WorldWideScience

Sample records for clean coal technology

  1. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  2. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is the major source of energy in India at present as well as in foreseeable future. With gradual deterioration in coal quality as well as increased awareness on environmental aspects, clean coal technologies have to be adopted by major coal consuming sectors. The probable routes of restricting environmental degradation in power generation include beneficiation of power coal for maintaining consistency in coal supply and reducing pollutant emission, adoption of fluidized bed combustion on a larger scale, adoption of technologies for controlling SOx and NOx emission during and after combustion, adoption of larger capacity and improved and non-recovery type coke ovens

  3. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent developments and implementations in clean coal technologies foe power generation and industry are reviewed in the present work. The requirements of the Clean Air Act in the United States, and the Directives of the European communities, on the limitations of emissions of pollutants from coal uses are firstly briefly reviewed, and later technological means that are available to coal producers and utilizers to comply with them. Coal cleaning, before combustion may be achieved by physical, chemical and biotechnological methods, these technologies are then examined as well as coal refining. The developments in clean coal combustion are extremely rapid, particularly in regard to poor coals, they are reviewed and in particular fluidized bed combustion, in its varieties, as well as coal gasification and combined cycle and the utilization of the gas in fuel cells. A further chapter is devoted to the control of emissions of gases from coal combustion, to reduce SO2 and NOx emitted in the atmosphere. The economic implications of the technologies are evaluated according to the most recent information available from published literature and from industry publications, and the results compared. The implications of meand to reduced the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere are also evaluated. (authors)

  4. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  5. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows data of current and projected SO2 emissions, ambient pollution in major Asian cities; Benefits of natural gas Use in Power Generation; Efficiency of thermal power plants in India and China. It discusses Coal Benefitiation meaning use of high efficiency coal technologies i.e. reducing particulate emissions

  6. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  7. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  8. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  9. Clean coal technologies and future prospects for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future potential of coal in the US economy during the next 25 years in light of clean coal technologies. According to official US Department of Energy (DOE) designations, these technologies pertain only to the beneficiation, transformation, combustion, and postcombustion clean-up stages of the coal cycle; no coal mining or coal transport technologies are included. In general, clean coal technologies offer the prospect of mitigating environmental side-effects of coal utilization, primarily through improved operating efficiencies and lowered costs of air emission controls. If they prove successful, coal users will be able to meet more stringent environmental regulations at little or no additional cost. In assessing the influence of clean coal technologies on coal demand, we focus on the economics of three crucial areas: their development, their deployment, and coal utilization implications of their operation

  10. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains paper on the following topics: coal combustion/coal processing; advanced electric power generation systems; combined nitrogen oxide/sulfur dioxide control technologies; and emerging clean coal issues and environmental concerns. These paper have been cataloged separately elsewhere

  11. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  12. Challenges and opportunities for clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given of some presentations and discussions at the Sixth Clean Coal Technology Conference held in Reno, Nevada, 28 April - 1 May 1998. Accomplishments in 18 projects in the US DOE's Clean Coal Technology Programme were reported upon. The CCT Program has provided a portfolio of technologies to deal effectively with acid rain concerns but challenges remain in achieving ozone standards (an NOx control issue), fine particulate control of PM2.5 and CO2 emission reduction per the Kyoto Protocol in the absence of trading between developed and developing countries under a proposed Clean Development Mechanism and/or sequestration. 9 photos

  13. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  14. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately

  15. The Clean Coal Technology Program: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is a unique partnership between the federal government and industry that has as its primary goal the successful introduction of new clean coal utilization technologies into the energy marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program are establishing a technology base that will enable the nation to meet more stringent energy and environmental goals. Most of the, demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under circumstances typical of commercial operations. These features allow the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. Each application addresses one of the following four market sectors: advanced electric power generation; environmental control devices; coal processing for clean fuels; and industrial applications. The purpose of this report is fourfold: Explain the CCT program as a model for successful joint government industry partnership for selecting and demonstrating technologies that have promise for adaptation to the energy marketplace; set forth the process by which the process has been implemented and the changes that have been made to improve that process; outline efforts employed to inform potential users and other interested parties about the technologies being developed; and examine some of the questions which must be considered in determining if the CCT Program model can be applied to other programs.

  16. Clean coal technology - Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, B.C.; Varma, S.K.; Chakrabarti, R.K. [CMPDI, Ranchi (India)

    1997-12-31

    Indian coal reserves are substantial but their quality is poor. Quality is also falling as good reserves are mined out. More positively, sulphur and chlorine contents are low, as in general are toxic trace elements. Ash content of the coal can be reduced by coal preparation, although many customers at present will not pay the cost of coal preparation. Nonetheless plants are being built and their use will increase. Washed coal costs more, but is cheaper to transport and to burn, besides reducing ash quantity. An IGCC demonstration plant is being planned. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  18. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  19. Economic Feasibility Of Clean Coal Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Marroquín, Miguel; Clemente Jul, María del Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Reéent developments in the energy sector prove that we are wítnessing a shift in the place of commodities withm global economy. Coal as a source of heat and power has kept and is meant to keep its hegemony in Europe and the USA; this along with recent encouraged fight against global warming and the factual lower yield of coal teclmologies claims for the review of these and the development of lesspollutant processes per uñií of useful energy, so-called Clean Coal Technologies. This document pr...

  20. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  1. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  2. Adoption of clean coal technologies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is a major Indian energy resource. It is being utilized in conventional power stations now. Considerable coal resources are not located near load centers and therefore involve transport by rail. India is becoming more concerned with environmental matters and particularly with the health of its population. Clean coal electricity generation technologies are at the commercial demonstration stage in Europe and the USA in unit capacities appropriate to Indian needs. These technologies minimize environmental problems and promise 25% more efficiency. This competitive technology can be introduced to India in greenfield power stations, in repowering older power stations and in providing an enviable alternative for existing and new power stations presently depending on liquid or gas as fuel. (author)

  3. New stage of clean coal technology in Japan; Clean coal technology no aratana tenkai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y. [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The paper described the positioning and new development of clean coal technology. Coal is an important resource which supplies approximately 30% of the energy consumed in all the world. In the Asian/Pacific region, especially, a share of coal in energy is high, around 60% of the world, and it is indispensable to continue using coal which is abundantly reserved. Japan continues using coal as an important energy among petroleum substituting energies taking consideration of the global environment, and is making efforts for development and promotion of clean coal technology aiming at further reduction of environmental loads. Moreover, in the Asian region where petroleum depends greatly upon outside the region, it is extremely important for stabilization of Japan`s energy supply that coal producing countries in the region promote development/utilization of their coal resources. For this, it is a requirement for Japan to further a coal policy having an outlook of securing stable coal supply/demand in the Asian region. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Asia's coal and clean coal technology market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asian region is unique in the world in having the highest economic growth rate, the highest share of coal in total primary energy consumption and the highest growth rate in electricity generation capacity. The outlook for the next two decades is for accelerated efforts to control coal related emissions of particulates and SO2 and to a lessor extent NOx and CO2. Only Japan has widespread use of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) however a number of economies have plans to install CCTs in future power plants. Only CCTs for electricity generation are discussed, and are defined for the purpose of this paper as technologies that substantially reduce SO2 and/or NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. The main theses of this paper are that major increases in coal consumption will occur over the 1990-2010 period, and this will be caccompanied by major increases in coal related pollution in some Asian economies. Coal fired electricity generation is projected to grow at a high rate of about 6.9 percent per year over the 1990-2010 period. CCTs are projected to account for about 150 GW of new coal-fired capacity over the 1990-2010 period of about one-third of all new coal-fired capacity. A speculative conclusion is that China will account for the largest share of CCT additions over the 1990-2010 period. Both the US and Japan have comparative advantages that might be combined through cooperation and joint ventures to gain a larger share of the evolving CCT market in Asia. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruya, P.

    2009-06-15

    Indonesia has become the largest exporter of steam coal in the world, but the long-term future of coal exports is being brought into question as domestic demand is projected to grow by a significant amount, from 40-50 Mt/y in 2007 to more than 100 Mt/y by 2013, and even higher beyond 2013. Exports reached 200-210 Mt in 2008, and is set to rise in the future. Import volumes are negligible, while indigenous production was estimated to be around 240-260 Mt in 2008. Illegal mining is being addressed and in the past could have accounted for at least 20 Mt/y of production, but obtaining reliable export and production figures as a result is therefore not straight forward. Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. This fact coupled with robust GDP growth means there is more pressure on the state-controlled electricity industry to invest and build an adequate infrastructure to meet the rising demand for power. Part of this investment is being driven by government policy to build 10 GWe of coal-fired power by 2010 and a second tranche by 2013. However, the investment programme, commonly known as the 'crash programme' is more likely to be delayed by 2-3 years. Nevertheless, the likely 20-30 Mt/y or so of additional coal demand from the first tranche alone will put pressure on domestic coal producers to meet expanding demand both at home and abroad for low rank and exportable bituminous coals. This report covers four main topics, the Indonesian coal industry, the power generating sector and its use of clean coal technology, changes in coal demand and its impact on international trade, and finally a brief look at upgrading low rank coals within the country. 80 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2003 (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  7. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Completed Projects (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  8. METC Clean Coal Technology status -- 1995 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, L.K.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is assisting the private sector by funding demonstration programs to validate that CCT technologies are a low-risk, environmentally attractive, cost-competitive option for utility and industrial users. Since 1987, DOE has awarded 45 CCT projects worth a total value of $7 billion (including more than $2.3 billion of DOE funding). Within the CCT Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is responsible for 17 advanced power generation systems and major industrial applications. METC is an active partner in advancement of these technologies via direct CCT funding and via close cooperation and coordination of internal and external research and development activities. By their nature, METC projects are typically 6-10 years in duration and, in some cases, very complex in nature. However, as a result of strong commercial partnerships, progress in the development and commercialization of major utility and industrial projects has, and will continue to occur. It is believed that advanced power generation systems and industrial applications are on the brink of commercial deployment. A status of METC CCT activities will be presented. Two projects have completed their operational phase, operations are underway at one project (two others are in the latter stages of construction/shakedown), four projects are in construction, six restructured. Also, present a snapshot of development activities that are an integral part of the advancement of these CCT initiatives will be presented.

  9. Comprehensive Report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program: Clean power from integrated coal/ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report describes a clean coal program in which an iron making technology is paired with combined cycle power generation to produce 3300 tons per day of hot metal and 195 MWe of electricity. The COREX technology consists of a metal-pyrolyzer connected to a reduction shaft, in which the reducing gas comes directly from coal pyrolysis. The offgas is utilized to fuel a combined cycle power plant.

  10. Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

  11. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  12. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-09

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  13. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2002-07-30

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results. Also includes Power Plant Improvement Initiative Projects.

  14. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    1999-03-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  15. Clean coal technologies for gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil and gas fired gas turbines combined cycle penetration of industrial and utility applications has escalated rapidly due to the lower costs, higher efficiency and demonstrated reliability of gas turbine equipment in combination with gas economics. Recent advances in gas turbine design proven in operation above 240 MW, are establishing new levels of combined cycle plant efficiencies up to 59% and providing the potential for significant shift to gas turbine solid fuel power plant technologies. The research engineers of RENEL (Romanian Electricity Authority) give an great importance in their activity to those new technologies and solutions for the utilization of coal for energy (electric and thermal) production, especially for the Integrated Gasification Combines Cycle (IGCC). The application present IGCC process and a few considerations of the possibilities for the implementation of IGCC in the existing power plant. (Author)

  16. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  17. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a $6.9 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Technology has a vital role in ensuring that coal can continue to serve U.S. energy interests and enhance opportunities for economic growth and employment while meeting the national committment to a clean and healthy global environment. These technologies are being advanced through the CCT Program. The CCT Program supports three substantive national objectives: ensuring a sustainable environment through technology; enhancing energy efficiency and reliability; providing opportunities for economic growth and employment. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program reduce the emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, greenhouse gases, hazardous air pollutants, solid and liquid wastes, and other emissions resulting from coal use or conversion to other fuel forms. These emissions reductions are achieved with efficiencies greater than or equal to currently available technologies.

  18. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  19. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  20. Clean coal technology promotion and dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.J.; McMullan, J.T.; Kubica, K. (and others) [IEA Coal Research Ltd, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    This project has provided a means to valorise the technical achievements of the CCT power generation RD&D activities arising from the ECSC and RFCS coal utilisation programmes. The focus has been on promotion and dissemination of such results to major coal-using Member States that have recently joined the European Union, namely Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania. A comprehensive review of the scope and achievements of the ECSC and RFCS projects on coal-fired power generation RD&D has been prepared and posted on the IEACCC website. This document has been translated by the partners in the three designated States and disseminated to their respective national stakeholders. Workshops have been held successfully in each country to promote the findings of the review and to determine their respective primary interests in future RD&D. The attendees have included representatives of major power plant operators, equipment manufacturers and developers, research institutes and universities. Very positive feedback was received from those stakeholders. The project has been completed with the circulation of the report and associated information to comparable stakeholders in the EU-15 countries and other newer members of the European Union via various networks and associations. 2 tabs., 3 apps.

  1. PFBC - Clean coal technology status and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are currently 4 PFBC (Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion) plants in operation (Sweden, Spain, US, Japan), utilizing five of ABB's P200 PFBC modules, with a total of 53,000 hours on coal. Results show that the PFBC process and its main specific components do function as intended over the full load range. Environmental performance has been as expected or better (sulfur and NOx emissions). Some technical problems have been found and corrected, such as a high cycle fatigue of blades for the variable speed low pressure turbine; the shape and the material of the blades have been modified, and resonance frequencies avoided. Other PFBC projects (Japan) are presented. 3 tabs

  2. Modeling technological learning and its application for clean coal technologies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating technological progress of emerging technologies such as renewables and clean coal technologies becomes important for designing low carbon energy systems in future and drawing effective energy policies. Learning curve is an analytical approach for describing the decline rate of cost and production caused by technological progress as well as learning. In the study, a bottom-up energy-economic model including an endogenous technological learning function has been designed. The model deals with technological learning in energy conversion technologies and its spillover effect. It is applied as a feasibility study of clean coal technologies such as IGCC (Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle) and IGFC (Integrated Coal Gasification Fuel Cell System) in Japan. As the results of analysis, it is found that technological progress by learning has a positive impact on the penetration of clean coal technologies in the electricity market, and the learning model has a potential for assessing upcoming technologies in future.

  3. Clean coal technology demonstration program: Program update 1996-97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (known as the CCT Program) reached a significant milestone in 1996 with the completion of 20 of the 39 active projects. The CCT Program is responding to a need to demonstrate and deploy a portfolio of technologies that will assure the U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 297 billion tons could continue to supply the nation`s energy needs economically and in a manner that meets the nation`s environmental objectives. This portfolio of technologies includes environmental control devices that contributed to meeting the accords on transboundary air pollution recommended by the Special Envoys on Acid Rain in 1986. Operational, technical, environmental, and economic performance information and data are now flowing from highly efficient, low-emission, advanced power generation technologies that will enable coal to retain its prominent role into the next millennium. Further, advanced technologies are emerging that will enhance the competitive use of coal in the industrial sector, such as in steelmaking. Coal processing technologies will enable the entire coal resource base to be used while complying with environmental requirements. These technologies are producing products used by utilities and industrial processes. The capability to coproduce products, such as liquid and solid fuels, electricity, and chemicals, is being demonstrated at a commercial scale by projects in the CCT Program. In summary, this portfolio of technologies is satisfying the national need to maintain a multifuel energy mix in which coal is a key component because of its low-cost, availability, and abundant supply within the nation`s borders.

  4. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.-H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Venkatadri, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Perez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The progress achieved in leading to effective surface control for selective agglomeration processes was summarized. Several analytical techniques developed in Task 3 were utilized during this quarter to characterize coal samples obtained from agglomeration tests. Surface and near surface (1 {mu}m depth) functional groups were analyzed using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy. Surface composition analyses were conducted using Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer. The results of these analysis are being used to relate the agglomeration results with surface modifications to the properties of coal samples. The development of a method a for direct determination of pyrite using X-ray diffraction was continued. The sample preparation technique was improved in order to increase the reproducibility of the analysis. The contact angle of n-heptane droplets on coal pellets immersed in water were measured. The results of these measurements suggest that high shear mixing is necessary for wetting coal surfaces with n-heptane. Agglomeration tests using n-heptane as agglomerant were carried out this quarter. For Pittsburgh {number sign}8 coal, better performance was obtained using n-heptane than using n-pentane. For Upper Freeport coal, however, lower pyritic sulfur rejection was obtained with n-heptane. A n-heptane to coal ratio between 1.25 and 1.5 was found to produce the best performance results for Illinois {number sign}6 coal. A study of the effect of agglomeration time on the agglomeration process performance for Illinois {number sign}6 coal using n-pentane and n-heptane as agglomerants indicates that no significant gains in performance are possible using agglomeration times longer than 60 seconds. The addition of tall oil as a binding agent after the high shear agglomeration step resulted in a large increase in overall coal yield and energy recovery for Illinois {number sign}6 coal. 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Clean coal technology deployment: From today into the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papay, L.T.; Trocki, L.K.; McKinsey, R.R. [Bechtel Technology and Consulting, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s clean coal technology (CCT) program succeeded in developing more efficient, cleaner, coal-fired electricity options. The Department and its private partners succeeded in the demonstration of CCT -- a major feat that required more than a decade of commitment between them. As with many large-scale capital developments and changes, the market can shift dramatically over the course of the development process. The CCT program was undertaken in an era of unstable oil and gas prices, concern over acid rain, and guaranteed markets for power suppliers. Regulations, fuel prices, emergency of competing technologies, and institutional factors are all affecting the outlook for CCT deployment. The authors identify the major barriers to CCT deployment and then introduce some possible means to surmount the barriers.

  6. US Department of Energy first annual clean coal technology conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first public review of the US DOE/Industry co-funded program to demonstrate the commercial readiness of Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) was held at Cleveland, Ohio Sept. 22--24, 1992. The objectives were to provide electric utilities, independent power producers, and potential foreign users information on the DOE-supported CCT projects including status, results, and technology performance potential; to further understanding of the institutional, financial, and technical considerations in applying CCTs to Clean Air Act compliance strategies; to discuss to export market, financial and institutional assistance, and the roles of government and industry in pursuing exports of CCTs; and to facilitate meetings between domestic and international attendees to maximize export opportunities

  7. Prospects For Coal And Clean Coal Technologies In Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    The coal sector in Kazakhstan is said to have enough reserves to last over 100 years, but the forecasted reserves are expected to last several hundreds of years. This makes investing in the fuel and energy sector of the country an attractive option for many international and private organisations. The proven on-shore reserves will ensure extraction for over 30 years for oil and 75 years for gas. The future development of the domestic oil sector depends mainly on developing the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea. The coal sector, while not a top priority for the Kazakh government, puts the country among the world's top ten coal-rich countries. Kazakhstan contains Central Asia's largest recoverable coal reserves. In future, the development of the raw materials base will be achieved through enriching and improving the quality of the coal and the deep processing of coal to obtain fluid fuel and synthetic substances. Developing shale is also topical. The high concentration of methane in coal layers makes it possible to extract it and utilise it on a large scale. However, today the country's energy sector, which was largely established in the Soviet times, has reached its potential. Kazakhstan has about 18 GW of installed electricity capacity, of which about 80% is coal fired, most of it built before 1990. Being alert to the impending problems, the government is planning to undertake large-scale modernisation of the existing facilities and construct new ones during 2015-30. The project to modernise the national electricity grid aims to upgrade the power substations to ensure energy efficiency and security of operation. The project will result in installation of modern high-voltage equipment, automation and relay protection facilities, a dispatch control system, monitoring and data processing and energy management systems, automated electricity metering system, as well as a digital corporate telecommunication network.

  8. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy technology demands of the Asian Pacific Basin, including Indonesia, Thailand, and the Republic of China (ROC-Taiwan). The US Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program provides a proving ground for innovative coal-related technologies that can be applied domestically and abroad. These innovative US CCTs are expected to satisfy increasingly stringent environmental requirements while substantially improving power generation efficiencies. They should also provide distinct advantages over conventional pulverized coal-fired combustors. Finally, they are expected to be competitive with other energy options currently being considered in the region. This paper presents potential technology scenarios for Indonesia, Thailand, and the ROC-Taiwan and considers an environmental cost-benefit approach employing a newly developed method of applying environmental externalities. Results suggest that the economic benefits from increased emission control can indeed be quantified and used in cost-benefit comparisons, and that US CCTs can be very cost effective in reducing emissions

  9. Clean Coal Technology: Region 4 Market Description, South Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Region 4 Market Description Summary provides information that can be used in developing an understanding of the potential markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs) in the South Atlantic Region. This region (which geographically is Federal Region 4) consists of the following eight states: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. In order to understand the potential market. A description is provided of the region's energy use, power generation capacity, and potential growth. Highlights of state government activities that could have a bearing on commercial deployment of CCTs are also presented. The potential markets characterized in this summary center on electric power generation by investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal electric utilities and involve planned new capacity additions and actions taken by utilities to comply with Phases I and II of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Regulations, policies, utility business strategies, and organizational changes that could impact the role of CCTs as a utility option are identified and discussed. The information used to develop the Region 4 Market Description is based mainly on an extensive review of plans and annual reports of 29 investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal coal-using electric utilities and public information on strategies and actions for complying with the CAAA of 1990

  10. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

  11. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO2 emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  12. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  13. High quality coal extraction and environmental remediation of fine coal refuse ponds using advanced cleaning technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that are also considered to be environmentally harmful. Significant amounts of cleanable fine coal generally exist in the refuse ponds due to the inability of conventional technologies to effectively separate the fine coal from the associated gangue particles. In addition, acid generation, generally a result of pyrite oxidation, has potential to adversely affect the surrounding environment. An integrated processing strategy of simultaneously recovering high quality coal and pyrite-rich products from the treatment of a coal refuse pond slurry has been successfully evaluated using an advanced physical cleaning circuit. A clean coal product having ash and pyritic sulfur contents of 10.1% and 0.41% was recovered with a mass yield of nearly 49%. In addition, a pyrite-rich product containing nearly 83% of the coal pyrite particles present in the refuse pond material was generated for neutralization purposes for the environmental remediation of the slurry pond. 4 refs

  14. Clean Coal and Gasification Technology: How it Works?

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Sidorová; Gabriel Wittenberger

    2006-01-01

    Gasification of coal is the oldest method for the production of hydrogen. Coal gasification is a process that converts coal from a solid to a gaseous state. The gas that is created is very similar to natural gas and can be used to produce chemicals, fertilizers, and/or the electric power [1]. Cleanest of all coal-based electric power technologies, gasification has significantly lower levels of air emissions (including volatile mercury), solid wastes, and wastewater.Due to its high efficiencie...

  15. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increase demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains technical papers on: advanced coal process systems; advanced industrial systems; advanced cleanup systems; and advanced power generation systems. In addition, there are poster session abstracts. Selected papers from this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  16. Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project will provide a full-scale demonstration of Micronized Coal Reburn (MCR) technology for the control of NOx on a wall-fired steam generator. This demonstration is expected to reduce NOx emissions by 50 to 60%. Micronized coal is coal that has been very finely pulverized (80% less than 325 mesh). This micronized coal, which may comprise up to 30% of the total fuel fired in the furnace, is fired high in the furnace in a fuel-rich reburn zone at a stoichiometry of 0.8. Above the reburn zone, overfire air is injected into the burnout zone at high velocity for good mixing to ensure complete combustion. Overall excess air is 15%. MCR technology reduces NOx emissions with minimal furnace modifications, and the improved burning characteristics of micronized coal enhance boiler performance

  17. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  18. The Clean Coal Technology Program: Options for SO2, NOx, and particulate control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are currently 42 active projects in the Clean Coal Technology Program. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is responsible for managing 30 of these projects: five projects under Clean Coal 1, ten projects under Clean Coal 2, nine projects under Clean Coal 3, and six projects under Clean Coal 4. This paper describes each of the PETC projects, including the technologies involved and the project status. Many of the projects will use advanced approaches to meet current and future requirements for particulate and air toxic emissions. Discussion of these aspects have been expanded in this summary paper to address the focus of this symposium. Additional information can be provided to interested particles either through DOE, the participant or the technology supplier. Numerous non-federal organizations including state and utility/industry research groups provide important co-funding and other support for these CCT projects. Space limitations prohibit listing them in this paper; however, a complete listing can be found in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program Update 1990. Appendix A to this paper contains flow diagrams for all the projects

  19. International prospects for clean coal technologies (Focus on Asia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallaspy, D.T. [Southern Energy, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to propose Asia as a focus market for commercialization of CCT`s; describe the principles for successful penetration of CCT`s in the international market; and summarize prospects for CCT`s in Asia and other international markets. The paper outlines the following: Southern Company`s clean coal commitment; acquisition of Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA); the prospects for CCT`s internationally; requirements for CCT`s widespread commercialization; CEPA`s application of CCT`s; and gas turbine power plants as a perfect example of a commercialization driver.

  20. Agenda and briefing book: Clean Coal Technology Coordinating Committee, September 16, 1991, Louisville, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-16

    A considerable amount of time was spent discussing the Clean Air Act Amendments pending before Congress. Several members pointed out provisions of the legislation that would have serious impacts on the coal industry and the electric utility industry. The need for increased electricity in Florida raised the question about coal fired Power Plants. It is generally believed that most people in Florida do not know that over 55 percent of the electricity now comes from coal-fired generators. However, publicly, people will say they do not want coal-fired facilities built in Florida. People in Florida are concerned with the EMF Issue just as much as the source of power. It was stated that the coal industry has a very poor image and DOE should assume responsibility for improving the image of coal. it was agreed that it would take a considerable financial commitment to do this and that in addition to government the industry would have to be willing to contribute financially. The Partial results of a survey to utilities concerning the future use of clean coal technologies was reported. Utilities are not ignoring coal technologies but acknowledged that the amendments to the Clean Air Act would be the driving force in future decisions. It was learned through the survey that the DOE negotiation process in the Clean Coal Technology Program was in need of improvement. DOE had recently changed the procedure internally and it was anticipated that the procedure would be smoother in the future.

  1. Coal diesel combined-cycle project. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    One of the projects selected for funding is a project for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 90 ton-per-day 14-megawatt electrical (MWe), diesel engine-based, combined-cycle demonstration plant using coal-water fuels (CWF). The project, named the Coal Diesel Combined-Cycle Project, is to be located at a power generation facility at Easton Utilities Commission`s Plant No. 2 in Easton, Talbot County, Maryland, and will use Cooper-Bessemer diesel engine technology. The integrated system performance to be demonstrated will involve all of the subsystems, including coal-cleaning and slurrying systems; a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, a dry flue gas scrubber, and a baghouse; two modified diesel engines; a heat recovery steam generation system; a steam cycle; and the required balance of plant systems. The base feedstock for the project is bituminous coal from Ohio. The purpose of this Comprehensive Report is to comply with Public Law 102-154, which directs the DOE to prepare a full and comprehensive report to Congress on each project selected for award under the CCT-V Program.

  2. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  3. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  4. The relationship of fluidized bed technology to the U.S. Clean Coal Technology demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluidized Bed Combustion projects (both AFBCs and PFBCs) have a prominent role in the US DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. This program has the successful commercialization of these technologies as its primary objective and this is the basic criterion for government funding and participation in the development and demonstration of the technologies. Under the CCT program the US DOE is actively involved in the development and operation of three Fluidized Bed Technology projects, NUCLA, TIDD, and SPORN, and is in the negotiation stage on others, Dairyland, Nichols and Tallahassee. All of these projects, along with the operating information on fluidized beds in the industrial sector, will provide a basis for evaluating future utilization of Fluidized Bed Technology in the market place. Impacting upon further utilization will be the time-frame and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper presents the results of a study to ascertain the commercial readiness of Fluidized Bed Technology to meet the emissions and time-frame requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Specifically addressed are: Commercialization criteria/factors which candidate and/or existing CCTs must achieve in order to gain market acceptance. The status of Fluidized Bed Technology in achieving these commercialization criteria for market acceptance (industrial and utility) consistent with the time frame of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Recommendations of commercialization criteria for future fluidized bed CCT demonstration projects

  5. Clean electricity through advanced coal technologies handbook of pollution prevention and cleaner production

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P

    2012-01-01

    Coal power is a major cause of air pollution and global warming and has resulted in the release of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides, which place communities at risk for long-term health problems. However, coal-fired power plants also currently fuel 41% of global electricity. Clean Electricity Through Advanced Coal Technologies discusses the environmental issues caused by coal power, such as air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and toxic solid wastes. This volume focuses on increasingly prevalent newer generation technologies with smaller environmental footprints than the existing c

  6. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  9. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country's coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently

  10. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  11. Clean Coal Technologies: Accelerating Commercial and Policy Drivers for Deployment [Russian Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world’s most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry’s considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbonconstrained world.

  12. Environmental support to the clean coal technology program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Work during this period focused on the preparation for DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of a final Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) Project in Warren, Pennsylvania. Proposed by the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) and selected by DOE in the fifth solicitation of the CCT Program, the project would be sited at one of the two units at Penelec`s Warren Station. The EFCC Project proposes to replace two existing boilers with a new {open_quotes}power island{close_quotes} consisting of a staged coal combustor, slag screen, heat exchanger, an indirectly fired gas turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator. Subsequently, Unit 2 would operate in combined-cycle mode using the new gas turbine and the existing steam turbine simultaneously. The gas turbine would generate 25 megawatts of electricity so that Unit 2 output would increase from the existing 48 megawatts generated by the steam turbine to a total of 73 megawatts. Operation of a conventional flue gas desulfurization dry scrubber as part of the EFCC technology is expected to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions by 90% per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated, and NO{sub x} emissions are anticipated to be 60% less per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated because of the staged combustor. Because the EFCC technology would be more efficient, less carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) would be emitted to the atmosphere per kilowatt-hour of electricity produced.

  13. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over$5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal-abundant, secure, and economical-can continue in its

  14. Nuclear and clean coal technology options for sustainable development in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. Most of the energy is produced from fossil fuel in India which is not a sustainable source of energy. In this paper Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of clean coal and advanced nuclear technologies with implementation of energy conservation potential. The result shows that application of clean technologies gives energy security but not significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. When clean technologies apply with energy conservation a huge amount of CO2 can be reduced and also economically viable. Three scenarios including base case scenario have been developed to estimate the resource allocations and CO2 mitigation. The clean technologies with maximum savings potential shows 70% CO2 reduction in the year 2045.

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix A, Part 1. Coal preparation and cleaning assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report evaluates the state of the art and effectiveness of physical coal cleaning as a potential strategy for controlling SO/sub x/ emissions in coal fired power generation. Coal properties which are significantly altered by physical coal cleaning were determined. The effects of the changes in properties as they relate to pulverized coal firing, fluidized bed combustion and low Btu gasification for combined cycle powered generation were studied. Available coal washability data were integrated by computer with U.S. coal reserve data. Approximately 18% of the demonstrated coal reserve were matched with washability data. Integrated data appear in the Appendix. Current coal preparation practices were reviewed. Future trends were determined. Five process flow sheets representing increasing levels of cleaning sophistication were prepared. The clean product from each flow sheet will meet U.S. EPA New Source Performance Standards. Capital and operating costs for each case were estimated. Environmental control technology and environmental impact associated with current coal preparation and cleaning operations were assessed. Physical coal cleaning is widely practiced today. Where applicable it represents the least expensive method of coal sulfur reduction. Developmental physical and chemical coal cleaning processes were studied. The chemical methods have the advantage of being able to remove both pyritic sulfur and organic sulfur present in the coal matrix. Further R and D efforts will be required before commercialization of these processes.

  17. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.F. [SIMTECHE, Half Moon Bay, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  18. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period 1971 to 1980, electricity consumption in Taiwan increased remarkably at an average rate of 12.2% per year. Despite experiencing a record low in 1982 and 1983, electricity demand returned to double digit growth, reaching 11.6% and 10.2% in 1987 and 1988, respectively, due to a strong economic recovery. In 1988, 71.6 TWh of electricity was produced, 21.1 TWh of which was from coal-fired units (29%). The electricity demand for Taiwan is expected to continue to grow at a very rapid rate during the 1990--2006 time frame. The average load is expected to grow at an annual rate of 5.6% while the peak load is projected to increase at an annual rate of 6.0%. All new coal-fired power plants are expected to comply with government regulations on S02, NOx, and particulate emissions. Taper reports that all of its proposed coal-fired units will be equipped with modern flue gas emission reduction devices, such as electrostatic precipitators or baghouse filters, flue gas desulfurization and decox devices, to reduce the pollutants to their minimum practical levels. New coal-based generation requirements in the sizes needed in Taiwan create an opportunity for several of the Cats currently under demonstration in the United States. Options to be considered are described

  19. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over several years, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana.

  20. Clean coal technologies---An international seminar: Seminar evaluation and identification of potential CCT markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for environmentally responsible electricity generation is a worldwide concern. Because coal is available throughout the world at a reasonable cost, current research is focusing on technologies that use coal with minimal environmental effects. The United States government is supporting research on clean coal technologies (CCTs) to be used for new capacity additions and for retrofits to existing capacity. To promote the worldwide adoption of US CCTs, the US Department of Energy, the US Agency for International Development, and the US Trade and Development Program sponsored a two-week seminar titled Clean Coal Technologies -- An International Seminar. Nineteen participants from seven countries were invited to this seminar, which was held at Argonne National Laboratory in June 1991. During the seminar, 11 US CCT vendors made presentations on their state-of-the-art and commercially available technologies. The presentations included technical, environmental, operational, and economic characteristics of CCTs. Information on financing and evaluating CCTs also was presented, and participants visited two CCT operating sites. The closing evaluation indicated that the seminar was a worthwhile experience for all participants and that it should be repeated. The participants said CCT could play a role in their existing and future electric capacity, but they agreed that more CCT demonstration projects were needed to confirm the reliability and performance of the technologies

  1. Clean coal technologies---An international seminar: Seminar evaluation and identification of potential CCT markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guziel, K.A.; Poch, L.A.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1991-07-01

    The need for environmentally responsible electricity generation is a worldwide concern. Because coal is available throughout the world at a reasonable cost, current research is focusing on technologies that use coal with minimal environmental effects. The United States government is supporting research on clean coal technologies (CCTs) to be used for new capacity additions and for retrofits to existing capacity. To promote the worldwide adoption of US CCTs, the US Department of Energy, the US Agency for International Development, and the US Trade and Development Program sponsored a two-week seminar titled Clean Coal Technologies -- An International Seminar. Nineteen participants from seven countries were invited to this seminar, which was held at Argonne National Laboratory in June 1991. During the seminar, 11 US CCT vendors made presentations on their state-of-the-art and commercially available technologies. The presentations included technical, environmental, operational, and economic characteristics of CCTs. Information on financing and evaluating CCTs also was presented, and participants visited two CCT operating sites. The closing evaluation indicated that the seminar was a worthwhile experience for all participants and that it should be repeated. The participants said CCT could play a role in their existing and future electric capacity, but they agreed that more CCT demonstration projects were needed to confirm the reliability and performance of the technologies.

  2. Emission allowance trading under the Clean Air Act Amendments: An incentive mechanism for the adoption of Clean Coal Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) uses tradeable SO2 allowances as a means of reducing acidic emissions from the electricity generating industry. The use of emission allowances generates two important results; first, utilities are given the flexibility to choose their optimal (least cost) compliance strategies and second, the use of emission allowances creates greater incentives for the development and commercialization of innovative emissions control technology. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) are able to generate electricity more efficiently, use a wide variety of coal grades and types, and dramatically reduce emissions of SO2, NOx, CO2, and PM per kWh. However, development and adoption of the technology is limited by a variety of regulatory and technological risks. The use of SO2 emission allowances may be able to provide incentives for utility (and nonutility) adoption of this innovative technology. Emission allowances permit the utility to minimize costs on a systemwide basis and provides rewards for addition emission reductions. As CCTs are a more efficient and low emitting source of electricity, the development and implementation of this technology is desirable. This paper will explore the relationship between the incentives created by the SO2 allowance market and CCT development. Regulatory hindrances and boons for the allowance market shall also be identified to analyze how market development, state mandates, and incentive regulation will effect the ability of allowances to prompt CCT adoption

  3. 7th clean coal technology conference. Proceedings, volume II, technical papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The theme of the conference was '21st century coal utilization: prospects for economic viability, global prosperity and a cleaner environment'. The papers discussed, combustion systems - how CCTs can meet the needs; gasification systems - how CCTs can meet the needs; and beyond 2010 - technology opportunities and R & D needs. They include: Wabash River, Polk Power Station IGCC project, Pinon Pine project, LPMEOH process, Healy clean coal project, Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 circulating fluidized bed combustion cycle demonstration project, and JEA large-scale CFB combustion demonstration project.

