, Bing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of temperature and atmosphere on the gasification reaction of ferro-coke were investigated in consideration of the actual blast furnace conditions. Besides, the microstructure of the cokes was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is found that the weight loss of ferro-coke during the gasification reaction is significantly enhanced in the case of increasing either the reaction temperature or the CO2 concentration. Furthermore, compared with the normal type of metallurgical coke, ferro-coke exhibits a higher weight loss when they are gasified at the same temperature or under the same atmosphere. As to the microstructure, inside the reacted ferro-coke are a large amount of pores. Contrary to the normal coke, the proportions of the large-size pores and the through holes are greatly increased after gasification, giving rise to thinner pore walls and hence a degradation in coke strength after reaction (CSR).

  17. Fissure formation in coke. 3: Coke size distribution and statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; D.E. Shaw; M.R. Mahoney [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    2010-07-15

    A model of coke stabilization, based on a fundamental model of fissuring during carbonisation is used to demonstrate the applicability of the fissuring model to actual coke size distributions. The results indicate that the degree of stabilization is important in determining the size distribution. A modified form of the Weibull distribution is shown to provide a better representation of the whole coke size distribution compared to the Rosin-Rammler distribution, which is generally only fitted to the lump coke. A statistical analysis of a large number of experiments in a pilot scale coke oven shows reasonably good prediction of the coke mean size, based on parameters related to blend rank, amount of low rank coal, fluidity and ash. However, the prediction of measures of the spread of the size distribution is more problematic. The fissuring model, the size distribution representation and the statistical analysis together provide a comprehensive capability for understanding and predicting the mean size and distribution of coke lumps produced during carbonisation. 12 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Going clean : new technology makes coal greener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, H.

    2007-09-15

    As a widely distributed and reliable resource, coal has played an important role in industrial development. At a cost of less than US $2.00 per GJ, coal will remain a valuable resource as the demand for energy increases. The science of clean coal technology is proven and applications are being formed, particularly in carbon dioxide sequestration. Examples of clean coal technology include oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing and coal gasification. All these approaches produce energy while emitting CO{sub 2} gas that is relatively pure and can be easily captured for storage, thereby preventing emissions to the atmosphere. The Canadian Clean Power Coalition has determined that coal gasification has considerable potential in Canada, particularly since Alberta sits above some of the largest coal and oil reserves in the world. Gasification involves heating up a coal feedstock at high temperatures and pressure, in the presence of water in the form of steam. Synthesis gas and hydrogen are produced in the process. The produced CO{sub 2} is concentrated in a way that makes it relatively easy to capture and sequester in the earth or used to enhance the recovery of oil from depleted oil wells. In addition to coal, there are numerous other carbon-based materials that can be gasified, including bitumens, bitumen residuals or petroleum coke. Studies have shown that Alberta's sub-bituminous coal is an ideal candidate for gasification. There are industries in Alberta that need hydrogen for feedstock, and the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provides a vast storage for pure CO{sub 2}. It was concluded that gasification is the only current technology that will have the ability to significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from fossil fuels. The greatest challenge is the capital cost of building the coal gasification facilities. 4 figs.

  19. Preliminary Study of Thermal Treatment of Coke Wastewater Sludge Using Plasma Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingshu; Li, Shengli; Sun, Demao; Liu, Xin; Feng, Qiubao

    2016-10-01

    Thermal plasma was applied for the treatment of coke wastewater sludge derived from the steel industry in order to investigate the feasibility of the safe treatment and energy recovery of the sludge. A 30 kW plasma torch system was applied to study the vitrification and gas production of coke wastewater sludge. Toxicity leaching results indicated that the sludge treated via the thermal plasma process converted into a vitrified slag which resisted the leaching of heavy metals. CO2 was utilized as working gas to study the production and heat energy of the syngas. The heating value of the gas products by thermal plasma achieved 8.43 kJ/L, indicating the further utilization of the gas products. Considering the utilization of the syngas and recovery heat from the gas products, the estimated treatment cost of coke wastewater sludge via plasma torch was about 0.98 CNY/kg sludge in the experiment. By preliminary economic analysis, the dehydration cost takes an important part of the total sludge treatment cost. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge with 50 wt.% moisture was calculated to be about 1.45 CNY/kg sludge dry basis. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge could be effectively controlled by decreasing the water content of the sludge. These findings suggest that an economic dewatering pretreatment method could be combined to cut the total treatment cost in an actual treatment process.

  20. Treatment of Refinery-Coking Wastewater by Aeration Micro-electrolysis Process with Hydrogen Peroxide%曝气微电解-双氧水工艺处理炼厂焦化废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林伟帮; 李琪琪; 杨贺群; 谭毅; 蒋伟芬; 陈英; 陈东

    2012-01-01

    The rcfinery-coking wastewater was treated by aeration micro-electrolysis process with hydrogen peroxide. The influence of pH, reaction time, hydrogen peroxide and Iron filings dosage, and air flow on the removal of COD and NH3-N, and the ratio of BOD and COD for the waste water was investigated. The removal of COD and NH3-N in the wastewater was 37.6 % and 29.9 % respectively under the conditions of pH 5-7, Iron filings dosage of 100 g/L, hydrogen peroxide (30 % concentration)dosage of 2 mL/L, and 60 L/h air flow per 150 mL wastewater after reaction 90 rain. The ratio of BOD and COD increased from 0.25 to 0.66, which implied that the biodegradability of the wastewater was improved.%采用曝气微电解-双氧水工艺处理炼厂焦化废水,考察了废水pH、反应时间、双氧水投加量以及空气流量等因素对废水COD、NH3-N2、除率和BOD/COD比值的影响。结果表明,在pH5~7、铁稻用量100g/L、双氧水(浓度为30%)用量2mL/L,反应时间1.5h、空气流量60L/h(实验废水量150mL)的条件下,COD、NH3-N的去除率分别为37.6%和299%,BOD/COD比值从0.25提高到0.66,废水可生化性提高。

  1. THE INDUSTRIAL TEST OF PULSE BAG FILTER IN PETROLEUM COKE SUPERFINE GRINDING PROCESS%石油焦超细粉碎工艺中的脉冲袋式除尘器试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周奇杰; 陈海焱; 张明星; 郑娟; 王焱

    2011-01-01

    Using superfine crushing grading equipment,the dust resistance after injecting,filtration speed and the dust resistance fluctuation when blowing in grinding process were tested.The test conditions were respectively different filtration area,different filtration speed,different filter inlet dust concentration and different pulse width.The results showed that for petroleum coke is light and has adhesion,the filtration speed should not exceed 2.17 m/min.And considering the dust removal efficiency and economic benefit,the filtration speed should better be controlled in 1.3 m/min.Both the filter inlet dust concentration and the pulse width had certain influence on the dust resistance after injecting and the dust resistance fluctuation when blowing.The dust resistance and the dust resistance fluctuation were small,when the filter inlet dust concentration was low.And pulse jet filter exists a best pulse width,0.08 s is the best one for this experimental filter.%利用超细粉碎分级设备,分别测试粉碎工艺中除尘器在不同过滤面积、过滤风速、入口粉尘浓度时,喷吹后的除尘器阻力、过滤风速、喷吹时的除尘器阻力波动情况;测试脉冲宽度对喷吹后除尘器阻力和喷吹时除尘器阻力波动的影响。结果表明:由于石油焦的轻质和黏附性特性,过滤风速不应超过2.17 m/min,考虑到除尘效率和经济效益,最好控制在1.3 m/min以内;除尘器入口粉尘浓度的高低对喷吹后除尘器阻力和喷吹时除尘器阻力波动均存在较大影响,入口粉尘浓度低时,阻力和阻力波动都较小;脉冲宽度对喷吹后除尘器阻力和喷吹时除尘器阻力波

  2. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

    2003-02-07

    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  3. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis−Membrane Distillation (PRO−MD) Process for Osmotic Power and Clean Water Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang

    2015-05-20

    A novel pressure retarded osmosis−membrane distillation (PRO−MD) hybrid process has been experimentally conceived for sustainable production of renewable osmotic power and clean water from various waters. The proposed PRO−MD system may possess unique advantages of high water recovery rate, huge osmotic power generation, well controlled membrane fouling, and minimal environmental impacts. Experimental results show that the PRO−MD hybrid process is promising that not only can harvest osmotic energy from freshwater but also from wastewater. When employing a 2 M NaCl MD concentrate as the draw solution, ultrahigh power densities of 31.0 W/m2 and 9.3 W/m2 have been demonstrated by the PRO subsystem using deionized water and real wastewater brine as the feeds, respectively. Simultaneously, high purity potable water with a flux of 32.5−63.1 L/(m2.h) can be produced by the MD subsystem at 40−60 °C without any detrimental effects of fouling. The energy consumption in the MD subsystem might be further reduced by applying a heat exchanger in the hybrid system and using low-grade heat or solar energy to heat up the feed solution. The newly developed PRO−MD hybrid process would provide insightful guidelines for the exploration of alternative green technologies for renewable osmotic energy and clean water production.

  4. Shortcut Nitrification/Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation/Complete Nitrification Process for Treatment of Coking Wastewater%短程硝化/厌氧氨氧化/全程硝化工艺处理焦化废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛占强; 李玉平; 李海波; 林琳; 曹宏斌

    2011-01-01

    通过对短程硝化和厌氧氨氧化工艺的研究,开发了短程硝化/厌氧氨氧化/全程硝化(O1/A/O2)生物脱氮新工艺并用于焦化废水的处理.控制温度为(35±1)℃、DO为2.0~3.0mg/L,第一级好氧连续流生物膜反应器在去除大部分有机污染物的同时还实现了短程硝化.考察了HRT、DO和容积负荷对反应器运行效果的影响.结果表明,当氨氮容积负荷为0.13~0.22gNH4+-N/(L·d)时,连续流反应器能实现短程硝化并有效去除氨氮.通过控制一级好氧反应器的工艺参数,为厌氧反应器实现厌氧氨氧化(ANAMMOX)创造条件.结果表明,在温度为34℃、pH值为7.5~8.5、HRT为33 h的条件下,经过115 d成功启动了厌氧氨氧化反应器.在进水氨氮、亚硝态氮浓度分别为80和90 mg/L左右、总氮负荷为160 mg/(L·d)时,对氨氮和亚硝态氮的去除率最高分别达86%和98%,对总氮的去除率为75%.最后在二级好氧反应器实现氨氮的全程硝化,进一步去除焦化废水中残留的氨氯、亚硝态氮和有机物.O1/A/O2工艺能有效去除焦化废水中的氨氮和有机物等污染物,正常运行条件下的出水氨氮<15 mg/L、亚硝态氮<1.0 mg/L,COD降至124~186 mg/L,出水水质优于A/O生物脱氮工艺的出水水质.%The combined process of shortcut nitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation and complete nitrification was developed for the treatment of coking wastewater. The organic pollutants are mainly removed, and shortcut nitrification is obtained in the first-stage aerobic continuous-flow biofilm reactor at temperature of (35 ± 1 ) ℃ and DO of 2.0 to 3.0 mg/L. The effects of HRT, DO and volume load on the operation efficiency of the reactor were investigated. The results show that the shortcut nitrification is obtained, and ammonia nitrogen is effectively removed in the reactor. The process parameters of the reactor are controlled to achieve anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the anaerobic reactor

  5. Study and modelling of deactivation by coke in catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons on Pt-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst; La microbalance inertielle: etude et modelisation cinetique de la desactivation par le coke en reformage catalytique des hydrocarbures sur catalyseur Pt-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu-Deghais, S.

    2004-07-01

    Catalytic reforming is the refining process that produces gasoline with a high octane number. During a reforming operation, undesired side reactions promote the formation of carbon deposits (coke) on the surface of the catalyst. As the reactions proceed, the coke accumulation leads to a progressive decrease of the catalyst activity and to a change in its selectivity. Getting this phenomenon under control is interesting to optimize the industrial plants. This work aims to improve the comprehension and the modeling of coke formation and its deactivating effect on reforming reactions, while working under conditions chosen within a range as close as possible to the industrial conditions of the regenerative process. The experimental study is carried out with a micro unit that is designed to observe simultaneously the coke formation and its influence on the catalyst activity. A vibrational microbalance reactor (TEOM - Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance) is used to provide continuous monitoring of coke. On-line gas chromatography is used to observe the catalyst activity and selectivity as a function of the coke content. The coking experiments are performed on a fresh Pt-Sn/alumina catalyst, with mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules of 7 carbon atoms as hydrocarbon feeds. The coking tests permitted to highlight the operating parameters that may affect the amount of coke, and to identify the hydrocarbon molecules that behave as coke intermediate. A kinetic model for coke formation could be developed through the compilation of these results. The catalytic activity analysis permitted to point out the coke effect on both of the active phases of the catalyst, to construct a simplified reforming kinetic model that simulates the catalyst activity under the reforming conditions, and to quantify deactivation via deactivation functions. (author)

  6. Steam generators secondary side chemical cleaning at Point Lepreau using the Siemens high temperature process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, K.; MacNeil, C. [New Brunswick Power Corp., Lepreau (Canada); Odar, S.; Kuhnke, K. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the chemical cleaning of the four steam generators at the Point Lepreau facility, which was accomplished as a part of a normal service outage. The steam generators had been in service for twelve years. Sludge samples showed the main elements were Fe, P and Na, with minor amounts of Ca, Mg, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cl, Cu, Ni, Ti, Si, and Pb, 90% in the form of Magnetite, substantial phosphate, and trace amounts of silicates. The steam generators were experiencing partial blockage of broached holes in the TSPs, and corrosion on tube ODs in the form of pitting and wastage. In addition heat transfer was clearly deteriorating. More than 1000 kg of magnetite and 124 kg of salts were removed from the four steam generators.

  7. Effet des proprietes du coke sur les proprietes d'anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arunima

    One of the major components of the primary aluminum fabrication process is carbon anode manufacturing. High density, low electrical resistivity, and consistence of the quality of anodes are of utmost interest in aluminum industry. This work was undertaken to determine the desired coke properties which have notable impact on coke/pitch wetting and the influence of some of these properties on anode quality, and finally to identify the factors effecting the consumption of industrial anodes throughout the entire process. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  8. Model Predictive Control with Feedforward Strategy for Gas Collectors of Coke Ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Li; Dewei Li; Yugeng Xi; Debin Yin

    2014-01-01

    In coking process, the production quality, equipment life, energy consumption, and process safety are all influenced by the pressure in gas collector pipe of coke oven, which is frequently influenced by disturbances. The main control objectives for the gas collector pressure system are keeping the pressures in collector pipes at appropriate operating point. In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) strategy is introduced to control the collector pressure system due to its ability to handle constraint and good control performance. Based on a method proposed to simplify the system model, an extended state space model predictive control is designed, which combines the feedforward strategy to eliminate the disturbance. The simulation results in a system with two coke ovens show the feasibility and effectiveness of the control scheme.

  9. CPICOR{trademark}: Clean power from integrated coal-ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintrell, R.; Miller, R.N.; Harbison, E.J.; LeFevre, M.O.; England, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The US steel industry, in order to maintain its basic iron production, is thus moving to lower coke requirements and to the cokeless or direct production of iron. The US Department of Energy (DOE), in its Clean Coal Technology programs, has encouraged the move to new coal-based technology. The steel industry, in its search for alternative direct iron processes, has been limited to a single process, COREX{reg_sign}. The COREX{reg_sign} process, though offering commercial and environmental acceptance, produces a copious volume of offgas which must be effectively utilized to ensure an economical process. This volume, which normally exceeds the internal needs of a single steel company, offers a highly acceptable fuel for power generation. The utility companies seeking to offset future natural gas cost increases are interested in this clean fuel. The COREX{reg_sign} smelting process, when integrated with a combined cycle power generation facility (CCPG) and a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU), is an outstanding example of a new generation of environmentally compatible and highly energy efficient Clean Coal Technologies. This combination of highly integrated electric power and hot metal coproduction, has been designated CPICOR{trademark}, Clean Power from Integrated Coal/Ore Reduction.

  10. Fundamental Study on Coke Degradation in BF with Oxygen Enriched Blast and High Hydrogen Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; LI Jia-xin; ZHOU Li-ying

    2005-01-01

    The effects of gas composition, temperature, ore to coke ratio and prereduction rate of ore on coke degradation were studied. The results showed that 1% increment in solution loss of coke reduces coke strength by 0.6%, and the coke degradation is accelerated with the temperature. The higher the temperature, the more coke surface is involved in reactions, and the less negative effect on coke strength is. Hydrogen exerts stronger effect on coke degradation than CO at high temperature. The coke degradation is decreased with the reduction of ore to coke ratio and increase of ore prereduction rate.

  11. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  12. Research on Clean Production Process Oriented B lank Choice%面向清洁化制造的毛坯选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 张根保

    2001-01-01

    在深入分析清洁化生产内涵的基础上提出了工艺设计中面向清洁化生产的毛坯选择原则,并指出了今后面向清洁制造的毛坯发展方向。%The principles of blank choice in process design in CleanProduction Proc ess (CPP) environment are put forward on the basis of a thorough investigation o f the meaning of clean production. Finally, the direction of blank development f or clean production is designed.

  13. STUDY OF THE POSSIBILITY OF OBTAINING GAS TURBINE FUEL FROM THE PRODUCTS OF CATALYTIC CRACKING AND COKING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    52.5% of the cracked raw material. (2) For getting light, low-ash gasturbine fuels with traces of vanadium, the process of coking heavy petroleum...residues, should be accomplished with recirculation. (3) In contact coking of raw material with recirculation of the sulfurous pitch, tar and cracking residue, the yield of low-ash gasturbine fuel, amounted to 45, 56.2, and 64.4%.

  14. 降低焦炉机车电器运行重复故障率%Reduce the Repetition Rate of Electric Operation of the Coke Oven Locomotive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉怀

    2016-01-01

    the coking coal coking company of masteel outdated 1 # 4 # coke oven in order to real-ize the coal charging and coke pushing, blocking water coke dry quenching, quenching, screen coke and dust removal, etc. By the four major locomotive ( coke pusher, coal car, stop coke car, coke quenching car) , due to the special environment of the equipment operation ( mobile, high tempera-ture, dust, stop frequent restart, etc. ) , make the equipment in the process of running frequent fail-ure, not only increase the workload of maintenance, because maintenance delayed production at the same time, reduces the coke oven coke rate, thus the ascension of the whole economic benefit of mas-teel.%马钢煤焦化公司老区焦化1#-4#焦炉为了实现装煤、推焦、拦焦、干熄焦、水熄焦、筛焦、除尘等工艺。由四大机车(推焦车、装煤车、拦焦车、熄焦车)来实现,由于设备运行的特殊环境(移动、高温、多灰尘、停启动频繁等),使得设备在运行过程中故障频发,这不仅仅增加了维修工作量,同时因为检修耽误了生产,降低了焦炉的出焦率,从而影响了整个马钢的经济效益的提升。

  15. Coking coals of Mongolia: Distribution and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Jargal, Luvsanchultem

    2016-04-01

    The coal deposits of Mongolia tend to become younger from west to east and can be subdivided into two provinces, twelve basins, and three areas. Main controlling factor of coal rank is the age of coal bearing sequences. Western Mongolian coal-bearing province contains mostly high rank bituminous coal in strata from Late Carboniferous. The basins in southern Mongolia and the western part of central Mongolia have low rank bituminous coal in strata from the Permian. The northern and central Mongolian basins contain mainly Jurassic subbituminous coal, whereas the Eastern Mongolian province has Lower Cretaceous lignite. Mongolian known coking coal reserves are located in western, southern and northern Mongolia and related to Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic sequences, respectively. Pennsylvanian Nuurstkhotgor coal deposit is located in northwestern Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). The coals have 1-7.5 crucible swelling number (CSN) and 0-86 G-index. Vitrinite reflectance value (Rmax in oil) varies from 0.7% to 1.2% and sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.3% to 0.6% with an average of 0.4%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 1.0 billion ton, of which half is coking coal. Upper Permian Khurengol deposit is situated in western Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). CSN and G-index of coal are 8-9 and 54-99, respectively. The coals have Rmax of 1.1 to 1.7% (average 1.4%) and sulfur content of 0.2 to 0.6% (average 0.4%). Coking coal reserve of the deposit is estimated to be 340 million ton. Upper Permian Tavantolgoi, the largest coking coal deposit, lies in southern Mongolia (in South Gobi coal-bearing basin). The coals have CSN of 1 to 7.5 and Rmax of 0.7% to 1.2%. Sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.5% to 0.9%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 6.0 billion ton, of which 2.0 billion ton is accounted as coking coal. Lower-Middle Jurassic Ovoot coal is located in northern Mongolia (in Orkhon-Selenge coal-bearing area). This is one of

  16. 干熄焦炉内三维流动及传热的数值模拟%3D numerical simulation of flow and heat transfer in coke dry quenching process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常庆明; 靳振伟; 程平平; 李亚伟; 董良君

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model for quenching gas flow and heat transfer between gas and coke in the coke dry quenching (CDQ) unit was established .In the model ,secondary development was done on the platform of Fluent by employing the user defined functions (UDF) and the user defined scalars (UDS) .The calculation results show a bias flow of quenching gas in the chutes ,i .e .more gas flows to the annular gas passage through the chutes near the outlet with relatively larger velocity .The pres-sure loss of the flowing gas mainly takes place in the cooling chamber ,and the heat transfer rate be-tween gas and coke near the side in the chamber is larger than that at the center .Simulation results find that the heated gas temperature can reach about 1101 K at the gas outlet w hile the cooled coke temperature decreases to about 439 K at the coke outlet w hen the circulating air volume is 200 000 m3/h .This can not only meet the cooling requirement of the coke but also supply the recycle gas with high grade heat for further heating or power generation .%以Fluent软件为平台,通过流体在多孔介质中的流动模型来处理冷却气体在干熄焦炉内的三维流动,借助于UDS和UDF进行二次开发,建立干熄焦炉内冷却气体及焦炭的流动传热模型,并分析了循环风量对气固换热的影响。结果表明,冷却室气体在通过斜道进入环形气道时有偏流现象,即靠近总出口附近的斜道有更多的气体流出,且气流速度最快;气体的压力损失主要发生在冷却室;冷却室内周边的换热效果比中心换热效果要好。模拟计算发现,循环风量为200000 m3/h时,换热后的冷却气体温度为1101 K ,焦炭温度为439 K ,这不仅满足了焦炭的冷却要求,而且还能提供用于供暖或发电的高品位热量的循环气体。

  17. Gas Chromatography Method of Cleaning Validation Process for 2-Propanol Residue Determination in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Czubak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning validation is an integral operation of good manufacturing practice in pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this study was to validate simple analytical method for detection of 2-propanol residue in equipment, which is likely contaminated with 2-propanol, usually used in the production area. The gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID method was validated on a GC system using DB-FFAP capillary column at the flow rate of 4.9 mL/min. The calibration curve was linear over concentration range from 2.8µg/mL to 110.7µg/mL with a correlation coefficient equal to 0.99981. The detection limit (LOD and quantitation limit (LOQ were 1.1µg/mL and 2.8µg/mL, respectively. The simplicity of gas chromatography method makes it useful for routine analysis of 2-propanol residue and is an alternative to corresponding methods.

  18. Review of chemical cleaning process for titanium materials%钛材化学清洗工艺综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙乖凤; 吴军堂

    2013-01-01

    The chemical cleaning process for Ti substrate is reviewed .Namely ,the principle and method for removing oxide scale of titanium substrate by alkaline-wash degreasing and acid pickling are introduced .The technological conditions ,process flow and equipment for remo-ving oxide scale of titanium substrate by alkaline-wash degreasing and acid pickling are high-lighted .%介绍了钛材碱洗脱脂除油和酸洗除去氧化皮的原理和方法,重点阐述了钛材碱洗除油和酸洗除去氧化皮的工艺条件、工艺流程和设备。

  19. Construction solutions applied at coke oven battery no. 7 in the aspect of international requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadeusz Maj; Mariola Honisz; Wladyslaw Latocha; Wiktor Humer; Ludwik Kosyrczyk [' Zdzieszowice' Coking Plant Ltd. (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    15 slides/overheads outline this presentation. In February 2003 a new coke oven battery was put into operation in Zdzieszowice. In view of Poland's joining the European Union a series of technical solutions were implemented to improve working conditions in addition to improving the technology of the coking process. The paper describes the actions taken over one and a half years of operation. These include maintaining the recommended low level of NOx emission (comparable to that of CO) by waste gas recirculation.

  20. Progress in Cleaning and Wet Processing for Kesterite Thin Film Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    B. Vermang, A. Mule, N. Gampa, S. Sahayaraj, S. Ranjbar, G. Brammertz, M. Meuris, J. Poortmans

    2016-01-01

    Copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide (CIGS) and copper zinc tin selenide/sulfide (CZTS) are two thin film photovoltaic materials with many similar properties. Therefore, three new processing steps – which are well-known to be beneficial for CIGS solar cell processing – are developed, optimized and implemented in CZTS solar cells. For all these novel processing steps an increase in minority carrier lifetime and cell conversion efficiency is measured, as compared to standard CZTS processing. ...

  1. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part Two: Methane Thermal Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolyse des hydrocarbures. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse du méthane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billaud F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this article dealt with coking in a steam cracking furnace. In this process, coke deposition is a very complex phenomenon due to the number of parameters involved. Nevertheless, for this process, coke deposition is a secondary reaction which does not affect steam cracking yields. It is completely different for methane thermal cracking. Coke is one of the main products of this reaction. Part two of this article deals with coke deposition on the walls of the reactors used for methane thermal cracking. After a brief description of the different set-ups used to study coke deposition, the main parameters involved are listed. The importance of temperature, conversion, type of diluent, and hydrocarbon partial pressure will be enhanced. To conclude, two approaches to the mechanism are proposed to explain coke formation during methane thermal cracking. La première partie de cet article faisait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage : dans le cadre de ce procédé, la formation de coke est un phénomène complexe du fait du nombre important de paramètres mis en jeu. Toutefois, pour ce procédé, la réaction de formation du coke à la paroi des réacteurs est une réaction secondaire qui n'affecte pas les rendements de vapocraquage. Ceci est complètement différent dans le cas de la pyrolyse thermique du méthane, procédé pour lequel le coke est un produit principal et indésirable de la réaction. La seconde partie de cet article est consacrée plus particulièrement à la formation du coke, lors de la pyrolyse du méthane et présente les principaux résultats expérimentaux décrits dans la littérature. Parmi les différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir des travaux de la littérature, les 2 techniques suivantes : - la technique de la paroi chaude, - la technique du fil chaud. Pour la première technique, les montages exp

  2. Carbon molecular sieves from bituminous coal by controlled coke deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, S.N.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Gangadhar, B. (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and zeolites are widely used as microporous sieving solids for gas and liquid separations. However, due to hydrophobicity, better thermal stability, and neutrality in both acidic and alkaline media, CMSs have definite advantages over zeolites. In the present work, an effort has been made to develop suitable process conditions for synthesizing CMSs from the locally available bituminous coal. The coal was crushed, milled, and agglomerated with sulfate pulp waste liquor (SPWL) or coal-tar pitch (CTP) as the binders, and then carbonized in nitrogen atmosphere at 800{degree}C for about 60 minutes. In order to narrow down the pore mouth sizes, acetylene and benzene were each cracked separately at 800{degree}C to facilitate the deposition of coke on the char. Acetylene and benzene were cracked for 3 to 10 minutes, and 10 to 30 minutes, respectively. Acetylene cracked samples did not show good separation, probably because of over-coking in deeper locations. In contrast benzene cracked samples were found to be highly suitable for CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} separation. The best result (i.e. uptake ratio of 39.9) was obtained for feed benzene entrainment in N{sub 2} of 1.27 x 10{sup -4} g/ml, cracking time of 30 minutes, and this ratio was more than 10 times that of non-coked sample. CMS samples produced using SPWL as binder showed poor O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} uptake ratios throughout (1 to 1.5), whereas samples with CTP as binder showed far more encouraging results, the best uptake ratio being 5.5 for benzene-nitrogen feed stream containing 3.508 x 10{sup -4} g/ml benzene and 5 minutes cracking time. This ratio is about 5.5 times more than that of uncoked sample. 4 tabs., 10 figs., 17 refs.

  3. 焦化废水臭氧催化氧化深度处理试验研究%Study on advanced treatment of coking wastewater using ozone catalytic oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璞; 王丽娜; 张垒; 付本全; 刘尚超; 刘霞; 王凯军

    2016-01-01

    A test of coking wastewater treatment using ozone and three kinds of catalysts was carried out, the results showed that, catalysts could greatly improve the oxidation efficiency of ozone and shorten the oxidation time as well. The maximal removal rates of UV254 and COD by ozone catalytic oxidation reached 71.03% and 50.36%respectively, the effluent COD concentration met the requirement of GB 16171—2012 Emission Standard of Pollutants for Coking Chemical Industry, the biodegradability of the wastewater was improved, which was bene-ficial to advanced treatment.%采用单独臭氧和3种不同催化剂对焦化废水进行臭氧催化氧化试验,试验结果表明,催化剂可以大大提高臭氧氧化效率,缩短氧化时间。臭氧催化氧化对UV254和COD去除率最高分别可达71.03%和50.36%,出水COD浓度满足GB 16171—2012《炼焦化学工业污染物排放标准》,废水可生化性提高,有利于进一步深度处理。

  4. Municipal Wastewater Processes. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Lorna

    Described is a one-hour overview of the unit processes which comprise a municipal wastewater treatment system. Topics covered in this instructor's guide include types of pollutants encountered, treatment methods, and procedures by which wastewater treatment processes are selected. A slide-tape program is available to supplement this component of…

  5. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology.

