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Sample records for clayey nano-particles biohydrogene

  1. Bio-hydrogen: immobilization of enzymes on electrodes modified by clayey nano-particles; Biohydrogene: immobilisation d'enzymes sur des electrodes modifiees par des nanoparticules argileuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lojou, E.; Giudici-Orticoni, M.T.; Bianco, P. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Bioenergetique et Ingenierie des Proteines, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, has been studied the immobilization of enzymes inside micro-films constituted of clayey nano-particles and layer by layer nano-assembling of clayey nano-particles and enzyme. Natural clays have very great specific surface areas, very strong ions exchange capacities and a swelling lamellar structure particularly well adapted to the non denaturing adsorption of proteins and charged enzymes. In this study, the enzymes have been extracted of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The immobilization of this system in clayey films has been studied by micro-gravimetry/electrochemistry coupling and the catalytic activity towards the production and the consumption of hydrogen quantified. At first, the clay is deposited in layer of thickness of the micron on the gold or graphite electrode. When the hydrogenase is immobilized in the clayey film, the electro-enzymatic oxidation of hydrogen occurs inside the clayey structure. An electrode able to measure either the hydrogen consumption or its production on a wide pH range as thus been prepared, by co-immobilization of hydrogenase and of MV{sup 2+} in montmorillonite films. The catalytic efficiencies obtained by immobilization in the clayey matrix of the two physiological partners, cytochrome c3 and hydrogenase, are strongly improved. Then, this process has been still improved, and three cytochrome c3/clay bilayers have been superposed without loss of the enzymatic activity. (O.M.)

  2. ADSORPTION OF NANO-PARTICLES ON BUBBLE SURFACE IN NANO-PARTICLE SUSPENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Buxuan Wang; Chunhui Li; Xiaofeng Peng

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption of nano-particles on bubble surface is discussed for saturated boiling on thin wire of nano-particle suspensions. Owing to the decrease of surface tension for suspensions, the nano-particles tend to adsorb on the bubble surface to decrease the Gibbs free energy for stability, and meanwhile the velocity of nano-particles would be smaller than that of bubble growth. The long-range van der Waals force existing between "water particles" and nano-particles is considered the attractive force between the nano-particles and the bubble surface. Thus, the nano-particles would attach on the bubble surface if the particle-surface distance is smaller than its critical value. The distribution of nano-particles on the bubble surface and in the adjacent region is also investigated.

  3. Electromagnetics of active coated nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel

    2013-01-01

    This work reviews the fundamental properties of several spherical and cylindrical active coated nano-particles excited by their respective single and/or multiple sources of radiation at optical frequencies. Particular attention is devoted to the influence of the source location and orientation......, the optical gain constant and the nano-particle material composition on the electric and magnetic near fields, the power flow density, the radiated power as well as the directivities. Resonant as well as quasi-transparent states will be emphasized in the discussion....

  4. Magnetic normal modes in nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsditch, M. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: grimsditch@anl.gov; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Via del Paradiso 12, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Montoncello, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Via del Paradiso 12, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Nizzoli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Via del Paradiso 12, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Leaf, G. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kaper, H. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Karpeev, D. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2004-12-31

    We have recently developed two methods to calculate the magnetic normal modes of a magnetic nano-particle. One of the methods is based on a conventional micromagnetic approach in which the time evolution of the magnetization of each cell is monitored. After filtering in frequency domain, the magnetic normal modes can be reconstructed. The second method is based on solving the same micromagneitc system in a dynamical matrix formulation. The results of the two methods, applied to a rectangular parallelepiped of Fe, will be presented and compared.

  5. Subcooled boiling of nano-particle suspensions on Pt wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunhui; WANG Buxuan; PENG Xiaofeng

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to explore the subcooled boiling characteristics of nano-particle suspensions on Pt wires. Some phenomena are observed for the boiling of water-SiO2 nano-particle suspensions on Pt wires. The experiments show that there exist not any evident differences for boiling of pure water and of nano-particle suspensions at high heat fluxes. However, bubble overlap phenomenon can be easily found for nano-particle suspensions at low heat fluxes, which probably results from the increase of the attracter force between bubbles and of the bubble mass.

  6. Stacked dipole line source excitation of active nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel

    This work investigates electromagnetic properties of cylindrical active coated nano-particles excited by a stac- ked electric dipole line source. The nano-particles consist of a silica nano-core, layered by silver, gold, or copper nano-shell. Attention is devoted to the influence of the source...

  7. Electronic spin susceptibility of metallic superconductive nano-particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Feng; Chen Zhi-Qian; Li Qing

    2006-01-01

    We have observed the thermodynamic properties of metallic superconductive nano-particles in the grand canonical ensemble; and the level distribution and the level correlation between the discrete electronic energy levels are considered in the calculation of the electronic spin susceptibility of the ensemble numerically. The quantum effect, even-odd effect and other special effects existing in the metallic nano-particles are also studied in this article.

  8. Coated nano-particle jamming of quantum emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Spherical active coated nano-particles are examined analytically and numerically in the presence of one, two or four quantum emitters (electric Hertzian dipoles). The ability of the coated nano-particle to effectively cloak the emitters to a far-field observer is reported. This offers an interest...... an interesting route towards the jamming of quantum emitters/nano-antennas, for instance, in biological fluorescence assays....

  9. Nano particles@Calix arenas via aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Dehghani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structure and magnetic properties of Al2O3, GaN and Fe3O4@ Calix (8 COOH have been studied using ONIOM and DFT methods. The studies focus on how to improve the adsorption of some nano particles solution aqueous for achieving good magnetic and functionalized potential performances. The results revealed that the Fe3O4@ Calix (8 COOH and some of its derivations exhibited better thermodynamic stability. Furthermore, the particle size and magnetic property of the GaN@ Calix (8 COOH nano particles can be controlled by the aqueous. The electrical properties such as NMR Shielding, electron densities, energy densities, potential energy densities, ELF, LOL, ellipticity of electron density, eta index and ECP for nano particles@ Calix (8COOH have been calculated.

  10. Level Statistics and Specific Heat of Metallic Nano-Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程南璞; 陈志谦; 陈洪

    2003-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of an ensemble of metallic nano-particles are affected by the level distribution and the level correlation between the discrete electronic energy levels. We numerically calculate the specific heat of metallic nano-particles in the canonical ensemble with an odd or even number of electrons by considering the effects of the level distribution and the level correlation. The behaviour of the specific heat at low and high temperatures, compared with the average nearest-neighbour level spacing, is also investigated.

  11. Directive properties of active coated nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, W.

    2012-01-01

    The directivities of the fields radiated by a variety of cylindrical and spherical active coated nano-particles, which are excited by their respective sources of illumination at optical frequencies, are investigated. Particular attention is devoted to the influence of the source location and opti......The directivities of the fields radiated by a variety of cylindrical and spherical active coated nano-particles, which are excited by their respective sources of illumination at optical frequencies, are investigated. Particular attention is devoted to the influence of the source location...

  12. Silicon nano-particles: on Route to a Sustainable Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munao, D.

    2012-01-01

    The area of nanotechnology is one of the most active fields in science today. It is often seen as the area that could lead to substantial progress in terms of finding new materials with new properties. In this respect, silicon nano-particles are found to be greatly attractive because of their

  13. Silicon nano-particles: on Route to a Sustainable Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munao, D.

    2012-01-01

    The area of nanotechnology is one of the most active fields in science today. It is often seen as the area that could lead to substantial progress in terms of finding new materials with new properties. In this respect, silicon nano-particles are found to be greatly attractive because of their signif

  14. Silicon nano-particles: on Route to a Sustainable Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munao, D.

    2012-01-01

    The area of nanotechnology is one of the most active fields in science today. It is often seen as the area that could lead to substantial progress in terms of finding new materials with new properties. In this respect, silicon nano-particles are found to be greatly attractive because of their signif

  15. Oleic acid coated magnetic nano-particles: Synthesis and characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Biswajit, E-mail: bpanda@mes.ac.in; Goyal, P. S. [Pillai’s Institute of Information Technology, Engineering, Media Studies and Research, Dr. K. M. Vasudevan Pillai’s Campus, New Panvel, 410 206 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Magnetic nano particles of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} coated with oleic acid were synthesized using wet chemical route, which involved co-precipitation of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The nano particles were characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, TGA and VSM. X-ray diffraction studies showed that nano particles consist of single phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} having inverse spinel structure. The particle size obtained from width of Bragg peak is about 12.6 nm. TEM analysis showed that sizes of nano particles are in range of 6 to 17 nm with a dominant population at 12 - 14 nm. FTIR and TGA analysis showed that -COOH group of oleic acid is bound to the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles and one has to heat the sample to 278° C to remove the attached molecule from the surface. Further it was seen that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles exhibit super paramagnetism with a magnetization of about 53 emu/ gm.

  16. Bio-hydrogen Production Using the Visible Light-harvesting Function of Chlorophyll-a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka Amao; Noriko Himeshima [Department of Applied Chemistry, Oita University, Dannoharu 700, Oita 870-1192, (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    A Bio-hydrogen production system, coupling D-maltose hydrolysis by gluco-amylase and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and hydrogen production with platinum nano-particle colloid catalyst using the photo-sensitization based on the visible light harvesting of Mg chlorophyll-a (Mg Chl-a), was developed. Hydrogen gas was continuously produced when the reaction mixture containing D-maltose, gluco-amylase, GDH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), Mg Chl-a, methyl-viologen (MV2+) and platinum nano-particle colloid was irradiated by visible light. The amount of hydrogen production was estimated to be 5.0 {mu}mol after 4 h irradiation and the yield of conversion of D-maltose to hydrogen gas was about 1.8%. The quantum yield was 3.1%. (authors)

  17. Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Dark fermentative hydrogen production at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel production. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen production. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type...... fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen production are organic loading rate (OLR), pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved hydrogen and dissolved carbon dioxide...... concentrations, and soluble metabolic profile (SMP). A number of thermophilic and extreme thermophilic cultures (pure and mixed) have been studied for biohydrogen production from different feedstocks - pure substrates and waste/wastewaters. Variety of process technologies (operational conditions...

  18. Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Dark fermentative hydrogen production at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel production. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen production. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type...... fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen production are organic loading rate (OLR), pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved hydrogen and dissolved carbon dioxide...... concentrations, and soluble metabolic profile (SMP). A number of thermophilic and extreme thermophilic cultures (pure and mixed) have been studied for biohydrogen production from different feedstocks - pure substrates and waste/wastewaters. Variety of process technologies (operational conditions...

  19. Silicon nano-particles: on Route to a Sustainable Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Munao, D.

    2012-01-01

    The area of nanotechnology is one of the most active fields in science today. It is often seen as the area that could lead to substantial progress in terms of finding new materials with new properties. In this respect, silicon nano-particles are found to be greatly attractive because of their significant technological implications. Considering different areas of research, the energy production, conversion and storage processes are definitely among the most important topics to be studied by sc...

  20. Silicon nano-particles: on Route to a Sustainable Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Munao, D.

    2012-01-01

    The area of nanotechnology is one of the most active fields in science today. It is often seen as the area that could lead to substantial progress in terms of finding new materials with new properties. In this respect, silicon nano-particles are found to be greatly attractive because of their significant technological implications. Considering different areas of research, the energy production, conversion and storage processes are definitely among the most important topics to be studied by sc...

  1. Preparation and drug releasing property of magnetic chitosan-5-fluorouracil nano-particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-sheng; LI Jian-guo; LI He-ping; TANG Fa-qing

    2009-01-01

    In order to synthesize the targeting drug carrier system, magnetic chitosan-5-fluorouracil nano-particles were prepared by using 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) as model drug, Fe_3O_4 nano-particles as kernel, chitosan as enveloping material and glutaraldehyde as cross linking agent through ultrasonic technique. The morphology of the magnetic chitosan-5-Fu nano-particles was observed with a transmission electron microscope(TEM). The results showed that magnetic chitosan-5-Fu nano-particles were prepared in spherical structure with a size range of 50-60 nm. The delivering capacity and drug releasing properties of magnetic chitosan-5-Fu nano-particles were investigated by UV-vis spectrum analysis. The results showed that the loading capacity was 13.4% and the cumulative release percentage in the phosphate buffer (pH=7.2) solutions was 68% in 30 h. These data indicate that the wrapped drug of magnetic chitosan-5-Fu nano-particles was slowly-released. The magnetic response of magnetic chitosan-5-Fu nano-particles was studied by UV-vis spectrometer to detect the changes of solution absorbance. Without external magnetic field, the nano-particle deposition rate was slow. When being subjected to 8 mT magnetic field, the particle sedimentation rate was increased rapidly. The results showed that magnetic chitosan-5-Fu nano-particles have a magnetic stability and strong targeting characteristics.

  2. Biohydrogen from Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubini, Alexandra; Gonzalez-Ballester, David

    2016-03-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of the mechanisms involved in biohydrogen production from microalgae. The known limitations linked to photohydrogen productivity are addressed. Particular attention is given to physiological and molecular strategies to sustain and improve hydrogen production. The impact of different nutrient stresses and the effect of carbon supply on hydrogen production are discussed. The genetic and metabolic engineering approaches for increasing hydrogen production are outlined.

  3. Econometric models for biohydrogen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duu-Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong; Veziroglu, Ayfer

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is considered as an attractive clean energy source due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. Analyzing various economic scenarios can help decision makers to optimize development strategies for the biohydrogen sector. This study surveys econometric models of biohydrogen development, including input-out models, life-cycle assessment approach, computable general equilibrium models, linear programming models and impact pathway approach. Fundamentals of each model were briefly reviewed to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The input-output model and the simplified economic input-output life-cycle assessment model proved most suitable for economic analysis of biohydrogen energy development. A sample analysis using input-output model for forecasting biohydrogen development in the United States is given.

  4. Sugar Beet Yield and Quality Characteristics as Affected by Magnetic Field and Silver Nano Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Feizi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of magnetic field, silver nano particles and micronutrient fertilizers on sugar beet, an experiment was conducted at Razavi Research and Technology Institute, Mashhad, Iran. Experiment carried out with seven treatments based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments included (T1 magnetic field and silver nano particles + Kemira fertilizer (T2 magnetic field and silver nano particles + Humax fertilizer (T3 magnetic field and silver nano particles (T4 Kemira fertilizer (T5 Librel fertilizer (T6 Humax fertilizer and (T7 control. The results showed that exposure of sugar beet with magnetic field and silver nano particles (T3 increased root yield about 43 percent more than control. Magnetic field and silver nano particles stimulated shoot yield twice more than control. Magnetic field + silver nano particles treatment showed the highest sugar yield (12.71 ton/ha but T4 and control treatments showed the lowest sugar yield. Experimental treatments had no significant effects on root quality except potassium content. It is expectable that magnetic field and silver nano particles could be suitable as an alternative for chemical fertilizers to reduce their application.

  5. ON THE EFFECT OF NANO-PARTICLE CLUSTERING ON TOUGHENING OF NANO-COMPOSITE CERAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董照旭; 方岱宁; 苏爱嘉

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, two and three-dimensional clustering models are developed to characterize the effect of nano-particle clustering on toughening of nanocomposite ceramics. It is found that crack pinning toughens the nano-composite ceramics because a higher stress intensity factor is needed for crack to propagate around or to pull-out the nano-particle. The nano-particle along the grain boundary steers the crack into the matrix grain due to the strong cohesion between the nanoparticle and the matrix. Since the fracture resistance of the grain boundary is lower than that of the grain lattice, the higher the probability of transgranular fracture induced by nano-particles, the tougher is the nano-composite. However, both crack pinning and transgranular fracture are affected by nano-particle clustering. Nanoparticle clustering, which increases with increasing volume fraction of nano-particles,leads to reduction of both the strength and toughness of the nano-composite ceramics. The larger the size of the clustered particle, and the more defects it contains, the easier it is for the crack to pass through the clustered particle, which means that the nano-particle clustering can reduce toughening induced by crack pinning and transgranular fracture. The theoretical prediction, based on the combination of the three mechanisms of nano-particles, is in agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Enhancement of iron content in spinach plants stimulated by magnetic nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Agus; Astuti, Budi; Amalia, Saptaria Rosa

    2016-04-01

    In our previous study, the iron content in spinach plants could be detected by magnetic susceptibility values. In the present work, magnetic nano particles were found from the iron sand. The magnetic nano particles are synthesis by using co-precipitation process and sol-gel technique. The stimulation of magnetic nano particles in the plant has been done by the provision of magnetic nano particles in growing media. After certain time, plant samples was characterized using susceptibility-meter MS2B and atomic absorption spectroscopy to measure the magnetic susceptibility and the amount of iron content that absorbed of the plant, respectively. The iron content in the spinach plants was increased when the magnetic nano particles was injected in the growing media.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Gold and Silver nano-particles using different leaf extracts namely Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbjeet Singh Gujral

    2014-01-01

    Objective: synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles using leaf extracts of Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method. Method: Green approach has been utilized for the synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Different aqueous plant extracts has been prepared which was then utilized for the biosynthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Estimation for the synthesis of nano-parti...

  8. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Lo, Yung-Chung; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lin, Chiu-Yue; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Due to the recent energy crisis and rising concern over climate change, the development of clean alternative energy sources is of significant interest. Biohydrogen produced from cellulosic feedstock, such as second generation feedstock (lignocellulosic biomass) and third generation feedstock (carbohydrate-rich microalgae), is a promising candidate as a clean, CO2-neutral, non-polluting and high efficiency energy carrier to meet the future needs. This article reviews state-of-the-art technology on lignocellulosic biohydrogen production in terms of feedstock pretreatment, saccharification strategy, and fermentation technology. Future developments of integrated biohydrogen processes leading to efficient waste reduction, low CO2 emission and high overall hydrogen yield is discussed.

  9. Surface nitridation of silicon nano-particles using double multi-hollow discharge plasma CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Giichiro; Yamamoto, Kosuke; Kawashima, Yuki; Sato, Muneharu; Nakahara, Kenta; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kamataki, Kunihiro [Center for Reserch and Advancement in Higher Education, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kondo, Michio [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    We present production of silicon nano-particles and their surface nitridation for efficient multiple-exciton generation. Nitridated silicon nano-particles were produced using double multi-hollow discharge plasma CVD, where generation of silicon particles and their nitridation were independently performed using SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} multi-hollow discharge plasmas. We succeeded in controlling nitrogen content in a silicon nano-particle by varying a number density of N radicals irradiated to the Si particle. We also observed strong photoluminescence (PL) emission around 300-500 nm from silicon nano-particles, where the PL peak energy is about 2.5 and 3.1 eV for pure Si nano-particles, and 2.5, 3.1, and 4.1 eV for nitridated Si nano-particles. The additional UV-peak of 4.1 eV from nitridated Si particles is closely related to the nitridation surface layer on Si nano-particles (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Formation and dynamics of nano-particles in a stratified spherical glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, S. Z.; Fedoseev, A. V.; Sukhinin, G. I.; Novopashin, S. A.

    2015-04-01

    The formation of clouds of dust nano-particles in a spherical dc glow discharge in ethanol was observed. Nano-particles were formed in a process of coagulation of ethanol dissociation products in a plasma of gas discharge. During the process the particles were captured into clouds in the electric potential wells of the strong striations of a spherical discharge. Periodically, the cloud of nano-particles experienced some sudden instability (explosion), and started to move to the cathode at high velocity. It was proved that the velocity of the particle clouds was an exponentially decaying function of time as in the case of dissipative dust solitary waves.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of SnO2 nano particles for carbon absorbing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ratchagar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The SnO2 nano particles was synthesized by Microwave assisted technique. From the powder XRD the particle size was calculated using Scherrer formula, it from 57 nm. The absorption spectrum was recorded from 1100 nm to 190 nm, and the optical band gap was calculated using Touc plot. The band gap value 3.16 eV. The functional groups were confirmed by FTIR spectrum. The FE-SEM analysis reveals the morphology of SnO2 nano particles. The synthesized SnO2 nano particles were used as a catalyst to reduce carbon from automobiles fume. The detailed study on carbon emission was reported.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of siderite nano-particles and characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Mahatta; Joshi, M. J.

    2017-05-01

    Siderite is an iron ore in the form of ferrous carbonate (FeCO3). It finds applications in ceramics, in pig iron production, pigments in paints and in petroleum drilling fluids as a scavenger for H2S. An attempt was made to synthesize FeCO3 nano-particles by hydrothermal treatment of aqueous solution of iron sulphate, ascorbic acid, and ammonium carbonate with a molar ratio of 1:1:3, respectively, at 140˚C for 1.5 h. The synthesized powder was further characterized by different characterization techniques like powder XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The powder XRD analysis suggested the nano-crystalline nature of the sample with Hexagonal crystal system having unit cell parameters as: a = 4.691Ǻ, b = 4.691 Ǻ and c = 15.37Ǻ. The average crystallite size was found to be ̴ 10.70 nm from Scherrer's formula. FT-IR spectrum confirmed the presence of O-H, and C-O functional groups. The TGA results suggested that the material started decomposing from the beginning and showed weight loss of 32.4% at 358°C temperature. Thereafter, the sample very slowly decomposed and at the end of process sample showed weight loss of 39.5% at 900°C after giving up carbon dioxide.

  13. Measuring zeta potential of protein nano-particles using electroacoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhin, A S; Parlia, S

    2014-09-01

    Electroacoustic spectroscopy offers a simple way for measuring the zeta potential of proteins in physiological solutions with high ionic strength. Ultrasound as a driving force does not generate the heat effects which complicate traditional electrophoretic measurements at high ionic strength. In addition, measurements can be conducted with concentrated protein dispersions without dilution, as is required by electrophoretic methods. This paper presents results for electroacoustic measurements of 5wt.% bovine serum albumin suspended in aqueous solutions. In these suspensions the proteins are not completely dissolved; they form nano-particles with a median size of about 180nm. We studied the dependence of zeta potential on ionic strength within a wide range of salt molarities, up to as high as 0.5mol/L. Dialysis was used for performing measurements at lower ionic strength range. We also conducted pH titrations of this system and titrations with Ca(2+) ions. Our results agree well with published data for samples where such data is available.

  14. Mechanisms for nano particle removal in brush scrubber cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yating; Guo, Dan; Lu, Xinchun; Luo, Jianbin

    2011-01-01

    A model describing the nano particle (cleaning is presented based on experiment results and theoretical analysis. The forces on the particles in different situations are analyzed and discussed. The adhesion forces of the van der Waals force, the electrostatic force, the brush load and the static friction between the particle and the wafer are calculated. The contact elastic force, hydrodynamic drag force and friction between the brush and the particle are considered as removal forces and are evaluated. The porous structure and roughness surface of brush material are considered in the hydrodynamic model to describe the brush deformation and the flow field in the cleaning process. The porous structure will result in decrease of hydrodynamic drag force. There are four situations of the particles relative to the brush roughness asperities for which the forces on the particle are different. When the particle is in contact with a brush asperity or on the wafer surface and in a semi-infinite fluid flow field, the particle may be removed by hydrodynamic force and elastic force in the presence of surfactant. When the particle is embedded in the brush asperity, the remove will realized when the friction caused by adhesion between the brush and the particle overcome the adhesion force between particle and wafer surface. The removed particles will be in the flow field or adhered on the brush surface and may redeposit on the wafer surface.

  15. Nano-lens diffraction around a single heated nano particle

    CERN Document Server

    Markus, Selmke; Frank, Cichos

    2011-01-01

    The action of a nanoscopic spherically symmetric refractive index profile on a focused Gaussian beam may easily be envisaged as the action of a phase-modifying element, i.e. a lens: Rays traversing the inhomogeneous refractive index field n(r) collect an additional phase along their trajectory which advances or retards their phase with respect to the unperturbed ray. This lens-like action has long been understood as being the mechanism behind the signal of thin sample photothermal absorption measurements [1, 2], where a cylindrical symmetry and a different lengthscale is present. In photothermal single (nano-)particle microscopy, however, a complicated, though prediction-wise limited, electrodynamic (EM) scattering treatment was established [3] during the emergence of this new technique. Our recent study extended [4] this EM-approach into a full ab-initio model describing the reality of the situation encountered and showed for the first time that the mechanism behind the signal, despite its nanoscopic origin,...

  16. Nonaqueous preparation of stable silver nano particles dispersions from organic sulfonic acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Glushko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for stable silver nano particles dispersions synthesis from organic sulfonic acids in an anhydrous medium of ethylene glycol and its methyl ester were studied. Ascorbic acid and potassium citrate were used as reducing agents.

  17. Determination of Size Distribution of Nano-particles by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan XUE; Hai Ying YANG; Yong Tan YANG

    2005-01-01

    A new method was developed for the determination of the size distribution of nano-particles by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Scattering effect of nanoparticles was studied. This method for the determination of size distribution was statistical.

  18. Stable Poly(methacrylic acid Brush Decorated Silica Nano-Particles by ARGET ATRP for Bioconjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Iacono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of polymer brush decorated silica nano-particles is demonstrated by activator regeneration by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP grafting of poly(tert-butyl methacrylate. ATRP initiator decorated silica nano-particles were obtained using a novel trimethylsiloxane derivatised ATRP initiator obtained by click chemistry. Comparison of de-grafted polymers with polymer obtained from a sacrificial initiator demonstrated good agreement up to 55% monomer conversion. Subsequent mild deprotection of the tert-butyl ester groups using phosphoric acid yielded highly colloidal and pH stable hydrophilic nano-particles comprising approximately 50% methacrylic acid groups. The successful bio-conjugation was achieved by immobilization of Horseradish Peroxidase to the polymer brush decorated nano-particles and the enzyme activity demonstrated in a conversion of o-phenylene diamine dihydrochloride assay.

  19. Nano-sensing of the orientation of fluorescing molecules with active coated nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of using active coated nano-particles to determine the orientation of fluorescing molecules is reported. By treating each fluorescing molecule as an electric Hertzian dipole, single and multiple fluorescing molecules emitting coherently and incoherently in various orientations...

  20. Evaluation of minimum quantity lubrication grinding with nano-particles and recent related patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhe; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Dongzhou

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, a large number of patents have been devoted to developing minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding techniques that can significantly improve both environmentally conscious and energy saving and costeffective sustainable grinding fluid alternatives. Among them, one patent is about a supply system for the grinding fluid in nano-particle jet MQL, which produced MQL lubricant by adding solid nano-particles in degradable grinding fluid. The MQL supply device turns the lubricant to the pulse drops with fixed pressure, unchanged pulse frequency and the same drop diameter. The drops will be produced and injected in the grinding zone in the form of jet flow under high pressure gas and air seal. As people become increasingly demanding on our environment, minimum quantity lubrication has been widely used in the grinding and processing. Yet, it presents the defect of insufficient cooling performance, which confines its development. To improve the heat transfer efficiency of MQL, nano-particles of a certain mass fraction can be added in the minimum quantity of lubricant oil, which concomitantly will improve the lubrication effects in the processing. In this study, the grinding experiment corroborated the effect of nano-particles in surface grinding. In addition, compared with other forms of lubrication, the results presented that the grinding force, the friction coefficient and specific grinding energy of MQL grinding have been significantly weakened, while G ratio greatly rose. These are attributed to the friction oil-film with excellent anti-friction and anti-wear performance, which is generated nano-particles at the wheel/workpiece interface. In this research, the cooling performance of nano-particle jet MQL was analyzed. Based on tests and experiments, the surface temperature was assayed from different methods, including flood lubricating oil, dry grinding, MQL grinding and nano-particle jet MQL grinding. Because of the outstanding heat transfer

  1. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of an Orthodontic Composite Containing Titanium-dioxide Nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Ramezani, Mohammad; Poosti, Maryam; Hosseini, Mohsen; Shajiei, Arezoo; Ahrari, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Incorporation of nano-particles to orthodontic bonding systems has been considered to prevent enamel demineralization around appliances. This study investigated cytotoxicity of Transbond XT adhesive containing 1 wt% titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles. Materials and methods. Ten composite disks were prepared from each of the conventional and TiO2-containg composites and aged for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). The extracts were obtained and exposed to culture media of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and mouse L929 fibroblasts. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results. Both adhesives were moderately toxic for HGF cells on the first day of the experiment, but the TiO2-containing adhesive produced significantly lower toxicity than the pure adhesive (P0.05). There was a significant reduction in cell toxicity with increasing pre-incubation time (Pdental composites. Conclusion. The orthodontic adhesive containing TiO2 nano-particles indicated comparable or even lower toxicity than its nano-particle-free counterpart, indicating that incorporation of 1 wt% TiO2 nano-particles to the composite structure does not result in additional health hazards compared to that occurring with the pure adhesive.

  2. Effect of gold nano-particle layers on ablative acceleration of plastic foil targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhareshwar, L J; Gupta, N K; Chaurasia, S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ayyub, P; Kulkarni, N [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Badziak, J; Pisarczyk, T; Kasperczuk, A; Parys, P; Rosinski, M; Wolowski, J [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Krousky, E; Krasa, J; Masek, K; Pfeifer, M; Skala, J; Ullschmied, J; Velyhan, A; Margarone, D [PALS Research Centre ASCR, 1822 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Mezzasalma, A, E-mail: dharesh@barc.gov.i [University of Messina (Italy)

    2010-08-01

    Presence of nano-particles on target surface has been observed to lead to increased laser absorption of laser pulse in plasma. Therefore, a coating of nano-particles on foil targets could lead to an enhanced ablative acceleration. The work presented in this paper concerns this possibility. The results of experiments performed with PALS laser system (125 J, {approx}250 ps at 1.3 {mu}m) with a focused intensity of about 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} are presented. 15 {mu}m thick Polyethylene teraphthalate (C{sub 10} H{sub 8} O{sub 4}){sub n} or PET foils show an almost 40% increase in target movement when coated with a layer of gold nano-particles. Comparison between targets with coating of bulk gold and nano-gold shows about 15% higher target movement in gold nano-particle coated PET targets as compared to bulk gold coating. This result is a clear indication of enhanced laser energy absorption in targets with nano-structured surface of gold. We also present evidence to show the effect of nano-particle coating on lateral thermal conduction.

  3. Heat-Affected Behavior of the Magnetic Properties of Iron Nano-Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳刚; 吕楠; 秦伯雄; 范荣焕; 郭院波

    2004-01-01

    The high surface energy makes metal nano-particles reactive and easy to get oxidized or burned in the open air, which results in decreasing or entirely losing their functions and properties. In this paper, the mag netic property behavior of iron nano-particle, which is one kind of the typical magnetic nano-materials, has been investigated. The iron nano-particles were heated to different temperatures in an open-air stove. After that, they were firstly examined by TEM to observe the changes of their outline of shapes and then measured by VSM to trace the changes of their magnetic properties. The test results show that iron nano-particles can keep their magnetic property with saturation magnetic induction intensity B, around 136-161 emu/g, remanent magnetic induction intensity Br around 14.8-17.4 emu/g and coercive force Hc around 290-302 Oe when the temperature goes up to 523 K. The explanation to such outstanding oxidization-proof ability has been given that there exists a single crystal and lattice-shared Gamma-Fe2O3 shell covering the pure iron core, which prevents the spherical iron nano-particles from further oxidization.

  4. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of an Orthodontic Composite Containing Titanium-dioxide Nano-particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Incorporation of nano-particles to orthodontic bonding systems has been considered to prevent enamel demineralization around appliances. This study investigated cytotoxicity of Transbond XT adhesive containing 1 wt% titanium dioxide (TiO2 nano-particles. Materials and methods. Ten composite disks were prepared from each of the conventional and TiO2-containg composites and aged for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM. The extracts were obtained and exposed to culture media of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF and mouse L929 fibroblasts. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results. Both adhesives were moderately toxic for HGF cells on the first day of the experiment, but the TiO2-containing adhesive produced significantly lower toxicity than the pure adhesive (P0.05. There was a significant reduction in cell toxicity with increasing pre-incubation time (P<0.001. L929 cells showed similar toxicity trends, but lower sensitivity to detect cytotoxicity of dental composites. Conclusion. The orthodontic adhesive containing TiO2 nano-particles indicated comparable or even lower toxicity than its nano-particle-free counterpart, indicating that incorporation of 1 wt% TiO2 nano-particles to the composite structure does not result in additional health hazards compared to that occurring with the pure adhesive.

  5. Photoinduced Biohydrogen Production from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Amao

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Photoinduced biohydrogen production systems, coupling saccharaides biomass such as sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, cellulose, or saccharides mixture hydrolysis by enzymes and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH, and hydrogen production with platinum colloid as a catalyst using the visible light-induced photosensitization of Mg chlorophyll-a (Mg Chl-a from higher green plant or artificial chlorophyll analog, zinc porphyrin, are introduced.

  6. Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined.

  7. Dark fermentation on biohydrogen production: Pure culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Show, Kuan-Yeow; Su, Ay

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of literature reports on the pure hydrogen-producers under anaerobic environment. Challenges and perspective of biohydrogen production with pure cultures are also outlined.

  8. A novel, generic, electroanalytical immunoassay format utilising silver nano-particles as a bio-label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Robert; Kabil, Alena; Forstern, Camilla; Slevin, Christopher; Kouwenberg, Katherine; Szymanski, Mateusz; Birch, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel, generic, sensitive electroanalytical platform method for binding reactions, such as immuno or DNA assays. It was thought that silver nano-particles of 40 nM when attached to the analyte of interest would give an electroanalytical amplification of approx. 10(6) resulting from silver ions produced by dissolution of the nano-particles by a mild chemical oxidant such as ferricyanide. Ferricyanide has been widely used in biochemical measurement and has been shown to relatively stable in a biosensor device. Here we have demonstrated the use of silver nano-particles as a bio-conjugate in a 96 well sandwich assay format for measuring human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to a concentration of 0.2 mIU.

  9. Cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge plasma catalytic effect on chemical methods of silver nano-particle production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Zahra; Khani, Mohammad Reza; Shokri, Babak

    2016-11-01

    In this study, cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge plasma was used to study the catalytic effect on chemical methods of silver nano-particles for the first time. In this method, the processing time is short and the temperature of reaction is low. Also, the reactor is very simple, inexpensive, and accessible. In this work, pure AgNO3 as the precursor agent and poly vinyl pyrrolidone as the macromolecular surfactant were dissolved in ethanol as the solvent. UV-Vis and XRD were used to identify the colloidal and powder nano-particles, respectively. Optical emission spectroscopy was also used to identify the active species in plasma. Effects of gas flow rate, voltage, volume of solution, and processing time were also studied. Moreover, TEM and SEM images presented the mean diameter of nano-particle size around 10 to 20 nm. The results have been very promising.