  4. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1991 (as of December 31, 1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of large-scale ''showcase'' facilities built across the country. The program takes the most promising advanced coal-based technologies and moves them into the commercial marketplace through demonstration. These demonstrations are on a scale large enough to generate all the data, from design, construction and operation, that are necessary for the private sector to judge commercial potential and make informed, confident decisions on commercial readiness. The CCT Program has been identified in the National Energy Strategy as major initiative supporting the strategy's overall goals to: increase efficiency of energy use; secure future energy supplies; enhance environmental quality; fortify foundations. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program when commercially available will enable coal to reach its full potential as a source of energy for the nation and the international marketplace. The goal of the program is to furnish the US and international energy marketplaces with a number of advanced, highly efficient, and environmentally acceptable coal-using technologies

  5. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical

  6. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO2 emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NOx emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today's conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated

  7. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  8. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  9. Comprehensive report to Congress: Proposals received in response to the Clean Coal Technology V Program Opportunity Notice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive overview of all proposals received and the projects that were selected in response to the Program Opportunity Notice (PON) for the Clean Coal Technology V (CCT-V) Demonstration Projects (solicitation number DE-PS01-92FE62647). The Department of Energy (DOE) issued the solicitation on July 6, 1992. Through this PON, DOE solicited proposals to conduct cost-shared Clean Coal Technology (CCT) projects that advance significantly the efficiency and environmental performance of coal-using technologies and that are applicable to either new or existing facilities.

  10. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  11. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  12. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts

  13. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-12

    This twelfth quarterly report describes work done during the twelfth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  14. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  15. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  16. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-28

    This thirteenth quarterly report describes work done during the thirteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  17. Application of Commercial Sorbent into Coal-derived Syngas Desulfurization Field for Clean Coal technologies Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, H.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced applications of producer gas (e.g. fuel cells, catalytic processes for liquid fuels production) require deep gas cleaning. Dry desulfurization technologies of fuel gas select appropriate sorbents according to material’s physical and chemical properties like sulfur capacity, attainable sulphur concentration in gas, price, etc.. The properties of a commercial sorbent were determined by means of XRD, ICP-OES, SEM and surface area measurement. The main components of the sorbent were ZnO,...

  18. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  19. Clean coal technology - Study on the pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the gasification conditions, the gasifier structure, the measuring system and the gasification rationale of a pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Liuzhuang Colliery, Tangshan, are illustrated. The technique of two-phase underground coal gasification is proposed. The detection of the moving speed and the length of the gasification working face is made using radon probing technology. An analysis of the experiment results indicates that the output of air gas is 3000 m3/h with a heating value of about 4.18 MJ/m3, while the output of water gas is 2000 m3/h with a heating value of over 11.00 MJ/m3, of which H2 content is above 40% with a maximum of 71.68%. The cyclical time of two-phase underground gasification is 16 h, with 8 h for each phase. This prolongs the time when the high-heating value gas is produced. The moving speed of the gasification working face in two alternative gasifiers is identified, i.e. 0.204 and 0.487 m/d, respectively. The success of the pilot project experiment of the underground gasification reveals the strides that have been made toward the commercialization of the UCG in China. It also further justifies the reasonability and feasibility of the new technology of long channel, big section, two-phase underground gasification. A conclusion is also drawn that the technology of the pilot project experiment can be popularized in old and discarded coal mines

  20. The return on investment of the clean coal technology program in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the return on investment of the U.S. federal government’s clean coal technology (CCT) program for the period 2000–2020. We estimate total costs to government and industry and quantify benefits for: (1) Reduced capital costs of advanced technologies in new plants; (2) Reduced capital and operating costs at existing plants to remain compliant with environmental regulations; (3) Reduced fuel costs due to higher efficiencies; (4) Avoided environmental costs; (5) The value of clean coal technology export sales; (6) Jobs created. We find that benefits over the 20-year period total $111 billion (2008 dollars); the benefits in individual categories range from $15 billion in fuel cost savings to $39 billion for capital and technology cost savings in new and existing plants; and that total jobs created exceed 1.2 million, with an annual average of about 60,000 jobs created. We also find that the return on investment to DOE from the CCT program is favorable and is growing rapidly: By 2020, the cumulative DOE costs will likely total $8.5 billion, for an ROI of more than 13. - Highlights: ► Its benefits far exceed costs, and benefits are increasing rapidly. ► The ROIs to federal govt. and private industry are very high. ► It will create 100,000 jobs annually. ► Independent reviews find it to be exemplary and well-managed

  1. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Harmond; Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial

  2. Clean coal technology: commercial-scale demonstration of the liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The report discusses the demonstration of Air Products and Chemical, Inc.`s Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOTH {trademark}) Process which is designed to convert synthesis gas derived from the gasification of coal into methanol for use as a chemical intermediate or as a low-sulfur dioxide and low-nitrogen oxides emitting alternative fuel. The project was selected for funding by the US Clean Coal Technology Program Round III in 1992. Construction of the Demonstration Project at Eastman Chemical Co`s Kingsport complex began in October 1995 and was completed in January 1997. Production rates of over 300 tons per day of methanol have been achieved and availability for the unit has exceeded 96% since startup. The LPMEOH{trademark} Process can enhance integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation by converting part of the syngas from the gasifier to methanol which can be solid or used as a peak-sharing fuel. 50 refs., 5 figs., 7 photos.

  3. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  4. Comparative analyses for selected clean coal technologies in the international marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1990-07-01

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are being demonstrated in research and development programs under public and private sponsorship. Many of these technologies could be marketed internationally. To explore the scope of these international opportunities and to match particular technologies with markets appearing to have high potential, a study was undertaken that focused on seven representative countries: Italy, Japan, Morocco, Turkey, Pakistan, the Peoples' Republic of China, and Poland. The results suggest that there are international markets for CCTs and that these technologies can be cost competitive with more conventional alternatives. The identified markets include construction of new plants and refurbishment of existing ones, especially when decision makers want to decrease dependence on imported oil. This report describes potential international market niches for U.S. CCTs and discusses the status and implications of ongoing CCT demonstration activities. Twelve technologies were selected as representative of technologies under development for use in new or refurbished industrial or electric utility applications. Included are the following: Two generic precombustion technologies: two-stage froth-flotation coal beneficiation and coal-water mixtures (CWMs); Four combustion technologies: slagging combustors, integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBCs), and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs); and Six postcombustion technologies: limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) systems, gas-reburning sorbent-injection (GRSI) systems, dual-alkali flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), spray-dryer FGD, the NOXSO process, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Major chapters of this report have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Final report, October 10, 1994--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Parekh, B.K.; Meloy, T.

    1997-12-31

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium is a group comprised of representatives from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, that was formed to pursue research in areas related to the treatment and processing of fine coal. Each member performed research in their respective areas of expertise and the report contained herein encompasses the results that were obtained for the three major tasks that the Consortium undertook from October, 1994 through March, 1997. In the first task, conducted by Virginia Polytechnic Institute, novel methods (both mechanical and chemical) for dewatering fine coal were examined. In the second task, the Center for Applied Energy Research examined novel approaches for destabilization of [highly stable] flotation froths. And in the third task, West Virginia University developed physical and mathematical models for fine coal spirals. The Final Report is written in three distinctive chapters, each reflecting the individual member`s task report. Recommendations for further research in those areas investigated, as well as new lines of pursuit, are suggested.

  6. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-20

    Research continued on coal cleaning technologies. The work plan for this period called for the completion of the suite of gravity separation models (seven in total). Two items concerning these models were to be investigated further: (1) incorporating an Aspen Plus algorithm for converging the estimated dp of separation on the user selected dp value, and (2) evaluating methods other than interpolation by cubic spline methods for estimating Ep from a set of composite partition numbers. The water-only cyclone, fine coal jig, and concentrating spiral models were to be transferred from ICF KE to AspenTech for incorporation as system models by the end of the reporting period. Model discrimination analysis for selecting the appropriate form of an equation for generating interval partition values was slated for completion. Coding and testing of several dewatering algorithms were scheduled to take place during the work period. Models for fine coal vacuum filters, coarse and fine coal centrifuges, thickeners, and thermal dryers were to be completed during the work period. Additionally, work was expected to continue in the areas of classification, comminution, and froth flotation modeling.

  7. Clean Coal Technology Program: Completing the mission. Comprehensive report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    With its roots in the acid rain debate of the 1980`s, the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program initially emphasized acid rain abatement technologies in its early phases. With the subsequent passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments and growing concern with global climate change, the emphasis of the Program shifted in the later rounds to highly efficient technologies. This report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the report. Chapter 2 provides a background of the CCT Program including the legislative history, the projects currently in the program, and the lessons that have been learned from the five rounds to date. Chapter 3 discusses the commercial potential of the technologies represented in the program and is based on a continuing series of interviews that have been conducted by the Department of Energy to solicit the views of senior management in those companies and organizations that will be making or affecting commercial decisions on the use of these technologies. Chapter 4 provides an accounting of the funds that have been appropriated for the CCT Program. Chapter 5 presents the options available for the Government to further assist in the commercial implementation of these technologies. Chapter 6 presents a discussion of these options with recommendations.

  8. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Lynch

    2004-01-07

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now

  9. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are

  10. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Tsang

    2003-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Two project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction

  11. Application of Derrick Corporation's stack sizer technology for slimes reduction in 6 inch clean coal hydrocyclone circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzik, P.

    2009-04-15

    The article discusses the successful introduction of Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer technology for removing minus 200 mesh slimes from 6-inch coal hydrocyclone underflow prior to froth flotation or dewatering by screen bowl centrifuges. In 2006, the James River Coal Company selected the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 150 micron and 100 micron urethane screen panels for removal of the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits. After this application proved successful, Derrick Corporation introduced new 75 micron urethane screen panels for use on the Stack Sizer. Evaluation of feed slurry to flotation cells and screen bowl centrifuges showed significant amounts of minus 75 micron that could potentially be removed by efficient screening technology. Removal of the minus 75 micron fraction was sought to reduce ash and moisture content of the final clean coal product. Full-scale lab tests confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 75 micron urethane screen panels consistently reduced the minus 75 micron percentage in coal slurry from 6-inch clean coal hydrocyclone underflow that is approximately 15 to 20% solid by-weight and 30 to 60% minus 75 micron to a clean coal fraction that is approximately 13 to 16% minus 75 micron. As a result total ash is reduced from approximately 36 to 38% in the hydrocyclone underflow to 14 to 16% in the oversize product fraction form the Stack Sizers. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 5 photos.

  12. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

    2002-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial plants operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues; and (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. This report describes management planning, work breakdown structure development, and feasibility study activities by the IMPPCCT consortium in support of the first project phase. Project planning activities have been completed, and a project timeline and task list has been generated. Requirements for an economic model to evaluate the West Terre Haute implementation and for other commercial implementations are being defined. Specifications for methanol product and availability of local feedstocks for potential commercial embodiment plant sites have been defined. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the fifth phase solicitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis

  13. Comprehensive report to Congress, Clean Coal Technology program: Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funding has been requested from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 2544 ton-per-day (TPD) (265 MWe) two-stage, oxygen-blown, coal gasification combined-cycle (CGCC) repowering demonstration project, to be named the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. The CGCC system will consist of an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, Two-stage coal gasifier, which is capable of utilizing high sulfur bituminous coal; a gas conditioning system for removing sulfur compounds and particulates; systems or mechanical devices for improved coal feed; a combined-cycle power generation system wherein the conditioned fuel gas is combusted in a combustion turbine generator; a heat recovery steam generator; a gas cleanup system; and all necessary coal handling equipment

  14. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  15. Indo-European seminar on clean coal technology and power plant upgrading. Technical papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A total of 25 papers were presented at the seminar in nine sessions with the following headings: future of coal based power generation and an overview of technologies; coal beneficiation/homogenisation; environment technologies/ash disposal/utilisation I, II and III; renovation/life extension I + II; and advanced coal fired plants I + II. All papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  16. The role of clean coal technologies in post-2000 power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial global market for advanced power systems is expected to develop early in the next century for both repowering and new capacity additions, Although natural gas-fueled systems, such as gas turbines, are expected to dominate in the 1990's, coal-fueled systems are expected to emerge in the 2000's as systems of choice for base-load capacity because of coal's lower expected cost. Stringent environmental regulations dictate that all advanced power systems must be clean, economical, and efficient in order to meet both the environmental and economic performance criteria of the future. Recognizing these needs, the DOE strategy is to carry out an effective RD ampersand D program, in partnership with the private sector, to demonstrate these technologies for commercial applications in the next century. These technologies are expected to capture a large portion of the future power generation market. The DOE: expects that, domestically, advanced power systems products will be selected on the basis of varying regional needs and the needs of individual utilities. A large international demand is also expected for the new products, especially in developing nations

  17. WABASH RIVER IMPPCCT, INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Strickland

    2001-09-28

    In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the Gasification Engineering Corporation and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, financial, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility Study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility and for fence-line commercial plants operated at The Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations (i.e. the Commercial Embodiment Plant or CEP) (2) Research, development, and testing to address any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial

  18. Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocophillips

    2007-09-30

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine

  19. Fossil fuels. Pace and focus of the clean coal technology program need to be assessed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE developed an elaborate process for evaluating, ranking, and selecting round-two project proposals. The criteria used to evaluate and select proposals for funding generally conformed to congressional and other program guidance. Also, the evaluation and selection process provided reasonable assurance that proposals were consistently and thoroughly evaluated and that projects were selected using the applicable criteria. GAO's analysis the evaluation and selection process showed that DOE picked the highest-ranked proposals submitted for the various mix of technologies that it was interested in seeing demonstrated. Of the 16 projects DOE selected in round two, 12 were rated weak in meeting certain of the evaluation criteria. Nine of the projects were rated weak in meeting the criterion that a project's technology has the potential to reduce nationwide emissions that cause acid rain. Although emphasis was to be focused on coal-burning projects nationwide to reduce emissions that cause acid rain, it still was only one of many criteria to be considered in evaluating proposals. If DOE had picked more projects with greater potential to reduce nationwide emissions from coal-fired facilities, it would have resulted in (1) the selection of lower ranked projects demonstrating technologies similar to the projects that were selected, and (2) projects selected which may not be successfully demonstrated or commercialized because of weaknesses in other criteria. GAO also noted that half of the 48 proposals that were evaluated in round-two fared poorly against 3 or more of the evaluation criteria. This could indicate that DOE may have problems in identifying and funding additional promising clean coal technology projects in future rounds. Furthermore, GAO's past work has shown that problems have delayed finalizing project cooperative agreements, delayed completion of various project phases, and extended the estimated completion dates for some projects in round-one. As of December

  20. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Environmental monitoring report, July--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) has installed and is presently operating a high-efficiency flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to demonstrate innovative emissions control technology and comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The host facility for this demonstration project is NYSEG`s Milliken Station, in the Town of Lansing, New York. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate a retrofit of energy-efficient SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control systems with minimal impact on overall plant efficiency. The demonstration project has added a forced oxidation, formic acid-enhanced wet limestone FGD system, which is expected to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by at least 90 percent. NYSEG also made combustion modifications to each boiler and plans to demonstrate selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology on unit 1, which will reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Goals of the proposed demonstration include up to 98 percent SO{sub 2} removal efficiency while burning high-sulfur coal, 30 percent NO{sub x} reductions through combustion modifications, additional NO{sub x} reductions using SNCR technology, production of marketable commercial-grade gypsum and calcium chloride by-products to minimize solid waste disposal, and zero wastewater discharge.

  1. Lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals to achieve high-efficient and clean combustion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes full lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals launched to support selection an appropriate combustion technology and to support optimization of the boiler design. Tested mix of Middle-Bosnia brown coals is projected coal for new co-generation power plant Kakanj Unit 8 (300-450 MWe, EP B&H electricity utility. The basic coal blend consisting of the coals Kakanj: Breza: Zenica at approximate mass ratio of 70:20:10 is low grade brown coal with very high percentage of ash - over 40%. Testing that coal in circulated fluidized bed combustion technique, performed at Ruhr-University Bohum and Doosan Lentjes GmbH, has shown its inconveniency for fluidized bed combustion technology, primarily due to the agglomeration problems. Tests of these coals in PFC (pulverized fuel combustion technology have been performed in referent laboratory at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Sarajevo University, on a lab-scale PFC furnace, to provide reliable data for further analysis. The PFC tests results are fitted well with previously obtained results of the burning similar Bosnian coal blends in the PFC dry bottom furnace technique. Combination of the coals shares, the process temperature and the air combustion distribution for the lowest NOx and SO2 emissions was found in this work, provided that combustion efficiency and CO emissions are within very strict criteria, considering specific settlement of lab-scale furnace. Sustainability assessment based on calculation economic and environmental indicators, in combination with Low Cost Planning method, is used for optimization the power plant design. The results of the full lab-scale investigation will help in selection optimal Boiler design, to achieve sustainable energy system with high-efficient and clean combustion technology applied for given coals.

  2. Clean and Highly Efficient Utilization of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianguo; YANG Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ Clean and highly efficient utilization of coal is an important scientific and technological issue.As the petroleum resource decreases but its consumption increases, all of the countries in the world have to face the big issue of sustainable development of energy and economy and protection of environment.Therefore, study on clean coal technology (CCT) has attracted much attention and become one of important themes of energy research.

  3. Report to Congress: Expressions of interest in commercial clean coal technology projects in foreign countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report was prepared in response to the guidance provided by the Congress in the course of the Fiscal Year 1995 appropriations process for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). As described in detail below, DOE was directed to make the international dissemination of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) an integral part of its policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Congress directed DOE to solicit ``Statements of Interest`` in commercial projects employing CCTs in countries projected to have significant growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, DOE was asked to submit to the Congress a report that analyzes the information contained in the Statements of Interest, and that identifies the extent to which various types of Federal incentives would accelerate the commercial availability of these technologies in an international context. In response to DOE`s solicitation of 18 November 1994, 77 Statements of Interest were received from 33 companies, as well as five additional materials. The contents of these submittals, including the requested Federal incentives, the CCTs proposed, the possible host countries, and the environmental aspects of the Statements of Interest, are described and analyzed in the chapters that follow.

  4. Economic comparison of clean coal generating technologies with natural gas-combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that there are four combustion technologies upon which U.S. electric utilities are expected to rely for the majority of their future power generating needs. These technologies are pulverized coal- fired combustion (PC); coal-fired fluidized bed combustion (AFBC); coal gasification, combined cycle systems (CGCC); and natural gas-fired combined cycle systems (NGCC). The engineering and economic parameters which affect the choice of a technology include capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, construction schedule, process risk, environmental and site impacts, fuel efficiency and flexibility, plant availability, capacity factors, timing of startup, and the importance of utility economic and financial factors

  5. Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

  6. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  7. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  8. The role of clean coal technologies in a deregulated rural utility market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.W. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The nation`s rural electric cooperatives own a high proportion of coal-fired generation, in excess of 80 percent of their generating capacity. As the electric utility industry moves toward a competitive electricity market, the generation mix for electric cooperatives is expected to change. Distributed generation will likely serve more customer loads than is now the case, and that will lead to an increase in gas-fired generation capacity. But, clean low-cost central station coal-fired capacity is expected to continue to be the primary source of power for growing rural electric cooperatives. Gasification combined cycle could be the lowest cost coal based generation option in this new competitive market if both capital cost and electricity production costs can be further reduced. This paper presents anticipated utility business scenarios for the deregulated future and identifies combined cycle power plant configurations that might prove most competitive.

  9. Coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal- and gas-fueled cogeneration plants develop rapidly and according to all the scenarios will continue to grow with ever improving power generation effect in counterpressure mode. As there is no 'cooling water waste', a greater percentage of houses should be heated electrically. The coal combustion technologies mentioned here will probably converge around 53-55% coefficient of performance. Emission requirements can be fulfilled by use of modern coal technologies. Coal will stay as a competitive fuel for cogeneration as other more advanced technologies are often yet at the demonstration stage. (EG)

  10. Lead markets for clean coal technologies: A case study for China, Germany, Japan and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Horbach, Jens; Chen, Qian; Rennings, Klaus; Vögele, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the high CO2 emission intensity of fossil and especially coal fired energy production, these energy carriers will play an important role during the coming decades. The case study identifies the main technological trajectories concerning more efficient fossil fuel combustion and explores the potentials for lead markets for these technologies in China, Germany, Japan and the USA taking into account the different regulation schemes in these countries. We concentrate on technologies that ...

  11. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NOx emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NOx removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  12. Valuation of clean energy investments: The case of the Zero Emission Coal (ZEC) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Frank Ernest

    Today, coal-fired power plants produce about 55% of the electrical energy output in the U.S. Demand for electricity is expected to grow in future. Coal can and will continue to play a substantial role in the future global energy supply, despite its high emission of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2 etc.) and low thermal energy conversion efficiency of about 37%. This is due to the fact that, it is inexpensive and global reserves are abundant. Furthermore, cost competitive and environmentally acceptable energy alternatives are lacking. New technologies could also make coal-fired plants more efficient and environmentally benign. One such technology is the Zero Emission Carbon (ZEC) power plant, which is currently being proposed by the ZECA Corporation. How much will such a technology cost? How competitive will it be in the electric energy market when used as a technology for mitigating CO2 emission? If there were regulatory mechanisms, such as carbon tax to regulate CO2 emission, what would be the minimum carbon tax that should be imposed? How will changes in energy policy affect the implementation of the ZEC technology? How will the cost of the ZEC technology be affected, if a switch from coal (high emission-intensive fuel) to natural gas (low emission-intensive fuel) were to be made? This work introduces a model that can be used to analyze and assess the economic value of a ZEC investment using valuation techniques employed in the electric energy industry such as revenue requirement (e.g. cost-of-service). The study concludes that the cost of service for ZEC technology will be about 95/MWh at the current baseline scenario of using fuel cell as the power generation system and coal as the primary fuel, and hence will not be competitive in the energy markets. For the technology to be competitive, fuel cell capital cost should be as low as 500/kW with a lifetime of 20 years or more, the cost of capital should be around 10%, and a carbon tax of 30/t of CO2 should be in place

  13. The Impact of Leachate From Clean Coal Technology Waste on the Stability of Clay and Synthetic Liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was developed to provide design criteria for landfill disposal sites used for sludges such as those generated using the Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) tested at the Public Service Company of Colorado's Arapahoe Power Plant. The CCT wastes used were produced at the Arapahoe Plant Unit No. 4 that was equipped with the integrated dry NOx/S2 emissions control system installed under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. The investigation emphasized the potential impact of clean coal technology materials (sodium and calcium injection systems, and urea injection) on the permeability and stability characteristics of clay liner materials and the stability of synthetic liner materials. Flexible-wall permeameters were used to determine the hydraulic conductivities (HC) of the clay liner materials impacted by various compactive conditions. Tests were conducted using the waste materials overlying the clay liner materials under wet/dry cycles, freeze/thaw cycles, and over 120-day periods. The impact of CCT materials on the characteristics of the clay liner materials studied in this project was minimal The HC measurements of the waste/clay liner systems were similar to the water/clay liner systems. HC decreased for clay liners compacted at moisture levels slightly higher than optimum (standard Procter) and increased for liners compacted at moisture levels lower than optimum (standard Procter). Although some swelling was evident in the sodium materials, the sludge materials did not have a negative impact on the integrity of the liners over 120-day tests. Wet/dry cycles tended to result in lower HC, while freeze/thaw cycles substantially increased HC for the liners tested

  14. Transition to Clean Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Kerr,William Robert

    2014-01-01

    We develop a microeconomic model of endogenous growth where clean and dirty technologies compete in production and innovation-in the sense that research can be directed to either clean or dirty technologies. If dirty technologies are more advanced to start with, the potential transition to clean technology can be difficult both because clean research must climb several steps to catch up with dirty technology and because this gap discourages research effort directed towards clean technologies....

  15. Clean coal technologies. The capture and geological storage of CO2 - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no longer any doubt about the connection between carbon dioxide emissions of human origin and global warming. Nearly 40% of world CO2 emissions are generated by the electricity production sector, in which the combustion of coal - developing at a roaring pace, especially in China - accounts for a good proportion of the total. At a time when the reduction of greenhouse gases has become an international priority, this growth is a problem. Unless CO2 capture and storage technologies are implemented, it will be very difficult to contain global warming

  16. Physical and chemical coal cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

    1981-02-01

    Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

  17. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning......Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... on the impact category. The largest potential of the technology is observed for high-ash lignites, with initial ash content above 30%, for which the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal can outweigh the environmental burden of cleaning for some impact categories. Overall, we recommend to policy...

  18. Clean coal technology III (CCT III): 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This project will be the first North American demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) System in its application for flue gas desulfurization. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency as well as the cost effectiveness of the GSA system. GSA is a novel concept for flue gas desulfurization developed by F.L. Smidth miljo (FLS miljo). The GSA system is distinguished in the European market by its low capital cost, high SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and low operating cost. The specific technical objectives of the GSA demonstration project are to: effectively demonstrate SO{sub 2} removal in excess of 90% using high sulfur US coal. Optimize recycle and design parameters to increase efficiencies of lime reagent utilization and SO{sub 2} removal. Compare removal efficiency and cost with existing Spray Dryer/Electrostatic Precipitator technology.

  19. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world's most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market

  20. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  1. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.E. [Custom Coals Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  2. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The project included the following tasks: • Oxy-Coal Combustion – To ultimately produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. • High-Pressure, Entrained-Flow Coal Gasification – To ultimately provide a simulation tool for industrial entrained-flow integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasifier with quantified uncertainty. • Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) – To develop a new carbon-capture technology for coal through CLC and to transfer this technology to industry through a numerical simulation tool with quantified uncertainty bounds. • Underground Coal Thermal Treatment – To explore the potential for creating new in-situ technologies for production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from deep coal deposits and to demonstrate this in a new laboratory-scale reactor. • Mercury Control – To understand the effect of oxy-firing on the fate of mercury. • Environmental, Legal, and Policy Issues – To address the legal and policy issues associated with carbon management strategies in order to assess the appropriate role of these technologies in our evolving national energy portfolio. • Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the Heat Flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility – To produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers.

  3. The Healy clean coal project: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, J.B.; McCrohan, D.V. [Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the US Department of Energy under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program is currently in construction. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the US Department of Energy. Construction is scheduled to be completed in August of 1997, with startup activity concluding in December of 1997. Demonstration, testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of NOx, SO{sub 2} and particulates from this 50 megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards. The project status, its participants, a description of the technology to be demonstrated, and the operational and performance goals of this project are presented.

  4. The new knowledge on the application of the advanced clean coal technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turèániová ¼udmila

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the project ID 031 - 95 " Slovak brown coal" are presented in the paper. From the scientific knowledge point of view, the mechanic-chemical alkaline leaching, the clarification of mechanism of accompanying phenomena of MCL procedures and the influence of the radiation pre-treatment represent the priority. The study of the surface and adhesive properties will contribute to a broadening the knowledge on microbial adhesion in coal treatment. The advanced treatment procedures are not suitable for the Slovak brown coal treatment. From the physical pre-treatment procedures, the gravitation treatment in hydrocyclones without the heavy material (hydrocyclone "only" water is perspective under condition of the innovation of coal mining aims.

  5. Application of microorganisms in coal cleaning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure energy supply is one of the basic pre-requisites for a sound economic system, sustained standard and quality of life and eventually for the social well-being of each individual. For a progressive country like Pakistan, it is obligatory that all energy options must be pursued vigorously including coal utilization, which given the relatively large resources available, is considered to be one of the major options for the next few hundred years. Bioprocessing of coal in an emerging technology which has started to receive considerable research attention. Recent research activities involving coal cleaning, direct coal conversion, and indirect conversion of coal-derived materials have generated a plethora of facts regarding biochemistry, chemistry, and thermodynamic behavior of coal, in that its bioprocessing is on the verge of becoming and acceptable means to great coals. In this research report, investigations pertaining to the various aspects of coal bio processing, including desulfurization and depyritization are discussed. Bituminous coals varying in total sulfur contents of 3-6% were depyritized more than 90% by mesophilic acidophiles like Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thio oxidans and thermophilic Sulfolobus brierleyi. The archaebacterium, Sulfolobus brierleyi was found to desulfurize inorganic and organic sulfur components of the coal. Conditions were established under which it can remove more than 30% of the organic sulfur present in the coals. Heterotrophic microorganisms including oxenic and soil isolates were also employed for studying sulfurization. A soil isolate, Oil-2, was found to remove more than 70% dibenzothiophenic sulfur present in an oil-water emulsion (1:20 ratio). Pseudomonas putida and the bacterium oil-2 also remove 60-70% organic sulfur present in the shale-oil. Preliminary results indicate the presence of putatively known Kodama's pathway in the oil-2. The mass balance for sulfate indicated the possibility of the presence

  6. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  7. 我国煤炭高效洁净利用新技术%New Technology of Coal High Efficient and Cleaning Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金华

    2012-01-01

    The high efficient and clean utilization of coal is the effective access to realize the energy saving and emission reduction.Based on the circumstances,the paper introduced the technical principle,innovations,technical advantage and promotion conditions of the three new technologies of the coal high efficient and clean utilization,including the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology,the coal water mixture preparation and new technology application and the dry flue gas cleaning technology of the active coke.In combination with the present actual conditions,the development orientation of the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology as pointed would be finally to set up the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology system with the deep systematic study on the clean pulverized coal preparation technology,the pulverized coal logistic and distribution technology,the pulverized coal boiler combustion and cleaning technology as well as the commercialized operation mode.The gasification coal water mixture prepared with the mine water and the long distance pipeline transportation would be the development orientation of the gasification coal water mixture.The dry flue gas cleaning technology of active coke would be suitable applied to the zone lacking of water resources and the development direction in the near future would be to improve the performances of the active coke,to reduce the technique cost,to improve the de-nitre capacity,to simplify the technique procedure and to have the removing and regeneration completed in a device.%煤炭的高效洁净利用是实现节能减排的有效途径,基于此,对我国目前煤炭高效洁净利用3项新技术(高效煤粉工业锅炉技术、水煤浆制备和应用新技术、活性焦干法烟气净化技术)的技术原理、创新点、技术优点及推广情况进行了介绍。结合当前实际,指出高效煤粉工业锅炉技术的发展方向是通过对

  8. Study on characteristics of pipeline transportation and sulfur fixing of cleaned coal logs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yu; LIN Qun; TANG Jun; LIU Tong-cheng

    2006-01-01

    As special cylindrical briquettes of coal for long distance pipeline transportation and directly cleaned combustion the cleaned coal logs should possess two characteristics of transportation in pipeline and cleaned combustion. In order to make cleaned coal logs a rational technology for manufacturing, cleaned coal logs was designed and compound sulfur fixing binders with high effects of binding and sulfur-fixing was selected and combined. In addition, by means of characteristic experiments of strength, wear, waterproof and sulfur-fixing five different cleaned coal logs made with different compound sulfur fixing binders in different compaction conditions was tested and measured. Experimental results indicated that the manufacturing technology of cleaned coal logs was reasonable and the combination of compound sulfur fixing binders was scientific. Cleaned coal logs made up with the fourth group of coal mixture had high strength, good waterproof property, efficient sulfur-fixing, good characteristic of transportation, and achieved the performance requirement for pipeline transportation and sulfur fixing.

  9. AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells. FINAL REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Di Donato, Antonello; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Velo García, Enrique; Nougués, José María; Pérez Fortes, María del Mar; Bojarski, Aarón David

    2010-01-01

    Informe Final del Projecte ECSC RFC-CR-04006: AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells

  10. Application of Silica-supported Sorbents into Coal Derived Syngas Desulfurization Field for Clean Coal Technologies Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, L.-W.; Jian, Y.-J.; Huang, Ch.-Y.; Chyou, Y.-P.; Svoboda, Karel

    Osaka : -, 2014, s. 1-10. ISBN 978-986-90827-7-8. [2014 The Annual Conference on Engineering and Technology. Osaka (JP), 15.11.2014-17.11.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : syngas * breakthrough time * sulfur capacity Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0242642

  11. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The fundamental chemistry for selective adsorption of magnetizing reagent on coal-associated minerals to enhance the magnetic susceptibility of minerals have been established in Phase I study. The application of the results on coal cleaning is in progress in the Phase II study. The task in Phase II study for coal selection, preparation, and characterization is completed in this reporting period. The optimization of adsorption conditions for {minus}48 mesh ROM coals and flotation concentrates is about completed. Experiments have shown that successful coal cleaning can be obtained with this magnetizing reagent approach. The task to adapt the approach to various processing schemes is just initiated.

  12. 清洁煤技术与CO2地质封存%Clean coal technology and CO2 geological storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳迎红; 马丽

    2014-01-01

    中国能源资源特点决定现在以煤为主的消费结构,但煤炭在消费过程中存在高污染和低效率的问题,因此为提高资源利用率,煤炭行业面临结构调整。煤炭行业的清洁化、高效化、低碳化将是产业发展方向,煤炭高效洁净转化将取代传统的转化技术,如何解决煤炭利用过程中产生的CO2是清洁煤技术面临的新问题。通过研究清洁煤技术与CO2地质封存技术,特别是深部盐水层封存技术,为煤炭利用中产生的CO2排放提供了一种大规模、安全、稳定的存储方式,从而解决目前中国能源结构造成的CO2排放问题。%To improve the utilization rate of coal and speed up clean,efficiency and low carbonization of coal industry,provide that the tra-ditional coal conversion technologies should be replaced by efficient and clean technologies.Investigate the clean coal technologies and CO2 geological storage technologies,especially the technologies of CO2 storage in saline formation.The way stores large quantities of CO2 safely and stably.The method also solves the problems of CO2 emissions due to China̓s energy structure.

  13. Clean Processing and Utilization of Coal Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如清; 王海峰

    2006-01-01

    The dominant status of coal on the energy production and consumption structure of China will not be changed in the middle period of this century. To realize highly efficient utilization of coal, low pollution and low cost are great and impendent tasks. These difficult problems can be almost resolved through establishing large-scale pithead power stations using two-stage highly efficient dry coal-cleaning system before coal burning, which is a highly efficient, clean and economical strategy considering the current energy and environmental status of China. All these will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  14. Progress in Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide primary energy consumption is entering an era of pluralism and high quality under the influence of rapid economic development, increasing energy shortage and strict environmental policies. Although renewable energy technology is developing rapidly, fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are still the dominant energy sources in the world. As a country rich in coal but short ofoil and gas, China's oil imports have soared in the past few years. Government, research organizations and enterprises in China are paying more and more attention to the processes of converting coal into clean liquid fuels. Direct and indirect coal liquefaction technologies are compared in this paper based on China's current energy status and technological progress not only in China itself but also in the world.