  6. 焦炉煤气制天然气工艺中甲烷化的仿真系统%Simulation of Methanation Reaction for Substitute Natural Gas Production by Coke Oven Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来翊; 刘金刚; 刘振峰; 吴迪镛

    2011-01-01

    焦炉煤气制天然气对拓宽天然气的供应渠道和提高焦炉煤气的清洁利用效率具有重要意义,与焦炉煤气制甲醇等相比,有能源利用率高、耗水量低、无二氧化碳排放等优势.为了提高能源利用率,提出了焦炉煤气制天然气专利工艺,建立了首套焦炉煤气甲烷化合成天然气全流程工业试验装置.甲烷化催化剂及配套工艺是项目的核心部分,因此对甲烷化反应进行准确的仿真计算,对于指导项目设计和生产操作有着重要意义.通过建立甲烷化反应的数学模型,并运用化工动态流程仿真优化系统(Dynamic Simulation& Optimization System,DSO)平台对工业化装置和工业试验装置进行了全过程仿真.实验结果表明,整个过程能够很好地反映装置正常工况时的运行情况.%It is important that Coke oven gas to natural gas can widen the supply channels of natural gas and improve the clean efficiency of using Coke oven gas. It has higher energy efficiency, lower water consumption than coke oven gas - to - methanol, and without carbon dioxide emissions. We proposed a patented process of coke oven gas to natural gas, and completed the first set of industrial test equipments' 1000 - hour non - stop working, in which coke oven gas was methanated into natural gas. Because methanation catalyst and its supporting technology are the core of the project, accurate simulatione for the methanation reaction is significant to instruct both the project design and production operations. Through building the mathematic model of methanation reaction and using the Dynamic Simulation & Optimization System ( DSO), the industrial equipment and industrial test equipment were simulated. The result of application indicates that the whole simulation process can reflect the running of the equipment under normal conditions.

  7. Investigation into environmentally friendly alternative cleaning processes for hybrid microcircuits to replace vapor degreasing with 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, B.E.

    1997-02-01

    Two cleaning processes, one aqueous and one nonaqueous, were investigated as potential replacements for the vapor degreasing process using 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) for hybrid microcircuit assemblies. The aqueous process was based upon saponification chemistry. A 10% solution of either Kester 5768 or Armakleen 2001, heated to 140 F, was sprayed on the hybrid at 450 psig and a flow rate of 5 gpm through a specially designed nozzle which created microdroplets. The nonaqueous process was based upon dissolution chemistry and used d-limonene as the solvent in an immersion and spray process. The d-limonene solvent was followed by an isopropyl alcohol spray rinse to remove the excess d-limonene. The aqueous microdroplet process was found to be successful only for solder reflow profiles that did not exceed 210 C. Furthermore, removal of component marking was a problem and the spray pressure had to be reduced to 130 psig to eliminate damage to capacitor end caps. The d-limonene cleaning was found to be successful for solder reflow temperature up to 250 C when using a four-step cleaning process. The four steps included refluxing the hybrid at 80 C, followed by soaking the hybrid in d-limonene which is heated to 80 C, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature d-limonene, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature IPA was developed to remove residual flux from the hybrid microcircuits. This process was the most robust and most closely matched the cleaning ability of TCA.

  8. THE ANALYSIS OF WASTES LEFT AFTER OIL SEEDS CLEANING AND THE METHODS OF THEIR DISPOSAL AND PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smychagin E. O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article cites the data about the amount and productive capacity of oil producing enterprises in the Russian Federation on the whole, as well as in Krasnodar region and the Republic of Adygeya. It is shown, that innovations in the field of waste disposal and waste recycling left after oil production are the most effective, as they contribute to the cost reduction on disposal of waste on landfill and thus, improve environment considerably. They also provide additional revenue from the sale of new products, received after waste recycling. The authors examined literature data on compositional and chemical analysis of waste left after cleaning main oil-bearing crops, processed by oil-producing industry of the Russian Federation (such as sunflower, rape, soy-beans . The analysis of available technologies of their disposal, such as waste incineration, pyrolysis, worm composting, landfilling, biothermal composting, granulationa of waste and the processing of undersow is submitted to your attention. The analysis of advantages and disadvantages of all available technologies was carried out, and it was noticed that neither of available technologies had become common use. The most prospective direction for the development of efficient technology of waste recycling has been chosen, which includes the use of waste pressing after their rational preparation and isolation of uniform and valuable components. It is shown, that the primary task for the development of such technology is the study of waste composition of raw materials and industrial cleaning of sunflower seeds, soy-beans, and modern sorts of rape and its hybrids

  9. Shift from coke to coal using direct reduction method and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okonkwo Paul Chukwuleke; Jiu-ju Cai; Sam Chukwujekwu; Song Xiao [Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Vic. (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    Ironmaking involves the separation of iron ores. It not only represents the first step in steelmaking but also is the most capital-intensive and energy-intensive process in the production of steel. The main route for producing iron for steelmaking is to use the blast furnace, which uses metallurgical coke as the reductant. Concerns over the limited resources, the high cost of coking coals, and the environmental impacts of coking and sinter plants have driven steelmakers to develop alternative ironmaking processes that can use non-coking coals to reduce iron ores directly. Since the efficiency and productivity of modern large capacity blast furnaces will be difficult to surpass, blast furnaces will continue to retain their predominant position as the foremost ironmaking process for some time to come. The alternative ironmaking processes are therefore expected to play an increasingly significant role in the iron and steel industry, especially in meeting the needs of small-sized local and regional markets. It is likely that the importance of direct reduced iron (DRI) and hot metal as sources of virgin iron will continue to increase, especially in the developing countries where steelmaking is, and will be, primarily based on electric arc furnace (EAF) minimills. Consequently, the challenges that are faced by the new technology have to be embraced.

  10. Procedures for Efficient and Economic Recovery of Heat for Reuse in Batch Processes for Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    The expenditure of primary energy can be reduced and the economics of process plants in the food industry can be improved by intelligent application of Process Integration (PI). Since a greater part of the products in the food industry is processed in batches, the use of Thermal- Energy Storage......, could increase the use and usefulness of PI by incorporating TES, thus fulfilling PI’s promises of improved operation, reduced energy consumption, reduced environmental impact, and improved economics. The application of these procedures is illustrated through the description of two cases. Keywords: Heat...

  11. A novel zeolite process for clean end use of hydrocarbon products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, K.M. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland). Technology Centre

    1996-12-31

    In recent years zeolites such as ZSM-5 have attracted considerable interest for the catalysis of a wide range of hydrocarbon transformations. A novel process developed by Neste converts light olefins to higher molecular weight hydrocarbon products. A wide range of high quality diesel, solvents and lube oils can be produced by the new NESKO process. Hydrotreated products have excellent properties; negligible sulphur or nitrogen compounds, very low aromatic content and pour point lower than -50 deg C. Proprietary technology is used in this olefin oligomerization process. (author) (7 refs.)

  12. Reaction Mechanism for the Formation of Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) During Coke Oxidation in Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units

    KAUST Repository

    Chaparala, Sree Vidya

    2015-06-11

    Fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) units in refineries process heavy feedstock obtained from crude oil distillation. While cracking feed, catalysts get deactivated due to coke deposition. During catalyst regeneration by burning coke in air, nitrogen oxides (NOx) are formed. The increase in nitrogen content in feed over time has resulted in increased NOx emissions. To predict NOx concentration in flue gas, a reliable model for FCC regenerators is needed that requires comprehensive understanding and accurate kinetics for NOx formation. Based on the nitrogen-containing functional groups on coke, model molecules are selected to study reactions between coke-bound nitrogen and O2 to form NO and NO2 using density functional theory. The reaction kinetics for the proposed pathways are evaluated using transition state theory. It is observed that the addition of O2 on coke is favored only when the free radical is present on the carbon atom instead of nitrogen atom. Thus, NOx formation during coke oxidation does not result from the direct attack by O2 on N atoms of coke, but from the transfer of an O atom to N from a neighboring site. The low activation energies required for NO formation indicate that it is more likely to form than NO2 during coke oxidation. The favorable pathways for NOx formation that can be used in FCC models are identified. Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  13. NATO COMMITTEE ON THE CHALLENGES TO MODERN SOCIETY PILOT STUDY: CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promote cooperation for improving the common pollution landscape by stimulating cross-national dialogues and collaboration. Share knowledge on the methods, tools, and technologies for making cleaner products and processes possible.

  14. Preliminary study into the effects of YAG laser processing of titanium 6Al-4V alloy for potential aerospace component cleaning application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.W. [Rolls-Royce Compression Systems, Rolls Royce plc, P.O. Box 3, Skipton Road, Barnoldswick, Lancashire BB18 5RU (United Kingdom); Schmidt, M.J.J. [Rolls-Royce Compression Systems, Rolls Royce plc, P.O. Box 3, Skipton Road, Barnoldswick, Lancashire BB18 5RU (United Kingdom); Laser Processing Research Centre, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Li, L. [Rolls-Royce Compression Systems, Rolls Royce plc, P.O. Box 3, Skipton Road, Barnoldswick, Lancashire BB18 5RU (United Kingdom); Laser Processing Research Centre, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-15

    This paper outlines some essential gas turbine aeroengine component manufacture cleaning requirements. It describes the preliminary results of work conducted into the effects of laser processing Ti-6A-4V alloy for cleaning of aerospace components, including determination of the melt and surface coupling thresholds for the Nd:YAG ({lambda} = 1.064 {mu}m) system in use. The results of laser processing as a preparation for electron beam welding and diffusion bonding are presented. Finally, the direction of future work towards the development of an effective process for laser cleaning titanium aero-engine components is discussed. The results demonstrated the sensitivity of the system in use to gaseous contamination, producing acceptable electron beam welded joints, but unacceptable diffusion bonded joints.

  15. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  16. A device for interlocking coking machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, L.S.; Mil' ko, M.S.; Rodenko, B.V.; Skol' skii, V.M.; Voloshenko, I.P.; Yakushina, E.N.

    1980-03-18

    This device, which contains a high frequency oscillator in the door hoisting mechanism and a high-frequency oscillations receiver in the coke lifting-out device and a communications line for each of the furnaces in the form of tie couplers, is characterized by an arrangement whereby it is equipped with jumpers. This arrangement guarantees a steady operational level of the signal and increases the reliability of the device.

  17. The Transient Modal Dynamic Analysis of a Coke Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Teng-teng; SUN Tie; XING Ling; ZHANG Su-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic analysis must be performed when the duration of the applied load is short or if the load is dynamic in nature. Wind load, as a random load, can lead to the vibration of the coke tower. In order to study the influence to the strength of the coke tower by wind, ABAQUS was used to conduct the transient modal dynamic analysis of the wind load. The response of the structure during loading and unloading was mainly observed. The results indicate that, with the effect of wind, the maximal nodal displacement appears at the top of the tower, which is 0.79 mm; while the maximal stress locates at the node around the skirt, the maximum is 3.26 MPa. Both of the displacement and stress cannot cause the failure of the structure. After loading and unloading, the structure engenders vibration along the loading direction. The frequency is 10 Hz, under the effect of external loads, it may easily cause the resonance of the structure, which can cause damage to the structure. So it must be taken into consideration during the process of design and operation.

  18. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Tianhu; Huang Xiaoming; Pan Min [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Jin Song, E-mail: sjin@uwyo.edu [MWH Americas, 3665 JFK Parkway, Suite 206, Fort Collins, CO 80525 (United States); Department Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Peng Suchuan [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Fallgren, Paul H. [Western Research Institute, 365 North 9th Street, Laramie, WY 82072 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD){sub ,} and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  19. 锅炉化学清洗过程监督的意义与要点%Significance and points of the monitoring in boiler chemical cleaning process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绍银; 李善风

    2011-01-01

    From the structural characteristics of the boiler equipment,cleaning results of evaluation methods,technical expertise,cleaning of the market factors,analysied the meaning of supervision of boiler chemical cleaning process;with the technical supervision of the whole process of thinking;and analysied the qualification and capacity,technical program,the temporary system,drug control,cleaning,process monitoring,cleaning outcome assessment,summary report of the technical aspects of monitoring points.%从锅炉设备结构特点、清洗结果评定方法、技术人员专业水平、清洗工作的市场因素等方面,分析了加强锅炉化学清洗的过程监督的意义;用全过程技术监督的思想,分析了资质与能力、技术方案、临时系统、药品控制、清洗过程监控、清洗结果评估、总结报告各环节技术监督的要点。

  20. Characterisation of coking activity during supercritical hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bernard, Stephane [Laboratoire Energetique, Explosion, Structure, UPRES-EA 1205, 63, avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Bouchez, Marc [MBDA France, 8, rue Le Brix, 18000 Bourges (France)

    2008-12-15

    The active cooling of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine, for hypersonic flight purpose, is ensured thanks to fuel, n-dodecane for the present study. The endothermic fuel pyrolysis, starting above 800 K, could generate an unwanted coke formation. Experimental tests up to 1125 K and between 1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking activity. 316L stainless steel, low carbon steel and titanium reactors have been considered. A witness of the coke formation, based on its thermal insulation and pressure loss effects, has been found. A correlation between methane production and coke deposit was found. The coke has been studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The porosity, the density and the permeability of the coke have been estimated. (author)

  1. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  2. Charge generation associated with liquid spraying in tank cleaning and comparable processes - preliminary experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Carsten; Losert, Oswald F. J.

    2015-10-01

    The BG RCI has initiated investigations in order to improve the data basis for assessing the ignition hazard by electrostatic charging processes associated with the spraying of liquids. On the base of preliminary experiments, we established procedures for measurements of electric field strength and charging current in the presence of aerosol particles. Results obtained with three different nozzle types, variation of pressure and with built-in deflecting plate are presented.

  3. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  4. Predicting the amount of coke deposition on catalyst pellets through image analysis and soft computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingqiong; Zhang, Wenbiao; He, Yuting; Yan, Yong

    2016-11-01

    The amount of coke deposition on catalyst pellets is one of the most important indexes of catalytic property and service life. As a result, it is essential to measure this and analyze the active state of the catalysts during a continuous production process. This paper proposes a new method to predict the amount of coke deposition on catalyst pellets based on image analysis and soft computing. An image acquisition system consisting of a flatbed scanner and an opaque cover is used to obtain catalyst images. After imaging processing and feature extraction, twelve effective features are selected and two best feature sets are determined by the prediction tests. A neural network optimized by a particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to establish the prediction model of the coke amount based on various datasets. The root mean square error of the prediction values are all below 0.021 and the coefficient of determination R 2, for the model, are all above 78.71%. Therefore, a feasible, effective and precise method is demonstrated, which may be applied to realize the real-time measurement of coke deposition based on on-line sampling and fast image analysis.

  5. Full scale treatment of phenolic coke coking waste water under unsteady conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschka, Jan [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Morel, Jacek; Mierzwinski, Stanislaw; Januszek, Ryszard [Coke Plant Przyjazn, Dabrowa Gornicza (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Phenolic waste water from the largest coke coking plant in Poland is treated at a full technical scale. From the very beginning it became evident that very high qualitative variations in short and long periods were to be expected. For this purpose, the biological treatment plant based on activated sludge is protected through preliminary physical-chemical treatment and the results are secured by a final chemical stage of treatment. Nevertheless, improvements in the performance of the treatment plant have been found necessary to introduce. In this work, the experience gained over the last five years is described and developed improvements were presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta and the control of these pathogens through cleaning and sanitization procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-04

    The biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta on stainless steel coupons was evaluated, and the effect of cleaning and sanitization procedures in the control of these biofilms was determined. The formation of biofilms was observed while varying the incubation temperature (7, 25 and 39°C) and time (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). At 7°C, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were below 2 log10 CFU/cm(2). For the temperatures of 25 and 39°C, after 1 day, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were 5.75 and 6.07 log10 CFU/cm(2), respectively, which is characteristic of biofilm formation. The tested sanitation procedures a) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning, b) anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer and c) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer were effective in removing the biofilms, reducing the counts to levels below 0.4 log10 CFU/cm(2). The sanitizer biguanide was the least effective, and peracetic acid was the most effective. These studies revealed the ability of enterococci to form biofilms and the importance of the cleaning step and the type of sanitizer used in sanitation processes for the effective removal of biofilms.

  7. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  8. Process development studies on recovery of clean coal from ultra fine hardcoal tailings using enhanced gravity separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgen, S.; Turksoy, V.O.; Sabah, E.; Oruc, F. [Afyon Kocatepe Univ., Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-10-15

    Gravity-based processing methods were used to process and recover clean coal from ultra-fine hardcoal tailings at a site in Turkey. The coal samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. A hydrocyclone was used to conduct classification tests and to separate the clay minerals from the coal. The effects of various operating parameters were also investigated. Regression analysis was used to characterize the relationship between the ash content and coal recovery rate and the feed solid, inlet pressure, diameter of vortex, and diameter of apex variables of the hydrocyclone. The effects of feed pressure were also investigated. The study showed that coal can be economically recovered from hardcoal tailings containing clay minerals. It was concluded that a coal sample with 6.98 per cent ash content and a net calorific value of 28,778 kJ was obtained with a weight recovery of 61.73 per cent. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 18 figs.

  9. Study of Cleaning Process for Railway Tank Wagon in Petrochemicsl Plants%石化企业自备铁路罐车清洗工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建庭; 翟延光

    2016-01-01

    结合某企业自备铁路罐车洗罐站的技术改造升级,分析了原洗罐工艺存在的问题,比较了铁路罐车普洗及其它几种特洗工艺的优点和缺点,进行了以带压水作为介质进行罐车清洗工艺的应用试验,根据该工艺的实际应用效果,提出了进一步改进的建议。%The problem of cleaning process for railway tank wagon in petrochemical plants was analyzed .The uncomplicated cleaning and meticulous rinsing processes about railway tank wagon in petrochemical plants were introduced .Adaptability ,economic benefits and general sanitation for each meticulous rinsing process were discussed .The cleaning test based on water with pres‐sure was made .The improvement suggestion on the cleaning process was given .

  10. Reduction in toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms by vertical tubular biological reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Siyun; Watanabe, Haruna; Wei, Chang; Wang, Dongzhou; Zhou, Jiti; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Masunaga, Shigeki; Zhang, Ying

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a battery of toxicity tests using photo bacterium, algae, crustacean and fish to evaluate acute toxicity profile of coking wastewater, and to evaluate the performance of a novel wastewater treatment process, vertical tubular biological reactor (VTBR), in the removal of toxicity and certain chemical pollutants. A laboratory scale VTBR system was set up to treat industrial coking wastewater, and investigated both chemicals removal efficiency and acute bio-toxicity to aquatic organisms. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol reductions by VTBR were approximately 93% and 100%, respectively. VTBR also reduced the acute toxicity of coking wastewater significantly: Toxicity Unit (TU) decreased from 21.2 to 0.4 for Photobacterium phosphoreum, from 9.5 to 0.6 for Isochrysis galbana, from 31.9 to 1.3 for Daphnia magna, and from 30.0 to nearly 0 for Danio rerio. VTBR is an efficient treatment method for the removal of chemical pollutants and acute bio-toxicity from coking wastewater.

  11. Treated results study on organic substance and ammonia from coke plant wastewater by SBR method in different operating mode and aeration time conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jian-guang; CHEN ping

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a research was made on the treatment of distillation ammonia wastewater from Tai'an Coke-Plant by SBR(sequencing batch reactors). The feasibility and cost effectiveness was tested. Performance of SBR process treating organic substance and ammonia was presented for different operating pattern and aeration time. The mechanism of the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification from coke plant were analysed on SBR process.

  12. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. (Skip) Robinson; James P. Meagher; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Siv Aasland; Charles Besecker; Jack Chen Bart A. van Hassel; Olga Polevaya; Rafey Khan; Piyush Pilaniwalla

    2002-12-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from November 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1: Materials Development; Task 2: Composite Development; Task 4: Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8: Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; 8.2 Nuvera Fuel Cell Program; and Task 10: Program Management. Major progress has been made towards developing high temperature, high performance, robust, oxygen transport elements. In addition, a novel reactor design has been proposed that co-produces hydrogen, lowers cost and improves system operability. Fuel and engine testing is progressing well, but was delayed somewhat due to the hiatus in program funding in 2002. The Nuvera fuel cell portion of the program was completed on schedule and delivered promising results regarding low emission fuels for transportation fuel cells. The evaluation of ultra-clean diesel fuels continues in single cylinder (SCTE) and multiple cylinder (MCTE) test rigs at International Truck and Engine. FT diesel and a BP oxygenate showed significant emissions reductions in comparison to baseline petroleum diesel fuels. Overall through the end of 2002 the program remains under budget, but behind schedule in some areas.

  13. Effect of Extracted Compositions of Liquefaction Residue on the Structure and Properties of the Formed-coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yong-hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of extracted compositions of the de-ash liquefaction residue (D-DCLR on pyrolysis products yields, compressive strength and composition of the formed-coke, which was prepared by co-pyrolysis of the low metamorphic pulverized coal and D-DCLR. The scanning electron microscope (SEM and the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR were used to characterize the morphology and functional group of the formed-coke, respectively. The results showed that the extracted compositions of D-DCLR were heavy oil (HS, asphaltene (A, pre-asphaltene (PA and tetrahydrofuran isolusion (THFIS, whose contents were 5.10%, 40.90%, 14.4%, 39.60%, respectively. During the pyrolysis process, HS was the main source of tar, and HS, A as well as PA were conducive to improve gas yields. The THFIS helped to improve the yield of the formed-coke up to 89.5%, corresponding to the compressive strength was only 147.7N/ball for the coke. A and PA were the key factors affecting the compressive strength and surface structure of the formed-coke. The compressive strength of coke could be up to 728.0N/ball with adding D-DCLR, which reduced by 50% after the removal of A and PA. The FT-IR analysis showed that the types of surface functional groups of the formed-coke were remained the same after co-pyrolysis, but the absorption peak intensity of each functional group was changed.

  14. New functional units for coke machine automatic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfenov, G.I.; Bannikov, L.S.; Vakarenko, I.M.; Grishin, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    A new device used in the control systems of coking plants is discussed. The system is capable of operating in fully automatic, semi-automatic, or manual modes. Examples of the usage of the unit include the stopping of coke machines within limits of +/- 200 mm. It is concluded that the use of the units reduce manufacture, adjustment, and service costs.

  15. Rheocasting a Zn-Al composite reinforced with coke dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madroñero, A.; Cruz, J.; Foruria, C.; Coleto, J.

    1997-01-01

    This article details research conducted to establish the optimum parameters needed to rheocast a zinc-aluminum alloy reinforced with coke-dust particles. Based on the experiments, a composite with a 10 vol.% coke-particulate reinforcement was found to exhibit good metallurgical quality (e.g., low porosity and the absence of clustering) in the final product.

  16. PLUTONIUM CLEANING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for rapidly removing iron, nickel, and zinc coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive. The method consists of immersing the coated plutonium object in an aqueous acid solution containing a substantial concentration of nitrate ions, such as fuming nitric acid.

  17. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  18. Effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-Gui; Wang, Bao-Cheng; Sun, Quan

    2010-10-01

    Through different preparation technology, this paper reports that the needle coke is prepared with coal-tar pitch under the effect of magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitation. It studies the effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke. The structure of needle coke is characterized by scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer, and the influence mechanism is analysed. Results showed that the structure and property of needle coke could be effectively improved by magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitations, such as degree of order, degree of graphitization and crystallization. Comparatively speaking, the effect of magnetic field was greater. The graphitization degree of needle coke prepared under the effect of magnetic field is up to 45.35%.

  19. DTA and TGA study of MeSo4 (Me = Fe, Co, Ni dissociation in the presence of coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyanov B.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available MeSO4 (Me = Fe, Co, Ni dissociation is investigated in order to estimate the effect of temperature, time and presence of coke as reducer on the degree and mechanism of dissociation. It is proved that the presence of coke decreases the dissociation temperature considerably and increases the degree of MeSO4 dissociation. Based on the obtained experimental data, a mechanism of the processes is proposed. The obtained results can be used in the industrial production of non-ferrous metals for explaining the processes that take place in the reduction of zinc and lead cakes in order to achieve favorable environmental, technical and economic results.

  20. Taguchi versus Full Factorial Design to Determine the Influence of Process Parameters on the Impact Forces Produced by Water Jets Used in Sewer Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medan, N.; Banica, M.

    2016-11-01

    The regular cleaning of the materials deposed in sewer networks is realized, especially with equipment that uses high pressure water jets. The functioning of this equipment is dependent on certain process parameters that can vary, causing variations of the impact forces. The impact force directly affects the cleaning of sewer systems. In order to determine the influence of the process parameters on the impact forces produced by water jets the method of research used is the experiment. The research methods used is that Taguchi design and full factorial design. For the experimental determination of the impact forces a stand for generating water jets and a device for measuring the forces of impact are used. The processing of data is carried out using the Software Minitab 17.

  1. DuPont IsoTherming clean fuel technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinski, E. [E.I. DuPont Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This poster described a hydroprocessing technology that DuPont has acquired from Process Dynamics, Inc. The IsoTherming clean fuel technology significantly reduces sulphur in motor fuels. The technology provides petroleum refiners the solution for meeting ultra low sulphur diesel requirements, at much lower costs than conventional technologies. IsoTherming hydroprocessing operates in a kinetically limited mode, with no mass transfer limitation. Hydrogen is delivered to the reactor in the liquid phase as soluble hydrogen, allowing for much higher space velocities than conventional hydrotreating reactors. Treated diesel is recycled back to the inlet of the reactor, generating less heat and more hydrogen into the reactor. The process results in a more isothermal reactor operation that allows for better yields, fewer light ends and greater catalyst life. The technology reduces coking, because the process provides enough hydrogen in the solution when cracking reactions take place. As a result, the process yields longer catalyst life. Other advantages for refiners include lower total investment; reduced equipment delivery lead times; reduced maintenance and operating costs; and configuration flexibility. tabs., figs.

  2. 红外探测器工艺用器皿清洗方法研究%Research of utensils cleaning for infrared detector process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙浩; 宁提; 龚志红; 白雪飞; 王文燕

    2016-01-01

    红外探测器材料一般为窄带系材料,在其制备工艺过程中,杂质离子更容易导致缺陷能级或表面快态复合中心,需选取较优的器皿清洗方法,对工艺用器皿所含金属离子进行评测控制。本文通过电感耦合等离子体质谱仪对比碲镉汞红外探测器工艺线上不同的器皿及清洗方法,对清洗后金属离子残留测试分析,获得较佳的器皿清洗方法,更好地保证红外探测器制备后性能。%Many utensils are often used in infrared detector process,but metallic ions in utensils have great effect on the performance of infrared detector,so the superior utensil cleaning methods are selected to remove metallic ions in utensils.The residual metallic ions in utensils with different cleaning methods were measured and analyzed by ICP -MS,and the optimal cleaning method was obtained.This cleaning method is suitable for the different preparation technologies of infrared detector.

  3. Effect of nut coke on the performance of the ironmaking blast furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Q.

    2013-01-01

    The blast furnace consumes a large amount of high quality metallurgy coke (size 35-80 mm) in addition to ore in the form of pellets and sinter. This coke is the coarse fraction, derived from the coke plant. The fine fraction (8 -35 mm), arise after sieving, named nut coke, can’t be directly used in

  4. Coke Formation in a Zeolite Crystal During the Methanol-to-Hydrocarbons Reaction as Studied with Atom Probe Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joel E; Poplawsky, Jonathan D; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Attila, Özgün; Fu, Donglong; de Winter, D A Matthijs; Meirer, Florian; Bare, Simon R; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the formation of carbon deposits in zeolites is vital to developing new, superior materials for various applications, including oil and gas conversion processes. Herein, atom probe tomography (APT) has been used to spatially resolve the 3D compositional changes at the sub-nm length scale in a single zeolite ZSM-5 crystal, which has been partially deactivated by the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction using (13) C-labeled methanol. The results reveal the formation of coke in agglomerates that span length scales from tens of nanometers to atomic clusters with a median size of 30-60 (13) C atoms. These clusters correlate with local increases in Brønsted acid site density, demonstrating that the formation of the first deactivating coke precursor molecules occurs in nanoscopic regions enriched in aluminum. This nanoscale correlation underscores the importance of carefully engineering materials to suppress detrimental coke formation.

  5. Enhanced magnetic cleaning in magnetic enhanced flocculation membrane filtration process%磁絮凝膜过滤工艺中附加磁场强化清洗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王捷; 杨军; 贾辉; 张宏伟

    2014-01-01

    基于磁强化絮凝膜过滤(MEFMF)工艺中磁絮体和含磁滤饼层的特性,设计了在线(on-line)和离线(off-line)磁强化清洗(MEC)工艺。在磁场和曝气剪切的协同作用下,含磁滤饼层脱离膜纤维表面,膜通量恢复率较常规物理清洗(RC)明显提高。在离线磁强化清洗时,设计反洗装置中心的磁感应强度为6 mT,曝气强度为500 L·m−2·min−1,控制清洗时间为5 min,维持反洗压力0.04 MPa,可达到最佳的膜清洗效果,通量恢复率达97%以上。在外加磁场强化清洗过程中,滤饼层中的磁种发生磁化作用,滤饼层表现出微弱的宏观磁性,在磁场的作用下向磁极运动,使得膜通量恢复率明显提高。此外,在MEFMF工艺中采用间歇磁强化清洗,可以更加有效地去除引起不可逆膜污染的胶体和有机物,降低膜污染速率,减缓膜污染。%On the basis of the characteristics of magnetic flocs and cake layer in the magnetic enhanced flocculation membrane filtration (MEFMF) process, processes of on-line and off-line magnetic enhanced cleaning (MEC) were designed. Magnetic cake layer was separated from fiber surface under the synergistic effect of magnetic field force and aeration shear force, in which way the goal of optimization of membrane cleaning was achieved. The magnetic enhanced cleaning process was added to magnetic enhanced flocculation membrane filtration for off-line cleaning of fouled membrane module in MEFMF process. In the magnetic cleaning process with device’s magnetic induction 6 mT, aeration intensity 500 L·m−2·min−1, washing time to 5 min, backwash pressure 0.04 MPa, optimum cleaning effect could be achieved for flux recovery rate over 97%. In the enhanced cleaning process with magnetic field the magnetic seeding in the cake layer was magnetized, rendering the cake layer weak macro magnetism. Under the effect of the attached magnetic field the magnetized cake

  6. Effect of Mineral on Metallurgical Coke Solution Loss Reaction in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun-he; FENG An-zu; DU He-gui

    2003-01-01

    The catalytic effects of minerals (oxides) on solution loss reaction of coke were investigated in detail by adding oxides to coal which produces coke or absorbing oxides on coke surface. The mineral catalysis index (MCI) which can be used to evaluate catalytic effects of minerals on solution loss of coke comprehensively was proposed. Using the volatility of coal in dry basis and MCI of coal as independent variables to control coke reactivity, the mathematical models of predicting coke reactivity index, coke strength of reactivity were constructed on the basis of the experimental results.