  10. Submicron writing by laser irradiation on metal nano-particle dispersed films toward flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Aminuzzaman, Mohammod; Miyashita, Tokuji

    2009-02-01

    The requirement for microwiring technology by a wet process has significantly increased recently toward the achievement of printable and flexible electronics. We have developed the metal microwiring with a resolution higher than 1 μm by the laser direct writing technique using Ag and Cu nano-particle-dispersed films as precursors. The technique was applied to the microwiring on a flexible and transparent polymer film. The metallization is caused in a micro-region by focused laser beam, which reduces the thermal damage of the flexible polymer substrate during the metallization process. The laser direct writing technique is based on the efficient and fast conversion of photon energy to thermal energy by direct excitation of the plasmon absorption of a metal nano-particle, which provides Cu microwiring with a low resistivity owing to the inhibition of the surface oxidation of the Cu nano-particle.

  11. Monitoring of magnetic nano-particles in EOR by using the CSEM modeling and inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, J. Y.; KIM, S.; Jeong, G.; Hwang, J.; Min, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    EOR, which injects water, CO2, or other chemical components into reservoirs to increase the production rate of oil and gas, has widely been used. To promote efficiency of EOR, it is important to monitor distribution of injected materials in reservoirs. Using nano-particles in EOR has advantages that the size of particles is smaller than the pore and particles can be characterized by various physical properties. Specifically, if we use magnetic nano-particles, we can effectively monitor nano-particles by using the electromagnetic survey. CSEM, which can control the frequency range of source, is good to monitor magnetic nano-particles under various reservoir circumstances. In this study, we first perform numerical simulation of 3D CSEM for reservoir under production. In general, two wells are used for EOR: one is for injection, and the other is for extraction. We assume that sources are applied inside the injection well, and receivers are deployed inside the extraction well. To simulate the CSEM survey, we decompose the total fields into primary and secondary fields in Maxwell's equations. For the primary fields, we calculate the analytic solutions of the layered earth. With the calculated primary fields, we compute the secondary fields due to anomalies using the edge-based finite-element method. Finally, we perform electromagnetic inversion for both conductivity and permeability to trace the distribution of magnetic nano-particles. Since these two parameters react differently according to the frequency range of sources, we can effectively describe the distribution of magnetic nano-particles by considering two parameters at the same time. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning(KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy(MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (No. 20168510030830), and by the International Cooperation (No. 2012-8510030010) of KETEP, and by the Dual Use Technology Program, granted

  12. Microstructure and Oxidation Behaviors of Nano-particles Strengthened NiCoCrAlY Cladded Coatings on Superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongyu; ZUO Dunwen; CHEN Xinfeng; YU Shouxin; GU Yuanzhi

    2010-01-01

    Nano-particles which can largely improve the microstructure and oxidation resistance of materials are often used as a strengthening component in metal matrix composites. However, few studies were reported on its application in the bond coat of duplex structure thermal barrier coating(TBC). Three kinds of NiCoCrAlY coatings strengthened by different nano-particles with the same addition (1%, mass fraction) were prepared by the laser cladding technique on Ni-based superalloy substrates, aiming to study the effects of the nano-particles on microstructure and oxidation resistance of NiCoCrAlY coatings (the bond coat of the duplex structure thermal barrier coatings). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer(XRD) and thermogravimetry were employed to investigate their morphologies, phases and cyclic oxidation behaviors in atmosphere at 1 050℃, compared with the coating without nano-particles. With the addition of nano-particles, the growth pattern of the grains at the interface changed from epitaxial growth to non-epitaxial growth or part-epitaxial growth; slender dendrites were broken and cellularized; cracks and pores were restrained; and the oxidation weight-gain and the stripping resistance of the oxide scale were improved as well. Among the three kinds of nano-particles, the SiC nano-particles showed the most improvement on microstructure, while the CeO2 nano-particles were insufficient, but its effects on the oxidation resistance are the same as those of the SiC nano-particles. Based on the discussions of the influence mechanism, it is believed that CeO2 nano-particles would show better improvement than SiC nano-particles if the proper amount is added and the proper preparation technique of micro-nanometer composite powders is adopted, with the synergistic action of nanometer effect and reactive element effect.

  13. Size measurement of nano-particles using self-mixing effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huarui Wang; Jianqi Shen

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, the technique of laser self-mixing effect is employed for nano-particle size analysis. In contrast to the photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and photon cross correlation spectroscopy (PCCS),the main advantages of this technique are sensitive, compact, low-cost, and simple experimental setup etc.An improved Kaczmarz projection method is developed in the inversion problem to extract the particle size distribution. The experimental results prove that nano-particle size can be measured reasonably by using the self-mixing effect technique combined with the improved projection algorithm.

  14. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of an Orthodontic Composite Containing Titanium-dioxide Nano-particles

    OpenAIRE

    Heravi, Farzin; Ramezani, Mohammad; Poosti, Maryam; Hosseini, Mohsen; Shajiei, Arezoo; Ahrari, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Incorporation of nano-particles to orthodontic bonding systems has been considered to prevent enamel demineralization around appliances. This study investigated cytotoxicity of Transbond XT adhesive containing 1 wt% titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles. Materials and methods. Ten composite disks were prepared from each of the conventional and TiO2-containg composites and aged for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM). The extracts were obta...

  15. Yb-doped yttria-alumino-silicate nano-particles based optical fibers: Fabrication and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Kir'yanov, A. V.; Das, S.; Bhadra, S. K.; Barmenkov, Yu. O.; Martinez-Gamez, A. A.; Lucio-Martínez, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    An efficient method to fabricate transparent glass ceramic fibers containing in-situ grown Yb 3+ doped oxide nano-particles based on yttria-alumino-silicate glass is presented. These large-mode area Yb 3+ doped fibers having a core diameter around 25.0 μm were drawn by a proper control over the involved process parameters; by this, the size of nano-particles was maintained within 5-10 nm. The main spectroscopic and laser properties of the fabricated fibers along with the nano-structuration results are reported. These results reveal that the developed method offers new scopes for the contemporary Yb 3+ fiber based devices.

  16. Higher order mode excitation in eccentric active nano-particles for tailoring of the near-field radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, R. O.; Arslanagic, Samel

    2015-01-01

    We examine the excitation of resonant modes inside eccentrically layered cylindrical active nano-particles. The nano-particle is a three-layer structure comprised of a silica core, a free-space middle layer, and an outer shell of silver. It is shown that a concentric configuration, initially desi...

  17. Active coated nano-particle excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole — resonance and transparency effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the optical properties of active coated spherical nano-particles excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole. The nano-particles are made of specific dielectric and plasmonic materials. The spatial near-field distribution as well as the normalized...... radiation resistance is examined. Both enhanced as well as reduced radiation effects are demonstrated. In particular, it is shown that specific active coated nano-particles can be designed to be resonant, leading to much larger values of the normalized radiation resistance than is the case...... with the corresponding passive coated nano-particles, thereby overcoming the intrinsic losses present in the plasmonic materials. Moreover, it is shown that other active coated nano-particle designs can significantly reduce the normalized radiation resistance; thus both the resonant as well as non...

  18. In situ analysis of size distribution of nano-particles in reactive plasmas using two dimensional laser light scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamataki, K.; Morita, Y.; Shiratani, M.; Koga, K.; Uchida, G.; Itagaki, N.

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a simple in-situ method for measuring the size distribution (the mean size (mean diameter) and size dispersion) of nano-particles generated in reactive plasmas using the 2 dimensional laser light scattering (2DLLS) method. The principle of the method is based on thermal coagulation of the nano-particles, which occurs after the discharge is turned off, and the size and density of the nano-particles can then be deduced. We first determined the 2D spatial distribution of the density and size of the nano-particles in smaller particle size (a few nm) range than ones deduced from the conventional 2DLLS method. From this 2D dataset, we have for the first time been able to determine the size distribution of nano-particles generated in a reactive plasma without ex-situ measurements.

  19. Impact of the Excitation Source and Plasmonic Material on Cylindrical Active Coated Nano-Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Liu, Yan; Malureanu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    , as well as to their far-field radiation characteristics, in the presence of an electric or a magnetic line source. A constant frequency canonical gain model is used to account for the gain introduced in the dielectric part of the nano-particle, whereas three different plasmonic materials (silver, gold...

  20. Cylindrical active coated nano-particles excited by electric and magnetic line sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Liu, Y.; Malureanu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrical active coated nano-particles comprised of a silica nano-cylinder core covered with a plasmonic nano-shell are investigated with regard to their near- and far-field properties. The source of excitation is taken to be an electric or a magnetic line current, while three different plasmonic...

  1. Silica Chloride Nano Particle Catalyzed Ring Opening of Epoxides by Aromatic Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karimian Ramin; Piri Farideh; Karimi Babak; Moghimi Abolghasem

    2011-01-01

    Silica chloride nano particle (nano SiO2-Cl), has been found to be heterogeneous catalyst for facile, simple and mild ring opening of epoxides with aromatic amines to afford β-amino alcohols in dry CH2Cl2 at room temperature.

  2. Cylindrical active coated nano-particles excited by electric and magnetic line sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Liu, Y.; Malureanu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrical active coated nano-particles comprised of a silica nano-cylinder core covered with a plasmonic nano-shell are investigated with regard to their near- and far-field properties. The source of excitation is taken to be an electric or a magnetic line current, while three different plasmonic...

  3. Spherical active coated nano-particles – impact of the electric Hertzian dipole orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Mostafavi, M.; Malureanu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    Spherical active coated nano-particles comprised of a silica nano-cylinder core covered with a plasmonic nano-shell are investigated with regard to their near- and far-field properties. The source of excitation is taken to be that of a tangential or a radial electric Hertizan dipole while three...

  4. Influence of layer eccentricity on the resonant properties of cylindrical active coated nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, R. O.; Arslanagic, Samel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the influence of the layer eccentricity on the resonant properties of active coated nano-particles made of a silver core and gain impregnated silica shell illuminated by a near-by magnetic line source. For a fixed over-all size of the particle, designs with small and large cores...

  5. Measuring mechanical impedance in clayey gravelly soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stolf

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical impedance of clayey and gravelly soils is often needed to interpret experimental results from tillage and other field experiments. Its measurement is difficult with manual and hydraulic penetrometers, which often bend or break in such soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a hand-operated "Stolf" impact penetrometer to measure mechanical impedance (soil resistance. The research was conducted in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA (35º 45'N, 78º 42'W, elevation 75 m. Corn was planted on April 19, 1991. Penetrometer measurements were taken on May 10, 1991, in 5 cm intervals to 60 cm at 33 locations on a transect perpendicular to the corn rows in each of four tillage treatments. The data permitted three-dimensional displays showing how mechanical impedance changed with depth and distance along the transect. The impact penetrometer proved to be a useful tool to collect quantitative mechanical impedance data on "hard" clayey and/or gravelly soils which previously were difficult to reliably quantify.

  6. Micromagnetic simulation of vortex-antivortex magnetization in permalloy nano particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnama, B.; Muhammady, S.; Suharyana

    2017-02-01

    A process of vortex-antivortex magnetization reversal in a Permalloy nano particle with uniform polarity of magnetization has been investigated numerically. Micromagnetic simulation is performed using the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. A short field pulse is applied in a film plane anti parallel to magnetization direction. Sequences of simulation of reversals mechanism are evaluated for thickness of nano particle. As the results in the case of thickness of 20 nm thin layer, magnetization reversal realizes through a creation-annihilation of Neel-Bloch wall pair. Contrarily, reversal mechanism via a creation-annihilation process of vortex-antivortex pair occurs for thickness of 60 nm thin layer. By analyzing barrier energy of the sample, we find that a maximum barrier energy reaches a threshold value (e.g., ∼ 2.6×106 erg/cm3 for Permalloy in this simulation).

  7. Synthesis of boron carbide nano particles using polyvinyl alcohol and boric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Fathi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study boron carbide nano particles were synthesized using polyvinyl alcohol and boric acid. First, initial samples with molar ratio of PVA : H3BO3 = 2.7:2.2 were prepared. Next, samples were pyrolyzed at 600, 700 and 800°C followed by heat treatment at 1400, 1500 and 1600°C. FTIR analysis was implemented before and after pyrolysis in order to study the reaction pathway. XRD technique was used to study the composition of produced specimens of boron carbide. Moreover, SEM and PSA analysis were also carried out to study the particle size and morphology of synthesized boron carbide. Finally, according to implemented tests and analyses, carbon-free boron carbide nano particles with an average size of 81 nm and mainly spherical morphology were successfully produced via this method.

  8. Peristaltic flow of a micropolar fluid with nano particles in small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Nadeem, S.

    2013-12-01

    The present article analyzed the peristaltic flow of a nanofluid in a uniform tube for micropolar fluid. The governing equations for proposed model are developed in cylindrical coordinates system. The flow is discussed in a wave frame of reference moving with velocity of the wave c. Under the assumptions of longwave length the reduced coupled nonlinear differential equations of momentum, energy, and concentrations are solved by Homotopy perturbation method is used to get the solutions for velocity, temperature, nano particle, microrotation component. The solutions consists Brownian motion number N b, thermophoresis number N t, local temperature Grashof number B r and local nano particle Grashof number G r . The effects of various parameters involved in the problem are investigated for pressure rise, pressure gradient, temperature and concentration profile. Five different waves are taken into account for analysis. Streamlines have been plotted at the end of the article.

  9. Green synthesis, Characterization and anti microbial activity of silver nano particles –Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seeram. Hariprasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of silver nano particles is considered a green technology. Because it does not involve any harmful chemicals. Nanotechnology field is one of the most attractive researches. The field of nanotechnology is applied to bio materials. This review focuses on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using various plant sources. A detailed study on the reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles from medical plant leaves extract were demonstrated with a brief experimental procedure. Characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles performed through UV spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy analysis, X-Ray Diffraction analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. This review mainly focus on anti microbial activities of synthesized silver nano particles.

  10. Development of functional nano-particle layer for highly efficient OLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Choi, Haechul; Choi, Yoonseuk

    2015-12-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are now widely commercialized in market due to many advantages such as possibility of making thin or flexible devices. Nevertheless there are still several things to obtain the high quality flexible OLEDs, one of the most important issues is the light extraction of the device. It is known that OLEDs have the typical light loss such as the waveguide loss, plasmon absorption loss and internal total reflection. In this paper, we demonstrate the one-step processed light scattering films with aluminum oxide nano-particles and polystyrene matrix composite to achieve highly efficient OLEDs. Optical characteristics and surface roughness of light scattering film was optimized by changing the mixing concentration of Al2O3 nano-particles and investigated with the atomic force microscopy and hazemeter, respectively.

  11. Control of cancer growth using single input autonomous fuzzy Nano-particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Razmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a single input fuzzy controller is applied on autonomous drug-encapsulated nanoparticles (ADENPs to restrict the cancer growth. The proposed ADENPs, swarmly release the drug in local cancerous tissue and effectively decreases the destruction of normal tissue. The amount of released drug is defined considering to feed backed values of tumor growth rate and the used drug. Some significant characteristics of Nano particles compared to Nano-robots is their ability to recognize the cancerous tissue from the normal one and their simple structure. Nano particles became an attractive topic in Nano science and many efforts have been done to manufacture these particles. Simulation results show that the proposed controlling method not only decreases the cancerous tissue effectively but also reduces the side effects of drug impressively.

  12. [Studies on nano-particle sols of hydroxyaptite and titanium dioxide for haemo-compatibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Feng, Lingyun; Peng, Renxiu; Cao, Xianying

    2002-06-01

    A biological evaluation is conducted for two types of nano-particle sols, hydroxyaptite(HAP) and titanium dioxide(TiO2). The results show that HAP sol significnatly prolongs the bleeding time and coagulation time of mice as well as the prothrombin time(PT) and partial thromboplastin time(PTT) of rats while TiO2 sol exhibits no such effects. Neither HAP sol nor TiO2 sol instigated in-vitro hemolysis of rabbit erythrocyte. However, both of the materials caused in-vitro aggregation of rabbit erythrocytes. The reason underlying the different results as to the two types of material is their specific stabilizer, heparin for HAP sol and PVC for TiO2 sol. We came to the conclusion that a biologically inert stablizer has no less significance than the nano-particle's very own nature in a nano-material's application prospect.

  13. Asymmetric active nano-particles for directive near-field radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Thorsen, Rasmus O.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the potential of cylindrical active coated nano-particles with certain geometrical asymmetries for the creation of directive near-field radiation. The particles are excited by a near-by magnetic line source, and their performance characteristics are reported in terms...... of radiated power, near-field and power flow distributions as well as the far-field directivity....

  14. Melting and solidification behavior of Pb–Sn embedded alloy nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Patan Yousaf [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (India); Bhattacharya, Victoria [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Biswas, Krishanu, E-mail: kbiswas@iitk.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (India); Chattopadhyay, Kamanio [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India)

    2013-11-15

    Nano-sized bimetallic dispersoids consisting of (Pb) and β-(Sn) phases of eutectic composition (Pb{sub 26.1}Sn{sub 73.9}) embedded in aluminum and Al–Cu–Fe quasicrystalline matrices have been prepared by rapid solidification processing. The two phases, face centered cubic (Pb) and body center tetragonal, β-(Sn) solid solution co-exist in all the embedded nano-particles at room temperature. The phases bear crystallographic orientation relationship with the matrix. In situ TEM study has been carried out for the alloy particles to study the melting and the solidification behavior. The detailed microscopic observations indicate formation of a single-phase metastable fcc (Pb) in the nano-particles prior to the melting during heating. Solidification of these particles begins with nucleation of fcc (Pb), which phase separates into fcc (Pb) and β-(Sn) lamellae in the solid state. In situ X-ray diffraction study is carried out to obtain lattice parameter of metastable fcc (Pb) and thereby an estimate of amount of Sn dissolved in the metastable (Pb) prior to the melting. The results are discussed in terms of a metastable phase diagram between fcc Pb and fcc Sn and invoking the size effect on the metastable phase diagram. The size factor is found to play a critical role in deciding the pathway of phase transformation as well as the extension of solid solubility of Sn in fcc (Pb) in the nano-particles.

  15. A Review of Experimental Techniques for Measuring Micro- to Nano-Particle-Laden Gas Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxu Tu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersed micro- to nano-particle-laden gas flows are common in many engineering and environmental applications. Characterizing both their dispersed and carrier phase using experimental methods is very important for determining their properties and behavior. This paper reviews techniques for measuring the carrier phase, as well as the dispersed particles ranging from the micro- to the nano-scale. We focus not only on the developments of specific techniques over the last 20 years, but also on relationships and comparisons among these techniques. In addition to a systematic description and classification of these methods, we discuss the parameters they measure, such as particle velocity, size, composition and concentration. A more detailed review is provided for several important measurement techniques, including particle image velocimetry, the phase-Doppler particle analyzer and light-scattering intensity measurements for microparticles, as well as the scanning mobility particle sizer, the fast mobility particle sizer and the electrical low pressure impactor for nano-particles. The founding principles, development histories, various applications of these techniques and where they are going are summarized. This article provides a resource for investigators that plan to study micro- or nano-particle-laden gas flows in various contexts.

  16. Field emission enhancement of Au-Si nano-particle-decorated silicon nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Fei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Au-Si nano-particle-decorated silicon nanowire arrays have been fabricated by Au film deposition on silicon nanowire array substrates and then post-thermal annealing under hydrogen atmosphere. Field emission measurements illustrated that the turn-on fields of the non-annealed Au-coated SiNWs were 6.02 to 7.51 V/μm, higher than that of the as-grown silicon nanowires, which is about 5.01 V/μm. Meanwhile, after being annealed above 650°C, Au-Si nano-particles were synthesized on the top surface of the silicon nanowire arrays and the one-dimensional Au-Si nano-particle-decorated SiNWs had a much lower turn-on field, 1.95 V/μm. The results demonstrated that annealed composite silicon nanowire array-based electron field emitters may have great advantages over many other emitters.

  17. Biohydrogen production and bioprocess enhancement: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudhoo, Ackmez; Forster-Carneiro, Tânia; Sánchez, Antoni

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the recent advances and trends in research in the biological production of hydrogen (biohydrogen). Hydrogen from both fossil and renewable biomass resources is a sustainable source of energy that is not limited and of different applications. The most commonly used techniques of biohydrogen production, including direct biophotolysis, indirect biophotolysis, photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation, conventional or "modern" techniques are examined in this review. The main limitations inherent to biochemical reactions for hydrogen production and design are the constraints in reactor configuration which influence biohydrogen production, and these have been identified. Thereafter, physical pretreatments, modifications in the design of reactors, and biochemical and genetic manipulation techniques that are being developed to enhance the overall rates and yields of biohydrogen generation are revisited.

  18. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane; Akundi N. Murty

    2004-02-23

    The preparation of Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe nano-particle metal loaded mesoporous 1 mm spherical granular {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, by combined sol-gel/oil-drop methods followed by calcination and hydrogenation steps, is accomplished. Parameters for calcination process were optimized using DTA. The properties of metal loaded {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granules were compared for the preparations starting with two precursors: aluminum tri-sec-butoxide (ALTSB) and aluminum tri-iso-propoxide (ALTIP). Three sol-gel/oil-drop catalyst preparation methods; (1) Metal nitrate solutions co-entrapped-sol-gel (2) nano-particle metal oxide co-entrapped-sol-gel, and (3) Metal impregnation on preformed alumina granules, were used. Structure and composition of metal-loaded-granules were investigated using XRD, SEM, EDX, and surface area measurements (BET method). The nano-particle nature of catalysts was confirmed using SEM and X-ray diffraction. The reduction efficiency of hydrogenation of catalysts was examined by magnetic studies using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Catalysts could be effectively calcined at 450 C and the surface area values obtained were between 200-350 m{sup 2}/g, indicating the mesoporous nature of catalyst support. Parameters affecting the metal loading process were also studied, and the optimum conditions were identified and reported for reproducible synthesis of the metal loaded {gamma}-alumina granular particles. The catalyst activities of Fe, Co, and Co/Fe on alumina for the conversion of CO/H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures were investigated using Gas chromatography (GC) with N{sub 2} as a standard carrier gas. Both, slurry-phase-batch and gas-phase-continuous-flow, reactors were used. Magnetization studies on reduced, CO/H{sub 2} post-reaction catalyst in both gas and slurry phase were performed using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetic studies of post-reaction Co and Fe nano-catalysts showed that the

  19. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setala V. Naidu

    2003-01-01

    We have produced Co, Cu, and Fe nano-particles by Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) as evidenced by TEM investigations. Sizes of the nano-particles created are in the order of 5 nm. The LISD system could generate nano-particles in quantities only in the order of a milligram. This may be mainly due to the limited photo induced reactions taking place on the surface of the solutions. We have designed experiments to use drop flow technique with LISD for nano-particle deposition on microreactors. Preliminary work has been done on Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors. We are also investigating the catalytic properties of nano-particles of FeO and CoO prepared by ball milling and dispersed into sol-gel prepared alumina granules. We have continued our investigation of catalytic reactions of Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe on alumina support. The metal oxides were first reduced with hydrogen and used for the conversion of CO/H{sub 2}. The surface area of the catalysts has been determined by nitrogen disorption. They are in the range of 200-300 m{sup 2}/g. Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe showed increasing order of catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion. We are also studying catalytic conversion rates for CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures using these catalysts. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. We have used vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to study the magnetic characteristics of as prepared, reduced, post-reaction catalysts. Comparative study of the ferromagnetic component of these samples gives the reduction efficiency and the changes in metal centers during catalytic reactions. Magnetic studies of post-reaction Co and Fe micro-reactors show that more carbide formation occurs for iron compared to cobalt.

  20. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setala V. Naidu

    2003-01-01

    We have produced Co, Cu, and Fe nano-particles by Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) as evidenced by TEM investigations. Sizes of the nano-particles created are in the order of 5 nm. The LISD system could generate nano-particles in quantities only in the order of a milligram. This may be mainly due to the limited photo induced reactions taking place on the surface of the solutions. We have designed experiments to use drop flow technique with LISD for nano-particle deposition on microreactors. Preliminary work has been done on Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors. We are also investigating the catalytic properties of nano-particles of FeO and CoO prepared by ball milling and dispersed into sol-gel prepared alumina granules. We have continued our investigation of catalytic reactions of Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe on alumina support. The metal oxides were first reduced with hydrogen and used for the conversion of CO/H{sub 2}. The surface area of the catalysts has been determined by nitrogen disorption. They are in the range of 200-300 m{sup 2}/g. Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe showed increasing order of catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion. We are also studying catalytic conversion rates for CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures using these catalysts. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. We have used vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to study the magnetic characteristics of as prepared, reduced, post-reaction catalysts. Comparative study of the ferromagnetic component of these samples gives the reduction efficiency and the changes in metal centers during catalytic reactions. Magnetic studies of post-reaction Co and Fe micro-reactors show that more carbide formation occurs for iron compared to cobalt.

  1. Boundary lubrication by nano-particles; Lubrification limite par les nanoparticules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cizaire, L.

    2003-09-15

    The replacement of aggressive organic molecules by mineral particles which could reduce friction and wear has been the main idea of this research work. The aim is thus to reduce product concentration in lubricant and pollutant gas emission. Boundary lubrication regime is well suited for this type of study in particular for being discriminative in tested nano-particles efficacy. We are firstly being interested in an anti-wear additive. A physical and chemical study of dialysed over based calcium sulfonates by EFTEM, XPS and ToF-SIMS lead to describe nano-particles as calcium carbonate core, still amorphous by the residual presence of calcium hydroxide and surrounded by di-dodecyl-benzene sulfonate surfactant chains. Their anti-wear action has been investigated by coupling many tribo-meters with different contact geometry. Rubbing surfaces were protected by a thick tribo-film being on surfaces without any scratches. When additive is in contact area under high pressure and shearing, micellar structure is broken. Hydro-carbonated chains initially control friction by being broken up and then with increasing of contact severity, sulfonate chains are expulsed out of the tribo-film. Tribo-film growth corresponds then to agglomeration and crystallization of calcium carbonate core striped of detergent chains. We have shown then friction reduction capabilities of inorganic-fullerene (IF) MoS{sub 2} nano-particles. Lubricating power of MoS{sub 2} layers is as good whatever the layers number leading thinking that friction value is intrinsic character of compound nature. Fullerene nano-particles were described by HR-TEM as a concentric and closed multi-layered structure. Coupling of Raman, XRD and EXAFS have shown that MoS{sub 2} layers were well organised in hexagonal form with distortion in Mo-Mo bonds reaching 1% of initial length. Chemical stability of such structure, in particular in regard of oxidation, is very impressive. XPS, XANES and ToF-SIMS analyses have lead to

  2. Unified water isotherms for clayey porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A.; Lu, N.

    2013-09-01

    We provide a unified model for the soil-water retention function, including the effect of bound and capillary waters for all types of soils, including clayey media. The model combines a CEC-normalized isotherm describing the sorption of the bound water (and the filling of the trapped porosity) and the van Genuchten model to describe the capillary water sorption retention but ignore capillary condensation. For the CEC-normalized isotherm, we tested both the BET and Freundlich isotherms, and we found that the Freundlich is more suitable than the BET isotherm in fitting the data. It is also easier to combine the Freundlich isotherm with the van Genuchten model. The new model accounts for (1) the different types of clay minerals, (2) the different types of ions sorbed in the Stern layer and on the basal planes of 2:1 clays, and (3) the pore size distribution. The model is validated with different data sets, including mixtures of kaolinite and bentonite. The model parameters include two exponents (the pore size exponent of the van Genuchten model and the exponent of the Freundlich isotherm), the capillary entry pressure, and two critical water contents. The first critical water content is the water content at saturation (porosity), and the second is the maximum water content associated with adsorption forces, including the trapped nonbound water.

  3. Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Yang, Chun-Yu; Liou, Jia-Hong; Yu, Chin-Ping; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-07-15

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with high-quality graphene nano-particles uniformly dispersed in the hole cladding are demonstrated to passively mode-lock the erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) by evanescent-wave interaction. The few-layer graphene nano-particles are obtained by a stabilized electrochemical exfoliation at a threshold bias. These slowly and softly exfoliated graphene nano-particle exhibits an intense 2D band and an almost disappeared D band in the Raman scattering spectrum. The saturable phenomena of the extinction coefficient β in the cladding provides a loss modulation for the intracavity photon intensity by the evanescent-wave interaction. The evanescent-wave mode-locking scheme effectively enlarges the interaction length of saturable absorption with graphene nano-particle to provide an increasing transmittance ΔT of 5% and modulation depth of 13%. By comparing the core-wave and evanescent-wave mode-locking under the same linear transmittance, the transmittance of the graphene nano-particles on the end-face of SMF only enlarges from 0.54 to 0.578 with ΔT = 3.8% and the modulation depth of 10.8%. The evanescent wave interaction is found to be better than the traditional approach which confines the graphene nano-particles at the interface of two SMF patchcords. When enlarging the intra-cavity gain by simultaneously increasing the pumping current of 980-nm and 1480-nm pumping laser diodes (LDs) to 900 mA, the passively mode-locked EDFL shortens its pulsewidth to 650 fs and broadens its spectral linewidth to 3.92 nm. An extremely low carrier amplitude jitter (CAJ) of 1.2-1.6% is observed to confirm the stable EDFL pulse-train with the cladding graphene nano-particle based evanescent-wave mode-locking.

  4. Geometrical effects on the electron residence time in semiconductor nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koochi, Hakimeh [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand 97175-615 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Fatemeh, E-mail: f-ebrahimi@birjand.ac.ir [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand 97175-615 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Solar Energy Research Group, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-07

    We have used random walk (RW) numerical simulations to investigate the influence of the geometry on the statistics of the electron residence time τ{sub r} in a trap-limited diffusion process through semiconductor nano-particles. This is an important parameter in coarse-grained modeling of charge carrier transport in nano-structured semiconductor films. The traps have been distributed randomly on the surface (r{sup 2} model) or through the whole particle (r{sup 3} model) with a specified density. The trap energies have been taken from an exponential distribution and the traps release time is assumed to be a stochastic variable. We have carried out (RW) simulations to study the effect of coordination number, the spatial arrangement of the neighbors and the size of nano-particles on the statistics of τ{sub r}. It has been observed that by increasing the coordination number n, the average value of electron residence time, τ{sup ¯}{sub r} rapidly decreases to an asymptotic value. For a fixed coordination number n, the electron's mean residence time does not depend on the neighbors' spatial arrangement. In other words, τ{sup ¯}{sub r} is a porosity-dependence, local parameter which generally varies remarkably from site to site, unless we are dealing with highly ordered structures. We have also examined the effect of nano-particle size d on the statistical behavior of τ{sup ¯}{sub r}. Our simulations indicate that for volume distribution of traps, τ{sup ¯}{sub r} scales as d{sup 2}. For a surface distribution of traps τ{sup ¯}{sub r} increases almost linearly with d. This leads to the prediction of a linear dependence of the diffusion coefficient D on the particle size d in ordered structures or random structures above the critical concentration which is in accordance with experimental observations.

  5. Hydrophilic block copolymer-directed growth of lanthanum hydroxide nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyer, F.; Sanson, N.; Gerardin, C. [Laboratoire de Materiaux Catalytiques et Catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR 5618 CNRS-ENSCM-UM1, FR 1878, Institut Gerhardt, 34 - Montpellier (France); Destarac, M. [Centre de Recherches Rhodia Aubervilliers, 93 - Aubervilliers (France)

    2006-03-15

    Stable hairy lanthanum hydroxide nano-particles were synthesized in water by performing hydrolysis and condensation reactions of lanthanum cations in the presence of double hydrophilic poly-acrylic acid-b-polyacrylamide block copolymers (PAA-b-PAM). In the first step, the addition of asymmetric PAA-b-PAM copolymers (M{sub w,PAA} {<=} M{sub w,PAM}) to lanthanum salt solutions, both at pH = 5.5, induces the formation of monodispersed micellar aggregates, which are predominantly isotropic. The core of the hybrid aggregates is constituted of a lanthanum polyacrylate complex whose formation is due to bidentate coordination bonding between La{sup 3+} and acrylate groups, as shown by ATR-FTIR experiments and pH measurements. The size of the micellar aggregates depends on the molecular weight of the copolymer but is independent of the copolymer to metal ratio in solution. In the second step, the hydrolysis of lanthanum ions is induced by addition of a strong base such as sodium hydroxide. Either flocculated suspensions or stable anisotropic or spherical nano-particles of lanthanum hydrolysis products were obtained depending on the metal complexation ratio [acrylate]/[La]. The variation of that parameter also enables the control of the size of the core-corona nano-particles obtained by lanthanum hydroxylation. The asymmetry degree of the copolymer was shown to influence both the size and the shape of the particles. Elongated particles with a high aspect ratio, up to 10, were obtained with very asymmetric copolymers (M{sub w,PAM}/M{sub w,PAA}{>=}10) while shorter rice grain-like particles were obtained with a less asymmetric copolymer. The asymmetry degree also influences the value of the critical metal complexation degree required to obtain stable colloidal suspensions of polymer-stabilized lanthanum hydroxide. (authors)

  6. [Catalytic degradation of PCB77 by microwave-induced nano-particle metal oxides in diatomite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guan-yi; Zhao, Ling; Dong, Yuan-hua

    2009-08-15

    The degradation of PCB77 in diatomite by microwave-induced catalytic oxidation was studied in a sealed vial, including four effects such as microwave (MV) radiating time, addition of different nano-particle metal oxides, concentration and type of acids and dosage of MnO2. The results indicated that PCB77 could be removed significantly by microwave-induced catalytic oxidation. Compared to control reactor (without MV radiation), the removal rate of PCB77 increased by twice after 1 min. In addition, the removal rate of PCB77 under MV radiation was gradually increased with time of radiation and then reached equilibrium after 10 min. The removal rates are about 50% and 20% by addition of H2SO4 and ultrapure water respectively. No significant removal was observed by addition of NaOH and without aqueous media. Moreover, catalytic degradation of PCB77 by microwave-induced nano-particle MnO2 had best removal rate was up to 90% after 1 min, in contrast with addition of nano-particle Fe2O3, CuO and Al2O3. The removal rate raised from 37.0% to 98.5% rapidly with the concentration of H2SO4 ranged from 1 mol/L to 8 mol/L, and H2SO4 mainly played a role of acidification but not oxidation. The addition of 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05 g MnO2 showed the similar result.