  15. Coal gasification: technology for the power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, H.E.; Vroom, H. (ABB Combustion Engineering (United States))

    1994-01-01

    In the USA, coal is currently used to produce about 55 per cent of the nation's electricity. However, now that the country's Clean Air Act (CAA) is firmly in place, coalburning electric utilities must comply with environmental regulations that will become increasingly stringent over the next 10 years. As a result of the US Clean Air Act, ''clean coal technologies'' like coal gasification are now being proposed as viable alternatives to traditional coal-burning power plants. With forecasters predicting a need for new baseload capacity by the end of the century and new technologies that can better meet CAA regulations, coal gasification is expected to become one of the country's major coal-burning technology options. (5 figures, 2 tables) (Author)

  16. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  18. Coal-water fuels - a clean coal solution for Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastern Europe currently faces great economic and environmental problems. Among these problems is energy provision. Coal reserves are large but cause pollution while oil and gas need to be used for export. Formal 'clean coal technologies' are simply too expensive to be implemented on a large scale in the current economic crisis. The promised western investment and technological help has simply not taken place, western Europe must help eastern Europe with coal technology. The cheapest such technology is coal-water fuel slurry. It can substitute for oil, but research has not been carried out because of low oil prices. Coal-water fuel is one of the best methods of exploiting low rank coal. Many eastern European low rank coals have a low sulfur content, and thus make a good basis for a clean fuel. Italy and Russia are involved in such a venture, the slurry being transported in a pipeline. This technology would enable Russia to exploit Arctic coal reserves, thus freeing oil and gas for export. In Serbia the exploitation of sub-Danube lignite deposits with dredging mining produced a slurry. This led to the use and development of hot water drying, which enabled the removal of many of the salts which cause problems in pulverized fuel combustion. The system is economic, the fuel safer to transport then oil, either by rail or in pipelines. Many eastern European oil facilities could switch. 24 refs

  19. Geophysics and clean development mechanisms (CDM) - Applications to coal fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    The largest hard coal resources worldwide are found in the coal belt through Northern China and Inner Mongolia. Because of still existing technological problems and a steeply rising demand of coal in this region the most coal fires occur. Once established, coal fires are difficult to extinguish, destroy large amounts of coal and are major challenge to the environment. The Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" conducts field investigations, laboratory measurements and experiments as well as numerical modelling of coal fires in close co-operation with Chinese coal fire fighting departments. A special task within this project is to help the Chinese partners to develop methodologies and project designs to extinguish coal fires under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. In practise, this task requires a robust method to estimate the CO2 baseline of coal fires including fire detection and monitoring. In order to estimate the fire volume, fire propagation and the resulting CO2 exhaust gas volume, different types of geophysical measurements are necessary as near surface temperature and gas measurements, ground penetrating radar etc. Three different types of CO2 exhaust gas estimations from coal fires are discussed: the energy approach, the volume approach and the direct approach. The energy approach highly depends on accurate near surface and gas temperature plus the gas flux data. The volume approach is based on radar and near surface geomagnetic surveying and monitoring. The direct approach relies on the exact knowledge of gas fluxes and volumes. All approaches need reference data as regional to local weather data and petrological parameters of the burning coal. The approaches are evaluated for their use in CO2 baseline estimations and thus for clean development mechanisms.

  20. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  1. Strategic considerations for clean coal R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While present interest in coal-fired power generation is centred on the developing countries, with new natural-gas-fired power stations predominating in the developed world, in the long term coal will return to being the fuel of choice for power generation for much of the world. To minimise the global impact of coal use it is essential, therefore, that coal technologies are developed that are efficient, clean and economically attractive. Techno-economic analyses of the options for coal are presented together with a strategic overview of potential lines of development. The broad conclusions are that new coal plants will not be truly competitive with natural gas until the price of gas increases to about 3.3 EURO/GJ, compared with a coal price of 1.3 EURO/GJ. Present state-of-the-art pulverised coal-fired plant is close to its optimum techno-economic performance and further improvements depend on the development of cost-effective super-alloys. However, there are good opportunities to increase the efficiency of coal use to greater than 50% (LHV basis) using gasification-based power generation cycles. Unless credit is given for the much lower emissions provided by these cycles, the pulverised coal and pressurised fluidised bed combustion will remain the most economic options. (author)

  2. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Qingliang Chang; Jianhang Chen; Huaqiang Zhou; Jianbiao Bai

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology a...

  3. Public meetings for views and comments on the conduct of the 1992 Clean Coal Technology Solicitation---Cheyenne, Wyoming, October 30, 1991 and Louisville, Kentucky, November 12, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two public meetings were convened by the Department of Energy (DOE) in October and November 1991 in order to obtain views, comments, and recommendations with regard to the forthcoming Clean Coal Technology V solicitation. In the sections that follow, brief descriptions are provided on the background to the CCT solicitation and the public meetings, and how the meetings were conducted. Subsequent chapters of this report present the discussions that ensued at teach of the meetings, and the views, recommendations, and concerns that were expressed by attendees. The report also includes a compilation of the written comments that were received. Finally, an appendix contains attendee registration data and transcripts for opening and closing plenary sessions. (VC)

  4. Demonstration of advanced combustion NO(sub X) control techniques for a wall-fired boiler. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project represents a landmark assessment of the potential of low-NO(sub x) burners, advanced overtire air, and neural-network control systems to reduce NO(sub x) emissions within the bounds of acceptable dry-bottom, wall-fired boiler performance. Such boilers were targeted under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Testing provided valuable input to the Environmental Protection Agency ruling issued in March 1994, which set NO(sub x) emission limits for ''Group 1'' wall-fired boilers at 0.5 lb/10(sup 6) Btu to be met by January 1996. The resultant comprehensive database served to assist utilities in effectively implementing CAAA compliance. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. Five nationally competed solicitations sought cost-shared partnerships with industry to accelerate commercialization of the most advanced coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The Program, valued at over$5 billion, has leveraged federal funding twofold through the resultant partnerships encompassing utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. This project was one of 16 selected in May 1988 from 55 proposals submitted in response to the Program's second solicitation. Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation's (FWEC) advanced overfire air (AOFA), low-NO(sub x) burners (LNB), and LNB/AOFA on wall-fired boiler NO(sub x) emissions and other combustion parameters. SCS also evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced on-line optimization system, the Generic NO(sub x) Control Intelligent System (GNOCIS). Over a six-year period, SCS carried out testing at Georgia Power Company's 500-MWe Plant Hammond Unit 4 in Coosa, Georgia. Tests proceeded in a logical sequence using rigorous statistical analyses to

  5. A clean coal: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this report comments the evolution of coal demand which has doubled during the last 35 years for different reasons (increase of electricity production, development of China and India), but is still based on local production although coal international trade increased indeed quicker than coal demand. It notices that there is still a lot of coal available for the future, and that demand will keep on increasing. It outlines that coal will have to reduce its impacts on the environment, and presents the technologies which will allow this reduction. It also presents the technologies for CO2 capture and storage (CCS), and evokes its regulatory issues and its environmental impacts. Some research and development projects in CCS in different countries (Europe, Germany, United States, Australia) are presented. Finally, it stresses the importance of a global deployment of much less polluting technologies to limit greenhouse gas emissions

  6. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  7. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  8. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  9. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  10. COST BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF PHYSICALLY CLEANED COAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report identifies and quantifies several benefits associated with the use of physically cleaned coal in the operation of utility electric power plants. The benefits occur in: coal and ash handling, boiler operation, and gas handling and cleaning. Cleaning removes sulfur from ...

  11. Need for Clean Coal Mining in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards “clean coal” strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.

  12. Need for Clean Coal Mining in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards “clean coal” strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.4870

  13. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  14. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-21

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  15. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-21

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  16. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy, Alaska final Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-14

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) provides the mechanism to evaluate the integrated coal combustion/emission control system being demonstrated by the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) as part-of the third solicitation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT-III). The EMP monitoring is intended to satisfy two objectives: (1) to develop the information base necessary for identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential environmental problems arising from replication of the technology and (2) to identify and quantify project-specific and site-specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents (Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision). The EMP contains a description of the background and history of development of the project technologies and defines the processes that will take place in the combustion and spray dryer absorber systems, including the formation of flash-calcined material (FCM) and its use in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal from the flue gases. It also contains a description of the existing environmental resources of the project area. The EMP includes two types of environmental monitoring that are to be used to demonstrate the technologies of the HCCP: compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring. Compliance monitoring activities include air emissions, wastewater effluents, and visibility. Monitoring of these resources provide the data necessary to demonstrate that the power plant can operate under the required state and federal statutes, regulations, and permit requirements.

  17. Europe's clean technology investment challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Veugelers, Reinhilde

    2011-01-01

    Development and deployment of clean-energy technologies is crucial if climate targets are to be met cost-effectively. The European Union already has a plan that deals with these issues: the Strategic Energy Technology Plan, which has become central to the achievement of the EU's ambitions. In a period of constrained public finances, if governments want to leverage the necessary private innovation for clean-energy technologies, they will have to provide well-designed time-consistent policies, ...

  18. The Healy Clean Coal Project: Design verification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Healy Clean Coal Project, TRW Inc., the supplier of the advanced slagging coal combustors, has successfully completed design verification tests on the major components of the combustion system at its Southern California test facility. These tests, which included the firing of a full-scale precombustor with a new non-storage direct coal feed system, supported the design of the Healy combustion system and its auxiliaries performed under Phase 1 of the project. Two 350 million BTU/hr combustion systems have been designed and are now ready for fabrication and erection, as part of Phase 2 of the project. These systems, along with a back-end Spray Dryer Absorber system, designed and supplied by Joy Technologies, will be integrated with a Foster Wheeler boiler for the 50 MWe power plant at Healy, Alaska. This paper describes the design verification tests and the current status of the project

  19. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

  20. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix A (Part 2). Coal preparation and cleaning assessment study appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report presents the results of integrating coal washability and coal reserves data obtained from the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Two computer programs were developed to match the appropriate entries in each data set and then merge the data into the form presented in this report. Approximately 18% of the total demonstrated coal reserves were matched with washability data. However, about 35% of the reserves that account for 80% of current production were successfully matched. Each computer printout specifies the location and size of the reserve, and then describes the coal with data on selected physical and chemical characteristics. Washability data are presented for three crush sizes (1.5 in., /sup 3///sub 8/ in., and 14 mesh) and several specific gravities. In each case, the percent recovery, Btu/lb, percent ash, percent sulfur, lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu, and reserves available at 1.2 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu are given. The sources of the original data and the methods used in the integration are discussed briefly.

  1. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  2. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  3. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.

  4. Design Fuels Corporation (DFC)-Apache, Inc. coal reclamation system for the plant of the future for processing clean coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical washing processing and drying portion of the DFC process offers an efficient method for cleaning of pyritic sulfur bearing compounds which represents 25% sulfur reduction from original run-of-mine coal quality. This reduction can be augmented with the use of calcium and sodium based compounds to reduce the sulfur in many coals to produce compliance quality coal. The use of mechanical/physical methods for the removal of the pyritic material found in coal is used by the DFC process as a first step to the final application of a complete coal refuse clean-up technology based on site specific conditions of the parent coal. The paper discusses the use of the DFC process to remediate slurry ponds and tailings piles and to improve coal cleaning by gravity separation methods, flotation, hydrocyclones and spiral separators, dense media separation, water only cyclones, and oil/solvent agglomeration. A typical DFC Project is the Rosa Coal Reclamation Project which involves the development of a bituminous coal waste impoundment reclamation and washery system. The plant would be located adjacent to a coal fines pond or tailings pond and refuse pile or gob pile at a former coal strip mine in Oneonta, Alabama. Design Fuels would provide a development program by which coal waste at the Rosa Mine could be reclaimed, cleaned and sold profitably. This feedstock could be furnished from recovered coal for direct use in blast furnaces, or as feedstock for coke ovens at 250,000 tons per year at an attractive price on a 10-year contract basis. The site has an old coal washing facility on the property that will be dismantled. Some equipment salvage has been considered; and removal of the existing plant would be the responsibility of Design Fuels. The paper briefly discusses the market potential of the process

  5. The Development of Power Technologies for Low-Grade Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, K.

    Beneficiation of Indian coal and operation of power plants with imported coal will improve the efficiency of power generation to some extent but they will not satisfy overall future requirements of pollution control and conservation of energy. Therefore, there is a need to adopt new clean coal technologies.

  6. Comparative kinetic analysis of raw and cleaned coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbas, K.E.; Kok, M.V.; Hicyilmaz, C.

    2002-07-01

    Thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) was used to determine the kinetic analysis of different coals and effect of cleaning process on kinetic parameters of raw and cleaned coal samples from Soma, Tuncbilek and Afsin Elbistan regions. Kinetic parameters of the samples were determined using Arrhenius and Coats and Redfern kinetic models and the results are discussed.

  7. Integrating coal cleaning with pulverized coal and fluidized bed boilers to meet the Clean Air Act Amendment and for new plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrating coal cleaning into a two boiler, pulverized coal-fired/fluidized bed (PC/FBC) power plant can reduce emissions at low cost for both retrofit projects and new power plants. The technology, because it relies on proven equipment and practices, albeit in a novel context, is low risk and near term. Its low cost makes it particularly suitable to retrofit many of the older coal- fired power plants in the US, and also for retrofitting power plants in the less affluent Eastern European and Asian countries that rely on coal for power generation and need to reduce emission but cannot afford scrubbers. In retrofit applications the technology involves a simple coal cleaning plant and the addition of a small fluidized bed boiler with its steam circuitry integrated into the plant's steam cycle. The clean coal stream will be fired in the existing boiler while the fluidized bed will use the low grade (waste) stream from the coal cleaning plant. This paper reports that this approach is particularly applicable to the many power plants along the Ohio River

  8. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Walker, Harold [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD

  9. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Clean coal technology model project seminar held in Thailand; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Tai ni okeru clean coal technology model jigyo seminar no kaisai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    To reduce SOx with coal utilization, the desulfurization seminar diffusing the demonstration project of simplified desulfurizer introduction was held at the site in Thailand. The purpose is to reduce the environmental pollutants and contribute to the effective utilization of energy with coal utilization in Thailand. Invitation letters were sent to users of coal and heavy oil boilers through the Department of Factories, Ministry of Industry, Thailand, to call participation in the seminar. Inspection of the desulfurizer introduced in the factory of Thai Union Paper Public was included in the seminar for diffusing the project. The inspection site is in the demonstration project site of simplified desulfurizer introduction. There were a lot of participants from Thai users and from Japan. The seminar included the presentations from NEDO, JETRO, FTI, and MOSTE, introduction of general technology for processes of ENAA desulfurizer, introduction of demonstration unit plan by IHI, and introduction of operation of demonstration unit by TUP. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Clean coal reference plants: Atmospheric CFB. Topical report, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubow, L.N.; Harvey, L.E.; Buchanan, T.L.; Carpenter, R.G.; Hyre, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1992-06-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the US energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which correspond to the center`s areas of technology development, including atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications. A measure of success in the CCT program will be the commercial acceptance of the new technologies being demonstrated. The dissemination of project information to potential users is being accomplished by producing a series of reference plant designs which will provide the users a basis for the selection of technologies applicable to their future energy requirements. As a part of DOE`s monitoring and evaluation of the CCT Projects, Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) has been contracted to assist in this effort by producing the design of a commercial size Reference Plant, utilizing technologies developed in the CCT Program. This report, the first in a series, describes the design of a 400 MW electric power plant, utilizing an atmospheric pressure, circulating fluidized bed combustor (ACFB) similar to the one which was demonstrated at Colorado-Ute`s Nucla station, funded in Round 1 of the CCT Program. The intent of the reference plant design effort was to portray a commercial power plant with attributes considered important to the utility industry. The logical choice for the ACFB combustor was Pyropower since they supplied the ACFB for the Nucla Project.

  11. Damage and deterioration mechanism and curing technique of concrete structure in main coal cleaning plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Heng-lin; ZHAO Cheng-ming; SONG Lei; MA Ying; XU Chun-hua

    2009-01-01

    Concrete structures in main coal cleaning plants have been rebuilt and reinforced in the coal mines of the Shanghai Da-tun Energy Sources Co. Ltd., the first colliery of the Pingdingshan Coal Co. Ltd. and the Sanhejian mine of the Xuzhou Mining Group Co. Ltd. In these projects, the operating environment and reliability of concrete structures in the main plants of the three companies were investigated and the safety of the structures inspected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were made on the spe-cial natural, technological and mechanical environments around the structures. On the basis of these analyses, we discuss the long-term, combined actions of the harsh natural (corrosive gases, liquids and solids) and mechanical environments on concrete structures and further investigated the damage and deteriorating mechanisms and curing techniques of concrete structures in the main coal cleaning plants. Our study can provide a theoretical basis for ensuring the reliability of concrete structures in main coal cleaning plants.

  12. Hydrogen from coal: Production and utilisation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although coal may be viewed as a dirty fuel due to its high greenhouse emissions when combusted, a strong case can be made for coal to be a major world source of clean H2 energy. Apart from the fact that resources of coal will outlast oil and natural gas by centuries, there is a shift towards developing environmentally benign coal technologies, which can lead to high energy conversion efficiencies and low air pollution emissions as compared to conventional coal fired power generation plant. There are currently several world research and industrial development projects in the areas of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) systems. In such systems, there is a need to integrate complex unit operations including gasifiers, gas separation and cleaning units, water gas shift reactors, turbines, heat exchangers, steam generators and fuel cells. IGFC systems tested in the USA, Europe and Japan employing gasifiers (Texaco, Lurgi and Eagle) and fuel cells have resulted in energy conversions at efficiency of 47.5% (HHV) which is much higher than the 30-35% efficiency of conventional coal fired power generation. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are the front runners in energy production from coal gases. These fuel cells can operate at high temperatures and are robust to gas poisoning impurities. IGCC and IGFC technologies are expensive and currently economically uncompetitive as compared to established and mature power generation technology. However, further efficiency and technology improvements coupled with world pressures on limitation of greenhouse gases and other gaseous pollutants could make IGCC/IGFC technically and economically viable for hydrogen production and utilisation in clean and environmentally benign energy systems. (author)

  13. Fiscal 1996 coal production/utilization technology promotion subsidy/clean coal technology promotion business/regional model survey. Study report on `Environmental load reduction measures: feasibility study of a coal utilization eco/energy supply system`; 1996 nendo sekitan seisan riyo gijutsu shinkohi hojokin clean coal technology suishin jigyo chiiki model chosa. `Kankyo fuka teigen taisaku sekitan riyo eko energy kyokyu system no kanosei chosa` chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Oil demand is expected to substantially grow in the future, and the use of oil with combustibles such as hull, baggase and waste is considered from an effective use of energy. A regional model survey was conducted as measures to reduce environmental loads where the fuel mixing combustion with coal and other energy is made the core. The domestic production amount of hull is 2.4-3.0 tons/year, which have a heating value of 3,500 kcal/kg. If hull can be formed into the one storable for a the long term (the one mixed with low grade coal, etc.), it can be a fuel for stable supply. Bagasse is produced 100 million tons/year, which have a heating value of 2,500 kcal/kg. Among wastes, waste tire, plastics, waste, sludge, etc. have a lot of problems in terms of price and environment, but each of them has a heating value during 3,000-10,000 kcal/kg. As to the coal combustion, the pollutional regulation on it is strict, and much higher processing technology is needed. The technology of coal fuel mixing combustion with other energy has not risen higher than the developmental level. Though the technology is a little bit higher in price than the coal fuel single combustion, it is viable. 38 refs., 32 figs., 65 tabs.

  14. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  15. An assessment of cleaning amenability of salt range coal through physical cleaning methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representative coal samples from the eastern salt range (Modern Engineering and Kishor coal mines, Pakistan) and the central salt range (Punjmin coal mine, Pakistan) were collected and examined for their chemical composition. The chemical characteristics indicate that the salt range coal belongs to sub-bituminous category. Washability analysis on selected coal samples (6.70 , 0.212 mm) using zinc chloride solution with a specific gravity from 1.3 to 1.7 were executed. The results classify the central salt range coal as easily washable while, the Eastern salt range coal as moderately difficult to wash. Jigging, shaking table and spiral techniques were applied to check the cleaning amenability of the salt range coal through these techniques. Among these techniques, shaking table revealed the most promising results for all the three coals. Punjmin coal showed the maximum rejection of ash of 55% and that of total sulphur of 74% with a recovery of 46%. (author)

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report: First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, long-term testing of the LNB + AOFA configuration continued and no parametric testing was performed. Further full-load optimization of the LNB + AOFA system began on March 30, 1993. Following completion of this optimization, comprehensive testing in this configuration will be performed including diagnostic, performance, verification, long-term, and chemical emissions testing. These tests are scheduled to start in May 1993 and continue through August 1993. Preliminary engineering and procurement are progressing on the Advanced Low NOx Digital Controls scope addition to the wall-fired project. The primary activities during this quarter include (1) refinement of the input/output lists, (2) procurement of the distributed digital control system, (3) configuration training, and (4) revision of schedule to accommodate project approval cycle and change in unit outage dates.

  17. Task 1.13 -- Data collection and database development for clean coal technology by-product characteristics and management practices. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-08-01

    Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification is the focus of this task by the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The primary goal of this task is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on CCT (Clean Coal Technology) by-products to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Supporting objectives are (1) to fully utilize information from previous DOE projects, (2) to coordinate with industry and other research groups, (3) to focus on by-products from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and gasification, and (4) to provide information relevant to the EPA evaluation criteria for the Phase 2 decision.

  18. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

    2014-07-31

    The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage

  19. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both the ash and sulfur contents of run-of-mine coals. The extent of cleaning depends on the liberation characteristics of the coal, which generally improve with reducing particle size. however, since most of the advanced technologies are wet processes, the clean coal product must be dewatered before it can be transported and burned in conventional boilers. This additional treatment step significantly increases the processing cost and makes the industrial applicability of these advanced technologies much less attractive. In order to avoid problems associated with fine coal dewatering, researchers at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a novel triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process that can remove mineral matter from dry coal. In this technique, finely pulverized coal is brought into contact with a material (such as copper) having a work function intermediate to that of the carbonaceous material and associated mineral matter. Carbonaceous particles having a relatively low work function become positively charged, while particles of mineral matter having significantly higher work functions become negatively charged. once the particles become selectively charged, a separation can be achieved by passing the particle stream through an electrically charged field. Details related to the triboelectrostatic charging phenomenon have been discussed elsewhere (Inculet, 1984).

  20. 76 FR 34041 - Clean Technologies Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... technologies including wind, hydro, waste-to-energy, solar power generation and clean coal; energy efficiency... attractive incentives in this area. Wind: U.S. companies can take advantage of India's wind energy market... of 15%. Wind, hydro, solar, biomass, and waste-to-energy all have huge potential. Only 19,973 MW...

  1. Physical Cleaning of Lakhra Coal by Dense Medium Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Ali Channa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to upgrade Lakhra Lignite Coal using ?Dense Medium Separation? technique, to make it techno-environmentally acceptable product for different industries. The air-dried samples of ROM (Run of Mine coal were crushed, screened, ground and subjected to initial analysis and specific gravity based sink-float tests. The initial analysis of air-dried samples shows the average values of moisture 19%, volatile matter 22.33%, ash 27.41%, fixed carbon 31.26% and sulphur 4.98%. The investigational results of sink-float analysis indicate that physical cleaning at particle size range from -5.6 to +0.3 mm and 75% clean coal recovery can potentially reduce the ash yield and sulphur content of Lakhra coal up to 41 and 42.4% respectively. This washed coal is techno-environmentally acceptable yield and simultaneously qualifies the quality parameters set by various industries of Pakistan

  2. DRY CLEANING OF COAL WITH AIR DENSE MEDIUM FLUIDIZED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈清如; 杨毅; 余智敏; 李建明

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental study of dry cleaning of coal with air dense medium fluidized bed. This technique opens up an efficient way of coal separation for vast areas in the country where water resources are in short supply or coals tend to slime seriously in wet process. Tests show that it can separate any kind of coal (6--50mm) efficiently. The probable error E, can reach 0.05--0.08. The separating density can be adjusted in the range of 1.0--2.0 g/cm3. This technique brings about enormous economic benifits.

  3. Coal Cleaning Using Resonance Disintegration for Mercury and Sulfur Reduction Prior to Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Lucero

    2005-04-01

    Coal-cleaning processes have been utilized to increase the heating value of coal by extracting ash-forming minerals in the coal. These processes involve the crushing or grinding of raw coal followed by physical separation processes, taking advantage of the density difference between carbonaceous particles and mineral particles. In addition to the desired increase in the heating value of coal, a significant reduction of the sulfur content of the coal fed to a combustion unit is effected by the removal of pyrite and other sulfides found in the mineral matter. WRI is assisting PulseWave to develop an alternate, more efficient method of liberating and separating the undesirable mineral matter from the carbonaceous matter in coal. The approach is based on PulseWave's patented resonance disintegration technology that reduces that particle size of materials by application of destructive resonance, shock waves, and vortex generating forces. Illinois No.5 coal, a Wyodak coal, and a Pittsburgh No.8 coal were processed using the resonance disintegration apparatus then subjected to conventional density separations. Initial microscopic results indicate that up to 90% of the pyrite could be liberated from the coal in the machine, but limitations in the density separations reduced overall effectiveness of contaminant removal. Approximately 30-80% of the pyritic sulfur and 30-50% of the mercury was removed from the coal. The three coals (both with and without the pyritic phase separated out) were tested in WRI's 250,000 Btu/hr Combustion Test Facility, designed to replicate a coal-fired utility boiler. The flue gases were characterized for elemental, particle bound, and total mercury in addition to sulfur. The results indicated that pre-combustion cleaning could reduce a large fraction of the mercury emissions.

  4. Need for Clean Coal Mining in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an...

  5. CPICOR{trademark}: Clean power from integrated coal-ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintrell, R.; Miller, R.N.; Harbison, E.J.; LeFevre, M.O.; England, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The US steel industry, in order to maintain its basic iron production, is thus moving to lower coke requirements and to the cokeless or direct production of iron. The US Department of Energy (DOE), in its Clean Coal Technology programs, has encouraged the move to new coal-based technology. The steel industry, in its search for alternative direct iron processes, has been limited to a single process, COREX{reg_sign}. The COREX{reg_sign} process, though offering commercial and environmental acceptance, produces a copious volume of offgas which must be effectively utilized to ensure an economical process. This volume, which normally exceeds the internal needs of a single steel company, offers a highly acceptable fuel for power generation. The utility companies seeking to offset future natural gas cost increases are interested in this clean fuel. The COREX{reg_sign} smelting process, when integrated with a combined cycle power generation facility (CCPG) and a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU), is an outstanding example of a new generation of environmentally compatible and highly energy efficient Clean Coal Technologies. This combination of highly integrated electric power and hot metal coproduction, has been designated CPICOR{trademark}, Clean Power from Integrated Coal/Ore Reduction.

  6. Clean coal technology III (CCT III): 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption. Technical progress report, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This project will be the first North American demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) System in its application for flue gas desulfurization. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency as well as the cost effectiveness of the GSA system. GSA is a novel concept for flue gas desulfurization developed by F.L. Smidth miljo (FLS miljo). The GSA system is distinguished in the European market by its low capital cost, high SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and low operating cost. The specific technical objectives of the GSA demonstration project are to: effectively demonstrate SO{sub 2} removal in excess of 90% using high sulfur US coal. Optimize recycle and design parameters to increase efficiencies of lime reagent utilization and SO{sub 2} removal. Compare removal efficiency and cost with existing Spray Dryer/Electrostatic Precipitator technology.

  7. Insight conference reports : proceedings of the clean coal summit : business strategies, solutions and risk management in uncertain regulatory times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was held to examine business options and risk management solutions in clean coal technologies. The conference was attended by coal industry representatives as well as members of both governmental and non-governmental agencies, who examined recent energy regulations and policies as well as a variety of issues related to sustainable energy development. Issues related to the attrition of Canada's older power plants were discussed and new coal gasification technologies were reviewed. The conference also addressed issues concerning public opinion and First Nations people. Conventional coal energy options were discussed along with advancements in emissions control technologies with particular reference to the role of clean coal science and technology. The conference featured 14 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Open-gradient magnetic separation for physical coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, R.D.; Livengood, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Open-Gradient Magnetic Separation (OGMS) using superconducting quadrupole magnets offers a novel beneficiation technology for removing pyritic sulfur from pulverized dry coal. It is estimated to have a power demand 75% lower than techniques using conventional electromagnets, while achieving higher separation forces. Additionally, the system operates in a continuous mode and uses no chemicals. Because OGMS is specifically applicable to finely ground coal (120--325 mesh), its development could encourage the commercialization of other unconventional coal technologies, such as coal-water slurries, fluidized-bed combustion, and synfuels. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The Clean Coal Program's contributions to addressing the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential contributions of the US Department of Energy's Clean Coal Program (CCP) to addressing the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (CAA90). Initially funded by Congress in 1985, the CCP is a government and industry co-funded effort to demonstrate a new generation of more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies in a series of full- scale ''showcase'' facilities built across the country. The CCP is expected to provide funding for more than $5 billion of projects during five rounds of competition, with at least half of the funding coming from the private sector. To date, 42 projects have been selected in the first 4 rounds of the CCP. The CAA and amendments form the basis for regulating emissions of air pollutants to protect health and the environment throughout the United States. Although the origin of the CAA can be traced back to 1955, many amendments passed since that time are testimony to the iterative process involved in the regulation of air pollution. Three key components of CAA90, the first major amendments to the CAA since 1977, include mitigation measures to reduce levels of (1) acid deposition, (2) toxic air pollutants, and (3) ambient concentrations of air pollutants. This paper focuses on the timeliness of clean coal technologies in contributing to these provisions of CAA90

  10. Technological roadmap for production, clean and efficient use of Brazilian mineral coal: 2012 to 2035; Roadmap tecnologico para producao, uso limpo e eficiente do carvao mineral nacional: 2012 a 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Brazil has one of the largest coal reserves in the world, but it is not among the largest producers in the world. Coal in Brazil, has two main applications: use as fuel for power generation, including industrial energy use, and in the iron and steel industry for production of coke, pig iron and steel. In the updated rates of use, the coal reserves can provide coal for more than 500 years. A public policy to better take advantage of the mineral coal, with horizons in 2022 and 2035 and the guidelines and strategies proposed for the country to reach the production, clean and efficient use of the expressive quantity of the mineral national coal are presented.

  11. Research on Comparisons of New Clean Power Generation Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of introducing clean power generation technologies, the author calculated and analyzed the investment, economy and environmental protection of these technologies, posed his views of giving the priorities to the development of supercritical and ultra-supercritical pressure coal-fired power generation technologies and taking vigorous action to nuclear power generation technology within the following 5-10 years, exploiting wind power within the following 10-15 years, and suggested that the installed capacity of nuclear power reach 80-100 GW and that of wind power reach 50-80 GW by 2020.

  12. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  13. Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

  14. Physical cleaning of lakhra coal by dense medium separation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is an attempt to upgrade Lakhra Lignite Coal using 'Dense Medium Separation' technique, to make it techno-environmentally acceptable product for different industries. The air-dried samples of ROM (Run of Mine) coal were crushed, screened, ground and subjected to initial analysis and specific gravity based sink-float tests. The initial analysis of air-dried samples shows the average values of moisture 19%, volatile matter 22.33%, ash 27.41 %, fixed carbon 31.26% and sulphur 4.98%. The investigational results of sink-float analysis indicate that physical cleaning at particle size range from-5.6 to +0.3 mm and 75% clean coal recovery can potentially reduce the ash yield and sulphur content of Lakhra coal up to 41 and 42.4 % respectively. This washed coal is techno-environmentally acceptable yield and simultaneously qualifies the quality parameters set by various industries of Pakistan. (author)

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R ampersand D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications, (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 2, Appendices A--N. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Appendix A, Example Material Safety Data Sheet; Appendix B, Initial Site Characterization Test Results; Appendix C, Testing Proposal, Southern Research Institute; Appendix D, Example Laboratory Catalyst Test Protocol; Appendix E, Detailed Coal Analysis Data; Appendix F, Standard Methods-QA/QC Document; Appendix G, Task No. 1 Commissioning Tests; Appendix H, Task No. 2 Commissioning Tests; Appendix I, First Parametric Sequence Spreadsheets; Appendix J, Second Parametric Sequence Spreadsheets; Appendix K, Third Parametric Sequence Spreadsheets; Appendix L, Fourth Parametric Sequence Spreadsheets; Appendix M, Fifth Parametric Sequence Spreadsheets; and Appendix N, First Series-Manual APH Tests.

  17. Clean energy from waste and coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of any new technology has traditionally been a controversial subject due to high expectations shared by proponents and results which many times fall short of these expectations. Solid and liquid waste management has been seen both success and failure in the implementation of new technology. For example, promises to commercially produce liquid or gaseous fuels and/or chemicals from municipal solid waste (MSW) or refuse derived fuel (RDF) have so far been unfulfilled after several attempts at demonstrating various technologies

  18. Knowledge spillovers from clean and dirty technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Dechezlepretre, Antoine; Martin, Ralf; Mohnen, Myra

    2014-01-01

    How much should governments subsidize the development of new clean technologies? We use patent citation data to investigate the relative intensity of knowledge spillovers in clean and dirty technologies in two technological fields: energy production and transportation. We introduce a new methodology that takes into account the whole history of patent citations to capture the indirect knowledge spillovers generated by patents. We find that conditional on a wide range of potential confounding f...

  19. KNFC Fuel cleaning technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The filtration system to collect crud particles detached from the fuel assemblies was also developed. The fuel cleaning system connected with the filtration system was successfully demonstrated at Ulchin plant 2. Within several minutes detachable crud deposits were effectively removed from the clad surfaces of the fuel assembly. Also to characterize the crud particles for each fuel assembly, a small crud sampling device was connected with the filtration system during the cleaning operation. Crud samples were acquired from crud sampling device of fuel cleaning and fuel rod using sticky tape and steel knife analysis at two plants, respectively. Crud analysis in pie facility showed that 95wt% crud particles can be collected by a 0.5μm filtering system and major compositions were Ni, Fe, and Cr. KNFC constructed and qualified the complete fuel cleaning system

  20. Brown coal coke in biological waste water cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological sewage plants working by the activated sludge process are often confronted by the following problems: the formation of expanded bubbles, lack of decomposition performance, unstable operation and insufficient excess sludge dewatering. In the former East Germany, there is also the problem of too little nitrificaion/denitrification, caused by obsolete plant. The use of brown coal coke guarantees efficient cleaning of waste water. (orig.)

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL FINE COAL CLEANING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoj K. Mohanty

    2005-06-01

    The goal of the proposed project was to develop a novel fine coal separator having the ability to clean 1 mm x 0 size coal in a single processing unit. The novel fine coal separator, named as EG(Enhanced Gravity) Float Cell, utilizes a centrifugal field to clean 1 mm x 250 micron size coal, whereas a flotation environment to clean minus 250 micron coal size fraction. Unlike a conventional enhanced gravity concentrator, which rotates to produce a centrifugal field requiring more energy, the EG Float Cell is fed with a tangential feed slurry to generate an enhanced gravity field without any rotating part. A prototype EG Float Cell unit having a maximum diameter of 60 cm (24 inch) was fabricated during the first-half of the project period followed by a series of exploratory tests to make suitable design modification. Test data indicated that there was a significant concentration of coarse heavy materials in the coarse tailings discharge of the EG Float Cell. The increase in weight (%) of 1 mm x 250 micron (16 x 60 mesh) size fraction from 48.9% in the feed to 72.2% in the coarse tailings discharge and the corresponding increase in the ash content from 56.9% to 87.0% is indicative of the effectiveness of the enhanced gravity section of the EG Float Cell. However, the performance of the flotation section needs to be improved. Some of the possible design modifications may include more effective air sparging system for the flotation section to produce finer bubbles and a better wash water distributor.

  2. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  3. Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Mark S.; Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

  4. COAL DRY BENEFICIATION TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA: THE STATE-OF-THE-ART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingru Chen; Lubin Wei

    2003-01-01

    In China, coal is the major source of energy and its leading role in energy consumption would not change in the next 50 years. Coal preparation is the essential component of Clean Coal Technology. In China more than two-thirds of available coal reserves are in arid areas, which results in the unfeasibility with conventional wet processing for coal preparation. The uniqueness of dry coal beneficiation technology with air-dense medium fluidized bed is discussed in this paper and a detailed survey of the current status of theoretical study, commercial application and development of the new technology is given in this paper.