  7. Ultrasonic Weve Cleaning Principle and Process Analysis%超声波清洗原理与工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪日; 林国辉

    2001-01-01

    论述了超声波清洗的原理及其在电子制造业中应用。并对实际生产作业中出现的问题给予分析。%Expound ultrasonic wave cleaning principle and the ap plicationto electronic manufacture industry.Analyse the questions during actral production.

  8. Study on Membrane Cleaning in Magnetic Flocculation and Membrane Filtration Process%磁絮凝-膜过滤工艺中膜清洗的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞治邦; 姚吉伦; 刘波; 周振

    2016-01-01

    采用孔径为200 nm 的陶瓷膜处理微污染水,研究了试验工艺和常规工艺在不同条件下的膜清洗恢复情况,分析了反冲洗压力、反冲洗时间以及化学药剂对膜通量恢复的影响,并对试验工艺进行了长期、连续运行。结果表明:该试验工艺清洗情况运行良好;当反冲洗压力为0.60 MPa、反冲洗时间为40 s 时,使用柠檬酸进行清洗时效果最好。%Membrane cleaning of ceramic membrane with pore size of 200nm was used to treat the micro polluted water.The recovery of membrane cleaning of the test process and conventional processes under different conditions was studied.The effects of backwash pressure,backwash time and chemical reagents on the recovery of membrane flux were analyzed,and the test processed to carry on the long-term continuous operation.Experiment shows that process cleaning situation ran well. When the backwash pressure is 0.60 MPa and the backwash time is 40 s,using citric acid,the cleaning effect is best.

  9. Study and Application of Sealing Material for Coke Oven Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Feifang; TAI Li

    2005-01-01

    A kind of dry refractory sealing material has been developed to repair the fine cracks in coke oven chamber. With silica sand as the main raw material, the sealing material is blown into coke oven chamber by compressed air while being applied, and bonded to brick surface or filled in fine cracks of chamber under right pressure. The physical properties of the material are similar to those of silica bricks during its application. So it can be adapted to conditions of coke oven and has good service life. The study and application results of the sealing material are described in this paper.

  10. Dynamics study on effect of temperature to Nitrous nitrification reaction of coking wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Ming-jun; ZHANG Hai-ling; LU Yan-li

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic effects of NO2 - - N accumulation were discussed owing to temperature. In different temperature, a series ofvmax and Ks were found considering the relation between the temperature and rate of ammonia nitrogen transforming into NO2 - - N. The kinetics models, which reflected the conditions of ammonia nitrogen transforming into NO2 - - N in the treatment process of the coking wastewater, were built up. The characteristic coefficient temperature was determined according to Arrhenius.

  11. Influence of thermoplastic properties on coking pressure generation: Part 1 - A study of single coals of various rank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Duffy; Merrick R. Mahoney; Karen M. Steel [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre

    2010-07-15

    In this study a number of high coking pressure coals with different fluidities were evaluated alongside a number of low pressure coals also with differing fluidities. This was to establish rheological parameters within which a coal may be considered potentially dangerous with regards to coking pressure. The results have confirmed and elaborated on previous findings which show that parallel plate displacement ({Delta}L) and axial force profiles can be used to distinguish between high and low pressure coals, with peak values indicating cell rupture and subsequent pore network formation. This is thought to correspond with plastic layer compaction in the coke oven. For low pressure coals pore coalescence occurs quite early in the softening process when viscosity/elasticity are decreasing and consequently a large degree of contraction/collapse is observed. For higher pressure coals the process is delayed since pore development and consequently wall thinning progress at a slower rate. If or when a pore network is established, a lower degree of contraction/collapse is observed because the event occurs closer to resolidification, where viscosity and elasticity are increasing. For the higher fluidity, high coking pressure coals, a greater degree of swelling is observed prior to cell rupture, and this is considered to be the primary reason for the high coking pressure observed with these coals. An additional consequence of these events is that high pressure coals are likely to contain a higher proportion of closed cells both at and during resolidification, reducing permeability in both the semi-coke and high temperature plastic layers, respectively. Using a rheological mapping approach to follow viscoelastic changes during carbonisation it has been possible to identify specific regions associated with dangerous coals. 76 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Combustion of coked sand in a two-stage fluidized bed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronella, C.J.; Seader, J.D. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-02-01

    An advanced multiple-stage fluidized bed reactor system has been devised for the energy-efficient extraction and conversion, from tar sand, of bitumen into synthetic crude oil. The reactor consists of four fluidized beds arranged as stages in series with respect to flow of sand. In the first stage, tar sands are heated, causing the bitumen to pyrolyse into coke, which is deposited on the sand, and gas, which is mostly condensed into oil. The coke is partially combusted with air or enriched oxygen in the second stage, which is thermally coupled to the first stage by multiple vertical heat pipes. Combustion is completed adiabatically in the third stage and heat recovery from the sand is carried out in the fourth stage. By conducting the coke combustion in two stages in this manner, the overall reactor residence time to produce clean sand is greatly reduced from that for a single combustion stage. Laboratory experimental studies have confirmed the ability to operate and control the two thermally coupled stages. The two-phase bubbling bed model of Grace, amended to account for bubble growth in the axial direction, has been adopted to model the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the fluidized beds. The model for the first and second combustion stages is complete. Predictions for exit reactor conditions at various operating conditions are in reasonable agreement with experimental observations. The operating parameters have been found to exert a much greater influence on the predictions of the model than do the values of the physical parameters, indicating a desirable degree of reactor stability. Extension of the model to the pyrolysis and heat recovery stages will permit the optimization of the reactor configuration and operating conditions. 26 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Process Improvement of Crude Oil Tank Cleaning Equipment%储罐机械清洗设备的工艺改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏吉鑫; 王永强; 陈正文; 庞雷; 鲁飞; 张的; 周连春

    2014-01-01

    Through applied research of process and constituting the traditional crude oil tank cleaning equipment,found that the degree of automation for the traditional equipment is lower,such as oil-water separator need to manually skimming oil,cleaning machine to manually switch in tank top,no remote monitoring and manual recording data.By optimizing these equipments,to a-chieve the perfect technology and the innovation management system,such as automation equipment to oil-water separator,the cleaning machine automatically switches and centralized remote monitoring and data collection in central control room,to ensure that the entire higher degree of automation of the cleaning process, saving manpower, material and financial resources to better meet the requirements of various tank cleaning,tank cleaning equipment to guide a more efficient,airtight,automated direction, generally worth application and promotion.%通过对传统储罐机械清洗设备的构成及工艺流程的应用研究,发现传统设备中的部分装置和部分环节自动化程度不高,费时费力,如油水分离装置的人工撇油、清洗机罐顶手动切换、无远程监控和人工记录数据等。通过对这些方面的改进,实现了油水分离装置的油水分离自动化、清洗机的自动切换、中央控制室集中远程监控及数据采集等技术的完善和管理系统的创新,保证了整个清洗过程自动化程度更高,节省了人力、物力和财力,更好的满足了各种储罐的清洗要求,值得应用和推广。

  14. Combustion characteristics of Daqing oil shale and oil shale semi-cokes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Zhen-yong; WU Guo-guang; LI Ping; ZHAO Na; WANG Pan-cheng; MENG Xian-liang

    2009-01-01

    Thermo-gravimetric-analysis (TGA) was used to analyze the combustion characteristics of an oil shale and semi-cokes prepared from it. The effect of prior pyrolysis and TGA heating rate on the combustion process was studied. Prior pyrolysis affects the initial temperature of mass loss and the ignition temperature. The ignition temperature increases as the volatile content of the sample decreases. TG/DTG curves obtained at different heating rates show that heating rate has little effect on ignition temperature. But the peak of combustion shifts to higher temperatures as the heating rate is increased. The Coats-Redfern integration method was employed to find the combustion-reaction kinetic parameters for the burning of oil shale and oil shale semi-coke.

  15. Carbonization behaviour of woody biomass and resulting metallurgical coke properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, T.; Ichida, M.; Nagasaka, T.; Kato, K. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Graduate School for Environmental Studies

    2008-07-01

    The technology using waste wood from construction and thinned wood that are not recycled in the woody biomass as one of raw materials for producing metallurgical coke was examined in detail by adding them to coal and carbonizing them. In the carbonization tests, four types of woody biomasses showed substantially almost the same results in respect to material balance and composition of carbonized products. Compared with raw woods, woody biomasses compressively formed to not smaller than 10 mm permit an increase in the addition rate to 1.5% while inhibiting the lowering of coke strength. Hot compressive forming at 200-350 degrees C where pyrolysis of woody biomass occurs inhibits the lowering of coke strength and will therefore permit an increase in the use of woody biomasses. As a result, the possibility to use as a raw material for the coke manufacturing by adding the compressively formed woody biomass was found.

  16. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: WRI COKING INDEXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Francis P. Miknis; Thomas F. Turner

    2003-06-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were conducted with three residua at 400 C (752 F) at various residence times. The wt % coke and gaseous products were measured for the product oils. The Western Research Institute (WRI) Coking Indexes were determined for the product oils. Measurements were made using techniques that might correlate with the Coking Indexes. These included spin-echo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heat capacity measurements at 280 C (536 F), and ultrasonic attenuation. The two immiscible liquid phases that form once coke formation begins were isolated and characterized for a Boscan residuum pyrolyzed at 400 C (752 F) for 55 minutes. These materials were analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS), porphyrins, and metals (Ni,V) content.

  17. KCCC: Coke and Coal Chemical Business Opens up Growth Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Kailuan Clean Coal Co., Ltd. (KCCC, SH: 600997) is located in Kailuan, Hebei province. Its main business includes the mining of coal and accompanying resources, the dressing and processing of raw coal, the sales of coal products and the production and sales ofcoking products.

  18. Mathematical modeling of a rotary hearth coke calciner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde C. Meisingset

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a rotary hearth coke calciner is developed. The model is based on first principles including the most important dynamic phenomena. The model is a thermodynamic model involving heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions. Fundamental mass and energy balance equations for the coke phase, the gas phase and the lining are formulated. For the gas phase, a stationary model is used. The equations are solved numerically, and simulated temperature profiles are shown in this paper.

  19. Repairing the wooden frame of chambers in coking furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nador, Y.; Iruti, M.; Komiya, S.; Matsuno, T.; Ogavakhara, F.

    1983-02-12

    A method and device are proposed for hot repair of the door frames of coking chanbers. The repair is conducted prior to discharge of the coke from the chamber without its cooling or a reduction in temperature. After the doors are removed, a screening plate fettled with a heat insulation material on the chamber side is introduced into the frame, it is attached to the door frame and the required repair is conducted.

  20. Use of thermogravimetry for proximate analysis of coals and cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottaway, M.

    1982-08-01

    An alternative method for the proximate analysis of coals and cokes using a thermobalance is described. The test measures water content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash residue and takes <10 min to complete. The variety of coals and cokes tested in this investigation have given results which showed good correlation with values from the prescribed method. The thermogravimetric technique appears to be a feasible rapid alternative to standard methods for proximate analysis. (11 refs.)

  1. Mineral matter in coals and their reactions during coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigore, Mihaela; French, David [The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) - Energy Technology, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Sakurovs, Richard [The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) - Energy Technology, Newcastle, NSW 2300 (Australia); Sahajwalla, Veena [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2008-12-01

    Degradation of coke in the blast furnace is influenced by its inherent mineral matter, the formation of which is itself dependent upon the nature of the coal mineral matter. To date few studies have been made of coke mineralogy and its relationship to the mineralogy of the parent coal. In this study the effect of carbonisation on coal mineral matter has been investigated by a detailed quantitative mineralogical examination of nine cokes and their parent coals. The quantitative analysis was performed on X-ray diffraction patterns of the mineral matter of cokes and coals, using SIROQUANT {sup trademark}. Coke mineralogy and its composition varied strongly between cokes, more strongly than variations in elemental composition of the ash. The mineral matter in the studied cokes consisted of crystalline mineral phases and also significant levels of amorphous phase (ranging between 44 and 75%). Decomposition of clays such as kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite and chamosite produced the amorphous phase and some of the crystalline mineral phases such as mullite, {gamma}-alumina, spinel, cristobalite and leucite. The type of association of mineral matter in coals had an important role in how the clays decomposed. For example, association of kaolinite with silica-bearing minerals in intimate intermixture favoured formation of mullite over {gamma}-alumina. Akermanite and diopside result from reaction of kaolinite with associated calcium bearing minerals (calcite, dolomite or ankerite). Quartz, fluorapatite and the three polymorphs of TiO{sub 2} (anatase, brookite and rutile) were the coal minerals that were least affected during carbonisation, as they were also found in the cokes, yet even they were affected in some cases. (author)

  2. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Ge, Su; Zhang, Qi; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residential heating activities and 15 semi-coke briquette samples which were made from bituminous coals by industrial carbonization treatment. The carbonization treatment removes volatile compounds from raw coals which are the major precursors for PM formation and carbon emission. The average emission factors of primary PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and carbon monoxide for the tested semi-coke briquettes are much lower than those of the tested raw coals. Based on the current coal consumption data in China, switching to semi-coke briquettes can reduce average emission factors of these species by about 92%, 98%, 91%, and 34%, respectively. Additionally, semi-coke briquette has relatively lower price and higher burnout ratio. The replacement of raw coals with semi-coke briquettes is a feasible path to reduce pollution emissions from household activities.

  3. Correlation between porous structure and fracture stress for metallurgical coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardien, J.F.; Lemaire, E.; Dubs, A.; Osmont, P.; Laurent, J.P.; Steiler, J.M. (Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise, Maizieres-les-Metz (France))

    1994-05-26

    Various samples of coke have been characterized by diametral compression and the geometry of the porous network has been analysed in terms of fractal structure. It is found that the coke studied exhibits a fractal behaviour on at least two decades. Diametral compression test leads to two different ways of breaking; brittle fracture, and in some cases complex fracture. As expected, the fracture stress is not linked with the fractal dimension in case of brittle fracture, but with the mean size of the largest pores. In case of complex loading conditions, the fracture strength is linked with the fractal dimension. The models of Cook and of Anderson, which integrate fractal description of porous materials in Griffith's theory, do not seem to be valid concerning coke material. The present approach of characterising the porous structure of coke by the fractal dimension seems adapted to explain coke strength, especially under complex stress conditions, but should be extended to an increased number of coke type samples.

  4. Fissure formation in coke. 1: The mechanism of fissuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; M.R. Mahoney; J.C. Keating [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Pilot scale coke oven experiments, in which carbonisation has been arrested after 2 and 4 h, have been used to identify key aspects of the initial formation and propagation of fissuring in coke. The experiments show that the primary fissure network is formed within the first few hours of coking and the fissures propagate towards the centre of the oven as coking progresses. They also show that some of the initially formed fissures stop propagating, thus increasing the effective fissure spacing as coking continues. A model for the propagation of regular crack arrays has been used to identify the cause of the initial formation of the fissure network, evaluate the fissure spacing and explain the fissure coarsening effect. The coarsening is shown to be due to an instability, in the form of every second fissure stopping. The formation of lateral fissures is shown to be due to tensile stress formation near the tips of stopped fissures and also to increased shrinkage due to a maximum in the coke contraction coefficient at around 700{sup o}C. 45 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specimen; Urine collection - clean catch; UTI - clean catch; Urinary tract infection - clean catch; Cystitis - clean catch ... LE, Norrby SR. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  6. Lessons learned from a rigorous peer-review process for building the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness (CLEAN) collection of high-quality digital teaching materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Niepold, F.; Fox, S.; Howell, C. D.; Lynds, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    The topic of climate change permeates all aspects of our society: the news, household debates, scientific conferences, etc. To provide students with accurate information about climate science and energy awareness, educators require scientifically and pedagogically robust teaching materials. To address this need, the NSF-funded Climate Literacy & Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Pathway has assembled a new peer-reviewed digital collection as part of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) featuring teaching materials centered on climate and energy science for grades 6 through 16. The scope and framework of the collection is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP 2009) and a set of energy awareness principles developed in the project. The collection provides trustworthy teaching materials on these socially relevant topics and prepares students to become responsible decision-makers. While a peer-review process is desirable for curriculum developer as well as collection builder to ensure quality, its implementation is non-trivial. We have designed a rigorous and transparent peer-review process for the CLEAN collection, and our experiences provide general guidelines that can be used to judge the quality of digital teaching materials across disciplines. Our multi-stage review process ensures that only resources with teaching goals relevant to developing climate literacy and energy awareness are considered. Each relevant resource is reviewed by two individuals to assess the i) scientific accuracy, ii) pedagogic effectiveness, and iii) usability/technical quality. A science review by an expert ensures the scientific quality and accuracy. Resources that pass all review steps are forwarded to a review panel of educators and scientists who make a final decision regarding inclusion of the materials in the CLEAN collection. Results from the first panel review show that about 20% (~100) of the resources that were initially considered for inclusion

  7. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  8. Joint Implementation Analysis: A Case Study of the Japan-China Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ) Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    One of the key issues for "Joint Implementation" is how to define a plausible baseline, a necessary benchmark for calculating net Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emission reductions through a comparative approach. Based on a thorough case study of the China-Japan Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ) project, the first approved pilot project in China under the "Activities Implemented Jointly" (AIJ) framework, the paper not only describes in detail the complete procedure of baseline definition of the case project, but also discusses its approach to baseline determination. Furthermore, cost-benefit analysis of GHGs mitigation is conducted according to the baseline. This empirical case study, based on real AIJ project data, will be beneficial for the development of future projects under Kyoto mechanisms such as "Clean Development Mechanism" and "Joint Implementation".

  9. Effective absorption coefficient measurements in PMMA and PTFE by clean ablation process with a coherent VUV source at 125 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, D.; Castex, M. C.

    First measurements of effective absorption coefficient and penetration depth are given here from the ablation of poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) and poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) samples at 125 nm ( 10 eV). The coherent VUV source used which provides smooth, efficient and clean etched areas, is briefly described. Experimental curves of etch depth as a function of the number of laser shots and etch rate as a function of energy density are obtained and compared with previous works performed at 157 nm (F2 laser) and 193 nm (ArF laser). Experimental results are described with a Beer-Lambert absorption law and discussed.

  10. Ionic Liquid Catalyst Used in Deep Desulfuration of the Coking Benzene for Producing Sulfurless Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xia-Ping; WANG Yan-Liang; MENG Fan-Wei; FAN Xing-Ming; QIN Song-Bo

    2008-01-01

    For the widening need of benzene used in organic synthesis, ionic liquid catalyst was prepared to study the process of deep desulfuration in the coking benzene. The result shows that the effect of de-thiophene by the ionic liquid catalyst (N-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulfate [Hmim][HSO4]) is related to its acid function value.Hammett indicator was used to determine the acid function value H0 of the ionic liquid. It can be concluded that while the acid function value is in the range from -4 to -12, the ionic liquid catalyst can make the concentration certain acid quantity and strength, the ionic liquid catalyst helps to form alkyl thiophene through Friedel-Crafts reaction, which differs from the character of benzene and it is absolutely necessary for the separation and refinement of benzene. But overabundant quantity and higher acid value of [Hmim][HSO4] are more suitable for the side copolymerization of benzene, thiophene and alkene, thereby affecting repeated use of the ionic liquid catalyst([Hmim][HSO4]). In our research, thiophene derivant produced by desulfurization in the coking benzene was used as the polymer to provide the passing channel of the charges. The ionic liquid composition in poor performance after repeated use was made to prepare conductive material (resisting to static electricity) as an "electron-receiving" and "electron-giving" doping agent. The result shows that thiophene derivant after desulfuration in the coking benzene can be used to prepare doping conductive materials.

  11. The effect of treatment stages on the coking wastewater hazardous compounds and their toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-xue; Zhang, Zi-yang; Fan, Qing-lan; Yuan, Xiao-ying; Guo, Dong-sheng

    2012-11-15

    This study investigated the change of hazardous materials in coking wastewater at different treatment stages (anaerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic/photo degradation, anaerobic/aerobic/ozone oxidation treatment) and the effects of them on the development of maize embryos and the activity of amylase and protease in maize seeds. Moreover the interaction of refractory organic matters in the wastewater at different treatment stages with amylase and protease also were determined in vitro. The results show that the biodegradable and the refractory organic compounds in the wastewater both can affect maize embryo development (germination inhibition rate is 19.3% for biodegradable organic compounds). As the treatment stage preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the development of the maize embryo (for germination inhibition rates change from 49.3% to 24.6%) and on enzymatic activity (inhibition rates change from 63.9% to 22.4% for amylase) decreases gradually, but the photo-degradation treatment to anaerobic/aerobic effluent can increase its toxicity. The changes in the ability of the refractory organic compounds to bind with enzyme proteins, combined with the analysis of the organic components by GC/MS, show that in the process of coking wastewater treatment no new toxic chemicals were produced.

  12. Beneficiation of an Indian non-coking coal by column flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Vasumathi; T.V.Vijaya Kumar; S.Ratchambigai; S.Subba Rao; S.Prabhakar; G.Bhaskar Raju

    2016-01-01

    Beneficiation of non-coking coal is gaining ground in India.It not only reduces the volume of inert content to be transported to the power plant and also lowers the wear in the boiler houses.For special applications such as the fuel for integrated gasification combined cycle plant (IGCC),the ash content in the coal should preferably be below 15 %.Indian coals are characterized by high inter-grown ash content mainly due to ‘drift origin’ of Gondwana formation in Permian age.This warrants fine grinding of non-coking coal in order to liberate the ash forming minerals from coal macerals.A noncoking coal sample of vitrinite type from India was ground to 44 tm (d80) and subjected to column flotation to improve its quality.The non-coking coal analyzing 34.6 % ash,26.2 % volatile matter,1.3 % moisture and 37.9 % fixed carbon could be upgraded to a concentrate/froth of 14.83 % ash at 72.18 % yield by optimizing collector and frother dosages and flotation column operating parameters,namely,froth depth,superficial feed velocity and superficial air velocity.The concentrate produced by this process is suitable as fuel for IGCC in coal-to-electricity route.

  13. Coupling thermogravimetric and acoustic emission measurements: its application to study the inhibition of catalytic coke deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropital, Francois; Dascotte, Philippe; Marchand, Pierre [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 Avenue Bois Preau, 92952 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Faure, Thierry; Lenain, Jean-Claude; Proust, Alain [Euro Physical Acoustics, 27 Rue Magellan, 94373 Sucy-en-Brie Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    In order to improve the knowledge on the high temperature behaviour of metallic materials, the coupling of several in situ physical analysis methods is a promising way. For this purpose a thermogravimetric balance has been equipped with a specific acoustic emission device in order to continuously measure the mass variation of the corrosion sample and the acoustic emission transient under experimental conditions of temperature and gas phase compositions that are representative of the industrial environments. The catalytic coke deposition condition that is a major problem for the refinery and petrochemical industries, has been studied with such a device. The carbon deposition on reactor walls can induce localised disruption in the process such as heat-transfer reduction and pressure drops. To prevent these perturbations, proper selections of the metallurgical or internal coating compositions of the equipment, or the injection of accurate amount of inhibitors have to be decided. The feasibility of the coupling at high temperature of thermogravimetric and acoustic emission has been demonstrated. This new technique has been applied to study the inhibition of the catalytic coke deposition on pure iron by sulphur additives in the temperature range of 650 deg. C and under different mixed atmospheres of hydrocarbon and hydrogen contents. Good correlation has been obtained between the coking rates measured by thermogravimetric measurements and the intensities of the acoustic emission parameters. (authors)

  14. Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China%国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雄伟

    2012-01-01

    Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China is described in this paper. Two main production processes of coke oven gas to natural gas are analyzed, named " coke oven gas methanation to natural gas" process and "coke oven gas purification and separation to natural gas" process. Patent applications of conversion technologies from coke oven gas to natural gas by organizations or individuals who have the technologies in China are introduced. It is pointed out that the project implementation of coke oven gas to natural gas has a very important significance for coking industry to develop energy-saving and emission-reduction circular economy.%综述了国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状,分析了国内焦炉气制天然气技术的2种主要工艺,“焦炉气甲烷化制备天然气”工艺和“焦炉气联合净化分离制备天然气”工艺.介绍了目前国内焦炉气制天然气技术拥有单位或个人专利申请情况,指出焦炉气制天然气项目的实施对焦化行业节能减排及发展循环经济等具有重要意义.

  15. Anti-corrosion paint and varnish coatings employing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.B. Pavlovich; N.M. Alekseeva; V.P. Dolgopolov; A.A. Popov [West Siberian Metallurgical Combine, Siberia (Russian Federation)

    2004-06-01

    The various shops of the West Siberian Metallurgical Combine operate 392 gas-cleaning units, and the combine annually spends 1.5 million rubles a year on major repairs to this equipment. The need to increase the service life of the air ducts is obvious. At the same time, the production of phthalic anhydride (PA) from commercial grades of naphthalene made at coke and coal chemicals plants also yields large quantities of waste products formed in oxidation reactions - still residues from the distillation of PA. These residues are currently used in coking charges. It is important that a way be found to recycle wastes from the production of phthalic anhydride, which is the main raw material used to make corrosion-resistant paints and lacquers. The goal of the research was to use PA production wastes to help develop promising new environmentally clean materials to protect metal from corrosion. The Combine has developed and mastered the production of two types of powdered polymer-based paint: quick-drying epoxide paint PEFAN-501; decorative epoxide-polyester paint NOVOLAN-1605. A section to make these paints has been set up and equipped with three units that apply the paints in an electrostatic field. The Combine has also developed a technology for using PA still residues to obtain an alkyl-epoxide primer for protecting gas pipes from corrosion. Experimental batches of the primer have been successfully tested on a section of gas pipe connected to the car dumper in the crushing-sorting plant operated by the sinter-lime department.

  16. Separation Processes and Economic Analysis of Associated Semi-coke Oven Gas Membrane Separation Enhanced Hydrogen%兰炭伴生焦炉煤气膜分离增强制氢分离工艺及经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健青

    2013-01-01

    In order to utilize the hydrogen effectively in the coke oven gas, a by-product of low temperature pyrolysis, a process based on the hydrogen production by methane steam reforming and water gas shift reactions was proposed, and the membrane reactors coupling reaction and separation were used to enhance the hydrogen production. By selective membrane and metal hydride based thermal swing adsorption, hydrogen products with varied purity can be obtained.%为了有效回收煤低温热解过程中伴生的副产物-焦炉煤气中的氢气成分,本文提出了一种基于甲烷蒸汽重整和水煤气变换制氢的工艺路线,并通过耦合反应和分离过程的膜反应器提高了氢气的产率,通过膜渗透和基于金属氢化物的变温吸附分离可输出不同纯度的氢气产品。

  17. Refinaria do Nordeste: petroleum coke handling system; Refinaria do Nordeste: desafios do sistema de movimentacao de coque verde de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Luiz G. de; Cabral, Jose Mauro B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Ipojuca, PE (Brazil). Refinaria do Nordeste (RNEST); Lucredi, Hedewandro A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Paulinia, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Paulinia (REPLAN); Barros, Francisco Carlos da C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The Delayed Coking Units - DCU - are adequate to the scheme for processing heavy oils where the market of fuel oil or asphalt is low or not profitable. The DCU's are conversion units that produce, in addition to the gas and liquid distilled products, the petcoke. The petcoke, depending on the characteristics, is used in various applications like as in the aluminum, iron, thermoelectric and cement industries. The petcoke is solid and its logistics is quite different from most of the products handled by PETROBRAS; therefore, this product has been a constant challenge in relation to the market requirements. Due to the importance of the DCU at Refinaria do Nordeste, and the petcoke production capacity, the coke handling system was projected in order to ensure the refinery operational continuity. The project permits the expedition and loading of 10,000 tons of petcoke within a period of 12 hours of work for cargo vessel. In the development of the processing project of Refinaria do Nordeste efforts were made to optimize the Delayed Coking Unit for the production of distilled products and the quality of the coke. The DCU operating conditions were projected so as to produce petcoke with quality adequate to the iron and aluminum industry. (author)

  18. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  19. Cleaning technics of cleaning robots%清洗机器人的清洗工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何勇强; 周利坤

    2012-01-01

    The cleaning works and cleaning methods of cleaning robots were systematically summarized. The cleaning robots' cleaning technics were illustrated and analyzed. It also specially proposed the idea of oil tank cleaning robot's cleaning technics and process.%对清洗机器人的清洗作业和清洗方法进行了系统分类概述,举例综合分析了清洗机器人的清洗工艺,特别提出了油罐清洗机器人的清洗工艺流程设想。

  20. Study on the adsorption characteristics of modified semi-coke used for treating biologically treated effluent from coking wastewater%改性兰炭对焦化废水生化出水的吸附特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜; 刘尚超; 张垒; 付本全

    2012-01-01

    Semi-coke that has been modified with steam at high temperature is used for the static adsorption of TOC in biochemically treated effluent from coking wastewater. The effects of influencing factors, such as adsorption time, pH,adsorbent dosage,particle size,etc.,on the treatment efficiency are investigated. The results show that after adding 20 g/L 1 -2 mm of modified semi-coke to wastewater whose pH is 4, at room temperature and adsorption time 30 min,the TOC removing rate of biochemically treated effluent from the coking wastewater is more than 60%. The concentration and variety of the organisms in samples after the adsorption process have decreased greatly.%利用水蒸气高温改性后的兰炭静态吸附焦化废水生化出水中的TOC,考察了吸附时间、pH、吸附剂用量、粒径等因素对处理效果的影响.结果表明,向废水(pH=4)中投加20 g/L改性兰炭(粒径1~2 mm),室温下吸附30 min后,对焦化废水生化出水的TOC去除率在60%以上.吸附后水样中的有机物浓度和种类都大幅下降.