  7. A Proposed New "Nano-Particle" Theory of Light Based on Heat Transfer Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashis

    2004-05-01

    Till date theories of light (visible and other radiations over electromagnetic scale) are divided into two classes viz. particle and wave theory. A particle on the classical view is a concentration of energy and other properties in space and time, whereas a wave is spread out over a larger region of space and time. It is generally understood that particle theory talks about corpuscles of finite measurable mass whereas wave theory is about packets of massless energy. This paper is a summary of thoughts collected so far on building a only - particle theory of light or other radiations assuming the Universe to be filled with "nano-particles" or very small particles and large particles. Although revolutionary and very thought provoking and unbelievably challenging the collected pointers outlined in this account appear very logical and mathematically sound although experiments are required to give this theory a firm basis for wide spread recognition in scientific forums. The major support for nano-particle theory comes from the observation of a term called "radiation pressure" which incorporates a sense of impact or pressure and therefore a force and so some particle impact although very feeble compared to normal large particle impact yielding noticeable effect on most pressure gauges measuring this. Similar feeble impact effects are possible in other phenomena like current, magnetic field etc. whose measurement will require very sensitive instruments. In this paper, I have explained that common method of estimation of momentum and heat transfer applied to very small mass nano-particles can explain at least three major phenomena of visble light viz. rectilinear propagation, reflection and refraction. Other phenomena such as diffraction, interference, polarization, diffusion etc will be presented in a future paper. This presentation is meant for collecting wide readership views to approve or deny this explanation of only particle theory after famous Compton scattering

  8. Deposition of Flame-generated Al2O3 Nano-particles on a Porous Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Klint; Johannessen, Jens Tue; Wedel, Stig;

    1998-01-01

    When particles of catalytic materials become less than 50 nm they start toexhibit a stronger catalytic activity compared to their bulk counterparts. Nano-particles are thus good candidates for manufacture of highly activecatalysts. Nanometer sized particles of catalytic materials may be generated...... athigh temperatures in flames. The direct deposition from gas phase on a ceramicsubstrate tube of flame-generated particles leads to a uniform, porous layer ofsmall particles, masking the coarser structure of the substrate tube. The methodlooks promising for manufacture of catalytic filters and membranes....

  9. Mobilization and biodegradation of 2-methylnaphthalene by amphiphilic polyurethane nano-particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Bum; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Eun-ki

    2009-10-01

    Amphiphilic polyurethane (APU) nano-particle enhanced the mobilization of 2-methylnaphthalene (2-MNPT) in soil. Significant increase in the solubility of 2-MNPT was achieved. The molar solubilization ratio was 0.4 (mole 2-MNPT/mole APU). Simple precipitation of APU particle by 2 N CaCl(2) recovered 95% of APU particle and 92% of 2-MNPT simultaneously. Also, 2-MNPT, which was entrapped inside the APU particle, was directly degraded by Acinetobacter sp. as same efficiency as without APU particle. These results showed the potentials of APU particle in the mobilization and biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds from soil.

  10. Charge dependence of nano-particle growth in silane plasmas under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, C. R.; Choe, W.; Chai, K. B.; Park, H. Y.; Park, S.

    2009-01-01

    The controlled generation of nano-particles has been an important issue for the nano-structure formation in processing plasmas. We observed that the particle growth under UV irradiation was enhanced due to electric charge reduction of the particles, suggesting that the variation of particle charges could be a control parameter for the particle growth. The particle growth variation by UV irradiation is well described by the particle coagulation model with time-dependent particle charges in consideration, where predator particles grow by adsorbing a few nanometer-sized proto-particles.

  11. Fabricating bio-inspired micro/nano-particles by polydopamine coating and surface interactions with blood platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Wei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Shi, Qiang, E-mail: shiqiang@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Hou, Jianwen; Gao, Jian; Li, Chunming; Jin, Jing; Shi, Hengchong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin, Jinghua, E-mail: yinjh@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: The particles or particle aggregations activate the blood platelets and provide the physical adhesive sites for platelets adhesion. - Highlights: • Particles with varied sizes and surface properties were fabricated by facile polydopamine (PDA) coating on polystyrene microsphere. • The direct interaction between PDA particles and blood platelets was qualitatively investigated. • The knowledge on platelet–particle interactions provided the basic principle to select biocompatible micro/nano-particles in biomedical field. - Abstract: Although bio-inspired polydopamine (PDA) micro/nano-particles show great promise for biomedical applications, the knowledge on the interactions between micro/nano-particles and platelets is still lacking. Here, we fabricate PDA-coated micro/nano-particles and investigate the platelet–particle surface interactions. Our strategy takes the advantage of facile PDA coating on polystyrene (PS) microsphere to fabricate particles with varied sizes and surface properties, and the chemical reactivity of PDA layers to immobilize fibrinogen and bovine serum albumin to manipulate platelet activation and adhesion. We demonstrate that PS particles activate the platelets in the size-dependent manner, but PDA nanoparticles have slight effect on platelet activation; PS particles promote platelet adhesion while PDA particles reduce platelet adhesion on the patterned surface; Particles interact with platelets through activating the glycoprotein integrin receptor of platelets and providing physical sites for initial platelet adhesion. Our work sheds new light on the interaction between platelets and particles, which provides the basic principle to select biocompatible micro/nano-particles in biomedical field.

  12. Printed UHF RFID antennas with high efficiencies using nano-particle silver ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongshik; Kim, Chung Hwan; Shin, Dong-Youn; Kim, Young Gook

    2011-07-01

    One of the most popular targets of conductive ink technology is to print RFID tag antennas. However, the printed RFID antennas, manufactured by conductive silver ink which is generally based on microsized silver particles, have lower conductivity and consequently lower radiation efficiency than those by conventional copper etching method. This work demonstrates nano-particle conductive silver ink that is capable of printing UHF RFID antennas with improved radiation efficiency. Compared with commercial micro-particle silver ink, the solid content of metal is much higher in the proposed nanoparticle silver ink, leading to better electrical properties. Two types of dipole antennas are printed with the proposed nano-particle as well as with commercial micro-particle inks. Also, the same antennas are fabricated by copper etching. With these conductive inks, a straight and a meandered dipole antennas are fabricated and their radiation efficiencies are measured with the Wheeler cap method. Experimental results show that the radiation efficiencies of the antennas based on nanoparticle silver ink are superior to those printed with the micro-particle silver ink, and are comparable to those of popular copper antennas.

  13. Study of linear optical parameters of sodium sulphide nano-particles added ADP crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochuparampil, A. P.; Joshi, J. H.; Dixit, K. P.; Jethva, H. O.; Joshi, M. J.

    2017-05-01

    Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate (ADP) is one of the nonlinear optical crystals. It is having various applications like optical mixing, electro-optical modulator, harmonic generators, etc. Chalcogenide compounds are poorly soluble in water and difficult to add in the water soluble ADP crystals. The solubility of Chalcogenide compounds can be increased by synthesizing the nano-structured samples with suitable capping agent. In the present study sodium sulphide was added in to ADP to modify its linear optical parameters. Sodium sulphide nano particles were synthesized by co-precipitation technique using Ethylene diamine as capping agent followed by microwave irradiation. The powder XRD confirmed the nano-structured nature of sodium sulphide nano particles. The solubility of nanoparticles of sodium sulphide increased significantly in water compared to the bulk. Pure and Na2S added ADP crystals were grown by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. The presence of sodium in ADP was confirmed by AAS. The UV-Vis spectra were recorded for all crystals. Various optical parameters like, transmittance, energy band gap, extinction coefficient, refractive index, optical conductivity, etc. were evaluated. The electronic polarizibility of pure and doped crystals calculated from energy band gap. The effect of doping concentration was found on various parameters.

  14. An optimized surface plasmon photovoltaic structure using energy transfer between discrete nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Albert; Fu, Sze-Ming; Chung, Yen-Kai; Lai, Shih-Yun; Tseng, Chi-Wei

    2013-01-14

    Surface plasmon enhancement has been proposed as a way to achieve higher absorption for thin-film photovoltaics, where surface plasmon polariton(SPP) and localized surface plasmon (LSP) are shown to provide dense near field and far field light scattering. Here it is shown that controlled far-field light scattering can be achieved using successive coupling between surface plasmonic (SP) nano-particles. Through genetic algorithm (GA) optimization, energy transfer between discrete nano-particles (ETDNP) is identified, which enhances solar cell efficiency. The optimized energy transfer structure acts like lumped-element transmission line and can properly alter the direction of photon flow. Increased in-plane component of wavevector is thus achieved and photon path length is extended. In addition, Wood-Rayleigh anomaly, at which transmission minimum occurs, is avoided through GA optimization. Optimized energy transfer structure provides 46.95% improvement over baseline planar cell. It achieves larger angular scattering capability compared to conventional surface plasmon polariton back reflector structure and index-guided structure due to SP energy transfer through mode coupling. Via SP mediated energy transfer, an alternative way to control the light flow inside thin-film is proposed, which can be more efficient than conventional index-guided mode using total internal reflection (TIR).

  15. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue using ZnO Nano-Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Textile industrial wastewaters are one of the important sources of environmental contaminants. In the recent years, use of advanced oxidation processes, by producing highly active and reactive components such as hydroxyl radicals has been proposed. The aim of this research is photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using the ZnO-nanoparticle with UVA irradiation. "nMaterials and Methods: photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue color using the ZnO- nanoparticles excited with UVA irradiation. In this research, photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye was study using different concentration of ZnO-nanoparticles under UVA irradiation in a batch reactor. "nResults: The results of this research show that removal of methylene blue dye has direct correlation with UVA intensity. The best results of dye degradation were reported in concentration of 150 mg/L ZnO nano-particles and the radiation intensity of 240 µW/cm2. Rate of dye removal was decrease with increasing of color concentration. Subsequent of color degradation, the initial COD were decresed by %60. "nConclusion: The photocatalytic degradation process using ZnO nano-particles under UVA irradiation could be remove the methylene blue dye and 60% of COD.

  16. A NOVEL SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY FOR NANO PARTICLES AT DISCHARGE OF COMBUSTION AND INCINERATION EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Accornero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Still today, the issue of safely and efficiently avoiding the atmospheric release of the nano-particles produced by combustion and incineration processes is a critical and open challenge. This study addresses the conception, the technological realization and the first experimental testing of a new device suitable for in-duct filtration and separation of nano particles dispersed into flue-gas streams. The active filtering material is a membrane made from ptfe foil, in origin impermeable but suitable to allow creation, once properly stretched, of an inner texture of permeable micro- and nano-tubes, thus inducing activation of van der Waals effects to the advantage of improved particles’ sticking. The experimental tests confirm attainment of a remarkable filtration capacity, way better than the so-called ‘absolute filters’. Moreover, the filtration material allows to undergo a simple and safe “regeneration cleaning”  process by which the particles can be re-collected off-duct without any filter dismantling.

  17. Development of Single-side Magnet Array for Super Paramagnetic Nano-particle Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnets are interesting for the use in magnetic drug targeting devices. The magnetic fields and forces with distances from magnets have limited the depth of targeting. Producing greater forces at deep depth by optimally designed magnet arrays would allow treatment of a wider class of patients. In this study, we present a design of a permanent magnet array for deep magnetic capture of super paramagnetic iron oxide nano-particles, which consists of an array of 3 individual bar permanent magnet positioned to achieve a reasonably magnitude magnetic field and its gradient within a deeply region. These configurations were simulated with two-dimensional finite-element methods. The super paramagnetic iron oxide nano-particles were adopted Fe3O4 particles with diameter 40 nm by chemical co-precipitation method. Performance factors were defined to relate magnetic field force with mass. The field strength and gradient were measured by a Hall probe and agreed well with the simulations.

  18. A remark on nano-particle stability of cement C-S-H gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficker, Tomáš; Len, Adél; Martišek, Dalibor

    2011-04-01

    Hydrated pastes of ordinary Portland cement prepared with different water-to-cement ratios were investigated by using the small-angle neutron scattering technique in the region of Q ∈ (0.0045, 0.11) Å-1. Samples of cement pastes were subjected to non-standard hydration conditions using a mix with D2O, low RH, and water-to-cement ratios spread over a very wide interval (0.4; 1.4). The investigation was focused on testing the structural stability of nano-metric particles in the cement C-S-H gel. Owing to the high structural stability of these nano-particles, their average diameter might be used as a microscopic parameter characterizing the nano-metric structure of C-S-H gels. The average diameter of the nano-particles of the studied ordinary Portland cement CEMI 42.5 R-SC was found to be close to the value of 4.2 nm and independent of the water-to-cement ratios.

  19. Synthesis of SmOHCO3 micro/nano particles from the coupling route of homogeneous precipitation with microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文庆; 瞿芳; 陈浩军; 李卓; 刘斌

    2014-01-01

    SmOHCO3micro/nano particles were prepared in water/oil (W/O) reverse microemulsion composed of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), n-octane, n-butanol, Sm(NO3)3·6H2O and urea aqueous solution by the coupling route of homogeneous precipitation with microemulsion. The nanoparticles were characterized and analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric and differential thermal gravimetric analysis (TG-DTG), Fourier transform infrared absorption spectra (FT-IR) and scan-ning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the phase SmOHCO3 micro/nano particles was in agreement with pure or-thorhombic phase. The different morphologies of SmOHCO3 micro/nano particles with good monodispersity and size were obtained by regulating the reaction temperature and reaction time. Possible formation mechanisms of the morphological structure of SmO-HCO3 were proposed and discussed.

  20. Nano-particle precipitation in mechanically alloyed and annealed precursor powders of legacy PM2000 ODS alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Karl, E-mail: k.dawson@liverpool.ac.uk [Centre for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Haigh, Sarah J. [School of Materials, Materials Science Centre, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tatlock, Gordon J.; Jones, Andy R. [Centre for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nano-particle formation identified in Plansee PM2000 ODS alloy powders. • Y–Al–O nano-particles observed after annealing at 923 K for 5 h. • Particle diameter ≈2 nm and N{sub V} > 10{sup 23} m{sup −3} over annealing range 1123–1223 K. • Particles dissolved at, and reprecipitated behind, recrystallisation fronts. - Abstract: The early stages of nano-particulate formation in mechanically alloyed and annealed, precursor powders used to manufacture the legacy commercial oxide dispersion strengthened alloy PM2000, formerly produced by Plansee GmbH, have been investigated. Powders were analysed in both the as-mechanically-alloyed condition and after annealing over the temperature range 923–1423 K. The nucleation and growth of coherent nano-particles in the partially recovered, fine grained, ferritic matrix of powders annealed at temperatures as low as 923 K has been confirmed. Powders annealed for 1 h at temperatures of 1123 K and 1223 K were partially recrystallised and contained high number densities (N{sub V} > 10{sup 23} m{sup −3}) of coherent 2 nm yttrium–aluminium–oxygen rich nano-particles. The identification of particle free zones in recrystallised grains, adjacent to recrystallising interfaces, plus the identical orientation relationships between nano-particles and the matrices in both unrecrystallised and recrystallised grains, indicates that the Y–Al–O nano-particles, first formed in fine grained regions, are dissolved during recrystallisation and re-precipitated subsequently in recrystallised grains.

  1. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  2. Behavior of mixed ZnO and SiO2 nano-particles in magnetic field assisted fluidization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zeng; Tao Zhou; Guanqun Chen; Qingshan Zhu

    2007-01-01

    The fluidization behavior of ZnO nano-particles in magnetic fluidized bed (MFB) by adding coarse magnetic particles was investigated, followed by the co-fluidization of mixtures of ZnO and SiO2 nano-particles. For such co-fluidization, bed expansion was found to change smoothly with gas velocity through a range of stable operation. By measuring the bed expansion ratio and pressure drop, a stability diagram for the mixture in MFB was obtained. Within this stable operation range, with increasing gas velocity the pressure drop hardly changes as the bed expands, up to an expansion ratio of more than 4.

  3. Effects of biochars on hydraulic properties of clayey soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Jingbo; Palladino, Mario; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Battista Chirico, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Biochar has gained popularity as an amendment to improve soil hydraulic properties. Since biochar properties depend on feedstocks and pyrolysis temperatures used for its production, proper selection of biochar type as soil amendment is of great importance for soil hydraulic properties improvement. This study investigated the effects of eight types of biochar on physical and hydraulic properties of clayey soil. Biochars were derived from four different feedstocks (Alfalfa hay, municipal organic waste, corn residues and wood chip) pyrolyzed at two different temperatures (300 and 550 °C). Clayey soil samples were taken from Leone farm (40° 26' 15.31" N, 14° 59' 45.54" E), Italy, and were oven-dried at 105 °C to determine dry bulk density. Biochars were mixed with the clayey soil at 5% by mass. Bulk densities of the mixtures were also determined. Saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks) of the original clayey soil and corresponding mixtures were measured by means of falling-head method. Soil water retention measurements were conducted for clayey soil and mixtures using suction table apparatus and Richards' plate with the pressure head (h) up to 12000 cm. van Genuchten retention function was selected to evaluate the retention characteristics of clayey soil and mixtures. Available water content (AWC) was calculated by field capacity (h = - 500 cm) minus wilting pointing (h = -12000 cm). The results showed that biochar addition decreased the bulk density of clayey soil. The Ks of clayey soil increased due to the incorporation of biochars except for waste and corn biochars pyrolyzed at 550 °C. AWC of soils mixed with corn biochar pyrolyzed at 300 °C and wood biochar pyrolyzed at 550 °C, increased by 31% and 7%, respectively. Further analysis will be conducted in combination of biochar properties such as specific surface area and total pore volume. Better understanding of biochar impact on clayey soil will be helpful in biochar selection for soil amendment and

  4. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmora, Adilson C. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Studies (IDÆA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ramos, Claudete G.; Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Teixeira, Elba C. [Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kautzmann, Rubens M.; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500. Bairro Agronomia. CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during “stonemeal” soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle

  5. Biohydrogen Production from Glycerol using Thermotoga spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maru, B.T.; Bielen, A.A.M.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Constantini, M.; Medina, F.

    2012-01-01

    Given the highly reduced state of carbon in glycerol and its availability as a substantial byproduct of biodiesel production, glycerol is of special interest for sustainable biofuel production. Glycerol was used as a substrate for biohydrogen production using the hyperthermophilic bacterium, Thermot

  6. Thermophilic biohydrogen production: how far are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sudhanshu S; van Niel, Ed W J

    2013-09-01

    Apart from being applied as an energy carrier, hydrogen is in increasing demand as a commodity. Currently, the majority of hydrogen (H2) is produced from fossil fuels, but from an environmental perspective, sustainable H2 production should be considered. One of the possible ways of hydrogen production is through fermentation, in particular, at elevated temperature, i.e. thermophilic biohydrogen production. This short review recapitulates the current status in thermophilic biohydrogen production through fermentation of commercially viable substrates produced from readily available renewable resources, such as agricultural residues. The route to commercially viable biohydrogen production is a multidisciplinary enterprise. Microbiological studies have pointed out certain desirable physiological characteristics in H2-producing microorganisms. More process-oriented research has identified best applicable reactor types and cultivation conditions. Techno-economic and life cycle analyses have identified key process bottlenecks with respect to economic feasibility and its environmental impact. The review has further identified current limitations and gaps in the knowledge, and also deliberates directions for future research and development of thermophilic biohydrogen production.

  7. Optimization of Biohydrogen Production with Biomechatronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yi Hsia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive utilization of petroleum and natural gas caused fossil fuel shortages. Consequently, a large amount of carbon dioxide and other pollutants are produced and induced environmental impact. Hydrogen is considered a clean and alternative energy source. It contains relatively high amount of energy compared with other fuels and by-product is water. In this study, the combination of ultrasonic mechanical and biological effects is utilized to increase biohydrogen production from dark fermentation bacteria. The hydrogen production is affected by many process conditions. For obtaining the optimal result, experimental design is planned using the Taguchi Method. Four controlling factors, the ultrasonic frequency, energy, exposure time, and starch concentration, are considered to calculate the highest hydrogen production by the Taguchi Method. Under the best operating conditions, the biohydrogen production efficiency of dark fermentation increases by 19.11%. Results have shown that the combination of ultrasound and biological reactors for dark fermentation hydrogen production outperforms the traditional biohydrogen production method. The ultrasonic mechanical effects in this research always own different significances on biohydrogen production.

  8. REAL TIME MEASUREMENT OF ULTRAFINE AND NANO PARTICLES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF OPERATING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. NAKHAWA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper focuses on characterization of ultrafine and nanoparticle emissions from diesel vehicle to investigate their physical characterization in terms of number and size as they are more vulnerable and responsible for toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. An investigation has been carried out to identify the significance of different operating gears, clutch, declutch and gear change operations for their contributions to particle number(PN on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle. A bi-modal particle size distribution pattern was observed for both urban and extra urban parts where almost all the particles are below 200 nm and particle number peaks appear at 7 to 8 nm and at 70 nm. Nano particles contribute approximately, 70% of total particle number over urban part. Experimental investigation shows that the most significant gear for their contribution to particle number are 3rd and 5th gears on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle respectively.

  9. Graphene supported nano particles of Pt-Ni for CO oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lv, Wei; Yang, Quanhong; Liu, Yuan

    2012-08-01

    In this study, a series of graphene supported Pt, Ni and Pt-Ni nano particles were successfully synthesized by a simple impregnation method. The resultant composites were characterized using SEM, XRD, HRTEM, XPS and TPR techniques and their catalytic performance for the oxidation of carbon monoxide was tested. It was shown that in the prepared metal/graphene composite, metal particles were highly dispersed on the graphene sheets (GS) with an average particle size of 1-3 nm. The results of catalytic performance tests indicate that the activity decreases in the order of Pt-Ni/GS, Pt/GS and Ni/GS. In the sample of Pt-Ni/GS, Pt-Ni alloy was formed, which contributed to the high activity of Pt-Ni/GS for CO oxidation.

  10. Interface and properties of epoxy resin modified by elastomeric nano-particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Fan; LIU Yiqun; ZHANG Xiaohong; GAO Jianming; SONG Zhihai; TANG Banghui; WEI Genshuan; QIAO Jinliang

    2005-01-01

    Study on a new composite of epoxy resin/elastomeric nano-particles (ENP) is reported in this paper, which shows that, in comparison with pure epoxy resin and epoxy toughened with CTBN, the composites of epoxy resin/carboxylic nitrile-butadiene ENP and epoxy resin/styrene butadiene vinyl-pyridine ENP possess both higher toughness and heat resistance. Both ENPs used in the study have an average size of less than 100 nm. Study on the epoxy network's morphology and interface properties suggests that due to the chemical reaction between ENP and epoxy resin and more hydrogen bonds between nitrile groups of the rubber and hydroxyl groups of the epoxy resin, stronger interaction at the larger interface may lead to the observed excellent properties of the epoxy resin toughened with ENP.

  11. Synthesis of zinc oxide nano-particles by mechano-thermal route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, S.; Ataie, A.; Nozari, A.

    2012-09-01

    ZnO nano-particles were synthesized via mechano-thermal route using ZnSO4.H2O and Na2CO3 as starting materials. The mixture of powders was milled for 5, 10 and 15 in a high energy planetary ball mill, then heat treated at 300 °C for 1 hour. XRD results of the heat treated sample at 300 °C revealed a single phase nano-crystalline ZnO phase with a mean crystallite size of 18 nm. FESEM micrographs of the heat treated sample showed that mean particle size of the ZnO decreased from 150 nm for 5-hour milled sample to 25 nm for 15-hour milled sample. It was also found that the optical properties of the samples varied as a function of milling time.

  12. Electro-oxidation of methanol at the different carbon materials supported Pt nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu.; Zhang, Guojie; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong [The Laboratory of Electrochemistry, College of Chemistry and Material Science, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ma, Juan [Institute of Electrochemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Single-wall carbon nano-tubes (SWNTs), multi-wall carbon nano-tubes (MWNTs) and Vulcan XC-72 carbon (XC-72) are used as supporting carbon materials to prepare Pt/XC-72, Pt/SWNTs and Pt/MWNTs catalysts in tetrahydrofuran/water/ethanol mixture solution. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrate that the type of supporting carbon material affects significantly the morphology and the electronic structure of supported Pt nano-particles (NPs). Electrochemical measurements indicate that the Pt/SWNTs catalyst exhibited the highest current density, the lowest onset oxidation potential and the best stability for methanol electro-oxidation among the three samples, indicating SWNTs are an ideal anode catalyst supporting material for the practical application of direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  13. Influence of fuel ratios on auto combustion synthesis of barium ferrite nano particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Bahadur; S Rajakumar; Ankit Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Single-domain barium ferrite nano particles have been synthesized with narrow particle-size distribution using an auto combustion technique. In this process, citric acid was used as a fuel. Ratios of cation to fuel were maintained variously at 1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 3. The pH was 7 in all cases. Of all three cases, a cation to citric acid ratio of 1 : 2 gives better yield in the formation of crystalline and single domain particles with a narrow range of size distribution. Most particles are in the range of 80 to 100 nm. Maximum magnetization and coercivity values are also greater for 1 : 2 ratios. These values measured at room temperature are found to be 55 emu/gram and 5000 Oe respectively. XPS and ESR studies support the results.

  14. Mechanical and tribological studies on nano particles reinforced hybrid aluminum based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muley Aniruddha V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid metal matrix composites are new class of materials due to their better mechanical properties which can be achieved through proper selection and combination of materials. The work reported in this paper is based on fabrication of hybrid composites by using nano particles as reinforcements. The hybrid composites were fabricated by reinforcing them with nano sized SiC and Al2O3 particles in order to study mechanical and tribological properties of these enhanced materials. A stir casting method was used to obtain hybrid composites. LM 6 aluminum alloy was used as a matrix material. The results shown increase in hardness as well as in ultimate tensile strength of the composites with small wt.% of nano-sized hybrid reinforcements. The composites produced also exhibit better tribological properties.

  15. Facile cathodic electrosynthesis and characterization of iron oxide nano-particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taher Yousefi; Reza Davarkhah; Ahmad Nozad Golikand; Mohammad Hossein Mashhadizadeh; Ahmad Abhari

    2013-01-01

    Fe2O3 nano-particles have been synthesized by simple cathodic electrodeposition from the low-temperature nitrate bath. The morphology and crystal structure of the obtained oxide powder were analyzed by means of scanning and transmission microscopy (SEM and TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Thermal behavior and phase transformation during the heat treatment of as-deposited sample were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogramimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the deposited Fe2O3 was composed of the nanoparticles with grain size of approximately 10-60 nm. A serious problem during cathodic electrodeposition of iron oxide was splashing of deposit into electrolyte due to its low adhesion. This problem was tackled by reducing the bath temperature and dielectric constant of solvent.

  16. Protective effects of orally applied fullerenol nano particles in rats after a single dose of doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ičević Ivana Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxylated, water soluble, fullerenol C60(OH24 nano particles (FNP in vitro and in vivo models, showed an expressive biological activity. The goal of this work was to investigate the potential protective effects of orally applied FNP on rats after a single dose of doxorubicin (DOX (8 mg/kg (i.p. 6 h after the last application of FNP. After the last drug administration, the rats were sacrificed, and the blood and tissues were taken for the analysis. Biochemical and pathological results obtained in this study indicate that fullerenol (FNP, in H2O:DMSO (80:20, w/w solution given orally in final doses of 10, 14.4, and 21.2 mg/kg three days successively, has the protective (hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity via its antioxidant properties.

  17. Development of CMC hydrogels loaded with silver nano-particles for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeish, Ali; Hashem, M; El-Hady, M M Abd; Sharaf, S

    2013-01-30

    Innovative CMC-based hydrogels with great potentials for usage in medical area were principally synthesized as per two strategies .The first involved reaction of epichlorohydrin in alkaline medium containing silver nitrate to yield silver nano-particles (AgNPs)-loaded CMC hydrogel. While CMC acted as stabilizing for AgNPs, trisodium citrate was added to the reaction medium to assist CMC in establishing reduction of Ag(+) to AgNPs. The second strategy entailed preparation of CMC hydrogel which assists the in situ preparation of AgNPs under the same conditions. In both strategies, factors affecting the characterization of AgNPs-loaded CMC hydrogels were studied. Analysis and characterization of the so obtained hydrogels were performed through monitoring swelling behavior, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, EDX, UV-vis spectrophotometer and TEM. Antimicrobial activity of the hydrogels was examined and mechanisms involved in their synthesis were reported.

  18. Synthesis and photoluminescence study on ZnO nano-particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiang; Zhai Fei-Fei; Liu Ying; Cao Mao-Sheng; Wang Fu-Chi; Zhang Xi-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    A new technique, namely low pressure sputtering, has been developed to fabricate Zn nanoparticles, with a subsequent oxidation to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles in the ambient atmosphere at 500 ℃. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticle has a size of 6-8 nm with a preferred orientation of c-axis. The produced ZnO nanoparticles have a good UV photoluminescence (PL) emission energy of 3.349 eV with a significant enhancement of donor-acceptor pair emission located at 3.305 eV which implies a number of donor and acceptor bounded excitons existing in the synthesized ZnO nano particles. The near band edge PL emission of the fabricated ZnO is dominated by the bounded excitons at 10 K.

  19. Enhanced copper micro/nano-particle mixed paste sintered at low temperature for 3D interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Y. Y.; Ng, M. Z.; Anantha, P.; Lin, Y. D.; Li, Z. G.; Gan, C. L.; Tan, C. S.

    2016-06-01

    An enhanced copper paste, formulated by copper micro- and nano-particles mixture, is reported to prevent paste cracking and obtain an improved packing density. The particle mixture of two different sizes enables reduction in porosity of the micro-paste and resolves the cracking issue in the nano-paste. In-situ temperature and resistance measurements indicate that the mixed paste has a lower densification temperature. Electrical study also shows a ˜12× lower sheet resistance of 0.27 Ω/sq. In addition, scanning electron microscope image analysis confirms a ˜50% lower porosity, which is consistent with the thermal and electrical results. The 3:1 (micro:nano, wt. %) mixed paste is found to have the strongest synergistic effect. This phenomenon is discussed further. Consequently, the mixed paste is a promising material for potential low temperature 3D interconnects fabrication.

  20. Agglomeration Evolution of Nano-Particles Aluminium in Normal Incident Shock Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zheng-Xin; WU Jing-He; HU Dong; YANG Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    Agglomeration behaviour of nano-particle aluminium (nano-Al) in normal incident shock waves is investigated by our devised shock tube technology. The morphology, particle size, agglomeration process of nano-Al studied in normal incident shock waves are comprehensible evaluated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The above-mentioned techniques show that the high strength and temperature of incident shock wave give a chance for activity of nano-Al in the reactions and decrease the agglomeration, and the morphology of agglomeration is affected by the temperature of nano-Al reaction region. The dynamic temperature of reaction region determined by the intensity ratio of two AlO bands is 2602K, which is closer to nano-Al actual reacted temperature than the determined temperature of ordinary methods (i.e. six channel instantaneous optical pyrometer; plank black body radiation law, etc.)

  1. A fully printed ferrite nano-particle ink based tunable antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-11-02

    Inkjet printing or printing in general has emerged as a very attractive method for the fabrication of low cost and large size electronic systems. However, most of the printed designs rely on nano-particle based metallic inks which are printed on conventional microwave substrates. In order to have a fully printed fabrication process, the substrate also need to be printed. In this paper, a fully printed multi-layer process utilizing custom Fe2O3 based magnetic ink and a silver organic complex (SOC) ink is demonstrated for tunable antennas applications. The ink has been characterized for high frequency and magnetostatic properties. Finally as a proof of concept, a microstrip patch antenna is realized using the proposed fabrication technique which shows a tuning range of 12.5 %.

  2. Interfacial Structure of Composites of Poly(m-xylylen adipamide) and Silica Nano-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiwa, Osamu; Kyogoku, Yoshitaka; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Tasaka, Shigeru

    2012-10-01

    Interfacial structure of composites of poly(m-xylylen adipamide) (MXD6) and silica nano-particles (SNPs) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. In the DSC curves of the composites, changes in specific heat similar to a glass transition behavior (sub-Tg) were detected at 0-40 °C, and sub-Tg decreased with the increase in the weight fraction of SNPs. Crystallization temperature (Tc) decreased, and XRD peaks became sharper with the increase in the weight fraction of SNPs. The IR spectra suggest that the hydrogen bonds between MXD6 chains were weakened by the addition of SNPs.

  3. Molecular dynamics study of force acting on a model nano particle immersed in fluid with temperature gradient: Effect of interaction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tetsuro; Iseki, Hirotaka; Hanasaki, Itsuo; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2016-11-01

    Thermophoresis of a nano particle in a fluid is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. In order to elucidate effective factors on the characteristics of thermophoresis, simple models for both the fluid and the nano particle are considered, namely, the surrounding fluid consists of Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles and the model nano particle is a cluster consisting of several tens of LJ particles. Interaction between the fluid particle and the model nano particle is described by the LJ interaction potential or repulsive interaction potential with the Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rule. As a preliminary result, the effect of mass on thermophoretic force acting on the model nano particle is investigated for both interaction potentials.

  4. Effects of layer eccentricity on the super-resonant states of active cylindrical core-shell nano-particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsen Rasmus Ø.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on the effects of layer eccentricity on the resonant properties of active cylindrical core-shell nano-particles excited by a near-by exterior magnetic line source. The core-shell particles consist of a silver core layered with a silica shell. For a fixed over-all radius of the nano-particle equal to 30 nm, we investigate designs with relatively small (radius equal to 6 nm and large (radius equal to 24 nm silver cores and we quantify their performance characteristics in terms of the near- and far-field properties. Our results show that the super-resonances, known to exist in the concentric version of these nano-particles, are significantly influenced by introducing eccentricity (through displacements of the silver core relative to the silica shell. In particular, their amplitude responses are found to diminish significantly for silver core displacements ≥ 3 nm for the small core case, and even for displacements ≥ 1 nm for the large core case. The present results are useful from the experimental point of view since slight displacements of the centers of the core and shell parts of the investigated nano-particles are likely to occur in standard fabrication processes.

  5. Effect of hydroxyapatite nano-particles on morphology, rheology and thermal behavior of poly(caprolactone)/chitosan blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Fereshte Mohammad; Kaffashi, Babak; Shokrollahi, Parvin; Akhlaghi, Shahin; Hedenqvist, Mikael S

    2016-02-01

    The effect of hydroxyapatite nano-particles (nHA) on morphology, and rheological and thermal properties of PCL/chitosan blends was investigated. The tendency of nHA to reside in the submicron-dispersed chitosan phase is determined using SEM and AFM images. The presence of electrostatic interaction between amide sites of chitosan and ionic groups on the nHA surface was proved by FTIR. It is shown that the chitosan phase is thermodynamically more favorable for the nano-particles to reside than the PCL phase. Lack of implementation of Cox-Merz theory for this system shows that the polymer-nano-particle network is destructed by the flow. Results from dynamic rheological measurements and Zener fractional model show that the presence of nHA increases the shear moduli and relaxation time of the PCL/chitosan blends. DSC measurements showed that nHA nano-particles are responsible for the increase in melting and crystallization characteristics of the PCL/chitosan blends. Based on thermogravimetric analysis, the PCL/chitosan/nHA nano-composites exhibited a greater thermal stability compared to the nHA-free blends.

  6. Cellular uptake of beta-carotene from protein stabilized solid lipid nano-particles prepared by homogenization-evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a homogenization-evaporation method, beta-carotene (BC) loaded nano-particles were prepared with different ratios of food-grade sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or soy protein isolate (SPI) to BC and evaluated for their physiochemical stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and cel...