  5. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  6. Effect of cleaning process on the combustion characteristics of two different rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, M.V.; Hicyilmaz, C.; Ozbas, K.E. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-12-01

    In this research, thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) was used to determine the combustion characteristics of two different rank coals (Tuncbilek and Afsin Elbistan) before and after cleaning process. Applying sink-float process cleaned raw coal samples, and optimum-separating densities for each sample was determined using the criteria of 'degree of washability'. The results indicated that coal cleaning was very effective on Tuncbilek sample due to its high rank. TG/DTG analysis of raw and cleaned samples indicated different reaction regions occurring at different temperature intervals. Easy combustibility and long-lasting combustion were the distinctive effects of coal cleaning on raw coals. Kinetic analysis of the samples showed that clean coals require lower activation energies to initiate the combustion process than raw coals. 14 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  8. Physical coal cleaning of Midwestern coals by open-gradient magnetic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, R.D.; Livengood, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Open-Gradient Magnetic Separation (OGMS) using superconducting quadrupole magnets offers a novel beneficiation technology for removing pyritic sulfur from pulverized dry coal. It is estimated to have a power demand 75% lower than techniques using conventional electromagnets, while achieving higher separation forces. Additionally, the system operates in a continuous mode and uses no chemicals. Because OGMS is specifically applicable to finely ground coal (120-325 mesh), its development could encourage the commercialization of other unconventional coal technologies, such as coal-water slurries, fluidized-bed combustion, and synfuels. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The Status quo and outlook of Chinese coal geology and exploration technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Cheng, A.G.; Cao, D.Y. [China National Administration of Coal Geology, Beijing (China)

    2008-06-15

    Coal is China's dominant energy resource. Coal geological exploration is the basis of sustainable development of coal industry. Since the late 1990s, the advances in Chinese coal geology and exploration techniques have been shown in the following aspects. (1) The basic research of coal geology has changed from traditional geological studies to earth system science; (2) Breakthroughs have been achieved in integrated exploration techniques for coal resources; (3) Evaluation of coal and coalbed methane resources provides important basis for macropolicy making for China's coal industry and construction of large coal bases; (4) Significant advances have been made in using information technology in coal geological exploration and 3S (GPS, GIS, RS) technology. For the present and a period of time in the future, major tasks of Chinese coal geological technology are as follows: (1) solving resources replacement problem in eastern China and geological problems of deep mining; (2) solving problem of integrated coal exploration of complex regions in energy bases of central China, and resources problems induced by coal exploitation; (3) making efforts to enhance the level of geological research and resources evaluation of coal-accumulation basins in western China; (4) strengthening geological research of clean coal technologies; (5) strengthening geological research of the problems in modern coal mining and safe production; (6) promoting information technology in coal resources and major geological investigations.

  10. The Status Quo and Outlook of Chinese Coal Geology and Exploration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shuishi; CHENG Aiguo; CAO Daiyong

    2008-01-01

    Coal is China's dominant energy resource. Coal geological exploration is the basis of sustainable development of coal industry. Since the late 1990s, the advances in Chinese coal geology and exploration techniques have been shown in the following aspects. (1) The basic research of coal geology has changed from traditional geological studies to earth system science; (2) Breakthroughs have been achieved in integrated exploration techniques for coal resources; (3) Evaluation of coal and coalbed methane resources provides important basis for macropolicy making for China's coal industry and construction of large coal bases; (4) Significant advances have been made in using information technology in coal geological exploration and 3S (GPS, GIS, RS) technology. For the present and a period of time in the future, major tasks of Chinese coal geological technology are as follows: (1) solving resources replacement problem in eastern China and geological problems of deep mining; (2) solving problem of integrated coal exploration of complex regions in energy bases of central China, and resources problems induced by coal exploitation; (3) making efforts to enhance the level of geological research and resources evaluation of coal-accumulation basins in western China; (4) strengthening geological research of clean coal technologies; (5) strengthening geological research of the problems in modern coal mining and safe production; (6) promoting information technology in coal resources and major geological investigations.

  11. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  12. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

    2001-04-30

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would

  13. Land use and coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arid Lands Ecology Reserve and the Hanford National Environmental Research Park were established to promote the use of the Hanford Site for ecological research, especially studies related to energy technologies and their potential for environmental impacts. Coal is currently regarded as the most dependable interim source of energy in the United States. To meet expected demands, coal needs to be mined in large quantities and may be mined predominantly in locations of sparse precipitation. Often the most economical way to extract coal is through surface mining. It is expected that following coal extraction the pits will be filled with overburden, graded to approximate original contour, native topsoil applied to prescribed depths and planted with climatically adapted herbs, shrubs or trees. Because primary productivity in dry regions is characteristically low, it is realistic to expect, if the above procedure is followed, that the revegetated surfaces will also produce little phytomass in the years following restoration. Appropriate data are needed for accurate estimation of the economic feasibility of a particular restoration practice or its alternative. Research programs are discussed briefly

  14. Clean coal technologies. The capture and geological storage of CO{sub 2} - Panorama 2008; Les technologies du charbon propre. Captage et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2} - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    There is no longer any doubt about the connection between carbon dioxide emissions of human origin and global warming. Nearly 40% of world CO{sub 2} emissions are generated by the electricity production sector, in which the combustion of coal - developing at a roaring pace, especially in China - accounts for a good proportion of the total. At a time when the reduction of greenhouse gases has become an international priority, this growth is a problem. Unless CO{sub 2} capture and storage technologies are implemented, it will be very difficult to contain global warming.

  15. Coal cleaning: a viable strategy for reduced carbon emissions and improved environment in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is a dominant energy consumer in global context and current energy forecasts emphasise that China's future energy consumption also will rely heavily on coal. The coal use is the major source of the greenhouse gas CO2 and particles causing serious health damage. This paper looks into the question if coal washing might work as low cost strategy for both CO2 and particle emission reductions. Coal washing removes dirt and rock from raw coal, resulting in a coal product with higher thermal energy and less air pollutants. Coal cleaning capacity has so far not been developed in line with the market potential. In this paper an emerging market for cleaned coal is studied within a CGE model for China. The macro approach catches the repercussions of coal cleaning through increased energy efficiency, lower coal transportation costs and crowding out effect of investments in coal washing plants. Coal cleaning stimulates economic growth and reduces particle emissions, but total energy use, coal use and CO2 emissions increase through a rebound effect supported by the vast reserve of underemployed labourers. A carbon tax on fossil fuel combustion has a limited effect on total emissions. The reason is a coal leakage to tax exempted processing industries

  16. Low-grade coals: a review of some prospective upgrading technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-07-15

    There is a growing need of using low-grade coals because of higher quest for power generation. In the present carbon-constrained environment, there is a need of upgrading these coals in terms of moisture, ash, and/or other trace elements. The current paper reviews technologies used mainly categorized as drying for reducing moisture and cleaning the coal for reducing mineral content of coal and related harmful constituents, such as sulfur and mercury. The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. Drying technologies consist of both evaporative and non-evaporative (dewatering) types. The conventional coal cleaning used density separation in water medium. However, with water being a very important resource, conservation of water is pushing toward the development of dry cleaning of coal. There are also highly advanced coal-cleaning technologies that produce ultra-clean coals and produce coals with less than 0.1% of ash. The paper discusses some of the promising upgrading technologies aimed at improving these coals in terms of their moisture, ash, and other pollutant components. It also attempts to present the current status of the technologies in terms of development toward commercialization and highlights on problems encountered. It is obvious that still the upgrading goal has not been realized adequately. It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. 68 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/1996 - 3/31/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous

  18. Healy Clean Coal Project 1993 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The primary objective of the HCCP is to demonstrate a new power plant design integrating an advanced combustor and heat recovery system coupled with both high and low temperature emission control processes. The parties anticipate that, if the demonstration project is successful, the technology will be commercialized in the late 1990s and be capable of (1) achieving significant reductions in the emissions of sulfur dioxide and the oxides of nitrogen from existing facilities, (2) providing for future energy needs in an environmentally acceptable manner. Alaskan bituminous and subbituminous coals will be the fuels. Emissions of SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}, from the plant will be controlled using TRW`s slagging coal combustor with limestone injection, in conjunction with a boiler supplied by Foster Wheeler. Further SO{sub 2}, and particulate removal will be accomplished using Joy Technologies, Inc.`s (Joy) Activated Recycle Spray Absorber System. Successful demonstration of these technologies is expected to result in NO{sub x}, emissions of less than 0.2 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2}, removal efficiencies greater than 90 percent. The heart of the system being demonstrated is a combustion system. Each combustor consists of two cylindrical sections followed by a short duct that connects the combustor to the boiler. A precombustor burns about 35 percent of the coal to preheat the main combustor secondary air. The preheated air enters the main combustor section tangentially to impart a swirling motion to the coal and air. The balance of the coal is injected axially through multiple injection ports at the front end of this cylindrical section.

  19. 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology; Dai 6 kai sekitan riyo gijutsu kaigi koenshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The paper compiled the papers presented in the 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology held in September 1996. With relation to the fluidized bed boiler, reported were Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant and Development of pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Regarding the coal reformation, Development of advanced coal cleaning process, Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process, etc. Concerning the combustion technology, Study of the O2/CO2 combustion technology, Development of pressurized coal partial combustor, etc. About the CWM, Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology, Technique of CWM distribution system, etc. Relating to the coal ash, Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash, Employment of fluidized bed ash as a basecourse material, On-site verification trials using fly ash for reclamation behind bulkheads, Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash, Separation of unburned carbon from coal fly ash through froth flotation, Practical use technology of coal ash (POZ-O-TEC), etc

  20. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiquan Tao

    2006-12-31

    fiber optic sensors uses sol-gel derived porous silica materials doped with nanometer particles of noble metals in the form of fiber or coating for sensing trace H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and HCl in gas samples at for applications ambient temperature. The third classes of fiber optic sensors use sol-gel derived semiconductor metal oxide coating on the surface of silica optical fiber as transducers for selectively sensing H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO at high temperature. In addition, optical fiber temperature sensors use the fluorescence signal of rare-earth metal ions doped porous silica optical fiber or the optical absorption signal of thermochromic metal oxide materials coated on the surface of silica optical fibers have also been developed for monitoring gas temperature of corrosive gas. Based on the results obtained from this project, the principle of fiber optic sensor techniques for monitoring matrix gas components as well as trace components of coal gasification derived syngas has been established. Prototype sensors for sensing trace ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in gasification derived syngas have been built up in our laboratory and have been tested using gas samples with matrix gas composition similar to that of gasification derived fuel gas. Test results illustrated the feasibility of these sensors for applications in IGCC processes.

  1. Technological perspectives of clean vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of the different technologies of available commercially cars were studied (now or in the halfway through time limit) of smaller contaminants gases generation, with the objective to carry out a comparative evaluation of their competitiveness and feasibilities of real insertion.They were studied thus the self-electric 'pure' and hybrid, from motors of conventional combustion and of cells of fuels with reformers; as well as them fed by hydrogen, utilized in motors of combustion and in direct conversion fuels cells. It is appreciated that the cars hibridos conventional present large advantages that are permitting their effective insertion in the market. Of the remainders, only the conventional motor of hydrogen does not present technological obstacles and has real potentiality in the medium time limit.The electric cars have strong limitations owed al poor performance of the batteries set against the liquid fuels, that have shown do not they permit him to be inserted in the real market in spite of the enormous efforts carried out.The fuel cells continue being very costly. Being that the technologies selected for electric vehicles (of polimer membrane) use essentially hydrogen as fuel, which (besides other disadvantages) has a prohibitive cost set against the hydrocarbons, their possibility of massive insertion is little probable, still low environmental incentives.There are several reasons to think that the EVs with fuel cells of hydrogen (PEM) can run the same luck that the EVs of batteries.The use of internal converters of gasoline or the cells of metanol direct appear with an interesting horizon, although they will need still strong investments in basic investigations associates to be competitive.The hydrogen is a vector energy, not a resource, and being its main producing market and consumer the industry of the petroleum, very with difficulty this return competitive before an increase in the oil price.Their use in vehicles way the adaptation

  2. Steam vacuum cleaning. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The baseline technology currently used for washing debris is a high-pressure water cleaning (HPWC) system. The system used at the FEMP is the Hotsy{reg_sign} Model 550B HPWC. Although the HPWC technology has functioned satisfactorily, improvements are being sought in areas related to reduced liquid waste volume, increased productivity, increased washing effectiveness, and decreased airborne contamination. An innovative technology that offers potential improvements in these areas is a steam vacuum cleaning (SVC) system that integrates high-pressure steam cleaning with a vacuum recovery sub-system that simultaneously collects dislodged contaminants thereby reducing airborne contamination. The SVC system selected for demonstration at the FEMP was the Kelly{trademark} Decontamination System shown. This report provides comparative performance and cost analyses between the Hotsy HPWC system and the Kelly Decontamination System. Both technologies were demonstrated at the FEMP site located at Fernald, Ohio from July 29, 1996 through August 15, 1996. The demonstrations were conducted at the FEMP Plant 1 as part of the LSTD project sponsored by the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the US DOE`s Office of Science and Technology.

  3. Steam vacuum cleaning. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The baseline technology currently used for washing debris is a high-pressure water cleaning (HPWC) system. The system used at the FEMP is the Hotsy reg-sign Model 550B HPWC. Although the HPWC technology has functioned satisfactorily, improvements are being sought in areas related to reduced liquid waste volume, increased productivity, increased washing effectiveness, and decreased airborne contamination. An innovative technology that offers potential improvements in these areas is a steam vacuum cleaning (SVC) system that integrates high-pressure steam cleaning with a vacuum recovery sub-system that simultaneously collects dislodged contaminants thereby reducing airborne contamination. The SVC system selected for demonstration at the FEMP was the Kelly trademark Decontamination System shown. This report provides comparative performance and cost analyses between the Hotsy HPWC system and the Kelly Decontamination System. Both technologies were demonstrated at the FEMP site located at Fernald, Ohio from July 29, 1996 through August 15, 1996. The demonstrations were conducted at the FEMP Plant 1 as part of the LSTD project sponsored by the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the US DOE's Office of Science and Technology

  4. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  5. Coal cleaning residues and Fe-minerals implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luis F O; Macias, Felipe; Oliveira, Marcos L S; da Boit, M Kátia; Waanders, Frans

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation, a study was undertaken to understand the origin of Fe-minerals presents in Brazilian coal mining and to understand the environmental implication and the chemical heterogeneity in the study area. Coal cleaning residue samples rich in clays, quartz, sulphides, carbonates, sulphates, etc. were sampled from Lauro Muller, Urussanga, Treviso, Siderópolis, and Criciúma cities in the Santa Catarina State and a total of 19 samples were collected and Mössbauer, XRD, SEM/EDX, and TEM analyses were conducted on the samples. The major Fe-minerals identified are represented by the major minerals chlorite, hematite, illite, and pyrite, while the minor minerals include, ankerite, chalcopyrite, goethite, hematite, jarosite, maghemite, magnetie, marcasite, melanterite, natrojarosite, oligonite, pyrrhotite, rozenite, schwertmannite, siderite, and sideronatrile. Pyrite is relatively abundant in some cases, making up to around 10% of the mineral matter in several samples. The sulphates minerals such as jarosite and others, probably represent oxidation products of pyrite, developed during exposure or storage. PMID:20127406

  6. Triboelectrostatic Separation-an Efficient Method of Producing Low Ash Clean Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章新喜; 边炳鑫; 段超红; 熊建军

    2002-01-01

    At present, coal is mainly consumed as fuel. In fact, coal is also a kind of precious raw material in chemical industry on the premise that some harmful minerals should be removed from coal. The paper presents the results of the research on producing low ash (<2%) coal with triboelectrostatic separator used for producing high-grade active carbon. The test is conducted in bench-scale system, whose capacity is 30~100 kg/h. The results indicate that: 1) the ash content of clean coal increases with the increase of solid content of feedstock, on the contrary, the yield of clean coal is declining; 2) a high velocity may result in a good separation efficiency; 3) for the same solid content, the reunion caused by intermolecular force makes the separation efficiency drop down when the ultra-fine coal is separated; 4) the separation efficiency is improved with the increase of electric field intensity, but there is a good optimized match between the electric field intensity and yield of clean coal; 5) a low rank coal is easy-to-wash in triboelectrostatic separation process; 6) the yield of clean coal can be enhanced and the ash decreased through adapting optimized conditions according to various coals.

  7. Technology transfer in the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology transfer is often mentioned as an ancillary benefit of the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), but this claim has never been researched or substantiated. The question of technology transfer is important from two perspectives: for host countries, whether the CDM provides a corridor for foreign, climate-friendly technologies and investment, and for industrialised countries as it provides export potential for climate-friendly technologies developed as a consequence of stringent greenhouse gas targets. In order to better understand whether technology transfer from the EU and elsewhere is occurring through the CDM, and what is the value of the associated foreign investment, this paper examines technology transfer in the 63 CDM projects that were registered on January 1st, 2006. Technology originates from outside the host country in almost 50% of the evaluated projects. In the projects in which the technology originates from outside the host country, 80% use technology from the European Union. Technologies used in non-CO2 greenhouse gas and wind energy projects, and a substantial share of the hydropower projects, use technology from outside the host country, but biogas, agricultural and biomass projects mainly use local technology. The associated investment value with the CDM projects that transferred technology is estimated to be around 470 million Euros, with about 390 coming from the EU. As the non-CO2 greenhouse gas projects had very low capital costs, the investment value was mostly in the more capital-intensive wind energy and hydropower projects

  8. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO2 reduction.

  9. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, Igor [The University of Manchester, Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, Manchester (United Kingdom); Klemes, Jiri Jaromir [University of Pannonia, Centre for Process Integration and Intensification (CPI2), Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprem (Hungary)

    2011-08-15

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  10. Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. E. Bates; J. A. Griffin

    2000-05-01

    There were two main tasks in the Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer Project. These were (1) determine the processing facts that control the machinability of cast steel and (2) determine the ability of ladle stirring to homogenize ladle temperature, reduce the tap and pouring temperatures, and reduce casting scrap.

  11. Advanced CFB for clean and efficient coal power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Nevalainen; J. Saastamoinen; M. Jegoroff (and others) [VTT, Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    The European Union's Clefco project (2004-06) aimed to promote the development of once through steam cycle (OTSC) CFB technology. This was carried out by increasing the process knowledge that is essential for successful boiler design and demonstration of the multi-fuel flexibility of the process. To fulfil the development needs of OTSC CFB technology, a comprehensive understanding of CFB combustion processes needed to be achieved. Intensive research in laboratory, pilot and full-scale combustors was required to fulfil the abovementioned objectives. In the project, each partner worked in its own field of research. Cooperation between partners enabled the best-possible understanding of the process. In order to study different process characteristics and verify measurements and simulations, experiments were carried out with different size reactors - VTT's laboratory scale CFB reactor, VTT's 50 kW pilot CFB reactor, Chalmers' 12 MW CFB boiler, cold rig and several commercial boilers. To find out possibilities for end-use of ash, national legislations and standards were studied. Knowledge was applied to ash management possibilities for coal combustion and co-combustion of coal and biomass. The studies were based on the ash characterisation, which was carried out for ash samples collected during the projects' combustion tests. 52 refs., 122 figs., 42 tabs.

  12. Manufacturing of ashless coal by using solvent de-ashing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang-Do Kim; Kwang-Jae Woo; Soon-Kwan Jeong; Young-Jun Rhim; Si-Huyn Lee [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Republic of Korea). Clean Energy Research Center

    2007-07-01

    Maintenance of a high oil value has an influence to energy crisis and national security in South Korea which does not have energy resources. The coals which have characterized by the abundant reserves and the inexpensive price can be said to be the alternative energy source. Hyper-coal process, which has been developed in Japan since 1999, is a new effective process to produce a clean coal by using the solvent de-ashing technology. When coal is extracted with organic solvent, only the organic portion of coal is dissolved in the solvents. That is possible to apply the low rank coal. This study was performed to produce ashless coal by using the solvent de-ashing technology. The experiment was conducted in the batch(or semi-batch) type reactor with two solvents such as NMP(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone) and 1-MN(1-methylnaphthalene) and various coals such as Kideko coal, Roto South coal and Sunhwa coal at 200-400{sup o}C. As a result of the test, extraction yield of coals was more than 60% on daf. Ash concentration which contains the extracted coal was 0.11-1.0wt%. The heat value was increased from 5,400 kcal/kg to 7,920 kcal/kg in the Roto South coal. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Coal handling equipment and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodds-Ely, L.

    2008-02-15

    A series of short articles highlights developments in the coal handling sector. These include contracts awarded to Sanvik Mining and Construction to supply equipment to ports in Greater Vancouver, Canada, Bulgaria, the UK and Australia. At the Profen mine near Leipzig, Germany, hydraulic excavators and a fleet of 12 Volvo A35D articulated haulers were employed and operated as a 'mobile coal team' by MIBRAG to recover lignite that would otherwise have been lost. Two floating terminals have recently been set up by the E-Crane - one on Venezuela and the other in the Congo. Inspectorate International has increased its inspection activities in the coal sector in Europe and Asia. Westmar Consultants increased capacity at Westshore Terminals LP (WTLP) coal exporting terminal in Roberts Bank, BC, Canada. Scantech International Pty specialises a real time analysis of minerals and coal on conveyors. Big Lift Trucks supplies stackers and open belt feeders for the coal mining industry. Takraf has supplied coal handling equipment to the new Wanino export harbor on Russia's east coast. Other developments are mentioned by Horizon Conveyor Equipment Ltd., Phoenix Yale Ltd., Martin Engineering, SGS and Bedeschi. 15 photos.

  14. Regulating Greenhouse Gases from Coal Power Plants under the Clean Air Act

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Linn; Erin Mastrangelo; Dallas Burtraw

    2014-01-01

    The Clean Air Act has assumed the central role in US climate policy, directing the development of regulations governing greenhouse gas emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. This paper uses a model of power plant operation and efficiency investments to compare the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal plants. We empirically estimate the key model parameters from a data set of the operation of coal-fired generating units over 25 years...

  15. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  16. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb).

  17. Clean cast steel technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

  18. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) clean technology for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsperger, W.; Sendin, U. [Siemens AG (Germany). Power Generation (KWU)

    1997-12-31

    IGCC technology is a very promising power generation option which can be applied to a great variety of solid or liquid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, petroleum coke, Orimulsion and heavy oil residues. This is possible, as gasification and gas cleaning act as an extremely effective filter for all contaminants harmful for both gas turbine blading, and the environment. This paper gives an overview of the status of IGCC technology in general but also of IGCC projects in Europe. Special emphasis is given to the Puertollano plant which is an IGCC demonstration plant funded by the European Union (EU). Considering oil and refinery trends toward heavier crudes and residues with high sulfur and heavy metal content, the paper estimates what quantity of residues can be expected for power generation. One of the conceivable uses of IGCC is for very heavy products are used as fuel which normally cannot be used in an conventional plant or have to be disposed of. IGCC technology also enables coproduction of electric power and chemicals e.g. medianol or ammonia for fertiliser production. The gas turbine constitutes the key component for IGCC technology and contributes the predominant share of total power output. This paper illustrates the use in the IGCC power plants of the new Siemens 3A gas turbine family with increased turbine inlet temperature and design improvements in the compressor section. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Underground coal gasification technology impact on coal reserves in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John William Rosso Murillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In situ coal gasification technology (Underground Coal Gasification–UCG– is an alternative to the traditional exploitation, due to it allows to reach the today’s inaccessible coal reserves’ recovery, to conventional mining technologies. In this article I answer the question on how the today’s reserves available volume, can be increased, given the possibility to exploit further and better the same resources. Mining is an important wealth resource in Colombia as a contributor to the national GDP. According with the Energy Ministry (Ministerio de Minas y Energía [1] mining has been around 5% of total GDP in the last years. This is a significant fact due to the existence of a considerable volume of reserves not accounted for (proved reserves at year 2010 were 6.700 million of tons. Source: INGEOMINAS and UPME, and the coal future role’s prospect, in the world energy production.

  20. Low-rank coal generating technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-rank coals (LRC), particularly North Dakota lignite, have been an economical fuel for power generation for Otter Tail Power Company since the 1920s. Operating experience has led to the development of handling and generating technologies that have resulted in lignite's success as a boiler fuel. This paper will provide an overview of those technologies

  1. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in China by cleaner coal technology towards 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Chen, Sha

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese energy system, a major CO2 emitter, relies heavily on fossil fuels, especially coal. Coal will continue to play a major role in the new installed power generation capacity in the future, which will cause unavoidable environmental problems. Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are essential....... The energy structure is continuously being improved and optimized. The potential carbon reduction will be limited in the power system in 2020 by current commercial CCTs with the generation efficiency increase. The most impressive technology is IGCC with CCS which enables greenhouse gas reduction of 37...... for emissions reduction in the power sector. In general, CCTs cover coal upgrading, efficiency improvements, advanced technologies and zero emissions technologies. Besides these, CCTs also include other emissions reduction technologies and comprehensive utilization technologies in China.This paper...

  3. Development of coal store and transportation technology using horizontal coal bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jian-sheng; CHEN Qing-shu

    2005-01-01

    Discussed the necessity of setting up the coal bunker in mining, introduced the development of coal bunker technology, combining the mining characteristic of the high yield and high-efficient working face in China at present, and point out that the type of horizontal coal bunker, is a kind of security, high-efficient coal store and transportation technology of suiting the modern production need of the colliery, is the developing direction of technology of store and transportation of coal bunker.

  4. Assessment of clean-coal strategies: The questionable merits of carbon capture-readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we investigate the value of capture-readiness by modeling the cost effectiveness of various alternative technological options and focusing on different clean-coal technology pathways. The modeling framework developed is based on stochastic net present value calculations. It allows for consideration of path-dependent and technology-specific risk combinations inherent in the input and output commodities that are relevant for operating the plant. We find that capture-readiness competes with alternative options of power plant replacements and that capture-readiness is not necessarily preferable from an economic perspective. - Highlights: ► An NPV model with technology- and path-dependent risk-adjusted discount rates is developed. ► The relative value of CCS retrofits compared to new power plants is examined. ► The projects, risk structure is important to consider while discounting cash flows. ► CCS retrofits are found to be less attractive compared to new-build power plants. ► The merit of capture-readiness is questionable due to competing other technologies

  5. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  6. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the objective of the project to further develop the triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process developed at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and to test the process at a proof-of-concept (POC) scale. This process has a distinct advantage over other coal cleaning processes in that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering. The POC-scale unit is to be developed based on (i) the charging characteristics of coal and mineral matter that can be determined using the novel on-line tribocharge measuring device developed at Virginia Tech and (ii) the results obtained from bench-scale TES tests conducted on three different coals. During the past quarter, most of the personnel assigned to this project have been performing work elements associated with the engineering design (Task 3) of the TES process. This activity has been subdivided into three subtasks, i.e., Charger Tests (Subtask 3.1), Separator Tests (Subtask 3.2), and Final POC Design (Subtask 3.3). In Subtask 3.1, several different tribocharging devices have been constructed using materials of various work functions. They are currently being tested to establish the best materials to be used for designing and manufacturing the optimum tribochargers that can maximum charge differences between coal and mineral matter. In Subtask 3.2, bench-scale cleaning tests have been conducted to study the effects of the various operating and design parameters on the performance of the electrostatic separator. Two different TES units have been tested to date. One uses drum-type electrodes to separate charged particles, while the other uses plate-type electrodes for the separation. The test results showed that a major improvement in separation efficiency can be achieved by recycling the middlings back to the feed stream. It has also been established that the major source of inefficiency arises from the difficulty in separating ultrafine particles. Understanding the behavior of the ultrafine particles and finding

  7. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert C. Tsang

    2004-03-26

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The project has completed Phase I, and is currently in Phase II of development. The two project phases include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; and (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The Phase I of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The WREL integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical

  8. Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 clean coal project at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, D.P. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates completed a two year demonstration of its capabilities in late 1994 under both high- and low-particulate loading conditions. This $43 million demonstration was co-funded by Southern Company, the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE under the auspices of the US Department of Energy`s Round II Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) program. The focus of the Yates Project was to demonstrate several cost-saving modifications to Chiyoda`s already efficient CT-121 process. These modifications included: the extensive use of fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) in the construction of the scrubber vessel and other associated vessels, the elimination of flue gas reheat through the use of an FRP wet chimney, and reliable operation without a spare absorber module. This paper focuses on the testing results from the last trimester of the second phase of testing (high-ash loading). Specifically, operation under elevated ash loading conditions, the effects of low- and high-sulfur coal, air toxics verification testing results and unexpected improvements in byproduct gypsum quality are discussed.

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-BASED TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Sarma V. Pisupati; Chunshan Song; Ronald S. Wasco; Ronald T. Wincek; Xiaochun Xu; Alan W. Scaroni; Richard Hogg; Subhash Chander; M. Thaddeus Ityokumbul; Mark S. Klima; Peter T. Luckie; Adam Rose; Richard L. Gordon; Jeffrey Lazo; A. Michael Schaal

    2004-01-30

    The third phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for US Department of Defense (DOD) facilities was completed. The objectives of the project were to: decrease DOD's dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase III activities were focused on evaluating deeply-cleaned coals as fuels for industrial boilers and investigating emissions control strategies for providing ultra-low emissions when firing coal-based fuels. This was addressed by performing coal beneficiation and preparation studies, and bench- to demonstration-scale emissions reduction studies. In addition, economic studies were conducted focused on determining cost and market penetration, selection of incentives, and regional economic impacts of coal-based technologies.

  10. Cleaning and Dewatering Fine Coal using Hydrophobic Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kara E.

    2008-01-01

    A new processing technique, known as hydrophobic displacement, was explored as a means of simultaneously removing both mineral matter and surface moisture from coal in a single process. Previous thermodynamic analysis suggests that coal moisture will be spontaneously displaced by any oil with a contact angle greater than ninety degrees in water. Based on these results, six methods of hydrophobic displacement were evaluated: hand shaking, screening, air classification, centrifugation, filtra...

  11. Clean utilization of low-rank coals for low-cost power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the unique utilization problems of low-rank coals, the ten US steam electric plants having the lowest operating cost in 1990 were all fueled on either lignite or subbituminous coal. Ash deposition problems, which have been a major barrier to sustaining high load on US boilers burning high-sodium low-rank coals, have been substantially reduced by improvements in coal selection, boiler design, on-line cleaning, operating conditions, and additives. Advantages of low-rank coals in advanced systems are their noncaking behavior when heated, their high reactivity allowing more complete reaction at lower temperatures, and the low sulfur content of selected deposits. The principal barrier issues are the high-temperature behavior of ash and volatile alkali derived from the coal-bound sodium found in some low-rank coals. Successful upgrading of low-rank coals requires that the product be both stable and suitable for end use in conventional and advanced systems. Coal-water fuel produced by hydrothermal processing of high-moisture low-rank coal meets these criteria, whereas most dry products from drying or carbonizing in hot gas tend to create dust and spontaneous ignition problems unless coated, agglomerated, briquetted, or afforded special handling

  12. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  13. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Carbon capture from coal fired power plant using pressurized fluid bed technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dennis; Christensen, Tor

    2010-09-15

    This presentation will discuss the use of a pressurized fluid bed boiler system and specialized carbon capture system to burn coal and generagte clean electricity. The paper will present the existing boiler and carbon capture technology and present economics, thermal performance and emissions reduction for a 100Mw module.

  15. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The concept substantiation of selected technologies on deep coal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to concept substantiation of selected technologies on deep coal processing. The basic aspects of coal gasification were studied. The selection state of optimal technology of coal gasification was considered. The optimal technologies of gas processing were proposed.

  17. Evaluation of air cleaning technologies existing in the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Five portable air cleaning technologies including one new technology were evaluated to find their effectiveness in removing ultrafine particles. Measurements were carried out both in a duct and in a test room. The results showed that the technologies that use/create ozone to clean air can increase...... the ozone level significantly in the room. Moreover, they can cause generation of ultrafine particles and consequently increase ultrafine particle concentration in the room. The study suggests using a mechanical filter with low pressure drop as a recommended air cleaning technology in order to remove...

  18. Combined Removal of Surface Moisture and Dust from Feed Coal for Coal Dry Cleaning with an Air-solid Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-hua; ZHAO Yue-min; CHEN Qing-ru

    2005-01-01

    A demonstration plant and a commercial plant employing coal dry cleaning technology with an air-solid fluidized bed were built in China. The operation practice of these two plants shows that the surface moisture and the fines or dust of feed coal must be well controlled as low as possible. For this purpose, a new process of combined removal of surface moisture and dust from feed coal using a vibrated fluidized bed dryer was investigated in a batch test apparatus and a pilot test system. A mathematical model on drying kinetics of coal surface moisture was developed and three empirical formulas of the model coefficient involving the main operating variables were determined based on the test results from the batch test apparatus. The mathematical model shows that the surface moisture retained in coal during drying decreases exponentially with drying time. According to this model, a new divisional heat supply mode, in which the inlet gas of higher temperature was introduced into the fore part of the dryer and the inlet gas of lower temperature into the rear part of the dryer, was employed in the pilot test system. The pilot tests show that 1) the new divisional heat supply mode is effective for lowering down the average temperature and reducing the total heat loss of the outlet gas off the dryer, 2) the moist coal of about 60 g/kg surface moisture contentcan be dried to about 10 g/kg, and simultaneously the fines (<1mm in diameter) adhering to the surface of coarse coal particles are completely washed off by the gas flow.

  19. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fletcher, Thomas [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pugmire, Ronald [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Smith, Philip [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sutherland, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thornock, Jeremy [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hunsacker, Isaac [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Li, Suhui [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Puntai, Naveen [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reid, Charles [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Schurtz, Randy [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-10-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical (Subtask 4.4) and physical (Subtask 4.5) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation.

  20. External sources of clean technology: evidence from the clean development mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Patrick; Urpelainen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    New technology is fundamental to sustainable development. However, inventors from industrialized countries often refuse technology transfer because they worry about reverse-engineering. When can clean technology transfer succeed? We develop a formal model of the political economy of North–South technology transfer. According to the model, technology transfer is possible if (1) the technology in focus has limited global commercial potential or (2) the host developing country does not have the ...

  1. Coal Beneficiation Technology for Coking & Non-Coking Coal Meant For Steel and Thermal Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Sharma; Gohil Priyank; Nikita Sharma

    2015-01-01

    There are 21 coking coal washeries in production both in private and public sectors. Production of clean coal in these washeries during 1989-90 was 12 million tonne and it is expected to go up to 37 million, tonne during 2015-16. Planning Commission has taken the decision that non-coking coal meant for Thermal Power Plants situated far away from feeding coalfield, should be beneficiated. Coal Washing is a process of separation mainly based on difference in Specific Gravity of Coal and associa...

  2. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning. Quarterly technical progress report no. 6, May 1--July 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1989-12-31

    The fundamental chemistry for selective adsorption of magnetizing reagent on coal-associated minerals to enhance the magnetic susceptibility of minerals have been established in Phase I study. The application of the results on coal cleaning is in progress in the Phase II study. The task in Phase II study for coal selection, preparation, and characterization is completed in this reporting period. The optimization of adsorption conditions for {minus}48 mesh ROM coals and flotation concentrates is about completed. Experiments have shown that successful coal cleaning can be obtained with this magnetizing reagent approach. The task to adapt the approach to various processing schemes is just initiated.

  3. Pollution control technologies applied to coal-fired power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burning of fossil fuels is the major source of energy in today's global economy with over one-third of the world's power generation derived from coal combustion. Although coal has been a reliable, abundant, and relatively inexpensive fuel source for most of the 20th century, its future in electric power generation is under increasing pressure as environmental regulations become more stringent worldwide. Current pollution control technologies for combustion exhaust gas generally treat the release of regulated pollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter as three separate problems instead of as parts of one problem. New and improved technologies have greatly reduced the emissions produced per ton of burning coal. The term 'Clean Coal Combustion Technology' applies generically to a range of technologies designed to greatly reduce the emissions from coal-fired power plants. The wet methods of desulfurization at present are the widest applied technology in professional energetics. This method is economic and gives good final results but a future for clean technologies is the biomass. Power from biomass is a proven commercial option of the electricity generation in the World. An increasing number of power marketers are starting to offer environmentally friendly electricity, including biomass power, in response to the consumer demand and regulatory requirements. (authors)

  4. Coal technology program progress report for November 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    This report, the 28th of a series, is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal as a source of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion process development, materials engineering, alkali metal vapor topping cycles, a Critical Components Test Facility, engineering and support studies, environmental assessment studies, and coal-fueled MIUS.

  5. Adoption of a clean technology using a renewable energy

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Youssef, Slim

    2010-01-01

    We consider a monopolistic firm producing a good while polluting and using a fossil energy. This firm can adopt a clean technology by incurring an investment cost decreasing exponentially with the adoption date. This clean technology does not pollute and has a lower production cost because it uses a renewable energy. We determine the optimal adoption date for the firm in the cases where it is regulated at each period of time and when it is not regulated. Interestingly, the regulated firm ado...