  1. Research of laser cleaning technology for steam generator tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Suixa; Luo, Jijun; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Bo

    2010-10-01

    Surface cleaning based on the laser-induced breakdown of gas and subsequent shock wave generation can remove small particles from solid surfaces. Accordingly, several studies in steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants were performed to expand the cleaning capability of the process. In this work, experimental apparatus of laser cleaning was designed in order to clean heat tubes in steam generator. The laser cleaning process is monitored by analyzing acoustic emission signal experimentally. Experiments demonstrate that laser cleaning can remove smaller particles from the surface of steam generator tubes better than other cleaning process. It has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource, and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes, which can be real-time monitoring in laser cleaning process of heat tubes by AE signal. As a green cleaning process, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect.

  2. Pretreatment of coking wastewater using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; SUN Ying-lan; LI Yu-ying

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to pretreat coking wastewater. Inoculated anaerobic granular biomass was acclimated for 225 d to the coking wastewater, and then the biochemical methane potential (BMP)of the coking wastewater in the acclimated granular biomass was measured. At the same time, some fundamental technological factors, such as the filling time and the reacting time ratio (tf/tr), the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode, that affect anaerobic pretreatment of coking wastewater with ASBR, were evaluated through orthogonal tests. The COD removal efficiency reached 38%~50% in the stable operation period with the organic loading rate of 0.37~0.54 kg COD/(m3.d) at the optimum conditions of tf/tr, the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode. In addition, the biodegradability of coking wastewater distinctly increased after the pretreatment using ASBR. At the end of the experiment, the microorganism forms on the granulated sludge in the ASBR were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and fluoroscope. The results showed that the dominant microorganism on the granular sludge was Methanosaeta instead of Methanosarcina dominated on the inoculated sludge.

  3. Industrial Experiment on Coke Spraying With ZBS Additive in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zi-zong; ZHANG Zhu-ming; TANG Qi-yong; YANG Xue-feng; ZHANG Kun-hua; ZHAO Xian-sheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the thermal properties of coke, an industrial experiment on the coke spraying with ZBS additive solution was carried out at coking plant and No.6 blast furnace (2 000 m3) of Kunming Iron and Steel Co Ltd. The coke reaction index (CRI) of the coke spraying with ZBS additive solution decreases by 10.56%, and the coke strength after reaction (CSR) increases by 7.80% in comparison with those of the un-sprayed coke. During the experiment, the average iron output increases by 66.69 t/d, and the coke rate is reduced by 5.21 kg per ton iron, while the fluctuation of furnace temperture is small, and sulphur content in hot metal and 100% of hot metal are acceptable.

  4. Method for determining the coking of different types of pyrolysed hydrocarbon crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpichnikov, P.A.; Grigorovich, B.A.; Liakumovich, A.G.; Galeeva, E.I.; Trifonov, S.V.; Lobanova, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    An express method has been developed for determining coking and the nature of burnout of coke deposits during pyrolysis of hydrocarbon crude. A new, hitherto unknown effect of non-uniform burnout of the carbon deposits (coke) formed during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons has been established. Although the air pulse selected is sufficient to burn out the entire quantity of coke, it is not burnt out uniformly from pulse to pulse, but spasmodically, creating an individual characteristic of the burnout capacity of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbon fractions. The opportunities provided by the method in studying additives that inhibit coke deposition, the rate of formation and burnout of coke in different temperature zones of the pyrolysis coil, and also the nature of burnout of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbons and their mixtures can be broadened significantly, 7 references, 2 figures.

  5. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  6. Thermal treatment of a coal blend for coking in a test facility of the Donetsk Coking Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbykovskii, E.I.; Novitskii, P.L.; Logvinov, A.V.; Shuster, Yu.D.; Golomanskii, N.A.; Kharasik, V.V.; Turik, I.A.; Nekhaenko, V.Ya.

    1986-12-01

    Design and operation are discussed for an experimental facility for heat treatment of coal mixtures for coking used in the Donetsk Coking Plant. The mixture consisted of 80% type G coal and 20% type Zh coal. The treatment system developed jointly by the Donetsk Plant and the Donetsk Technical Institute combined advantages of rotary dryers and fluidized-bed dryers. The dryer consisted of 2 parts: a pipe dryer with a temperature to 100-120 C and a long fluidized-bed chamber (relation of length to width 25 to 1) with a temperature of 200-250 C. Such a configuration of 2 temperature zones prevented deterioration of caking coal properties (which occurred in other heat treatment systems with a final temperature of 200-250 C). Properties of coal mixtures which after preheating in the experimental system were coked under standard conditions, as well as coke properties, are shown in 3 tables. Use of heat treatments increased coke compression strength and reduced its wear index. 3 refs.

  7. Microporous Cokes Formed in Zeolite Catalysts Enable Efficient Solar Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianjian

    2017-03-13

    Cokes are inevitably generated during zeolite-catalyzed reactions as deleterious side products that deactivate the catalyst. In this study, we in-situ converted cokes into carbons within the confined microporous zeolite structures and evaluated their performances as absorbing materials for solar-driven water evaporation. With a properly chosen zeolite, the cokederived carbons possessed ordered interconnected pores and tunable compositions. We found that the porous structure and the oxygen content in as-prepared carbons had important influences on their energy conversion efficiencies. Among various investigated carbon materials, the carbon derived from the methanol-to-olefins reaction over zeolite Beta gave the highest conversion efficiency of 72% under simulated sunlight with equivalent solar intensity of 2 suns. This study not only demonstrates the great potential of traditionally useless cokes for solar thermal applications but also provides new insights into the design of carbon-based absorbing materials for efficient solar evaporation.

  8. Textural changes in metallurgical coke prepared with polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislav S.Gornostayev; Jyrki J.Heino; Tommi M.T.Kokkonen; Hannu T.Makkonen; Satu M.M.Huttunen; Timo M.J.Fabritius

    2014-01-01

    The effect of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) on the textural features of experimental coke was investigated using polar-ized-light optical microscopy and wavelet-based image analysis. Metallurgical coke samples were prepared in a laboratory-scale furnace with 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5%HDPE by mass, and one sample was prepared by 100%coal. The amounts and distribution of textures (isotropic, mosaic and banded) and pores were obtained. The calculations reveal that the addition of HDPE results in a decrease of mosaic texture and an increase of isotropic texture. Ethylene formed from the decomposition of HDPE is considered as a probable reason for the texture modifications. The approach used in this study can be applied to indirect evaluation for the reactivity and strength of coke.

  9. Interactions between coking coals and plastics during co-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Sakurovs [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Energy Technology

    2003-10-01

    Blends of three Australian coking coals and polypropylene, polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile and polyphenylene sulfide were prepared and the extent to which the blends fused on heating was monitored using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis in order to identify interactions between them that could affect their fluidity. Different plastics had different effects. Polystyrene strongly reduced the fluidity of all of the coals, confirming previous findings. Polypropylene did not affect the fluidity of the two coking coals of lower rank. Polyphenylene sulfide reduced the fluidity of the coals at temperatures near the solidification temperature of the coals, and polyacrylonitrile appeared to increase the fluidity of the coals at temperatures near the softening temperature of the coals. The very different effects different plastics have on coal fluidity show that the interaction between plastics and coals must be carefully examined before plastics are added to coking coal blends. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A method for regulating the temperature of a coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibata, M.; Fukava, R.; Khiesi, M.; Omaye, Y.; Terasi, M.

    1983-08-25

    In the proposed method data from measurements of the temperature of the hearth of the heating partitions of the coke oven are received every two hours. The obtained factual data is fed by radio to a computer (EVM) for building the time and temperature curves (VTK) for rating the operational systems and coke oven loading modes. The time and temperature curves are output to displays. When there is a change in the time of the programmed loading modes, the W shaped time and temperature curves are shifted parallel until they aligned with the standard time and temperature curve, while the velocity of the stream of heating gas is regulated in such a way that the heating mode in the coke oven meets the specifications of the standard time and temperature curve.

  11. Recent trends in the cokemaking of the Ukraine in view of global coke market problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudyka, V. [Giprokoks Institute, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2004-07-01

    The presentation describes the coke making industry in the Ukraine and other CIS countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, and Georgia). The production and export of coke from the Ukraine has recently increased. The restraining factor will be the supply of domestic coking coal. There are plans for new coke oven batteries and introduction of new technologies. The 12-page text is accompanied by a set of 7 slides/overheads. 6 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Function complex for automated system of coke machinery remote control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, N.F.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Bannikov, L.S.; Slatin, E.I.; Parfenov, G.I.

    1979-05-01

    this paper discusses a functional control system for remote control of coking plants introduced at the KBAiM of the Giprokoks. The control block allows for three modes of operation: fully automatic, by predesignated program according to oven design and technology; semi-automatic, in which individual programs perform automatically, checked and initiated by the operator; and remote, in which the operator controls each operation from the control console. The functions of selecting the location for the coke machinery, signal transmission and control selection have been incorporated as three autonomous but interfacing systems. (In Russian)

  13. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1993-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  15. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  16. Prediction of the yield of biomass semi-coke based on RBF neural network%基于RBF神经网络生物质半焦产量的预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡爱娟; 刘杨; 袁清泉; 王桂荣; 石硕

    2012-01-01

    Biomass, as a renewable clean energy, has broad development prospects. Pyrolysis is the key step in thermochemical process of the biomass. This paper analyzes the factors which influence the semi-coke yield in the process of furfural residue and rice husk co-pyrolysis and sets up a RBF network model according to the three main factors to predict the yield of biomass semi-coke. The deviation of simulation results derive partly from the network and the learning samples and the selection of impact factors and more derive from experimental data. Through the error analysis, this model has better precision. The prediction results prove the feasibility of the application of RBF to thermo gravimetric pyrolysis of biomass.%生物质能作为一种可再生的清洁能源,开发利用前景广阔,热解反应是生物质热化学转化中的关键环节.本文分析了糠醛渣和稻壳共热解过程中影响半焦产量的各因素,根据三个主要因素,建立RBF神经网络模型,并应用此模型对半焦产量进行预测.其中,模拟结果的偏差一部分来源于网络和学习样本及影响因子的选取,更多的来源于实验数据.通过误差分析,本文建立的模型具有较好的精度,证明了RBF网络应用于热重分析仪中生物质热解领域的可行性.

  17. Self-cleaning Metal Organic Framework (MOF) based ultra filtration membranes - A solution to bio-fouling in membrane separation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, J. A.; Bhuvana, S.; Anbharasi, V.; Ayyanar, N.; Boodhoo, K. V. K.; Singh, G.

    2014-10-01

    Bio-fouling is a serious problem in many membrane-based separation processes for water and wastewater treatment. Current state of the art methods to overcome this are to modify the membranes with either hydrophilic additives or with an antibacterial compound. In this study, we propose and practise a novel concept to prevent bio-fouling by developing a killing and self-cleaning membrane surface incorporating antibacterial silver nanoparticles and highly hydrophilic negatively charged carboxylic and amine functional groups. The innovative surface chemistry helps to reduce the contact angle of the novel membrane by at least a 48% and increase the pure water flux by 39.4% compared to the control membrane. The flux drop for the novel membrane is also lower (16.3% of the initial flux) than the control membrane (55.3% of the initial flux) during the long term experiments with protein solution. Moreover, the novel membrane continues to exhibit inhibition to microbes even after 1320 min of protein filtration. Synthesis of self-cleaning ultrafiltration membrane with long lasting properties opens up a viable solution for bio-fouling in ultrafiltration application for wastewater purification.

  18. 超声波清洗牛肚的工艺优化%Process Optimization for the Ultrasonic Cleaning of Bovine Tripe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丹; 张大力; 盛悦; 宫田娇; 原秀玲; 文超婷; 刘景圣

    2015-01-01

    The process optimization for the ultrasonic cleaning of bovine tripe was carried out by investigating the influence of ultrasonic power, cleaning time and temperature on the cleanliness and total bacterial count (TBC) of bovine tripe. Results showed that the cleanliness and TBC of bovine tripe could be improved effectively by the treatment with an ultrasonic power of 350 W for 30 min at 25℃ to 0.93± 0.26 and (5.04± 1.53) (lg(CFU/g)), respectively.%以牛肚为主要原料,研究不同超声波功率、清洗时间和清洗温度对牛肚洁净度和菌落总数的影响,优化超声波清洗牛肚的工艺条件。结果表明:在超声波功率为350 W,超声波清洗时间为30 min,清洗温度为25℃的工艺条件下,牛肚的洁净度和菌落总数分别为0.93±0.26和(5.04±1.53)(lg(CFU/g)),达到最佳清洗效果。

  19. ActiveClean: Interactive Data Cleaning While Learning Convex Loss Models

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Data cleaning is often an important step to ensure that predictive models, such as regression and classification, are not affected by systematic errors such as inconsistent, out-of-date, or outlier data. Identifying dirty data is often a manual and iterative process, and can be challenging on large datasets. However, many data cleaning workflows can introduce subtle biases into the training processes due to violation of independence assumptions. We propose ActiveClean, a progressive cleaning ...

  20. Renewable synthesis-gas-production. Do hydrocarbons in the reactant flow of the reverse water-gas shift reaction cause coke formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    In a two-step synthetic fuel production process based on carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen, the best possible selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons (Hc) shall be implemented. The process consists of a combination of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift reaction and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. To achieve this goal, gaseous short-chained Hc from the FTS reactor are recycled in the RWGS unit. In this paper, challenges coming up with the implementation of a recycle loop are discussed. First of all, it has to be examined whether Hc are converted under conditions present in the RWGS reactor. The coking caused by the recycle of Hc is regarded, including thermal coking in the heating zone of the reactor and catalytic coking in the catalyst bed. Coking of course is unwanted, as it deactivates the catalyst. The scope of this work is to find out to which extent and under which conditions gaseous Hc can be recycled. Therefore, experiments were carried out in both, a quartz glass reactor using a commercial Ni-catalyst at ambient pressure and in a pressurized steel reactor (without catalyst) to examine coking during the thermal decomposition of Hc. The catalytic experiments at atmospheric pressure showed that a recycle of CH{sub 4} did not cause coking up to a ratio of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} below one. For these conditions, long term stability was proved. The reaction rates of the CH{sub 4} conversion were below those of the RWGS reaction. However, replacing CH{sub 4} by C{sub 3}H{sub 8} leads to thermal and catalytic coking. Catalytic coking hits the maximum level at about 700 C and decreases for higher temperatures and, thus is not regarded as a problem for the RWGS reactor. In contrast to that, thermal coking raises with higher temperatures, but it can be supressed efficiently with additional injection of H{sub 2}O, which of course shifts the equilibrium towards the undesired reactant side. (orig.)

  1. A system of metadata to control the process of query, aggregating, cleaning and analysing large datasets of primary care data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy VanVlymen

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions The PCDQ metadata system provides an auditable method of data processing. It is a method that should improve the reliability, validity and efficiency of processing routinely collected clinical data. This paper sets out to demystify our data processing method and makes the PCDQ metadata system available to clinicians and data processors who might wish to adopt it.

  2. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martorella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  3. Hydrocarbonization process evaluation report. Volume II. Evaluation of process feasibility. [49 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.M.; Dyslin, D.A.; Edwards, M.S.; Joy, D.S.; Peterson, G.R.

    1977-07-01

    Volume II of a two-volume study concerning the preliminary design and economic evaluation of a Hydrocarbonization Facility includes: (1) a review of the current status of the major processing units, (2) an assessment of operating problems, (3) considerations of possible process alternatives, (4) an evaluation of the overall process feasibility, and (5) recommendations for future process development. Results of the study emphasize the need for testing the evaluated process, which is based on the Clean Coke Process, in a continuous pilot plant using a wide variety of highly caking bituminous coals as feed material. A program suggested for the pilot plant would encompass: (1) development of improved methods for the prevention of agglomeration of highly caking coals during hydrocarbonization, (2) optimization of the yields of coal liquids, (3) investigation of a single-stage high-temperature hydrocarbonizer optimized for char production, and (4) optimization of beneficiation ratios employed during coal preparation.

  4. Application research on hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system based on optical fiber sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dong; Tong, Xinglin

    2014-06-01

    With the development of the optical fiber sensing technology, the acoustic emission sensor has become one of the focal research topics. On the basis of studying the traditional hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system, the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor has been applied in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system for the first time, researching the monitoring signal of the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor in the system. The actual test results show that using the acoustic emission sensor in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system can get the real-time and accurate hydraulic coke cutting state and the effective realization of hydraulic coke cutting automatic monitoring in the Wuhan Branch of Sinopec.

  5. Feasibility of Combustion of Petroleum Coke in 230t/h Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong-tai; SONG Zheng-chang; XU Tao

    2003-01-01

    In order to reuse the high sulfur petroleum coke, the waste in chemical industry, as fuel of power plant for energy recovery, the combustion property of petroleum coke was researched experimentally in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The performance of the boiler in burning mixed fuel with different ratios of coal to petroleum coke is obtained. Based on the experimental data, Factors influencing the stability of combustion,thermal efficiency of boiler, and emissions and desulphurisation are discussed. This study demonstrates that the combustion of petroleum coke in CFB boiler is applicable, and has great significance on the design and operation of CFB boiler to burn petroleum coke.

  6. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhattacharyya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Raman Spectrometric investigations demonstrate the change of structural properties. The mechanism of catalysis has been postulated.

  7. Description and identification of difficulties arising from the application of a cleaning process in operating conditions for the treatment of components used on liquid metal fast reactors (LMFR). A technical designed approach to avoid these situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G; Karpov, A V; Nalimov, Y P

    2001-01-01

    The cleaning process is one of the major maintenance operation for liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs), both in operation and in their decommissioning stage. Russian and French cleaning processes are briefly described, including problems which have arisen during the processes. It appears that the cause of these problems is always connected to bad draining of the component, resulting in a vigorous reaction between vapour or liquid water and the bulk of sodium. From this discussion, the paper makes major recommendations for the efficient and safe cleaning of sodium wetted components, and proposes several processes which should be developed in order to deal with difficult situations, for example the removal of large amounts of undrainable sodium.

  8. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Data Exposure to coke oven emissions is a cause of lung cancer, and kidney cancer, in humans. Although... to which other Federal agencies exercise statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards... status of the program. (7) Training in compliance procedures. The employer shall incorporate all...

  10. Shift From Coke to Coal Using Direct Reduction Method and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okonkwo Paul Chukwuleke; CAI Jiu-ju; Sam Chukwujekwu; XIAO Song

    2009-01-01

    Ironmaking involves the separation of iron ores. It not only represents the first step in steelmaking but also is the most capital-intensive and energy-intensive process in the production of steel. The main route for producing iron for steelmaking is to use the blast furnace, which uses metallurgical coke as the reduetant. Concerns over the limited re-sources, the high cost of eoking coals, and the environmental impacts of eoking and sinter plants have driven steel-makers to develop alternative ironmaking processes that can use non-coking coals to reduce iron ores directly. Since the efficiency and productivity of modern large capacity blast furnaces will be difficult to surpass, blast furnaces will continue to retain their predominant position as the foremost ironmaking process for some time to come. The alterna-tive ironmaking processes are therefore expected to play an increasingly significant role in the iron and steel industry, especially in meeting the needs of small-sized local and regional markets. It is likely that the importance of direct re-duced iron (DRI) and hot metal as sources of virgin iron will continue to increase, especially in the developing coun-tries where steelmaking is, and will be, primarily based on electric arc furnace (EAF) minimills. Consequently, the challenges that are faced by the new technology have to be embraced.

  11. Testing Stochastic Models for Simulating the Seeds Separation Process on the Sieves of a Cleaning System, and a Comparison with Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Voicu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A common method of analyzing experimental data is to determine the distributional model which best describes the process under study. In this paper, theoretical statistical models discussed by Tarcolea et al. (2008 are corroborated with data for the cleaning system of a combine harvester, data obtained experimentally in laboratory conditions. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how some of the continuous distributions can be used for describing the variation separation intensity of seeds on sieve length. The Pearson coefficients show that some curves are far from the normal distribution, and better fits can be obtained with other distributions which can describe more adequately different degrees of skewness and peakedness of the curves. The considered probability laws are: normal, gamma, Weibull and beta distributions. The best results were obtained with gamma and beta distributions, since, for example, the values of the correlation coefficient R2 are in the most of the corresponding cases close to 1.

  12. Thickness Optimization for Petroleum Coke in Microwave Dehydrating Based on the Analysis of Dynamic Absorption Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaobiao; Chen, Junruo; Peng, Jinhui; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Weifeng; Guo, Shenghui; Chen, Guo

    2015-07-01

    An analytical approach is proposed to optimize the thickness of petroleum coke for achieving maximum microwave power absorption in microwave heating based on analysis of reflection loss (RL). The microwave RL of the petroleum coke layer was studied over the moisture content range of 1%-5% at 20 °C and the petroleum coke (10% moisture content) in the temperature range of 20 to 100 °C at 2.45 GHz. The results show that RL depends sensitively on the thickness of the petroleum coke and the absorption peak shifts towards a larger thickness as the moisture content of the petroleum coke increases. There exists a matching thickness corresponding to the maximum microwave absorption, the maximum absorbing peak decreases when the thickness of petroleum coke exceeds the matching thickness. We also show that the absorption peak is found to move towards a smaller thickness region with increasing petroleum coke temperature.

  13. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  14. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  15. Mini-PROven. Reduced emissions from small and medium-size coke ovens thanks to single-chamber pressure control; Mini-PROven. Emissionsreduzierung an kleinen und mittleren Koksoefen mit einer Einzelkammerdruckregelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Friedrich; Krebber, Frank; Kuehn-Gajdzik, Joanna; Ueberschaer, Kerstin [ThyssenKrupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany). Coke Plant Technologies Div.

    2012-07-01

    For environment and occupational health reasons it is becoming increasingly important for coke plants to be operated with the lowest possible level of emissions. In the past, changing pressure conditions in each individual oven, with particularly high values at the beginning of the coking period, often resulted in considerable emissions at the oven closures. To prevent this happening on modern large-scale ovens, ThyssenKrupp Uhde developed the PROven trademark (Pressure Regulated Oven), a single-chamber pressure control system which regulates the pressure in the individual coke chambers down to a constantly low level. In the meantime, after many years of successful service, the system has been upgraded in both its design and process engineering. The result is Mini-PROven, which in future can also be retro-fitted to old small and medium-size coke oven batteries in the interest of better environmental protection. (orig.)

  16. Application of advanced oxidation processes for cleaning of industrial water generated in wet dedusting of shaft furnace gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Marianna; Kurowski, Ryszard; Jaworek, Katarzyna; Bratek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies into advanced oxidation processes in 03 and 03/UV systems. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) was conducted to reduce the load of impurities in circulating waters from wet de-dusting of shaft furnace gases. Besides inorganic impurities, i.e. mainly arsenic compounds (16 g As L(-1) on average), lead, zinc, chlorides and sulphates, the waters also contain some organic material. The organic material is composed of a complex mixture that contains, amongst others, aliphatic compounds, phenol and its derivatives, pyridine bases, including pyridine, and its derivatives. The test results show degradation of organic and inorganic compounds during ozonation and photo-oxidation processes. Analysis of the solutions from the processes demonstrated that the complex organic material in the industrial water was oxidized in ozonation and in photo-oxidation, which resulted in formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Kinetic degradation of selected pollutants is presented. Obtained results indicated that the O3/UV process is more effective in degradation of organic matter than ozonation. Depending on the process type, precipitation of the solid phase was observed. The efficiency of solid-phase formation was higher in photo-oxidation with ozone. It was found that the precipitated solid phase is composed mainly of arsenic, iron and oxygen.

  17. CLEAN: CLustering Enrichment ANalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedovic Mario

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of biological knowledge encoded in various lists of functionally related genes has become one of the most important aspects of analyzing genome-wide functional genomics data. In the context of cluster analysis, functional coherence of clusters established through such analyses have been used to identify biologically meaningful clusters, compare clustering algorithms and identify biological pathways associated with the biological process under investigation. Results We developed a computational framework for analytically and visually integrating knowledge-based functional categories with the cluster analysis of genomics data. The framework is based on the simple, conceptually appealing, and biologically interpretable gene-specific functional coherence score (CLEAN score. The score is derived by correlating the clustering structure as a whole with functional categories of interest. We directly demonstrate that integrating biological knowledge in this way improves the reproducibility of conclusions derived from cluster analysis. The CLEAN score differentiates between the levels of functional coherence for genes within the same cluster based on their membership in enriched functional categories. We show that this aspect results in higher reproducibility across independent datasets and produces more informative genes for distinguishing different sample types than the scores based on the traditional cluster-wide analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of the CLEAN framework in comparing clusterings produced by different algorithms. CLEAN was implemented as an add-on R package and can be downloaded at http://Clusteranalysis.org. The package integrates routines for calculating gene specific functional coherence scores and the open source interactive Java-based viewer Functional TreeView (FTreeView. Conclusion Our results indicate that using the gene-specific functional coherence score improves the reproducibility of the

  18. State of the direct reduction and reduction smelting processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markotić A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For quite a long time efforts have been made to develop processes for producing iron i.e. steel without employing conventional procedures - from ore, coke, blast furnace, iron, electric arc furnace, converter to steel. The insufficient availability and the high price of the coking coals have forced many countries to research and adopt the non-coke-consuming reduction and metal manufacturing processes (non-coke metallurgy, direct reduction, direct processes. This paper represents a survey of the most relevant processes from this domain by the end of 2000, which display a constant increase in the modern process metallurgy.

  19. Identifying the causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    A previous study found that coke leachates (CL) collected from oil sands field sites were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, the cause of toxicity was not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to generate CL in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity response of C. dubia and perform chronic toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests to identify the causes of CL toxicity. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at pH 5.5 and 9.5. Leachates were filtered on day 15 and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) was 6.3 and 28.7% (v/v) for pH 5.5 and 9.5 CLs, respectively. Trace element characterization of the CLs showed Ni and V levels to be well above their respective 7-d LC50s for C. dubia. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survival and reproduction in pH 5.5 CL, but not in pH 9.5 CL. Cationic and anionic resins removed toxicity of pH 5.5 CL only. Conversely, the toxicity of pH 9.5 CL was completely removed with an anion resin alone, suggesting that the pH 9.5 CL contained metals that formed oxyanions. Toxicity reappeared when Ni and V were added back to anion resin-treated CLs. The TIE results combined with the trace element chemistry suggest that both Ni and V are the cause of toxicity in pH 5.5 CL, whereas V appears to be the primary cause of toxicity in pH 9.5 CL. Environmental monitoring and risk assessments should therefore focus on the fate and toxicity of metals, especially Ni and V, in coke-amended oil sands reclamation landscapes.

  20. 焦化冷却水低品质余热的回收利用%Practice of Recycling and Utilization of Low Quality Waste Heat of Cooling Water in Coking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮; 张顺贤

    2015-01-01

    TImprovement of the recovery and utilization of waste heat in the primary cooler was taken. The new type of steam, hot water dual-use refrigeration and the heating double working conditions of absorption type heat pump unit were developed. The cross flow cooling tower technology, transformation of the original water and water back pipe and other measures were introduced. The purpose of the water temperature process cooling water with low quality of heat and water for heating were realized. So the heating area was expanded, the steam, the new water consumption and dosage of the medicine can be reduced. The single heating season can produce direct benefits 21 260 000 Yuan.%通过对初冷器余热回收利用装置的升级改造,开发新型蒸汽、热水两用型制冷、采暖双工况吸收式热泵机组,引进横流式冷却塔技术,改造原中温水回水工艺管道等措施,实现了辅以蒸汽为热源回收中温工艺冷却水低品质余热来加热采暖水的目的,扩大了采暖供热面积,降低了系统蒸汽、新水消耗和药剂投加量,单个采暖季可产生直接效益2126万元。

  1. Optimization on cleaning sterilization processing of cherry tomato%樱桃番茄清洗杀菌工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹义蕾; 王莉; 连青龙; 李邵; 鲁少尉; 邓勇军

    2012-01-01

    To develop the potential of food safety and commercial value focusing on better appearance and taste, longer storage time and higher good fruits rate, Ning Xia cherry tomatoes were used as materials. The multi-slot automatic-transmission vegetable washing machines and hypochlorite disinfection equipment were applied to clean cherry tomatoes, and the ideal cleaning process parameters were determined by cold preservation experiment. The results showed that the maximum capacity for the vegetable washing machine was 15 kg, the ideal cleaning time was 170 s, under these conditions, the cleaning rate was 99.3%. The sterilization with 100μg/mL hypochlorite solution for 85 s reduced 1.128 log value of bacterial volume on the surface of cherry tomatoes. With 100μg/mL hypochlorite-sterilization, the good fruits rate was 77% after stored at 10℃ for 18 days. The study provides a reference for washing sterilization process of cherry tomatoes.%清洗杀菌可提高樱桃番茄的食用安全和商业价值,使得樱桃番茄外观口味俱佳、保存期更长、好果质量分数更高,该研究以宁夏樱桃番茄为试验对象,利用多槽自动输送式蔬菜清洗机和次氯酸杀菌消毒制备设备进行清洗和杀菌,通过清洗杀菌试验的测试结果来确定合理的清洗和杀菌工艺参数.试验结果表明:清洗机清洗樱桃番茄单槽喂入量最大值为15 kg;清洗用时170 s即可达到理想的清洗效果,洗净质量分数可达99.3%;杀菌水有效氯浓度为1 00μg/mL,消毒时间为85 s,可使樱桃番茄表面菌落总数降低1.128个对数值;用有效氯质量100μg/mL次氯酸杀菌水清洗后的果实,在10℃的冷库环境保存下,18d后好果质量分数仍能达到77%.本研究结果可为工业化生产中樱桃番茄清洗杀菌工艺的提供参考.