  7. Influence of iron on sulfide inhibition in dark biohydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Nakhla, George

    2012-12-01

    Sulfide impact on biohydrogen production using dark fermentation of glucose at 37 °C was investigated. Dissolved sulfide (S(2-)) at a low concentration (25mg/L) increased biohydrogen production by 54% relative to the control (without iron addition). Whereas on initial dissolved S(2-) concentration of 500 mg/L significantly inhibited the biohydrogen production with total cumulative biohydrogen decreasing by 90% compared to the control (without iron addition). At sulfide concentrations of 500 mg S(2-)/L, addition of Fe(2+) at 3-4 times the theoretical requirement to precipitate 100% of the dissolved S(2-) entirely eliminated the inhibitory effect of sulfide.

  8. Effect of hydroxyapatite nano-particles on morphology, rheology and thermal behavior of poly(caprolactone)/chitosan blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani, Fereshte Mohammad [Department of Polymer Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kaffashi, Babak, E-mail: kaffashi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, Parvin, E-mail: p.shokrolahi@ippi.ac.ir [Department of Biomaterials, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhlaghi, Shahin; Hedenqvist, Mikael S. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-02-01

    The effect of hydroxyapatite nano-particles (nHA) on morphology, and rheological and thermal properties of PCL/chitosan blends was investigated. The tendency of nHA to reside in the submicron-dispersed chitosan phase is determined using SEM and AFM images. The presence of electrostatic interaction between amide sites of chitosan and ionic groups on the nHA surface was proved by FTIR. It is shown that the chitosan phase is thermodynamically more favorable for the nano-particles to reside than the PCL phase. Lack of implementation of Cox–Merz theory for this system shows that the polymer–nano-particle network is destructed by the flow. Results from dynamic rheological measurements and Zener fractional model show that the presence of nHA increases the shear moduli and relaxation time of the PCL/chitosan blends. DSC measurements showed that nHA nano-particles are responsible for the increase in melting and crystallization characteristics of the PCL/chitosan blends. Based on thermogravimetric analysis, the PCL/chitosan/nHA nano-composites exhibited a greater thermal stability compared to the nHA-free blends. - Highlights: • In PCL/chitosan/nHA nano-composites, nHA shows tendency to chitosan phase. • At low shear rates, nano-composites show higher viscosity than unfilled blends. • At high shear rates, nano-composites show shear-thinning behavior. • nHA increases the shear moduli and relaxation time of PCL/chitosan blends. • The polymer/nano-particle network is destructed by the flow.

  9. Modeling and simulations of the removal of formaldehyde using silver nano-particles attached to granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, SeungKyu; Song, JiHyeon

    2011-10-30

    A combined reaction, consisting of granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and catalytic oxidation, has been proposed to improve the removal efficiencies of formaldehyde, one of the major indoor air pollutants. In this study, silver nano-particles attached onto the surface of GAC (Ag-GAC) using the sputtering method were evaluated for the simultaneous catalytic oxidation and adsorption of formaldehyde. The evolution of CO(2) from the silver nano-particles indicated that formaldehyde was catalytically oxidized to its final product, with the oxidation kinetics expressed as pseudo-first order. In addition, a packed column test showed that the mass of formaldehyde removed by the Ag-GAC was 2.4 times higher than that by the virgin GAC at a gas retention time of 0.5s. However, a BET analysis showed that the available surface area and micro-pore volume of the Ag-GAC were substantially decreased due to the deposition of the silver nano-particles. To simulate the performance of the Ag-GAC, the homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM), developed for the prediction of the GAC column adsorption, was modified to incorporate the catalytic oxidation taking place on the Ag-GAC surface. The modified HSDM demonstrated that numerical simulations were consistent with the experimental data collected from the Ag-GAC column tests. The model predictions implied that the silver nano-particles deposited on the GAC reduced the adsorptive capacity due to decreasing the available surface for the diffusion of formaldehyde into the GAC, but the overall mass of formaldehyde removed by the Ag-GAC was increased due to catalytic oxidation as a function of the ratio of the surface coverage by the nano-particles.

  10. Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and Ag-nano particle in the bioremediation of heavy metals and maize growth under municipal wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naeem; Bano, Asghari

    2016-01-01

    The investigation evaluated the role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Ag-nano particle on the growth and metabolism of maize irrigated with municipal wastewater (MW). Three PGPR isolated from MW were identified on the basis of 16S-rRNA gene sequence analyses as Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas fluorescence, and Bacillus cereus. The municipal waste water was used to irrigate the maize seeds inoculated with 3 isolated PGPR. The isolated PGPR had catalase and oxidase enzymes, solubilize insoluble bound phosphate and exhibit antifungal and antibacterial activities. The colony forming unit (cfu) of the PGPR was inhibited by Ag-nano particle, but was stimulated by the municipal wastewater. The Ag-nano particles augmented the PGPR induced increase in root area and root length. The root-shoot ratio was also changed with the Ag-nano particles. The plants irrigated with municipal wastewater had higher activities of peroxidase and catalase which were further augmented by Ag-nano particle. The Ag- nano particle application modulated level of ABA (34%), IAA (55%), and GA (82%), increased proline production (70%) and encountered oxidative stress and augmented the bioremediation potential of PGPR for Pb, Cd, and Ni. Municipal wastewater needs to be treated with PGPR and Ag nano particle prior to be used for irrigation. This aims for the better growth of the plant and enhanced bioremediation of toxic heavy metals.

  11. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandeh, M.; Koohi, M. K.; Roshani, A.; Shahroziyan, E.; Badri, B.; Pourfallah, A.; Shams, Gh; Hobbenaghi, R.; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G.

    2011-07-01

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3×10-3 - 24×10-3 ml/cm2 and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6×10-3, 23×10-3, 24×10-3 and 16×10-3 ml/cm2 respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently

  12. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabandeh, M; Koohi, M K; Shahroziyan, E; Badri, B; Pourfallah, A; Shams, Gh; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roshani, A [Industrial and Environmental Protection Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RRIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hobbenaghi, R, E-mail: gsadeghi@ut.ac.ir [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-06

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3x10{sup -3} - 24x10{sup -3} ml/cm{sup 2} and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6x10{sup -3}, 23x10{sup -3}, 24x10{sup -3} and 16x10{sup -3} ml/cm{sup 2} respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most

  13. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmora, Adilson C; Ramos, Claudete G; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Taffarel, Silvio R; de Brum, Irineu A S; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during "stonemeal" soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical composition in

  14. Recent advances in fermentative biohydrogen production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemei Liu; Nanqi Ren; Funan Song; Chuanping Yang; Aijie Wang

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen energy, as a kind of clean energy with great potential, has been a hotspot for study worldwide. Based on the recent research on biohydrogen production, this paper gives a brief review on the following aspects: fermentative hydrogen production process and the engineering control statagy, key factors affecting the efficiency of hydrogen production, such as substrates, cysteine, metal ions, anaerobic fermentation terminal products, and formic acid and ammonia. Moreover, anaerobic fermentative hydrogen-producing strain and regulation and control of enzyme gene in fermentative hydrogen production are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of anaerobic fermentative biohydrogen production is proposed in three study areas, namely developing new techniques for breeding hydrogen-producing bacteria, exploitations of more strains and gene resources, and intensifying the application of microbial molecular breeding in hydrogen production.

  15. Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic materials for biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Wang, Yong-Zhong; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Xu, Teng-Fei

    2013-05-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are commonly used in bio-H2 production for the sustainable energy resource development as they are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. In the process of the bio-H2 production, the pretreated lignocellulosic materials are firstly converted to monosaccharides by enzymolysis and then to H2 by fermentation. Since the structures of lignocellulosic materials are rather complex, the hydrolysates vary with the used materials. Even using the same lignocellulosic materials, the hydrolysates also change with different pretreatment methods. It has been shown that the appropriate hydrolysate compositions can dramatically improve the biological activities and bio-H2 production performances. Over the past decades, hydrolysis with respect to different lignocellulosic materials and pretreatments has been widely investigated. Besides, effects of the hydrolysates on the biohydrogen yields have also been examined. In this review, recent studies on hydrolysis as well as their effects on the biohydrogen production performance are summarized.

  16. Evaluation of Biohydrogen Production Potential of Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevim Genç

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, types of potential biomass that could be the source for biohydrogen generation such as energy crops, lignocellulosic residues, waste and wastewaters are discussed. The major criteria that have to be met for the selection of substrates suitable for fermentative biohydrogen production are availability, cost, carbohydrate content (high proportion of readily fermentable compounds such as sugars and carbohydrates and biodegradability (a high concentration of degradable organic compounds and low concentration of inhibitory to microbiological activity compounds. Although starchy and sugar based biomass and wastes are readily fermentable by microorganisms for hydrogen generation, lignocellulosic biomass needs to be pretreated. Pretreatment is carry out for altering the structural features of biomass which are classified as psysical or chemical. In general, pretreatment methods of lignocellulosic biomass can be divided into three main types, according to the means used for altering its structural features: mechanical, physicochemical and biological.

  17. A Streamlined Strategy for Biohydrogen Production with an Alkaliphilic Bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Wall, Judy D. [University of Missouri; Mormile, Dr. Melanie R. [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Begemann, Matthew B [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are anticipated to enable a shift from fossil fuels for renewable transportation and manufacturing fuels, with biohydrogen considered attractive since it could offer the largest reduction of global carbon budgets. Currently, biohydrogen production remains inefficient and heavily fossil fuel-dependent. However, bacteria using alkali-treated biomass could streamline biofuel production while reducing costs and fossil fuel needs. An alkaliphilic bacterium, Halanaerobium strain sapolanicus, is described that is capable of biohydrogen production at levels rivaling neutrophilic strains, but at pH 11 and hypersaline conditions. H. sapolanicus ferments a variety of 5- and 6- carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose including cellobiose, and forms the end products hydrogen and acetate. Further, it can also produce biohydrogen from switchgrass and straw pretreated at temperatures far lower than any previously reported and in solutions compatible with growth. Hence, this bacterium can potentially increase the efficiency and efficacy of biohydrogen production from renewable biomass resources.

  18. Biohydrogen facilitated denitrification at biocathode in bioelectrochemical system (BES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Yan, Qun; Shen, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Reductive removal of nitrate in bioelectrochemical system (BES) at abiotic cathode, biocathode and biohydrogen facilitated biocathode were investigated. It was found that nitrate removal efficiency reached 95% and 59% at the biohydrogen facilitated biocathode and biocathode respectively, while which was only 13% at the abiotic cathode. Meanwhile, activity of nitrate reductase reached 0.701 g-N/Lh for the biohydrogen facilitated group, which was about 9.3 times of the biocathode group. Moreover, electrochemical performances as power density, ohmic resistance, and polarization resistance of the biohydrogen facilitated group reached 76.96 mW/m(3), 8.63 ohm and 383 ohm, respectively, which were better than two other groups. Finally, an obvious shift of bacterial community responsible for the enhanced nitrate reduction between the two biocathode groups was observed. Therefore, nitrate reduction in BES could be enhanced at the biocathode than that of the abiotic cathode, and then be further boosted with the combination of biohydrogen.

  19. Magnetic separation of encapsulated islet cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Esther; Trenkler, Anja; Feilen, Peter J; Wiegand, Frederik; Fottner, Christian; Ehrhart, Friederike; Zimmermann, Heiko; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Dong Yun; Fischer, Stefan; Schreiber, Laura M; Weber, Matthias M

    2013-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation is a promising option for the restoration of normal glucose homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes. Because graft volume is a crucial issue in islet transplantations for patients with diabetes, we evaluated a new method for increasing functional tissue yield in xenogeneic grafts of encapsulated islets. Islets were labeled with three different superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles (SPIONs; dextran-coated SPION, siloxane-coated SPION, and heparin-coated SPION). Magnetic separation was performed to separate encapsulated islets from the empty capsules, and cell viability and function were tested. Islets labeled with 1000 μg Fe/ml dextran-coated SPIONs experienced a 69.9% reduction in graft volume, with a 33.2% loss of islet-containing capsules. Islets labeled with 100 μg Fe/ml heparin-coated SPIONs showed a 46.4% reduction in graft volume, with a 4.5% loss of capsules containing islets. No purification could be achieved using siloxane-coated SPIONs due to its toxicity to the primary islets. SPION labeling of islets is useful for transplant purification during islet separation as well as in vivo imaging after transplantation. Furthermore, purification of encapsulated islets can also reduce the volume of the encapsulated islets without impairing their function by removing empty capsules.

  20. Properties of micro-nano particle size admixtures of alumina at different sintering condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifat, Rahin; Akter, Manira; Rashid, A. K. M. Bazlur

    2016-07-01

    Among various ceramic materials, alumina is mostly used material for its hardness and strength. There is a difference between the properties of alumina due to their different particle size. Also different holding time in the sintering temperature has effect on the sintering of alumina of different particle size. In this study, micro alumina and nano alumina were mixed in different ratios and sintered at different sintering condition to compare their mechanical properties that varied due to their different particle size distribution. In this work, conventional solid state sintering route was followed to prepare final samples. Six different particle size ratio of alumina (micro:nano= 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 10:90, 5:95, 0:100) with a doping of 0.1% MgO were used. The sintering temperature was 1500° C but sintering condition was different. After comparing the mechanical properties, it has been observed that relatively improved properties can be obtained by increasing nano particle percentages in the micro alumina than the reverse mixture.

  1. Positron Annihilation Study on Nickel and Iron Nano-Particles in Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad H. Aly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The effect of Ni and Fe nano-particles as a filler on the free volume properties Of Natural Rubber (NR was studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS. Approach: The PAL measurements revealed that the free volume properties are strongly affected by the amount and type of filler. Results: Particularly speaking, the free volume fraction dramatically decreased by increasing the filler content. Besides, the addition of nano-prticles created new positron trapping sites at filler-rubber interfaces. Furthermore, correlations were made between the free volume hole sizes (Vh and each of the mechanical and electrical properties successively. A negative correlation was observed between Vh and hardness in the Ni-rubber composites while a positive counterpart was found in the case of Fe-rubber composites. Finally, the polarity of the fillers, being higher than that of the rubber itself, leads to an increase in electrical parameters and an inhibition of o-Ps formation. Conclusion: These results indicate that the investigated composites are considered to be insulating materials as their conductivity values are in the order of an insulator range.

  2. Measurement of nano particle adhesion by atomic force microscopy using probability theory based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, D.; Schrezenmeier, I.; Roos, M.; Neckernuss, T.; Lehn, M.; Marti, O.

    2017-05-01

    We present a method to detect adhesive forces of nano particles by analysis of the distribution of measured lateral forces. The measurement protocol is suitable for all types of atomic force microscopes with a lateral force channel. Lateral forces are measured, in constant normal force contact mode, by scanning of substrates decorated with nano beads. By using probability theory, geometry based measurement errors are compensated and the real adhesion force is determined within a given confidence interval. The theoretical model can be adapted for particles with arbitrary shape and distribution of adhesion forces. It is applied to the adhesion problem of spherical particles with a Gaussian distribution of adhesion forces. We analyze the measured force distribution qualitatively and quantitatively. The theory predicts a systematic underestimation of the mean value of any particle adhesion measurement done by lateral pushing. Real measurement data of 50 nm diameter silica nano beads on silicon substrate is used to test the theoretical model for plausibility by means of information theory.

  3. Direct solvent induced microphase separation, ordering and nano-particles infusion of block copolymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Arvind; Sharma, Ashutosh; Karim, Alamgir

    2013-03-01

    Kinetics of block copolymer (BCP) microphase separation by thermal annealing is often a challenge to low-cost and faster fabrication of devices because of the slow ordering. Towards the objective of rapid processing and accessing desired nanostructures, we are developing methods that enable a high degree of mobility of BCP phases while maintaining phase separation conditions via control of effective interaction parameter between the blocks in BCP thin films. We study the self-assembly of PS-P2VP thin films in various solvent mixtures. While non-solvent prevents dissolution of film into the bulk solution, the good solvent penetrates the film and makes polymer chains mobile. As a result of controlled swelling and mobility of BCP blocks, solvent annealing of pre-cast BCP thin films in liquid mixture of good solvent and non-solvent is a promising method for rapid patterning of nanostructures. Interestingly, we demonstrate simultaneous BCP microphase separation and infusion of gold nano-particles into selective phase offering a wide range of application from plasmonics to nanoelectronics. University of Akron Research Foundation (UARF)

  4. Theory of molecule metal nano-particle interaction: Quantum description of plasmonic lasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; May, Volkhard

    2015-06-14

    The recent quantum description of a few molecules interacting with plasmon excitations of a spherical metal nano-particle (MNP) as presented in the work of Zhang and May [Phys. Rev. B 89, 245441 (2014)] is extended to systems with up to 100 molecules. We demonstrate the possibility of multiple plasmon excitation and describe their conversion into far-field photons. The calculation of the steady-state photon emission spectrum results in an emission line-narrowing with an increasing number of molecules coupled to the MNP. This is considered as an essential criterion for the action of the molecule-MNP system as a nano-laser. To have exact results for systems with up to 20 molecules, we proceed as recently described by Richter et al. [Phys. Rev. B 91, 035306 (2015)] and study a highly symmetric system. It assumes an equatorial and regular position of identical molecules in such a way that their coupling is dominated by that to a single MNP dipole-plasmon excitation. Changing from the exact computation of the system's complete density matrix to an approximate theory based on the reduced plasmon density matrix, systems with more than 100 molecules can be described. Finally, nonlinear rate equations are proposed which reproduce the mean number of excited plasmons in their dependence of the number of molecules and of the used pump rate. The second order intensity correlation function of emitted photons is related to the respective plasmon correlation function which approaches unity when the system starts lasing.

  5. Study on an electrochemical biosensor for thrombin recognition based on aptamers and nano particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jing; LIN Li; CHENG GuiFang; WANG AnBao; TAN XueLian; HE PinGang; FANG YuZhi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a high specific, sensitive electrochemical biosensor for recognition of protein such as thrombin based on aptamers and nano particles. Two different aptamers were chosen to construct a sandwich manner for detecting thrombin. Aptamer Ⅰ was immobilized on nano magnetic particle for capturing thrombin, and aptamer Ⅱ labled with nano gold was used for detection. The electrical current generated from gold after the formation of the complex of magnetic particle, thrombin and nano gold,and then an electrochemical cell designed by ourselves was used for separating, gathering, and electrochemical detecting. Through magnetic separation, high specific and sensitive detection of the target protein, thrombin, was achieved. Linear response was observed over the range 5.6×10-12-1.12×10-9mol/L, with a detection limit of 1.42×10-12 mol/L. The presence of other protein as BSA did not affect the detection, which indicates that high selective recognition of thrombin can be achieved in complex biological samples such as human plasma.

  6. Theory of molecule metal nano-particle interaction: Quantum description of plasmonic lasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuan, E-mail: yyzhang@physik.hu-berlin.de; May, Volkhard, E-mail: may@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institute für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Netwonstraße 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-14

    The recent quantum description of a few molecules interacting with plasmon excitations of a spherical metal nano-particle (MNP) as presented in the work of Zhang and May [Phys. Rev. B 89, 245441 (2014)] is extended to systems with up to 100 molecules. We demonstrate the possibility of multiple plasmon excitation and describe their conversion into far-field photons. The calculation of the steady-state photon emission spectrum results in an emission line-narrowing with an increasing number of molecules coupled to the MNP. This is considered as an essential criterion for the action of the molecule-MNP system as a nano-laser. To have exact results for systems with up to 20 molecules, we proceed as recently described by Richter et al. [Phys. Rev. B 91, 035306 (2015)] and study a highly symmetric system. It assumes an equatorial and regular position of identical molecules in such a way that their coupling is dominated by that to a single MNP dipole-plasmon excitation. Changing from the exact computation of the system’s complete density matrix to an approximate theory based on the reduced plasmon density matrix, systems with more than 100 molecules can be described. Finally, nonlinear rate equations are proposed which reproduce the mean number of excited plasmons in their dependence of the number of molecules and of the used pump rate. The second order intensity correlation function of emitted photons is related to the respective plasmon correlation function which approaches unity when the system starts lasing.

  7. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil by using immobilized lipase on magnetic nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wenlei; Ma, Ning [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Lipase was covalently immobilized onto magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as an activating agent, and the bound lipase was used to catalyze the transesterification of vegetable oils with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters. The binding of lipase to magnetic particles was confirmed by enzyme assays, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. It was determined that the immobilized lipase exhibited better resistance to temperature and pH inactivation in comparison to free lipase. Using the immobilized lipase, the major parameters affecting the transesterification reaction, such as the alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme loading and free fatty acid present in reactants were investigated to obtain the optimum reaction condition. The conversion of soybean oil to methyl esters reached over 90% in the three-step transesterification when 40% immobilized lipase was used. Moreover, the lipase catalyst could be used for 3 times without significant decrease of the activity. (author)

  8. A ferrite nano-particles based fully printed process for tunable microwave components

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-08-15

    With the advent of nano-particles based metallic inks, inkjet printing emerged as an attractive medium for fast prototyping as well as for low cost and flexible electronics. However, at present, it is limited to printing of metallic inks on conventional microwave substrates. For fully printed designs, ideally, the substrate must also be printed. In this work, we demonstrate a fully printed process utilizing a custom Fe2O3 based magnetic ink for functional substrate printing and a custom silver-organo-complex (SOC) ink for metal traces printing. Due to the magnetic nature of the ink, this process is highly suitable for tunable microwave components. The printed magnetic substrate is characterized for the magnetostatic as well as microwave properties. The measured B(H) curve shows a saturation magnetization and remanence of 1560 and 350 Gauss respectively. As a proof of concept, a patch antenna is implemented in the proposed stack up which shows a tuning range of 4 % around the center frequency. © 2016 IEEE.

  9. Biopolymer nano-particles and natural nano-carriers for nano-encapsulation of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi Esfanjani, Afshin; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2016-10-01

    Phenolic compounds are major micronutrients in our diet,(1) and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases is emerging. The easily destruction against environment stresses and low bioavailability of phenolics are main limitations of their application. Therefore, nano-encapsulated phenolics as a fine delivery system can solve their restrictions. Polymeric nanoparticles and natural nano-carriers are one of the most effective and industrial techniques which can be used for protection and delivery of phenolics. In this review, preparation, application and characterization of polymeric based nano-capsules and natural nano-carriers for phenolics have been considered and discussed including polymeric nanoparticles, polymeric complex nanoparticles, cyclodextrins, nano-caseins, nanocrystals, electrospun nano-fibers, electro-sprayed nano-particles, and nano-spray dried particles. Our main goal was to cover the relevant recent studies in the past few years. Although a number of different types of polymeric and natural based nano-scale delivery systems have been developed, there are relatively poor quantitative understanding of their in vivo absorption, permeation and release. Also, performing toxicity experiments, residual solvent analysis and studying their biological fate during digestion, absorption, and excretion of polymeric nanoparticle and natural nano-carriers containing phenolics should be considered in future researches. In addition, future investigations could focus on application of phenolic nano-scale delivery systems in pharmaceuticals and functional foods.

  10. Study on an electrochemical biosensor for thrombin recognition based on aptamers and nano particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a high specific, sensitive electrochemical biosensor for recognition of protein such as thrombin based on aptamers and nano particles. Two different aptamers were chosen to construct a sandwich manner for detecting thrombin. Aptamer I was immobilized on nano magnetic particle for capturing thrombin, and aptamer II labled with nano gold was used for detection. The electrical current generated from gold after the formation of the complex of magnetic particle, thrombin and nano gold, and then an electrochemical cell designed by ourselves was used for separating, gathering, and electrochemical detecting. Through magnetic separation, high specific and sensitive detection of the target protein, thrombin, was achieved. Linear response was observed over the range 5.6×10-12―1.12×10-9 mol/L, with a detection limit of 1.42×10-12 mol/L. The presence of other protein as BSA did not affect the detection, which indicates that high selective recognition of thrombin can be achieved in complex biological samples such as human plasma.

  11. Exploring uptake and biodistribution of polystyrene (nano)particles in zebrafish embryos at different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pomeren, M; Brun, N R; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Vijver, M G

    2017-09-01

    In ecotoxicology, it is continuously questioned whether (nano)particle exposure results in particle uptake and subsequent biodistribution or if particles adsorb to the epithelial layer only. To contribute to answering this question, we investigated different uptake routes in zebrafish embryos and how they affect particle uptake into organs and within whole organisms. This is addressed by exposing three different life stages of the zebrafish embryo in order to cover the following exposure routes: via chorion and dermal exposure; dermal exposure; oral and dermal exposure. How different nanoparticle sizes affect uptake routes was assessed by using polystyrene particles of 25, 50, 250 and 700nm. In our experimental study, we showed that particle uptake in biota is restricted to oral exposure, whereas the dermal route resulted in adsorption to the epidermis and gills only. Ingestion followed by biodistribution was observed for the tested particles of 25 and 50nm. The particles spread through the body and eventually accumulated in specific organs and tissues such as the eyes. Particles larger than 50nm were predominantly adsorbed onto the intestinal tract and outer epidermis of zebrafish embryos. Embryos exposed to particles via both epidermis and intestine showed highest uptake and eventually accumulated particles in the eye, whereas uptake of particles via the chorion and epidermis resulted in marginal uptake. Organ uptake and internal distribution should be monitored more closely to provide more in depth information of the toxicity of particles. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of CdO nano particles by the sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadgama, V. S.; Vyas, R. P.; Jogiya, B. V.; Joshi, M. J.

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium Oxide (CdO) is an inorganic compound and one of the main precursors to other cadmium compounds. It finds applications in cadmium plating, storage batteries, in transparent conducting film, etc. Here, an attempt is made to synthesize CdO nano particles by sol-gel technique. The gel was prepared using cadmium nitrate tetra hydrate (Cd(NO3)2.4H2O) and aqueous ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) as a precursor. The synthesized powder is further characterized by techniques like Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Powder XRD analysis suggested the nano-crystalline nature of the sample with the cubic crystal system. Nano scaled particles of spherical morphology with the size ranging from 50-100 nm are observed from TEM images. While, FT-IR study is used to confirm the presence of different functional groups. Thermo-gravimetric analysis suggests the highly thermally stable nature of the samples. The results are discussed.

  13. Preparation and characterization of silica coated iron oxide magnetic nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Sing; Church, Jeffrey S.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Moussa, Filsun

    2010-09-01

    Iron oxide magnetic nano-particles have been prepared by precipitation in an aqueous solution of iron(II) and iron(III) chlorides under basic condition. Surface modifications have been carried out by using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS). The uncoated and coated particles have been characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy. The particle sizes as measured from TEM images were found to have mean diameters of 13 nm for the uncoated and about 19 nm for the coated particles. The measured IR spectra of the uncoated and MPTMS coated particles showed the conversion of magnetite to hematite at high temperature. The results obtained from both IR spectroscopy and TGA revealed that the mercaptopropylsilyl group in the MPTMS coated magnetite decomposed at 600 °C and the silica layer of the TEOS coated magnetite was rather stable. Raman spectroscopy has shown the laser heating effect through the conversion of magnetite to maghemite and hematite.

  14. Surface passivation of silicon nanowires based metal nano-particle assisted chemical etching for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rabha, Mohamed; Khezami, Lotfi; Jemai, Abdelbasset Bessadok; Alhathlool, Raed; Ajbar, Abdelhamid

    2017-03-01

    Metal Nano-particle Assisted Chemical Etching (MNpACE) is an extraordinary developed wet etching method for producing uniform semiconductor nanostructure (silicon nanowires) from patterned metallic film on crystalline silicon surface. The metal films facilitate the etching in HF and H2O2 solution and produce silicon nanowires (SiNWs).The creation of different SiNWs morphologies by changing the etching time and its effects on optical and optoelectronic properties was investigated. The combination effect of formed SiNWs and stain etching treatment in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution on the surface morphology of Si wafers as well as on the optical and optoelectronic properties especially a PL response at 640 nm are presented. As a results, the effective lifetime (τeff) and surface recombination velocity (Seff) evolution of SiNWs after stain etching treatment showed significant improvements and less than 1% reflectance was achieved over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm and more than 36% reduction was observed compared to untreated surface. It has, thus, been demonstrated that all these factors may lead to improved energy efficiency from 8% to nearly 14.2% for a cell with SiNWs treated in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution.

  15. Investigation on Tc tuned nano particles of magnetic oxides for hyperthermia applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Jyotsnendu; Ray, Amlan; Dasgupta, S; Datta, D; Bahadur, D

    2003-01-01

    Superparamagnetic as well as fine ferrimagnetic particles such as Fe3O4, have been extensively used in magnetic field induced localized hyperthermia for the treatment of cancer. The magnetic materials with Curie temperature (Tc) between 42 and 50 degrees C, with sufficient biocompatibility are the best candidates for effective treatment such that during therapy it acts as in vivo temperature control switch and thus over heating could be avoided. Ultrafine particles of substituted ferrite Co(1-a)Zn(a)Fe2O4 and substituted yttrium-iron garnet Y3Fe(5-x)Al(x)O12 have been prepared through microwave refluxing and citrate-gel route respectively. Single-phase compounds were obtained with particle size below 100 nm. In order to make these magnetic nano particles biocompatible, we have attempted to coat these above said composition by alumina. The coating of alumina was done by hydrolysis method. The coating of hydrous aluminium oxide has been done over the magnetic particles by aging the preformed solid particles in the solution of aluminium sulfate and formamide at elevated temperatures. In vitro study is carried out to verify the innocuousness of coated materials towards cells. In vitro biocompatibility study has been carried out by cell culture method for a period of three days using human WBC cell lines. Study of cell counts and SEM images indicates the cells viability/growth. The in vitro experiments show that the coated materials are biocompatible.

  16. Conditions for laser-induced plasma to effectively remove nano-particles on silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinghua; Luo, Li; Zhang, Yubo; Hu, Ruifeng; Feng, Guoying

    2016-09-01

    Particles can be removed from a silicon surface by means of irradiation and a laser plasma shock wave. The particles and silicon are heated by the irradiation and they will expand differently due to their different expansion coefficients, making the particles easier to be removed. Laser plasma can ionize and even vaporize particles more significantly than an incident laser and, therefore, it can remove the particles more efficiently. The laser plasma shock wave plays a dominant role in removing particles, which is attributed to its strong burst force. The pressure of the laser plasma shock wave is determined by the laser pulse energy and the gap between the focus of laser and substrate surface. In order to obtain the working conditions for particle removal, the removal mechanism, as well as the temporal and spatial characteristics of velocity, propagation distance and pressure of shock wave have been researched. On the basis of our results, the conditions for nano-particle removal are achieved. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574221).

  17. Surface Plasmon Resonance Characteristics of Optical Fiber Incorporated with Au Nano-Particles in Cladding Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seongmin; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Han, Won-Taek

    2016-06-01

    A novel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on specialty optical fiber having its cladding doped with Au nano-particles (NPs) was developed by modified chemical vapor deposition process. To optimize the SPR absorption and sensitivity of the fiber SPR sensor, effect of the fiber length (20 cm-90 cm) on sensing capability of refractive index (n = 1.418-1.448) was investigated. Absorption peaks appearing at 392 and 790 nm were due to SPR from Au NPs in the cladding region of the optical fiber. The SPR was found to occur at particular wavelengths around 390 nm for the corresponding refractive indices regardless of the length of the fiber, increased with the increase of the index. The measured SPR sensitivities (wavelength/RIU) of the fiber were estimated to be 407 nm/RIU, 217 nm/RIU, and 54 nm/RIU with the fiber lengths of 20 cm, 45 cm, and 90 cm, respectively. The SPR absorption intensity and FWHM decreased with the increase of the fiber length because the propagation loss of the signal through the fiber cladding region increased.

  18. Reactivity at (nano)particle-water interfaces, redox processes, and arsenic transport in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurent; Morin, Guillaume; Rose, Jérôme; Wang, Yuheng; Auffan, Mélanie; Burnol, André; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro

    2011-02-01

    Massive deleterious impacts to human health are resulting from the use of arsenic-bearing groundwaters in South-East Asia deltas and elsewhere in the world for drinking, cooking and/or irrigation. In Bangladesh alone, a fifth of all deaths are linked to arsenicosis. In the natural and engineered subsurface environment, the fate of arsenic is, to a large extent, controlled by redox potential, pH, as well as total iron, sulfur and carbonate content, via sorption and coprecipitation on a variety of natural and engineered (nano)particles. In the present article, we address: (1) new insights in the sorption mechanisms of As on Fe(II) and Fe(III) nanophases recognized to play an important role in the microbial cycling of As and Fe; (2) artifacts often encountered in field and laboratory studies of As speciation due to the extreme redox sensitivity of the Fe-As-O-H phases; and (3) as a conclusion, the implications for water treatment. Indeed the specific reactivity of nanoparticles accounts not only for the As bioavailability within soils and aquifers, but also opens new avenues in water treatment.

  19. EUV and debris characteristics of a laser-plasma tin dioxide nano-particle colloidal jet target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Masanori; Suetake, Sumihiro; Senba, Yusuke; Katto, Masahito; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2008-03-01

    Debris characteristics and its reduction have been investigated for a laser-produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source using a colloidal jet target containing tin dioxide nano-particles. Dominant deposited debris on a witness plate was found to have a form of oxidized tin (SnO x) originated from nano-particles. Quantitative debris amounts were determined by total laser energy irradiated onto a target, not by laser irradiation modes, such as single or double pulse irradiation. In-situ low-temperature (100°C) heating of a plate was effective to reduce the deposited debris amount, since colloidal debris was easily vaporized by the heat. Another approach to remove the deposited debris was roomtemperature photon processing using incoherent vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission at 126 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis has shown that the deposited SnOx debris layer was deoxidized by the 126 nm VUV photon energy.

  20. submitter The effect of acid–base clustering and ions on the growth of atmospheric nano-particles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Kontkanen, Jenni; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Jokinen, Tuija; Sarnela, Nina; Kürten, Andreas; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Sipilä, Mikko; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Ahlm, Lars; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael J; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Olenius, Tinja; Ortega, Ismael K; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud; Rissanen, Matti P; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Simon, Mario; Smith, James N; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Tomé, António; Vaattovaara, Petri; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Vrtala, Aron E; Wagner, Paul E; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Virtanen, Annele; Donahue, Neil M; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Baltensperger, Urs; Riipinen, Ilona; Curtius, Joachim; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-01-01

    The growth of freshly formed aerosol particles can be the bottleneck in their survival to cloud condensation nuclei. It is therefore crucial to understand how particles grow in the atmosphere. Insufficient experimental data has impeded a profound understanding of nano-particle growth under atmospheric conditions. Here we study nano-particle growth in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoors Droplets) chamber, starting from the formation of molecular clusters. We present measured growth rates at sub-3 nm sizes with different atmospherically relevant concentrations of sulphuric acid, water, ammonia and dimethylamine. We find that atmospheric ions and small acid-base clusters, which are not generally accounted for in the measurement of sulphuric acid vapour, can participate in the growth process, leading to enhanced growth rates. The availability of compounds capable of stabilizing sulphuric acid clusters governs the magnitude of these effects and thus the exact growth mechanism. We bring these observations into a ...