  6. Technology: New Ways for Clean Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Water purification promotes healthy living. While the developing world is working to provide its citizens with future access to clean water sources, the demand for that water is a pressing need today. It should be understood that drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are interwoven and are all necessary for the overall improved standard of…

  7. From coal gas to liquid product. The Topsoe TIGAS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.E. Hoejlund Nielsen; Finn Joensen; John Boegild Hansen [Haldor Topsoee A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-07-01

    Conversion of coal gas into liquid products is a multistep process which involves numerous unit processes. Compared with similar processes using natural gas as feedstock, there are challenges, particularly with the gas purification. There are, however, also advantages when using a carbon-monoxide-rich gas which ultimately may result in a greatly simplified process. This paper discusses the challenges when converting a gas from an entrained coal gasifier into a liquid product and the paper presents the various options available. The following issues will be touched upon: sour gas shift and adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio; acid Gas Removal (AGR) - when and how; syngas purification; methanol and combined methanol/DME synthesis; gasoline synthesis; future integrated processes. Here, various options are available depending on the gasifier; not only dry or slurry feed but also the question of quench as well as the selected scrubbing temperature are relevant. The WGS reaction is carried out along with the COS hydrolysis. The choice of AGR technology is rather complex. Various technologies are available such as Rectisol, Selexol and MDEA. The pros and cons will be discussed especially with respect to the choice of syngas purification technology. Syngas purification usually happens when cleaning masses are placed between the AGR and the synthesis reactors. The selection of cleaning masses required for obtaining the desired syngas quality will be discussed. The methanol and DME synthesis and the respective advantages will be discussed and results from the combined synthesis will be given. It will be shown that very high conversions are possible even at moderate conditions. Results from our previous demonstration in Houston in the eighties along with recent results will be discussed. The possibilities of cost savings using further process integration will be discussed. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1997--September 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1998-01-06

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included performing pilot-scale air toxics (i.e., trace elements and volatile organic compounds) testing and evaluating a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was installed on the demonstration boiler. An economic analysis was conducted which investigated the benefits of decreased dependence on imported oil by using new coal combustion technologies. Work related to coal preparation and utilization was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, and surface-based separation processes. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included receiving three cleaned coals from Cyprus-Amax.

  9. Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillemann, Levi; Beck, Fredric; Brodrick, James; Brown, Austin; Feldman, David; Nguyen, Tien; Ward, Jacob

    2013-09-17

    For decades, America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. But even as costs fell and technology matured, a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. Critics often said a clean energy future would "always be five years away." This report focuses on four technology revolutions that are here today. In the last five years they have achieved dramatic reductions in cost and this has been accompanied by a surge in consumer, industrial and commercial deployment. Although these four technologies still represent a small percentage of their total market, they are growing rapidly. The four key technologies this report focuses on are: onshore wind power, polysilicon photovoltaic modules, LED lighting, and electric vehicles.

  10. Sustainable development, clean technology and knowledge from industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Slobodan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean technology or clean production is the most important factor for the economic growth of a society and it will play the main role not only in the area of cleaner production, but also in sustainable development. The development of clean technology will be the main factor of the company’s strategy in the future. Each company, which wants to reach the competitive position at the market and wants to be environmentally friendly, has to accept the new approach in corporate management and the strategy of new clean technology. The main principles of clean technology are based on the concept of maximum resource and energy productivity and virtually no waste. This approach may be limited by human resources and the level of their environmental knowledge. Companies are committed to the development of the workers’ skills, and thus to the improvement of the company for the full implementation of the environmental legislation and clean production concept. Based on this commitment, one of Tempus projects is designed to improve the university-enterprise cooperation in the process of creating sustainable industry in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. To achieve this goal, partner universities will create special courses on sustainable industry and thus enhance the lifelong learning process and cooperation between industry and universities in the Western Balkan countries.

  11. Metamorphosis of the coal sector. From dirty to clean?; Metamorfose van de kolensector. Van vies naar schoon?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, S.

    2008-05-15

    The author surveys the extreme make-over of the coal industry: from dirty to clean. To many of us, coal might seem the energy source of the past. In many countries of Western Europe, coal mines were closed decades ago and in most cases gas has replaced coal for heating. However, the worldwide use of coal has never been as high as it is today and coal consumption is expected to increase by 70% until 2030. This increase has mainly to do with the rapid growth of energy consumption in China and India. There are, however, environmental problems related to coal, the most prominent being the very high CO2 emissions, causing climate change. Capturing CO2 and burying it in geological formation underground, a technology called Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), could potentially alleviate the CO2 burden that is inevitably related to coal. However, CCS is not yet a proven method and there are many uncertainties to be taken away. This leaves a gap between the international and European policy goals of decreasing global CO2 emissions and the emissions caused by coal. In fact, it shows the necessity of reaching an international climate agreement (post Kyoto) and of creating a fair efforts sharing balance between the industrialized and developing countries. [Dutch] De auteur geeft een overzicht van de extreme veranderingen in de steenkoolindustrie om deze schoner te laten produceren. Voor velen van ons lijken kolen misschien de energiebron van het verleden. In veel landen van West-Europa, werden kolenmijnen tientallen jaren geleden gesloten en in de meeste gevallen heeft aardgas steenkool vervangen voor verwarming. Echter, het wereldwijde gebruik van steenkool is nog nooit zo hoog geweest als nu en het verbruik van steenkool zal naar verwachting met 70% stijgen tot 2030. Deze stijging heeft vooral te maken met de snelle groei van het energieverbruik in China en India. Er zijn echter milieuproblemen in verband met steenkool, waarvan de meest prominente de zeer hoge CO2-uitstoot

  12. Optimization of a Multi Gravity Separator to produce clean coal from Turkish lignite fine coal tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selcuk Ozgen; Ozkan Malkoc; Ceyda Dogancik; Eyup Sabah; Filiz Oruc Sapci [Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). Department of Mining Engineering

    2011-04-15

    In this study, the beneficiation of two lignite tailings by Multi Gravity Separator (MGS) was investigated. The tailings samples from the Tuncbilek/Kutahya and Soma/Manisa regions have ash contents of 66.21% and 52.65%, respectively. Significant operational parameters of MGS such as solid ratio, drum speed, tilt angle, shaking amplitude, wash water rate, and feed rate were varied. Empirical equations for recovery and ash content were derived by a least squares method using Minitab 15. The equations, which are second-order response functions, were expressed as functions of the six operating parameters of MGS. The results showed that it is possible to produce a coal concentrate containing 22.83% ash with a recovery of 49.32% from Tuncbilek coal tailings, and a coal concentrate containing 22.89% ash with a recovery of 60.01% from Soma coal tailings. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. The environmental effect of subsidies for clean technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental subsidies for clean technology result in a larger diffusion of such technology. However, as a result emissions can increase in imperfect markets for products. When several companies compete each other with clean and dirty technologies, production and emission will rise because of price competition.This effect will be even larger in case subsidies are applied. Therefore, subsidies are not advisable for every market. In this article an evolutionary game theory has been used with respect to the diffusion of environment-friendly innovation of products and the role of environmental policy instruments (in particular subsidies). 7 refs

  14. Are clean technology and environmental quality conflicting policy goals?

    OpenAIRE

    Bréchet, Thierry; Meunier, Guy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of an environmental policy on the diffusion of a clean technology in an economy where firms compete on the output market. We show that the share of adopting firms is non-monotonic with the stringency of the environmental policy, and that the adoption of the clean technology may well increase the pollution level. We also compare the effects of an emission tax and tradable pollution permits on welfare, technology adoption, and pollution level. We show that, ...

  15. Elements of Clean-room Technology and Contamination Control

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Kapoor; Meenakshi Gupta

    2003-01-01

    The heart of the clean room is the high efticiency particualte air (HEPA)/ultra-low penetration air (ULPA) filter, which provides the highest level of air cleaning ever achieved by a singleprocess step. Filter technology has seen tremendous growth in terms of ultimate performance and air handling capacity. Mere installation of ULPA filters of 99.99995 per cent efficiency for 0.2 um aerosol is not sufficient for achieving the desired performance of a clean room. Other design aspects like flow ...

  16. Upgrade of gas turbine cleaning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Gas turbines used to be cleaned during times of engine shut down by spraying a jet of water into the compressor air intakes with a garden hose. Washing has become more sophisticated, with modern wash skids consisting of pumps, regulators, detergent tanks, rinsing water tanks, heaters, and wash cycle programs. High pressure wash systems were developed to improve both off-line and on-line cleaning of gas turbine compressors. The main feature of a high pressure system is its ability to use less liquid while minimizing risk for damage by erosion. A high pressure system was tested on the LM 2500 gas turbine at the Kvaerner Energy test facility at Agotnes, Norway. Both on-line washing and crank washing were tested. Engine performance was found to improve after washing. Laboratory tests have been validated by field experience with the high pressure system on North Sea platforms. The use of detergent can be eliminated with high pressure washing systems, thereby simplifying and reducing the cost of the washing procedure. The greatest advantage of pressure washing is that the interval for crank washes could be extended from 1500 hours to 4000 hours. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  17. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  18. Developments in technology and markets for Wyoming coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal industry is making changes in Wyoming. Larger, more efficient equipment allowed Wyoming mines to produce 194 million tons of coal in 1991 and position itself to produce even more if the utilities that have to meet the demands of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) decide to use the vast low sulfur coal deposits of Wyoming to meet the new standards. Wyoming leads the nation in production of coal. The mines in Wyoming are committed to being the best source of low cost, low sulfur coal in the world. With support from the state and reasonable regulations at the state an federal level, Wyoming will continue to be the nation's leader in coal

  19. The directory of US coal and technology export resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of The Directory remains focused on offering a consolidated resource to potential buyers of US coal, coal technology, and expertise. This is consistent with the US policy on coal and coal technology trade, which continues to emphasize export market strategy implementation. Within this context, DOE will continue to support the teaming'' approach to marketing; i.e., vertically integrated large project teams to include multiple industry sectors, such as coal producers, engineering and construction firms, equipment manufacturers, financing and service organizations.

  20. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1996--March 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Pisupati, S.V. [and others

    1997-07-22

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. Preliminary pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction catalyst tests were conducted when firing natural gas in Penn State`s down-fired combustor. This is the first step in the scale-up of bench-scale results obtained in Phase II to the demonstration boiler scale when firing coal. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included installing a ribbon mixer into Penn State`s micronized coal-water mixture circuit for reentraining filter cake. In addition, three cleaned coals were received from CQ Inc. and three cleaned coals were received from Cyprus-Amax.

  1. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L. [AMAX R& D Center/ENTECH Global Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  2. Clean Economy, Living Planet. The Race to the Top of Global Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Slot, A.; Van den Berg, W. [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants RBSC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    For four years, WWF and Roland Berger have tracked developments in the global clean energy technology (cleantech) sector and ranked countries according to their cleantech sales. The 3rd annual 'Clean Economy, Living Planet' report ranks 40 countries based on the 2011 sales value of the clean energy technology products they manufacture. The report shows that the EU has lost its position to China as the leader in the fast growing global cleantech energy manufacturing sector. However, when cleantech sales are weighted as a percentage of GDP, Denmark and Germany occupied the first and third position globally. Last year the sector's global sales value rose by 10% to almost 200 billion euros, close to the scale of consumer electronics manufacturing. It is projected to overtake oil and gas equipment in the next three years.

  3. Hydrogenation Technology for Producing Clean Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shuiyin; Xiong Zhenlin; Gao Xiaodong; Nie Hong

    2004-01-01

    With the standard of environmental protection becoming increasingly strict, it is required to remove sulfur and aromatics in diesel deeply. RIPP has developed several new hydrogenation catalysts and flexible processes, by means of which clean diesel fuel with low sulfur and low aromatic contents can be produced. From SRGO (Straight Run Gas Oil), which has an aromatic content of less than 30m%, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel or ultra-low sulfur diesel can be obtained by adopting a new process operating on highly active RN-series catalysts. From a feed with higher aromatic content (A=30~80m%),such as FCC-LCO, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel can be obtained by the SSHT, MHUG and DDA processes.

  4. Clean Coal: myth or reality? At the heart of the energy-climate equation, capturing and storing CO2 - Proceedings of the 2007 Le Havre's international meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document comprises the French and English versions of the executive summary of the RIH 2007 meetings, followed by the available presentations (slides). Content: - Symposium Opening: Government and the Coal Issue; 1 - First Session - Energy, Climate, Coal: - Scenarios for energy technologies and CO2 emissions: Energy outlooks, CO2 emissions, Technologies (Kamel BENNACEUR); - The global situation of coal: The situation of the international steam coal market, Change in this market, Total's position in this business, Major challenges for the future (Ablaziz ESSEID); - Coal markets: availability, competitiveness, and growing maturity (Stephane LEMOINE); - Coal in the geopolitics of greenhouse gases (Henri PREVOT); - Questions; 2 - Second Session - Coal Economy: - Opportunities and challenges for coal in the European energy mix: the Commission's energy package: The European situation, The European energy mix, The role of EURACOAL (Thorsten DIERCKS); - The development of a coal bed in Lucenay-les-Aix and Cossaye in the Massif Central (Francois JACLOT); - The Russian view of coal's place in the energy mix (Dominique FACHE); - Coal, a key to development in Niger (Pierre-Jean COULON); - The energy and environmental efficiency of coal-fired power plants associated with heating networks (Renaud CAPRIS); - The Valorca project: efficient and immediate use of coal, and strong outlooks for the future (Jean-Pascal TRANIE); - Questions; 3 - Third and Forth Sessions - Clean Power Plants: - CO2 capture systems (Pierre LE THIEZ); - CO2 geological capture and storage in the Lacq basin (Luc de MARLIAVE); - Clean coal: Air Liquide technology developments and industrial solutions (Nicolas PERRIN); - Clean combustion and CO2 (Philippe PAELINCK); - CO2 capture by freezing/defrosting at low temperatures (Denis CLODIC); - Questions; - Using the experience of a large corporation (ENDESA), to develop clean energy: coal (Laurent THABUSSOT); - Pathways to reduce CO2 emissions

  5. Hot Gas Particulate Cleaning Technology Applied for PFBC/IGFC -The Ceramic Tube Filter (CTF) and Metal Filter-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasatsu, H; Misawa, N; Kobori, K; Iritani, J

    2002-09-18

    Coal is a fossil fuel abundant and widespread all over world. It is a vital resource for energy security, because the supply is stable. However, its CO2 emission per unit calorific value is greater than that of other fossil fuels. It is necessary to develop more efficient coal utilization technologies to expand the coal utilization that meets the social demand for better environment. The Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) combined cycle has become a subject of world attention in terms of better plant operation, improved plant efficiency, lower flue gas emission and fuel flexibility. The gas turbine, one of the most important components in the PFBC, is eager for a hot gas (approximately 650-850C) cleaning system in order to eliminate the severe erosion problem with the less thermal loss. The cyclone is most popular system for a hot gas cleaning, however, the severe damage for gas turbine blades by highly concentrated fine fly ash from PFBC boiler is reported.

  6. Critical resources in clean energy technologies and waste flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal

    A broader implementation of clean energy technologies in future is a widely motivated scenario for meeting the climate change goals as well as to reduce our dependency on the non‐renewable fossil fuels. However, the transition from the current fossil‐based society to a future low‐carbon society is...... constraints for the emerging clean energy technologies in future, along with an insight into the resource criticality assessment methodologies, detailed material flow analysis (MFA) of critical resources, and recovery of critical resources from the waste streams. The key findings of this PhD study were:  The...... demand of neodymium and dysprosium, driven by the clean energy technologies is estimated to be 10 times higher by 2050 compared to the present primary supply (mining). This implies that either a highly accelerated rate of mining is required to meet the future demand or a radical change in current...

  7. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  8. Fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application in cleanrooms

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhonglin

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Air Cleaning Technology and Its Application in Cleanrooms sets up the theoretical framework for cleanrooms. New ideas and methods are presented, which include the characteristic index of cleanrooms, uniform and non-uniform distribution characteristics, the minimum sampling volume, a new concept of outdoor air conditioning and the fundamentals of leakage-preventing layers. Written by an author who can look back on major scientific achievements and 50 years of experience in this field, this book offers a concise and accessible introduction to the fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application. The work is intended for researchers, college teachers, graduates, designers, technicians and corporate R&D personnel in the field of HVAC and air cleaning technology. Zhonglin Xu is a senior research fellow at China Academy of Building Research.

  9. Energy modelling: Clean grids with current technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2016-05-01

    The need for new energy storage is often seen as an obstacle to integrating renewable electricity into national power systems. Modelling shows that existing technologies could provide significant emissions reductions in the US without the need for storage, however.

  10. Optimal Monitoring to Implement Clean Technologies when Pollution is Random

    OpenAIRE

    Inés MACHO-STADLER; Pérez-Castrillo, David

    2007-01-01

    We analyze environments where firms chose a production technology which, together with random events, determines the final emission level. We consider the coexistence of two alternative technologies. The cost of the adoption of the clean technology and the actual emissions are firms' private information. The environmental regulation is based on taxes over reported emissions, and on monitoring and penalties over unreported emissions. We show that the optimal monitoring is a cut-off policy, whe...

  11. Timing of adoption of clean technologies by regulated monopolies

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef Slim Ben

    2010-01-01

    We consider a monopolistic firm producing a good while polluting and using a fossil energy. This firm can adopt a clean technology by incurring an investment cost decreasing exponentially with the adoption date. This clean technology does not pollute and has a lower production cost because it uses a renewable energy. We determine the optimal adoption date for the firm in the case where it is not regulated at all, and in the case where it is regulated at each period of time i.e. the regulator ...

  12. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Belošević Srđan V.; Tomanović Ivan D.; Crnomarković Nenad Đ.; Milićević Aleksandar R.; Tucaković Dragan R.

    2016-01-01

    Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by c...

  13. Coal-sand attrition system and its importance in fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, R.K.

    1991-12-02

    The primary objective of this project is geared toward the substitution of steel media by fracturing silica sand as a grinding media for ultrafine coal grinding. The experimental silica is as follows: (1) design and fabrication of attrition cell; (2) sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; (3) batch grinding tests; (4) continuous grinding test; and (5) fracture mechanics.

  14. Research on Coal Exploration Technology Based on Satellite Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Xiao; Ba Tuan Le; Yachun Mao; Jinhong Jiang; Liang Song; Shanjun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Coal is the main source of energy. In China and Vietnam, coal resources are very rich, but the exploration level is relatively low. This is mainly caused by the complicated geological structure, the low efficiency, the related damage, and other bad situations. To this end, we need to make use of some advanced technologies to guarantee the resource exploration is implemented smoothly and orderly. Numerous studies show that remote sensing technology is an effective way in coal exploration and m...

  15. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Appendix B. Assessment of status of technology for solvent refining of coal. 1977 technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report reviews the technology and environmental impacts of the solvent refined coal process to produce clean solid fuel (SRC-I). Information on SRC-I pilot plant operation, process design, and economics is presented. A bibliography of current available literature in this technology area, divided into fourteen categories with abstracts of the references, is appended. The history, current operations, and future plans for the SRC pilot plants at Fort Lewis and Wilsonville are reviewed. Process data generated at these pilot plants for various coals are used as a basis for a conceptual commercial plant design with a capacity to process 20,000 tons per day (TPD) of prepared coal. Block flow diagrams, material balances, an energy balance, and a list of raw materials for the plant are also provided. Capital cost estimates for a 20,000 TPD coal feed plant derived from four prior economic studies range from $706 million to $1093 million in 1976 dollars. The annual net operating cost is estimated at $238.6 million (1976 dollars) and the average product cost at $2.71/MM Btu based on utility financing (equity 25:debt 75) with $25/ton as the delivered price of the dry coal. The report also discusses special technical considerations associated with some of the process operations and major equipment items and enumerates technical risks associated with the commercialization of the SRC-I process.

  16. Nuclear environment clean-up technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Lee, Kune Woo; Won, Hui Jun; Jung, Chong Hun; Kim, Gye Nam; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Kim, Sung Kyun; Hong, Sang Bum; Choi, Wun Dong

    2012-03-15

    A laser ablation decontamination technology which is reportedly effective for a removal of fixed contaminants has been developed for three years as the first stage of the development. Lab scale experimental equipment was fabricated and the process variables have been assessed for determination of appropriate decontamination conditions at the laser wave lengths of 1,064 nm and 532 nm, respectively. The decontamination tests using radioactive specimens showed that the decontamination efficiency was about 100 which is quite a high value. An electrokinetic-flushing, an agglomeration leaching and a supercritical CO2 soil decontamination technology were development for a decontamination of radioactive soil wastes from the decommissioned sites of the TRIGA research reactor and the uranium conversion facilities. The remediation monitoring key technologies such as a representative sample taking and a measurement concept for the vertical distribution of radionuclides were developed for an assessment of the site remediation. Also an One-Dimensional Water Flow and Contaminant Transport in Unsaturated Zone (FTUNS) code was developed to interpretate the radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone. The chemical gel decontamination process with more effective drying, rheological and decontaminating properties than the existing commercial gel decontamination technology has been developed for a decontamination of the fixed contamination of extremely high radiation facilities. Its performance were verified for the in-situ large scale application through the demonstration test using the radioactive facilities in KNFC contaminated with uranium.

  17. Nuclear environment clean-up technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser ablation decontamination technology which is reportedly effective for a removal of fixed contaminants has been developed for three years as the first stage of the development. Lab scale experimental equipment was fabricated and the process variables have been assessed for determination of appropriate decontamination conditions at the laser wave lengths of 1,064 nm and 532 nm, respectively. The decontamination tests using radioactive specimens showed that the decontamination efficiency was about 100 which is quite a high value. An electrokinetic-flushing, an agglomeration leaching and a supercritical CO2 soil decontamination technology were development for a decontamination of radioactive soil wastes from the decommissioned sites of the TRIGA research reactor and the uranium conversion facilities. The remediation monitoring key technologies such as a representative sample taking and a measurement concept for the vertical distribution of radionuclides were developed for an assessment of the site remediation. Also an One-Dimensional Water Flow and Contaminant Transport in Unsaturated Zone (FTUNS) code was developed to interpretate the radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone. The chemical gel decontamination process with more effective drying, rheological and decontaminating properties than the existing commercial gel decontamination technology has been developed for a decontamination of the fixed contamination of extremely high radiation facilities. Its performance were verified for the in-situ large scale application through the demonstration test using the radioactive facilities in KNFC contaminated with uranium

  18. Clean technology for the small auriferous mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of gold in the small auriferous mining is characterized by several deficiencies, among them low recovery, emissions of mercury in form of milled mercury; amalgams and vapor, cyanide emissions and of its compounds, low level of industrial security. The mercury is used for the amalgamation of concentrated (taken place by several methods of gravimetric separation), for the amalgamation of the whole mineral load. The last case represents a mercury use in open circuit, with lost discharges of mercury to the process tales. The cyanidation is used in most of the cases for the residuals of the gravimetric concentration. This means that combines amalgamation with cyanidation that is in double cost and double environmental impact. To minimize operation costs and environmental impacts, the following steps of the mineral benefit, are advisable: controlled mill and appropriate to liberate the gold and not over miller; gravimetric concentration to recover a pre-concentrated with lost minimum of gold; Separation of the thick gold (if it exists) of the pre-concentrate. The free and thick gold can separate for gravimetric processes of the pre-concentrate and to smelt it directly; the amalgamation is not more necessary. The pre-concentrated cyanidation for agitation generally has bigger recovery and it is quicker than the traditional method for percolation. The realization of the new process has a gold recovery more high, less operation costs, less cyanide emissions, any emission of mercury and a higher work security. It should be mentioned that the viability and efficiency of the clean process depends of the mineral nature

  19. Hybrid Cleaning Technology for Enhanced Post-Cu/Low-Dielectric Constant Chemical Mechanical Planarization Cleaning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Manivannan; Cho, Byoung-Jun; Kwon, Tae-Young; Park, Jin-Goo

    2013-05-01

    During chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a copper/low-k surface is often contaminated by abrasive particles, organic materials and other additives. These contaminants need to be removed in the subsequent cleaning process with minimum material loss. In this study, a dilute amine-based alkaline cleaning solution is used along with physical force in the form of megasonic energy to remove particles and organic contaminants. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) are used as an organic base and complexing agent, respectively, in the proposed solution. Ethanolamine acts as a corrosion inhibitor in the solution. Organic residue removal was confirmed through contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Electrochemical studies showed that the proposed solution increases protection against corrosion, and that the hybrid cleaning technology resulted in higher particle removal efficiency from both the copper and low-k surfaces.

  20. The role of high-Btu coal gasification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, M. I.

    An analysis is given of the role and economic potential of Lurgi-technology gasification of coal to the year 2000, in relation to other gas-supply options, the further development of gasifier designs, and probable environmental impact. It is predicted that coal gasification may reach 10% of total gas supplies by the year 2000, with Eastern U.S. coal use reaching commercially significant use in the 1990's. It is concluded that coal gasification is the cleanest way of using coal, with minimal physical, chemical, biological and socioeconomic impacts.

  1. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  2. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  3. Microgas dispersion for fine-coal cleaning. Technical progress report, March 1, 1981-August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Halsey, G.S.; Sebba, F.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the flotation tests conducted demonstrate that the use of fine colloidal gas aphrons (CGA) bubbles is beneficial for fine coal flotation. As demonstrated with the ultrafine coal sample, the froth products of CGA flotation are almost twice as clean as those of the conventional flotation tests at 70% yield. The kerosene consumption was considerably higher, however, both in conventional and in CGA flotation. Attempts were made to coat the CGA bubbles with a film of kerosene and use them for flotation, hoping that this would reduce the oil consumption. However, no positive results have yet been obtained with this process. Another problem associated with CGA flotation is that the ash content of the froth products is relatively high when using a stable CGA, such as that prepared with Dowfroth M150. On the other hand, when using an unstable CGA, as is the case with MIBC, low ash clean coal products can be obtained, but at the expense of the yield. Two approaches are being investigated to correct this problem. A considerable amount of effort has been made to determine the surface charge of the CGA.

  4. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for clea

  5. Clean separation technologies of rare earth resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Chunsheng; WU Sheng; CHENG Fuxiang; WANG Songling; LIU Yan; ZHANG Bo; YAN Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    After a review on the conventional separation process of rare earths (RE),hyperlink extraction technology was introduced and a potential process was proposed for clean separation of RE.A great amount of acid,base and water was consumed in the conventional RE separation process which included the procedures of raw material dissolving,extraction separation and precipitation.Therefore hyperlink extraction technology had been developed,by which the repeated consumption of acid and base could be avoided during the extraction process.And based on the theory and successful applications of the hyperlink extraction technology,we proposed the integral hyperlink process in which the intermediate acid resulted in individual procedures would be recycled and reused after being treated.The proposed process would make it feasible to consume no chemicals except for oxalic acid,and so could be a promising clean separation technology with a significant reduction on consumption and emission.

  6. Energizing America with coal. Proceedings of the 88th regular meeting of The Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics discussed at the meeting include: American coal technology; electric supply and demand; opportunities in power generation; the Clean Coal Technology Program; coal mining; the coal market; total quality management in the mining industry; mining productivity; mine rescue performance evaluation; and data on coal production. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  7. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Analysis of Noise at Coal Face by Fully-Mechanized Coal Winning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘照鹏

    2003-01-01

    The noise level of coal face by full-mechanized coal winning technology was measured in a coal mine. And then it was analyzed and evaluated using environment science, ergonomics and fussy mathematics analysis. Basis of the statistics and analysis of the measured noise level some measures, such as applying the new materials and improving the construction of the equipment, were carried out. The resuts show that they can reduce the noise level, improve the working environment and enhance the work efficiency.

  9. Supercritical fluids technology for clean biofuel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongsheng Wen; H.Jiang; Kai Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels that are predominantly produced from biomass for transport sector applications.As biofuels are renewable,sustainable,carbon neutral and environmentally benign,they have been proposed as promising alternative fuels for gasoline and diesel engines.This paper reviews state-of-the-art application of the supercritical fluid(SCF)technique in biofuels production that includes biodiesel from vegetable oils via the transesterification process,bio-hydrogen from the gasification and bio-oil from the lique-faction of biomass,with biodiesel production as the main focus. The global biofuel situation and biofuel economics are also reviewed.The SCF has been shown to be a promising technique for future large-scale biofuel production,especially for biodiesel production from waster oil and fat.Compared with conventional biofuel production methods,the SCF technology possesses a number of advantages that includes fast inetics,high fuel production rate,ease of continuous operation and elimination of the necessity of catalysts.The harsh operation environment,i.e. the high temperature and high pressure,and its request on the materials and associated cost are the main concerns for its wide application.

  10. Coal technology in a sustainable society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is a major world energy resource. For many countries it is the primary fuel in electricity generation. As world energy demand increases so also will the demand for coal. Steel and aluminium-essential elements in the fabric of modern society -also rely heavily on coal. This article points out that the Australian coal industry is responding to the challenges facing coal by investigating a sustainable development strategy and examining the full life cycle outcomes of coal as fuel and reductant. The challenge is to deliver much more efficient ways of extracting energy from coal. The most effective strategies are seen to be: ash displacement credits, synergies with renewables and integration with other industries

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Ultra-clean Micronized Coal Oil Water Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Ming; Xu Jing

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle assessment is applied to assess the ultra-clean micronized coal oil water slurry (UCMCOWS) with Si-maPro and the environmental impact of UCMCOWS on its whole life cycle is also analyzed. The result shows that the consumption of energy and products are increasing along with the deepening of UCMCOWS processing, UCMCOWS making and combustion arc the two periods which have a bigger impact on eco-system and hu-man health. As a new substitute of fuel, UCMCOWS merits to be utilized more efficiently and reasonably.

  12. Effect of heating rate on thermal properties and kinetics of raw and cleaned coal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbas, K.E.; Hicyilmaz, C.; Kok, M.V. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-01-01

    In this article, thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) was used to determine the effect of heating rate on the thermal properties and kinetics of raw and cleaned coal samples from Soma, Tuncbilek, and Afsin Elbistan regions. TG/DTG experiments were carried out at 4 different heating rates (5, 10, 15, and 20{sup o}{sup o}C/min). Generally, for all of the samples higher peak and burnout temperatures were measured with an increasing heating rate. Kinetic parameters of the samples were determined using an Arrhenius-type kinetic model, and it was observed that activation energies of all the samples were affected inversely when the heating rate was increased.

  13. Elements of Clean-room Technology and Contamination Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Kapoor

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart of the clean room is the high efticiency particualte air (HEPA/ultra-low penetration air (ULPA filter, which provides the highest level of air cleaning ever achieved by a singleprocess step. Filter technology has seen tremendous growth in terms of ultimate performance and air handling capacity. Mere installation of ULPA filters of 99.99995 per cent efficiency for 0.2 um aerosol is not sufficient for achieving the desired performance of a clean room. Other design aspects like flow fields, face velocity, number of air changes, make-up air fractions and precise control of other environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, airflow, noise, vibrations, electrostatic discharge, etc. are equally important.

  14. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  15. SELECTION OF SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMBUSTION OF BOSNIAN COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anes Kazagić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with optimization of coal combustion conditions to support selection a sustainable combustion technology and an optimal furnace and boiler design. A methodology for optimization of coal combustion conditions is proposed and demonstrated on the example of Bosnian coals. The properties of Bosnian coals vary widely from one coal basin to the next, even between coal mines within the same basin. Very high percentage of ash (particularly in Bosnian brown coal makes clear certain differences between Bosnian coal types and other world coal types, providing a strong argument for investigating specific problems related to the combustion of Bosnian coals, as well as ways to improve their combustion behaviour. In this work, options of the referent energy system (boiler with different process temperatures, corresponding to the different combustion technologies; pulverised fuel combustion (slag tap or dry bottom furnace and fluidized bed combustion, are under consideration for the coals tested. Sustainability assessment, based on calculation economic and environment indicators, in combination with common low cost planning method, is used for the optimization. The total costs in the lifetime are presented by General index of total costs, calculated on the base of agglomeration of basic economic indicators and the economic indicators derived from environmental indicators. So, proposed methodology is based on identification of those combustion technologies and combustion conditions for coals tested for which the total costs in lifetime of the system under consideration are lowest, provided that all environmental issues of the energy system is fulfilled during the lifetime. Inputs for calculation of the sustainability indicators are provided by the measurements on an experimental furnace with possibility of infinite variation of process temperature, supported by good praxis from the power plants which use the fuels tested and by thermal

  16. Self-Cleaning Technology in Fabric: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani Saad, Siti; Mahmed, Norsuria; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    This article gives an overview on photocatalytic self-cleaning technology on fabric resulting from titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as photocatalyst which decompose the organic stain into water and carbon dioxide (CO2) in presence of UV light source. The self-cleaning concept is useful in various application including the textiles materials which are normally used in daily life. This technology also can be developed in other application for instance medical textiles, athletic wear, and military uniform and also outdoor fabrics. Additionally, it is beneficial as it effectively conserves water and improves the appearance of the environment and in long term it will reduce energy, laundry cost and time as well.

  17. The Victorian government`s clean technology incentive scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, M.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reeve, D. [Environment Protection Authority, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Over the past decade environment policies have placed increasing emphasis on waste minimization and cleaner production techniques. The Environment Protection Authority in Victoria, Australia, has sought to encourage waste minimization by establishing a Clean Technology Incentive Scheme. The Scheme was established in 1988 and since then 35 offers of loans have been made. Results to date are encouraging. In this work, case studies of three especially successful projects are presented. 2 refs.

  18. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for cleaner production in crude palm oil industry, and to provide recommendations for overcoming these barriers. As such the overall aim was to generate ideas for moving the crude palm oil industry towards sustainability.In order to fulfill these research aimsdetailed case studies have be...

  19. Technology of complex cleaning of mine acidic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown, that problem of complex use of mine waters includes two tasks: its cleaning and use of these waters in capacity of hydro-mineral raw. The floatation-extraction technology of mine acidic waters reprocessing is developed. The possibility of extraction processing of foam products of floatation with purpose of selective isolation of valuable components (Co, Ni, Sc, numerous of rare elements) is considered, optimum modes of metal extraction are defined. (author)

  20. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  1. Coal Briquette Technology reduces Greenhouse Gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses, in the context of Zambia's Energy Policy, the impact of substituting woodfuel with fossil fuels like Coal on Greenhouse gases, mainly CO2.Computation of comparative emissions of CO2 by implementing this energy substitution especially at household level is presented. Further, the processing of Coal into Briquettes is discused. 2 figs., chart

  2. The element technology of clean fuel alcohol plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S; Lee, D.S. [Sam-Sung Engineering Technical Institute (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C.Y [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    The fuel alcohol has been highlighted as a clean energy among new renewable energy sources. However, the production of the fuel alcohol has following problems; (i)bulk distillate remains is generated and (ii) benzene to be used as a entertainer in the azeotropic distillation causes the environmental problem. Thus, we started this research on the ground of preserving the cleanness in the production of fuel alcohol, a clean energy. We examined the schemes of replacing the azotropic distillation column which causes the problems with MSDP(Molecular Sieve Dehydration Process) system using adsorption technology and of treating the bulk distillate remains to be generated as by-products. In addition, we need to develop the continuous yea station technology for the continuous operation of fuel alcohol plant as a side goal. Thus, we try to develop a continuous ethanol fermentation process by high-density cell culture from tapioca, a industrial substrate, using cohesive yeast. For this purpose, we intend to examine the problem of tapioca, a industrial substrate, where a solid is existed and develop a new process which can solve the problem. Ultimately, the object of this project is to develop each element technology for the construction of fuel alcohol plant and obtain the ability to design the whole plant. (author) 54 refs., 143 figs., 34 tabs.

  3. Implications of using clean technologies to power selected ASEAN countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on energy system development of the three largest Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries: Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam. The energy infrastructures in these counties are in the process of rapid development and, therefore, technology choices are critical. Applying the energy system model MARKAL and scenario analysis, this paper examines and quantifies the role of clean and advanced energy technologies for efficient local resource exploitation and improving energy security and environmental conditions. The main focus is on the power sector and the paper also addresses the potential ASEAN markets for European energy technologies. The paper concludes that there is a large potential market for clean and advanced energy technologies in the studied countries. If adopted, these technologies will bring several benefits like reduction in primary energy requirement, reduced investments requirement in the power sector and other parts of the energy infrastructure, reduced import of primary energy, reduced CO2 emissions and local pollution, reduced energy system costs and marginal cost of electricity supply. Finally, barriers for transfer and diffusion of advanced energy technologies are discussed.