  2. Clean Break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin

    2011-01-01

    An interim president has to perform a particularly difficult balancing act. He or she shoulders the burdens from--or legacy of--the previous president and must also provide a foundation of stability for the new president. Throughout the process, effective communication--both internally and externally--is critical to ensuring a smooth transition.…

  3. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  4. Basis for the life cycle assessment (LCA) of cleaning-in-place systems in milk processing plants; Bases para el analisis de ciclo de vida de los sistemas de limpieza in situ en plantas de la industria lactea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barral, S.; Laca Perez, A.; Gutierrez Lavin, A.; Diaz Fernandez, M.; Rendueles de la Vega, M.; Iglesias Gonzalez, E.

    2006-07-01

    Milk processing requires high hygienic operations in order to assure safe products of high quality and suitable for human diet. The cleaning operations that take place during milk processing, do cause environmental impact, because of the high volume of wastewater generated, which is contaminated with rests of milk, detergents and other chemical products. The life cycle assessment of cleaning operations can be a powerful tool to evaluate the environmental impact associated with different operation methodologies. In this work, two current alternatives are studied, by means of operational data of a dairy plant. (Author) 7 refs.

  5. Double Membrane Method Processing Enterprises Clean Water Project Application%双膜法处理企业清净下水工程应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石立军

    2015-01-01

    The drain off water enriching by boiler feed water and circulating water system was clear but with high salt, it could still have depth processing and comprehensive utilization after membrane treatment. Taking a chemical enterprise in Ningxia clean water recovery processing as an example, UF+RO double membrane method was used in processing waste water and recycling water production. As supplementary water in internal water circulation system, it was ensured to have system economy and reliability, effective technical solution can be used as a comprehensive utilization of waste water in most chemical companies use.%锅炉给水及循环水系统水质的浓缩后的外排水,水质清澈但盐分较高,经过膜法处理后仍然可以深度处理并综合利用。本文以宁夏某化工企业清净下水回收处理为例,采用UF+RO双膜法处理该部分废水并回收产水,作为企业内部循环水系统的补充水,确保其系统经济性和可靠性,可作为大多数化工企业废水综合利用的有效技术方案。

  6. Fly ashes from coal and petroleum coke combustion: current and innovative potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aixa; Navia, Rodrigo; Moreno, Natalia

    2009-12-01

    Coal fly ashes (CFA) are generated in large amounts worldwide. Current combustion technologies allow the burning of fuels with high sulfur content such as petroleum coke, generating non-CFA, such as petroleum coke fly ash (PCFA), mainly from fluidized bed combustion processes. The disposal of CFA and PCFA fly ashes can have severe impacts in the environment such as a potential groundwater contamination by the leaching of heavy metals and/or particulate matter emissions; making it necessary to treat or reuse them. At present CFA are utilized in several applications fields such as cement and concrete production, agriculture and soil stabilization. However, their reuse is restricted by the quality parameters of the end-product or requirements defined by the production process. Therefore, secondary material markets can use a limited amount of CFA, which implies the necessity of new markets for the unused CFA. Some potential future utilization options reviewed herein are zeolite synthesis and valuable metals extraction. In comparison to CFA, PCFA are characterized by a high Ca content, suggesting a possible use as neutralizers of acid wastewaters from mining operations, opening a new potential application area for PCFA that could solve contamination problems in emergent and mining countries such as Chile. However, this potential application may be limited by PCFA heavy metals leaching, mainly V and Ni, which are present in PCFA in high concentrations.

  7. The assessment of the coke wastewater treatment efficacy in rotating biological contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cema, G; Żabczyński, S; Ziembińska-Buczyńska, A

    2016-01-01

    Coke wastewater is known to be relatively difficult for biological treatment. Nonetheless, biofilm-based systems seem to be promising tool for such treatment. That is why a rotating biological contactor (RBC) system focused on the Anammox process was used in this study. The experiment was divided into two parts with synthetic and then real wastewater. It was proven that it is possible to treat coke wastewater with RBC but such a procedure requires a very long start-up period for the nitritation (190 days), as well as for the Anammox process, where stable nitrogen removal over 70% was achieved after 400 days of experiment. Interestingly, it was possible at a relatively low (20.2 ± 2.2 °C) temperature. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) based monitoring of the bacterial community showed that its biodiversity decreased when the real wastewater was treated and it was composed mainly of GC-rich genotypes, probably because of the modeling influence of this wastewater and the genotypes specialization.

  8. Comparative study of reactivity to CO{sub 2} of cokes used in stone wool production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leth-Miller, R.; Jensen, L.M.; Hansen, P.B. [Rockwool International A/S Hovedgaden 584, DK 2640, Hedehusene (Denmark); Jensen, A.D.; Jensen, J.; Glarborg, P.; Joergensen, S.B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-02-25

    The reactivity towards CO{sub 2} of seven types of commercial coke used in stone wool production has been measured in a thermo gravimetric analyser (TGA). The cokes originated from Western and Eastern Europe and from China. For three of the cokes, the porosity, density and surface area were determined. The directly measured porosities of the cokes was slightly low, indicating that there are pores that are not connected with the outer surface. This is supported by the measured densities and microphotos. The measurements showed that the Chinese cokes were the least reactive while the European cokes made on American coal were the most reactive. The reactivity of the one Eastern European coke in the measurements had an intermediate reactivity. Simulations with a cupola model show that 25% more coke is needed for stone wool production if the coke is changed to a type with half the reactivity towards O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. The TGA method proved to be a good method for ranking the coke with respect to reactivity with CO{sub 2}.

  9. Research about the Impact of Coke Thermal Performance When Distributing Australian Coke%配入澳煤对焦炭热性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明远; 纪长洋; 万红兵; 蒋成

    2012-01-01

    The impact of coke thermal performance when distributing Australian coke can be researched, according to existing coking coal blending coal plant chongqing small coke oven blending test,coke thermal performance test, coke microcrystalline structure experiment.The results show that different blending option, coke microcrystalline structure and thermal properties are different.If increase the quantity of the Macao coal, in the little change of the thermal properties of coke, the production cost can be reduced greatly.%通过对重钢焦化厂焦化配煤煤种进行特性检测,小焦炉配煤试验,焦炭热性能检测试验及焦炭微晶结构分析,研究澳媒对焦炭热性能的影响。结果表明,澳煤的技术指标接近焦煤,在配煤方案中可代替部分肥煤或焦煤。配入20%左右的澳煤,相应降低肥煤和焦煤配入比例所得到的焦炭其热性能较稳定。

  10. Fabrication of cost effective iron ore slime ceramic membrane for the recovery of organic solvent used in coke production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Singh; N.K.Meena; A.K.Golder; C.Das

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of coking properties of sub-bituminous coal (A) and bituminous coal (B) was done using blended organic solvents,namely,n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and ethylenediamine (EDA).Various solvent blends were employed for the coal extraction under the total reflux condition.A low-cost ceramic membrane was fabricated using industrial waste iron ore slime of M/s TATA steel R&D,Jamshedpur (India) to separate out the dissolved coking fraction from the solvent-coal mixture.Membrane separations were carried out in a batch cell,and around 75 % recovered NMP was reused.The fractionated coal properties were determined using proximate and ultimate analyses.In the case of bituminous coal,the ash and sulfur contents were decreased by 99.3 % and 79.2 %,respectively,whereas,the carbon content was increased by 23.9 % in the separated coal fraction.Three different cleaning agents,namely deionized water,sodium dodecyl sulphate and NMP were used to regain the original membrane permeability for the reusing.

  11. Designing Clean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Haubjerg, Esben Lundsgaard

    2011-01-01

    perception of main actors, the role of information technology, the relation to lean, and forms of collaboration. Furthermore the focus of the variants differ (industry, organizational or project level).The paper discusses case studies of four teams of engineers and architects. It is argued that there exists...... (only) several ambiguous concepts of IDP, none well defined, and the architects and engineer struggle with the concepts even when directly involved. Precarious and negotiated consensus has to be created. The various players agree that an increased interdisciplinary interaction in the design team...... is necessary in order to comply with the increased complexity of sustainable building design. This tendency changes the traditional roles and responsibilities in the design process....

  12. Clean thermal decomposition of tertiary-alkyl metal thiolates to metal sulfides: environmentally-benign, non-polar inks for solution-processed chalcopyrite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jungwoo; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Jeong, Jaeki; Yoon, Yung Jin; Seo, Jung Hwa; Walker, Bright; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-11-01

    We report the preparation of Cu2S, In2S3, CuInS2 and Cu(In,Ga)S2 semiconducting films via the spin coating and annealing of soluble tertiary-alkyl thiolate complexes. The thiolate compounds are readily prepared via the reaction of metal bases and tertiary-alkyl thiols. The thiolate complexes are soluble in common organic solvents and can be solution processed by spin coating to yield thin films. Upon thermal annealing in the range of 200–400 °C, the tertiary-alkyl thiolates decompose cleanly to yield volatile dialkyl sulfides and metal sulfide films which are free of organic residue. Analysis of the reaction byproducts strongly suggests that the decomposition proceeds via an SN1 mechanism. The composition of the films can be controlled by adjusting the amount of each metal thiolate used in the precursor solution yielding bandgaps in the range of 1.2 to 3.3 eV. The films form functioning p-n junctions when deposited in contact with CdS films prepared by the same method. Functioning solar cells are observed when such p-n junctions are prepared on transparent conducting substrates and finished by depositing electrodes with appropriate work functions. This method enables the fabrication of metal chalcogenide films on a large scale via a simple and chemically clear process.

  13. A high capacity manganese-based sorbent for regenerative high temperature desulfurization with direct sulfur production conceptual process application to coal gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, W.J.W.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2003-12-15

    A high capacity, monolith or particle shaped, regenerable sorbent has been developed for the desulfurization of a dry type coal gas. It consists of crystalline MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, a small amount of disperse MnO, and an amorphous Mn-Al-O phase. Elemental sulfur is the only observed regeneration product during regeneration with SO{sub 2}. The sorbent can be used in the temperature range between 673 and 1273 K but the optimum capacity is utilized between 1100 and 1200 K. For regeneration with SO{sub 2} the regeneration temperature should be > 873 K to avoid sulfate formation. The sulfur uptake capacity is high and amounts up to 20 wt.% S and the sorbent performance appears to be stable during at least 110 sulfiding and regeneration cycles at 1123 K. For temperatures above 1100 K thermodynamic calculations are in accordance with the observed (solid) phases after sulfiding and regeneration, indicating the predictive potential for high temperatures. The performance of the surface sites that play an important role during desulfurization can, however, not be predicted. The regenerative removal of H{sub 2}S, COS, HCl and HF can possibly take place simultaneously with the same sorbent. A new conceptual process configuration for high temperature coal gas cleaning and sorbent regeneration is proposed. Compared to other processes, less heat exchange equipment is required and no Claus unit is necessary to convert the regeneration product to sulfur.

  14. Mobilization Potential and Democratization Processes of the Coalition for Clean and Fair Elections (Bersih in Malaysia: An Interview With Hishamuddin Rais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hooi Khoo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, protests and popular mobilization have become pronounced elements in Malaysian politics. Bersih (clean demonstrations are notably the most outstanding protest events in Malaysian history. Bersih is a group of 89 non-governmental organizations (NGOs pushing for a thorough reform of the electoral process in Malaysia through rallies and demonstrations. Five opposition parties initiated the idea of Bersih in 2005 and included several NGOs in the ‘project’ later on. After the first Bersih street protests in November 2007 (Bersih 1.0, the political parties and the NGOs reached the ‘compromise pact’ that led to the formation of Bersih 2.0 in 2010 as a non-partisan movement free from any political interference. This interview explores the linkages to the broader democratization process in Malaysia from the perspective of Hishamuddin Rais (Isham, a prominent grassroots activist. Isham spent 20 years in political exile after the Baling student protest of 1974. He became active again in 1998 after the ouster of then Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim, the current leader of the opposition coalition. Isham was a member of the Bersih Steering Committee for two years until he stepped down in 2012.

  15. Ignition Dynamic Parameters for Coke in Cement Calciners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical ignition model was established and researches of ignition dynamic parameters for coke in some typical coal samples from cement plants was carried out according to circumstances of coal combusted in cement plants.In order to get the ignitioin temperature Tpi of carbon particles more accurately,the temperature rising experimental method was used and the actual heating circumstances for pulverized coal in calciners(in cement plants)were also considered.With this method,the accurate determination of the ignition temperature of coke in coal was achieved,so as to get some ignition dynamic parameters.These research results provide a theoretical basis for investigating coal ignition characteristics more scientifically and more accurately.

  16. Inhibition of the Nitrification Process of Activated Sludge Micro-Organism by Scrubber Water from an Industrial Flue Gas Cleaning Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2007-01-01

    The microbial transformation of ammonia to nitrate, the nitrification, is a central process in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. In a modern wastewater treatment plant, the nitrification process is a key process in the removal of nitrogen and inhibitory compounds in sewage can seriously affect t...

  17. Standard method for proximate analysis of coal and coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    ASTM methods are cited that cover the determination of moisture, volatile matter, and ash and the calculation of fixed carbon in coals and cokes sampled and prepared by prescribed methods. The methods cited may be used to establish rank of coals, to show the ratio of combustible to incombustible constituents, to provide the basis for buying and selling, and to evaluate for beneficiation or for other purposes. (BLM)

  18. Megasonic cleaning: effect of dissolved gas properties on cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Hrishi; Singh, Sherjang; Baugh, James; Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current and future lithography techniques require complex imaging improvement strategies. These imaging improvement strategies require printing of sub-resolution assist-features (SRAF) on photomasks. The size of SRAF's has proven to be the main limiting factor in using high power Megasonic cleaning process on photomasks. These features, due to high aspect ratio are more prone to damage at low Megasonic frequencies and at high Megasonic powers. Additionally the non-uniformity of energy dissipated during Megasonic cleaning is a concern for exceeding the damage threshold of the SRAFs. If the cavitation events during Megasonic cleaning are controlled in way to dissipate uniform energy, better process control can be achieved to clean without damage. The amount and type of gas dissolved in the cleaning liquid defines the cavitation behavior. Some of the gases possess favourable solubility and adiabatic properties for stable and controlled cavitation behaviour. This paper particularly discusses the effects of dissolved Ar gas on Megasonic characteristics. The effect of Ar Gas is characterized by measuring acoustic energy and Sonoluminscense. The phenomenon is further verified with pattern damage studies.

  19. Kinetics of petroleum coke/biomass blends during co-gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-liang; Guo, Jian; Wang, Guang-wei; Xu, Tao; Chai, Yi-fan; Zheng, Chang-le; Xu, Run-sheng

    2016-09-01

    The co-gasification behavior and synergistic effect of petroleum coke, biomass, and their blends were studied by thermogravimetric analysis under CO2 atmosphere at different heating rates. The isoconversional method was used to calculate the activation energy. The results showed that the gasification process occurred in two stages: pyrolysis and char gasification. A synergistic effect was observed in the char gasification stage. This effect was caused by alkali and alkaline earth metals in the biomass ash. Kinetics analysis showed that the activation energy in the pyrolysis stage was less than that in the char gasification stage. In the char gasification stage, the activation energy was 129.1-177.8 kJ/mol for petroleum coke, whereas it was 120.3-150.5 kJ/mol for biomass. We also observed that the activation energy calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method were larger than those calculated by the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunosen (KAS) method. When the conversion was 1.0, the activation energy was 106.2 kJ/mol when calculated by the KAS method, whereas it was 120.3 kJ/mol when calculated by the FWO method.

  20. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation.

  1. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, L.R. (Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States)); Hogsett, R.F. (AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)); Sinor, J.E. (Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States)); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. (North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center)

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  2. Different solvents for the regeneration of the exhausted activated carbon used in the treatment of coking wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dongsheng; Shi, Qiantao; He, Binbin; Yuan, Xiaoying

    2011-02-28

    The solvents n-pentane, methylene dichloride, ethyl ether and dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid sodium were used to regenerate exhausted activated carbon used in the process of treating coking wastewater, and the efficiency, ability, and optimum conditions of the different solvents on this regeneration were investigated. The results indicate that n-pentane could effectively remove refractory organic compounds in the coking wastewater adsorbed on the surface of activated carbon and could repeatedly regenerate the exhausted activated carbon to recover its adsorption activity. Under the conditions of a regeneration time of 20 min, a regeneration temperature of 25°C, an activated carbon drying time of 300 min, and an activated carbon drying temperature of 150°C, n-pentane had the best regeneration efficiency, at 98.27%, for exhausted activated carbon. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis results show that the nature of the activated carbon regenerated by organic solvents had no remarkable change in adsorption for the main types of organic compounds in coking wastewater. The good regenerative effect of n-pentane on the activated carbon may be due its stronger desorption of esters embedded within the internal structure of activated carbon.

  3. Effect of pretreatment methods of raw material on coking of needle coke from coal tar pitch by delayed coking%原料预处理方法对延迟焦化成焦的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴甦; 王磊; 王小冰; 菜闯

    2012-01-01

    介绍了针状焦的工业生产方法,分析了不同的原料软沥青处理方法以及原料的结构和组成对延迟焦化成焦的影响.%The methods of manufacturing needle coke were introduced. And the effects of different pretreatment methods, the structure and composition of the raw material on the formation of needle coke from coal tar pitch by delayed coking were analyzed.

  4. Cleaning of the diffusers with formic acid for aeration of an active sludge process; Limpieza con acido formico de los difusores demembrana para la aireacion en un proceso de fangos activos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon Andre, P.; Lardin Mifsut, C.; Abella Solar, M.; Marc Ponsoda, J.; Garcia del Real, A.; Perez Sanchez, P.

    2009-07-01

    Electric energy costs are one of the main issues inside the total amounts in a WWTP, being the aeration system consumption the highest one but also the most flexible and order to reduce the global costs. In this work it has been quantified the improvement obtained when formic acid is used to do periodic cleanness of the diffusers. When this is used, manual cleanness can be kept apart. During the cleanness processes with formic acid, it has been observed a reduction in the pressure drop, between 6 and 13%, and a reduction in the power demand, between 7 and 12% . These reduction have been correlated with the annual costs, reaching an annual saving of near 3%. (Author) 8 refs.

  5. 两种超滤膜污染舷学清洗方法比较%Comparision of two chemical cleaning processes on ultrafiltration membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛鹏

    2012-01-01

    某电厂在高参数长周期运行后超滤系统膜组件存在严重的生物污损和铁污染,确定采用碱洗法和酸洗法两种方案清洗滤膜。经两种方案超滤膜化学清洗方案比较发现,酸洗法效果显著,碱洗法效果不明显。经酸洗后,单套超滤膜系统压差降至15~20kPa,产水流量达到100—122t/h。%The problem of serious biofouling and iron contamination on uhrafiltration membrane in make up water treatment system which run under conditions with high-parameter & long-term of one power plant was observied. Two chemical cleaning processes were determined to solve this problem. The results show that the effect of acid washing is much better than alkali washing. After acid wash- ing, the system differential pressures of single membrane element has reduced to 15 ~ 20kPa, while the flux rate reached to 100 - 122T/H.

  6. The effects of ash and maceral composition of Azdavay and Kurucasile (Turkey) coals on coking properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toroglu, I. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    In this study, investigations were made as to the effect of the maceral compositions and mineral matter content of Azdavay and Kurucasile coals on the coking property. Chemical and maceral analyses and coking properties were determined for the products of the float-sink procedure. The coking properties were established on the basis of free swelling index and Ruhr dilatometer tests. Maceral analyses showed that as the ash content of a coal containing both high and medium volatile matter increases, its effective maceral proportion decreases, and the coking property is affected in an unfavorable way.

  7. Graphitization of Coke and Its Interaction with Slag in the Hearth of a Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Yanxiang; Barati, Mansoor; Liu, Zhengjian; Zhong, Jianbo; Su, Buxin; Wei, Mengfang; Wang, Guangwei; Yang, Tianjun

    2016-04-01

    Coke reaction behavior in the blast furnace hearth has yet to be fully understood due to limited access to the high temperature zone. The graphitization of coke and its interaction with slag in the hearth of blast furnace were investigated with samples obtained from the center of the deadman of a blast furnace during its overhaul period. All hearth coke samples from fines to lumps were confirmed to be highly graphitized, and the graphitization of coke in the high temperature zone was convinced to start from the coke surface and lead to the formation of coke fines. It will be essential to perform further comprehensive investigations on graphite formation and its evolution in a coke as well as its multi-effect on blast furnace performance. The porous hearth cokes were found to be filled up with final slag. Further research is required about the capability of coke to fill final slag and the attack of final slag on the hearth bottom refractories since this might be a new degradation mechanism of refractories located in the hearth bottom.

  8. Analysis of changes in the chemical composition of the blast furnace coke at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze the behavior of coke in the blast furnace. The analysis of changes in chemical composition of coke due to impact of inert gas and air at different temperatures was made. The impact of the application of the thermoabrasion coefficient on the porosity of coke was also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: By applying the Computer Thermochemical Database of the TERMO system (REAKTOR1 and REAKTOR3 three groups of substances can be distinguished. The chemical composition of blast furnace coke and the results of calculations of changes of chemical composition of coke heat treated under certain conditions were compared. The structural studies of these materials were presented.Findings: The results of the analysis of ash produced from one of Polish cokes was taken for consideration. This is not the average composition of Polish coke ashes, nevertheless it is representative of most commonly occurring chemical compositions.Practical implications: Thanks to the thermochemical calculations it is possible to predict ash composition after the treatment in a blast furnace. Those information was crucial and had an actual impact on determining the coke quality.Originality/value: Presentation of the analytical methods which, according to author, can be very useful to evaluate and identify the heat treatment for blast furnaces cokes. The research pursued represents part of a larger project carried out within the framework of Department Extraction and Recycling of Metals, Czestochowa University of Technology.

  9. High PCI and low coke rate BF operation in ArcelorMittal Flat Carbon Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauwels, G.; Clairay, S.; Hess, E.; Janz, J.; Goimard, J.C.; Eymond, J.L. [ArcelorMittal (France)

    2008-07-01

    Coke production capacity within ArcelorMittal is not sufficient to provide the amount of coke needed for the total hot metal production. In order to address the challenges regarding coke availability, ArcelorMittal Flat Carbon Europe (FCE) sector has applied a low coke operation pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology to 17 of its blast furnaces across Europe. This paper described the charging pattern, blast conditions, hearth drainage and burden quality needed for high PCI rates. The coal injection rates of the different blast furnaces has been increased from 150-180 kg/thm to 180-200 kg/thm with a good replacement ratio. The lessons learned from high coal injection rate operations were discussed. The long term objective for FCE is to average a coal injection level of 200-220 kg/thm. This paper also discussed issues of coal quality, such as selection of coal; influence of coal quality on the blast furnace operation; and influence of coke quality on hearth drainage and hot metal quality. Coke quality was also discussed in terms of coke requirements and new global coke quality parameters. The difficulties in increasing PCI rate were shown to be associated with ferrous burden quality, particularly sinter. Adjustments to coke layer thickness can prevent instabilities. 8 refs., 23 figs.

  10. Feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time for coke oven and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Huo; Zhi Wen; Dong Chen; Yueling Shen; Yongqin Zhang; Xiaoming Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Based on the detailed analysis of the third coke oven in BaoSteel, a feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time of coke ovens was proposed and it was applied to the third coke oven in BaoSteel. As a result, the ratio of the instance that the absolute deviation of the longitudinal temperature is within ±7°C and the finished carbonization time within ± 10 rain is more than 80%, having acquired the patent saving effect of an energy consumption lowered by 2.92%. At the same time, it can provide an example for the same coke ovens inside and outside the nation.

  11. Cleaning of Chromate Manufacture Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sodium chromate solubility is determined in the range of NaOH concentrations from 450 to 810 g/L and solution temperatures from 30 to 110 ℃. The optimized conditions to separate sodium chromate from NaOH in leached solution are resolved. It is first found the method to efficiently separate sodium chromate from NaOH and sodium aluminate in crude sodium chromate. Bench-scale studies on the separating are performed. Finally, good separation results are achieved.

  12. [Advanced treatment of coking wastewater with a novel heterogeneous electro-Fenton technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Tao; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhang, An-Yang; Cao, Hong-Bin; Li, Xin-Gang; Zhang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    A novel electro-catalytic reactor, with oxygen-reduction cathode (PAQ/GF), dimensionally stable anode (IrO2-RuO2 -TiO2/ Ti) and heterogeneous catalysts, is developed for advanced treatment of coking wastewater after biological process, integrating cathodic and anodic simultaneous oxidation processes. A PAQ/GF electrode was synthesized by the electro-polymerization of 2-ethyl anthraquinone on graphite felt, which was characterized with cyclic voltametry measurements; the results indicated that the PAQ/GF electrode showed high reversibility for oxidation-reduction reaction of anthraquinone and catalytic activity for O2 reduction to H2O2; 13.5 mmol/L H2O2 was obtained after electrolysis for 6 h at -0.7 V (vs. SCE) and pH 6 with a current efficiency of 50% in a membrane reactor. Fe-Cu/Y350 catalysts, prepared by impregnation method, could catalyze the production of hydroxyl radicals (*OH) from H2O2, which was confirmed both by fading reaction of crystal violet and oxidation of *OH-probe compound (p-chlorobenzoic acid); Fe-Cu/Y350 also showed high catalytic-activity for the oxidation of organics by hypochlorous sodium, because COD removal of coking wastewater reached 26% in the catalytic process while only 11% of COD removal was obtained in the absence of Fe-Cu/Y350. COD removal of coking wastewater reached 49.4% (26.0% and 23.4% in cathodic system and anodic system, respectively) in the developed electrolytic-reactor, which was higher than that of conventional cathodic-anodic-oxidation process (29.8%). At optimal reaction condition of initial COD = 192 mg/L, I = 10A x m(-2) and pH 4-5, more than 50% COD were removed after electrolysis for 1 h. The mechanism might be as follows: in cathodic system, H2O2 is generated from reduction of O2 on PAQ/GF cathode, and catalyzed by Fe-Cu/Y350 for production of *OH, which causes mineralization and degradation of organic pollutants; in anodic system, Cl2 and HClO are generated from Cl- oxidation on IrO2-RuO2-TiO2/Ti anode and the

  13. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  14. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  15. High-pressure co-gasification of coal with biomass and petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermoso, J.; Arias, B.; Plaza, M.G.; Pevida, C.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia-Pena, F.; Casero, P. [Elcogas S.A. C.T. GICC Puertollano, Carretera Calzada de Calatrava, km 27, 13500 Puertollano, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    The effects of the main operation variables (temperature, pressure and gasifying agent composition) on gas production and other process parameters, such as carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency and high heating value, during the steam-oxygen gasification of a bituminous coal were studied. It was observed that temperature and oxygen concentration were the most influential variables during the gasification process. In addition, co-gasification tests of binary blends of a bituminous coal with different types of biomass (up to 10%) and petroleum coke (up to 60%), as well as ternary blends of coal-petcoke-biomass (45-45-10%) were conducted in order to study the effect of blending on gas production and carbon conversion. (author)

  16. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2016-12-30

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  17. Cathodic ARC surface cleaning prior to brazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, V. R. (Vivek R.); Hollis, K. J. (Kendall J.); Castro, R. G. (Richard G.); Smith, F. M. (Frank M.); Javernick, D. A. (Daniel A.)

    2002-01-01

    Surface cleanliness is one the critical process variables in vacuum furnace brazing operations. For a large number of metallic components, cleaning is usually accomplished either by water-based alkali cleaning, but may also involve acid etching or solvent cleaning / rinsing. Nickel plating may also be necessary to ensure proper wetting. All of these cleaning or plating technologies have associated waste disposal issues, and this article explores an alternative cleaning process that generates minimal waste. Cathodic arc, or reserve polarity, is well known for welding of materials with tenacious oxide layers such as aluminum alloys. In this work the reverse polarity effect is used to clean austenitic stainless steel substrates prior to brazing with Ag-28%Cu. This cleaning process is compared to acid pickling and is shown to produce similar wetting behavior as measured by dynamic contact angle experiments. Additionally, dynamic contact angle measurements with water drops are conducted to show that cathodic arc cleaning can remove organic contaminants as well. The process does have its limitations however, and alloys with high titanium and aluminum content such as nickel-based superalloys may still require plating to ensure adequate wetting.

  18. Clean recovery of antioxidant compounds from plant foods, by-products and algae assisted by ultrasounds processing. Modeling approaches to optimize processing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roselló-Soto, Elena; Galanakis, Charis M.; Brnčić, Mladen;

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound treatment is an alternative affordable, effective and reproducible method for the improved recovery of bioactive compounds from various processing streams. The objective of this review is to discuss the impact of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the recovery of polyphenols, carotenoids...

  19. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  20. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la

  1. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, R W; Benson, J M; Li, A P; Henderson, R F; Brooks, A L

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  2. An AFM determination of the effects on surface roughness caused by cleaning of fused silica and glass substrates in the process of optical biosensor preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Lisa; Nagy, Noemi; Krull, Ulrich J

    2002-06-01

    The covalent attachment of organic films and of biological molecules to fused silica and glass substrates is important for many applications. For applications such as biosensor development, it is desired that the immobilised molecules be assembled in a uniform layer on the surface so as to provide for reproducibility and speed of surface interactions. For optimal derivatisation the surface must be appropriately cleaned to remove contamination, to create surface attachment sites such as hydroxyl groups, and to control surface roughness. The irregularity of the surface can be significant in defining the integrity and density of immobilised films. Numerous cleaning methods exist for fused silica and glass substrates and these include gas plasmas, and combinations of acids, bases and organic solvents that are allowed to react at varying temperatures. For many years, we have used a well established method based on a combination of washing with basic peroxide followed by acidic peroxide to clean and hydroxylate the surface of fused silica and glass substrates before oligonucleotide immobilisation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to evaluate the effect of cleaning on surface roughness for various fused silica and glass samples. The results indicate that surface roughness remains substantial after use of this common cleaning routine, and can provide a surface area that is more than 10% but less than 30% larger than anticipated from geometric considerations of a planar surface.