  1. Silver micro- and nano-particles obtained using different glycols as reducing agents and measurement of their conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moudir Naïma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver micro- and nano-particles for the preparation of conductive pastes for the metallization of solar cells was realized by chemical reduction in the presence and absence of poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP. Silver nitrate was used as a precursor in the presence of three polyols (ethylene glycol, di-ethylene glycol and propylene glycol tested at experimental temperatures near their boiling points. Six samples were obtained by this protocol. Three silver powders obtained without the use of PVP have a metallic luster appearance; however, the samples produced using an excess of PVP are in the form of stable colloidal dispersions of silver nano-particles. Structural characterizations of samples using a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer show a good crystallinity and spherical morphology. From DSC and TGA analyses, it was noticed that all the nano-silvers present in the colloidal suspension have the same thermal behavior.

  2. Magnetic behaviour of nano-particles of Fe2.8Zn0.2O4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhash Chander; Seema Lakhanpal; Anjali Krishnamurthy; Bipin K Srivastava; V K Aswal

    2004-08-01

    Magnetization measurements are reported on a nano-particle sample of Zn- substituted spinel ferrite Fe2.8Zn0.2O4 in the temperature range 20-300 K. Analysis of small-angle neutron scattering data shows the sample to have a log-normal particle size distribution of median diameter 64.4 Å and standard deviation 0.38. Magnetization evolves over a long period of time going nearly linearly with log . Magnetic anisotropy, estimated by fitting -log curve, shows many fold increase over that of bulk particle sample. Major enhancement owes to disordered moments in surface layer. In the nano-particle state as well increasing amount of Zn causes anisotropy to decrease.

  3. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERIZATIONS OF CHITOSAN NANO-PARTICLES CORROSION INHIBITION ON THE SURFACE OF MILD STEELIN PEAT WATER MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Erna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic properties and characterizations of corrosion inhibition of chitosan nano-particles on the surface of mild steel in peat water media had been studied using weight loss method at temperatures of 30 - 50 oC. Steel surfaces were characterized by FT-IR spectra and SEM-EDS morphology photos. The research found that the value of DGo approaching -40 kJmol-1. The negative value of Gibbs free energy shows that the adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the surface of mild steel was achemisorption and it occurred spontaneously. Meanwhile, the values of DHo is also negative confirming that the adsoprtion of inhibitor molecules is an exothermic process. The value of DSo obtained is positive, it indicates hat the inhibitor molecules were adsorbed spontaneously on the mild steel surface. The analysis on mild steel surfaces hows that the nano-particle chitosan was adsorbed on the steel surface to form the complex compounds.

  4. Aqueous Phase Glycerol Reforming by PtMo Bimetallic Nano-Particle Catalyst: Product Selectivity and Structural Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stach E. A.; Dietrich, P.J.; Lobo-Lapidus, R.J.; Wu, T.; Sumer, A.; Akatay, M.C.; Fingland, B.R.; Guo, N.; Dumesic, J.A.; Marshall, C.L.; Jellinek, J.; Delgass, W.N.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Miller, J.T.

    2012-03-01

    A carbon supported PtMo aqueous phase reforming catalyst for producing hydrogen from glycerol was characterized by analysis of the reaction products and pathway, TEM, XPS and XAS spectroscopy. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicates the catalyst consists of bimetallic nano-particles with a Pt rich core and a Mo rich surface. XAS of adsorbed CO indicates that approximately 25% of the surface atoms are Pt. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that there is unreduced and partially reduced Mo oxide (MoO{sub 3} and MoO{sub 2}), and Pt-rich PtMo bimetallic nano-particles. The average size measured by transmission electron microscopy of the fresh PtMo nano-particles is about 2 nm, which increases in size to 5 nm after 30 days of glycerol reforming at 31 bar and 503 K. The catalyst structure differs from the most energetically stable structure predicted by density functional theory (DFT) calculations for metallic Pt and Mo atoms. However, DFT indicates that for nano-particles composed of metallic Pt and Mo oxide, the Mo oxide is at the particle surface. Subsequent reduction would lead to the experimentally observed structure. The aqueous phase reforming reaction products and intermediates are consistent with both C-C and C-OH bond cleavage to generate H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} or the side product CH{sub 4}. While the H{sub 2} selectivity at low conversion is about 75%, cleavage of C-OH bonds leads to liquid products with saturated carbon atoms. At high conversions (to gas), these will produced additional CH{sub 4} reducing the H{sub 2} yield and selectivity.

  5. Study of Nano Particles for Enhanced Heat Transfer Characteristics of Base Fluids for Cool Thermal Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promit Choudhury

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliable heat transfer is very crucial for heat demand and supply related applications where the optimum demand is not met. Cool thermal energy systems are the units which find application in conditioning and preserving items. A colloidal mixture of nano particles in a base fluid tremendously enhances the heat transfer characteristics of the original base fluid and is ideally suited for practical application due to its marvelous characteristics.

  6. Porosity and Mechanical Strength of an Autoclaved Clayey Cellular Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Guglielmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the porosity and the mechanical strength of an Autoclaved Clayey Cellular Concrete (ACCC with the binder produced with 75 wt% kaolinite clay and 25 wt% Portland cement. Aluminum powder was used as foaming agent, from 0.2 wt% to 0.8 wt%, producing specimens with different porosities. The results show that the specimens with higher content of aluminum presented pore coalescence, which can explain the lower porosity of these samples. The porosities obtained with the aluminum contents used in the study were high (approximately 80%, what accounts for the low mechanical strength of the investigated cellular concretes (maximum of 0.62 MPa. Nevertheless, comparing the results obtained in this study to the ones for low temperature clayey aerated concrete with similar compositions, it can be observed that autoclaving is effective for increasing the material mechanical strength.

  7. Preparation of stable tea seed oil nano-particle emulsions by a low energy method with non-ionic surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kanlayavattanakul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea seed oil nano-particle emulsions were prepared. Non-ionic surfactants containing Tween 80 and Span 80 (1:1, w/w were mixed with propanol (3-9:1, w/w to give Smix, which was thereafter mixed with tea seed oil. The mixture was titrated with water at 150 rpm to give clear or bluish and bluish-white emulsions. Twelve nano-particle emulsions with 64.64 to 72.73% Smix, 16.66 to 27.27% oil and 9.09 to 16.67% water with particle sizes between 207.00 to 430.10 nm, PDI of 0 to 0.4, ζ-potential of -42.00 to -49.63 mV, pH of 7.04 to 7.32 and 151.33 to 241.93 cps, were stable following an accelerated stability test and long term storage at room temperature and 4 and 45 ºC for 90 days, although one system (16.66% oil and 66.67% Smix was separated. This nano-particle emulsion formulation is concise and feasible for an industrial development of topical products containing tea seed oil.

  8. Dose limited reliability of quantitative annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy for nano-particle atom-counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Backer, A.; Martinez, G.T. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); MacArthur, K.E.; Jones, L. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, 16 Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Béché, A. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Nellist, P.D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, 16 Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Van Aert, S., E-mail: sandra.vanaert@uantwerpen.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2015-04-15

    Quantitative annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) has become a powerful technique to characterise nano-particles on an atomic scale. Because of their limited size and beam sensitivity, the atomic structure of such particles may become extremely challenging to determine. Therefore keeping the incoming electron dose to a minimum is important. However, this may reduce the reliability of quantitative ADF STEM which will here be demonstrated for nano-particle atom-counting. Based on experimental ADF STEM images of a real industrial catalyst, we discuss the limits for counting the number of atoms in a projected atomic column with single atom sensitivity. We diagnose these limits by combining a thorough statistical method and detailed image simulations. - Highlights: • Limited size and beam sensitivity of nano-particles challenge their quantification. • Keeping the electron dose to a minimum is therefore important. • Reliability of quantitative ADF STEM for atom-counting is demonstrated. • Limits for single atom sensitivity are discussed. • Limits are diagnosed by combining simulations and a statistical method.

  9. Synthesis of Ferrite Nickel Nano-particles and Its Role as a p-Dopant in the Improvement of Hole Injection of an Organic Light-Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Maryam; Jafari, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Shahedi, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    We fabricated an organometallic complex based on zinc ions using zinc complex as a fluorescent in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Also, the nano-particles of ferrite nickel were produced in a simple aqueous system prepared by mixing Ni (NO3)2, Fe (NO3)3 and deionized water solutions. The synthesized zinc bis (8-hydroxyquinoline) (Znq2) complex and NiFe2O4 nano-particles were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy analysis. Their energy level was also determined by some cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The maximum green photoluminescence was observed at 565 nm. The nano-particles of ferrite nickel were utilized in preparation of OLEDs by blending of the magnetic nano-particles with PEDOT:PSS and Zn-complex solutions. The electrical and optical performance of prepared OLEDs with/without doped nano-particle was studied. The samples were configured into two structures: (1) Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)/ poly(3,4-ethylenedi-oxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/Znq2/(2-4-biphenylyl)-5-phenyl-oxadiazole (PBD)/aluminum (Al) and (2) ITO/PEDOT:PSS:NiFe2O4(NPs)/Znq2/PBD/Al. Obtained results showed that the current density and electroluminescence efficiency were increased and the turn-on voltage decreased (about 3 V) by using nano-particles into a PEDOT:PSS layer (Hole transport layer). Also, the electroluminescence efficiency was decreased by incorporating magnetic nano-particles into a Zn-complex layer (emissive layer). It was found that utilizing NiFe2O4 nano-particles caused an increase of hole-injection layer conductivity effectively and a decrease of the turn-on voltage.

  10. Synthesis of Ferrite Nickel Nano-particles and Its Role as a p-Dopant in the Improvement of Hole Injection of an Organic Light-Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Maryam; Jafari, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Shahedi, Zahra

    2017-02-01

    We fabricated an organometallic complex based on zinc ions using zinc complex as a fluorescent in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Also, the nano-particles of ferrite nickel were produced in a simple aqueous system prepared by mixing Ni (NO3)2, Fe (NO3)3 and deionized water solutions. The synthesized zinc bis (8-hydroxyquinoline) (Znq2) complex and NiFe2O4 nano-particles were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy analysis. Their energy level was also determined by some cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The maximum green photoluminescence was observed at 565 nm. The nano-particles of ferrite nickel were utilized in preparation of OLEDs by blending of the magnetic nano-particles with PEDOT:PSS and Zn-complex solutions. The electrical and optical performance of prepared OLEDs with/without doped nano-particle was studied. The samples were configured into two structures: (1) Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)/ poly(3,4-ethylenedi-oxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/Znq2/(2-4-biphenylyl)-5-phenyl-oxadiazole (PBD)/aluminum (Al) and (2) ITO/PEDOT:PSS:NiFe2O4(NPs)/Znq2/PBD/Al. Obtained results showed that the current density and electroluminescence efficiency were increased and the turn-on voltage decreased (about 3 V) by using nano-particles into a PEDOT:PSS layer (Hole transport layer). Also, the electroluminescence efficiency was decreased by incorporating magnetic nano-particles into a Zn-complex layer (emissive layer). It was found that utilizing NiFe2O4 nano-particles caused an increase of hole-injection layer conductivity effectively and a decrease of the turn-on voltage.

  11. Biological Experiments in Microgravity Conditions Using Magnetic Micro- and Nano-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoli; Kuznetsov, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    Gravity affects all living organisms on Earth, and plays a role in multiple processes in them. In microgravity conditions (e.g., on board of a spacecraft) many of these processes are disturbed, e.g., spatial orientation is lost, mass and heat exchange is distorted, many adaptive mechanisms no longer function, etc. Negation of these adverse effects by creation of pseudo-gravity to by centrifugation is complicated, expensive and unpractical. We propose to use naturally occurring magnetic heterogeneity of all living cells and high gradient magnetic fields as an alternative approach to negating the adverse effects of microgravity on living systems. In non-uniform magnetic field, magnetically heterogeneous objects experience a system of ponderomotive forces. For a weak magnetic particle, the net ponderomotive magnetic force: Fm = Δχ•V•grad(H2/2), where Δχ is the difference of susceptibilities of the particle and the surrounding media, V is the volume of the particle, grad(H2/2) is the dynamic factor of the magnetic field. We studied magnetic heterogeneity of plant gravity receptor cells, prepared and conducted experiments on board of the space station "Mir" on providing a gravity-like stimulus for flax seedlings using high gradient magnetic field ("Magnetogravistat" experiment). Later, a more sophisticated version of this experiment was flown on STS-107. These experiments provided new data on the mechanisms of plant gravity reception and created a method for substituting gravity for a living organism by a force of a different physical nature, to negate the adverse effects of microgravity. Since the ponderomotive force is proportional to the dynamic factor of the field grad(H2/2), the stronger the field, and the faster it changes over distance, the higher is the dynamic factor and the stronger the ponderomotive force. Therefore, in the small vicinity of a small ferromagnetic particle (preferably metallic micro or nano-particles), the forces are very significant

  12. Synthesis, structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of polyol assisted copper ferrite nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavithradevi, S.; Suriyanarayanan, N.; Boobalan, T.

    2017-03-01

    Nanocrystalline copper ferrite CuFe2O4 is synthesized by co-precipitation method in ethylene glycol as chelating agent, using sodium Hydroxide as precipitator at pH 8. The as synthesized CuFe2O4 is annealed at temperatures of 350 °C, 700 °C, and 1050 °C for 2 h respectively. The thermal analysis of the synthesized sample is done by TG technique. It is shown that at 260 °C ethylene glycol has evaporated completely and after 715 °C, spinel ferrite is formed with a cubic structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in agreement with the reported values. FTIR spectra of CuFe2O4 nano particles are as synthesized and annealed at 1050 °C and recorded between 400 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1. It shows that when the temperature increases ethylene glycol gradually evaporates. Finally, nano crystalline single phase spinel ferrite is obtained. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction (EDS) studies show that the sample is indexed as the face centered cubic spinel structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the particles are flaky and spherical with the crystallite size in the range of 25-34 nm. From the dielectric studies, the dielectric constant decreases as the frequency increases. Low value of dielectric loss at higher frequencies suggests that the material is suitable for high frequency applications. AC conductivity increases with frequency. The magnetic properties of the samples are measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature, which shows that the sample exhibited a typical super paramagnetic behavior at low temperature. The saturation magnetization, remanant magnetism, and coercivity increases with applied field.

  13. Protection of cisplatin-induced spermatotoxicity, DNA damage and chromatin abnormality by selenium nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Ali; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Ahmadi, Abbas; Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-02-01

    Cisplatin (CIS), an anticancer alkylating agent, induces DNA adducts and effectively cross links the DNA strands and so affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. The present study investigated the cellular/biochemical mechanisms underlying possible protective effect of selenium nano-particles (Nano-Se) as an established strong antioxidant with more bioavailability and less toxicity, on reproductive toxicity of CIS by assessment of sperm characteristics, sperm DNA integrity, chromatin quality and spermatogenic disorders. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of CIS gonadotoxicity, the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) as a marker of nitrosative stress (NS) and testosterone (T) concentration as a biomarker of testicular function were measured in the blood and testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. A single IP dose of CIS (7 mg/kg) and protective dose of Nano-Se (2 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination. The CIS-exposed rats showed a significant increase in testicular and serum LPO and ONOO level, along with a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants levels, diminished serum T concentration and abnormal histologic findings with impaired sperm quality associated with increased DNA damage and decreased chromatin quality. Coadministration of Nano-Se significantly improved the serum T, sperm quality, and spermatogenesis and reduced CIS-induced free radical toxic stress and spermatic DNA damage. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that Nano-Se may be useful to prevent CIS-induced gonadotoxicity through its antioxidant potential.

  14. Protection of cisplatin-induced spermatotoxicity, DNA damage and chromatin abnormality by selenium nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Ali [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, TUMS, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Abbas [Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammad.abdollahi@utoronto.ca [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-01

    Cisplatin (CIS), an anticancer alkylating agent, induces DNA adducts and effectively cross links the DNA strands and so affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. The present study investigated the cellular/biochemical mechanisms underlying possible protective effect of selenium nano-particles (Nano-Se) as an established strong antioxidant with more bioavailability and less toxicity, on reproductive toxicity of CIS by assessment of sperm characteristics, sperm DNA integrity, chromatin quality and spermatogenic disorders. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of CIS gonadotoxicity, the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) as a marker of nitrosative stress (NS) and testosterone (T) concentration as a biomarker of testicular function were measured in the blood and testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. A single IP dose of CIS (7 mg/kg) and protective dose of Nano-Se (2 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination. The CIS-exposed rats showed a significant increase in testicular and serum LPO and ONOO level, along with a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants levels, diminished serum T concentration and abnormal histologic findings with impaired sperm quality associated with increased DNA damage and decreased chromatin quality. Coadministration of Nano-Se significantly improved the serum T, sperm quality, and spermatogenesis and reduced CIS-induced free radical toxic stress and spermatic DNA damage. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that Nano-Se may be useful to prevent CIS-induced gonadotoxicity through its antioxidant potential. Highlights: ► Cisplatin (CIS) affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. ► Effect of Nano-Se on CIS-induced spermatotoxicity was investigated. ► CIS-exposure induces oxidative sperm DNA damage

  15. Improved electrical properties of cadmium substituted cobalt ferrites nano-particles for microwave application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Rabia [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Gomal University, D. I. Khan (Pakistan); Hussain Gul, Iftikhar, E-mail: iftikhar.gul@scme.nust.edu.pk [Thermal Transport Laboratory (TTL), Materials Engineering Department, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME), National University of Sciences and Technology - NUST, H-12 Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zarrar, Muhammad [Thermal Transport Laboratory (TTL), Materials Engineering Department, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME), National University of Sciences and Technology - NUST, H-12 Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Anwar, Humaira [Islamabad Model College for Girls G-10/2, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan Niazi, Muhammad Bilal [Department of Chemicals Engineering, SCME, NUST, H-12 Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Azim [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Gomal University, D. I. Khan (Pakistan)

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium substituted cobalt ferrites with formula Cd{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.35, 0.5), have been synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation technique. Electrical, morphological and Structural properties of the samples have been studied using DC electrical resistivity and Impedance analyzer, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), respectively. XRD, SEM and AFM have been used to study the structural parameters such as measured density, lattice constant, X-ray density, crystallite size and morphology of the synthesized nano-particles. Debye–Scherrer formula has been used for the estimation of crystallite sizes. The estimated crystallite sizes were to be 15–19±2 nm. Hopping length of octahedral and tetrahedral sites have been calculated using indexed XRD data. The porosity and lattice constant increased as Cd{sup 2+}concentration increases. DC electrical resistivity was performed using two probe technique. The decrease of resistivity with temperature confirms the semiconducting nature of the samples. The dielectric properties variation has been studied at room temperature as a function of frequency. Variation of dielectric properties from 100 Hz to 5 MHz has been explained on the basis of Maxwell and Wagner’s model and hoping of electrons on octahedral sites. To separates the grains boundary and grains of the system Cd{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} the impedance analysis were performed. - Highlights: • Preparation of homogeneous, spherical and single phase well crystallized cobalt ferrites. • A simple and economical PEG assisted wet chemical co-precipitation method has been used. • Increased in DC electrical resistivity and activation energy. • Decease in dielectric constant used for microwave absorber. • AC conductivity of Cd{sup 2+} substituted Co-ferrites increases.

  16. Chemical modification of titanium isopropoxide for producing stable dispersion of titania nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahata, S. [National Institute of Science and Technology, Berhampur, Orissa (India); Mondal, B., E-mail: bnmondal@rediffmail.com [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing, Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713 209 (India); Mahata, S.S. [National Institute of Science and Technology, Berhampur, Orissa (India); Usha, K. [Bengal College of Engineering and Technology, Durgapur (India); Mandal, N.; Mukherjee, K. [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing, Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713 209 (India)

    2015-02-01

    Stable colloidal TiO{sub 2} nano-particles are synthesized through the controlled hydrolysis of chemically modified titanium (Ti) isopropoxide with acetylacetone and acetic acid whereas ammonium salts of poly(acrylic acid) is used as a dispersing agent. Acetylacetone and acetic acid used as chelating ligand to retard the hydrolysis and condensation rates. The process is found promising for producing homogeneous aqueous phase colloidal dispersion of TiO{sub 2} particles. Fourier transformed infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra reveal the formation of monodentate bridging of ligands with Ti-isopropoxide. UV–Vis spectroscopy confirms the effective adsorption of poly(acrylic acid) within the modified Ti precursor. Zeta potential of modified titanium isopropoxide precursor is measured to understand its stability in different pH. The thermal stability of the precursors modified with different chelating ligands and dispersing agent has been studied using thermo-gravimetric in conjunction to differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). Phase formation behavior and the morphological features of the synthesized particles are studied using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques. The sizes of the anatase phase particles are found in the range of 12–20 nm. - Highlights: • Nanosized colloidal TiO{sub 2} is prepared by controlled hydrolysis of Ti-isopropoxide. • Effect of chelating and dispersing agent on stability of colloidal TiO{sub 2} is studied. • Phase, morphology and stability of colloidal TiO{sub 2} are investigated. • The sizes of synthesized TiO{sub 2} particles are found in the range of 12–20 nm. • Suitable chelating and dispersing agent can improve particle loading in sol.

  17. Hot Extruded Polycrystalline Mg2Si with Embedded XS2 Nano-particles (X: Mo, W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercegol, A.; Christophe, V.; Keshavarz, M. K.; Vasilevskiy, D.; Turenne, S.; Masut, R. A.

    2016-08-01

    Due to their abundant, inexpensive and non-toxic constituent elements, magnesium silicide and related alloys are attractive for large-scale thermoelectric (TE) applications in the 500-800 K temperature range, in particular for energy conversion. In this work, we propose a hot extrusion method favorable for large-scale production, where the starting materials (Mg2Si and XS2, X: W, Mo) are milled together in a sealed vial. The MoS2 nano-particles (0.5-2 at.%) act as solid lubricant during the extrusion process, thus facilitating material densification, as confirmed by density measurements based on Archimedes' method. Scanning electron microscopy images of bulk extruded specimens show a wide distribution of grain size, covering the range from 0.1 μm to 10 μm, and energy dispersive spectroscopy shows oxygen preferentially distributed at the grain boundaries. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the major phase is the expected cubic structure of Mg2Si. The TE properties of these extruded alloys have been measured by the Harman method between 300 K and 700 K. Resistivity values at 700 K vary between 370 μΩ m and 530 μΩ m. The ZT value reaches a maximum of 0.26 for a sample with 2 at.% MoS2. Heat conductivity is reduced for extruded samples containing MoS2, which most likely behave as scattering centers for phonons. The reason why the WS2 particles do not bring any enhancement, for either densification or heat transfer reduction, might be linked to their tendency to agglomerate. These results open the way for further investigation to optimize the processing parameters for this family of TE alloys.

  18. DECENTRALIZED THERMOPHILIC BIOHYDROGEN: A MORE EFFICIENT AND COST EFFECTIVE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Sani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonfood lignocellulosic biomass is an ideal substrate for biohydrogen production. By avoiding pretreatment steps (acid, alkali, or enzymatic, there is potential to make the process economical. Utilization of regional untreated lignocellulosic biomass by cellulolytic and fermentative thermophiles in a consolidated mode using a single reactor is one of the ways to achieve economical and sustainable biohydrogen production. Employing these potential microorganisms along with decentralized biohydrogen energy production will lead us towards regional and national independence having a positive influence on the bioenergy sector.

  19. Experimental Study of the Subsidence Characteristics of Clayey Loess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lan; Wang Lanmin

    2007-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the results of experimental study and analysis of the subsidence characteristics obtained from soil samples with different contents of clay particles though laboratory dynamic triaxial test, Laser particle size analysis, chemical analysis and electronic microscope scanning. By comparison of the obtained data, the following conclusions are drawn out: (1)The stability of the loess varies with different content of clay; (2) The relation between the dynamic shear strength and the clay particles is not monotonous, but parabolic; (3) In the same consolidation ratio, the clayey loess is the weakest subsidence-resistant when the clay particle content is between 16% ~ 17%.

  20. Multiple tracing experiments in unsaturated fractured clayey till

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Annette Pia; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Nilsson, B.;

    2004-01-01

    Current monitoring and sampling techniques in unsaturated fractured clay often fail to characterize fast preferential flow. To circumvent these problems, an isolated block ( 3.5 by 3.5 by 3.3 m) of unsaturated fractured clayey till was used for multiple tracing experiments. The setup allowed full...... control of the water balance in the block. Experiments at three different steady-state flow rates were performed. Multiple tracers with different diffusion coefficients were applied in each experiment to evaluate the influence of diffusive exchange between fractures and the matrix. The tracers included...

  1. Risk Assessment in Fractured Clayey Tills - Which Modeling Tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Binning, Philip John

    2012-01-01

    assessment is challenging and the inclusion of the relevant processes is difficult. Furthermore the lack of long-term monitoring data prevents from verifying the accuracy of the different conceptual models. Further investigations based on long-term data and numerical modeling are needed to accurately......The article presents different tools available for risk assessment in fractured clayey tills and their advantages and limitations are discussed. Because of the complex processes occurring during contaminant transport through fractured media, the development of simple practical tools for risk...

  2. A geological study of clayey laterite and clayey hydromorphic material of the region of Yaoundé (Cameroon): a prerequisite for local material promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngon Ngon, G. F.; Yongue–Fouateu, R.; Bitom, D. L.; Bilong, P.

    2009-09-01

    A geological survey carried out in the Yaoundé (Cameroon) region has revealed the presence of homogeneous clayey laterite in the upper part of a laterite cover on interfluves, thickest on hills (780-800 m altitude) where ferricrete is absent, and clayey heterogeneous hydromorphic material in valleys. We present in this paper the physical, mineralogical and geochemical properties of these occurrences and discuss their potential as raw material for pottery, manufacture of bricks and tiles. These clayey raw materials are mostly made up of fine particles (ranging from 55 to 60% clay + silt in the clayey laterite, more than 70% clay + silt in the clayey hydromorphic material). Their chemical composition is characterized by silica (clay minerals are disorganized and poorly crystallized kaolinites. The average limits of liquidity (44.56% versus 91.58%) and limits of plasticity (22.4 versus 45.93) revealed that clayey hydromorphic material has the greatest plasticity. The studied raw materials are suitable for making pottery as well as the manufacture of bricks and tiles. However, the high iron content in the clayey laterite (between 11 and 12% Fe 2O 3) prevents their efficient use in the manufacture of ceramics.

  3. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems involve the use of exoelectrogenic (i.e., anode-reducing) microbes to produce current in conjunction with the oxidation of reduced compounds. This current can be used directly for power in a microbial fuel cell, but there are alternate uses of this current. One such alternative is the production of hydrogen in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), which accomplishes cathodic proton reduction with a slight applied potential by exploiting the low redox potential produced by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate. With continued advancements in reactor design to reduce the system internal resistance, increase the specific surface area for anode biofilm development, and decrease the material costs, MECs may emerge as a viable alternative technology for biohydrogen production. Moreover, these systems can also incorporate other value-added functionalities for applications in waste treatment, desalination, and bioremediation.

  4. Effect of adding natural pozzolana on geotechnical properties of lime-stabilized clayey soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aref al-Swaidani; Ibrahim Hammoud; Ayman Meziab

    2016-01-01

    Clayey soils in Syria cover a total area of more than 20,000 km2 of the country, most of which are located in the southwestern region. In many places of the country, the clayey soils caused severe damage to infrastructures. Extensive studies have been carried out on the stabilization of clayey soils using lime. Syria is rich in both lime and natural pozzolana. However, few works have been conducted to investigate the influence of adding natural pozzolana on the geotechnical properties of lime-treated clayey soils. The aim of this paper is to understand the effect of adding natural pozzolana on some geotechnical properties of lime-stabilized clayey soils. Natural pozzolana and lime are added to soil within the range of 0%-20%and 0%-8%, respectively. Consistency, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR) and linear shrinkage properties are particularly investigated. The test results show that the investigated properties of lime-treated clayey soils can be considerably enhanced when the natural pozzolana is added as a stabiliz-ing agent. Analysis results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spec-troscopy (EDX) show significant changes in the microstructure of the treated clayey soil. A better flocculation of clayey particles and further formation of cementing materials in the natural pozzolana-lime-treated clayey soil are clearly observed.

  5. DECENTRALIZED THERMOPHILIC BIOHYDROGEN: A MORE EFFICIENT AND COST EFFECTIVE PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Sani, Rajesh.K.; Rajesh V. Shende; Sudhir Kumar; Aditya Bhalla

    2011-01-01

    Nonfood lignocellulosic biomass is an ideal substrate for biohydrogen production. By avoiding pretreatment steps (acid, alkali, or enzymatic), there is potential to make the process economical. Utilization of regional untreated lignocellulosic biomass by cellulolytic and fermentative thermophiles in a consolidated mode using a single reactor is one of the ways to achieve economical and sustainable biohydrogen production. Employing these potential microorganisms along with decentralized biohyd...

  6. The surface modification of TiN nano-particles using macromolecular coupling agents, and their resulting dispersibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Guojun, E-mail: chengguojun0436@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Qian, Jiasheng, E-mail: qianjs@ahu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Miao, Jibin; Yang, Bin; Xia, Ru; Chen, Peng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The hydroxyl groups on the surface of nano-TiN particles interacted with the silanol groups [-Si-OCH{sub 3}] of a F-MCA to form an organic coating layer that hindered the aggregation of the nano-TiN. The obvious agglomeration and homogeneous dispersion can be seen in TEM images. - Highlights: • The dispersible TiN nano-particles were prepared to increase its surface activity. • Surface hydrophobicity increased due to being modified by F-MCA. • TiN nano-particles modified with F-MCA shows good dispersion in anhydrous ethanol. • The coupling agents are tightly absorbed on the surface of particles by chemisorption. • Modified TiN nano-particles can be widely used in polymers with great compatibility. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) nano-particles were modified by the grafting of a random copolymerization functionalized macromolecular coupling agent (F-MCA) via a direct blending method. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of the nano-TiN particles interact with the silanol groups [-Si-OCH{sub 3}] of the F-MCA to form an organic coating layer. The formation of covalent bonds [Ti-O-Si] was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. An X-ray diffraction analysis suggests that the presence of the F-MCA inhibited the growth of the crystal plane but did not change the crystal structure of the TiN. Thermogravimetric analysis and contact angle measurement indicated that the F-MCA molecules were adsorbed or anchored to the surface of the nano-TiN particles, which hindered their aggregation. Pristine nano-TiN particles are poorly dispersed in ethyl acetate. Compared with the pristine TiN particles, the modified TiN particles show good dispersibility and form a stable colloidal dispersion in ethyl acetate. The surface hydrophobicity of the modified TiN increases, and the F-MCA molecules are anchored on the surface of the TiN particles. TiN particles modified by a F-MCA can be used in polymer blends, thermoplastic elastomers and polymer

  7. Preparation and photoluminescence properties of MMoO4 (M = Cu, Ni, Zn) nano-particles synthesized via electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yin, Jiajia; Min, Fanqi; Jia, Lili; Zhang, Daoming; Zhang, Quansheng; Xie, Jingying

    2017-01-01

    Metal molybdate (MMoO4, M = Cu, Ni, Zn) nano-particles were successfully synthesized by electrochemical method in a cation exchange membrane electrolytic cell with Na2MoO4 solution as anolyte, diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) as catholyte, metal (Cu, Ni, Zn) as anode and stainless steel as cathode. The composition, morphology, structure, microstructure and photoluminescence property of the synthesized MMoO4 were investigated and characterized. The results show that the photoluminescence spectra of electrolytic synthesized MMoO4 have fine structures, which is markedly different from the existing research.

  8. Preparation of Nano-Particles (Pb,La)TiO3 Thin Films by Liquid Source Misted Chemical Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张之圣; 曾建平; 李小图

    2004-01-01

    Nano-particles lanthanum-modified lead titanate (PLT) thin films are grown on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate by liquid source misted chemical deposition (LSMCD). PLT films are deposited for 4-8 times, and then annealed at various temperature. XRD and SEM show that the prepared films have good crystallization behavior and perovskite structure. The crystallite is about 60 nm. The deposition speed is 3 nm/min. This deposition method can exactly control stoichiometry ratios, doping concentration ratio and thickness of PLT thin films. The best annealing process is to bake at 300 ℃ for 10 min and anneal at 600 ℃ for 1 h.

  9. Biohydrogen Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Technology and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the various renewable energy sources, biohydrogen is gaining a lot of traction as it has very high efficiency of conversion to usable power with less pollutant generation. The various technologies available for the production of biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass such as direct biophotolysis, indirect biophotolysis, photo, and dark fermentations have some drawbacks (e.g., low yield and slower production rate, etc., which limits their practical application. Among these, metabolic engineering is presently the most promising for the production of biohydrogen as it overcomes most of the limitations in other technologies. Microbial electrolysis is another recent technology that is progressing very rapidly. However, it is the dark fermentation approach, followed by photo fermentation, which seem closer to commercialization. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass is particularly suitable for relatively small and decentralized systems and it can be considered as an important sustainable and renewable energy source. The comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA of biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass and its comparison with other biofuels can be a tool for policy decisions. In this paper, we discuss the various possible approaches for producing biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass which is an globally available abundant resource. The main technological challenges are discussed in detail, followed by potential solutions.

  10. Characterisation of weathered clayey soils responsible for shallow landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Meisina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow earth translational slides and earth flows, affecting colluvial soils derived by the weathering of the clayey bedrock, are a recurrent problem causing damage to buildings and roads in many areas of Apennines. The susceptibility assessment, e.g. slope stability models, requires the preliminary characterization of these superficial covers (lithology, geotechnical and hydraulic parameters. The aim of the work is to develop and test a methodology for the identification and mapping of weathered clayey soils responsible for shallow landslides. A test site in Northern Apennines (Province of Pavia was selected. Argillaceous and marly successions characterize the area. Shallow landslides occurred periodically due to high intensity rainfalls. Trench pits were used for the soil profile description (lithology, structure, grade of weathering, thickness and sampling. The main geological, topographic and geomorphologic parameters of shallow landslides were analysed. Field surveys were integrated with some geotechnical laboratory tests (index properties, suction and volumetric characteristic determination, methylene blue adsorption test, linear shrinkage, swell strain. Engineering geological zoning was carried out by grouping the superficial soils on the basis of the following attributes: topographic conditions (slope angle, landslide occurrence, lithology (grain size, geometry (thickness, lithology of the bedrock, hydrogeological and geotechnical characteristics. The resulting engineering-geological units (areas that may be regarded as homogeneous from the geomorphologic and engineering – geological point of view were analysed in terms of shallow slope instability.