  4. Prospect of Coal Based IGCC to Meet the Clean Energy Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamruzzaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a country is nearly proportional to the average per person energy consumption rate, which is very low in our country. However, the rate of average energy consumption is increasing day by day throughout the world. With increasing the production of energy, the problem of environment pollution from the power generation sources and energy efficiency becomes more imperative. Coal is the major source of primary energy of the world, however, the energy efficiency of coal based power plant is low, and also it significantly polluted the environment. Therefore, to improve the energy efficiency and reduce the pollution from coal based power plant is an important issue to discuss. In this paper, the primary reserves of energy throughout the world are discussed. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC is a latest technology used to improve the performance of coal based power plant. The process of IGCC and the present condition of IGCC throughout the world is discussed. Finally the advantages of IGCC and necessity of moving towards IGCC from convention coal based power plant is discussed in terms of cost, efficiency and environmental issues.

  5. Market for new coal powerplant technologies in the US: 1997 annual energy outlook results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutzler, M.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Energy Information Administration

    1997-12-31

    Over the next 20 years, the combination of slow growth in the demand for electricity, even slower growth in the need for new capacity, especially baseload capacity, and the competitiveness of new gas-fired technologies limits the market for new coal technologies in the US. In the later years of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook projections, post-2005, when a significant amount of new capacity is needed to replace retiring plants and meet growing demand, some new coal-fired plants are expected to be built, but new gas-fired plants are expected to remain the most economical choice for most needs. The largest market for clean coal technologies in the United States may be in retrofitting or repowering existing plants to meet stricter environmental standards, especially over the next 10 years. Key uncertainties include the rate of growth in the demand for electricity and the level of competing fuel prices, particularly natural gas. Higher than expected growth in the demand for electricity and/or relatively higher natural gas prices would increase the market for new coal technologies.

  6. UK Coal resource for new exploitation technologies. Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, N. S.; Holloway, S.; Creedy, D.P.; Gamer, K.; Smith, N.J.P.; Browne, M.A.E.; S. Durucan

    2004-01-01

    This focus of this report are the UK coal resources available for exploitation by the new technologies of Underground Coal Gasification, Coalbed Methane production and Carbon Dioxide Sequestration. It also briefly considers the potential for further underground and opencast mining and the extraction of methane from working and closed mines. The potential for mining was mainly considered because it has a bearing on the scope for the new exploitation technologies rather than to identify resourc...

  7. Purification of mine water of radium - The implementation of the technology in a coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In underground coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin there are inflows of highly mineralised waters containing radium isotopes. These waters cause radioactive pollution of the natural environment in mining areas. Therefore cleaning of saline waters of radium is very important. Two types of radium-bearing waters were distinguished - one type containing radium and barium ions, but no sulphates (type A) and another one in which radium and sulphate ions are present but no barium (type B). A very efficient and inexpensive method of purification of saline waters, of Ba2+ and Ra2+ ions was developed and implemented in two coal mines. As the result of used technology, based on application of phosphogypsum as the cleaning agent, a significant decrease of radium discharge was achieved - daily of about 120 MBq of 226Ra and 80 MBq of 228Ra. Another type of radium waters does not contain barium ions, but contains sulphate ions SO42-. There is no carrier for co-precipitation of radium so radium is transported with discharged waters to main rivers. Different method of purification from radium must be applied for such waters. Laboratory and field experiments were performed, and a cleaning method was chosen. For purification of saline waters - waste products from other industrial processes are applied. The method of purification have been applied in full technical scale in coal mine with very good results - of about 6 m3/min of radium-bearing waters is cleaned. Whole this process takes place in underground old workings without any contact of mining crew with radioactive deposits, which are produced during the process. As a result radium amount released to the natural environment was significantly diminished - approximately of about 90 MBq of 226Ra per day and 150 MBq of 228Ra. (author)

  8. 21st Century Coal: Advanced Technology and Global Energy Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Coal currently supplies with more than 40% of the world electricity consumption and it essential input of around 70% of world steel production, representing around 30% of the world primary energy supply. This is because coal is cheap, abundant, accessible, widely distributed and easy energy to transport, store and use. For these features, coal is projected to be intensively used in the future. Production and use of coal present a series of issues throughout the whole value chain. While existing technology allows addressing most of them (safety at work, land restoration, mercury, NOx and sulphur emissions avoidance, etc.), CO2 emissions continues to be the biggest challenge for coal use in the future. This report focuses on the technology path to near-zero emissions including useful insights in advanced coal power generation technologies and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage, a promising technology with a large potential which can push Carbon Capture and Storage competitiveness. In addition, the report shows the features of the new generation of coal-fired power plants in terms of flexibility for dynamic operation and grid stability, requirements increasingly needed to operate on grids with significant wind and solar generation.

  9. A software tool for soil clean-up technology selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil remediation is a difficult, time-consuming and expensive operation. A variety of mature and emerging soil remediation technologies is available and future trends in remediation will include continued competition among environmental service companies and technology developers, which will definitely result in further increase in the clean-up options. Consequently, the demand has enhanced developing decision support tools that could help the decision makers to select the most appropriate technology for the specific contaminated site, before the costly remedial actions are taken. Therefore, a software tool for soil clean-up technology selection is currently being developed with the aim of closely working with human decision makers (site owners, local community representatives, environmentalists, regulators, etc.) to assess the available technologies and preliminarily select the preferred remedial options. The analysis for the identification of the best remedial options is based on technical, financial, environmental, and social criteria. These criteria are ranked by all involved parties to determine their relative importance for a particular project. (author)

  10. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  11. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  12. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  13. Research in cleaning water-walls of the TP-45 boiler with water during combustion of Angren brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagrutdinov, R.Sh.; Shpakovich, E.Ya.; Guzenko, S.I.; Timofeev, A.P.; Perevezentsev, V.P.; Vasil' ev, V.V.

    1982-08-01

    With the growth of the electric power industry, great significance is placed on combustion of low-grade coals in large deposits with infavorable properties. Angren brown coal is an inexpensive low-grade fuel with 20-22% dry ash. During its combustion in steam generators with a radiant heat surface associated deposits are formed. Research on the problem of preventing slag formation on heating surfaces during the combustion of Angren brown coal is discussed. The use of water to clean these surfaces is also discussed.

  14. Airtight negative pressure dust-control technology and application of transpersite in the coal conveyer belt system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yun-dong; JIA Hui-yan; ZHANG Da-ming

    2008-01-01

    Presented a new coal dust control program that was airtight negative pressure dust-control technology at the transpersite,combining with analysis with the movement of air currents and numerical simulation of gas-solid flow at the transpersite,and proved the mechanism of precipitation and proliferation for coal dust-controlt in theory.The technology has made good economic results at the Heidaigou Clean Plant,not only dust concentration control within 10 mg/m3 to the work site,but also substantial energy savings and cost savings.

  15. Airtight negative pressure dust-control technology and application of transpersite in the coal conveyer belt system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yun-dong; JIA Hui-yan; ZHANG Da-ming

    2008-01-01

    Presented a new coal dust control program that was airtight negative pressure dust-control technology at the transpersite, combining with analysis with the movement of air currents and numerical simulation of gas-solid flow at the transpersite, and proved the mechanism of precipitation and proliferation for coal dust-controlt in theory. The technol-ogy has made good economic results at the Heidaigou Clean Plant, not only dust concen-tration control within 10 mg/m3 to the work site, but also substantial energy savings and cost savings.

  16. The Clean Development Mechanism and neglected environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides an institutional framework for developed countries to support projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Are the technologies promoted those most needed by the recipient countries? We address this question by first reviewing Technology Needs Assessments prepared by developing countries, and then comparing the stated needs to the technologies most frequently promoted via CDM. While there appears to be a good match between requested technologies and those used in CDM, desired technologies such as solar energy for remote locations, biofuels, improved cooking stoves, and efficient lighting appear “neglected” by CDM. Nonetheless, a review of costs for these technologies suggests that many could be cost effective for developing countries. For projects requiring wide dispersal of household items, such as cooking stoves or lighting, the administrative burdens of CDM provide a hurdle. In other cases, difficulties quantifying the ancillary benefits of these projects hinder the promotion of these technologies. We conclude with possible explanations for why these technologies are neglected and suggestions for future research. - Highlights: ► We identify technologies desired by developing countries but not provided via CDM. ► Solar PV is neglected due to high costs. ► The CDM process provides a hurdle for improved cooking stoves and efficient lighting. ► Implications for CDM and climate policy are discussed

  17. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  18. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Fossil fuels and clean, plentiful energy in the 21st century: the example of coal

    OpenAIRE

    Jaccard, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Many people believe we must quickly wean ourselves from fossil fuels to save the planet from environmental catastrophe, wars and economic collapse. However, we have the technological capability to use fossil fuels without emitting climate-threatening greenhouse gases or other pollutants. The natural transition from conventional oil and gas to unconventional oil, unconventional gas and coal for producing electricity, hydrogen and cleaner-burning fuels will decrease energy dependence on politic...

  20. Vertical transportation system of solid material for backfilling coal mining technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Feng; Zhang Jixiong; Zhang Qiang

    2012-01-01

    For transportation of solid backfill material such as waste and fly ash from the surface to the bottom of the shaft in a fully mechanized backfilling coal backfilling coal mining technology,we developed a new vertical transportation system to transport this type of solid backfill material.Given the demands imposed on safely in feeding this material,we also investigated the structure and basic parameter of this system.For a mine in the Xingtai mining area the results show that:(1) a vertical transportation system should include three main parts,i.e.,a feeding borehole,a maintenance chamber and a storage silo; (2) we determined that 486 mm is a suitable diameter for bore holes,the diameter of the storage silo is 6 m and its height 30 m in this vertical transportation system; (3) a conical buffer was developed to absorb the impact during the feeding process.To ensure normal implementation of fully mechanized backfilling coal mining technology and the safety of underground personnel,we propose a series of security technologies for anti-blockage,storage silo cleaning.high pressure air release and aspiration.This vertical transporting system has been applied in one this particular mine,which has fed about 4 million tons solid material with a feeding depth of 350 m and safely exploited 3 million tons of coal.

  1. Integration of in-situ CO2-oxy coal gasification with advanced power generating systems performing in a chemical looping approach of clean combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Integration of CO2/O2 based UCG, CLC and CCS for clean coal utilization. • Incorporation of CLC system reduces the ASU load of the power plant. • Use of CO enriched UCG gas in Ni based CLC reduces the difficulty of heat balance. • Coupling of the proposed UCG with IGCC and IGST for the efficient power generation. • Demonstration of reduced CCS energy penalty in the advanced coupled system. - Abstract: Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a clean coal technology to utilize deep coal resources effectively. In-situ CO2-oxy coal gasification may eliminate the operational difficulty of the steam gasification process and utilize CO2 (greenhouse gas) effectively. Furthermore, it is necessary to convert the clean gasified energy from the UCG into clean combustion energy for an end-use. In order to achieve efficient clean power production, the present work investigates the thermodynamic feasibility of integration of CO2 based UCG with power generating systems operating in a chemical looping combustion (CLC) of product gas. The use of CO enriched syngas from O2/CO2 based UCG reduces the difficulty of the heat balance between a fuel reactor and an air reactor in a nickel oxygen-carrier based CLC system. Thermodynamic analyses have been made for various routes of power generation systems such as subcritical, supercritical and ultra-supercritical boiler based steam turbines and gas turbines for the UCG integrated system. It is shown, based on mass and energy balance analysis, that the integration of CO2 based UCG with the CLC system reduces the energy penalty of carbon capture and storage (CCS) significantly. A net thermal efficiency of 29.42% is estimated for the CCS incorporated system, which operates in a subcritical condition based steam turbine power plant. Furthermore, it is found that the efficiency of the proposed steam turbine system increases to 35.40% for an ultra-supercritical operating condition. The effect of operating temperature of the

  2. Air and gas cleaning technology for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All large-scale uses of radioactive materials require rigid control of off-gases and generated aerosols. Nuclear air and gas cleaning technology has answered the need from the days of the Manhattan Project to the present with a variety of devices. The one with the longest and most noteworthy service is the HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter that originally was referred to as an absolute filter in recognition of its extraordinary particle retention characteristics. Activated-charcoal adsorbers have been employed worldwide for retention of volatile radioiodine in molecular and combined forms and, less frequently, for retention of radioactive noble gases. HEPA filters and activated -charcoal adsorbers are often used with auxiliary devices that serve to extend their effective service life or significantly improve collection efficiency under unfavorable operating conditions. Use of both air cleaning devices and their auxiliaries figure prominently in atomic energy, disposal of high- and low-level nuclear wastes, and in the production of fissile materials. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy would be impossible without these, or equivalent, air- and gas-cleaning devices

  3. Coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications -- Technology development. Final report, March 1988--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have developed the technology to enable coal-water slurry to be utilized in large-bore, medium-speed diesel engines. The target application is modular power generation in the 10 to 100 MW size, with each plant using between two and eight engines. Such systems are expected to be economically attractive in the non-utility generation market after 2000, when oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate rapidly compared to the price of coal. During this development program, over 1,000 hours of prototype engine operation have been achieved on coal-water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder, 1.8 MW engine with an integrated emissions control system. Arthur D. Little, Inc., managed the coal-fueled diesel development, with Cooper-Bessemer as the principal subcontractor responsible for the engine design and testing. Several key technical advances which enable the viability of the coal-fueled diesel engine were made under this program. Principal among them are the development and demonstration of (1) durable injection nozzles; (2) an integrated emissions control system; ad (3) low-cost clean coal slurry formulations optimized for the engine. Significant advances in all subsystem designs were made to develop the full-scale Cooper-Bessemer coal engine components in preparation for a 100-hour proof-of-concept test of an integrated system, including emissions controls. The Clean Coal Diesel power plant of the future will provide a cost-competitive, low-emissions, modular, coal-based power generation option to the non-utility generation, small utility, independent power producer, and cogeneration markets. Combined cycle efficiencies will be approximately 48% (lower heating value basis) and installed cost will be approximately $1,300/kW (1992 dollars).

  4. Recovery of reagent in a process for producing ultra clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.M. Steel; J.W. Patrick [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre

    2003-07-01

    A technique for selectively separating approximately 65 wt% of the Si(IV) in coal has been developed. The technique first uses aqueous HF to react with aluminosilicates and quartz to form fluoride complexed Al and Si species in solution. Aluminium cations, in the form of Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, are then added to the solution to complex fluoride as AlF{sub 2}{sup +} and hydrolyse the silicon fluoride species to silicon hydroxide, which precipitates as pure silica gel and is removed by filtration. The solution is then distilled to recover a water stream, a nitric acid stream and a solid residue. The water stream is used to pyrohydrolyse the solid residue at temperatures in excess of 500{sup o}C to liberate HF for recycling. To complete the circuit, the solid remaining after pyrohydrolysis is treated with the nitric acid stream to produce Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} for recycling. The application of this work is primarily as part of a process for producing ultra-clean coal. As it is a technique for the selective separation of Al and Si from aluminosilicates, it may have application in other areas of mineral processing. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. 76 FR 32951 - Coal Mining Equipment, Technologies and Services Trade Mission to China and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... 4 billion tons in 2011. Coal currently accounts for between 65-70% of China's primary energy supply... flue gas remains untreated prior to emission. China welcomes foreign participation in the clean-coal... water system. According to the State Administration of Coal Mine Safety Supervision, China...

  6. Application and development status of coal gasification technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Xue-peng; XU Zhen-gang

    2004-01-01

    Introduced the application and development status of coal gasification technology in China. The most widely used coal gasification technology in China is the atmospheric fixed-bed gasifier, its total number is about 9 000. About 30 pressurized fixed-bed gasifiers are in operation, and more than 10 atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifiers were used. There are 13 Texaco entrained-flow bed gasifiers are under operation,10 Texaco and 11 Shell gasifiers that are being installed or imported. About 10 underground gasifiers are under running now. The present R&D of coal gasification technologies are to improve the operation and controlling level of fixed-bed gasification technology, and developing or demonstration of fluidized-bed and entrained-flow bed gasifiers.

  7. Role of coal in the world and Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the changing role of coal in the world and in Asia. Particular attention is given to the rapidly growing demand for coal in electricity generation, the importance of China as a producer and consumer of coal, and the growing environmental challenge to coal. Attention is given to the increasing importance of low sulfur coal and Clean Coal Technologies in reducing the environmental impacts of coal burning

  8. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  9. Towards a framework of clean energy technology receptivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology invention, innovation and transfer have been a constant of human evolution. Facing humanity is the threat of anthropogenic climate change, the solution to which is to reduce the rate at which greenhouse gasses (GHGs) are building up in the atmosphere and to deal with the impacts of climate variability and change. To deal with the global crisis requires technology invention, innovation and transfer and changes in behaviour that reduce the GHGs intensity of energy services. Meanwhile, the poverty reduction and development agenda are being shaped by the Millennium Development Goals, which slowly appears to be gaining buy-in. The question is how will the accelerated receipt of cleaner energy technologies can be successfully achieved in marginalised communities in developing countries? The paper considers a range of drivers, case studies and projects that are being undertaken as early Clean Development Mechanism experiments under the banner of the International SouthSouthNorth Group. It discusses the drivers of technology transfer and starts to unpack the elements of successful receptivity through selection and ownership of the newly introduced environmentally safe technologies (ESTs) for the provision of energy services

  10. NOx control in large-scale power plant boilers through superfine pulverized coal technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie YIN; Jianxing REN; Dunsong WEI

    2008-01-01

    Superfine pulverized coal technology can effectively reduce NOx emission in coal-fired power plant boilers. It can also economize the cost of the power plant and improve the use of the ash in the flue gas. Superfine pulverized coal technology, which will be widely used in China, includes common superfine pulverized coal technology and superfine pulverized coal reburning technology. The use of superfine pulver-ized coal instead of common coal in large-scale power plants will not only reduce more than 30% of NOx emission but also improve the thermal efficiency of the boiler.

  11. Coal resources and the future role of coal-based electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.C. [CRE Group Ltd., Stoke Orchard (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    It is forecast that worldwide energy demand will increase by 35% between 1996 and 2010. The widespread availability of coal and the emergence of clean coal technologies mean that coal will be used to satisfy much of this increased demand. An impressive range of clean coal technologies is available for both plant upgrading and new plant. These technologies will be able to deliver improved efficiency, reliability and environmental performance. There is extensive experience in the development and deployment of clean coal technologies in both Europe and India. It is important to harness this experience to ensure that the appropriate technologies are utilised to meet India`s increased demand for energy and also that further improvements in clean coal technologies are pursued. 2 refs.

  12. Technological challenges for boosting coal production with environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Mrinal K

    2009-07-01

    The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenon rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This paper focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy source in foreseeable future. It examines the energy requirement perspective for India and demand of coal as the prime energy source. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and Indian coal mining industry offers a bright future for the country's energy security, provided the industry is allowed to develop by supportive government policies and adopts latest technologies for mining. It is an irony that in-spite of having a plentiful reserves, India is not able to jack up coal production to meet its current and future demand. It discusses the strategies to be adopted for growth and meeting the coal demand. But such energy are very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively The paper highlights the emissions of greenhouse gases due to burning of fossil fuels and environmental consequences of global warming and sea-level rise. Technological solutions for environment friendly coal mining and environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper. PMID:18604635

  13. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  14. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char-for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests

  15. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  16. Towards cleaner and more efficient coal use technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the public concern over energy/environment issues has been focused upon coal, even though this fuel has been responsible for almost 60% of the beneficial effects of electricity available in the United States, and similar percentages in a number of other major countries. Successes in overcoming some of coal's environmental problems have been accompanied by identification of new environmental issues, often less obvious and more intractable as to their solution. The picture is complicated by the arrival on the political scene of severe new coal-related environmental issues: the greenhouse effect, air toxics, and the impending shortage of waste disposal sites in many areas. However coal, which provides 90% of U.S. and 80% of the world's fossil energy reserves, will be needed well into, possibly through the 21 Century, barring global calamities, and unless an unexpected breakthrough in energy conversion brings to an early end the age of fossil fuels. Much of the increase will take place in the newly industrializing countries as they emerge to claim their share of prosperity. The environmental issue is technological and economic - in what ways and at what cost can this complex substance be transformed into useful energy (and possibly useful materials) while reducing its environmental impact to a level acceptable to society in the long? This paper will discuss technological capabilities for coal use in electricity generation today, as well as research, development and demonstration in progress to provide cleaner and more efficient coal technologies for the 21st century. It will address the implications for reduction of the environmental impacts of conventional pollutants and for coal's contribution to greenhouse gas mitigation, should this be required in the future. (author) 15 figs., refs

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-11-04

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the 4th quarter of the project from July 1 to September 30, 1993.

  18. Decision making of technological system for exploitation of coal in “Brod - Gneotino” coal deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Panov, Zoran; Jovcevski, Saso; Mitrevski, Blagojce; Karakashev, Deljo

    2010-01-01

    In the paper is given a modern approach to the selection of technological system of coal exploitation. In addition, its are use of existing data mining projects and studies on the conditions that exist in deposit "Brod - Gneotino". In this case, it is given a perfect way for evaluation and quantification of the qualities of attributes for each of the alternatives. The selection was made with the using od three multicriteria metods. Key words> decision making, technological system, surface...

  19. Low-Rank Coal and Advanced Technologies for Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang', Dong-ke; Jackson, Peter J.; Vuthaluru, Hari B.

    Fluidised-bed based advanced power generation technologies offer higher efficiencies than conventional pulverised fuel fired power plants and better prospects in reducing ash-related problems associated with low-rank coal in such plants. However, bed material agglomeration and bed defluidisation present significant operational difficulties for the utilisation of the low-rank coal in fluidised-bed processes. Alkali and alkaline-earth elements and sulphur compounds, often found in low-rank coals, form low melting point eutectics at typical fluidised-bed combustion and gasification operating temperatures. These low melting-point materials are subsequently transferred onto the bed material particle surfaces, and the ash-coated particles then become adhesive and agglomerate. Defluidisation can occur either as an extension of agglomeration as a rate process gradually leading to defluidisation or as an instantaneous event without agglomeration. A critical thickness of the ash coating layer on the particle surface exists, above which defluidisation occurs. This critical thickness decreases with an increase in bed temperature. Several mineral additives, alternative bed materials and pretreatment of coal have been shown to suppress, to different extents, particle agglomeration and bed defluidisation when burning a high sodium, high sulphur low-rank coal in a spouted fluidised-bed combustor. Sillimanite as an alternative bed material is found to be most effective for defluidisation control. Alternative advanced technologies such as low-temperature pyrolysis and co-production are proposed for future investigation.

  20. Process development studies on recovery of clean coal from ultra fine hardcoal tailings using enhanced gravity separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgen, S.; Turksoy, V.O.; Sabah, E.; Oruc, F. [Afyon Kocatepe Univ., Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-10-15

    Gravity-based processing methods were used to process and recover clean coal from ultra-fine hardcoal tailings at a site in Turkey. The coal samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. A hydrocyclone was used to conduct classification tests and to separate the clay minerals from the coal. The effects of various operating parameters were also investigated. Regression analysis was used to characterize the relationship between the ash content and coal recovery rate and the feed solid, inlet pressure, diameter of vortex, and diameter of apex variables of the hydrocyclone. The effects of feed pressure were also investigated. The study showed that coal can be economically recovered from hardcoal tailings containing clay minerals. It was concluded that a coal sample with 6.98 per cent ash content and a net calorific value of 28,778 kJ was obtained with a weight recovery of 61.73 per cent. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 18 figs.

  1. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  2. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning. PMID:24456468

  3. The role of the clean development mechanism in facilitating the application of biomass renewable energy technologies in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Malaysian Government's move to ratify the Kyoto Protocol in September 2001 reaffirms the country's support to combat global climate change. Although Malaysia is not bound by any commitments to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, the opportunities that exist through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could be two-fold: to contribute to the country's sustainable development objectives and to improve the energy supply security through the application of clean energy technologies such as renewable energy technologies. Malaysia is very dependent on fossil fuel based technologies for electricity generation and energy production. In 2001 almost 90% of the total energy input to power stations was derived from fossil fuels. Although the energy mix will continue to be predominantly based on fossil fuels, indigenous renewable energy resources may come to play a noticeable role in complementing the depleting fossil fuels. This paper focuses on how best to utilize the oil palm residues for electricity generation and energy production as these residues are the 'low hanging fruits' that are readily available. It compares the use of two different technological uses of residues: distributes power generation and co-firing with coal in large-scale power plants. The paper analyses the financial, economic and environmental impacts of these technologies, and it discusses the relative benefits of the technologies. In addition, the paper look into the barriers associated with each of the technologies, and it suggests possible policy interventions to be adopted in order to promote a viable and environmentally efficient use of the limited biomass resources. (au)

  4. A novel process for preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal by high pressure water jet comminution technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longlian Cui; Liqian An; Weili Gong; Hejin Jiang [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Mechanics, Architecture and Civil Engineering

    2007-03-15

    A novel process for the preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal is presented in this paper. High pressure water jet mill replacing the ball mill is employed for coal comminution in the new preparation process, which is the essential difference from the traditional one. To compare the new preparation process with the traditional one, the comparison experiments were performed, with froth flotation tests of the fine particles ground by both mills using diesel oil and n-dodecane as collector, 2-octanol as frother, and sink-float separation tests using mixtures of carbon tetrachloride-benzene and carbon tetrachloride-bromoform as dense liquid. Different parameters including combustible recovery, ash content of the clean coal, separation efficiency, and energy consumption were investigated based on the two different preparation processes. The results show that the new preparation process has high combustible recovery, low ash content of the product, high separation efficiency, and low energy consumption compared with the traditional one. The comminution mechanism of high pressure water jet mill is introduced in this paper. The high pressure water jet comminution technique has great potential in coal pulverization, having the advantages of low energy consumption, low iron content, and low equipment wear. 35 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. CLEAN HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY FOR 3-WHEEL TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Sapru

    2005-11-15

    Hydrogen is a clean burning, non-polluting transportation fuel. It is also a renewable energy carrier that can be produced from non-fossil fuel resources such as solar, wind and biomass. Utilizing hydrogen as an alternative fuel for vehicles will diversify the resources of energy, and reduce dependence on oil in the transportation sector. Additionally, clean burning hydrogen fuel will also alleviate air pollution that is a very severe problem in many parts of world, especially major metropolitan areas in developing countries, such as India and China. In our efforts to foster international collaborations in the research, development, and demonstration of hydrogen technologies, through a USAID/DOE cost-shared project, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.,(www.ovonic.com) a leading materials and alternative energy company, in collaboration with Bajaj Auto Limited, India's largest three-wheeler taxi manufacturer, has successfully developed and demonstrated prototype hydrogen ICE three-wheelers in the United States and India. ECD's proprietary Ovonic solid-state hydrogen storage technology is utilized on-board to provide a means of compact, low pressure, and safe hydrogen fuel. These prototype hydrogen three-wheelers have demonstrated comparable performance to the original CNG version of the vehicle, achieving a driving range of 130 km. The hydrogen storage system capable of storing 1 kg hydrogen can be refilled to 80% of its capacity in about 15 minutes at a pressure of 300 psi. The prototype vehicles developed under this project have been showcased and made available for test rides to the public at exhibits such as the 16th NHA annual meeting in April 2005, Washington, DC, and the SIAM (Society of Indian Automotive Manufacturers) annual conference in August 2005, New Delhi, India. Passengers have included members of the automotive industry, founders of both ECD and Bajaj, members of the World Bank, the Indian Union Minister for Finance, the President of the Asia

  6. Coal cleaning: A viable strategy for reduced carbon emissions and improved environment in China?

    OpenAIRE

    Glomsrød, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: China is a dominant energy consumer in a global context and current energy forecasts emphasise that China’s future energy consumption also will rely heavily on coal. The coal use is the major source of the greenhouse gas CO2 and particles causing serious health damage. This paper looks into the question if coal washing might work as low cost strategy for both CO2 and particle emission reductions. Coal washing removes dirt and rock from raw coal, resulting in a coal pr...

  7. Application studies of RFID technology in the process of coal logistics transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bingqin; Chang, Xiaoming; Hao, Meiyan; Kong, Dejin

    2012-04-01

    For quality control problems in coal transport, RFID technology has been proposed to be applied to coal transportation process. The whole process RFID traceability system from coal production to consumption has been designed and coal supply chain logistics tracking system integration platform has been built, to form the coal supply chain traceability and transport tracking system and providing more and more transparent tracking and monitoring of coal quality information for consumers of coal. Currently direct transport and combined transport are the main forms of coal transportation in China. The means of transport are cars, trains and ships. In the booming networking environment of RFID technology, the RFID technology will be applied to coal logistics and provide opportunity for the coal transportation tracking in the process transportation.

  8. Laser cleaning of steam generator tubing based on acoustic emission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a physical method, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect. The experimental apparatus for laser cleaning of heat tubes in the steam generator was designed according to the results of theoretical analysis. There are two conclusions; one is that laser cleaning technology is attached importance to traditional methods. Which has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes. The other is that the acoustic emission signal includes lots of information on the laser cleaning process, which can be used as real-time monitoring in laser cleaning processes. When the laser acts for 350 s, 100 % contaminants of heat tubes is cleaned off, and the sensor only receives weak AE signal at that time.

  9. Laser cleaning of steam generator tubing based on acoustic emission technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Su-xia; Luo, Ji-jun; Shen, Tao; Li, Ru-song [Xi' an Hi-Tech Institute, Xi' an (China)

    2015-12-15

    As a physical method, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect. The experimental apparatus for laser cleaning of heat tubes in the steam generator was designed according to the results of theoretical analysis. There are two conclusions; one is that laser cleaning technology is attached importance to traditional methods. Which has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes. The other is that the acoustic emission signal includes lots of information on the laser cleaning process, which can be used as real-time monitoring in laser cleaning processes. When the laser acts for 350 s, 100 % contaminants of heat tubes is cleaned off, and the sensor only receives weak AE signal at that time.

  10. Exploitation technology of pressure relief coalbed methane in vertical surface wells in the Huainan coal mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jia-zhang; SANG Shu-xun; CHENG Zhi-zhong; HUANG Hua-zhou

    2009-01-01

    Exploitation technology of pressure relief coalbed methane in vertical surface wells is a new method for exploration of gas and coalbed methane exploitation in mining areas with high concentrations of gas, where tectonic coal developed. Studies on vertical surface well technology in the Huainan Coal Mining area play a role in demonstration in the use of clean, new energy re-sources, preventing and reducing coal mine gas accidents and protecting the environment. Based on the practice of gas drainage engineering of pressure relief coalbed methane in vertical surface wells and combined with relative geological and exploration en-gineering theories, the design principles of design and structure of wells of pressure relief coaibed methane in vertical surface wells are studied. The effects of extraction and their causes are discussed and the impact of geological conditions on gas production of the vertical surface wells are analyzed. The results indicate that in mining areas with high concentrations of gas, where tectonic coal developed, a success rate of pressure relief coalbed methane in surface vertical well is high and single well production usually great. But deformation due to coal exploitation could damage boreholes and cause breaks in the connection between aquifers and bore-holes, which could induce a decrease, even a complete halt in gas production of a single well. The design of well site location and wellbore configuration are the key for technology. The development of the geological conditions for coalbed methane have a sig-nificant effect on gas production of coalbed methane wells.

  11. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1992--March 27, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R. [and others

    1993-05-13

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (MC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and pre-combustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash and high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase I are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil- designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or MC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  12. Pulsating hydraulic fracturing technology in low permeability coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenchao; Li Xianzhong; Lin Baiquan; Zhai Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Based on the difficult situation of gas drainage in a single coal bed of high gas content and low perme-ability, we investigate the technology of pulsating hydraulic pressure relief, the process of crank plunger movement and the mechanism of pulsating pressure formation using theoretical research, mathematical modeling and field testing. We analyze the effect of pulsating pressure on the formation and growth of fractures in coal by using the pulsating hydraulic theory in hydraulics. The research results show that the amplitude of fluctuating pressure tends to increase in the case where the exit is blocked, caused by pulsating pressure reflection and frictional resistance superposition, and it contributes to the growth of fractures in coal. The crack initiation pressure of pulsating hydraulic fracturing is 8 MPa, which is half than that of normal hydraulic fracturing;the pulsating hydraulic fracturing influence radius reaches 8 m. The total amount of gas extraction is increased by 3.6 times, and reaches 50 L/min at the highest point. The extraction flow increases greatly, and is 4 times larger than that of drilling without fracturing and 1.2 times larger than that of normal hydraulic fracturing. The technology provides a technical measure for gas drainage of high gas content and low permeability in the single coal bed.

  13. Designing Catalysts for Clean Technology, Green Chemistry, and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurig Thomas, John; Raja, Robert

    2005-08-01

    There is a pressing need for cleaner fuels (free or aromatics and of minimal sulfur content) or ones that convert chemical energy directly to electricity, silently and without production of noxious oxides and particulates; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical processes that may be conducted in a one-step, solvent-free manner and that use air as the preferred oxidant; and industrial processes that minimize consumption of energy, production of waste, or the use of corrosive, explosive, volatile, and nonbiodegradable materials. All these needs and other desiderata, such as the in situ production and containment of aggressive and hazardous reagents, and the avoidance of use of ecologically harmful elements, may be achieved by designing the appropriate heterogeneous inorganic catalyst, which ideally should be cheap, readily preparable and fully characterizable, preferably under in situ reaction conditions. A range of nanoporous and nanoparticle catalysts that meet most of the stringent demands of sustainable development and responsible (clean) technology is described. Specific examples that are highlighted include the production of adipic acid (precursor of polyamides and urethanes) without the use of concentrated nitric acid nor the production of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide; the production of caprolactam (precursor of nylon) without the use of oleum and hydroxylamine sulfate; and the terminal oxyfunctionalization of linear alkanes in air. The topic of biocatalysis and sustainable development is also briefly discussed for the epoxidation of terpenes and fatty acid methyl esters; for the generation of polymers, polylactides, and polyesters; and for the production of 1,3-propanediol from corn.

  14. The implementation analysis of Panyi coal mine clean production%潘一矿清洁生产的实施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆红

    2014-01-01

    该文以潘一矿清洁生产的实施为例,分析了潘一矿推行清洁生产审核的关键步骤和产生的经济、环境效益,促进潘一煤矿的可持续发展。%This text based on the implementation of Panyi coal mine clean production, Analysis of Panyi coal mine carry out key steps of clean production audit and the economic, environmental benefits, promote the sustainable development of Panyi coal mine.