  3. 超高效除草剂氟噻乙草酯的清洁生产工艺%CLEAN PROCESS OF FLUTHIACET-METHYL AS SUPER EFFECTIVE HERBICIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓华; 许响生; 刘海辉; 徐振元

    2004-01-01

    A clean process with 3 steps for the synthesis of FIuthiacet-methyl as a super ettective nerbicide is developed. The product was prepared in several patented methods. However, those methods had the disadvantages of using hazardous materials such as thiophosgene, chloroformate, hexahydropyridazine and phosgene. In the present work, the hazardous materials were replaced by safe reagents, for example,thiophosgene by carbon disulfide, chloroformate and phosgene by his (trichloromethyl) carbonate (BTC) and hexahydropyridazine by hexahydropridazine hydrochloride. Therefore, the process is operationally convenient and safe with little environmental hazard. Furthermore, the total yield (63%) is quite higher than that (39%) reported in literature. The clean process is valuable for manufacturing Fluthiacet methyl in industrial scale.

  4. Applicability of a dense-medium cyclone and Vorsyl separator for upgrading non-coking coal fines for use as a blast furnace injection fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.K. Majumder; H. Shah; S. Choubey; J.P. Barnwal; A.K. Kundu; P.S. Dhillon [Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, Bhopal (India)

    2009-01-15

    Replacement of metallurgical coke by high injection rates of thermal coal into the blast furnace is an important technology as it reduces the cost of hot metals significantly. However, one of the main problems that prevents the use of thermal coals is their high mineral-matter contents. Although, the ash content of coals to be injected in a blast furnace should be as low as possible, a maximum of 16% ash is acceptable. A non-coking coal sample from Chhattisgarh area, India, having a feed ash content of around 27% was collected for beneficiation studies to a grade acceptable for the injection purposes. A series of experiments were conducted in a 76-mm diameter dense-medium cyclone (DMC) and a Vorsyl separator (VS). It is observed that a clean coal having around 16% ash can be produced using both the cyclones if the variables are properly optimized. Further, it is observed that at the same ash level the yield of clean coal was 5%-6% more in VS than in DMC. It has also been demonstrated that at the same ash level, the magnetite medium stability in a VS was better than a DMC. 4 refs.

  5. Preparation and Anti-coking Property of SiO2/S Coating on HP40 Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建新; 徐宏; 张莉; 刘京雷; 戚学贵; 彭博

    2007-01-01

    SiO2/S coating was prepared on the inner surface of an HP40 tube using dimethyldisulfide and tetraethylorthosilicate by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) to alleviate catalytic coking on the inner surface of radiant tube for ethylene production in petrochemical plants. The comparative coking experiments with the coated and uncoated HP40 tubes were carried out under the same cracking conditions. SiO2/S coating was compact and had excellent anti-coking property. The coke on the coated HP40 tube was about 22% of that on the uncoated HP40 tube, and only small granular coke was deposited on the coated HP40 tube. However, the filamentous coke formed on the uncoated HP40 tube. The thermal stability of SiO2/S coating was satisfactory at cracking temperature, and the anti-coking property of SiO2/S coating was still over 60% after 3 coking and decoking cycles.

  6. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  7. Ultrasonic cleaning of 3D printed objects and Cleaning Challenge Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Zanderink, Thijs; Fernandez Rivas, David

    2016-01-01

    We report our experiences in the evaluation of ultrasonic cleaning processes of objects made with additive manufacturing techniques, specifically three-dimensional (3D) printers. These objects need to be cleaned of support material added during the printing process. The support material can be remov

  8. High Heat Flux Surface Coke Deposition and Removal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    etc. have on coke deposition from RP-1 and RP-2 as well as showing that we can oxidize and remove these deposits using ozone , would be very...Meeting; 29 Apr. - 3 May, Colorado Springs, CO. 10Billingsley, M.C. H.Y. Lyu and R.W. Bates (2007). "Experimental and Numerical Investigations of RP...5th Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee Joint Meeting, Denver, CO, 14-17 May. 11Linne, D.L., M. L. Meyer, T. Edwards, and D. A. Eitman (1997

  9. Study on soot purifying of molding shop in coking factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Duo-song; ZHANG Hui; BAI Xiang-yu

    2006-01-01

    Exhaust gas in molding shop was complicated in component and characteristic in Iow thickness asphalt smoke, mass steam-gas and dust. It was difficult to purify the soot with common purifier. So we must consider them roundly and develop new multifunction purifier. PFP multifunction soot purifier was made on the base of design optimization and was installed at Shenhuo Coking Factory in 2004. The combined effects of multi- mechanism in purifier make purifying ratio keep in high level. The remove ratio of smut reaches at 92.8%, and asphalt smoke at 83.7%.

  10. 焦炉推焦粉尘治理工艺选择及设备配置%Technological Selection of Dust Treatment and Equipment Collocation While Coking in Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜乃斌; 邢显昌

    2012-01-01

      The article probes into the technological selection of dust treatment and equipment col ocation while coke choosing in coke oven; makes focus on and analyzes the three main topics of flue dust col ection, transportation and dust filter-ing of dust treatment in coke oven tapping.

  11. Use of a commercial household steam cleaning system to decontaminate beef and hog carcasses processed by four small or very small meat processing plants in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Suvang; Reynolds, A Estes; Chen, Jinru

    2007-03-01

    Small and very small meat-processing facilities in the United States are in need of a pathogen reduction technology that would be both effective and economical. In the present study, the effectiveness of a commercial household steam cleaner for reducing naturally occurring bacterial populations on freshly slaughtered beef and hog carcasses was evaluated in four small or very small meat-processing plants. Three anatomical sites on the right half of each carcass were exposed to a 60-s steam treatment, and the corresponding left half of the carcass remained untreated. Samples were collected from 72 beef and 72 hog carcasses before, immediately after, and 24 h after the steam treatment. The mean populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae recovered from three anatomical sites on the beef carcasses were 1.88, 1.89, and 1.36 log CFU/cm2, respectively, before the steam treatment, 1.00, 0.71, and 0.52 log CFU/cm2, respectively, immediately after the steam treatment, and 1.10, 0.95, and 0.50 log CFU/cm2, respectively, 24 h after the steam treatment. On hog carcasses, the mean populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae recovered from the three anatomical sites were 2.50, 2.41, and 1.88 log CFU/cm2, respectively, before the steam treatment, 0.50, 0.94, and 0.21 log CFU/cm2, respectively, immediately after the steam treatment, and 0.91, 1.56, and 0.44 log CFU/cm2, respectively, 24 h after the steam treatment. The steam treatment significantly reduced the total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae at all three anatomical locations on both types of carcasses (P steam treatment was midline > neck > rump for beef carcasses and belly > jowl > ham for hog carcasses except for the total coliform counts at the midline and neck areas on the beef carcasses. Of the 144 carcasses evaluated, 5 (3.47%) were positive for Salmonella before steam treatment, but all carcasses tested negative for Salmonella after the treatment. Results indicate that

  12. RECOVERY AND DESTRUCTIVE TREATMENT OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCE IN COKING PLANT WASTEWATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jianguang

    2000-01-01

    This paper discussed the comprehensive treatment of coking plant effluent.Cyanide-containing and phenol wastewater was first recovered and utilized respectively, and then, mixed it with other low harmful wastewater for destroying treatment.Treated water was reused in quenching coke.

  13. Interaction of bonding agent with filler in coking-pitch compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firsanov, A.V.; Beylina, N.Yu.; Kolodin, E.A.; Ostrovskiy, V.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Shipkov, N.N.

    1983-01-01

    Coke's selective sorption of highly molecular components of pitch was determined with the aid of gel-penetrating chromatography. It was shown that behavior of pitch in coking-pitch compositions, as well as the nature of release of pyrolysis products is determined by dispersion of the filler.

  14. Characteristics of interaction between petrographically differing coals in mixtures for coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankevich, A.S.; Proskuryakov, A.E.; Zolotukhin, Yu.A.

    1983-09-01

    Coal mixtures used for coking in the East of the USSR are characterized by intensive fluctuations of coak rank and petrology. Reflectivity coefficient of vitrinite ranges from 0.73 to 1.70% and content of caking components ranges from 30 to 88%. Evaluations show that fluctuations of reflectivity coefficient of vitrinite and fluctuations of caking component content in coal negatively influence coke mechanical properties and increase coke reactivity. Effects of coal macerals and microlithotypes in black coal from the Kuzbass on coke properties are analyzed. The following microlithotypes are separated from coal: vitrite, clarite, duroclarite, clarodurite, durite, fusite, semivitrinite, mineralized coal and rocks. Effects of macerals and microlithotypes in 50 coal mixtures on coke quality and coke properties are analyzed. Regression analysis is used. On the basis of this analysis equations for forecasting coke properties are derived. Petrologic nonhomogeneity of coal mixtures deteriorates conditions for chemical interaction between components with differing genetics and negatively influences caking of vitrite and fusite (or durite). Coke from coal characterized by petrologic nonhomogeneity has a structure with low degree of order, low mechanical and structural strength and increased reactivity. (5 refs.) (In Russian)

  15. Development and Application of Zero Expansion Silica Brick for Hot Repairing of Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiuqin; ZHI Xiaoming; WANG Hongmei

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of hot repairing technology of coke oven, the zero expansion silica brick with super properties has been developed, and the problem of poor thermal stability of common silica brick has been overcomned. This product can be directly used after being rapidly heated after construction. At present, it has been applied in coke ovens in Italy and Baosteel.

  16. Environment protection in the area of by-products facilities in coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Tomal; Henryk Zembala; Krzysztof Kalinowski; Milan Fedorov; Ludovt Kosnac; Jan Hromiak [Biuro Projektow Koksoprojekt Sp. z o.o., Zabrze (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    20 slides/overheads outline the presentation on the subject of the environmental protection program implemented at the U.S. Steel Kosice Coking Plant. Actions taken include the control of emissions by a system of cooling coke oven gas. A hermetically sealed system uses nitrogen flow for tar management and hermetic loading of the liquid coal by-product Benzol.

  17. Waterless Clothes-Cleaning Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glenn; Ganske, Shane

    2013-01-01

    A waterless clothes-cleaning machine has been developed that removes loose particulates and deodorizes dirty laundry with regenerative chemical processes to make the clothes more comfortable to wear and have a fresher smell. This system was initially developed for use in zero-g, but could be altered for 1-g environments where water or other re sources are scarce. Some of these processes include, but are not limited to, airflow, filtration, ozone generation, heat, ultraviolet light, and photocatalytic titanium oxide.

  18. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  19. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  20. STUDY ON REDUCING AND MELTING BEHAVIOR OF MILL SCALE/PETROLEUM COKE BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Deves Flores

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-reducing tests were carried out under isothermal and non-isothermal condition in a muffle furnace, aiming to assess the reduction and melting of a self-reducing blend of mill scale and petroleum coke (85-15% in weight. The products obtained were analyzed by mass loss and wet analysis. Further investigations for the products from the non-isothermal condition were done by X-ray diffraction, nude eye inspection and carbon analyzer. It was observed that mass loss fraction and metallization degree are directly related and both increase with time and temperature. In the non-isothermal maximum mass loss was achieved in 8 minutes, reaching metallization degrees above 90%. It was observed that the reduction of iron oxide occurs mainly in solid state and the smelting of the samples is directly related to the iron carburization process. Thus, the use of self-reducing mixtures shows a possible way to recycle mill scale.

  1. Discerning the Location and Nature of Coke Deposition from Surface to Bulk of Spent Zeolite Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Bao, Jie; Guo, Mond F.; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Xu, Zhijie; Gray, Michel J.; Prodinger, Sebastian; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.

    2016-11-23

    The nanoscale compositional mapping of fresh HZSM-5 catalyst synthesized using hydrothermal process as well as after just steaming and after ethanol conversion reaction for 72 hours at realistic catalytic conditions was investigated using atom probe tomography. Atom probe tomography permitted direct atomic scale imaging of non-uniform distribution of Al within the HZSM-5 as well as for the first time image the hydrocarbon coking after ethanol reaction. Clear evidences for existence of multiple C-H molecular species which appear to aggregate as clusters within the pores of spent HZSM-5 catalyst materials is provided. These results provide evidence for the ability of atom probe tomography, a powerful 3D characterization tool in interrogating the atomic scale chemistry of zeolite catalyst materials at industrially relevant catalytic conditions.

  2. Rudimentary Cleaning Compared to Level 300A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpin, Christina Y. Pina; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A study was done to characterize the cleanliness level achievable when using a rudimentary cleaning process, and results were compared to JPR 5322.1G Level 300A. While it is not ideal to clean in a shop environment, some situations (e.g., field combat operations) require oxygen system hardware to be maintained and cleaned to prevent a fire hazard, even though it cannot be sent back to a precision cleaning facility. This study measured the effectiveness of basic shop cleaning. Initially, three items representing parts of an oxygen system were contaminated: a metal plate, valve body, and metal oxygen bottle. The contaminants chosen were those most likely to be introduced to the system during normal use: oil, lubricant, metal shavings/powder, sand, fingerprints, tape, lip balm, and hand lotion. The cleaning process used hot water, soap, various brushes, gaseous nitrogen, water nozzle, plastic trays, scouring pads, and a controlled shop environment. Test subjects were classified into three groups: technical professionals having an appreciation for oxygen hazards; professional precision cleaners; and a group with no previous professional knowledge of oxygen or precision cleaning. Three test subjects were in each group, and each was provided with standard cleaning equipment, a cleaning procedure, and one of each of the three test items to clean. The results indicated that the achievable cleanliness level was independent of the technical knowledge or proficiency of the personnel cleaning the items. Results also showed that achieving a Level 300 particle count was more difficult than achieving a Level A nonvolatile residue amount.

  3. Cleaning and surface properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  4. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  5. Effects of operating conditions on compositional characteristics and reaction kinetics of liquid derived by delayed coking of nigerian petroleum residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Bello

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal upgrading of Nigerian petroleum residue was studied at relatively low pressure in a delayed coking reactor system. In this work, the intent was to investigate the effects of process variables such as reaction temperature (200(0C to 600(0C, reaction time (0 to 120min, additive concentration loading and additive-to-residue ratio on the amounts and quality of organic liquid product (OLP. The liquid products derived from the delayed coking process were characterized by means of instrumental analysis of gas-liquid chromatography. Results obtained from the analyses of the OLP revealed an upward trend of the conversion process and the selectivity of the aromatic compounds with additive-to-residue ratio (ARR and increase in temperature. This led to maximum yield of 37.2% achieved with ARR of 5 compared to 31% achieved with ordinary thermal conversion. The selectivity for aromatic hydrocarbons was maximum at 83.1wt% the selectivity towards aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons were highest for methanol-potassium hydroxide and methanol respectively. In all additive system cases, maximum OLP was produced at an optimum reaction temperature of 370(0C in the delayed coking reactor and at higher residence time. The gaseous product consisted of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and C1 - C6 hydrocarbons, which amounted to about 20 to 30 wt% of liquid distillate. The information obtained in this study show that the organic liquid products are amenable to characterization procedure and provided the basis for the identification of processes for upgrading Nigerian petroleum residue and such other starting materials such as bitumen or fossil fuel coal liquids.

  6. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  7. Application of SketchUp in Coke Oven Three-Dimensional Digital Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuguang Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke oven, which is a large industrial furnace, is complex in structure. A two-dimensional structure diagram can hardly help one observe the inner structure of a coke oven or master its working principle comprehensively. In order to solve this problem, a complete 3D digital model of a coke oven is generated by assembling the three-dimensional models of coke oven components created with SketchUp. It enables users to section the various components of the cove oven. The outer appearance and inner structure of the oven components also can be displayed visually from several different orientations. Moreover, it is convenient to storage and carry, operation easily and fast. It can be displayed on an ordinary computer and occupies no space at the laboratory. Meanwhile, a large sum of money that used for purchasing a physical coke oven model can be saved.

  8. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke; Molienda asistida con microondas de un coque metalurgico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  9. 焦炉烟囱 NO x排放控制刍议%Comment on control of NOx emission from chimney of coke oven battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡承祐

    2013-01-01

    The new national standard“ Emission standard of pollutants for coking chemical industry”regulates the requirement for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery .The techni-cal measures on design of heating system of coke oven battery and treatment of oven flue gas after it is discharged from the battery for control of NO x emission are expounded in this paper .The author also makes brief description of technology on denitrification of flue gas by using SCR process and sug -gests that in order to meet the requirement of the national standard for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery located in the “special region”, flue gas discharged from the coke oven battery should be further treated by using SCR denitrification technology with learning experience of Tokyo Gas gained from test of pilot plant and engineering .%新的国家标准《炼焦化学工业污染物排放标准》提出了焦炉烟囱的NOx 排放控制要求。本文从焦炉加热系统的设计和对焦炉烟道废气的后处理2个层面论述了焦炉烟囱NOx 排放控制的技术措施,简要介绍了SCR烟气脱硝技术,提出了借鉴日本东京煤气公司的中试与工程经验,采用SCR脱硝技术对焦炉烟道废气进行后处理,以达到国家标准对“特别地区”焦炉烟囱的NOx排放控制要求。

  10. Startup and initial operation of a DFGD and pulse jet fabric filter system on Cokenergy's Indiana Harbor coke oven off gas system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, W.J.; Gansley, R.R.; Schaddell, J.G.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the design, initial operation and performance testing of a Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (DFGD) and Modular Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (MPJFF) system installed at Cokenergy's site in East Chicago, Indiana. The combined flue gas from the sixteen (16) waste heat recovery boilers is processed by the system to control emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates. These boilers recover energy from coke oven off gas from Indiana Harbor Coke Company's coke batteries. The DFGD system consists of two 100% capacity absorbers. Each absorber vessel uses a single direct drive rotary atomizer to disperse the lime slurry for SO{sub 2} control. The MPJFF consists of thirty two (32) modules arranged in twin sixteen-compartment (16) units. The initial start up of the DFGD/MPJFF posed special operational issues due to the low initial gas flows through the system as the four coke oven batteries were cured and put in service for the first time. This occurred at approximately monthly intervals beginning in March 1998. A plan was implemented to perform a staged startup of the DFGD and MPJFF to coincide with the staged start up of the coke batteries and waste heat boilers. Operational issues that are currently being addressed include reliability of byproduct removal. Performance testing was conducted in August and September 1998 at the inlet of the system and the outlet stack. During these tests, particulate, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and HCI emissions were measured simultaneously at the common DFGD inlet duct and the outlet stack. Measurements were also taken for average lime, water, and power consumption during the tests as well as system pressure losses. These results showed that all guarantee parameters were achieved during the test periods. The initial operation and performance testing are described in this paper.

  11. MICU clean bedding and clothing management process optimization and practice%产科重症监护病房被服清洗管理流程的优化与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高兰凤; 丁玉琴; 卢凌香; 徐洁

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨优化流程在产科重症监护病房(MICU)污被服清洗管理中的作用。方法:确立以降低 MICU 污被服清洗管理缺陷发生率为改善主题,通过优化流程,运用质量管理工具对污被服清洗管理中存在问题进行改进,并将改进前后对比。结果:优化流程后,MICU 污被服清洗管理缺陷率由38%下降到11% 。结论:MICU 被服清洗管理流程的优化,不仅有效降低了我院 MICU 污被服清洗管理的缺陷,还提高了护士主动参与管理的能力和科室间的协作能力,提高了护士的工作效率。%Objective:To study the optimization of the process to reduce obstetric intensive care unit (MICU) clean bedding and clothing management role. Methods:To establish " reduce the incidence of MICU dirty clean bedding and clothing management shortcomings" for the improvement theme,through the optimization process,use quality management tools to improve the problems of pollution clean bedding and clothing management,and compared before and after improvement. Results:After the optimization process,MICU corrupt clean bedding and clothing management defect rate from 38% to 11% . Conclusion:The MICU clean bedding and clothing management process optimization,not only effectively reduce the hospital MICU clean bedding and clothing manage-ment defect,but also improve the nurses ability of management and cooperation ability,improve the work efficiency of nurses.

  12. Clean Production Management of Breweries: the realities of implementing clean production management in Tsingtao Brewery

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chaonan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,China's beer industry has rapid growth,but because of high energy consumption and high emissions in the production process, its environmental pollution became more serious and aroused concern. Beer companies must promote management of clean production in the pursuit of economic benefits while addressing the pollution problems. Comparing to leading markets, China’s beer industry practiced clean production at later stage, the level of clean production management is still lower t...

  13. Rapid production of metallurgical coke by use of a simulated moving bed reactor. Mogi idoso wo mochiita kyusoku shoon ni yoru cokes no jinsoku seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Hayashi, J.; Sano, N. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Research Laboratory of CArbonaceous Resources Conversion); Hashimoto, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Iwakiri, H. (Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan))

    1992-12-20

    An experiment to manufacture coke with rapid temperature raising was carried out using an equipment simulating a vertical moving bed coke oven. Two kinds of trial manufacturing patterns were tested: Pattern A to raise coal temperature rapidly to about 450[degree]C, which is held for about 20 minutes, and then raised again to 800[degree]C at a rate of about 5[degree]C/min, and pattern B to raise the temperature from about 300[degree]C to 800[degree]C at a rate of about 5[degree]C/min. An experiment on test samples from heavy caking coal (PDH coal) and light caking coal (OP coal) revealed the following results: The PDH coal applied with the pattern A produced in about two hours a coke with quality equivalent to or better than practically used coke; the temperature raising pattern B resulted in no full lump formation even with the PDH coal; according to the temperature raising pattern A, manufacturing coke from the OP coal is impossible; however, if the PDH coal or pitch is mixed with the OP coal, coke may be manufactured. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. An additive for a petroleum coke and water suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiguti, K.; Igarasi, T.; Isimura, Y.; Kharaguti, S.; Tsudzino, T.

    1982-10-18

    An additive to a petroleum coke and water suspension is proposed. The additive consists of a compound with the formula (RCONHCH2C(R')HO(AO)1H, where R is a C1 to C30 unsaturated acyl group, R' is hydrogen, CH3, A is C2 to C4 alkylene, l = 0 to 500, m + n = 0 to 1,000, salt of alkaline metal, salt of ammonium or salt of lower amine and sulfurous ether. The method may be used to produce an aqueous suspension which has a concentration of petroleum coke powder of 50 to 70 percent. The viscosity of the suspension is low, the stability high, no floculation or sedimentation are observed and there is no foam formation. Monoethanolamide, diethanolamide, monoesoproyanolamide and diisopropanolamide of C1 to C30 acid of the fatty series or alkylenoxide (ethylenoxide, propylenoxide, isobutylenoxide and tetrahydrofurane) are used as the (RCONHCH2C(R')HO(AO)1H and a lithium salt

  15. 芒硝型卤水精制过程中超滤膜的污染与清洗%Ultrafiltration Membrane Polution and Cleaning of Sodium Sulfate Type Brine Refining Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张为之; 宫维; 徐卫华

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies on the assessmen t of pollution situation analysis of complex ultrafiltration membrane and cleaning effect in sodium sulfate type brine refining process.%研究芒硝型卤水在精制工艺过程中,用于除杂的超滤膜的污染情况分析及清洗效果评价。

  16. Characterization of coal- and petroleum-derived binder pitches and the interaction of pitch/coke mixtures in pre-baked carbon anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder. During the manufacturing of carbon anodes, coal tar pitch is mixed with calcined petroleum coke. The mix of binder, filler and some additives is heated to about 50°C above the softening point of the pitch, typically 160°C. This temperature is sufficient to enable the pitch to wet the coke particles. The mix is then either extruded, vibrated, or pressed to form a green anode. The binding between coke and pitch is very important to the anode properties. There are different binder pitches used in this work, which were standard coal tar pitch (SCTP-2), petroleum pitch (PP-1), gasification pitch (GP-115), coal-extract pitch (WVU-5), and co-coking pitches (HTCCP and OXCCP). Petroleum pitch is a residue produced from heat-treatment and distillation of petroleum fractions. Production of coal-extract pitch involves a prehydrogenation of coal followed by extraction using a dipolar solvent. Gasification pitches are distilled by-product tars produced from the coal gasification process. Co-coking pitch was developed in this work and was obtained from the liquid distillate of co-coking process of coal and heavy petroleum residue. Understanding of composition and structures of pitches from different sources and processes would lead to greater understanding of the binding properties of pitch in carbon anodes and was one of the main focuses in this study. Characterization of pitches by using different techniques including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (MALDI/MS), 1H and 13C solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and 13C solid-state NMR yield important chemistry and structural information. The binding, or in other words the interactions in the pitch/coke mixture, is another interest in this

  17. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and use log. 211.182 Section... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... individual equipment logs that show the date, time, product, and lot number of each batch processed....

  18. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.6, Economic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, L.R. [Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States); Hogsett, R.F. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States); Sinor, J.E. [Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  19. Mechanical cleaning of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.; Calado, V.E.; Barreiro, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of graphene due to residues from nanofabrication often introduces background doping and reduces electron mobility. For samples of high electronic quality, post-lithography cleaning treatments are therefore needed. We report that mechanical cleaning based on contact mode atomic force mi

  20. Possibilities of mercury removal in the dry flue gas cleaning lines of solid waste incineration units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    Dry methods of the flue gas cleaning (for HCl and SO2 removal) are useful particularly in smaller solid waste incineration units. The amount and forms of mercury emissions depend on waste (fuel) composition, content of mercury and chlorine and on the entire process of the flue gas cleaning. In the case of high HCl/total Hg molar ratio in the flue gas, the majority (usually 70-90%) of mercury is present in the form of HgCl2 and a smaller amount in the form of mercury vapors at higher temperatures. Removal of both main forms of mercury from the flue gas is dependent on chemical reactions and sorption processes at the temperatures below approx. 340 °C. Significant part of HgCl2 and a small part of elemental Hg vapors can be adsorbed on fly ash and solid particle in the air pollution control (APC) processes, which are removed in dust filters. Injection of non-impregnated active carbon (AC) or activated lignite coke particles is able to remove mainly the oxidized Hg(2+) compounds. Vapors of metallic Hg(o) are adsorbed relatively weakly. Much better chemisorption of Hg(o) together with higher sorbent capacity is achieved by AC-based sorbents impregnated with sulfur, alkali poly-sulfides, ferric chloride, etc. Inorganic sorbents with the same or similar chemical impregnation are also applicable for deeper Hg(o) removal (over 85%). SCR catalysts convert part of Hg(o) into oxidized compounds (HgO, HgCl2, etc.) contributing to more efficient Hg removal, but excess of NH3 has a negative effect. Both forms, elemental Hg(o) and HgCl2, can be converted into HgS particles by reacting with droplets/aerosol of poly-sulfides solutions/solids in flue gas. Mercury captured in the form of water insoluble HgS is more advantageous in the disposal of solid waste from APC processes. Four selected options of the dry flue gas cleaning with mercury removal are analyzed, assessed and compared (in terms of efficiency of Hg-emission reduction and costs) with wet methods and retrofits for more

  1. Coking-resistant Ni-ZrO2/Al2O3 catalyst for CO methanation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Liu; Fangna Gu; Jiajian Gao; Huifang Li; Guangwen Xu∗; Fabing Su∗

    2014-01-01

    Highly coke-resisting ZrO2-decorated Ni/Al2O3 catalysts for CO methanation were prepared by a two-step process. The support was first loaded with NiO by impregnating method and then modified with ZrO2 by deposition-precipitation method (IM-DP). Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, H2 temperature-programmed reduction and desorption, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption, and zeta potential analysis were employed to characterize the samples. The results revealed that, compared with the catalysts with the same composition prepared by co-impregnation (CI) and sequential impregnation (SI) methods, the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by IM-DP showed much enhanced catalytic performance for syngas methanation under the condition of atmospheric pressure and a high weight hourly space velocity of 120000 mL·g−1·h−1. In a 80 h life time test under the condition of 300–600◦C and 3.0 MPa, this catalyst showed high stability and resistance to coking, and the amount of deposited carbon was only 0.4 wt%. On the contrary, the deposited carbon over the catalyst without ZrO2 reached 1.5 wt%after a 60 h life time test. The improved catalytic performance was attributed to the selective deposition of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the surface of NiO rather than Al2O3, which could be well controlled via changing the electrostatic interaction in the DP procedure. This unique structure could enhance the dissociation of CO2 and generate surface oxygen intermediates, thus preventing carbon deposition on the Ni particles in syngas methanation.

  2. External structure and properties of coke as a function of the petrographic characteristics of the coal mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankevich, A.S.; Zolotukhin, Yu.A.; Proskuryakov, A.E.; P' yankova, I.S.

    1980-10-01

    Statistical analysis of the results of an investigation of the petrographic composition of carbonisation blends showed that variation in the content of coking components has a marked effect on the porous structure of the coke. As this parameter increases, the quantity of large pores in the coke also increases and the proportion of small and medium-size pores decreases. This leads to a decrease in the mechanical strength of the coke and an increase in reactivity. When selecting carbonisation charges to produce coke of desired quality, it is thus important to take account of the petrographic composition of the blend.

  3. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  4. Chemical-free cleaning using excimer lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; O'Keeffe, Terence R.