  11. 纳米填料改性聚氨酯研究进展%RESEARCH PROGRESS IN POLYURETHANE MODIFIED BY NANO-PARTICLE FILLERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙希鹏; 朱金华; 文庆珍; 李志生

    2011-01-01

    The research progress of modification of polyurethane by nano-particle fillers was reviewed. The influence of the common nano-particle fillers, organo-modified nano-particle fillers and the dispersion methods of nano-particle fillers in polyurethane matrix on mechanical properties of polyurethane was summarized, the modifying mechanism of polyurethane was also introduced. In addition , the key research direction of polyurethane modified by nano-particle fillers in the future was proposed.%综述了纳米填料改性聚氨酯(PUR)近年来的研究进展,总结了普通纳米填料、有机改性纳米填料和纳米填料的分散方法对PUR力学性能的影响及纳米填料的改性机理研究,并对纳米填料改性PUR未来研究的重点方向进行了展望.

  12. Determination of Matrix Pore Size Distribution in Fractured Clayey Till and Assessment of Matrix Migration of Dechlorinationg Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Lu; Broholm, Mette Martina; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    The pore structure and pore size distribution (PSD) in the clayey till matrix from three Danish field sites were investigated by image analysis to assess the matrix migration of dechlorinating bacteria in clayey till. Clayey till samples had a wide range of pore sizes, with diameters of 0.1–100 μm...... account for approximately 30–60% of the total porosity (20–26%), which is within the range of those reported for clayey soils and other clayey deposits in the literature. The pore size, PSD, and interconnectivity of pores in clayey till matrix may play an important role in evaluation of the migration...

  13. Enhancement of photo-response via surface plasmon resonance induced by Ag nano-particles embedded in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaoming; Zhang, Jingwen; Chen, Guangde; Ye, Honggang; Duan, Xiangyang; Hou, Xun

    2016-09-01

    Surface plasmon resonance can be exploited to improve the performance of the photodetectors. However, it may cause the increase of dark current as a side effect. The enhancement of responsivity is highly dependent on the device structure involving SPR and the situations of the metal nano-particles. In this paper, we reported the responsivity enhancement of the ZnO UV detectors with SPR based on a structure in which Ag nano-particles are embedded in ZnO film, without the apparent increase of dark current. We found that the characteristic wavelength for SPR absorption is 380 nm, well predicted by Mie theory. And the spectral responsivity peak value increases from 472 mA/W to 10.522 A/W, by 22.3 times. The good matching between enhancement spectra and SPR absorption spectra confirms that the responsivity enhancement is resulted from SPR. Our results are of great importance in improving the photodetectors based on SPR effects, which may be widely used in light detection.

  14. Optical and thermoelectric properties of nano-particles based Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, A. M.; Lilov, E.; Petkov, P.

    2017-01-01

    Nano-particles of Bi2Te3 and Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 films were deposited using vacuum thermal evaporation technique from previously prepared bulk alloys synthesized by melting method. Optical and thermoelectric properties were studied in the temperature range of 300-473K. The formation of none- and Se-doped Bi2Te3 nano-particles was verified by EDX and XRD analysis. TEM, SEM and AFM analysis showed the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature. The measurements of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, alongside with thermal conductivity calculations, resulted in the highest values of thermoelectric power at high temperature to be reported. The maximum value of power factor was calculated at 62.82917 μWK-2cm-1 for (Bi2Se0.3Te1.7) sample at 463 K. On the addition of Se to Bi2Te3 film, a significant decrease of the electronic thermal conductivity (Kel) from 2.181 × 10-2 to 0.598 × 10-2 (μW/cm.K) could be achieved. Figure of merit (ZT) calculations showed a maximum value of 0.85 at room temperature, for Bi2Te3. Besides the increase of ZT value for all samples at higher temperature, surprisingly, a value of 2.75 for (Bi2Se1.2Te1.8) was obtained. We believe our results could open avenues for new applications.

  15. The Synergistic Effects of the Micro and Nano Particles in Micro-nano Composites on Enhancing the Resistance to Electrical Tree Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxuan; Yang, Ying

    2017-08-17

    A new method of increasing the durability and reliability of polymer dielectrics has been proposed by designing a composite structure of the micro and nano particles. The synergistic effects of the micro particles and nano particles are found to enhance the resistance to electrical tree and extend the lifetime of polymer dielectrics for insulations. Epoxy loaded with the micro and nano SiO2 particles at different concentrations are prepared as micro-nano composites. The micro particles show the blocking effects on the electrical tree channel and the interfaces of the nano particles lead to the inhibiting effects on the tree inception and propagation. The lifetime of the micro-nano composite samples in the experiments extends to 4 times of the neat epoxy. The new type of micro-nano composites can be widely applied in future electronic and electrical energy areas.

  16. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict CI engine parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For ANFIS modelling, Gaussian curve membership function (gaussmf) and 200 training epochs (iteration) were found to be optimum choices for training process. The results demonstrate that ANFIS is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  17. The Effects of Zinc and Iron Oxide Nano-Particles on The Growth and Ion Content of Two Corn Cultivars in Different Soil Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of foliar application of nano-particles and ordinary bulk materials of zinc and iron oxide was studied in two corn genotypes (S.C 704 and seed mass in different soil salinity (0,75,150 mM NaCl. The experiment was arranged as factorial in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that in saline condition Leaf area, shoot and root dry matter, photochemical efficiency, the concentration of K, Fe and Zn in shoot decreased and that of Na and the Na/K ratio increased under saline condition. The interactions of salinity and genotype were significant on leaf area, shoot and root dry matter, Na/K ratio and photochemical efficiency. The application of nano-particles of iron and zinc oxide increased shoot dry matter to a greater degree as compared with ordinary bulk materials. Under saline condition, the application of iron oxide in the form of nano-particles had higher effect on iron uptake by corn plants. However, with an increase in salinity level the superiority of nano form decreased. The application of Nano-particles of iron and zinc as compared to ordinary bulk materials was more effective in alleviating the negative effects of salt stress on the accumulation of zinc in tested plants. This was not evidence in terms of iron accumulation. The results from this experiment showed that the application of nano-particles of iron and zinc promoted plant growth to a greater degree in comparison to ordinary materials of these nutrients. However, the application of nano particles had no advantage in alleviating the effects of salinity on plant growth.

  18. Hydrogeological Characterization of Low-permeability Clayey Tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian

    architectures of till successions. On the other hand, it is a relevant parameter to describe because mean lengths and spacing determine the connectivity between lenses. Pixel-based mapping of geological cross-sections was performed to facilitate geostatistical analyses of spatial variability. Variogram models...... yield nonstationary patterns including trending in vertical direction, variable size of lenses and strong geometric anisotropy. Non-stationarity complicates the identification of correlation functions and hampers the simulation of facies distribution. Transition probability-based geostatistics applied...... common types. Geostatistical analyses suggested that sand lenses in tills create connected channel networks in 3D. Consequently, sand lens heterogeneity is an important aspect when modeling transport processes of contaminants or performing risk assessment in clayey till settings. In either case...

  19. Preparation of ZrO2 nano-particles by the hydrolysis of ZrOCl2 solution in the reverse micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chensha Li; Tongxiang Liang; Tianyong Luo

    2006-01-01

    Zirconia nano-particles have been produced by the hydrolysis of ZrOGl2 solution in the reverse micelles of a liquid-liquid two-phase system, in which sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinite (AOT) and toluene were chosen as the surfactant and organic phase, respectively. The reverse micelles prevented the aggregation of primary particles and reduced the diameters of zirconia nanoparticles. Superfine zirconia powders soft-aggregated by the zirconia nano-particles were obtained. The diameters of zirconia nanoparticles were influenced by the quantity of the surfactant.

  20. Catalytic effect of nano-particle 3d-transition metals on hydrogen storage properties in magnesium hydride MgH2 prepared by mechanical milling

    OpenAIRE

    Hanada, Nobuko; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Fujii, Hironobu

    2004-01-01

    We examined the catalytic effect of nano-particle 3d-transition metals on hydrogen desorption (HD) properties of MgH2 prepared by mechanical ball milling method. All the MgH2 composites prepared by adding a small amount of nano-particle Fenano, Conano, Ninano and Cunano metals and by ball milling for 2h showed much better HD properties than the pure ball-milled MgH2 itself. Especially, the 2 mol% Ninano-doped MgH2 composite prepared by soft milling for a short milling time of 15 min under a s...

  1. Optically sensitive devices based on Pt nano particles fabricated by atomic layer deposition and embedded in a dielectric stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Padmanabhan, R.; Eisenstein, G. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Meyler, B.; Yofis, S.; Weindling, S.; Salzman, J. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Atiya, G.; Cohen-Hyams, Z.; Kaplan, W. D. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Ankonina, G. [Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Photovoltaic Laboratory, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel)

    2015-10-07

    We report a series of metal insulator semiconductor devices with embedded Pt nano particles (NPs) fabricated using a low temperature atomic layer deposition process. Optically sensitive nonvolatile memory cells as well as optical sensors: (i) varactors, whose capacitance-voltage characteristics, nonlinearity, and peak capacitance are strongly dependent on illumination intensity; (ii) highly linear photo detectors whose responsivity is enhanced due to the Pt NPs. Both single devices and back to back pairs of diodes were used. The different configurations enable a variety of functionalities with many potential applications in biomedical sensing, environmental surveying, simple imagers for consumer electronics and military uses. The simplicity and planar configuration of the proposed devices makes them suitable for standard CMOS fabrication technology.

  2. The structure and properties of Fe3O4/P (NaUA-St-BA) magnetic composite nano particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春华; 张书香; 刘威; 王英姿; 杨鸿昌

    2004-01-01

    Fe3O4/P (NaUA-St-BA) core-shell composite micro spheres were in situ prepared by soapless polymerization of styrene and butyl acrylate, with Fe3O4magnetic colloidal particles coated with NaUA. The results of IR and XRD analysis demonstrated that the desired polymer chains have been covalently bonded to the surface of Fe3 O4 nano particles. The morphology analysis by TEM confirmed that the composite particles have the core-shell structure and a relatively uniform diameter of about 100nm. The magnetic properties of the obtained composite latex particles were measured by VSM and found that they exhibited super paramagnetic properties.Finally, the prepared magnetic composite particles latex is stable for several months.

  3. Using Silver Nano-Particle Ink in Electrode Fabrication of High Frequency Copolymer Ultrasonic Transducers: Modeling and Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adit Decharat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High frequency polymer-based ultrasonic transducers are produced with electrodes thicknesses typical for printed electrodes obtained from silver (Ag nano-particle inks. An analytical three-port network is used to study the acoustic effects imposed by a thick electrode in a typical layered transducer configuration. Results from the network model are compared to experimental findings for the implemented transducer configuration, to obtain a better understanding of acoustical effects caused by the additional printed mass loading. The proposed investigation might be supportive of identification of suitable electrode-depositing methods. It is also believed to be useful as a feasibility study for printed Ag-based electrodes in high frequency transducers, which may reduce both the cost and production complexity of these devices.

  4. The effect of metal nano particle on optical absorption coefficient of multi-layer spherical quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, N., E-mail: n.zamani@sutech.ac.ir [Department of Physics, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keshavarz, A., E-mail: keshavarz@sutech.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nadgaran, H., E-mail: nadgaran@susc.ac.ir [Department of Physics, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optical absorption coefficient of hybrid structure consisting of metal nano particle (MNP) coupled to multi-layer spherical quantum dot (MSQD). Energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of Schrödinger equation in this structure are obtained by using numerical solution (by the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method). The effect of MNP in the vicinity of MSQD is calculated by considering local field theory. Then the variation of optical absorption coefficient hybrid structure is calculated. The results show that the presence of MNP near MSQD enhances the optical absorption coefficient. Also, by changing the distance between MNP and MSQD and radius of MNP, variation of optical absorption coefficient and refractive index changes are introduced.

  5. The effect of metal nano particle on optical absorption coefficient of multi-layer spherical quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, N.; Keshavarz, A.; Nadgaran, H.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optical absorption coefficient of hybrid structure consisting of metal nano particle (MNP) coupled to multi-layer spherical quantum dot (MSQD). Energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of Schrödinger equation in this structure are obtained by using numerical solution (by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method). The effect of MNP in the vicinity of MSQD is calculated by considering local field theory. Then the variation of optical absorption coefficient hybrid structure is calculated. The results show that the presence of MNP near MSQD enhances the optical absorption coefficient. Also, by changing the distance between MNP and MSQD and radius of MNP, variation of optical absorption coefficient and refractive index changes are introduced.

  6. Photodegradation of luminescence in organic-ligand-capped Eu{sup 3+}:LaF{sub 3} nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Gavin G. G.; Taylor, Luke R.; Longdell, Jevon J., E-mail: jevon.longdell@otago.ac.nz [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand); Clarke, David J.; Quilty, J. W. [Callaghan Innovation Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)

    2014-01-28

    The luminescence from europium doped lanthanum trifluoride (Eu{sup 3+}:LaF{sub 3}) nano-crystals can be greatly enhanced by capping with β-diketonate organic ligands. Here, we report on photo-stability measurements for the case of nano-crystals capped with thenoyltrifluroacetone (TTA) and compared with those capped with an inactive ligand, oleic acid. With exposure to UV pump light, we observed significant decrease in fluorescence and change in emission spectrum of the TTA-capped nano-particles whilst the fluorescence lifetime remained approximately constant. After a dose of order 70 kJ cm{sup −2}, the luminescence level was similar to that of oleic acid capped nano-crystals. We discuss possible mechanisms.

  7. Structural, electrical and magnetic characteristics of nickel substituted cobalt ferrite nano particles, synthesized by self combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontu, Uday Bhasker; Yelasani, Vijayakumar; Musugu, Venkata Ramana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Nickel-substituted cobalt ferrite nano-particles are synthesized using a self-combustion method. Aqueous metal nitrates and citric acid form the precursors. No external oxidizing agents are used to change the pH of the precursors; this resulted in a more environment friendly synthesis. Structural, magnetic and electrical characteristics of the nano ferrites are verified using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), VSM and impedance analyzer respectively. Phase formation, particle size, lattice parameter, X-ray density, saturation magnetization, coercivity, dielectric constant and electrical activation energy as function of nickel substitution in cobalt ferrite are studied. It is shown here that the magnetic and electrical properties can be tuned by varying the nickel concentration.

  8. Optically sensitive devices based on Pt nano particles fabricated by atomic layer deposition and embedded in a dielectric stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Padmanabhan, R.; Meyler, B.; Yofis, S.; Atiya, G.; Cohen-Hyams, Z.; Weindling, S.; Ankonina, G.; Salzman, J.; Kaplan, W. D.; Eisenstein, G.

    2015-10-01

    We report a series of metal insulator semiconductor devices with embedded Pt nano particles (NPs) fabricated using a low temperature atomic layer deposition process. Optically sensitive nonvolatile memory cells as well as optical sensors: (i) varactors, whose capacitance-voltage characteristics, nonlinearity, and peak capacitance are strongly dependent on illumination intensity; (ii) highly linear photo detectors whose responsivity is enhanced due to the Pt NPs. Both single devices and back to back pairs of diodes were used. The different configurations enable a variety of functionalities with many potential applications in biomedical sensing, environmental surveying, simple imagers for consumer electronics and military uses. The simplicity and planar configuration of the proposed devices makes them suitable for standard CMOS fabrication technology.

  9. Magnetic behaviour of nano-particles of Fe2.9Zn0.1O4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhash Chander; Sudhish Kumar; Anjali Krishnamurthy; Bipin K Srivastava; V K Aswal

    2003-09-01

    DC magnetization measurements are reported in the temperature range 20–300 K on a poly-disperse nano-particle sample of the spinel ferrite Fe2.9Zn0.1O4 with a log-normal size distribution of median diameter 43.6 Å and standard deviation 0.58. Outside a core of ordered spins, moments in surface layer are disordered. Results also show some similarities with conventional spin glasses. Blocking temperature exhibits a near linear variation with two-third power of the applied magnetic field and magnetization evolves nearly linearly with logarithm of time . Magnetic anisotropy has been estimated by analysing the $M-\\log t$ curve. Anisotropy values show a large increase over that of bulk particle samples. Major contribution to this enhancement comes from the disordered surface spins.

  10. Synthesis of TiO2 nano-particles and their photocatalytic activity for formaldehyde and methyl orange degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xinyan; LIAO Dongliang; ZHANG Huiping; CHEN Huanqin

    2007-01-01

    TiO2 nano-particles were synthesized by sol-gel technique and characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD)and transmission electron microscope (TEM).Their photocatalytic activities for formaldehyde (FA) and methyl orange (MO) degradation were tested using degradation rate (η) as an evaluation index.Based on the orthogonal test results,the optimal condition for TiO2 preparation was obtained.Results showed that particle sizes were in the range of 10-40 nm,and that prepared TiO2 had better photocatalytic activity than P25.A simplified model was developed to evaluate the apparent quantum efficiency (Φapp) of this photocatalytic reaction system.

  11. Near-field optical mapping of single gold nano particles using photo-induced polymer movement of azo-polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitobi, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Taka-aki; Ono, Atsushi; Inouye, Yasushi

    2017-03-01

    In this study, polymer movement was induced in azo-polymer films by optical near-fields generated in the vicinity of single gold nano particles (GNPs) to visualize near-field distribution with a spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of light. A linearly polarized (Ex) laser beam was irradiated into GNPs to excite local surface plasmon resonance that enhanced the near-field around the GNPs. The findings indicated that different GNP diameters (that is, 50 nm and 80 nm) resulted in different deformation patterns on the films. The results were compared with theoretical calculations of near-field distributions, and the observations revealed that the deformation patterns were dependent on the ratio between Ex and Ey wherein each possessed a different field distribution.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of NiFe$_2$O$_4$ nano-particles: structural, morphological, optical, electrical and magnetic properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K CHANDRA BABU NAIDU; W MADHURI

    2017-04-01

    NiFe$_2$O$_4$ nano-crystallites with an average diameter of 8.9 nm are synthesized via hydrothermal method.The single-phase spinel structure is confirmed from X-ray diffractograms. Morphology is analysed by transmissionand field emission scanning electron microscopes. High specific surface area of 55.7 m$^2$ g$^{−1}$ is obtained for nano-particles. The M–H loop and M–T curve behaviours are investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry.The optical band gap energy is estimated from the UV–visible spectrum. In addition, the frequency dependence of dielectric properties is investigated. Cole–Cole plots are drawn to study electrical conduction mechanism and thekind of relaxation—Debye or non-Debye type. Low a.c. conductivity and low magnetic losses are noticed at 5 MHz frequency, which are suitable for microwave device applications.

  13. Study of chemically synthesized ZnO nano particles under a bio template using radioactive ion beam

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a project proposal to study nano sized semiconductor ZnO system, useful in biology and medicinal purposes, using radioactive ion beam from ISOLDE. Doping of the nano particles with Cu, Cd and Ga ions (in their variable valancy states) are expected to impart changes in the electrical structure and properties in the said system under study. The morphological changes, chemical environment, micro structure, electrical and optical properties of the nano size particles of ZnO system (developed under a bio template of folic acid) after the interaction with radioactive ion beam will be studied. The provision of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) study with respect to the changes in chemical environment, where ever possible will be attempted.

  14. 纳米粒子表面ATRP修饰及其在生物医学领域中的应用%Surface Modification and Functionalization of Nano-particles via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏静仁; 张匆; 袁伟忠; 任天斌; 任杰

    2011-01-01

    综述了各种纳米粒子如金属纳米粒子、金属化合物纳米粒子、无机非金属纳米粒子,有机纳米粒子等通过表面修饰引发原子转移自由基聚合而得到各种功能聚合物材料,并对这些杂化材料在生物医学中的应用进行了总结和展望.%Reviewed a variety of nano-particles such as metal nano-particles, metallic compound nano-particles, inorganic non-metallic nano-particles, organic compounds nano-particles which were surfaced-modified via ATRP to obtain functional hybrid nano-materialg. And it is also sumed and prospected about the biomedical applications of these hybrid materials.

  15. Study of Gel Growth Cobalt (II Oxalate Crystals as Precursor of Co3O4 Nano Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Ponco Prananto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystal growth of cobalt (II oxalate in silica gel at room temperature as precursor of Co3O4 nano particles has been studied. Specifically, this project is focusing on the use of two different reaction tube types toward crystallization of cobalt (II oxalate in gel. The gel was prepared at pH 5 by reacting sodium metasilicate solution with dilute nitric acid (for U-tube and oxalic acid (for straight tube, with gelling time of 4 days and crystal growth time of 8 (for straight tube and 12 (for U-tube weeks. Result shows that pink crystalline powder was directly formed using straight tube method. The use of different solvents in straight tube method affects crystallization and could delay direct precipitation of the product. In contrast, bigger and better shape of red block crystal was yielded from U-tube method; however, longer growth time was needed. FTIR studies suggest that both growth method produces identical compound of hydrated cobalt (II oxalate. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 25th October 2012; Revised: 30th November 2012; Accepted: 5th December 2012[How to Cite: Y.P. Prananto, M.M. Khunur, D.T. Wahyuni, R.A. Shobirin, Y.R. Nata, E. Riskah, (2013. Study of Gel Growth Cobalt (II Oxalate Crystals as Precursor of Co3O4 Nano Particles. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (3: 198-204. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4066.198-204][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4066.198-204 ] View in  |

  16. Comparison the Effect of Zinc Oxide and Magnesium Oxide Nano Particles on Long Term Memory in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Kesmati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Magnesium (Mg and zinc (Zn are two essential elemnts for normal performance of central nervous system. So that the learning and memory are influenced by these ions that antagonized NMDA (N methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO and magnesium oxide (MgO on passive avoidance memory in mice. Methods In this experimental study adult male NMRI mice weighing 25 ± 3g were used. ZnO and MgO nano particles (1, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, intrapretoneally (i.p. were injected pre-training in model of passive avoidance learning. Memory was evaluated at 1, 3 and 7 days after training. Delay time in coming down from the safe platform in step down apparatus was evaluated as an index of memory. Open field test was used for evaluation the locomotor activity. Results Nano MgO 2.5 and 5 mg/kg increased delay time in coming down from plateform at one day after training (P < 0.05 in dose dependent manner. Nano ZnO 2.5 and 5 mg/kg reduced delay time in coming down from the platform 1, 3 and 7 day after training (P < 0.05 and just 3 days after training (P < 0.05 respectivley. Locomotor activity did not change in presence of MgO and/or ZnO nano particles. Conclusions It seems that various effects of nano ZnO and MgO on long term memeory is related to the different effects of Zn and Mg ions on receptors (such as NMDA involved in memory process. Toxicity and/ or preservation of nanoparticle in body are another possible reasons.

  17. Development of fine-celled bio-fiber composite foams using physical blowing agents and nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gangjian

    As one of eco-friendly bio-fibers, wood-fiber has been incorporated in plastics to make wood-fiber/plastic composites (WPC) with an increased stiffness, durability and lowered cost. However, these improvements are usually accompanied by loss in the ductility and impact strength of the composites. These shortcomings can be significantly improved by incorporating a fine-cell foam structure in the composites. This thesis presents the development of the foaming technology for the manufacture of fine-cell WPC foams with environmentally benign physical blowing agents (PBAs), and focuses on the elucidation of the fundamental foaming mechanisms and the related issues involved. One critical issue comes from the volatiles evolved from the wood-fiber during high temperature processing. The volatiles, as a blowing agent, can contribute to the foaming process. However, they lead to gross deterioration of the cell structure of WPC foams. The presence of volatiles makes foaming of WPC "a poorly understood black art". With the use of PBAs, a strategy of lowering processing temperature becomes feasible, to suppress the generation of volatiles. A series of PBA-based experiments were designed using a statistical design of experiments (DOE) technique, and were performed to establish the relationship of processing and material variables with the structure of WPC foams. Fundamental foaming behaviors for two different PBAs and two different polymer systems were identified. WPC foams with a fine-cell morphology and a desired density were successfully obtained at the optimized conditions. Another limitation for the wider application of WPC is their flammability. Innovative use of a small amount of nano-clay in WPC significantly improved the flame-retarding property of WPC, and the key issue was to achieve a high degree of exfoliation of nano-particles in the polymer matrix, to achieve a desired flammability reduction. The synergistic effects of nano-particles in foaming of WPC were

  18. Biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Sekoai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production has captured increasing global attention due to it social, economic and environmental benefits. Over the past few years, energy demands have been growing significantly in South Africa due to rapid economic and population growth. The South African parastatal power supplier i.e. Electricity Supply Commission (ESKOM has been unable to meet the country’s escalating energy needs. As a result, there have been widespread and persistent power cuts throughout the country. This prompts an urgent need for exploration and implementation of clean and sustainable energy fuels like biohydrogen production in order to address this crisis. Therefore, this paper discusses the current global energy challenges in relation to South Africa’s problems. It then examines the feasibility of using biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa. Finally, it reviews the hydrogen-infrastructure development plans in the country.

  19. Electro-extractive fermentation for efficient biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Mark D; Orozco, Rafael L; Majewski, Artur J; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2012-03-01

    Electrodialysis, an electrochemical membrane technique, was found to prolong and enhance the production of biohydrogen and purified organic acids via the anaerobic fermentation of glucose by Escherichia coli. Through the design of a model electrodialysis medium using cationic buffer, pH was precisely controlled electrokinetically, i.e. by the regulated extraction of acidic products with coulombic efficiencies of organic acid recovery in the range 50-70% maintained over continuous 30-day experiments. Contrary to previous reports, E. coli produced H(2) after aerobic growth in minimal medium without inducers and with a mixture of organic acids dominated by butyrate. The selective separation of organic acids from fermentation provides a potential nitrogen-free carbon source for further biohydrogen production in a parallel photofermentation. A parallel study incorporated this fermentation system into an integrated biohydrogen refinery (IBR) for the conversion of organic waste to hydrogen and energy.

  20. A comparative study of resonant effects in two-dimensional active coated nano-particles of circular, polygonal, and elliptical shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B.-Jørgensen, Mikkel; Kaminski, Piotr Marek; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    and plasmonic structures. In regards to the latter, extensive analytical and numerical investigations were conducted on the theoretical designs of nano-antennas by use of passive and active coated nano-particles (CNPs) of various shapes and excitations. It was demonstrated that specifically designed active CNPs...

  1. Effects of Al2O3 Nano-Particles on Corrosion Performance of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings Formed on 6061 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili-Azghandi, Mojtaba; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Keshavarz, Mohsen K.

    2016-12-01

    Corrosion resistance improvement of plasma electrolyte oxidation coatings on 6061 aluminum alloy in silicate electrolyte containing Al2O3 nano-particles was studied, with particular emphasis on the microstructure, coating growth, and corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The microstructure of coatings, their thickness, and phase composition were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. All characterization data showed that the maximum coating thickness and lowest amount of porosity were obtained in a low concentration of KOH, a high concentration of Na2SiO3, and moderate concentration of Al2O3 nano-particles in the electrolyte. This combination describes the optimum plasma electrolytic oxidation electrolyte, which has the best conductivity and oxidizing state, as well as the highest incorporation of electrolyte components in the coating growth process. On the other hand, incorporation and co-deposition of Al2O3 nano-particles were more pronounced than SiO3 2- ions in some level of molar concentration, which is due to the higher impact of electron discharge force on the adsorption of Al2O3 nano-particles. The electrochemical results showed that the best protective behavior was obtained in the sample having a coat with the lowest porosity and highest thickness.

  2. High saturation magnetization of γ-Fe2O3 nano-particles by a facile one-step synthesis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Derang; Li, Hao; Pan, Lining; Li, Jianan; Wang, Xicheng; Jing, Panpan; Cheng, Xiaohong; Wang, Wenjie; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2016-09-01

    We have demonstrated the synthesis of γ-Fe2O3 nano-particles through a facile and novel calcination process in the air. There is no pH regulation, gas atmosphere, additive, centrifugation or other complicated procedures during the preparing process. A detailed formation process of the nano-particles is proposed, and DMF as a polar solvent may slower the reaction process of calcination. The structures, morphologies, and magnetic properties of γ-Fe2O3 nano-particles were investigated systematically, and the pure γ-Fe2O3 nano-particles obtained at 200 °C display uniform morphology good magnetic property. The saturation magnetization of obtained pure γ-Fe2O3 is about 74 emu/g, which is comparable with bulk material (76 emu/g) and larger than other results. In addition, the photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue is also studied, which shows proper photocatalytic activity.

  3. The Initial Water Content Dependent Swelling Behavior of Clayey Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet Öngen, Ali; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

    2015-04-01

    The variation in water content is known as a main controlling parameter for many physical and mechanical behaviors of clayey soils, particularly soils found in arid and semi-arid regions. Expansive soils found in such regions are naturally subjected to many volume increase and decrease cycles within unsaturated zone during rainy and dry periods, and thus these soils constitute severe hazard to low-rise light buildings and infrastructures constructed in shallow unsaturated depths. Although the relationships between swelling parameters (swelling pressure and swelling percent) and soils' physical - index properties have been investigated in details in previous researches, the continuous effect of water content on swelling mechanisms of soils is not yet sufficiently studied. The water content of unsaturated zone naturally fluctuates with changes in both seasonal climatic conditions and increasing in depths, and therefore, swelling parameters of a soil within unsaturated soils should not be represented with only one single value. For achieving accurate understanding of swelling behavior at field condition, soils should be subjected to swelling tests by considering different initial water content conditions. Considering requirement for further understanding in water content dependent swelling behavior of soils, a research program was aimed to investigate the effect of initial water content on swelling behavior of soil materials. For this purpose, soils having wide range of physical properties such as grain size distributions, mineralogical composition and consistency limits were collected from different locations in Turkey. To minimize the effect of dry unit weight on swelling behavior of soils, samples prepared at same dry unit weight (14.6 kN/m3) with various initial water contents ranging from 0% to approximately 37% were subjected to swelling tests by using convenient odometer device. Beside these tests, grain size distribution, Atterberg limits and mineralogical

  4. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  5. Hydrate bearing clayey sediments: Formation and gas production concepts

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Jaewon

    2016-06-20

    Hydro-thermo-chemo and mechanically coupled processes determine hydrate morphology and control gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments. Force balance, together with mass and energy conservation analyses anchored in published data provide robust asymptotic solutions that reflect governing processes in hydrate systems. Results demonstrate that hydrate segregation in clayey sediments results in a two-material system whereby hydrate lenses are surrounded by hydrate-free water-saturated clay. Hydrate saturation can reach ≈2% by concentrating the excess dissolved gas in the pore water and ≈20% from metabolizable carbon. Higher hydrate saturations are often found in natural sediments and imply methane transport by advection or diffusion processes. Hydrate dissociation is a strongly endothermic event; the available latent heat in a reservoir can sustain significant hydrate dissociation without triggering ice formation during depressurization. The volume of hydrate expands 2-to-4 times upon dissociation or CO2single bondCH4 replacement. Volume expansion can be controlled to maintain lenses open and to create new open mode discontinuities that favor gas recovery. Pore size is the most critical sediment parameter for hydrate formation and gas recovery and is controlled by the smallest grains in a sediment. Therefore any characterization must carefully consider the amount of fines and their associated mineralogy.

  6. Sago Biomass as a Sustainable Source for Biohydrogen Production by Clostridium butyricum A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Faizal Ibrahim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production from biomass is attracting many researchers in developing a renewable, clean and environmental friendly biofuel. The biohydrogen producer, Clostridium butyricum A1, was successfully isolated from landfill soil. This strain produced a biohydrogen yield of 1.90 mol H2/mol glucose with productivity of 170 mL/L/h using pure glucose as substrate. The highest cumulative biohydrogen collected after 24 h of fermentation was 2468 mL/L-medium. Biohydrogen fermentation using sago hampas hydrolysate produced higher biohydrogen yield (2.65 mol H2/mol glucose than sago pith residue (SPR hydrolysate that produced 2.23 mol H2/mol glucose. A higher biohydrogen productivity of 1757 mL/L/h was obtained when using sago hampas hydrolysate compared to when using pure glucose that has the productivity of 170 mL/L/h. A comparable biohydrogen production was also obtained by C. butyricum A1 when compared to C. butyricum EB6 that produced a biohydrogen yield of 2.50 mol H2/mol glucose using sago hampas hydrolysate as substrate. This study shows that the new isolate C. butyricum A1 together with the use of sago biomass as substrate is a promising technology for future biohydrogen production.

  7. Biohydrogen production from beet molasses by sequential dark and photofermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgür, E.; Mars, A.E.; Peksel, B.; Louwerse, A.; Yücel, M.; Gündüz, U.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Eroglu, I.

    2010-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production using renewable resources is a promising possibility to generate hydrogen in a sustainable way. In this study, a sequential dark and photofermentation has been employed for biohydrogen production using sugar beet molasses as a feedstock. An extreme thermophile Caldicel

  8. Improvement of biohydrogen production using a reduced pressure fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisielewska, M; Dębowski, M; Zieliński, M

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of reduced pressure on biohydrogen production in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor from whey permeate. The results showed that the reduced pressure fermentation was more effective in enhancing biohydrogen production than dark fermentative hydrogen production at atmospheric pressure. Mesophilic fermentative biohydrogen production was investigated at a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h and increasing organic loading rates (OLRs) of 20, 25, 30, 35 kg COD/m(3) day. The reduced pressure fermentation was successfully operated at all OLRs tested. The maximum proportion of hydrogen in biogas of 47.7 %, volumetric hydrogen production rate (VHPR) of 7.10 L H2/day and hydrogen yield of 4.55 mol H2/kg COD removed occurred at the highest OLR. Increase in OLR affected the hydrogen production in UASB reactor exploited at atmospheric pressure. The reduced pressure process was able to remarkably improve the biohydrogen performance at high OLRs.

  9. Effects of anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody IM7 carried with chitosan polylactic acid-coated nano-particles on the treatment of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yizhuo; Zhao, Xinghui; Li, Xiuli; Yan, Zhifeng; Liu, Zhongyu; Li, Yali

    2017-01-01

    Failure in early diagnosis and ineffective treatment are the major causes of ovarian cancer mortality. Hyaluronan and its receptor, cluster of differentiation (CD)44, have been considered to be valid targets for treating cancer. The anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody IM7 is effective in treating ovarian cancer; however, its toxicity should not be ignored. The present study has developed a new drug carrier system composed of chitosan nano-particles coated with polylactic acid (PLA) to improve the treatment efficacy and reduce toxicity. An ionic crosslinking method and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide were used to prepare the IM7 antibody, which was loaded with chitosan nano-particles. The surfaces of the nano-particles were coated with PLA to generate PLA-chitosan-IM7. Subsequently, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the size and zeta potential of the nano-particles. In addition, a spectrophotometer was used to calculate the loading rate and release rate of the nano-particles in acidic and neutral environments. MTT assay was used to evaluate the anti-proliferative effect of PLA-chitosan-IM7 on the human ovarian cancer cell line HO-8910PM. In addition, an in vivo imaging system was used to further investigate the effect of PLA-chitosan-IM7 on the treatment of mice with ovarian cancer. A total of 35 days subsequent to PLA-chitosan-IM7 treatment, all animals were sacrificed by CO2, and the tumors were removed and weighted. The PLA-chitosan-IM7 nano-particles were successfully prepared, since TEM revealed that their size was 300–400 nm and their zeta potential was +25 mV. According to the spectrophotometry results, the loading rate was 52%, and PLA-chitosan-IM7 exhibited good resistance to acids. MTT assay demonstrated that PLA-chitosan-IM7 could suppress the proliferation of HO-8910PM cells in vitro. The in vivo imaging system revealed that PLA-chitosan-IM7 was effective in controlling the

  10. The molecular biological characterization of a strain of biohydrogen-producing anaerobe in Clostridium Genus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-feng; REN Nan-qi; ZHENG Guo-xiang; LIU Min; HU Li-jie; CHEN Ying; WANG Xiang-jing

    2005-01-01

    The anaerobic process of biohydrogen production was developed recently. The isolation and identification of biohydrogen producing anaerobic bacteria with high evolution rate and yield is an important foundation of the fermented biohydrogen production process through which anaerobic bacteria digest organic wastewater. By considering physiological and biochemical traits, morphological characteristics and a 16S rDNA sequence, the isolated Rennanqilyf33 is shown to be a new species.