  15. Commercializing Canada's emerging energies : capitalising on large-scale power project opportunities from wind and hydro power, to biomass and clean coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canada Institute conference on Commercialising Canada's Emerging Energies was held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada on May 28-29, 2007. This publication provides cutting-edge project updates and best practices on how to take advantage of new business opportunities, while both identifying and mitigating the risks associated with future large-scale projects. Emerging energies - wind, hydro, biomass and clean coal - are no longer the future, they are todayAre you ready to take advantage of Canada's next generation of clean and green power opportunities?Canada's electricity industry is changing dramatically. Power projects are becoming less centralized. Governments are shifting their focus to clean and green sources of energy. The cost-effectiveness of applying emerging energy technologies for large-scale (5mw+) power projects has significantly improved - especially with new regulatory incentives.However, many challenges still need to be addressed to bring many of these projects into the mainstream market. Ensuring adequate supply, system reliability and transmission capacity are among the key technical issues. Improvements to community consultation practice, project planning and implementation skills, and government incentives are also expected to improve emerging energy economics and deliverability

  16. Eleventh annual international Pittsburgh coal conference proceedings: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference presented over 300 papers in 39 separate sessions. These presentations are grouped into five topical areas: the technologies in pre- and post-utilization of coal; research and development in coal conversion; advanced coal combustion; environmental control technologies, and environmental policy issues related to coal use. The program has expanded its coverage in non-fuel use of coal. This is reflected in the three sessions on use of coal in the steel industry, and a sessions on carbon products and non-fuel coal applications. Volume 2 includes the following topics: Environmental systems and technologies/Environmental policy; Coal drying, dewatering and reconstitution; Coal cleaning technology; Slurry bed technology; Coal syngas, methanol, DME, olefins and oxygenates; Environmental issues in energy conversion technology; Applied coal geology; Use of coal in the steel industry; Recent developments in coal preparation; International coal gasification projects; Progress on Clean Coal projects; Retrofit air quality control technologies;Fluidized bed combustion; Commercialization of coal preparation technologies; Integrated gasification combined cycle program; the US Department of Energy's Combustion 2000 program; and Environmental issues in coal utilization. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  17. Development of coal mine methane concentration technology for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takahisa; UTAKI

    2010-01-01

    In coal mines in such countries as China and Russia,most of the coal mine methane(CMM) generated during mining is emitted to the atmosphere without any effective usage,because the methane concentration of CMM is relatively low and not allowed to be used as fuel for safety reasons.Methane is one of the greenhouse gases.Therefore,if it becomes possible to concentrate CMM to an acceptable level for use as fuel,this will greatly contribute to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.With the aim of gaining approval as a greenhouse gas emission reduction of the clean development mechanism(CDM) or joint implementation(JI) project,we developed a CMM concentration system to apply the vacuum pressure swing adsorption(VPSA) technology using a high methane-selective adsorbent by Osaka Gas Co.,Ltd.The pilot-scale plant of a CMM concentration system was installed in a coal mine in Fuxin City in the northeastern China and a demonstration test was commenced in December 2008.As the result,the pilot-scale plant successfully concentrated the raw material gas with a methane concentration of 21% and a flow rate of 1000 Nm3/h to 48%,which exceeded the target of the methane concentration performance(a 25% increase).The methane recovery rate reached 93%.

  18. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  19. The current status of coal liquefaction technologies - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, a first coal liquefaction unit to produce motor fuel (20,000 BPSD) will come on-stream in Shenhua, China (in the Ercos region of Inner Mongolia). Other, more ambitious projects have been announced in China for between now and 2020. Since oil production is expected to peak in the medium term, this technology may develop regionally in the next 20 years to cover ever-increasing demand for motor fuel

  20. Coal in a hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    1998-05-01

    The editor of World Mining Equipment discusses the tangled position of the European coal industry, affected by concerns over acid rain and carbon dioxide emissions, and by subsidies. He outlines the debate in the UK about gas versus coal and about coal subsidies in Germany (which could affect mines in other European countries). The requirement to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to minimise the problem of acid rain will have a direct bearing on coal mining firms and equipment manufacturers so it is possible that the only future for the industry lies with clean coal technologies. Even here, there is no easy answer as it is not clear how developing nations will be able to pay for these more expensive clean coal systems. 2 photos.

  1. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO2 interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-07-25

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

  3. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  4. Clean Energy: No Longer a Luxury! Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This learning activity provides an overview of the problem of clean energy sources and examination of alternatives. Student activity, quiz with answers, related activities, and nine references are provided. (SK)

  5. Low-carbon economy development trend and clean and effective utilization of coal%低碳经济与煤的清洁高效利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2011-01-01

    煤炭是中国的主要能源,实现低碳经济的关键是煤的清洁高效利用.提出煤炭洗选、煤制合成天然气和煤基多联产作为短、中、长期的对策建议.%Coal is the main source of energy in China, clean and effective utilization of coal determines the development trend of low-carbon economy. Provide coal washing, synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from coal, coalbased co-production respectively serving as short-term, mid-term,long-term developmental tasks.

  6. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  7. Coal supply and cost under technological and environmental uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Melissa

    This thesis estimates available coal resources, recoverability, mining costs, environmental impacts, and environmental control costs for the United States under technological and environmental uncertainty. It argues for a comprehensive, well-planned research program that will resolve resource uncertainty, and innovate new technologies to improve recovery and environmental performance. A stochastic process and cost (constant 2005) model for longwall, continuous, and surface mines based on current technology and mining practice data was constructed. It estimates production and cost ranges within 5-11 percent of 2006 prices and production rates. The model was applied to the National Coal Resource Assessment. Assuming the cheapest mining method is chosen to extract coal, 250-320 billion tons are recoverable. Two-thirds to all coal resource can be mined at a cost less than 4/mmBTU. If U.S. coal demand substantially increases, as projected by alternate Energy Information Administration (EIA), resources might not last more than 100 years. By scheduling cost to meet EIA projected demand, estimated cost uncertainty increases over time. It costs less than 15/ton to mine in the first 10 years of a 100 year time period, 10-30/ton in the following 50 years, and 15-$90/ton thereafter. Environmental impacts assessed are subsidence from underground mines, surface mine pit area, erosion, acid mine drainage, air pollutant and methane emissions. The analysis reveals that environmental impacts are significant and increasing as coal demand increases. Control technologies recommended to reduce these impacts are backfilling underground mines, surface pit reclamation, substitution of robotic underground mining systems for surface pit mining, soil replacement for erosion, placing barriers between exposed coal and the elements to avoid acid formation, and coalbed methane development to avoid methane emissions during mining. The costs to apply these technologies to meet more stringent

  8. Progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuemin Zhao; Xuliang Yang; Zhenfu Luo; Chenlong Duan; Shulei Song

    2014-01-01

    China’s energy supply heavily relies on coal and China’s coal resource and water resource has a reverse distribution. The problem of water shortages restricts the applications of wet coal beneficiation technologies in drought regions. The present situation highlights the significance and urgency of developing dry beneficiation technologies of coal. Besides, other countries that produce large amounts of coal also encounter serious problem of lack of water for coal beneficiation, such as American, Australia, Canada, South Africa, Turkey and India. Thus, dry coal beneficiation becomes the research hot-points in the field of coal cleaning worldwide in recent years. This paper systematically reviewed the promising research efforts on dry coal beneficiation reported in literature in last 5 years and discussed the progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation worldwide. Finally, we also elaborated the prospects and the challenges of the development of dry coal beneficiation.

  9. Step change approaches in coal technology and fugitive emissions research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aminossadati S.M.; Amanzadeh M.; Prochon E.; Kok J.; Adam S.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-factor productivity (MFP) in underground coal mining has been on the decline for the last decade. The mining industry requires a viable and sustainable approach to overcome the current downtrend. This is only possible by concurrently focussing on productivity improvement and operating costs reduction, delivered through both incremental and step change technology development. Four technologies are pre-sented in this paper:fibre optic borehole sensing has been demonstrated to reveal detailed information about gas flow influx, water level and borehole blockage events occurring along the length of a surface-to-inseam lateral. Fibre optic gas sensing has also been investigated, and this technology promises a remote, intrinsically safe, distributed solution. Recent developments in continuous water jet drilling tech-nology have demonstrated a step change increase in drilling rates and flexibility for coal seam degassing, applicable in both surface-to-inseam and underground in-seam applications. The application of water jet technology to the cable bolt drilling problem offers potential to address a serious health and safety and productivity issue in the roadway development process.

  10. Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O' Brien; Jim Williams

    2006-12-22

    The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The

  11. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler; Swanson, Michael

    2012-04-30

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has continued the work of the National Center for Hydrogen Technology® (NCHT®) Program Year 6 Task 1.12 project to expose hydrogen separation membranes to coal-derived syngas. In this follow-on project, the EERC has exposed two membranes to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean Coal Technology Program and the North Dakota Industrial Commission, contracted with the EERC to conduct testing of WRI’s coal-upgrading/gasification technology for subbituminous and lignite coals in the EERC’s TRDU. This gasifier fires nominally 200–500 lb/hour of fuel and is the pilot-scale version of the full-scale gasifier currently being constructed in Kemper County, Mississippi. A slipstream of the syngas was used to demonstrate warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation using membrane technology. Two membranes were exposed to coal-derived syngas, and the impact of coal-derived impurities was evaluated. This report summarizes the performance of WRI’s patent-pending coalupgrading/ gasification technology in the EERC’s TRDU and presents the results of the warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation tests. Overall, the WRI coal-upgrading/gasification technology was shown to produce a syngas significantly lower in CO2 content and significantly higher in CO content than syngas produced from the raw fuels. Warm-gas cleanup technologies were shown to be capable of reducing sulfur in the syngas to 1 ppm. Each of the membranes tested was able to produce at least 2 lb/day of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas.

  12. Research, development, demonstration, and early deployment policies for advanced-coal technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced-coal technologies will increasingly play a significant role in addressing China's multiple energy challenges. This paper introduces the current status of energy in China, evaluates the research, development, and demonstration policies for advanced-coal technologies during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, and gives policy prospects for advanced-coal technologies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Early deployment policies for advanced-coal technologies are discussed and some recommendations are put forward. China has made great progress in the development of advanced-coal technologies. In terms of research, development, and demonstration of advanced-coal technologies, China has achieved breakthroughs in developing and demonstrating advanced-coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, and key technologies of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and co-production systems. Progress on actual deployment of advanced-coal technologies has been more limited, in part due to insufficient supporting policies. Recently, industry chose Ultra Super Critical (USC) Pulverized Coal (PC) and Super Critical (SC) PC for new capacity coupled with pollution-control technology, and 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) as a supplement

  13. Tundish Technology for Casting Clean Steel: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Yogeshwar

    2016-03-01

    With increasing demand of high-quality clean steel, cleanliness is of paramount importance in steel production and casting. Tundish plays an important role in controlling the continuously cast steel quality as it links a batch vessel, ladle, to a continuous casting mold. Tundish is also the last vessel in which metal flows before solidifying in mold. For controlling the quality of steel, flow and temperature control of the melt are critical, and these are presented in this paper. Use of proper flux, design of flow control devices, and gas injection in tundish become important factors in casting clean steel. Recycling of hot tundish, centrifugal flow tundish, H-shaped tundish, etc. are some of the developments which were implemented to cast clean steel and these are discussed.

  14. Tundish Technology for Casting Clean Steel: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Yogeshwar

    2016-08-01

    With increasing demand of high-quality clean steel, cleanliness is of paramount importance in steel production and casting. Tundish plays an important role in controlling the continuously cast steel quality as it links a batch vessel, ladle, to a continuous casting mold. Tundish is also the last vessel in which metal flows before solidifying in mold. For controlling the quality of steel, flow and temperature control of the melt are critical, and these are presented in this paper. Use of proper flux, design of flow control devices, and gas injection in tundish become important factors in casting clean steel. Recycling of hot tundish, centrifugal flow tundish, H-shaped tundish, etc. are some of the developments which were implemented to cast clean steel and these are discussed.

  15. Strengthening Clean Energy Technology Cooperation under the UNFCCC: Steps toward Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, R.; de Coninck, H.; Dhar, S.; Hansen, U.; McLaren, J.; Painuly, J.

    2010-08-01

    Development of a comprehensive and effective global clean technology cooperation framework will require years of experimenting and evaluation with new instruments and institutional arrangements before it is clear what works on which scale and in which region or country. In presenting concrete examples, this paper aims to set the first step in that process by highlighting successful models and innovative approaches that can inform efforts to ramp up clean energy technology cooperation. This paper reviews current mechanisms and international frameworks for global cooperation on clean energy technologies, both within and outside of the UNFCCC, and provides selected concrete options for scaling up global cooperation on clean energy technology RD&D, enabling environment, and financing.

  16. Rosebud syncoal partnership SynCoal{sup {reg_sign}} demonstration technology development update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Company, Billings, MT (United States); Heintz, S.J. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rosebud SynCoal{reg_sign} Partnership`s Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) is an advanced thermal coal upgrading process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal is processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors where oxygen functional groups are destroyed removing chemically bound water, carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the SynCoal{reg_sign} is cleaned using a deep-bed stratifier process to effectively separate the pyrite rich ash. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank western coals with moisture contents ranging from 2555%, sulfur contents between 0.5 and 1.5 %, and heating values between 5,500 and 9,000 Btu/lb. The upgraded stable coal product has moisture contents as low as 1 %, sulfur contents as low as 0.3%, and heating values up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  17. Keeping Warm Without Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Heat-pump technology offers a clean heating alternative to coal With no air conditioning or indoor heating, families in southeast Beijing’s Fangzhuang neighbor-hood still enjoy refreshing warm air all year round. The secret is in the pump technology. Heat pumps cool the homes in summer and warm them in winter just like a central air-conditioning system.

  18. Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean-energy fuels. Final report. [1150 samples of US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P.L.; Lovell, H.L.; Vastola, F.J.; Given, P.H.; Suhr, N.H.; Jenkins, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    To further characterize the Nation's coals, the Penn State Coal Sample Bank and Data Base were expanded to include a total of 1150 coal samples. The Sample Bank includes full-seam channel samples as well as samples of lithotypes, seam benches, and sub-seam sections. To the extent feasible and appropriate basic compositional data were generated for each sample and validated and computerized. These data include: proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, sulfur forms analysis, calorific value, maceral analysis, vitrinite reflectance analysis, ash fusion analysis, free-swelling index determination, Gray-King coke type determination, Hardgrove grindability determination, Vicker's microhardness determination, major and minor element analysis, trace element analysis, and mineral species analysis. During the contract period more than 5000 samples were prepared and distributed. A theoretical and experimental study of the pyrolysis of coal has been completed. The reactivity of chars, produced from all ranks of American coals, has been studied with regard to reactivity to air, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/ and steam. Another area research has concerned the catalytic effect of minerals and various cations on the gasification processes. Combustion of chars, low volatile fuels, coal-oil-water-air emulsions and other subjects of research are reported here. The products of this research can be found in 23 DOE Technical Research Reports and 49 published papers. As another mechanism of technology transfer, the results have been conveyed via more than 70 papers presented at a variety of scientific meetings. References to all of these are contained in this report.

  19. Application of Commercial Sorbent into Coal-derived Syngas Desulfurization Field for Clean Coal technologies Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chien, H.-Y.; Chyou, Y.-P.; Svoboda, Karel

    Praha: World Academy of Research and Publications, 2015 - (Qureshi, K.), s. 51 ISBN N. [International Renewable Energy and Environment Conference (IREEC-2015) /4./. Prague (CZ), 04.06.2015-06.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant ostatní: NSC(TW) 103-2923-E-042A-001 -MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : producer gas * desulfurization * ZnO sorbent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  20. China power - thermal coal and clean coal technology export. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binsheng Li

    1996-12-31

    China is the world`s fourth largest electric power producer, and is expected to surpass Japan within the next two years to become the third largest power producer. During the past 15 years, China`s total electricity generation more than tripled, increasing from about 300 TWh to about 1,000 TWh. Total installed generating capacity grew at an average of 8.2 percent per year, increasing from 66 to 214 GW. The share of China`s installed capacity in Asia increased from 21 to 31 percent. The Chinese government plans to continue China`s rapid growth rate in the power sector. Total installed capacity is planned to reach 300 GW by 2000, which will generate 1,400 TWh of electricity per year. China`s long-term power sector development is subject to great uncertainty. Under the middle scenario, total capacity is expected to reach 700 GW by 2015, with annual generation of 3,330 TWh. Under the low and high scenarios, total capacity will reach 527-1,005 GW by 2015. The high scenario representing possible demand. To achieve this ambitious scenario, dramatic policy changes in favor of power development are required; however, there is no evidence that such policy changes will occur at this stage. Even under the high scenario, China`s per capita annual electricity consumption would be only 3,000 kWh by 2015, less than half of the present per capita consumption for OECD countries. Under the low scenario, electricity shortages will seriously curb economic growth.

  1. American coal and coal technology: Energy to drive a world evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the US National Energy Policy and its impact on coal; he also discusses coal's impact on the nation and the world as well. He makes forecasts for future coal demand, citing production and export figures. Provisions of the US Energy Security Act are described as they relate to coal

  2. Clean technology R and D and innovation in emerging countries-Experience from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper touches upon two key issues related to clean technology deployment in emerging countries: what is the life cycle of R and D and innovation? And where does the R and D funding come from? The paper holds that the innovation climate, system and process in emerging countries do not follow the same trajectory as those in developed countries. Crafting an innovation model that is adapted to the needs and conditions of emerging countries thus is critical. Through revealing the four phases of an innovation life cycle in emerging countries, the paper highlights the dominant role of the public sector in clean technology R and D. With regards to R and D funding, the paper concludes that emerging countries could craft their domestic policy to spur clean technology R and D and innovation. China's experience demonstrates an array of policy measures that could reach this goal. These include designing a national science and technology strategy with a focus on clean energy, establishing funding programs to support clean energy R and D, assembling and managing multidisciplinary teams to bring together different types of expertise, and creating favorable policy environment to incentivize the private sector's investment in clean technology.

  3. Sustainable Energy Sources and Developing Clean Energy Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, A. Heitor; Miguel, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    Energy and sustainability are issues in the global agenda. The concern for the impacts of energy use, which adds to the alarm for the scarcity of primary sources of energy has triggered new research on sustainable primary energy sources and on clean and efficient energy systems and processes. Due to the current global warming, the link between energy and environment becomes inescapable in such a way that researchers have to deal both with efficiency and environmental impacts.

  4. Development of advanced, dry, SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} emission control technologies for high-sulfur coal. Final report, April 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrhein, G.T.

    1994-12-23

    Dry Scrubbing is a common commercial process that has been limited to low- and medium-sulfur coal applications because high-sulfur coal requires more reagent than can be efficiently injected into the process. Babcock & Wilcox has made several advances that extend dry scrubbing technologies to higher sulfur coals by allowing deposit-free operation at low scrubber exit temperatures. This not only increases the amount of reagent that can be injected into the scrubber, but also increases SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced, dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions while burning high-sulfur coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. The use of these technologies by utilities in and around Ohio, on new or retrofit applications, will ensure the future of markets for high-sulfur coal by creating cost effective options to coal switching.

  5. Development of clean environment conservation technology by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is aim to develop the technology for environmental conservation by radiation. It is consisted of two research parts. One is development of wastewater disinfection technology by radiation and the other is development of livestock waste treatment technology by radiation. For the development of wastewater disinfection technology disinfect ion process, technology for treatment of toxic organic chemicals and assessment of ecological toxicity, technology for treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals and assessment of genetic safety were developed. For the development of livestock waste treatment technology, process for simultaneous removal of nutrients, technology for disinfection and quality enhancement of livestock waste compost, technology for reduction of composting periods, monitoring of toxic organic compounds, pretreatment technology for organic toxic chemicals and enhancement of biological treatment efficiencies were developed. Based on basic research, advanced livestock wastewater treatment process using radiation was established

  6. Coal-fueled diesel: Technology development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, G.; Hsu, B.; Flynn, P.

    1989-03-01

    This project consisted of four tasks: (1) to determine if CWM could be ignited and burned rapidly enough for operation in a 1000-rpm diesel engine, (2) to demonstrate that a durable CWM-fueled engine could in principle be developed, (3) to assess current emissions control technology to determine the feasibility of cleaning the exhaust of a CWM-fueled diesel locomotive, and (4) to conduct an economic analysis to determine the attractiveness of powering US locomotives with CWM. 34 refs., 125 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. COAL CLEANING VIA LIQUID-FLUIDIZED CLASSIFICAITON (LFBC) WITH SELECTIVE SOLVENT SWELLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Calo

    2000-12-01

    The concept of coal beneficiation due to particle segregation in water-fluidized beds, and its improvement via selective solvent-swelling of organic material-rich coal particles, was investigated in this study. Particle size distributions and their behavior were determined using image analysis techniques, and beneficiation effects were explored via measurements of the ash content of segregated particle samples collected from different height locations in a 5 cm diameter liquid-fluidized bed column (LFBC). Both acetone and phenol were found to be effective swelling agents for both Kentucky No.9 and Illinois No.6 coals, considerably increasing mean particle diameters, and shifting particle size distributions to larger sizes. Acetone was a somewhat more effective swelling solvent than phenol. The use of phenol was investigated, however, to demonstrate that low cost, waste solvents can be effective as well. For unswollen coal particles, the trend of increasing particle size from top to bottom in the LFBC was observed in all cases. Since the organic matter in the coal tends to concentrate in the smaller particles, the larger particles are typically denser. Consequently, the LFBC naturally tends to separate coal particles according to mineral matter content, both due to density and size. The data for small (40-100 {micro}m), solvent-swollen particles clearly showed improved beneficiation with respect to segregation in the water-fluidized bed than was achieved with the corresponding unswollen particles. This size range is quite similar to that used in pulverized coal combustion. The original process concept was amply demonstrated in this project. Additional work remains to be done, however, in order to develop this concept into a full-scale process.

  8. Markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placet, M.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Streets, D.G.; Dials, G.E.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1988-12-01

    This report examines the potential of using US-developed advanced coal technologies (ACTs) for small combustors in foreign markets; in particular, the market potentials of the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) were determined. First, the United States and those OECD countries with very low energy demands were eliminated. The remaining 15 countries were characterized on the basis of eight factors that would influence their decision to use US ACTs: energy plan and situation, dependence on oil and gas imports, experience with coal, residential/commercial energy demand, industrial energy demand, trade relationship with the United States, level of domestic competition with US ACT manufacturers, and environmental pressure to use advanced technology. Each country was rated high, medium-high, low-medium, or low on each factor, based on statistical and other data. The ratings were then used to group the countries in terms of their relative market potential (good, good but with impediments, or limited). The best potential markets appear to be Spain, Italy, turkey, Greece, and Canada. 25 refs., 1 fig., 37 tabs.

  9. Elusive prize: enormous coal gas potential awaits production technology breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2002-01-07

    The expanded gas pipeline grid has excess capacity, and gas resources are declining. There is increasing interest in development of Canada's resources of coalbed methane (CBM). The chairman of the Canadian Coalbed Methane Forum estimates that Canada has more than 3,000 trillion ft{sup 3} of gas awaiting suitable technology. PanCanadian and MGV Energy conducted a CBM exploration and pilot study on the Palliser spread in southern Alberta. Results from 23 of 75 wells are encouraging. The study is being accelerated and expanded to include an additional 50 wells elsewhere in Alberta. Some scientists anticipate commercial CBM production within two years. Problems facing developers include the large land holdings necessary for economic CBM production and the disposal of coal formation water. It is anticipated that U.S. technology will be modified and used. The potential for CBM development at Pictou in Nova Scotia and in British Columbia in the foothills is considered. 3 figs.

  10. Non-mine technology of hydrocarbon resources production at complex development of gas and coal deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-mine technology of coal gas seams exploitation is new geological technological method of complex exploitation of coal gas deposits. The method allows sequentially to extract hydrocarbon resources in technological aggregative-mobile condensed states. According to natural methane content in seams the technology includes: methane extraction from sorption volume where it is bounded up with coal; gas output intensification of coal is due to structural changes of substance at the cost of physico-chemical treatment of seam; increase of seam permeability by the methods of active physical and physico-chemical actions on coal seam (hydro-uncovering, pneumatic hydro action etc.). Pilot testing shows efficiency of well mastering with help of depth pumps. In this case works of action of pumping out of operating liquid and gas extraction from coal seam are integrated

  11. State-of-the-art and prospects with respect to power production by coal gasification (combined cycle coal gasification)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities and limitations of clean coal technologies in power generation are discussed. Coal gasification is the best available coal technology for power generation for the future. In a demonstration project was confirmed that the emission values of sulphur and nitrogen oxides are low. The large scale use of clean coal technologies is still restrained by low market prices on the natural gas market. It is expected however that the advanced coal technologies option becomes competitive at the present prices for natural gas when the cost on investment is 1200 US dollar per k W at a yield of minimum 45 percent. In the short term, the combined gas cycle remains a reference for conventional power production. In the long term the evolution of energy supply and prices on the market will make the clean coal technologies an interesting option. (A.S.)

  12. Technology of new generation of manufacture of liquid products from coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the given work the review about a condition of research and trial works on technology perfection hydrogenation coals is made. Done design work on processing 65 thousand tons / year Karazhyra coal to liquid fuels and other products of combustion purposes. The basic advantage of the Kazakhstan technology for producing motor fuels coal hydrogenation at low pressure hydrogen (up to 5 MPa compared to the processes developed in the USA, Germany, Japan, Great Britain, and Russia. An integrated low-waste technology and coal processing, which allows the production of industrially important: liquid and patent fuel, binders for briquetting, and allocate bitumen due to the utilization of sludge.

  13. Energy utilization and environmental control technologies in the coal-electric cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, G.C.

    1977-10-01

    This report presents an overview and assessment of the currently commercial and possible future technologies in the United States that are a part of the coal-electric cycle. From coal production to residual emissions control at the power plant stack, this report includes a brief history, current status and future assessment of each technology. It also includes a discussion, helpful for policy making decisions, of the process operation, environmental emission characteristics, market constraints and detailed cost estimates for each of these technologies, with primary emphasis on coal preparation, coal-electric generation and emissions control systems.

  14. Technology of new generation of manufacture of liquid products from coal

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov; Ermek Aubakirov; Valentina Emelyanova; Zhannur Myltykbaeva

    2012-01-01

    In the given work the review about a condition of research and trial works on technology perfection hydrogenation coals is made. Done design work on processing 65 thousand tons / year Karazhyra coal to liquid fuels and other products of combustion purposes. The basic advantage of the Kazakhstan technology for producing motor fuels coal hydrogenation at low pressure hydrogen (up to 5 MPa) compared to the processes developed in the USA, Germany, Japan, Great Britain, and Russia. An integrated l...

  15. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.-H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; B. Luvsansambuu; A.D. Walters

    2000-10-01

    Work continued during the past quarter to improve the performance of the POC-scale unit. For the charging system, a more robust ''turbocharger'' has been fabricated and installed. All of the internal components of the charger have been constructed from the same material (i.e., Plexiglas) to prevent particles from contacting surfaces with different work functions. For the electrode system, a new set of vinyl-coated electrodes have been constructed and tested. The coated electrodes (i) allow higher field strengths to be tested without of risk of arcing and (ii) minimize the likelihood of charge reversal caused by particles colliding with the conducting surfaces of the uncoated electrodes. Tests are underway to evaluate these modifications. Several different coal samples were collected for testing during this reporting period. These samples included (i) a ''reject'' material that was collected from the pyrite trap of a pulverizer at a coal-fired power plant, (ii) an ''intermediate'' product that was selectively withdrawn from the grinding chamber of a pulverizer at a power plant, and (iii) a run-of-mine feed coal from an operating coal preparation plant. Tests were conducted with these samples to investigate the effects of several key parameters (e.g., particle size, charger type, sample history, electrode coatings, etc.) on the performance of the bench-scale separator.

  16. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for Clean Power and Syngas Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy, Fabrice [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Hufton, Jeffrey [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Bhadra, Shubhra [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Weist, Edward [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Lau, Garret [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Jonas, Gordon [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Air Products has developed an acid gas removal technology based on adsorption (Sour PSA) that favorably compares with incumbent AGR technologies. During this DOE-sponsored study, Air Products has been able to increase the Sour PSA technology readiness level by successfully operating a two-bed test system on coal-derived sour syngas at the NCCC, validating the lifetime and performance of the adsorbent material. Both proprietary simulation and data obtained during the testing at NCCC were used to further refine the estimate of the performance of the Sour PSA technology when expanded to a commercial scale. In-house experiments on sweet syngas combined with simulation work allowed Air Products to develop new PSA cycles that allowed for further reduction in capital expenditure. Finally our techno economic analysis of the use the Sour PSA technology for both IGCC and coal-to-methanol applications suggests significant improvement of the unit cost of electricity and methanol compared to incumbent AGR technologies.

  17. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix G: Commercial design and technology evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A technology evaluation of five coal gasifier systems (Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi and BGC/Lurgi) and procedures and criteria for evaluating competitive commercial coal gasification designs is presented. The technology evaluation is based upon the plant designs and cost estimates developed by the BDM-Mittelhauser team.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Sorption Capacities of Coal Gasification Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Kempka; T. Fernandez-Steeger; Li, D.; Schulten, M.; Schlüter, R; B. M. Krooss

    2011-01-01

    Underground coal gasification is currently being considered as an economically and environmentally sustainable option for development and utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. This emerging technology in combination with carbon capture and sorptive CO2 storage on the residual coke as well as free-gas CO2 storage in the cavities generated in the coal seams after gasification could provide a relevant contribution to the development of Clean Coal Technologies. Three ...

  19. Constructive technology assessment and technology dynamics: the case of clean technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Schot, Johan W.

    1992-01-01

    A synthesis of neo-Schumpeterian evolutionary, sociological, and historical coevolution ary models could be used for constructive technology assessment, aimed at the active management of the process of technological change. This article proposes a synthetic quasi-evolutionary model, in which variation and selection are neither independent nor coincidental processes. Variation and selection are linked by actors, resulting in the actor role labeled technological nexus. On the basis of the quasi...

  20. Public policy and clean technology promotion. The synergy between environmental economics and evolutionary economics of technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo

    2004-07-01

    Obstacles to clean technology development, innovation and diffusion are not only related to the lack of internalisation of environmental externalities in production costs, as defended by traditional environmental economics. Empirical studies show that many other obstacles prevent these technologies from penetrating the market. The relevance of these obstacles differs between sectors, firms and technologies. Consequently, a more focused approach is proposed. By taking a look at the specific, real-world barriers to clean technologies, a policy framework as well as some specific measures that target those barriers are suggested. These instruments are useful and complementary in a policy framework that, in addition to specific instruments, takes into account the influence of the style of regulation and the configuration of actors in the environmental technological change process. This paper proposes a coherent framework integrating environmental policy and technology policy instruments. This is deemed necessary in the technological transition to sustainable development. (author)

  1. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vol.9. No.1. Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Third APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Coal Flow Seminar was held featuring regional investment strategies for coal, power infrastructure, and technology transfer in Terrigal, Australia in 26-28, November, 1996. This publication introduces the summary and the papers presented for the keynote speeches and the panels of this seminar. For the keynote speeches, `Investment requirements for steaming coal supplies in APEC member economies,` `Barriers to investment across the APEC regional coal chain,` `The role of advanced coal technologies in greenhouse gas abatement and financing its development and uptake,` `Investment in clean coal power plants,` and `Role of multilateral development banks in financing clean coal technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emission` were presented. In addition, summary and papers describing individual situations of APEC member economies are introduced. 59 refs., 42 figs., 37 tabs.

  2. Technical progress in the development of zero emission coal technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, H. J. (Hans-Joachim); Anthony, E. J.; Brosha, E. L. (Eric L.); Garzon, F. H. (Fernando H.); Guthrie, G. D. (George D.); Johnson, A. A. (Alan A.); Kramer, A. (Andrew); Lackner, K. S. (Klaus S.); Lau, Francis,; Mukundan, R. (Rangachary); Robison, Thomas W.; Roop, B. J. (Bobbi J.); Ruby, J. D. (John D.); Smith, B. F. (Barbara F.); Wang, J. (Joseph)

    2002-01-01

    We present an update on the development of technologies required for the Zero Emission Carbon (ZEC) concept being pursued by ZECA Corporation. The concept has a highly integrated design involving hydrogasification, a calcium oxide driven reforming step that includes simultaneous C02 separation, coal compatible fuel cells for electricity production and heat recovery, and a closed loop gas system in which coal contaminants are removed either as liquids or solids. The process does not involve any combustion and as such has neither smokestack nor air emissions. An independent assessment of the concept by Nexant, a Bcchtel affiliated company, suggests a net efficiency of approximately 70% for conversion of the higher heat value fuel energy into electrical output. This is even after the penalties of carbon dioxide separation and pressurization to 1000 psi are taken into account. For carbon dioxide sequestration a variety of options are being considered, which include enhanced oil recovery in the near-term and mineral carbonation as a long-term approach. We report on our early results in the development of sulfur tolerant anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells; a critical analysis of the calcium oxide - calcium carbonate cycle; trace element removal; and the recent results of hydrogasification tests.

  3. A new power station with clean combustion of coal residues financed by the Commission wins an international prize. Una nueva central electrica de combustion limpia de residuos de carbon financiada por la Comision gana un premio internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furfari, S. (Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Energy, Energy Technology Unit)

    1993-07-01

    Between 1987 and 1989 10,55 million ecus were given by the European Commission's Demonstration Programme for the construction of the Emile Huchet power station using circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The power station was constructed jointly by Charbonnages de France, COREAL, Stein Industrie and Lurgi. An important feature was its ability to burn coal preparation wastes cleanly. Despite burning poor quality fuel its emissions are well below the maximum standards. Other stations of this type are now planned in France.

  4. Constructive technology assessment and technology dynamics: the case of clean technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, Johan W.

    1992-01-01

    A synthesis of neo-Schumpeterian evolutionary, sociological, and historical coevolution ary models could be used for constructive technology assessment, aimed at the active management of the process of technological change. This article proposes a synthetic quasi-evolutionary model, in which variati

  5. Flue gas condensation cleaning technology; Reningsteknik vid roekgaskondensering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermark, M. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-08-01

    Flue gas condensation has become established as an economical and environmentally attractive method for heat recovery and flue gas cleaning. Effective capture is wanted for dust and flue gas components. This also leads to more advanced treatment of the condensate. Important aspects for present plants are removal of heavy metals, sulfur oxides and ammonia. Future areas are condensation in biofuel driers, small-scale oil- and natural gas boilers and boilers using Salix. High concentrations of heavy metals are reported in refuse boilers, where sulphide precipitation and filtration are used to minimize outlet concentrations in the condensate. For simple dust cleaning (multicyclones) filtration of condensate is normally demanded. The pH value should be increased (to {approx} 7,5-9) for precipitation of heavy metals; zinc and cadmium being the most relevant from environmental point of view. Salix contains considerably higher amounts of cadmium, and may need sulphide precipitation. Addition of sodium hydroxide to the condensate film gives 90-95% absorption of sulfur dioxide. The pH value 6-6,5 is optimal for good removal of sulfur compounds and ammonias, and minimizes carbon dioxide absorption. For avoiding corrosion on concrete pipes the outlet condensate has to be neutralized. Ammonia is formed during combustion of fuels containing nitrogen and can be found in flue gases from e.g. biofuels. For SNCR extra ammonia is added. The main part ({approx} 60-95%) of the ammonia in flue gas is absorbed as ammonia ions in the condensate. Normal ammonium concentration in condensate is about 30-50 g/m{sup 3} without SNCR and 50-150 g/m{sup 3} with SNCR. Removal of ammonia from condensates can become necessary and methods are under development for stripping of ammonia with air or steam. 27 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs, 14 appendices

  6. The development of pollution control technology in coal combustion in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xuchang; ZHANG Hu; ZHUO Yuqun; TONG Huiling; WANG Shujuan; LI Yan

    2007-01-01

    The recent development of coal combustion pollution control technologies in China,including desulphurization,denitrification,particulate matters and heavy metals emission control technologies,have been reviewed.The development histories and the advantages of China's self-developed technologies have been introduced in detail.The key points of future research and development in coal combustion pollution control,e.g.,combined emission control and CO2 emission control technologies,have also been discussed.

  7. U.S. Near-Zero Emissions Program: CCS - Clean Coal R&D, FutureGen, & Demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Der, Victor [Department of Energy (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper a projection of the CO{sub 2} emissions in the United States is shown; the technical challenges in the capture and sequestration of the CO{sub 2}; what is understood by carbon sequestration; the three elements of the capture and CO{sub 2} storage that are: capture, transport, and storage; the FutureGen project; plants of coal combustion with sequestration, and at the end an initiative for the generation with clean coal is presented. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se muestra una proyeccion de las emisiones de CO{sub 2} en los Estados Unidos; los retos tecnicos en la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2}; que entendemos por secuestro de carbono; los tres elementos de la captura y almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} que son captura, transporte y almacenamiento; el proyecto FutureGen; plantas de combustion de carbon con secuestro, y al final se presenta una iniciativa para la generacion con carbon limpio.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES/CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL BORNE CATALYST WITH CLEANAIR SYSTEM'S DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with CleanAir System's Diesel Oxidation Catalyst manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a fuel-borne catalyst used in ultra low sulfur d...

  9. Framework for Evaluating the Total Value Proposition of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, J. E.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional valuation techniques fail to include many of the financial advantages of clean energy technologies. By omitting benefits associated with risk management, emissions reductions, policy incentives, resource use, corporate social responsibility, and societal economic benefits, investors and firms sacrifice opportunities for new revenue streams and avoided costs. In an effort to identify some of these externalities, this analysis develops a total value proposition for clean energy technologies. It incorporates a series of values under each of the above categories, describing the opportunities for recapturing investments throughout the value chain. The framework may be used to create comparable value propositions for clean energy technologies supporting investment decisions, project siting, and marketing strategies. It can also be useful in policy-making decisions.