    1996-04-01

    A critical requirement in many industrial processes is the cleaning of oils and grease, oxides, solvent residues, particles, thin films and other contaminants from surfaces. There is a particularly acute need in the electronics industry for cleaning semiconductor wafers and computer chips and in the metals industry for removing oxides and other contaminants. Cleaning traditionally is done by various wet chemical processes, almost all consuming large amounts of water and producing large amounts of hazardous wastes. To further complicate this, some of these cleaning agents and vast water consumption are undergoing stringent restrictions. The Radiance ProcessSM is a novel, patented Excimer Laser approach to dry surface cleaning. The process has removed particles from 80 microns to submicron sizes, paints, inks, oxides, fingerprints, hazes, parts of molecules and metallic ions in fingerprints. The process does not ablate, melt or damage the underlying surface. Micro-roughening on some Silicon and Gallium Arsenide is on the order of 1A or less. This paper will discuss the various applications with this process and the latest results from a beta wafer cleaning prototype test bed system that is being built under an EPA grant and joint partnership between Radiance Services Company, Neuman Micro Technologies, Inc. and the Microelectronics Research Laboratory.

  5. Clean Production Technology in Electrolysis Process in a Rare Earth Plant%清洁生产技术在稀土金属冶炼行业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程妍东; 梁英; 陶德

    2011-01-01

    以某稀土企业的电解稀土生产工艺为例,介绍了较为先进的稀土电解行业的清洁生产方案,为今后稀土行业清洁生产技术的发展提供了现实依据,对稀土行业清洁生产和循环经济的推广具有重要的现实意义.%This paper presents an advanced clean production technology for rare earth metal production by eletrolysis processes with a rare earth plant as an example. It is of great importance for the development of clean production and recycling economy in rare earth industries.

  6. Formation of coke in thermal cracking of jet fuel under supercritical conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhong ZHU; Caixiang YU; Zimu LI; Zhentao MI; Xiangwen ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Continuous-flow reactor experiments were carried out to study coke formation from thermal crack-ing of home-made jet fuel RP-3 under supercritical con-ditions. The mechanism and precursor of coke forming were analyzed. The starting cracking temperature of RP-3 fuel was determined to be 471.8℃ by differential scan-ning calorimetry (DSC). Temperature-programmed oxidation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterizations of the stressed tubes showed that there are three different coke species including chemisorbed carbon, amorphous carbon and filamentous coke in the solid deposits. More than 90% of coke deposits are carried away by the supercritical fluid, which has strong capabilities of extraction for coke deposits and their pre-cursors. There were 17.1 wt-% of iron and 11.1 wt-% of chromium found on the coke surface detected by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) which suggests carbure-tion on alloy. RP-3 fuel and its cracking liquids were analyzed by GC-MS,which showed that the content of alkyl benzene and alkyl naphthalene increased evidently in cracking liquids.

  7. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the

  9. Emission Control on № 5 & 6 Coke Oven Batteries of Handan Iron & Steel Complex%邯钢5、6号焦炉的烟尘治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡汉; 许波; 吴云强

    2001-01-01

    The process of emission control on № 5 & 6 coke oven batteries of Handan Iron & Steel Complex is introduced, and the control mode, software feature, problems occurred in production and improving method for automatic control system of coke oven emission control are described.%介绍了邯钢5、6号焦炉烟尘的治理工艺及其自动控制系统的控制方式、软件特点、生产中出现的问题及改进方法。

  10. Apparatuses, Systems and Methods for Cleaning Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2013-02-14

    Embodiments of solar panel cleaning apparatuses, solar panel cleaning systems, and solar panel cleaning methods are disclosed. In certain embodiments, the disclosed solar panel cleaning apparatuses, systems and methods do may not require any water or other cleaning liquids in the whole cleaning process, which makes them prominent well suited in for water-deficit environments such as deserts. In one embodiment, the solar panel cleaning apparatus comprises one or more rotatable brushes each having a rotational axis and a drive configured to move each of the one or more rotatable brushes in a direction that is not perpendicular to the rotational axis. The solar panel cleaning apparatus is may be configured such that the angle of the rotational axis of at least one of the one or more rotatable brushes is adjustable relative to the direction of travel.

  11. Dependence of optical structure of coke from black coal on petrologic peculiarities of the coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, A.E.; Stankevich, A.S.; Podchishchaeva, N.I.; Shkoller, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes factors that influence optical structure of coke from Kuzbass black coal. An optical microscope (magnification 800-2,000 times) was used. On the basis of investigations 8 types of optical structures in coke were determined: an isotropic structure, fine grain structure, medium grain structure, large grain structure, fibre-like structure, inertinite structure and a relict structure. The following criteria for determining optical structures are used: optical character of coke matter, grain size, grain geometry, microlites and primary structure. Using regression analysis, dependence of the optical structures on the following indices were derived: vitrinite reflectivity, vitrinite content and reduction degree. 12 refs.

  12. Synthesis of carbon molecular sieves by activation and coke deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, S.N.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Gandadhar, B. (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-04-01

    Carbon molecular sieves were synthesized from indigenous bituminous coal and coconut shell. After preliminary treatment, these materials were subjected to steam or carbon dioxide activation in the range 500-900[degree]C. In other experiments the raw materials were partly air-oxidized at [approximately] 200[degree]C, mixed with binder and extruded to cylindrical pellets, which were subjected to coke deposition by cracking of methane in the range 750-780[degree]C for 5-14 min. All the products were characterized by analysis of kinetic and equilibrium adsorption data. The molecular sieve performance was judged by the O[sub 2]/N[sub 2] uptake ratio. The best carbon molecular sieves, obtained by methane cracking at 780[degree]C at a flow of 100 ml min[sup -1] had an uptake ratio of 2.667. 11 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. A device for determining the regularity factor of coke yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Bannikov, L.S.; Grishin, S.P.; Parfenov, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    A device which determines the regularity factor of coke yield, which contains a furnace output monitoring unit, which is connected to the meter's input and an indicator, also contains a programmer, a comparator, a second meter, a multiplier and a divider to increase the efficiency and the reliability of information and to reduce manual labor. Here, the first output from the programmer is connected to the multiplier's input while the second output is connected to the initial inputs of the divider and the comparator, the second input of which is connected to the first indicator's output, while the output is connected to the second indicator's input, the output of which is connected to the divider's second input; the output of the divider is connected to the multiplier's second input and to the indicator which is connected to the multiplier's output.

  14. A Commercial IOTV Cleaning Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    quite clean and had a refreshing scent . The medium soiled garments (30%) also looked reasonably clean after one wash. The heavily soiled garments...and Solvair® Cleaning in cleaning soiled Improved Outer Tactical Vests (IOTV). Computer-controlled Wet Cleaning coupled with the use of LANADOL...to clean soiled IOTVs. Soldier Product Support Integration Directorate, ILSC U.S. Army Soldier Systems Center 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760

  15. Effect of calcinations temperature on microstructures, photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning property of TiO2 and SnO2/TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel dip coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangchay, Weerachai

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of calcinations temperature on phase transformation, crystallite size, morphology, photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning properties of TiO2 and SnO2/TiO2 thin films. The thin films were preparation by sol-gel dip coating process and calcinations at the temperature of 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C for 2 h with the heating rate of 10 °C/mim. The microstructures of the fabricated thin films were characterized by XRD and SEM techniques. The photocatalytic activity of the thin films was also tested via the degradation of methylene blue solution under UV irradiation. Finally, self-cleaning properties of thin films were evaluated by measuring the contact angle of water droplet on the thin films with and without UV irradiation. It was found that SnO2/TiO2 thin films calcinations at the temperature of 500 °C shows the highest of photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning properties.

  16. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  17. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  18. Effective Cleaning Radius Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churnetski, B.V.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses results of testing done in the Savannah River Laboratory half tank and full tank mockup facilities using kaolin clay slurries and the relationship between cleaning radius and pump and slurry characteristics.

  19. Clean Power Plan Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are resources to help states as they develop state implementation plans under section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act to meet EPA's carbon pollution standards for existing power plants. Supplements www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards.

  20. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  1. Removal of detergents by activated petroleum coke from a clarified wastewater treated for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Zamora, R M; Durán Pilotzi, A; Domínguez Mora, R; Durán Moreno, A

    2004-01-01

    The removal of detergents from clarified wastewaters by activated petroleum coke (CAPA) was assessed. These substances, owing to their foamy properties, constitute a problem for ammonia removal by the air stripping process that could be installed in a wastewater treatment train to produce reclaimed water. CAPA was evaluated as a more economical alternative than a commercial activated carbon. Experimental work was divided in three stages: 1) production and characterisation of materials; 2) pretreatment of raw wastewater through the Fenton's reagent or coagulation-flocculation process with Al2(SO4)3; and 3) adsorption and bio-adsorption tests of clarified effluents. These tests were carried out in the laboratory in discontinuous and continuous reactors, the former by the "point-by-point" technique, with and without a previous fixing of bacteria, and the latter by the Rapid Small Scale Column Test. Detergents content, color, COD and UV254nm were measured in raw and treated wastewaters. Results show that the best pretreatment for the adsorption process was coagulation-flocculation rather than Fenton's method. Oxidation by this process decreased the adsorptive properties of detergents. Biomass fixed on the CAPA particles significantly increased the UV254nm and COD removal efficiencies (20% and 170% respectively). The breakthrough curves showed that CAPA could attain the expected detergents removal efficiency (66%) for the alum effluent.

  2. Design of 7 m coke scraping device%7m扒焦机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔海洋; 杜芳蕊; 刘万刚

    2015-01-01

    介绍了一种7m扒焦机,主要由车体、扒焦装置和熄焦输送装置等组成,具有结构简单、模块化拆装和造价低廉等特点,能够安全高效地解决焦炉难推焦问题。%This paper introduces a 7m coke scraping device,which is mainly composed of steel struc-ture platform,coke scraping unit and coke quenching&conveying unit. It has the advantages of sim-ply structure,module assembly & disassembly and low cost,and it could safely and efficiently solve the problem of hard pushing in coke oven battery.

  3. Pyrolysis kinetics of coking coal mixed with biomass under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ha Myung; Seo, Myung Won; Jeong, Sang Mun; Na, Byung Ki; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Goo; Lee, Woon Jae

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the kinetic characteristics of coking coal mixed with biomass during pyrolysis, thermogravimetric (TG) and thermo-balance reactor (TBR) analyses were conducted under non-isothermal and isothermal condition. Yellow poplar as a biomass (B) was mixed with weak coking coal (WC) and hard coking coal (HC), respectively. The calculated activation energies of WC/B blends were higher than those of HC/B blends under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. The coal/biomass blends show increased reactivity and decreased activation energy with increasing biomass blend ratio, regardless of the coking properties of the coal. The different char structures of the WC/B and HC/B blends were analyzed by BET and SEM.

  4. Effect of injecting inert particles on coking prohibition and particle velocity uniformization in downer reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.Y.; Zhu, Y.; Tian, Y.J.; Xie, K.C. [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China). Inst. of Chemical Engineering & Technology

    2007-02-15

    The coking observation and particle flow behaviour in both thermal plasma and cold plexiglas downers were investigated in a binary particle system formed by injecting coarse inert particles (carrying coke away and scouring wall) and fine coal powders into the downer reactor. The results demonstrate that this scheme is a rational selection to prevent coking on downer walls and improve particle velocity distribution along the radial direction. When injected coarse particles mixed with fine powders in downers, the fluctuation of local particle velocity in the radial direction becomes smaller and two peaks in the radial distribution of local particle velocity occur due to the improved dispersing character and flow structure, which are beneficial to the thermo-plasma coal cracking reaction and coking prevention.

  5. Effect of Coking Wastewater after Treatment with A2/O Process on Hereditary Stability in Maze Root Cells and Associated Oxidative Stress%A2/O工艺处理后焦化废水对玉米根尖细胞遗传稳定性的影响及其氧化损伤效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭振; 韩明; 桑楠

    2012-01-01

    Hydroponic experiment on maize with effluent of different volume concentrations coking wastewater was carried out. After the hydroponic experiment,the micronucleus rate of root tip. Antioxidant enzyme activities,the level of reactive oxygen species and oxidation products content of maize seedings were measured in order to explore the ecological risk of effluent and provide a theoretical basis to determine its biological monitoring indexes. The results showed that after treatment by different concentrations of effluent, the micronucleus rate of treated root tip and the content of H2O2,PCO,MDA in maize seedings increased significantly,the activities of POD and CAT increased also while the activity of SOD decreased. The results suggested that the coking wastewater contaminants are significantly reduced after treatment, but there is still certain ecological risk,this may be related with elevated levels of free radicals in plants.%用不同体积浓度生化出水对玉米进行水培试验,测定了处理后的玉米根尖细胞微核率、玉米幼苗抗氧化酶活性、活性氧水平以及氧化产物含量,目的在于探讨生化出水的生态风险性,并为其生物监控指标的确定提供一定的理论依据.结果表明,生化出水处理后,玉米根尖细胞微核率显著上升,玉米幼苗叶片中H2O2、PCO和MDA的含量明显增加,POD和CAT的活性升高,而SOD的活性却降低.这一结果提示,经过处理后的焦化废水其中污染物含量大幅降低,但其生态风险依然存在,这可能与植物体内自由基水平的升高有关.

  6. Handbook for cleaning for semiconductor manufacturing fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive volume provides an in-depth discussion of the fundamentals of cleaning and surface conditioning of semiconductor applications such as high-k/metal gate cleaning, copper/low-k cleaning, high dose implant stripping, and silicon and SiGe passivation. The theory and fundamental physics associated with wet etching and wet cleaning is reviewed, plus the surface and colloidal aspects of wet processing. Formulation development practices and methodology are presented along with the applications for preventing copper corrosion, cleaning aluminum lines, and other sensitive layers. This

  7. Effect of the exposure time in coke making atmosphere on the microstructure and properties of a refractory castable used in the petrochemical industry; Efeito do tempo de exposicao a uma atmosfera coqueificante na microestrutura e nas propriedades de um concreto refratario usado na industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrelon, M.D.; Pereira, A.H.A.; Rodrigues, J.A., E-mail: marcelodezena@gmail.com [Grupo de Engenharia de Microestrutura de Materiais - GEMM, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - DEMa, Universidade Federal de S. Carlos - UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, J. [CENPES, Petroleo Brasileiro S/A - PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Toledo-Filho, R.D. [Laboratorio de Estruturas e Materiais - LABEST, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Refractory castables used in Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU) are said to deteriorate due coke formation during the production of light hydrocarbons, causing a shortening in the operating time of the reactor. Consequently, a significant financial loss for the petrochemical will occur. Several studies have been carried out, but none of them showed clearly how much is the contribution of the coke for the concrete final deterioration. It still remains the doubt if the coke is the responsible for the damage observed macroscopically in a FCCU's riser. In this way, this work aimed to study the effect of the time in a coke making atmosphere on an anti-erosive class-C refractory castable, seeking for microstructural changes or on physical properties that indicate degradation mechanisms and give support to the understanding of the phenomenon. Samples of an industrial refractory castable used in petrochemical units were prepared and subjected to a forced coke making process in a simulation reactor. The temperature and the heating rate were kept constant at 540 deg C and 50 deg C/h, respectively. The values of 10, 60, 120, 240 and 480 h were used for the time of exposition to the propene gas. The microstructure of the samples was characterized through optical and scanning electron microscopy and its mineralogical phases through X-ray diffraction. Complementary analyses were necessary to a better understanding of the phenomenon. The results show that the surface and the microstructure are gradually impregnated by coke, which fills up pores, microcracks and cracks. Evidences of microcracking around the coke filled pores were not found. However, many aggregates present some type of deterioration related to the time of exposition to propene. Those damages are not necessarily caused by coke directly (author)

  8. Chinese Standards on Refractories Fireclay Brick and Semi-silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedure,packing,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven. This standard is applicable to the fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven,and the bricks for inner linings of carbon furnace,gas generator and shaft furnace.

  9. Temperature-programmed oxidation of coked noble metal catalysts after autothermal reforming of n-hexadecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppi, E.I.; Linnekoski, J.A.; Krause, A.O.I.; Veringa Niemelae, M.K. [Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, Research Group Industrial Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kaila, R.K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1001, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Autothermal reforming (ATR) of n-hexadecane was carried out on zirconia-supported mono- and bimetallic noble metal (Rh, Pt) catalysts at 600, 700, and 800 C. After ATR, the reactivity of coke deposits (2.8-9.9 wt%) on the catalysts was investigated by temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). Analysis of the results obtained from ATR and TPO experiments at various temperatures and on the different catalysts gave information on the reaction conditions where the detrimental coke can be minimized and allows estimating the nature of carbon deposits. H{sub 2} production increased with temperature on the tested Rh-containing catalysts and the ZrO{sub 2} support, but decreased as a function of temperature on the Pt catalyst. The formation of coke was least at 800 C, evidently due to the intensifying reaction of carbon and steam with increasing temperature, as well as to the better activity of the catalysts. The amount of coke formed was highest at 700 C. Comparison of the TPO profiles obtained for the monometallic Rh and Pt catalysts with the bimetallic RhPt revealed differences in the nature of carbon deposits on their surface. At 600 C, the coke formed on the monometallic Rh and Pt catalysts was located mostly on the support, whereas on the bimetallic RhPt catalyst the formation of this type of coke was suppressed. The bimetallic RhPt catalyst also exhibited better tolerance toward coking at 700 C. Therefore, although the selectivity toward hydrogen was not related to the amount of coke formed, the deactivation patterns differed on the mono- and bimetallic catalysts. (author)

  10. Application of oily sludge treatment technology in delayed coking unit%延迟焦化装置处理含油污泥的技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐先财; 蔡海军; 陈凯; 王成章

    2016-01-01

    介绍了中国石油乌鲁木齐石化公司炼油厂采用1.2 Mt/a延迟焦化装置的焦炭余热掺炼含油污泥的技术。采用该技术在焦炭塔冷焦期间,成功处置了含油污泥,并根据掺炼过程中出现的问题,提出了相关注意事项及对策。实际应用结果表明,采用该技术处理含油污泥达到了无害化、资源化和减量化的处理原则,降低了危险废物的处置费用,是炼化企业清洁生产的可行之法。适量掺炼含油污泥对延迟焦化装置的平稳生产和石油焦产品的质量无较大影响,石油焦产品仍能满足3B级产品的质量要求。%Oily sludge was treated through blending process in a 1.2 Mt/a delayed coking unit of Urumqi Petrochemical Company utilizing used heat in coke. Aimed at the problems in the blending process,relevant measures were put forward. It was showed that,through practical application, the oily sludge became harmless and could be used as resource,and the cost of the waste disposal was reduced. By blending the right amount of the oily sludge,the delayed coking unit could smoothly produce petroleum coke product which could meet the quality requirements.

  11. 活性焦烟气脱硫技术及其应用前景%Desulfurization Technology for Flue Gas by Active Coke and Its Application Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家铭

    2012-01-01

    Desulfurization technology for flue gas by active coke was using its inherent functions of adsorption, catalysis and filtration,it was a dry purification treatment for the sulfur contained flue gas, in same one of reactor the three functions of desulfurization, de-nitride and de-dust were finished. Author hasintroduced the basic principle,process flow,technical feature,studying and developing situation taking coal as mainraw material to produce the active coke ; has compared the desulfurization hy active coke with the other some kinds of conventional desulfurization processes. Result indicates that the desulfurization technology of flue gas by active coke has an obvious superiority in the aspects of desulfurization rate,utilization of by-product,investment of plant and operating cost etc.%活性焦烟气脱硫技术利用活性焦特有的吸附、催化和过滤功能,对含硫烟气进行干法净化处理,在同1个反应器内完成脱硫、脱硝、除尘3种功能。介绍了以煤为主要原料生产活性焦的基本原理、工艺流程、技术特点和研发概况;将活性焦脱硫工艺与其他几种常用的脱硫工艺进行了对比,结果表明,活性焦烟气脱硫技术在脱硫率、副产品利用、装置投资及运行费用等方面均具有明显优势。

  12. Discerning the Location and Nature of Coke Deposition from Surface to Bulk of Spent Zeolite Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Arun; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Bao, Jie; Guo, Mond F.; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Xu, Zhijie; Gray, Michel J.; Prodinger, Sebastian; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.

    2016-11-01

    The formation of carbonaceous deposits (coke) in zeolite pores during catalysis leads to temporary deactivation of catalyst, necessitating regeneration steps, affecting throughput, and resulting in partial permanent loss of catalytic efficiency. Yet, even to date, the coke molecule distribution is quite challenging to study with high spatial resolution from surface to bulk of the catalyst particles at a single particle level. To address this challenge we investigated the coke molecules in HZSM-5 catalyst after ethanol conversion treatment by a combination of C K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), 13C Cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, and atom probe tomography (APT). XAS and NMR highlighted the aromatic character of coke molecules. APT permitted the imaging of the spatial distribution of hydrocarbon molecules located within the pores of spent HZSM-5 catalyst from surface to bulk at a single particle level. 27Al NMR results and APT results indicated association of coke molecules with Al enriched regions within the spent HZSM-5 catalyst particles. The experimental results were additionally validated by a level-set–based APT field evaporation model. These results provide a new approach to investigate catalytic deactivation due to hydrocarbon coking or poisoning of zeolites at an unprecedented spatial resolution.

  13. Catalytic conversion of lignin pyrolysis model compound- guaiacol and its kinetic model including coke formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Wang, Yun; Shao, Shanshan; Xiao, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Lignin is the most difficult to be converted and most easy coking component in biomass catalytic pyrolysis to high-value liquid fuels and chemicals. Catalytic conversion of guaiacol as a lignin model compound was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor over ZSM-5 to investigate its conversion and coking behaviors. The effects of temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) and partial pressure on product distribution were studied. The results show the maximum aromatic carbon yield of 28.55% was obtained at temperature of 650 °C, WHSV of 8 h‑1 and partial pressure of 2.38 kPa, while the coke carbon yield was 19.55%. The reaction pathway was speculated to be removing methoxy group to form phenols with further aromatization to form aromatics. The amount of coke increased with increasing reaction time. The surface area and acidity of catalysts declined as coke formed on the acid sites and blocked the pore channels, which led to the decrease of aromatic yields. Finally, a kinetic model of guaiacol catalytic conversion considering coke deposition was built based on the above reaction pathway to properly predict product distribution. The experimental and model predicting data agreed well. The correlation coefficient of all equations were all higher than 0.90.

  14. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  15. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

    2014-07-31

    The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage

  16. Soiling and Cleaning of Polymer Film Solar Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sansom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the accelerated ageing of commercially available silvered polymer film by contact cleaning using brushes and water in the presence of soiling created by dust and sand particles. These conditions represent cleaning regimes in real concentrating solar power (CSP solar fields in arid environments, where contact cleaning using brushes and water is often required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of these established cleaning processes on the optical and visual characteristics of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. The experiments were repeated using different experimental equipment at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA in Spain and Cranfield University in the UK. The results highlight differences that are attributable to the experimental methods used. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection show that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water, used in a cleaning head with both linear and rotational motion, can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance.

  17. Supporting Clean Energy Development in Swaziland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Swaziland, a country largely dependent on regional fossil fuel imports to meet power needs, is vulnerable to supply changes and price shocks. To address this challenge, the country's National Energy Policy and Implementation Strategy prioritizes actions to enhance energy independence through scaling up renewable energy and energy efficiency. With approximately 70 percent of the country lacking electricity, Swaziland is also strongly committed to expanding energy access to support key economic and social development goals. Within this context, energy security and energy access are two foundational objectives for clean energy development in Swaziland. The partnership between the Swaziland Energy Regulatory Authority and the Clean Energy Solutions Center led to concrete outcomes to support clean energy development in Swaziland. Improving renewable energy project licensing processes will enable Swaziland to achieve key national objectives to expand clean energy access and transition to greater energy independence.

  18. Speciation of vanadium in oilsand coke and bacterial culture by high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X. Sherry [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Le, X. Chris [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Analytical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3 (Canada)], E-mail: xc.le@ualberta.ca

    2007-10-17

    A simple and sensitive method for the speciation of vanadium(III), (IV), and (V) was developed by using high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS). The EDTA-complexed vanadium species were separated on a strong anion exchange column with an eluent containing 2 mM EDTA, 3% acetonitrile, and 80 mM ammonium bicarbonate at pH 6. Each analysis was complete in 5 min. The detection limits were 0.6, 0.7 and 1.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} for V(III), V(IV), and V(V), respectively. The method was applied to coke pore water samples from an oilsand processing/upgrading site in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada and to Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 bacterial cultures incubated with V(V). In the coke pore water samples, V(IV) and V(V) were found to be the major species. For the first time, V(III) was detected in the bacterial cultures incubated with V(V)

  19. Polyphasic bacterial community analysis of an aerobic activated sludge removing phenols and thiocyanate from coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfoldi, T.; Szekely, A.J.; Goral, R.; Barkacs, K.; Scheirich, G.; Andras, J.; Racz, A.; Marialigeti, K. [Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Microbiology

    2010-05-15

    Biological purification processes are effective tools in the treatment of hazardous wastes such as toxic compounds produced in coal coking. In this study, the microbial community of a lab-scale activated sludge system treating coking effluent was assessed by cultivation-based (strain isolation and identification, biodegradation tests) and culture-independent techniques (sequence-aided T-RFLP, taxon-specific PCR). The results of the applied polyphasic approach showed a simple microbial community dominated by easily culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Comamonas badia was identified as the key microbe of the system, since it was the predominant member of the bacterial community, and its phenol degradation capacity was also proved. Metabolism of phenol, even at elevated concentrations (up to 1500 mg/L), was also presented for many other dominant (Pseudomonas, Rhodanobacter, Oligella) and minor (Alcaligenes, Castellaniella, Microbacterium) groups, while some activated sludge bacteria (Sphingomonas, Rhodopseudomonas) did not tolerate it even in lower concentrations (250 mg/L). In some cases, closely related strains showed different tolerance and degradation properties. Members of the genus Thiobacillus were detected in the activated sludge, and were supposedly responsible for the intensive thiocyanate biodegradation observed in the system. Additionally, some identified bacteria (e.g. C. badia and the Ottowia-related strains) might also have had a significant impact on the structure of the activated sludge due to their floc-forming abilities.

  20. 气液两相流方法对络合-超滤膜组件污染的清洗%Cleaning for Fouled Membrane Module in Complexation-Ultrafiltration Processes with Gas/Liquid Two-Phase Flow Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔玉柏; 邵嘉慧; 何义亮

    2012-01-01

    Ultrafiltiation (UF) membrane technology has become one of the most promising high-techs in water treatment. However, its applications are significantly limited because of membrane fouling. A gas/liquid two-phase flow cleaning method was put forward and its performance on cleaning membrane modules fouled in the complexation-ultrafiltration process was studied. Effects of cleaning methods (gas flushing, water backflushing, chemical backflushing and gas-liquid two-phase flow with either water or chemical as cleaning solution) on the flux recovery were compared. Results show that the gas/liquid two-phase flow method can recover the membrane flux most with the minimum cleaning time. Effects of gas pulse time (tc), gas pulse interval (ti), velocity ratio of gas to liquid (Rs/t) on gas/liquid two-phase flow performance were investigated. When ti is 10 s and Rg/1 is 20:1, the flux was recovered most with tc of 15 s and 25 s. When tc is 15 s and Rg/1 is 20:1, the flux is recovered most with 20 s ti. When tc is 15 s and ti is 10 s, the two-phase flow cleaning method with water as cleaning solution can recover the flux most with Rg/t = 80:l and the two-phase flow cleaning method with HC1 as cleaning solution can recover the flux most with Rg/1=40:1. Results indicate that the gas/liquid two-phase flow cleaning method can effectively remove UF membrane foulants in the complexation-ultrafiltration process and can be called a green membrane cleaning method.%超滤膜法是目前最有发展前途的水处理技术之一,但使用过程中不可避免的污染问题很大程度上限制了该技术的推广.该文提出特定的气液两相流清洗方法并针对络合-超滤膜组件污染清洗进行研究,比较了气体冲洗、水力反冲洗、化学试剂反冲洗和气液两相流清洗(分别以水和HCl作为清洗液)络合-超滤污染膜组件的效果.结果显示气液两相流方法的清洗效果最好,且用时最短.考察了通气时间tc、气停时间ti和

  1. Determination of 2-propanol in surface cleaning solutions used for copper continuous casting process by flow injection-spectrophotometric detection with on-line column separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashibe, Yutaka; Tokuda, Masahiro; Takeya, Minoru

    2003-09-01

    A flow-injection system has been developed for the determination of 2-propanol in the surface cleaning solutions used in the copper continuous cast rod making system. Adsorption chromatography in nitric acid medium was used for the on-line separation of oily substances in the sample solution. Cerium(IV) diammonium nitrate was utilized as the chromogenic reagent for the spectrophotometric detection of 2-propanol. The system permits a throughput of one sample per hour for the oily sample, and of 12 samples per hour for the none-oily sample. The reproducibility has been proven to be satisfactory with a relative standard deviation of less than 6.0% (2.2%(V/V) 2-propanol level, n = 23). The detection limit is 0.01% (V/V).

  2. EUV mask cleans comparison of frontside and dual-sided concurrent cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Lin Lee; Kindt, Louis; Turley, Christina; Leonhard, Dusty; Boyle, John; Robinson, Chris; Rankin, Jed; Corliss, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The cleaning requirements for EUV masks are more complex than optical masks due to the absence of available EUVcompatible pellicles. EUV masks must therefore be capable of undergoing more than 100 cleaning cycles with minimum impact to lithographic performance. EUV masks are created on substrates with 40 multilayers of silicon and molybdenum to form a Bragg reflector, capped with a 2.5nm-thick ruthenium layer and a tantalum-based absorber; during usage, both ruthenium and absorber are exposed to the cleaning process. The CrN layer on the backside is used to enable electrostatic clamping. This clamp side must also be free of particles that could impact printing and overlay, and particles could also potentially migrate to the frontside and create defects. Thus, the cleaning process must provide decent particle removal efficiencies on both front- and backside while maintaining reflectivity with minimal surface roughness change. In this paper, we report progress developing a concurrent patterned-side and clamped-side cleaning process that achieves minimal reflectivity change over 120 cleaning cycles, with XPS and EDS indicating the presence of ruthenium after 125 cleaning cycles. The change in surface roughness over 100 cleaning cycles is within the noise (0.0086nm) on a mask blank, and SEM inspection of 100nm and 200nm features on patterned masks after undergoing 100 cleaning cycles show no indications of ruthenium pitting or significant surface damage. This process was used on test masks to remove particles from both sides that would otherwise inhibit these masks from being used in the scanner.