  11. Steady-state and dynamic modeling of biohydrogen production in an integrated biohydrogen reactor clarifier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Hisham; Naggar, M. Hesham El. [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Nakhla, George [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    Steady-state operational data from the integrated biohydrogen reactor clarifier system (IBRCS) during anaerobic treatment of glucose-based synthetic wastewater at HRT of 8 h and SRT ranging from 26 to 50 h and organic loading rates of 6.5-206 gCOD/L-d were used to calibrate and verify a process model of the system developed using BioWin. The model accurately predicted biomass concentrations in both the bioreactor and the clarifier supernatant with average percentage errors (APEs) of 4.6% and 10%, respectively. Hydrogen production rates and hydrogen yields predicted by the model were in close agreement with the observed experimental results as reflected by an APE of less than 4%, while the hydrogen content was well correlated with an APE of 10%. The successful modeling culminated in the accurate prediction of soluble metabolites, i.e. volatile fatty acids in the reactor with an APE of 14%. The calibrated model confirmed the advantages of decoupling of the solids retention time (SRT) from the hydraulic retention time (HRT) in biohydrogen production, with the average hydrogen yield decreasing from 3.0 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose to 0.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose upon elimination of the clarifier. Dynamic modeling showed that the system responds favorably to short-term hydraulic and organic surges, recovering back to the original condition. Furthermore, the dynamic simulation revealed that with a prolonged startup periods of 10 and 30 days, the IBRCS can be operated at an HRT of 4 h and OLR as high as 206 gCOD/L-d without inhibition and/or marked performance deterioration. (author)

  12. Bio-hydrogen production by dark fermentation from organic wastes and residues

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Dawei; Angelidaki, Irini; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Min, Booki

    2008-01-01

    Der er stigende opmærksomhed omkring biohydrogen. Ved hydrogen fermentering kan kun en lille del af det organiske materiale eller COD i affald omdannes til hydrogen. Der findes endnu ingen full-skala bio-hydrogen anlæg, eftersom effektive rentable teknologier ikke er udviklet endnu. En to-trins proces der kombinerer bio-hydrogen og bio-metan produktionen er en attraktiv mulighed til at øge det totale energi-udbytte af fermentering af organisk materiale. I en to-trins proces, med bio-hydrogen ...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium bifermentans Strain WYM, a Promising Biohydrogen Producer Isolated from Landfill Leachate Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y M; Juan, J C; Gan, H M; Austin, C M

    2014-03-06

    Clostridium bifermentans strain WYM is an effective biohydrogen producer isolated from landfill leachate sludge. Here, we present the assembly and annotation of its genome, which may provide further insights into the metabolic pathways involved in efficient biohydrogen production.

  14. Dispensing of high concentration Ag nano-particles ink for ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Mao, Peng; He, Hu

    2016-02-17

    Paper-based writing electronics has received a lot of interest recently due to its potential applications in flexible electronics. To obtain ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics, we developed a kind of ink with high concentration of Ag Nano-particles (up to 80 wt%), as well as a related dispensing writing system consisting an air compressor machine and a dispenser. Additionally, we also demonstrated the writability and practical application of our proposed ink and writing system. Based on the study on the effect of sintering time and pressure, we found the optimal sintering time and pressure to obtain high quality Ag NPs wires. The electrical conductivity of nano-silver paper-based electronics has been tested using the calculated resistivity. After hot-pressure sintering at 120 °C, 25 MPa pressure for 20 minutes, the resistivity of silver NPs conductive tracks was 3.92 × 10(-8) (Ωm), only 2.45 times of bulk silver. The mechanical flexibility of nano-silver paper-based electronics also has been tested. After 1000 bending cycles, the resistivity slightly increased from the initial 4.01 × 10(-8) to 5.08 × 10(-8) (Ωm). With this proposed ink preparation and writing system, a kind of paper-based writing electronics with ultra-low resistivity and good mechanical flexibility was achieved.

  15. Nucleation and dissociation of nano-particles in gas phase; Nucleation et evaporation de nanoparticules en phase gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiden, P

    2007-09-15

    This work deals with the study of nano-particles formation in gas phase and their dissociation pathways after an optical excitation. The clusters formation decomposes in two steps: a seed is formed (nucleation phase) and sticks atoms during its propagation in a sodium atomic vapor (growth phase). Those two steps have been observed separately for homogeneous Na{sub n} and heterogeneous Na{sub n}X particles (X = (NaOH){sub 2} or (Na{sub 2}O){sub 2}). The growth mechanism is well interpreted by a Monte Carlo simulation taking into account an accretion mechanism with hard-sphere cross section. The homogeneous nucleation mechanism has been highlighted by a direct comparison with the Classical Nucleation Theory predictions. The clusters fragmentation of ionic Na{sup +}(NaOH){sub p} et Na{sup +}(NaF){sub p} particles is studied in the second part. The way clusters fragment with size when they are excited optically is compared with theoretical previsions: this highlights the existence of an energetic barrier for special size of clusters. Finally, the fragmentation of doubly charged Na{sup +} Na{sup +} (NaOH){sub p} clusters shows a competition between the fission into two single charged fragments and the unimolecular evaporation of a neutral fragment. (author)

  16. Development of immobilized cellulase through functionalized gold nano-particles for glucose production by continuous hydrolysis of waste bamboo chopsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheanyeh; Chang, Kuo-Chung

    2013-12-10

    Cellulase immobilized on silica through the assistance of l-cysteine functionalized gold nano-particle was applied for the continuous hydrolysis of waste bamboo chopsticks powder to produce glucose. The optimal conditions for the continuous hydrolysis were pH 8.0, 50°C. A 4-day reaction with an initial 0.3 gL⁻¹ waste bamboo chopsticks powder, a feed containing 0.2 gL⁻¹ waste bamboo chopsticks powder at a continuous feed and draw rate of 0.5 mLmin⁻¹, and an enzyme loading of 40 mgcellulase(gsilica)⁻¹, has 72.0-76.6% conversion rates of repeated hydrolyses that correspond to a total production of 630.5-671.2mg glucose and are much better than batch hydrolyses. At higher enzyme loading (117 mgcellulase(gsilica)⁻¹), higher initial concentration (0.5 gL⁻¹), and higher feed concentration (0.42 gL⁻¹) the conversion rate increases to 82.9% and a total amount of 1418 mgglucose. The immobilized cellulase can be recovered easily by filtration and used repeatedly at least 6 times over a period more than 90 days with a recovered activity approximately the same as or better than previous reactions. Thus the process is promising for scaling up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Conductive polymer/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles as efficient composite materials in electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Shayeh, J.; Ehsani, A.; Ganjali, M. R.; Norouzi, P.; Jaleh, B.

    2015-10-01

    Polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles (PANI/rGO/AuNPs) as a hybrid supercapacitor were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method as ternary composites and their electrochemical performance was evaluated in acidic medium. Scanning electron micrographs clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of the working electrode. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of working electrode. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD) experiments, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in order to investigate the applicability of the system as a supercapacitor. Based on the cyclic voltammogram results obtained, PANI/rGO/AuNPs gave higher specific capacitance, power and energy values than PANI at a current density of 1 mA cm-2. Specific capacitance (SC) of PANI and PANI/rGO/AuNPs electrodes calculated using CV method are 190 and 303 F g-1, respectively. The present study introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including long life cycle and stability due to synergistic effects of each component.

  18. Growth of copper nano particles in erio nite matrix;Crecimiento de nanoparticulas de cobre en matriz de erionita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez R, F.; Zamorano U, R. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Petranovskii, V., E-mail: fchavez@esfm.ipn.m [UNAM, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Apdo. Postal 14, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Unreduced and reduced in hydrogen flow copper exchanged synthetic erio nite, with a SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratio of 7.7, have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the reduction process does not change the zeolite structure, besides the reduced form at 450 grades C present diffraction lines assigned to copper metallic particles. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements have detected isolated Cu{sup 2+} ions as well as plasma resonance peak of copper metallic nanoparticles. The spin resonance spectroscopy simulation analysis of the spectra measured at 20 grades C indicates the presence of two different Cu{sup 2+} ions sites localized in the erio nite matrix. Up to 450 grades C only one type of sites take place in the reduction process, participating in Cu metal clusters and Cu metal nano particles formation, keeping the Cu{sup 2+} ions of the second site intact. (Author)

  19. Conductive polymer/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles as efficient composite materials in electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani Shayeh, J. [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, A., E-mail: a.ehsani@qom.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, P.O. Box 37185-359, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, M.R.; Norouzi, P. [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaleh, B. [Physics Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI/rGO/AuNPs as a ternary composite synthesized by electrodeposition. • Presence of rGO/AuNPs caused increasing the stability of electrodes. • Composite represented high specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy values than PANI. - Abstract: Polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles (PANI/rGO/AuNPs) as a hybrid supercapacitor were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method as ternary composites and their electrochemical performance was evaluated in acidic medium. Scanning electron micrographs clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of the working electrode. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of working electrode. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge–discharge (CD) experiments, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in order to investigate the applicability of the system as a supercapacitor. Based on the cyclic voltammogram results obtained, PANI/rGO/AuNPs gave higher specific capacitance, power and energy values than PANI at a current density of 1 mA cm{sup −2}. Specific capacitance (SC) of PANI and PANI/rGO/AuNPs electrodes calculated using CV method are 190 and 303 F g{sup −1}, respectively. The present study introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including long life cycle and stability due to synergistic effects of each component.

  20. Comparative toxicity of copper oxide bulk and nano particles in Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus: Biochemical and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A. Abdel-Khalek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus are commonly used in the assessment of aquatic environment quality and also considered as useful bio-indicators during environmental pollution monitoring. The LC50/96 h of copper oxide (bulk & nano particles [CuO (BPs & NPs] were 2205 & 150 mg/l, respectively. Two tested concentrations of CuO (BPs & NPs were selected: the first concentration was equivalent to (1/10 (220.5 & 15 mg/l, and the second was equivalent to (1/20 (110.25 & 7.5 mg/l LC50/96 h·CuO (BPs & NPs, respectively. While serum glucose, liver function tests (AST, ALT and ALP and kidney function tests (creatinine and uric acid showed a significant increase, serum total proteins, albumin, globulin and total lipids showed a significant decrease. Both liver and gill tissues of the studied fish showed a reduction in GSH content and an elevation in MDA and GPx activities. The present study also showed an elevation in liver CAT & SOD activities when exposed to both concentrations of CuO BPs and in the case of gills when exposed to both concentrations of CuO (BPs & NPs, although activity of these enzymes showed an inhibition in the liver when exposed to both concentrations of CuO NPs. The present study investigated whether CuO NPs are more toxic than CuO BPs.

  1. The role of silver nano-particles and silver thiosulfate on the longevity of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of silver nano-particles (SNP) and silver thiosulfate (STS) in extending the vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. 'Tempo') flowers. Pulse treatments of SNP @ 0, 5, 10 and 15 mg l(-1) and STS @ 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM were administered to carnation flowers for 24 hr. The longest vase life (16.1 days) was observed in flowers treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP + 0.2 mM STS. The least chlorophyll was destroyed in flowers treated with 15 mg I(-1) of SNP + 0.3 mM STS. Our findings showed that the 15 mg l(-1) SNP treatment inhibited bacterial growth in the preservative solution. The control flowers bloomed faster than the treated flowers. The maximum peroxidase activity and the minimum lipid peroxidation were obtained in cut flowers that were treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP and 0.3 mM STS. Overall, results of the study revealed that SNP and STS treatment extended the longevity of cut carnation 'Tempo' flowers by reducing oxidative stress, improving anti-oxidant system, reducing bacterial populations and delaying flowering.

  2. Accurate optical simulation of nano-particle based internal scattering layers for light outcoupling from organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egel, Amos; Gomard, Guillaume; Kettlitz, Siegfried W.; Lemmer, Uli

    2017-02-01

    We present a numerical strategy for the accurate simulation of light extraction from organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) comprising an internal nano-particle based scattering layer. On the one hand, the light emission and propagation through the OLED thin film system (including the scattering layer) is treated by means of rigorous wave optics calculations using the T-matrix formalism. On the other hand, the propagation through the substrate is modeled in a ray optics approach. The results from the wave optics calculations enter in terms of the initial substrate radiation pattern and the bidirectional reflectivity distribution of the OLED stack with scattering layer. In order to correct for the truncation error due to a finite number of particles in the simulations, we extrapolate the results to infinitely extended scattering layers. As an application example, we estimate the optimal particle filling fraction for an internal scattering layer in a realistic OLED geometry. The presented treatment is designed to emerge from electromagnetic theory with as few additional assumptions as possible. It could thus serve as a baseline to validate faster but approximate simulation approaches.

  3. Preparation of ZrC nano-particles reinforced amorphous carbon composite coating by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Xiong, X.; Huang, B. Y.; Li, G. D.; Zhang, H. B.; Xiao, P.; Chen, Z. K.; Zheng, X. L.

    2009-05-01

    To eliminate cracks caused by thermal expansion mismatch between ZrC coating and carbon-carbon composites, a kind of ZrC/C composite coating was designed as an interlayer. The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition was used as a method to achieve co-deposition of ZrC and C from ZrCl 4-C 3H 6-H 2-Ar source. Zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl 4) powder carrier was especially made to control accurately the flow rate. The microstructure of ZrC/C composite coating was studied using analytical techniques. ZrC/C coating shows same morphology as pyrolytic carbon. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows ZrC grains with size of 10-50 nm embed in turbostratic carbon. The formation mechanism is that the growth of ZrC crystals was inhibited by surrounding pyrolytic carbon and kept as nano-particles. Fracture morphologies imply good combination between coating and substrate. The ZrC crystals have stoichiometric proportion near 1, with good crystalline but no clear preferred orientation while pyrolytic carbon is amorphous. The heating-up oxidation of ZrC/C coating shows 11.58 wt.% loss. It can be calculated that the coating consists of 74.04 wt.% ZrC and 25.96 wt.% pyrolytic carbon. The average density of the composite coating is 5.892 g/cm 3 by Archimedes' principle.

  4. Effect of addition of BaTiO3 nano particles on the electrical transport properties of YBCO superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejith, P. P.; Vidya, S.; Thomas, J. K.

    2015-02-01

    The flux pinning properties of YBCO bulk superconductors synthesized by conventional solid state route and are added with different weight% (x=0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5) of nano BaTiO3 which are prepared by a modified combustion route are studied systematically. The phase analysis of the samples was done by using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Temperature-resistivity measurements, magnetic field dependence of critical current density (Jc-B Characteristics) and flux pinning force calculations were done at 77 K. From the SEM images the microstructure of the sample showed a relative uniform distribution of the nano-particles within the specimen. We found that, even though the transition temperature (Tc) does not change considerably with the BaTiO3 addition, both the critical current density (Jc) and flux pinning force (Fp) increased systematically up to 2 wt% BaTiO3 in the composite, in the presence of magnetic field ranging between 0 and 0.6 T. The Jc value in 2 wt% BaTiO3 added sample showed at least 250% larger than that of the pure YBCO. Also the flux pinning force calculated for the 2 wt% BaTiO3 added is found to be enhanced more than 9 times that of pure YBCO. These observations suggest that the BaTiO3 addition to the Y-123- compounds improve the electrical connection between superconducting grains to result in the increase in Jc.

  5. Decoration of cesium iodide nano particles on patterned carbon nanotube emitter arrays to improve their field emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Monika; Gautam, S.; Shah, P. V.; Rawat, J. S.; Chaudhury, P. K.; Harsh; Tandon, R. P.

    2013-03-01

    Arrays of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles were synthesized on the pre-patterned silicon substrate using thermal chemical vapor deposition. Silicon substrate was patterned with square arrays of 10 × 10 μm iron catalyst using photolithography, iron sputtering, and a lift-off process. After field emission (FE) measurement in diode configuration, CNT emitter arrays (CEAs) were decorated with cesium iodide (CsI) nano particles (NPs) using thermal evaporation with substrate heating at 300 °C. FE of pristine CEAs and CsI NPs decorated CEAs were carried out under same vacuum condition and constant inter-electrode separation. Pristine CEAs and CsI NPs decorated CEAs were characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman characterization. From FE comparison plots, it was observed that CsI NPs decoration on the CEAs had significantly lowered the turn-on electric field from 3.00 to 2.13 V/μm. A remarkable improvement of more than 50 % in the current density, from 11.02 to 17.33 mA/cm2, was also observed at a constant applied electric field of 5 V/μm.

  6. Influence of Ingredients of Carbon Black Nano-Particle Suspension of Ammonia Solution on Viscosity of Nanofluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Bo; DU Kai; ZHANG Xiao-song; YANG Liu

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed on the viscosity of a nanofluid,produced by mixing car-bon black and mulsifier OP-10 using ammonia-water with the ultrasonic dispersion.The results show that,when adding surfactant separately in low mass concentrations,at first the viscosity of solution decreases sharply compared with that of ammonia-water.then increases with increasing the concentration of OP-IO.In a certain concentration of surfactant,the viscosity of nanofluids increases with increasing the concentration of nanoparti·des.Based on Einstein model and Langrnuir absorption theory,a new model啪s summed up for nanoflukls.Compared with test values,the calcuhted values on the new model have verified that the model is suitable to predict the viscosity of rmnofluids.beoll.k.the maximum relative error is less than 5%.Nano-particles absorp-tion in the nanofluids is not only single-molecule layer adsorption,but aLso multi-layer molecular adsorption and other complicated adsorption.So the new model,ordy based on single-molecule layer adsorption theory of Lang-muir.is not fully in line with the real circumstances.

  7. Structural, electrical and magnetic characteristics of nickel substituted cobalt ferrite nano particles, synthesized by self combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sontu, Uday Bhasker, E-mail: sontuudaybhasker@yahoo.co.in; Yelasani, Vijayakumar; Musugu, Venkata Ramana Reddy

    2015-01-15

    Nickel-substituted cobalt ferrite nano-particles are synthesized using a self-combustion method. Aqueous metal nitrates and citric acid form the precursors. No external oxidizing agents are used to change the pH of the precursors; this resulted in a more environment friendly synthesis. Structural, magnetic and electrical characteristics of the nano ferrites are verified using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), VSM and impedance analyzer respectively. Phase formation, particle size, lattice parameter, X-ray density, saturation magnetization, coercivity, dielectric constant and electrical activation energy as function of nickel substitution in cobalt ferrite are studied. It is shown here that the magnetic and electrical properties can be tuned by varying the nickel concentration. - Highlights: • Environmentally less polluting and simple, industrially scalable method of nano-ferrite synthesis. • Repeatability of the method is self-evident from consistent particle size. • Electrical and magnetic properties are tunable due to nickel substitution. • Nickel substitution increases dielectric constant value and also improves electrical resistivity. • Higher concentration of Ni introduces phase impurity into the cubic spinel ferrite.

  8. Application of the PAMONO-Sensor for Quantification of Microvesicles and Determination of Nano-Particle Size Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpacovitch, Victoria; Sidorenko, Irina; Lenssen, Jan Eric; Temchura, Vladimir; Weichert, Frank; Müller, Heinrich; Überla, Klaus; Zybin, Alexander; Schramm, Alexander; Hergenröder, Roland

    2017-01-27

    The PAMONO-sensor (plasmon assisted microscopy of nano-objects) demonstrated an ability to detect and quantify individual viruses and virus-like particles. However, another group of biological vesicles-microvesicles (100-1000 nm)-also attracts growing interest as biomarkers of different pathologies and needs development of novel techniques for characterization. This work shows the applicability of a PAMONO-sensor for selective detection of microvesicles in aquatic samples. The sensor permits comparison of relative concentrations of microvesicles between samples. We also study a possibility of repeated use of a sensor chip after elution of the microvesicle capturing layer. Moreover, we improve the detection features of the PAMONO-sensor. The detection process utilizes novel machine learning techniques on the sensor image data to estimate particle size distributions of nano-particles in polydisperse samples. Altogether, our findings expand analytical features and the application field of the PAMONO-sensor. They can also serve for a maturation of diagnostic tools based on the PAMONO-sensor platform.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Performance and emission characteristics of Various Nano Particles with Bio-Diesel blend on Di Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, N.; Goldwin Xavier, X.; Rajasekar, R.; Ganesh Bairavan, P.; Dhanseelan, S.

    2017-05-01

    Present study provides the effect of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Cerium Oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles additives on the Performance and emission uniqueness of Jatropha. Jatropha blended fuel is prepared by the emulsification technique with assist of mechanical agitator. Nano particles (Zinc Oxide (ZnO)) and Cerium Oxide (CeO2)) mixed with Jatropha blended fuel in mass fraction (100 ppm) with assist of an ultrasonicator. Experiments were conducted in single cylinder constant speed direct injection diesel engine for various test fuels. Performance results revealed that Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide (B20CE) is 3% and 11% higher than Jatropha blended zinc oxide (B20ZO) and Jatropha blended fuel (B20) and 4% lower than diesel fuel (D100) at full load conditions. Emission result shows that HC and CO emissions of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide (B20CE) are (6%, 22%, 11% and 6%, 15%, 12%) less compared with Jatropha blended Zinc Oxide (B20ZO), diesel (D100) and Jatropha blended fuel (B20) at full load conditions. NOx emissions of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide is 1 % higher than diesel fuel (D100) and 2% and 5% lower than Jatropha blended Zinc Oxide, and jatropha blended fuel.

  10. Decoration of cesium iodide nano particles on patterned carbon nanotube emitter arrays to improve their field emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahi, Monika, E-mail: moni.binda@gmail.com; Gautam, S.; Shah, P. V.; Rawat, J. S.; Chaudhury, P. K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory (India); Harsh [Jamia Millia Islamia, Department of Physics (India); Tandon, R. P. [University of Delhi, Department of Physics and Astrophysics (India)

    2013-03-15

    Arrays of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles were synthesized on the pre-patterned silicon substrate using thermal chemical vapor deposition. Silicon substrate was patterned with square arrays of 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 {mu}m iron catalyst using photolithography, iron sputtering, and a lift-off process. After field emission (FE) measurement in diode configuration, CNT emitter arrays (CEAs) were decorated with cesium iodide (CsI) nano particles (NPs) using thermal evaporation with substrate heating at 300 Degree-Sign C. FE of pristine CEAs and CsI NPs decorated CEAs were carried out under same vacuum condition and constant inter-electrode separation. Pristine CEAs and CsI NPs decorated CEAs were characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman characterization. From FE comparison plots, it was observed that CsI NPs decoration on the CEAs had significantly lowered the turn-on electric field from 3.00 to 2.13 V/{mu}m. A remarkable improvement of more than 50 % in the current density, from 11.02 to 17.33 mA/cm{sup 2}, was also observed at a constant applied electric field of 5 V/{mu}m.

  11. H2 formation via the UV photo-processing of a-C:H nano-particles

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, A P

    2015-01-01

    Context. The photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbon, a-C(:H), dust by UV photon-irradiation in the laboratory leads to the release of H2 as well as other molecules and radicals. This same process is also likely to be important in the interstellar medium. Aims. To investigate molecule formation arising from the photo-dissociatively-driven, regenerative processing of a-C(:H) dust. Methods. We explore the mechanism of a-C(:H) grain photolysis leading to the formation of H2 and other molecules/radicals. Results. The rate constant for the photon-driven formation of H2 from a-C(:H) grains is estimated to be 2x10^-17 cm^3 s^-1. In intense radiation fields photon-driven grain decomposition will lead to fragmentation into daughter species rather than H2 formation. Conclusions. The cyclic re-structuring of arophatic a-C(:H) nano-particles appears to be a viable route to formation of H2 for low to moderate radiation field intensities (1 < G_0 < 10^2), even when the dust is warm (T ~ 50 - 100 K).

  12. Forced-Vibration Analysis of a Coupled System of SLGSs by Visco- Pasternak Medium Subjected to a Moving Nano-particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour-Arani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, forced-vibration analysis of a coupled system of single layered graphene sheets (SLGSs subjected to the moving nano-particle is carried out based on nonlocal elasticity theory of orthotropic plate. Two SLGSs are coupled with elastic medium which is simulated by Pasternak and Visco-Pasternak models. Using Hamilton’s principle, governing differential equations of motion are derived and solved analytically. The effects of small scale, aspect ratio, velocity of nano-particle, time parameter, mechanical properties of graphene sheets, Visco-elastic medium on the maximum dynamic responses of each SLGSs are studied. Results indicate that, if the medium (elastic or visco-elastic medium of coupled system becomes more rigid, the maximum dynamic displacements of both SLGSs will be closer together.

  13. Mechanical properties of in-situ prepared SiC whisker- and nano particle-reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, S.; Nagasaka, M.; Natsume, T. [Teikyo Univ. of Sci. and Technol., Yamanashi (Japan); Niihara, K. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Nakahira, A. [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    In-situ preparation of SiC whisker- and nano particle-reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was carried out. Bending strength showed higher values by adding the nano particles `after` the in-situ whiskerizing reaction than `before,` although the improvement was not so remarkable. With regard to fracture toughness, a slightly higher value was observed in the case of adding the particles `before` than `after` the in-situ reaction, where the form of whiskers looked constricted due to the co-existence of particles. Relative density was not so high enough, around 94% to the theoretical value, that HIP apparatus was employed for its densification. A relationship between density and preliminary hot-pressing condition was obtained; however, the effect was not so high enough, up to only 95.5%. (orig.) 3 refs.

  14. Direct Write Processing of Multi-micron Thickness Copper Nano-particle Paste on Flexible Substrates with 532 nm Laser Wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Espiricueta, Dunia; Fearon, Eamonn; Edwardson, Stuart; Dearden, Geoffrey

    The Laser Assisted Direct Write (LA-DW) method has been implemented in the development of different markets and material processing, recently also used for creating Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) or electrical circuitry. The process consists in the deposition of metallic nano-particle (NP) inks, which are afterwards cured or sintered by laser irradiation, thus creating conductive pathways; advantages are speed, accuracy and the protection of the heat affected zone (HAZ). This research will study the behaviour of the heat dissipation relatively within the Nano-particle Copper paste after being irradiated with 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths, research will be developed on different widths and depths deposited onto flat surfaces such as flexible PET. Comparisons to be made between resistivity results obtained from different wavelengths.

  15. Preparation of silver nano-particles immobilized onto chitin nano-crystals and their application to cellulose paper for imparting antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihan; Zhang, Ming; Cheng, Dong; Yang, Rendang

    2016-10-20

    Immobilized silver nano-particles (Ag NPs) possess excellent antimicrobial properties due to their unique surface characteristics. In this paper, immobilized silver nano-particles were synthesized in the presence of chitin nano-crystals (CNC) based on the Tollens mechanism (reduction of silver ion by aldehydes in the chitosan oligosaccharides (COS)) under microwave-assisted conditions. The prepared Ag NPs-loaded CNC nano-composites were then applied onto the paper surface via coating for the preparation of antibacterial paper. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the Ag NPs were immobilized onto the CNC. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results further revealed that the spherical Ag NPs (5-12nm) were well dispersed on the surface of CNC. The coated paper made from the Ag NPs-loaded CNC nano-composites exhibited a high effectiveness of the antibacterial activity against E. coli or S. aureus.

  16. Growth of Carbon Nanotubes over Ni Nano-particles Prepared in Situ by Reduction of La2NiO4 Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel catalyst precursor, La2NiO4, was investigated to synthesize carbon nanotubes, obtained from catalytic disproportionation of CO. The morphology of carbon nanotubes has been examined by TEM (transmission electron micrograph) and SEM (scaning electron micrograph). It was observed that the Ni nano-particle size formed at different reducing temperatures was a key factor to the yield and diameter of carbon nanotubes.

  17. Advances of Epoxy Resin Toughening by Inorganic Nano-particles%无机纳米粒子增韧环氧树脂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛; 戴红旗; 雷文

    2012-01-01

    Epoxy resin is a kind of thermosetting resin that is wildly applied in many fields.It is mainly used as strengthening agent or modifier in paper making industry.However,its further application is restricted because of its rigid property.Adding inorganic nano-particles to epoxy resin matrix is an important method to toughen epoxy resin.In this paper,dispersion methods of inorganic nano-particles in epoxy resin as well as effects of inorganic nano-particles on epoxy resin properties were assembled.In addition,effects of inorganic nano-particle size,content and shape on modified epoxy resin property were analysed,and toughening mechanisms were summarized.%环氧树脂是一类广泛应用的热固性树脂,在造纸工业中主要用作增强剂或者改性剂。然而其质脆,限制了它的进一步开发应用。在环氧树脂基体里添加无机纳米粒子是增韧环氧树脂的一种重要手段。本文综述了无机纳米粒子在环氧树脂基体内的分散方法、无机粒子增韧环氧树脂对环氧树脂的各种性能影响,分析了粒子粒径大小、含量及形态对增韧环氧树脂性能的影响并阐述了无机粒子增韧环氧树脂的机理。

  18. Andromede project: Surface analysis and modification with probes from hydrogen to nano-particles in the MeV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Michael J.; Cottereau, Evelyne [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay, UMR8608, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay (France); Rasser, Bernard; Verzeroli, Elodie [Orsay Physics, ZAC Saint Charles, 95 Av des Monts Auréliens, 13710 Fuveau (France); Agnus, Benoit; Gaubert, Gabriel; Donzel, Xavier [Pantechnik SA, 13 rue de la Résistance, 14400 Bayeux (France); Delobbe, Anne [Orsay Physics, ZAC Saint Charles, 95 Av des Monts Auréliens, 13710 Fuveau (France); Della-Negra, Serge, E-mail: dellaneg@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay, UMR8608, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2015-12-15

    The Andromede project is the center of a multi-disciplinary team which will build a new instrument for surface modification and analysis using the impact of probes from hydrogen to nano-particles (Au{sub 400}{sup +4}) in the MeV range. For this new instrument a series of atomic, polyatomic, molecular and nano-particle ion beams will be delivered using two ion sources in tandem, a liquid metal ion source and an electron cyclotron resonance source. The delivered ion beams will be accelerated to high energy with a 4 MeV van de Graaff type accelerator. By using a suite of probes in the MeV energy range, ion beam analysis techniques, MeV atomic and cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry can all be performed in one location. A key feature of the instrument is its ability to produce an intense beam for injection into the accelerator. The commissioning of the two sources shows that intense beams from atomic ions to nano-particles can be delivered for subsequent acceleration. The calculations and measurements for the two sources are presented.

  19. Photocatalytic removal of doxycycline from aqueous solution using ZnO nano-particles: a comparison between UV-C and visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmoslemi, Shabnam; Mohammadi, Ali; Kobarfard, Farzad; Amini, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide nano-particles were synthesized, characterized and used for photocatalytic degradation of doxycycline using UV-C and visible light. Effects of several operational factors including initial pH of antibiotic solution, initial antibiotic concentration and ZnO nano-particles loading amount were investigated. Comparing photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of doxycycline under UV-C and visible light showed successful application of the method under both light sources. However, reaction rate was higher under UV-C irradiation, which degraded doxycycline almost completely in 5 hours, and 68% mineralization was achieved. Synthesized ZnO nano-particles were successfully applied for photocatalytic degradation of doxycycline in a pharmaceutical wastewater sample. The process was fitted to the pseudo first order kinetic model with rate constants in the range of 6-22(×10(-3)) mg L(-1) min(-1) with respect to initial concentration of doxycycline under UV-C irradiation. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was also employed for describing the photocatalytic reaction with surface reaction kinetic constant kc and equilibrium adsorption constant KLH values calculated as 0.12 mg L(-1) min(-1) and 2.2 L mg(-1), respectively. Degradation of doxycycline was followed by UV-visible spectroscopy and a validated stability indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method that was developed using stressed samples of doxycycline and could selectively determine doxycycline in the presence of its degradation products. Mass spectrometry was used for determining final degradation products.

  20. Indentation analysis of nano-particle using nano-contact mechanics models during nano-manipulation based on atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeinabi, Khadijeh; Korayem, Moharam Habibnejad

    2011-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy is applied to measure intermolecular forces and mechanical properties of materials, nano-particle manipulation, surface scanning and imaging with atomic accuracy in the nano-world. During nano-manipulation process, contact forces cause indentation in contact area between nano-particle and tip/substrate which is considerable at nano-scale and affects the nano-manipulation process. Several nano-contact mechanics models such as Hertz, Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT), Johnson-Kendall-Roberts-Sperling (JKRS), Burnham-Colton-Pollock (BCP), Maugis-Dugdale (MD), Carpick-Ogletree-Salmeron (COS), Pietrement-Troyon (PT), and Sun et al. have been applied as the continuum mechanics approaches at nano-scale. In this article, indentation depth and contact radius between tip and substrate with nano-particle for both spherical and conical tip shape during nano-manipulation process are analyzed and compared by applying theoretical, semiempirical, and empirical nano-contact mechanics models. The effects of adhesion force, as the main contrast point in different nano-contact mechanics models, on nano-manipulation analysis is investigated for different contact radius, and the critical point is discussed for mentioned models.

  1. Magnetic Properties for the Single-domain CoFe2O4 Nano-particles Synthesized by the Hydrothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi; ZHANG Yue; SONG Yu; WANG Jiawei; CHEN Yuang; ZHANG Zhe; DUAN Nian; RUAN Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the size-related magnetism for the single-domain CoFe2O4 nano-particles synthesized using the hydrothermal method. The effects of the reaction temperature and the reaction time on the lattice constants, particle morphologies, and the room-temperature magnetic properties were studied from the X-ray diffraction, the transmission electron microscope, and the vibrating-sample magnetometer. The experimental results show that the samples are composed of CoFe2O4 nano-particles with an average crystallite size (D) smaller than 40 nm, and the magnetic properties of the samples can be manipulated in a wide range:the MS values vary from smaller than 50 emu/g to close to 80 emu/g, and the HC values are between about 200 Oe and 2000 Oe. Additionally, the relationship between HC and 1/D3/2 satisifes linearship, showing the characteristic of single-domain structure. These results indicate that the single-domain CoFe2O4 nano-particles with size controlled between the superparamagnetic critical size and single-domain critical size can be easily prepared using this hydrothermal method.