  10. The prospects of hard and brown coal in Poland and in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Majchrzak, Henryk; Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja

    2010-09-15

    Poland possess significant reserves of hard and brown coal and is an important producer of these fuels, for that reason coal has a dominant position in Polish energy balance. The government document describing energy policy of Poland up to the year 2030 treats Polish coal as an stabilizer of national energy safety. The progress in clean coal technologies development is a key element to determine the role of Polish coal both in Polish and EU economy. The possibilities of prospective use of coal pointing at the main direction of clean technology development has also been discussed in the paper.

  11. The Clean Air Act implementation and the coal industry: A regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utility regulators are responsible for insuring that there is a sufficient supply of electricity to meet consumers needs at a reasonable price. The Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission Act (CAA) compliance strategies are effective at the lowest possible cost. Those potential compliance costs in Pennsylvania may exceed $3 billion by the end of the decade. This does not include worst case estimates of over $750 million per year in added operations and maintenance costs. In the face of these expenses, concerns such as jobs and the health of Pennsylvania's coal industry may carry little weight. The Commission cannot relieve companies of their responsibility for complying. Thus, in order to maintain its market among electric companies, coal will have to be competitive both in offering solutions to the emissions requirements of the CAA and in providing acceptable alternatives for future, new generating plants

  12. Clean-up and processing of coal-derived gas for hydrogen applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, S.

    It appears that only a few large-scale industrial applications need to be examined for utilization of coal-derived hydrogen. Applications selected as representative for considerations of purification are related to ammonia, methanol, iron ore reduction, fuel cells, and pipeline gas. Purity requirements and raw gas composition are discussed, and a description of purification processes is provided. Attention is given to particulates, tar, ammonia and water, light oils, bulk acid gas removal, trace sulfur removal, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, cryogenic purification, and molecular sieves. In view of the very high purity requirements for many hydrogen applications, and the variety of undesirable components in the raw coal gas, the purification task may seem to be too formidable. However, the utilization of hydrogen gas for the production of methanol and ammonia in many countries proves that such a purification is economically feasible.

  13. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1993--March 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R.; Shepard, J.F.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R.; Chander, S.; Cho, H.; Ityokumbul, M.T.; Klima, M.S. [and others

    1994-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. To achieve the objectives of the program, a team of researchers was assembled. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFS) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and precombustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phases I and II are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  14. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1993--September 27, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1993-12-17

    The US DOD, through an Interagency Agreement with the US DOE, has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. A team of researchers has been assembled from Penn State, ABB Combustion Engineering Systems (CE), AMAX Research and Development Center (AMAX), and Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER). These four organizations are the current members of the Consortium. Phase 1 activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase 2 research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and pre-combustion strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase 3 activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase 1 are described in this report. The objective of Phase 1 is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program of the following tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package. Miscellaneous activities are reported. Activities planned for the next semiannual period are listed. The project schedule, with a description of milestones, is included.

  15. Exergy Analysis of Methanol-IGCC Polygeneration Technology Based on Coal Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段远源; 张晋; 史琳; 朱明善; 韩礼钟

    2002-01-01

    Polygeneration is a key strategy for making ultra-clean energy products highly competitive with conventional energy systems. A polygeneration system based on coal gasification was analyzed using the exergy method to calculate the system thermal efficiency. The results show that the polygeneration system has less pollutants and higher efficiency than the separate systems.

  16. Progress of Production Technology of Clean Steel in Baosteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuiJian

    2005-01-01

    The progress in control technology of carbon, nitrogen, total oxygen, phosphorus, and stdphur as well as inclusions in steel is discussed at Baosteel. The purity obtained in IF steel and pipeline steel is introduced.

  17. Competitive Investment in Clean Technology and Uninformed Green Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Sengupta

    2012-01-01

    In a market where consumers are not fully informed about the actual production technology or environmental performance of firms that engage in strategic competition, I study the effect of environmental consciousness of consumers on the incentive to invest in cleaner technology. Firms compete in prices and may signal their environmental performance to uninformed consumers through prices. I also analyze the effect of environmental regulation of firms in this setting. Compared to full informatio...

  18. Explaining differences in sub-national patterns of clean technology transfer to China and India

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Patrick; Urpelainen, Johannes; Xu, Alice

    2016-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has the capacity to incentivize the international transfer of environmentally sound technologies. Given that both countries are expected to have similar incentives when managing the distribution of technology transfer within the country, why do sub-national patterns in the allocation of projects with technology transfer differ? Using comparable political–economic data compiled for China and India, we offer an explanation for these differe...

  19. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  20. Technology Transformation and Research on Coarse Coal Slime Recovery System in Shuguang Coal Preparation Plant%曙光选煤厂粗煤泥回收系统的技术改造与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝明景

    2014-01-01

    曙光选煤厂设立了粗煤泥独立分选环节,将现在的重介+浮选联合工艺改造成重介旋流器+粗煤泥分选+浮选联合工艺。改造后,粗煤泥一段分选底流灰分大于60%,二段侧溢流精煤灰分+0.25 mm小于11%,提高了分选效率,降低了介质消耗,提高入洗原煤处理量,经济效益显著。%The link of coarse coal slime independent separation is set up,the present technology that combines dense medium with flotation is transformed into that combines dense medium cyclone with coarse coal slime separation and flotation in Shuguang coal preparation plant.After transformation,coarse coal slime ash content of underflow is more than 60 percent in the first stage of separation,and clean coal ash content of side overflow is +0.25 mm less than 1 1 percent in the second stage of separation,it increases the separation efficiency,decreases the medium con-sumption,improves the handling capacity of washing raw coal,and obtains remarkable economic benefit.

  1. OTEC technology -- a world of clean energy and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magesh, R. [Coastal Energen Pvt. Ltd., Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2010-07-01

    Scientists all over the world are making predictions about the ill effects of global warming and its consequences on mankind. Conventional fuel fired electric power stations contribute nearly 21.3% of the global greenhouse gas emission annually. Hence, an alternative for such power stations is a must to prevent global warming. One fine alternative that comes to the rescue is the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant, the complete renewable energy power station for obtaining cleaner and greener power. Even though the concept is simple and old, recently it has gained momentum due to the worldwide search for clean continuous energy sources to replace fossil fuel. The design of a 5 megawatt OTEC pre-commercial plant is clearly protrayed to brief the OTEC technical feasibility along with economic consideration studies for installing OTEC across the world. OTEC plan can be seen as a combined power plant and desalination plant. Practically, for every megawatt of power generated by hybrid OTEC plant, nearly 2.28 million litres of desalinated water is obtained every day. Its value is thus increased because many parts of the globe are facing absolute water scarcity. OTEC could produce enough drinking water to ease the crisis drought-stricken areas. The water can be used for local agriculture and industry, any excess water being given or sold to neighboring communities.

  2. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, W.S. [W.S. Hinton and Associates, Cantonment, FL (United States); Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  3. Teaching Students about Clean Fuels and Transportation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe; Carpenter, Pam Page

    2009-01-01

    Regardless of a person's convictions and belief system, science has provided a body of knowledge that points to human interaction with nature as being the leading cause of pollution and a variable to the cause of global warming. Technology teachers are part of the global solution for educating a greater public about energy inputs, processes, and…

  4. Fate and aqueous transport of mercury in light of the Clean Air Mercury Rule for coal-fired electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzuman, Anry

    Mercury is a hazardous air pollutant emitted to the atmosphere in large amounts. Mercury emissions from electric power generation sources were estimated to be 48 metric tons/year, constituting the single largest anthropogenic source of mercury in the U.S. Settled mercury species are highly toxic contaminants of the environment. The newly issued Federal Clean Air Mercury Rule requires that the electric power plants firing coal meet the new Maximum Achievable Mercury Control Technology limit by 2018. This signifies that all of the air-phase mercury will be concentrated in solid phase which, based on the current state of the Air Pollution Control Technology, will be fly ash. Fly ash is utilized by different industries including construction industry in concrete, its products, road bases, structural fills, monifills, for solidification, stabilization, etc. Since the increase in coal combustion in the U.S. (1.6 percent/year) is much higher than the fly ash demand, large amounts of fly ash containing mercury and other trace elements are expected to accumulate in the next decades. The amount of mercury transferred from one phase to another is not a linear function of coal combustion or ash production, depends on the future states of technology, and is unknown. The amount of aqueous mercury as a function of the future removal, mercury speciation, and coal and aquifer characteristics is also unknown. This paper makes a first attempt to relate mercury concentrations in coal, flue gas, fly ash, and fly ash leachate using a single algorithm. Mercury concentrations in all phases were examined and phase transformation algorithms were derived in a form suitable for probabilistic analyses. Such important parameters used in the transformation algorithms as Soil Cation Exchange Capacity for mercury, soil mercury selectivity sequence, mercury activity coefficient, mercury retardation factor, mercury species soil adsorption ratio, and mercury Freundlich soil adsorption isotherm

  5. Development of life cycle water-demand coefficients for coal-based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We develop water consumption and withdrawals coefficients for coal power generation. • We develop life cycle water footprints for 36 coal-based electricity generation pathways. • Different coal power generation technologies were assessed. • Sensitivity analysis of plant performance and coal transportation on water demand. - Abstract: This paper aims to develop benchmark coefficients for water consumption and water withdrawals over the full life cycle of coal-based power generation. This study considered not only all of the unit operations involved in the full electricity generation life cycle but also compared different coal-based power generating technologies. Overall this study develops the life cycle water footprint for 36 different coal-based electricity generation pathways. Power generation pathways involving new technologies of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or ultra supercritical technology with coal transportation by conventional means and using dry cooling systems have the least complete life cycle water-demand coefficients of about 1 L/kW h. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to study the impact of power plant performance and coal transportation on the water demand coefficients. The consumption coefficient over life cycle of ultra supercritical or IGCC power plants are 0.12 L/kW h higher when conventional transportation of coal is replaced by coal-log pipeline. Similarly, if the conventional transportation of coal is replaced by its transportation in the form of a slurry through a pipeline, the consumption coefficient of a subcritical power plant increases by 0.52 L/kW h

  6. Promoting clean technologies: The energy market structure crucially matters

    OpenAIRE

    Azomahou, T.T.; R. Boucekkine; Nguyen-Van, P.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a general equilibrium vintage capital model with embodied energy- saving technological progress and an explicit energy market to study the impact of investment subsidies on investment and output. Energy and capital are assumed to be complementary in the production process. New machines are less energy con- suming and scrapping is endogenous. It is shown that the impact of investment subsidies heavily depends on the structure of the energy market, the mechanism explaining this outco...

  7. Regulatory instruments for deployment of clean energy technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio J. Pérez-Arriaga

    2010-01-01

    Loyola de Palacio Energy Policy Chair This paper previously appeared as Working Paper of the MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (MIT CEEPR WP 09-009, July 2009) Answering to the formidable challenge of climate change calls for a quick transition to a future economy with a drastic reduction in GHG emissions. And this in turn requires the development and massive deployment of new low-carbon energy technologies as soon as possible. Although many of these te...

  8. Healy clean coal project: Technical progress report. Quarterly report number 14, April--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The primary objective of the HCCP is to demonstrate a new power plant design integrating an advanced combustor and heat recovery system coupled with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Alaskan bituminous and subbituminous coals will be the fuels. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the plant will be controlled using a slagging coal combustor with limestone injection, in conjunction with a boiler. Further SO{sub 2} and particulate removal will be accomplished using an Activated Recycle Spray Absorber System. Environmental efforts during this quarter concentrated on supporting the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation`s (ADEC) insurance of the Final Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)/Permit to Operate, preparation of post-construction Air Quality Monitoring and Visibility Monitoring Plans, preparation of a General Wastewater Discharge Permit Application for disposal of wastewater from on-site excavations, review of a PreDraft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit and Fact Sheet and discussions with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and ADEC on NPDES Permit limitations, and preparation of a draft Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for HCCP construction. The final PSD/Permit to Operate No. 9431-AA001 and Technical Analysis Report (TAR) was issued on May 12, 1994. Finalization of engineering and design continued on the boiler, combustors, flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and turbine/generator systems and balance of plant.

  9. Coal a strategic choice for Italian future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article highlights how the anomalies of the Italian electric power generation park, unbalanced on natural gas, leading to higher generation costs and problems of supply safety. The most rational solution to remedy this situation is the realization of an adequate number of large clean coal technologies of coal-fired power plants type

  10. Coal gasification and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, D.; Towler, B.

    2010-07-01

    This book approaches coal gasification and related technologies from a process engineering point of view, with topics chosen to aid the process engineer who is interested in a complete, coal-to-products system. It provides a perspective for engineers and scientists who analyze and improve components of coal conversion processes. The first topic describes the nature and availability of coal. Next, the fundamentals of gasification are described, followed by a description of gasification technologies and gas cleaning processes. The conversion of syngas to electricity, fuels and chemicals is then discussed. Finally, process economics are covered. Emphasis is given to the selection of gasification technology based on the type of coal fed to the gasifier and desired end product: E.g., lower temperature gasifiers produce substantial quantities of methane, which is undesirable in an ammonia synthesis feed. This book also reviews gasification kinetics which is informed by recent papers and process design studies by the US Department of Energy and other groups. Approaches coal gasification and related technologies from a process engineering point of view, providing a perspective for engineers and scientists who analyze and improve components of coal conversion processes - Describes the fundamentals of gasification, gasification technologies, and gas cleaning processes - Emphasizes the importance of the coal types fed to the gasifier and desired end products - Covers gasification kinetics.

  11. Investigation and coal fines briquetting technologies elaboration for the 'Brik-Berovo' lignite (Coal mine in Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological possibilities for the coal fines briquetting from the mine 'Brik-Berovo' (Macedonia) were Investigated. The paper presents the results from the laboratory and industrial examinations in order to evaluate the optimal briquetting conditions, as well as the basic quality indicators of the obtained briquets

  12. Clean Technology Fund Investment Plan Approved for Concentrated Solar Power in the MENA Region

    OpenAIRE

    Coma-Cunill, Roger; Govindarajalu, Chandra; Pariente-David, Silvia; Walters, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) clean technology fund investment plan proposes co-financing of $750 million and mobilizes an additional $4.85 billion from other sources to accelerate deployment of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) by investing in the CSP expansion programs of Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. Specifically, the Investment Plan will support MENA countries to ...

  13. Education and research at clean room laboratory for silicon device technology at Masaryk University

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulík, P.; Humlíček, J.; Hovorka, Miloš; Kulha, P.; Kadlec, F.

    Praha: IOP AS CR, 2012 - (Fejfar, A.; Vetushka, A.) ISBN 978-80-260-0619-0. [Physics at Nanoscale. IUVSTA International Summer School /10./. Devět skal (CZ), 30.05.2012-04.06.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : silicon device technology * education and research * clean room laboratory Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  14. Overcoming barriers to sustainability: an explanation of residential builders' reluctance to adopt clean technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Pinkse; M. Dommisse

    2009-01-01

    The construction industry has great opportunities to significantly reduce CO2 emissions by improving the energy efficiency of residential buildings. However, in this industry, diffusion of cost-effective clean technologies has been notoriously slow and below potential. This paper sheds light on fact

  15. 77 FR 74520 - Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc., Firepond, Inc., and GNC Energy Corporation; Order Withdrawing Trading Suspension as to Extensions,...

  16. Decision document on the revision of the VERA protocol on air cleaning technologies March

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera Losada, J.; Edouard, N.; Guiziou, F.; Melse, R.W.; Riis, A.L.; Sommer, S.; Brusselman, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the project “ICT-AGRI: Development of harmonized sampling and measurement methods for odour, ammonia and dust emissions” different subgroups have been formed focusing on either ammonia, odour or dust. In this report, the conclusions of the ammonia subgroup regarding harmonization of measurement methods for the estimation of the ammonia removal from air cleaning technologies are summarized.

  17. Canada's clean energy technology and the southern California market : a needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presented a study whose purpose was to develop targeted market intelligence regarding the specific needs and plans of southern California-based organizations that are interested in procuring or using clean energy technologies for demonstration or commercial purposes. Industry Canada and the Canadian Consulate General in Los Angeles planned to utilize the study as a tool to explore business development or partnering opportunities between Canada/Canadian industry and California entities. The report described the study objective and provided a definition of clean energy technology. Clean energy was defined as any energy that causes little or no harm to the environment. The study scope was also presented. The study focused on opportunities in the following areas: solar power and photovoltaic technologies; hydrogen and fuel cells technologies; and thermochemical waste-to-energy systems. Context was discussed in terms of California's energy drivers, and California clean energy initiatives and experience. The results of a survey conducted with 350 organizations in southern California were also outlined for facilities and capital projects; fleets and mobile sources; and parks and public spaces. Last, the report presented an analysis of the California marketplace and solar power, hydrogen and fuel cells, and waste-to-energy. 14 refs

  18. Low carbon Finland 2050. VTT clean energy technology strategies for society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Simila, L.; Sipila, K. [and others

    2012-11-15

    The Low Carbon Finland 2050 project by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland aims to assess the technological opportunities and challenges involved in reducing Finland's greenhouse gas emissions. A target for reduction is set as at least 80% from the 1990 level by 2050 as part of an international effort, which requires strong RD and D in clean energy technologies. Key findings of the project are presented in this publication, which aims to stimulate enlightening and multidisciplinary discussions on low-carbon futures for Finland. The project gathered together VTT's technology experts in clean energy production, smart energy infrastructures, transport, buildings, and industrial systems as well as experts in energy system modelling and foresight. VTT's leading edge 'Low Carbon and Smart Energy' enables new solutions with a demonstration that is the first of its kind in Finland, and the introduction of new energy technology onto national and global markets. (orig.)

  19. Application Results of 3-D Seismic Exploration Technology in Coal Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shenglin; WU Xizun

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the development and present situation of China's coal seismic exploration. It focuses on analyzing the important functions of 3-D seismic exploration technology in the designing and production of coal mines, and also the results of its application.

  20. Demonstration of desulfurization technology for high-sulfur coal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Japanese project to demonstrate desulfurization technology for high-sulfur coal firing in China, is presented; two types of flue gas desulfurization systems have been installed and operated in two coal-fired thermal power stations: spray dryer type and simplified wet limestone-gypsum type were selected. Desulfurization efficiency, economic, operator training and promotion issues are discussed. 2 tabs

  1. Feasibility of zeolitic imidazolate framework membranes for clean energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. W. Thornton; D. Dubbeldam; M. S. Liu; B. P. Ladewig; A. J. Hill; M. R. Hill

    2012-01-01

    Gas separation technologies for carbon-free hydrogen and clean gaseous fuel production must efficiently perform the following separations: (1) H2/CO2 (and H2/N2) for pre-combustion coal gasification, (2) CO2/N2 for post-combustion of coal, (3) CO2/CH4 for natural gas sweetening and biofuel purificat

  2. Needs, resources and climate change: Clean and efficient conversion technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2011-02-01

    Energy "powers" our life, and energy consumption correlates strongly with our standards of living. The developed world has become accustomed to cheap and plentiful supplies. Recently, more of the developing world populations are striving for the same, and taking steps towards securing their future energy needs. Competition over limited supplies of conventional fossil fuel resources is intensifying, and more challenging environmental problems are springing up, especially related to carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. There is strong evidence that atmospheric CO 2 concentration is well correlated with the average global temperature. Moreover, model predictions indicate that the century-old observed trend of rising temperatures could accelerate as carbon dioxide concentration continues to rise. Given the potential danger of such a scenario, it is suggested that steps be taken to curb energy-related CO 2 emissions through a number of technological solutions, which are to be implemented in a timely fashion. These solutions include a substantial improvement in energy conversion and utilization efficiencies, carbon capture and sequestration, and expanding the use of nuclear energy and renewable sources. Some of these technologies already exist, but are not deployed at sufficiently large scale. Others are under development, and some are at or near the conceptual state. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Flue gas cleaning by electron beam technology in 21st

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is paying great attention to the pollution caused by flue gases including sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, fine particles, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the environmental protection and sustainable development of China economy for 21st century. Among several promising processes, applicable to industrial scale, the electron beam (EB) scrubbing process can simultaneously remove SO2, NOx, PM-10 (particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter), VOC and CO2 from the flue gas is a new high technology combined with radiation chemistry and electron accelerator technique. The EB flue gas purification process consists of the producing ionization in the EB irradiated gases followed by the formation of free radicals and active species which ultimately forming foggy sulfur acid and nitrate acid. These acids react further with added ammonia to form ammonium sulfate and nitrates as by-products, which can be fertilizer usable in agriculture. The next stage for this technology is its optimization for the reduction of electricity energy consumption and an effective collection of by-products. Lastly the investment cost for EB method is shown to be the most economic compared with other competing methods. (S. Ohno)

  4. Clean Power Generation Techniques for Coal-fired Power Plants%火电厂燃煤清洁发电技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜胜; 肖家荣; 王涛; 黄娜

    2016-01-01

    从雾霾出发,分析了当前燃煤电厂所处的环保困境和已经取得的治理成就,展望了未来的严峻形势,重点推介了几种电厂燃煤清洁发电技术上的应对之道。%Environmental problems such as haze induced by coal-fired power plants and its current governance situation and progress are introduced .Then, several clean power generation techniques that could be adopted in coal-fired power plants are presented .

  5. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  6. The Analysis of the Relationship between Clean Technology Transfer and Chinese Intellectual Property Countering the Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Hao

    This report discusses the relationship between the Chinese intellectual property systems which counter with the climate change and the transfer of clean technology, and states how to encourage the developed countries transfer the clean technology to the developing countries according to the...... relative international climate convention program. The report also proposes the current hindrances and developing strategies according to Chinese current situation at this field. The report is mainly divided into three subjects: the relationship between clean technology transfer and the intellectual...... property countering the climate changes; the analysis of current technology transfer modes relating to the climate; the difficulties of Chinese countering climate changes technology transfer and strategic thinking....

  7. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round 2. The project is described in the report ''Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO(sub x)) Emissions from High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers'' (Southern Company Services 1990). In June 1990, Southern Company Services (Southern) entered into a cooperative agreement to conduct the study. Southern was a cofunder and served as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. Other participants and cofunders were EPRI (formerly the Electric Power Research Institute) and Ontario Hydro. DOE provided 40 percent of the total project cost of$23 million. The long-term operation phase of the demonstration was started in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. This independent evaluation is based primarily on information from Southern's Final Report (Southern Company Services 1996). The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH(sub 3)) into boiler flue gas and passing the 3 flue gas through a catalyst bed where the NO(sub x) and NH(sub 3) react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The objectives of the demonstration project were to investigate: Performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and manufacturing methods at typical U.S. high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions; Catalyst resistance to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals but not present, or present at much lower concentrations, in fuels from other countries; and Effects on the balance-of-plant equipment

  8. New Power Plants Try to Avoid Coal or Scrub It "Clean"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2009-01-01

    After spending $133-million to build a new award-winning technological gem of a power plant, officials at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst are expecting their fuel bills to rise by $7-million a year. And yet they are very proud of the accomplishment. The reasons for the higher energy costs involve a complicated mix of technology,…

  9. Eleventh annual international Pittsburgh coal conference proceedings: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical program featured over 300 papers in 39 separate sessions. These presentations are grouped into five topical areas: the technologies in pre- and post-utilization of coal, research and development in coal conversion, advanced coal combustion, environmental control technologies, and environmental policy issues related to coal use. The program has expanded its coverage in non-fuel use of coal. This is reflected in the three sessions on use of coal in the steel industry and a session on carbon products and non-fuel coal applications. Volume 1 contains two of these sessions as well as sessions on the following: coal resource characterization; coal by-products, properties, and utilization; indirect liquefaction of coal; combustion strategies to meet the Clean Air Act; cleanup technologies for advanced power systems; coal utilization--energy and environmental policy developments; fluidized bed combustion; petrochemicals from syngas; combustion models and bench scale combustion techniques; meeting emission requirements and improving combustion efficiencies; effect of coal chlorine content level on utility combustion performance; the effects of Clean Air Act amendments on by-product utilization; direct liquefaction; instrumentation and control of conventional coal boilers; hazardous air pollutants; legislative issues in the coal industry; pre-utilization/post-utilization processing; conversion technologies; and combustion systems. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  10. New trends in the Belgian programme on nuclear air cleaning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Belgian Programme on nuclear air cleaning technology the Mercurex process has been developed to trap iodine compounds from dissolver off-gases. Krypton is removed with the help of a cryogenic distillation unit. The various gas cleaning units have been integrated in a gas purification test loop for dissolver off-gas at a through put of 25 m3 gas h-1. The separation of tritium from liquid reprocessing effluents is being developed according to the ELEX-process. New research is started on the capture of semi-volatile ruthenium compounds

  11. Technological effects of the wheat cleaning equipment of an industrial mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta STOENESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Romanian wheat, Dropia variety, was cleaned and tempered in an industrial roller mill. Technological effects of the wheat cleaning equipment were investigated as function of the total impurities removed from the cereals. The impurities separated through combi-cleaner and indented separators were 83.42 and 82.83%, respectively. Through scouring, the reduction of the ash content was 0.0225%, while the grains broken were 0.223%. Correlations between the physical parameters and the impurities content were also established. The results indicated negative correlations between thousand kernel weight and impurities content.

  12. Energy-technological method for utilization of coal of the Kansko-Achinskii basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamov, S. R.

    2013-11-01

    The state of the market segments connected with coal fuel consumption is estimated. As a whole it is characterized by the shortage of high-calorific coals for special purposes and the excess of offerings of low-rank coals. The classic method for firing coal has substantially exhausted its potential and is not in the condition to meet the ever increasing needs of power efficiency and environmental safety. For resolution of the existing situation the author proposes to use the technology of internal partial coal gasification with the parallel production of heat energy and brown-coal coke. Scopes of new products are briefly described with the prevailing orientation on the replacement of classic coke in metallurgy.

  13. Potential contribution of low cost materials in clean technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smail, Heman A.; Shareef, Kafia M.; Ramli, Zainab

    2016-03-01

    As the world's population approaches more than 9 billion, the strain on the planet's resources is steadily increasing. This demand can only be met by improving production methods to reduce the use of chemicals and the amount of chemical waste. Zeolites are among the least-known products for environmental pollution control, separation science and technology. This study investigates whether the use of geological sources as low-cost materials are suitable for zeolite synthesis and future applications. In this investigation natural montmorillonite clay, locally available in Erbil-Kurdistan, was used as raw material. The experiments were carried out in the presence of ultrasound 30KHz at 60°C and for different crystallization times (5, 10 &15 hours) and the results were compared with those obtained by performing conventional alkaline hydrothermal static syntheses under similar conditions and crystallization time of (90 hours). The raw material as well as the products was analyzed using; Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental data were ascertained the formation of Zeolite successfully. Crystallization by ultrasound has been demonstrated to offer the possibilities of increasing the nucleation and crystallization rates of zeolites, improving the yield and directing the synthesis towards different crystal phases.

  14. Profile of Clean Technology Commercialization in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish

    2010-04-01

    In 2009, the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) performed it third successive study of the growth and transition of nanotechnology into commercial products, under award from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Nanotechnology is a recently recognized cross-disciplinary field of a variety of potentially disruptive technologies that involves the creation and operation of objects at the nanoscale, up to 100 nanometers in size. Nanomanufacturing is the large-scale manipulation of matter at the nanoscale, to produce value-added components. Because of the economically significant new markets and breadth of applications that can benefit from the exploitation of these size-driven aspects, much international research and commercial effort is being expended to create revolutionary value-added products using the many capabilities and tools enabled by nanotechnology. In the context of Michigan and many other US states, startup and commercialization activity is especially important in market diversification and job growth initiatives. This trend has accelerated new applications of nanotechnology in industrial and consumer markets related to energy efficiency and environmentally conscious manufacturing, known as ``cleantech." Dr. Mehta’s presentation will illustrate the industry’s major trends, concerns and barriers across key strategic indicators, as well as highlight the characteristics of startup businesses and established players in this important field.

  15. Paste-like self-flowing transportation backfilling technology based on coal gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-min; ZHAO Bin; ZHANG Chuan-shu; ZHANG Qin-li

    2009-01-01

    A paste-like self-flowing pipeline transportation backfilling technology with coal gangue as aggregate is proposed to remove the potential damage caused by coal gangue piles. As well, the difficult problems of recovering high quality safety coal pillars and deep mining of the Suncun Coal Mine (SCM), Xinwen Coal Group, Shandong are resolved. The physical-chemical properties of coal gangue, optimized proportion of materials, backfilling system and craft in the SCM were studied in the laboratory and then an industrial test was carried out on high quality coal pillars under a town. The results show that finely crushed kaolinized and fresh gangue with granularity less than 5 mm can be used as aggregate with fly ash to replace part of the cement and a compos-ite water reducer as an additive, accounting for 1.0%-1.5% of the total amount of cement and fly ash. The recommended proportion is I(cement):4(fly ash): 15(coal gangue), with a mass fraction of 72%-75%, theological paste-like properties and a strength of more than 0.7 MPa at 7 d. The sequence of adding cement, fly ash, water reducer and then coal gangue ensures that the suspended state of the slurry, reducing the wear and jam of pipelines. The working face is advancing continuously by the alternating craft of building block walls with coal gangue and backfilling mined-out gobs with paste-like slurry. The recovery rate is as high as 90% with a backfilling cost of 36.9 Yuan/t, good utilization of coal gangue and no subsidence on the surface. This technology provides a good theoretical basis and application experience for coal mines, cement backfilling with paste-like slurry.

  16. Paste-like self-flowing transportation backfilling technology based on coal gangue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin-min Wang; Bin Zhao; Chuan-shu Zhang; Qin-li Zhang [Central South University, Changsha (China). School of Resources and Safety Engineering

    2009-03-15

    A paste-like self-flowing pipeline transportation backfilling technology with coal gangue as aggregate is proposed to remove the potential damage caused by coal gangue piles. As well, the difficult problems of recovering high quality safety coal pillars and deep mining of the Suncun Coal Mine (SCM), Xinwen Coal Group, Shandong are resolved. The physical-chemical properties of coal gangue, optimized proportion of materials, backfilling system and craft in the SCM were studied in the laboratory and then an industrial test was carried out on high quality coal pillars under a town. The results show that finely crushed kaolinized and fresh gangue with granularity less than 5 mm can be used as aggregate with fly ash to replace part of the cement and a composite water reducer as an additive, accounting for 1.0%-1.5% of the total amount of cement and fly ash. The recommended proportion is 1(cement):4(fly ash):15(coal gangue), with a mass fraction of 72%-75%, rheological paste-like properties and a strength of more than 0.7 MPa at 7 d. The sequence of adding cement, fly ash, water reducer and then coal gangue ensures that the suspended state of the slurry, reducing the wear and jam of pipelines. The working face is advancing continuously by the alternating craft of building block walls with coal gangue and backfilling mined-out gobs with paste-like slurry. The recovery rate is as high as 90% with a backfilling cost of 36.9 Yuan/t, good utilization of coal gangue and no subsidence on the surface. This technology provides a good theoretical basis and application experience for coal mines, cement backfilling with paste-like slurry. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. A feasibility study of conceptual design for international clean energy network using hydrogen conversion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clean energy is more and more required worldwide in proportion to actualization of global environmental issues including global warming. Therefore, it is an urgent task to realize promotion of worldwide introduction of clean energy which exists abundantly and is widely distributed in the world, such as hydropower and solar energy, while reducing the dependence on fossil fuel. However, since the renewable energy, differing from so called fossil fuel, is impossible to transport for long distance and store as it is, its utilization is subject to be limited. As one possible resolution of this kind of issues, 'International clean energy network using hydrogen conversion technology' which enables conversion of renewable energy from low cost hydropower into hydrogen energy and also into the transportable and storable form, is a meaningful concept. This system technology enables dealing of this hydrogen energy in international market as in the same manner as fossil fuel. It is considered to enable promotion of international and large scale introduction of such clean energy, along with the contribution to diversified and stabilized international energy supply. In this study, based upon the above-mentioned point of view and assumption of two sites, one on supply side and another on demand side of hydrogen energy, three systems are presumed. One of the systems consists of liquid hydrogen as transportation and storage medium of hydrogen, and the others intermediately convert hydrogen into methanol or ammonia as an energy carrier. A overall conceptual design of each system spanning from hydrogen production to its utilization, is conducted in practical way in order to review the general technical aspects and economical aspects through cost analysis. This study is administrated through the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) as a part of the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (so-called WE-NET) Program with funding from

  18. Effects of long-term coal supply contracts on technology adoption and improvements in the mining of coal. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.R.; Hawkins, S.A.; Webb, P.F.; Kauffman, P.W.

    1979-08-01

    The relationship between long-term coal supply contracts and the adoption of new technology in the coal mining industry is a complex one. From this study certain conclusions can be drawn. New technologies and improvements in the mining of coal can be logically categorized into three areas: evolutionary technology, transitional technology, or innovative technology. Evolutionary improvements in technology can be categorized as improvements, or increased production capacities, in existing equipment. Transitional technology involves the adoption of existing or proven technologies into new conditions, or, proceeding from one technology type to a newer type for the same function. Innovative technology includes equipment, concepts, and systems not readily available, or untried, in the existing mining environment (seam conditions, etc.). Technology adoption is an economic decision. This point was repeatedly emphasized by industry representatives contacted during the study. The long-term coal supply contract influences the decision to adopt new technology and mining improvements in several ways depending on the technology type (i.e., evolutionary, transitional, or innovative), and also the coal supplier type (i.e., captive or independent producer). Several examples of the adoption of new technologies in mines under long-term coal supply contracts are discussed. (LTN)

  19. 煤气化废水中氰化物脱除技术研究进展%Research Progress of Cyanide Removal Technology From Coal Gasification Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志华; 高会杰

    2015-01-01

    Gasification is a key technology in clean utilization of coal. Coal gasification wastewater contains various pollutants, such as ammonia nitrogen, COD, phenol and cyanide, among which cyanide is a highly toxic poison; it has strong corrosive effect on equipments and adverse impact on biochemical treatment of coal gasification wastewater. Oxidation, pyrohydrolysis, membrane and biological methods are common treatment methods of cyanide in coal gasification wastewater. In this article, research progress of the technologies for removing cyanide from coal gasification water was reviewed in detail.%煤气化工艺是煤的清洁化利用的关键技术之一。煤气化产生的废水中含有氨氮、COD、苯酚和氰化物等多种污染物,其中所含氰化物有剧毒,对设备有较强的腐蚀作用,且对生化处理煤气化废水产生不利的影响。常用的处理煤气化废水中氰化物的方法有氧化法、高温水解法、膜法及生物法。本文就煤气化废水中氰化物的脱除技术相关的研究进展进行了详细的介绍。

  20. Technology Roadmap: High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal is the largest source of power globally and, given its wide availability and relatively low cost, it is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. The High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation Roadmap describes the steps necessary to adopt and further develop technologies to improve the efficiency of the global fleet of coal. To generate the same amount of electricity, a more efficient coal-fired unit will burn less fuel, emit less carbon, release less local air pollutants, consume less water and have a smaller footprint. High-efficiency, low emissions (HELE) technologies in operation already reach a thermal efficiency of 45%, and technologies in development promise even higher values. This compares with a global average efficiency for today’s fleet of coal-fired plants of 33%, where three-quarters of operating units use less efficient technologies and more than half is over 25 years old. A successful outcome to ongoing RD&D could see units with efficiencies approaching 50% or even higher demonstrated within the next decade. Generation from older, less efficient technology must gradually be phased out. Technologies exist to make coal-fired power generation much more effective and cleaner burning. Of course, while increased efficiency has a major role to play in reducing emissions, particularly over the next 10 years, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will be essential in the longer term to make the deep cuts in carbon emissions required for a low-carbon future. Combined with CCS, HELE technologies can cut CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation plants by as much as 90%, to less than 100 grams per kilowatt-hour. HELE technologies will be an influential factor in the deployment of CCS. For the same power output, a higher efficiency coal plant will require less CO2 to be captured; this means a smaller, less costly capture plant; lower operating costs; and less CO2 to be transported and stored.