  3. Research on the Coal Blend Additive for Coking%煤种适应性及配煤炼焦探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢树新

    2012-01-01

    The factors which impact the coal coking process have been probed into, and the actual practice of using medium temperature pitch, tar residue, waste plastics, anthracite or coke powder as additive for coal blend has been introduced. Proper coal blend can lead to a sensible and effective utilization of the coal resource, and the study results have important theory significance and practical value for the commercial production in the coking industry.%讨论了原料煤及煤中显微组分对煤的成焦过程的影响;分析了中温沥青、焦油渣、废塑料、无烟煤、焦粉作为添加剂进行配煤炼焦时的实际情况.选用合适的添加剂进行配煤炼焦,能更好地实现煤炭资源合理有效利用,对工业生产具有重要的理论意义和实用价值.

  4. Treatment of soil eluate containing nitro aromatic compounds by adsorption on activated coke (AC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiping; Jiang, Zhenming; Zhao, Quanlin; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Su, Hongping; Gao, Xuewen; Ye, Zhengfang

    2016-01-01

    Soil washing is a kind of physical method to remove organic matters from contaminated soil. However, its eluate after washing may result in secondary pollution to the environment. In this study, activated coke (AC) was used to remove organic pollutants from contaminated soil eluate. The effect of temperature, initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) and AC dosage on COD removal efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the organic matter can be removed in the eluate because the COD dropped a lot. When the AC dosage was 20 g·L(-1), 88.92% of COD decreased after 480 min of adsorption at 50 °C. The process of adsorption can be described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm. The adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The pseudo-second-order model can be used to describe the adsorption process. After adsorption, the acute toxicity of the eluate was reduced by 76%, and the water qualities were in agreement with Chinese discharge standard GB 14470.1-2002, which means the eluate could be discharged to the environment.

  5. 煤沥青型焦制备与固结机理%Preparation and mechanism of formed coke with coal tar pitch as binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永斌; 钟强; 姜涛; 李骞; 徐斌

    2016-01-01

    以煤沥青为黏结剂,对焦粉型焦制备新工艺及其固结机理进行研究。研究结果表明:助剂BJ可激发煤沥青中芳香烃等化合物的活性,使煤沥青常温下具有黏结性,实现型焦的冷压成型,其湿块2 m落下强度大于50次;超细磨填充料可填充煤沥青收缩产生的孔隙,充实煤沥青炭化骨架,强化型焦的炭化固结;煤沥青最大的热分解挥发速率和热缩聚速率分别出现在336℃和629℃,湿块经370℃挥发15 min及600℃炭化30 min后制备的型焦抗压强度达20 MPa;煤沥青在挥发和炭化中解脱除H和N等并吸收O缩聚形成C—C键的炭化骨架,其C与H的物质的量比由1.69提高至2.80,C与O的物质的量比由91.77降低至67.23;型焦炭化块主要由C及少量O构成,煤沥青形成的C—C键炭化骨架将焦炭颗粒牢固地黏结成块,使得型焦内部结构紧密、均质性好。%Preparation and mechanism of formed coke with coal tar pitch as binder were studied. The results show that assistant reagent BJ can excite the activity of aromatic compounds of coal tar pitch and make coal tar pitch have the cold state cohesiveness, which realizes briquetting of coke breeze at room temperature without heating process. The drop resistance of the wet briquette is 50 times per 2 m. Filling material of ultrafine particle can fill the pore produced by shrinkage of coal tar pitch, enrich the skeleton of coal tar pitch, intensify carbonization consolidation of formed coke, and improve the strength of formed coke. The best thermal decomposition rate and thermal decomposition rate of coal tar pitch appear at 336℃and 629℃, respectively. The compressive strength of formed coke volatilized at 370℃for 15 min and carbonized at 550℃for 30 min is 20 MPa. Through volatilization and carbonization, the molar rate of C and H in coal tar pitch increases from 1.69 to 2.80 and molar rate of C and O decreases from 91.77 to 67.23. The formed

  6. Experimental study on preheated combustion of pulverized semi-coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Zhu, Jianguo; Lu, Qinggang; Zhou, Zuxu

    2015-06-01

    In a test rig, pulverized semi-coke was preheated to 850oC in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and then combusted at 1100oC in a down-fired combustor (DFC). Experiments were conducted to reveal the effects of three secondary air nozzle cases (co-axial jet, top circular jet and wall circular jet) on the NO emission. The results show that the optimized secondary air nozzle can reduce NO emission. O2 concentration profile is the major factor affecting NO generation and emission, which is led by the secondary air nozzle. The lower O2 concentration led to the generation of lower initial NO. The NO emission at the exit of the DFC was reduced from 189 to 92 mg/m3 (@ 6% O2) with the decrease of initial generation. The peak of NO at 100 mm below the nozzle should be attributed to the oxidization of NH3 in the syngas, rather than the oxidization of fuel-N in the char. The low and well-distributed O2 concentration contributes to the reduction of initial NO, which helps to reduce the NO emission. The combustion efficiencies of the cases of the co-axial jet, the top circular jet, and the wall circular jet are 97.88%, 98.94% and 98.74%, respectively.

  7. Reduction behavior of hematite in the presence of coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-hong Wang; Guo-feng Li; Yong-sheng Sun; and Ming-zhao He

    2016-01-01

    The reduction kinetics of hematite in the presence of coke as a reductant was studied via isothermal and non-isothermal thermo-dynamic analyses. The isothermal reduction of hematite was conducted at a pre-determined temperature ranging from 1423 to 1573 K. The results indicated that a higher reduction temperature led to an increased reduction degree and an increased reduction rate. The non-isothermal reduction of hematite was carried out from room temperature to 1573 K at various heating rates from 5 to 15 K·min−1. A greater heating rate gave a greater reduction rate but decreased reduction degree. With an increase in temperature, both the reduction rate and the reduction de-gree increased at a smaller rate when the temperature was less than 1150 K, and they increased at a higher rate when the temperature was greater than 1150 K before completion of the reduction reaction. Both the isothermal and the non-isothermal reduction behaviors of hematite were described by the Avrami–Erofeev model. For the isothermal reduction, the apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor were 171.25 kJ·mol−1 and 1.80 × 105 min−1, respectively. In the case of non-isothermal reduction, however, the apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor were correlated with the heating rate.

  8. Kinetic model on coke oven gas with steam reforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-yuan; ZHOU Jie-min; YAN Hong-jie

    2008-01-01

    The effects of factors such as the molar ratio of H2O to CH4 (n(H2O)/n(CH4)), methane conversion temperature and time on methane conversion rate were investigated to build kinetic model for reforming of coke-oven gas with steam. The results of experiments show that the optimal conditions for methane conversion are that the molar ratio of H2O to CH4 varies from 1.1 to 1.3and the conversion temperature varies from 1 223 to 1 273 K. The methane conversion rate is more than 95% when the molar ratio ofH2O to CH4 is 1.2, the conversion temperature is above 1 223 K and the conversion time is longer than 0.75 s. Kinetic model of methane conversion was proposed. All results demonstrate that the calculated values by the kinetic model accord with the experimental data well, and the error is less than 1.5%.

  9. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...

  10. Semi-Coke and Needle Coke Production with 3-Chloronitrobenzene Modified Coal Tar Pitch%对3-CNB改性煤沥青制备半焦和针状焦性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴韵杰; 苏蕾; 曹青; 董亚威; 靳利娥

    2015-01-01

    Coal tar pitch (CTP) is often modified to enhance its potential value. In this study, CTP was modified with 3-chloronitrobenzene (3-CNB), andp-methyl benzenesulfonic was used as the catalyst. The carbonization yield increases and the optical texture of the products show a long-range fibrous structure after modification. Viscosity, soft point, coking value, toluene insoluble (TI) and quinoline insolubles (QIs) originated from coking process were measured. The properties of the intermediate products (semi-coke and needle coke) were analyzed by TG, FT-IR,1H-NMR and XRD. The results reveal that the viscosity andβ-resin content of the modified CTP (MCTP) are increased, and TI, QI and degree of polymerization are increased simultaneously with the increase of 3-CNB.Iar andA880/A1600results from IR studies show that both aromaticity and polymerization of MCTP increase. Moreover,1H-NMR results show that the number ofβ proton andγ proton decreases and the number ofHarandHα increases, which confirms that the aromatic index and aromatic hydrogen are increased. XRD spectra indicate that the interplanar crystal spacing became narrower and the stack height is increased when comparing with those of CTP. These results indirectly confirm that the order of the needle coke is increased. The existence of nitro-group can reduce the density of electronic cloud of metaposition chloride. This property is beneficial for enhancing reaction with compounds containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.%为提升煤沥青(coal tar pitch-CTP)的潜在价值,以3-氯硝基苯(3-chloronitrobenzene,3-CNB)为改性剂,对甲基苯磺酸为催化剂,对其进行了成功改性。利用偏光显微镜、TG、FT-IR、1H-NMR和XRD对中间产物半焦和针状焦性质进行了分析。偏光显微组织分析表明,改性后煤沥青(modified CTP,MCTP)的碳化产率增加,中间相光学组织呈典型的长程纤维结构;其黏度、β树脂含量、TI和QIs均随3-CNB量的增加而增加

  11. Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  13. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    Half the world's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020. The high human density and changes in peoples' consumption habits result in an ever-increasing amount of trash that must be handled by governing bodies. Problems created by inefficient or dysfunctional cleaning services...

  14. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  15. Neutrino Detection With CLEAN

    CERN Document Server

    McKinsey, D N

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...

  16. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  17. 原料沥青的变化对延迟焦化生产的影响%Influence of raw pitch on the delayed coking production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 程俊霞

    2014-01-01

    一直以来,人们在煤系针状焦生产的原料选择上认为煤沥青为大众原料,只要物化指标符合要求即可选择使用。通过在生产过程中采取不同产地、不同厂家的两种沥青按照不同的比例混配,在控制其理化指标相近或相似的情况下,经过大量的生产数据整理与总结发现:具有相似指标的煤沥青,用于延迟焦化生产反应过程中的热解产物、产品收率以及产品质量是有差异的。因此,在针状焦的生产过程中原料沥青的选择方面,不能完全依赖几个物化指标,也应该重视不同产地沥青的使用性能,重视实际生产过程中的技术研究所积累的经验。%All the time the coal tar pitch is thought as the preferred selection raw material for the production of coal-based needle cokes, as long as the physical and chemical indexes meet the requirements. In this paper the coal based needle cokes were produced using two pitches as feedstock from different producing manufacturers with the different mixing ratio, through controlling their chemi-cal indicators close or similar. A number of production data were achieved. The results showed that there are the differences in py-rolysis products, such as product yield and product quality of the delayed cokes from pitches with the similar properties during cok-ing. Therefore, the choice of raw material of pitch in the process of needle coke production can not rely solely on several physical and chemical indicators, should also be paid attention to the performance of pitch from different sources of origin and the experience accumulated during the production processes.

  18. Towards sustainable and safe apparel cleaning methods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troynikov, Olga; Watson, Christopher; Jadhav, Amit; Nawaz, Nazia; Kettlewell, Roy

    2016-11-01

    Perchloroethylene (PERC) is a compound commonly used as a solvent in dry cleaning, despite its severe health and environmental impacts. In recent times chemicals such as hydrocarbons, GreenEarth(®), acetal and liquid carbon dioxide have emerged as less damaging substitutes for PERC, and an even more sustainable water-based wet cleaning process has been developed. We employed a systematic review approach to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing research evidence in the area of sustainable and safe apparel cleaning methods and care. Our review describes traditional professional dry cleaning methods, as well as those that utilise solvents other than PERC, and their ecological attributes. In addition, the new professional wet cleaning process is discussed. Finally, we address the health hazards of the various solvents used in dry cleaning and state-of-the-art solvent residue trace analysis techniques.

  19. Comparison between UV and VUV photolysis for the pre- and post-treatment of coking wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Rui; Zheng, Zhongyuan; Wen, Donghui

    2015-03-01

    In this study, ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis were investigated for the pre-treatment and post-treatment of coking wastewater. First, 6-fold diluted raw coking wastewater was irradiated by UV and VUV. It was found that 15.9%-35.4% total organic carbon (TOC) was removed after 24 hr irradiation. The irradiated effluent could be degraded by the acclimated activated sludge. Even though the VUV photolysis removed more chemical oxygen demand (COD) than UV, the UV-irradiated effluent demonstrated better biodegradability. After 4 hr UV irradiation, the biological oxygen demand BOD5/COD ratio of irradiated coking wastewater increased from 0.163 to 0.224, and its toxicity decreased to the greatest extent. Second, the biologically treated coking wastewater was irradiated by UV and VUV. Both of them were able to remove 37%-47% TOC within 8 hr irradiation. Compared to UV, VUV photolysis could significantly improve the transparency of the bio-treated effluent. VUV also reduced 7% more ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), 17% more nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), and 18% more total nitrogen (TN) than UV, producing 35% less nitrite nitrogen (NO3--N) as a result. In conclusion, UV irradiation was better in improving the biodegradability of coking wastewater, while VUV was more effective at photolyzing the residual organic compounds and inorganic N-species in the bio-treated effluent.

  20. Effective adsorption of phenolic compound from aqueous solutions on activated semi coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Dai, Yuan; Zhang, Yu; Fu, Feng

    2017-03-01

    Activated Semi coke was prepared by KOH activation and employed as adsorbent to study adsorption function of phenolic compound from aqueous solutions. The adsorption result showed that the adsorption capacity of the activated semi coke for phenolic compound increased with contact time and adsorbent dosage, and slightly affected by temperature. The surface structure property of the activated semi coke was characterized by N2 adsorption, indicating that the activated semi coke was essentially macroporous, and the BET surface area was 347.39 m2 g-1. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the surface of the activated semi coke had a high developed pore. The adsorption kinetics were investigated according to pseudofirst order, pseudosecond order and intraparticle diffusion, and the kinetics data were fitted by pseudosecond order model, and intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step. Adsorption isotherm was studied by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and Toth models. The result indicated that adsorption isotherm data could fit well with Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and Toth models.

  1. Colour change of soft denture liners after storage in coffee and coke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Zuccolotti, Bruna Carolina Rossatti; Moreno, Amália; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Dekon, Stefan Fiuza de Carvalho

    2011-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the colour change of soft denture liners after thermocycling and storage in coffee and coke. Four liners, two silicone-based (Sofreliner S and Reline GS) and two acrylic resin-based (Soft Confort and Dentuflex), were evaluated in this study. Ten samples were obtained for each group. After 2000 cycles of thermocycling with baths of 5°C and 55°C, five samples were stored in coffee and the remaining samples in coke. The colour alteration was evaluated in a reflection spectrophotometer before and after thermocycling, and after 1, 3, 24, 48 and 96h of storage in coffee and coke. Data were submitted to anova and Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). Thermocycling and storage period represented a higher statistically significant influence for the resin liners than for the silicone materials. Coke did not influence the colour stability of the materials during storage. However, the coffee solution generated statistically significant colour alteration in the material Soft Confort. In the comparison between the coffee and coke solutions, there was no statistically significant difference for colour alteration only for the material Dentuflex. The silicone liners presented better colour stability following thermocycling and storage independent of the solution. The coffee solution was a statistically significant factor for colour alteration of the material Soft Confort.

  2. 钛制设备化学清洗新工艺的研究与应用%Research and Application of New Chemical Cleaning Process for Titanium-Made Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许正军; 莫逆; 杨福锁; 刘伯东

    2002-01-01

    Based on the research on corrosion-resistance of titanium in various media and a great deal of tests, a new chemical cleaning process for titanium-made equipment was developed and applied to titanium-made heat exchangers of a homemade multi-stage flash distiller for sea-water desalination in Tianjin Dagang Power Plant. Scale in the tubes was removed completely as inspected by the experts. Testing results of hydrogen content and metallographic structureof titanium tubes showed that the cleaning was successful without any damages to the equipment.%通过对钛材在多种介质中的耐蚀性研究及大量的试验,研制出了钛制设备化学清洗的新工艺,并在天津大港发电厂国产海水淡化闪蒸设备钛制换热器的化学清洗中进行了应用.经专家组检查,钛管内垢被全部除尽,钛管吸氢量及金相组织检测结果表明,设备无损坏,清洗取得了成功.

  3. Microstructural analysis and the mechanism if the coke formation in a refractory castable used in a fluidized catalytic cracking unit; Analise microestructural e mecanismo de formacao do coque em um concreto refratario utilizado em unidades de craqueamento catalitico fludizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrelon, M.D.; Rodrigues, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (GEMM/UFSCAR), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Engenharia de Microestrutura de Materiais], Email: marcelodezena@gmail.com; Medeiros, J. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Toledo Filho, R.D. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Estruturas e Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The cokes formation in the refractory castables for FCC's unit is cited as one the most relevant problem in the internal face of the petrochemical Riser, but its mechanism is still unknown. In this sense, was made a microstructural study with a anti-erosive refractory castable class C, exposed to a cokemaker atmosphere, aiming to identify a mechanism to explain the coke's formation. For this reason, test samples were molded and subjected to a cokemaker process in the reactor pilot from CENPES-PETROBRAS-RJ, under an atmosphere of propene, as one temperature of 540 deg C and soaking time ranging between 10 and 480h. These samples had their internal and surface microstructures analyzed by Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that the aggregates had deterioration and your internal pores were filled with coke. In this point, starts the growth of microspheres of coke on the external face, coalescing and forming 'columns' in which become denser when increasing the exposure time to a saturated atmosphere with hydrocarbon. (author)

  4. Measurements of volatile hydrocarbons in ambient air coking plant `Walbrzych`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, R.; Weglarz, A.; Skrok, R. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze (Poland). Inst. of Environmental Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The air is a matrix very difficult to handle. In addition, the pollutants are usually present at very low concentrations. Many techniques can be used to collect air samples. The simplest way is to use special containers, but this procedure is expensive and time-consuming. The adsorption of pollutants on adsorbents shows a growing interest, despite the difficulty to choose the appropriate support in order to obtain quantitative yields. To overcome this problem, two or three types of adsorbents may be used in series for collecting a wide range of analytes. In addition, the miniaturization of these techniques (i.e. microtraps and solid-phase microextraction) is also very promising: easy to handle, low cost, no solvent required, detection limits at ppt level when sensitive detectors are used. If we have no money for this modern equipment we must use traditional methods for compounds determination. This paper describes measurements of volatile hydrocarbons (such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and phenol) in ambient air of coking plant `Walbrzych` Measuring points were at streets: Beethoven 4, Dworcowa 2, Kosteckiego 5 and Zamkowa 1. BTEX were collected on graphitized carbon and phenol on Chromosorb 102. After that samples were extracted by solvents (dichloromethane for BTEX or benzene for phenol). Next step was the analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector without preconcentration. The lower limit of detection was circa 0.01 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for each of the determined compounds. These measurements of hydrocarbons in town of Walbrzych were performed for two years from 1996 to 1998. 2 tabs.

  5. System Cleaning Method of Vegetable Oil Extraction Solvent%植物油抽提溶剂系统清洗方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟分丽; 李琨; 杜侃; 王春梅; 李金峰; 申中义

    2011-01-01

    介绍萃取精馏系统存在的萃取剂结焦变性的问题,通过对常用化工清洗方法的分析和比较,探索出适合萃取精馏系统填料塔的清洗方法。%There is degeneration and coke problem in extractive distillation system. Through analysis and comparison of common chemical clean methods, the suitable clean method of packed column of extractive distillation system is proposed.

  6. Application of boreal forest toxicity data in the decision-making process for contaminated soil clean-up remediation at oil and gas fields in Western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scroggins, R.; Princz, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Moody, M. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Regina, SK (Canada); Olsgard-Dumanski, M.; Haderlein, L. [WorleyParsons Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Moore, B. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on a multi-year research project in which a broad range of boreal forest test methods for assessing petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) toxicity in contaminated soil were used to show that clean-up decisions can be made on a field-wide basis through focused biological testing of typical drill sump and flare pit locations within an oil and gas field. Remediation at most sites will likely be limited to the Alberta soil eco-contact guidelines for PHC F2 and F3 fractions. Since Tier 1 eco-contact guidelines are derived using toxicity data from fresh crude and using agricultural plant species, it was more logical to follow a Tier 2 eco-contact pathway approach because most contamination was related to drilling sumps and flare pits containing highly weathered PHCs and species native to the boreal eco-zone of Canada. The site-specific remedial objective (SSRO) option within the Tier 2 guideline was used because of the large number of sites requiring remediation, and the similarity of sites within pre-determined Risk Assessment Zones. For representative contaminated soils, a SSRO was derived from the twenty-fifth percentile of the estimated species sensitivity distribution of all acceptable boreal plant, earthworm, springtail and mite test endpoints. The purpose of the project was to reduce soil volumes sent to landfill during site remediation by showing that residual impacts from weathered PHC in soil do not have damaging effects on boreal forest receptors following remediation. Data was included to show the value of this approach and the variability between sites and their effect on regionalizing a Tier 2 eco-contact guideline.

  7. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  8. The Introduction of ATR Instrumentation Design in the Methanol Plant Based on Coke-oven Gas%焦炉气制甲醇装置中ATR仪表设计浅谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余博

    2011-01-01

    焦炉气是炼焦过程的副产品,除部分返回炼焦炉用作加热燃料外,剩余的气体主要用作城市居民的燃料气,也有相当数量通过火炬燃烧放空.随着国家节能减排的深入,利用焦炉气制甲醇一方面减少对大气CO2的排放,另一方面还可以产生经济效益.开发了纯氧部分氧化制合成气的技术,在焦炉气制甲醇装置中采取ATR技术,其主要包括仪表选型、复杂控制及联锁逻辑三方面的内容.合理的设计实现对装置的工艺过程实时监控、设备的安全运行,提高工艺气转化率.%The coke oven gas is the by-product in coking process and is flammable.Partial coke oven gas returns to coke burner as heating fuel, the surplus gas is largely applied as urban fuel gas, and quite a lot is vented to flare stack.With the support from the state for energy-saving and pollution-reducing project, the methanol project based on coke oven gas is a favorble option: it can reduce CO2 emmission and also yield economic benefit.After years' exploration and research, a synthetic gas production technology by the partial oxidation of pure oxygen has been developed, therefore ATR technology will be widely applied in this process.Instrumentation design plays an important role in application of ATR technology.

  9. Application of Air Gun in Coal Bunker of Coke Oven%空气炮在焦炉煤仓的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓琴; 曹春娟; 王昆鹏

    2011-01-01

    To solve the bad influence caused by the coal blockage in coal bunker of coke oven during coals' falling on coking process, the installation methods and application of air gun in coal bunker was put forward according to aerodynamics principle. It was proposed that air gun was added in the coal bunker of coke oven and made use of potential energy that compressed air (0. 4~0. 8 Mpa) released abruptly to produce the powerful shock-wave. As a result, the arching and the cohering coal materials were recovered gravity flow. These methods made the blockage disappear and achieved a continuous operation for coal loading. Air gun should be designed and installed as spirals in each coal bunker and the specific demand during the operation was introduced as well. The result shows that the application of air gun in coal bunker of coke oven can not only reduce labor intensity,protect equipment, improve coke quality, but also achieve a safe production.%针对焦炉煤仓在下煤时出现的易堵塞现象对焦炉生产造成的诸多不利影响,根据空气动力学原理,提出了在焦炉1煤仓增设空气炮,利用压缩空气(0.4~0.8 MPa)突然释放的势能,产生强烈冲击波,使起拱的或粘着的煤料再次恢复重力流动,使堵塞消除,实现装煤连续作业.介绍了每个煤仓应按螺旋上升布置空气炮的安装要求,以及空气炮在使用过程中的具体要求.结果表明:在焦炉煤仓使用空气炮不仅可以降低操作人员的劳动强度,保护设备,而且可以改善焦炭质量,并实现焦炉安全生产.

  10. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  11. Multi-stage cleaning plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1980-12-09

    A cleaning plant positioned within an annular fluidized bed combustion chamber is divided into a plurality of separate cleaning stages, wherein a first stage is located adjacent the fluidized bed and additional stages are arranged within the first stage. Each stage comprises a plurality of separate cleaning devices which act in parallel, while cleaning devices of different stages act in series to remove debris from the combustion gases that exit from the fluidized bed combustion chamber.

  12. Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 μm CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 μm. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

  13. Construction of a pilot plant of 500 KW it solar gasification of coke of oil. Synpet project; Construccion de una planta piloto de 500 kW para la gasificacion solar de coke de petroleo. Proyecto Synpet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal; Denk, T.; Valverde, A.; Steinfeld, A.; Zacarias, L.; Jesus, J. C. de; Romero, M.

    2008-07-01

    Solar thermochemistry is a novel and very promising route for the production of valuable fuels and chemicals, in which solar energy is collected and concentrated in order to supply the high temperature process heat necessary to drive highly endothermic chemical reactions. Some high temperature endothermic reactions for converting solar energy to chemical fuels have been investigated; the steam-gasification of petroleum derivatives and residues using concentrated solar radiation has been proposed more recently as a viable alternative to solar hydrogen production. This paper reviews this study which is being carried out within collaboration between Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Zurich/Switzerland, and the CIEMAT in Spain to study the feasibility of thermochemical falsification form petroleum coke. (Author)

  14. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  15. 焦化废水深度处理技术%Advanced treatment technology of coking wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟冠华; 刘鹏; 邱菲; 方玲; 司晨浩

    2015-01-01

    焦化废水含有大量有机污染物和有毒无机物,成分十分复杂,污染物色度高,属较难降解的高浓度有机工业废水.经预处理和生化处理后的焦化废水存在COD、氨氮、总氮及氰化物不达标的问题.通过高级氧化法、混凝沉淀法、吸附法、膜分离法、生物化学法以及组合工艺等深度处理方法可以使出水满足新标准的要求.介绍了目前国内焦化废水深度处理的工艺现状以及展望.%The coking-plant wastewater contains lots of organic contaminants and toxic inorganic contaminants. This kind of highly concentrated organic industrial wastewater is hard to be biodegraded due to its complex components and high chroma. COD,NH3-N,total nitrogen and the contents of cyanide can not meet the standard after pretreated and bio-chemical treatment. Advanced oxidation process,coagulation sedimentation method,adsorption method,membrane sepa-ration method,biological chemical method and their combined process can make the effluent meet the requirements of the new standard. In addition,the present status of advanced treatment processes of coking wastewater in China are described and prospected.

  16. A Clean Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAGGIECHEN

    2004-01-01

    If you have US$1 million, do you invest in car production or cleaning car emissions? More cars than ever are hitting the roads and demand is rising.Cleaner cars are being called for, as the government strives to reduce car emission. So there is an obvious market both for cars and for new emission control technologies.Theoretically, you should make money by investing in either of them in China today.

  17. Clean Power on Tap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adopts the most advanced nuclear power technologies to meet long-term energy needs Nuclear power has taken center stage in China’s nationwide cam-paign to develop new and clean energy sources. In the latest effort, Chinese state-owned nuclear power giants invested over 40 billion yuan ($5.86 billion) as an initial funding injection to build a new plant under the

  18. Designing and Testing of Self-Cleaning Recirculating Zebrafish Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Shubham; Bhargava, Yogesh

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance of large number of zebrafish in captive conditions is a daunting task. This can be eased by the use of recirculating racks with self-cleaning zebrafish tanks. Commercially available systems are costly, and compatibility of intercompany products has never been investigated. Although various cost-effective designs and methods of construction of custom-made recirculating zebrafish racks are available in literature, the design of self-cleaning zebrafish tanks is still not available. In this study, we report the design and method of construction of the self-cleaning unit, which can be fitted in any zebrafish tank. We validated the design by investigating sediment cleaning process in rectangular and cylindrical tank geometries using time lapse imaging. Our results suggest that for both tank geometries, the tanks fitted with self-cleaning unit provided superior sediment cleaning than the tanks fitted with overflow-drain unit. Although the self-cleaning unit could clean the sediment completely from both geometries over prolonged period, the cleaning of sediments was faster in the cylindrical tank than the rectangular tank. In conclusion, cost and efforts of zebrafish maintenance could be significantly reduced through the installation of our self-cleaning unit in any custom-made zebrafish tank.

  19. Effect and mechanism of coking residual ammonia water treating by flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of coking residual ammonia water has been a bigdifficult problem at home and abroad, and there is no breakthrough research achievement in the past. The invention patent "The method of treating all coking wastewater or treating coking residual ammonia water by flue gas" has been successfully used in Huaian Steel Works for high concentration and organic industry wastewater treatment. Not only can it realize the wastewater zero discharge, but also the wastewater treatment has an effect of de-sulfur and de-nitrogen for flue gas. So that the flue gas exhaustcan meet the requirement of emission standard. The mass transfer and heat transfer, fly ash absorption and coagulation, acid and alkali neutralization reaction, catalysis oxidation and reduction reaction in flue gas would be the major factors.

  20. The year-book of the Coke Oven Managers' Association 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 88th volume of the Year Book outlines activities of the Coke Oven Managers' Association throughout 2007 and reproduces transactions presented to the industry through its various sections. It includes lists of Council and committee members and representation on committees and past presidents, and a full list of members. Reports of Council 2005-6 and of the annual general meeting 2005 are included. The Presidential address by R.G.W. Sargent looks at the situation faced by coke oven managers through the decades with some predictions for the future. Carbonisation and briquetting works in the United Kingdom, Koppers carbon materials and chemical works in the UK and Europe, European coking plants, their addresses and managers are listed. Nine transactions are abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.