  2. Physiological Response of Common Glasswort (Salicornia europaea L. to Potassium Nano-Particles Grown in Saline Soils around the Lake Urmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pirzad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of spraying potassium nano-particles on the osmolytes, photosynthetic pigments, total carotenoids and nutrients of aerial parts of common glasswort (Salicornia europaea L., a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the marginal lands of Lake Urmia in 2012. The treatments consisted of application of potassium nano-particle concentrations at five levels (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/l of K nano-particles applied, once, twice and three times. Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that there were significant interaction between the levels and concentrations of potassium nano-particles sprayings on aerial parts with respect to their contents proline, total soluble carbohydrates, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b, total carotenoids (xanthophyll and carotene and nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and sodium. The highest levels of proline (1.84 mg/g dry weight at one time spraying 4 g/l of K, total soluble carbohydrates (66.9 mg/g dry weight at three times spraying 4 g/l, total chlorophyll (26.23 mg/g fresh weight and chlorophyll b (22.85 mg/g fresh weight at two times of water spraying, and chlorophyll a (9.93 mg/g fresh weight at three times of 4g/l of potassium nano-particles sprayings were obtained. The highest nitrogen (0.95 % of aerial parts and phosphorus (2.99 g/kg dry weight of aerial parts contents were obtained from three times water spraying. However, the highest amounts of aerial plant part of potassium (65.08 g/kg dry weight and sodium (403 g/kg dry weight belonged to the two times, and calcium (29.23 g/kg dry weight to the three times spraying of 4 g/l nano-potassium. Despite of the high concentration of osmolytes by potassium spraying, the nutrient accumulations levels were not significantly different from each other.

  3. Investigation of Nano Particles Efficiency Prepared from Cedar Fly Ash (Zizyphus Spinachristi for Lead (Pb+2 Removal from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Divband

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Existence of Heavy metals in water resources is one of the most important environmental problems in many countries. These metals have dangerous effects on human health. The purpose of this study is  to investigate and compare lead removal by nanometer and millimeter absorbents of Zizyphus Spinachristi fly ash.Materials and Methods: This study was non-continuous experiment which was implemented under laboratory conditions with and by changing effective factors such as pH (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, contact time (5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 minutes and adsorbent concentration (1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg/ L. The data was fitted based on four models including Ho et al, Lagergern, Lungmuir and Freundlich which the first two models used for absorption kinetic and the latter two considered as absorption isotherm.Results: The Result of this study showed that as the pH increases from 3 to 5 adsorption efficiency increased as well. Furthermore, when pH was over 5, the metal ions settled down. With increasing contact time, adsorption efficiency increased as well. With increasing the amount of nanometer as an adsorbent, removal efficiency increased and then decreased. Also the adsorption process followed precisely Ho et al kinetic and Langmuir isotherm, for both absorbents. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, specific area of the nano particles was more than millimeter particles (29.56 m2/g & 17.80 m2/g, therefore adsorption capacity of nano absorbent was four times more than adsorption capacity of millimeter (19.93 mg/g & 17.80 mgr/g. Furthermore, the findings concluded high capability of nano particles towards Sorption of lead ions (Pb from aqueous solutions. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso

  4. Biohydrogen and carboxylic acids production from wheat straw hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandolias, Konstantinos; Pardaev, Sindor; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    Hydrolyzed wheat straw was converted into carboxylic acids and biohydrogen using digesting bacteria. The fermentations were carried out using both free and membrane-encased thermophilic bacteria (55°C) at various OLRs (4.42-17.95g COD/L.d), in semi-continuous conditions using one or two bioreactors in a series. The highest production of biohydrogen and acetic acid was achieved at an OLR of 4.42g COD/L.d, whilst the highest lactic acid production occurred at an OLR of 9.33g COD/L.d. Furthermore, the bioreactor with both free and membrane-encased cells produced 60% more lactic acid compared to the conventional, free-cell bioreactor. In addition, an increase of 121% and 100% in the production of acetic and isobutyric acid, respectively, was achieved in the 2nd-stage bioreactor compared to the 1st-stage bioreactor.

  5. Utilization of keratin-containing biowaste to produce biohydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, B.; Rakhely, G.; Kovacs, K.L. [Szeged Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biotechnology; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary). Inst. of Biophysics; Bagi, Z.; Perei, K. [Szeged Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biotechnology; Toth, A. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary). Inst. of Biophysics

    2005-12-01

    A two-stage fermentation system was constructed to test and demonstrate the feasibility of biohydrogen generation from keratin-rich biowaste. We isolated a novel aerobic Bacillus strain (Bacillus licheniformis KK1) that displays outstanding keratinolytic activity. The isolated strain was employed to convert keratin-containing biowaste into a fermentation product that is rich in amino acids and peptides. The process was optimized for the second fermentation step, in which the product of keratin fermentation-supplemented with essential minerals-was metabolized by Thermococcus litoralis, an anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon. T. litoralis grew on the keratin hydrolysate and produced hydrogen gas as a physiological fermentation byproduct. Hyperthermophilic cells utilized the keratin hydrolysate in a similar way as their standard nutrient, i.e., bacto-peptone. The generalization of the findings to protein-rich waste treatment and production of biohydrogen is discussed and possible means of further improvements are listed. (orig.)

  6. Effective removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solutions by modification of nano particles of clinoptilolite with dimethylglyoxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Kabiri-Samani, Mehdi

    2013-09-15

    In this work an Iranian natural clinoptilolite tuff was pre-treated and changed to the micro (MCP) and nano (NCP) particles by mechanical method. Modification of micro and nano particles and also their Ni-exchanged forms were done by dimethylglyoxime (DMG). The raw and modified samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, BET, TG-DTG and energy dispersive analysis X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). Removal of Ni(II) by modified and unmodified samples was investigated in batch procedure. It was found that NCP-DMG has higher capacity for removal of Ni(II). The effects of analytical parameters such as pH, dose of DMG, concentration of nickel solution, contact time and selectivity were studied and the optimal operation parameters were found as follows: pHPZC: 7.6, CNi(II): 0.01 M, contact time: 360 min and DMG dosage: 5mM. The results of selectivity experiments showed that the modified zeolite has a good selectivity for nickel in the presence of different multivalent cations. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were adopted to describe the adsorption isotherms. Adsorption isotherms of Ni(II) ions could be best modelled by Langmuir equation, that indicate the monolayer sorption of Ni(II). Comparison of two kinetic models indicates that the adsorption kinetic can be well described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation that indicates that the rate limiting step for the process involves chemical reaction. The negative ΔH and ΔG indicate an exothermic and spontaneously process. The negative ΔS indicates that the adsorption of nickel cations from solution occurs with lower amount ion replacement, thus chemisorptions due to complex formation are dominant process in nickel removal.

  7. Gold surface supported spherical liposome-gold nano-particle nano-composite for label free DNA sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvana, M; Narayanan, J Shankara; Dharuman, V; Teng, W; Hahn, J H; Jayakumar, K

    2013-03-15

    Immobilization of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) liposome-gold nano-particle (DOPE-AuNP) nano-composite covalently on 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on gold surface is demonstrated for the first time for electrochemical label free DNA sensing. Spherical nature of the DOPE on the MPA monolayer is confirmed by the appearance of sigmoidal voltammetric profile, characteristic behavior of linear diffusion, for the MPA-DOPE in presence of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) and [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+) redox probes. The DOPE liposome vesicle fusion is prevented by electroless deposition of AuNP on the hydrophilic amine head groups of the DOPE. Immobilization of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) is made via simple gold-thiol linkage for DNA hybridization sensing in the presence of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-). The sensor discriminates the hybridized (complementary target hybridized), un-hybridized (non-complementary target hybridized) and single base mismatch target hybridized surfaces sensitively and selectively without signal amplification. The lowest target DNA concentration detected is 0.1×10(-12)M. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance (EIS), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques are used for DNA sensing on DOPE-AuNP nano-composite. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV) spectroscopic techniques are used to understand the interactions between the DOPE, AuNP and ssDNA. The results indicate the presence of an intact and well defined spherical DOPE-AuNP nano-composite on the gold surface. The method could be applied for fabrication of the surface based liposome-AuNP-DNA composite for cell transfection studies at reduced reagents and costs.

  8. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantoro, Markus; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin, Sujito, Hidayat, Arif

    2016-03-01

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C6-C3-C6 carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  9. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diantoro, Markus, E-mail: markus.diantoro.fmipa@um.ac.id; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin,; Sujito,; Hidayat, Arif [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang 5 Malang 65145 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C{sub 6}-C{sub 3}-C{sub 6} carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  10. Biohydrogen Production: Strategies to Improve Process Efficiency through Microbial Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Kuppam Chandrasekhar; Yong-Jik Lee; Dong-Woo Lee

    2015-01-01

    The current fossil fuel-based generation of energy has led to large-scale industrial development. However, the reliance on fossil fuels leads to the significant depletion of natural resources of buried combustible geologic deposits and to negative effects on the global climate with emissions of greenhouse gases. Accordingly, enormous efforts are directed to transition from fossil fuels to nonpolluting and renewable energy sources. One potential alternative is biohydrogen (H2), a clean energy ...

  11. Large-scale biohydrogen production from bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Susanjib; Kumar, Amit

    2010-10-01

    Large amount of hydrogen is consumed during the upgrading of bitumen into synthetic crude oil (SCO), and this hydrogen is exclusively produced from natural gas in Western Canada. Because of large amount of emission from natural gas, alternative sources for hydrogen fuel especially renewable feedstocks could significantly reduce CO(2) emissions. In this study, biomass is converted to bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. This bio-oil is steam reformed near bitumen upgrading plant for producing hydrogen fuel. A techno-economic model is developed to estimate the cost of hydrogen from biomass through the pathway of fast pyrolysis. Three different feedstocks including whole-tree biomass, forest residues (i.e. limbs, branches, and tops of tree produced during logging operations), and straw (mostly from wheat and barley crops) are considered for biohydrogen production. Delivered cost of biohydrogen from whole-tree-based biomass ($2.40/kg of H(2)) is lower than that of forest residues ($3.00/kg of H(2)) and agricultural residues ($4.55/kg of H(2)) at a plant capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day. In this study, bio-oil is produced in the field/forest and transported to a distance of 500 km from the centralized remote bio-oil production plant to bitumen upgrading plant. Feedstock delivery cost and capital cost are the largest cost contributors to the bio-oil production cost, while more than 50% of the cost of biohydrogen production is contributed by bio-oil production and transportation. Carbon credits of $133, $214, and $356/tonne of CO(2) equivalent could make whole-tree, forest residues, and straw-based biohydrogen production competitive with natural gas-based H(2) for a natural gas price of $5/GJ, respectively.

  12. Integration of biohydrogen fermentation and gas separation processes to recover and enrich hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bélafi-Bakó, K.; Búcsú, D.; Pientka, Z.; Bálint, B.; Herbel, Z.; Kovács, K.I.; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    An integrated system for biohydrogen production and separation was designed, constructed and operated where biohydrogen was fermented by Thermococcus litoralis, a heterotrophic archaebacterium, and a two-step gas separation process was coupled to recover and concentrate hydrogen. A special liquid

  13. Biohydrogen production from forest and agricultural residues for upgrading of bitumen from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Susanjib; Kumar, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    In this study, forest residues (limbs, tops, and branches) and straw (from wheat and barley) are considered for producing biohydrogen in Western Canada for upgrading of bitumen from oil sands. Two types of gasifiers, namely, the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) gasifier are considered for biohydrogen production. Production costs of biohydrogen from forest and agricultural residues from a BCL gasification plant with a capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day are 1.17 and 1.29/kg of H{sub 2}, respectively. For large-scale biohydrogen plant, GTI gasification is the optimum technology. The delivered-biohydrogen costs are 2.19 and 2.31/kg of H{sub 2} at a plant capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day from forest and agricultural residues, respectively. Optimum capacity for biohydrogen plant is 3000 dry tonnes/day for both residues in a BCL gasifier. In a GTI gasifier, although the theoretical optimum sizes are higher than 3000 dry tonnes/day for both feedstocks, the cost of production of biohydrogen is flat above a plant size of 3000 dry tonnes/day. Hence, a plant at the size of 3000 dry tonnes/day could be built to minimize risk. Carbon credits of 119 and 124/tonne of CO{sub 2} equivalent are required for biohydrogen from forest and agricultural residues, respectively. (author)

  14. Integration of biohydrogen fermentation and gas separation processes to recover and enrich hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bélafi-Bakó, K.; Búcsú, D.; Pientka, Z.; Bálint, B.; Herbel, Z.; Kovács, K.I.; Wessling, M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated system for biohydrogen production and separation was designed, constructed and operated where biohydrogen was fermented by Thermococcus litoralis, a heterotrophic archaebacterium, and a two-step gas separation process was coupled to recover and concentrate hydrogen. A special liquid se

  15. Continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Huang, Jingang; Zhao, Hongting; Li, Yongfeng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge was performed. The waste bread was first hydrolyzed by the crude enzymes which were generated by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae via solid-state fermentation. It was observed that 49.78g/L glucose and 284.12mg/L free amino nitrogen could be produced with waste bread mass ratio of 15% (w/v). The waste bread hydrolysate was then used for biohydrogen production by anaerobic sludge in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The optimal hydrogen production rate of 7.4L/(Ld) was achieved at chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 6000mg/L. According to the results obtained from this study, 1g waste bread could generate 0.332g glucose which could be further utilized to produce 109.5mL hydrogen. This is the first study which reports continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge.

  16. Bio-hydrogen Production Potential from Market Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanna Jaitalee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studied bio-hydrogen production from vegetable waste from a fresh market in order to recover energy. A series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of initial volatile solids concentration on the bio-hydrogen production process. Lab bench scale anaerobic continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR were used to study the effect of substrate and sludge inoculation on hydrogen production. Three different concentrations of initial total volatile solids (TVS of organic waste were varied from 2%, 3% and 5% respectively. The pH was controlled at 5.5 for all batches in the experiment. The results showed that bio-hydrogen production depended on feed-substrate concentration. At initial TVS content of 3%, the highest hydrogen production was achieved at a level of 0.59 L-H2/L at pH 5.5. The maximum hydrogen yield was 15.3 ml H2/g TVS or 8.5 ml H2/g COD. The composition of H2 in the biogas ranged from 28.1-30.9% and no CH4 was detected in all batch tests.

  17. Production of Biohydrogen from Wastewater by Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Veena; Tiwari, K L; Jadhav, S K

    2015-08-01

    Production of biohydrogen from distillery effluent was carried out by using Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182. The work focuses on optimization of pH, temperature, and state of bacteria, which are the various affecting factors for fermentative biohydrogen production. Results indicates that at 35 °C for suspended cultures, the production was at its maximum (i.e., 91.33 ± 0.88 mL) when compared with other temperatures. At 35 °C and at pH 5 and 6, maximum productions of 117.67 ± 1.45 and 111.67 ± 2.72 mL were observed with no significant difference. When immobilized, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182 was used for biohydrogen production at optimized conditions, production was 186.33 ± 3.17 mL. Hence, immobilized cells were found to be more advantageous for biological hydrogen production over suspended form. Physicochemical analysis of the effluent was conducted before and after fermentation and the values suggested that the fermentative process is an efficient method for biological treatment of wastewater.

  18. Production of biohydrogen from hydrolyzed bagasse with thermally preheated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chairattanamanokorn, Prapaipid [Environmental Technology Unit, Department of Environmental Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Research Group for Development of Microbial Hydrogen Production Process from Biomass (Thailand); Penthamkeerati, Patthra [Environmental Technology Unit, Department of Environmental Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Reungsang, Alissara [Research Group for Development of Microbial Hydrogen Production Process from Biomass (Thailand); Department of Biotechnology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Bangkok (Thailand); Lo, Yung-Chung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Lu, Wei-Bin [Department of Cosmetic Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2009-09-15

    Production of biohydrogen from dark fermentation is an interesting alternative to producing renewable fuels because of its low cost and various usable substrates. Cellulosic content in plentiful bagasse residue is an economically feasible feedstock for biohydrogen production. A statistical experimental design was applied to identify the optimal condition for biohydrogen production from enzymatically hydrolyzed bagasse with 60-min preheated seed sludge. The bagasse substrate was first heated at 100 C for 2 h and was then hydrolyzed with cellulase. Culture of the pretreated bagasse at 55 C provided a higher H{sub 2} production performance than that obtained from cultures at 45 C, 65 C, 35 C and 25 C. On the other hand, the culture at pH 5 resulted in higher H{sub 2} production than the cultures at pH 6, pH 4 and pH 7. The optimal culture condition for the hydrogen production rate was around 56.5 C and pH 5.2, which was identified using response surface methodology. Moreover, the pretreatment of bagasse under alkaline conditions gave a thirteen-fold increase in H{sub 2} production yield when compared with that from preheatment under neutral condition. (author)

  19. Kinetic study of biohydrogen production in mixed cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.-H.; Khanal, S.K.; Sung, S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Civil Construction and Environmental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogen is considered to be a clean energy source and a promising alternative to fossil fuels. The production of biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks such as sugars and organic wastes has gained renewed interest in response to energy insecurity and environmental concerns. The main challenge of producing biohydrogen is the low hydrogen conversion efficiency in the dark fermentation process. A better reactor design could solve the problem. A good index for process design is the microbial growth rate during a growth phase, as this has a strong impact on culture productivity. Microbial growth rate is also a good index for maximizing biohydrogen production. Kinetic studies generally identify the significant operating parameters such as maximum specific growth rate and half-saturation constant. However, this traditional approach cannot be used for hydrogen producing systems. This study established an alternative method to determine growth kinetics for hydrogen producing bacteria. Sucrose and nonfat dairy milk were the substrates used to identify the growth kinetics in a series of batch experiments. The parameters can be used to design a continuous reactor system for an enriched culture of hydrogen producing bacteria. 1 fig.

  20. A Streamlined Strategy for Biohydrogen Production with Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, an Alkaliphilic Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begemann, Matthew B; Mormile, Melanie R; Sitton, Oliver C; Wall, Judy D; Elias, Dwayne A

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are anticipated to enable a shift from fossil fuels for renewable transportation and manufacturing fuels, with biohydrogen considered attractive since it could offer the largest reduction of global carbon budgets. Currently, lignocellulosic biohydrogen production remains inefficient with pretreatments that are heavily fossil fuel-dependent. However, bacteria using alkali-treated biomass could streamline biofuel production while reducing costs and fossil fuel needs. An alkaliphilic bacterium, Halanaerobiumhydrogeniformans, is described that is capable of biohydrogen production at levels rivaling neutrophilic strains, but at pH 11 and hypersaline conditions. H. hydrogeniformans ferments a variety of 5- and 6-carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose including cellobiose, and forms the end products hydrogen, acetate, and formate. Further, it can also produce biohydrogen from switchgrass and straw pretreated at temperatures far lower than any previously reported and in solutions compatible with growth. Hence, this bacterium can potentially increase the efficiency and efficacy of biohydrogen production from renewable biomass resources.

  1. A Streamlined Strategy for Biohydrogen Production with Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, an Alkaliphilic Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eBegemann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are anticipated to enable a shift from fossil fuels for renewable transportation and manufacturing fuels, with biohydrogen considered attractive since it could offer the largest reduction of global carbon budgets. Currently, lignocellulosic biohydrogen production remains inefficient with pretreatments that are heavily fossil fuel-dependent. However, bacteria using alkali-treated biomass could streamline biofuel production while reducing costs and fossil fuel needs. An alkaliphilic bacterium, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, is described that is capable of biohydrogen production at levels rivaling neutrophilic strains, but at pH 11 and hypersaline conditions. H. hydrogeniformans ferments a variety of 5- and 6- carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose including cellobiose, and forms the end products hydrogen, acetate and formate. Further, it can also produce biohydrogen from switchgrass and straw pretreated at temperatures far lower than any previously reported and in solutions compatible with growth. Hence, this bacterium can potentially increase the efficiency and efficacy of biohydrogen production from renewable biomass resources.

  2. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed.

  3. FIELD TEST OF NONFUEL HYDROCARBON BIOVENTING IN CLAYEY-SAND SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale bioventing test was conducted at the Greenwood Chemical Superfund Site in Virginia. The characteristics of the site included clayey-sand soils and nonfuel organic contamination such as acetone, toluene, and naphthalene in the vadose zone. Based on the results of an...

  4. Assessing PAH removal from clayey soil by means of electro-osmosis and electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, L.M.; Heister, K.; Loch, J.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent and toxic contaminants which are difficult to remove from fine porous material like clayey soils. The present work aims at studying two electroremediation techniques for the removal of PAHs from a spiked natural silt soil from Saudi Arabia and a

  5. Coupled transport in clayey materials with emphasis on induced electrokinetic phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heister, Katja

    2005-01-01

    Movement of water and solutes in clay is important in groundwater and waste management, e.g. in seawater intrusion in near costal areas, in clay liners at disposal sites, in emissions from contaminated clayey sediments and sludges and in radioactive waste storage in clay formations. Dense clays act

  6. Assessing PAH removal from clayey soil by means of electro-osmosis and electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, L.M.; Heister, K.; Loch, J.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent and toxic contaminants which are difficult to remove from fine porous material like clayey soils. The present work aims at studying two electroremediation techniques for the removal of PAHs from a spiked natural silt soil from Saudi Arabia and

  7. Assessment of geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITENDRA SINGH YADAV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Discarded waste tires are becoming a serious threat to health, environment, and ecological systems worldwide if it is not disposed of properly. Every year 1000 million of waste tires are discarded. This number may grow up to 1200 million by the year 2030. On the other hand, construction of civil engineering structures such as buildings, dams, highways, etc. are at high risk of differential settlement, especially in the case of weak or soft clay, which is due to its low shear strength and high compressibility. The paper aims to assess geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber. Compaction parameters, unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, toughness index, CBR values and swelling pressure of rubberized uncemented/cemented clayey soil (3%, and 6% cement and different percentage of crumb rubber have been obtained. After rigorous extensive study, it has been concluded that unconfined compressive strength and split tensile strength of rubberized cemented clayey soil decreases with the increase of the percentage of crumb rubber whereas the axial, and diametral strain are found to be increased with the addition of crumb rubber up to 5% after that it starts to decrease. The CBR values, swelling pressure, and toughness index of uncemented/cemented clayey soil was significantly affected by incorporation of crumb rubber. SEM studies have also been incorporated in this investigation.

  8. Effect of silver nano-particles on soil microbial growth, activity and community diversity in a sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, A D; Velicogna, J R; Princz, J I; Subasinghe, R M; Scroggins, R P; Beaudette, L A

    2017-01-01

    Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) are widely used in a range of consumer products as a result of their antimicrobial properties. Given the broad spectrum of uses, AgNPs have the potential for being released to the environment. As a result, environmental risks associated with AgNPs need to be assessed to aid in the development of regulatory guidelines. Research was performed to assess the effects of AgNPs on soil microbial activity and diversity in a sandy loam soil with an emphasis on using a battery of microbial tests involving multiple endpoints. The test soil was spiked with PVP coated (0.3%) AgNPs at the following concentrations of 49, 124, 287, 723 and 1815 mg Ag kg(-1) dry soil. Test controls included an un-amended soil; soil amended with PVP equivalent to the highest PVP concentration of the coated AgNP; and soil amended with humic acid, as 1.8% humic acid was used as a suspension agent for the AgNPs. The impact on soil microbial community was assessed using an array of tests including heterotrophic plate counting, microbial respiration, organic matter decomposition, soil enzyme activity, biological nitrification, community level physiological profiling (CLPP), Ion Torrent™ DNA sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). An impact on microbial growth, activity and community diversity was evident from 49 to 1815 mg kg(-1) with the median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) as low as 20-31 mg kg(-1) depending on the test. AgNP showed a notable impact on microbial functional and genomic diversity. Emergence of a silver tolerant bacterium was observed at AgNP concentrations of 49-287 mg kg(-1) after 14-28 days of incubation, but not detectable at 723 and 1815 mg kg(-1). The bacterium was identified as Rhodanobacter sp. The study highlighted the effectiveness of using multiple microbial endpoints for inclusion to the environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials.

  9. Coupling Fe{sup 0} nano particles with living and dead Azolla filicoloides to improve removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhshaee, Roohan, E-mail: roohan_rakhshaee@guilan.ac.ir

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • The novel living and dead bio–nano couples were prepared. • Living Azolla was more effective stabilizer for nano particles. • Increasing stabilization increased methylene blue (MB) adsorption. • The portion of Fe{sup 0} NPs had the main rule to determine kinetic model to adsorb MB. • It was studied the various factors rule on the living Azolla growth and MB removal. - Abstract: Fe{sup 0} nano particles (FNPs) were connected to the cell wall of the dead and living Azolla filicoloides as an aquatic fern, individually. FNPs mean size was decreased due to the stabilization, especially using the living one. It was compared the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), saturation magnetization (Ms), zeta potential (ZP) and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) of the dead and living Azolla connected to FNPs, and also the findings of potentiometric titration (PT) of the cell wall's pectin of the dead and living Azolla. It was confirmed (by XRD and XPS) that Fe{sup 0} nano particles when were connected to the living Azolla did not produce Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} due to oxidation unlike the bare FNPs and the connected form to the dead Azolla, by reason of the more stabilization (more surface protection) of nano iron particles after connecting to the living Azolla. To adsorb methylene blue by these agents at the optimum pre-treatment pH 10 and adsorption pH 8, the parameters of equilibrium sorption, rate constant of second-order sorption and activation energy were obtained as: living Azolla–FNPs > dead Azolla–FNPs > FNPs > dead Azolla, while, their thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) had the reverse arrangement. It was also studied the various factors rule such as photoperiod and the presence of heavy metals on the living Azolla growth coupled with FNPs and its MB removal ability.

  10. Optimisation and enhancement of biohydrogen production using nickel nanoparticles - a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullai, P; Yogeswari, M K; Sridevi, K

    2013-08-01

    The effect of initial glucose concentration, initial pH and nickel nanoparticles concentration on biohydrogen production was experimented at mesophilic temperature (30-35 °C) using anaerobic microflora in batch tests. It revealed that yield of biohydrogen using nickel nanoparticles with an average size of 13.64 nm was higher than the corresponding control tests. The optimisation of biohydrogen production was carried out by employing response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design (CCD). Results showed that the maximum cumulative biohydrogen production of 4400 mL and biohydrogen yield of 2.54 mol of hydrogen/mol of glucose was achieved at optimum conditions, initial glucose concentration of 14.01 g/L at initial pH of 5.61 and nickel nanoparticles concentration of 5.67 mg/L. The results demonstrated that linear and interactive effect of initial substrate concentration and nickel nanoparticles concentration was significant in optimisation of biohydrogen production. Nickel nanoparticles enhanced the biohydrogen production by 22.71%.

  11. Fluctuation induced conductivity studies in YBa2Cu3Oy compound embedded by superconducting nano-particles Y-deficient YBa2Cu3Oy: effect of silver inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi, E.; Slimani, Y.; Ben Salem, M. K.; Hamrita, A.; Al-Otaibi, A. L.; Almessiere, M. A.; Ben Salem, M.; Ben Azzouz, F.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of superconducting Y-deficient YBa2Cu3Oy nano-particles prepared by the planetary ball milling technique and silver inclusion on electrical fluctuation conductivity of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy has been reported. Samples, synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction technique, have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and electrical resistivity. Scanning electron microscope analyses show that nano-particles of Y-deficient YBa2Cu3Oy are embedded in the superconducting matrix. The density of these nano-particles strongly depends on milling parameters. The fluctuation conductivity has been analyzed as a function of reduced temperature using the Aslamazov-Larkin model. Three different fluctuation regions namely critical, mean-field and short-wave are observed. The zero-temperature coherence length, the effective layer thickness of the two-dimensional system, critical magnetic fields and critical current density are estimated. Superconducting parameters are affected by Y-deficient YBa2Cu3Oy nano-particles. It has been found that attainment of an optimum concentration and well-dispersed of nano-sized inclusions by ball milling process improves the physical properties. On the other hand, the sample with Y-deficient YBa2Cu3Oy nano-particles and Ag exhibits better superconducting properties in comparison with free added one.

  12. Biohydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of waste. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakashev, D.; Angelidaki, I.

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this project was to investigate and increase dark fermentative hydrogen production from organic wastes by optimizing important process parameters (reactor type, pH, temperature, organic loading, retention time, inoculation strategy, microbial composition). Labscale experiments were carried out at the Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. A two steps process for hydrogen production in the first step and methane production in the second step in serial connected fully mixed reactors was developed and could successfully convert organic matter to approx. 20-25 % hydrogen and 15-80 % to methane. Sparging with methane produced in the second stage could significantly increase the hydrogen production. Additionally it was shown that upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system was very promising for high effective biohydrogen production from glucose at 70 deg C. Glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers demonstrated high efficient extreme thermophilic biohydrogen production with mixed cultures. Repeated batch cultivations via exposure of the cultures to increased concentrations of household solid waste was found to be most useful method to enhance hydrogen production rate and reduce lag phase of extreme thermophilic fermentation process. Low level of pH (5.5) at 3-day HRT was enough to inhibit completely the methanogenesis and resulted in stable extreme thermophilic hydrogen production. Homoacetogenisis was proven to be an alternative competitor to biohydrogen production from organic acids under thermophilic (55 deg. C) conditions. With respect to microbiology, 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed to monitor the spatial distribution of hydrogen producing bacteria in sludge and granules from anaerobic reactors. An extreme thermophilic (70 deg. C), strict anaerobic, mixed microbial culture with high hydrogen producing potential was enriched from digested household waste. Culture

  13. Ion induced transformation of polymer films into diamond-like carbon incorporating silver nano particles; Ioneninduzierte Umwandlung von Polymerschichten zu diamantaehnlichem Kohlenstoff mit darin enthaltenen Silber-Nanopartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Florian P.

    2010-03-26

    Silver containing diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an interesting material for medical engineering from several points of view. On the one hand DLC provides high mechanical robustness. It can be used as biocompatible and wear resistant coating for joint replacing implants. On the other hand silver has antimicrobial properties, which could reduce post-operative inflammations. However conventional production of Ag-DLC by co-deposition of silver and carbon in a plasma process is problematic since it does not allow for a separate control of nano particle morphology and matrix properties. In this work an alternative production method has been developed to circumvent this problem. In metall-DLC-production by ion implantation into a nano composite, silver nano particles are initially formed in solution and then incorporated within a polymer matrix. Finally the polymer is transformed into DLC by ion implantation. The aspects and single steps of this method were investigated with regard to the resulting material's properties. The goal was to design an economically relevant deposition method. Based on experimental results a model of the transformation process has been established, which has also been implemented in a computer simulation. Finally the antibacterial properties of the material have been checked in a biomedical test. Here a bacterial killing rate of 90% could be achieved. (orig.)

  14. Study on characteristics of Ni-W-B composites containing CeO2 nano-particles prepared by pulse electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Junli; XU Ruidong; ZHANG Yuzhi

    2012-01-01

    Ni-W-B composites containing CeO2 nano-particles on the surface of 45 steel were prepared by pulse electrodeposition,and the influence of pulse frequency,pulse duty circle and heat treatment temperature on the structures and properties were investigated.The results indicated that the pulse co-deposition of Ni,W,B and CeO2 nano-particles led to Ni-W-B/CeO2 composites possessing higher microhardness and better wear resistance when heat-treated at 400 ℃ for 1 h.The microhardness of 636 HV and the deposition rate of 0.0281 mm/h of the as-deposited alloy were the highest at pulse frequency of 1000 Hz,pulse duty circle of 10% and pulse average current density of 10 A/dm2.The composites were mainly in the amorphous state and were partially crystallized as-deposited,and the crystallization trend was strengthened when heat-treated at 400 ℃.Decreasing pulse duty cycle from 75% to 10% was favorable to the refinement in grain strctures and improvement ofmicrostructures.The crystal sizes of the composites were smaller by means of pulse electrodeposition.

  15. Identification of TiO2 clusters present during synthesis of sol-gel derived TiO2 nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    can be varied in order to obtain TiO2 particles with specific properties (Tailored materials). The TiO2 particles are formed by hydrolysis and condensation of titanium alkoxides. The properties of the final TiO2 particles are strongly affected by the kinetics of these reactions.1 Experimental...... nano-particles is lacking but is highly important for full control of the synthesis and production of nano-particles. In this study titanium dioxide clusters present during nucleation and growth of sol-gel derived TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated by help of electro spray mass spectrometry (ESI......-MS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Depending on the involved precursor TiO2 clusters of different sizes were identified (TTIP ~ 11-12 Ti atoms, TTB ~ 10-11 Ti atoms, and TTE ~ 5-7 Ti atoms).4 The Ti-O-Ti backbone/core of the titanium clusters were found to be quite stable after formation and do not easily...

  16. 沉淀法制备纳米氧化铟粉末%PREPARATION OF IN2O3 NANO-PARTICLES BY PRECIPITATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡加佳; 李晨辉; 柯文明; 王小伟; 黄帅

    2011-01-01

    为了开发适合工业化大规模生产超细且分散性好的InO粉体的方法,作者以金属铟、盐酸、氨水为原料,对化学沉淀法制备纳米氧化铟粉末的过程进行了研究.通过严格控制实验条件制备出了单相、分散性好、晶粒尺寸约为30nm,粒度分布范围窄的立方晶系纳米InO球形粉末.%In order to develop a suitable method for industrial mass production of In2O3 nano-particles which were ultrafine and good dispersion, the author studied the process of chemical precipitation method using indium, hydrochloric acid, ammonia as raw material. The spherical cubic In2O3 nano-particles were synthesized by controlling the experimental conditions strictly. They were single phase, well dispersed,with the grain size apr. 30nm, narrow particle size distribution.

  17. 纳米改性矿物绝缘油的老化特性研究%Oxidation Resistance Study of Nano-Particles Modiifed Mineral Transformer Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马军; 周月梅; 朱正国; 舒俊; 黄超

    2016-01-01

    The preparative nano-modiifcation mineral oil was taken as the specimen to respectively test oil sample micro-water content, break-down voltage, dielectric loss and acid value for the mineral transformer oil with the temperature of 100℃ and 35 days aging at the intervals of 7 days before and after nano-particles added, to examine the property of the mineral transformer oil before and after aging. The test results show that the physicochemical and electrical properties of different types of mineral transformer oil after aging have different degrees of degradation and deterioration, and the oxidation resistance of nano-particles mineral oil is better.%以制备的纳米改性矿物油为研究样品,对添加纳米颗粒前后矿物绝缘油在100℃、老化35天、每隔7天分别测试油样微水含量、击穿电压、介质损耗及酸值,考核老化前后矿物绝缘油性能。测试结果显示,老化前后不同矿物绝缘油理化电气性能均会出现不同程度劣化,添加有纳米颗粒的矿物油表现出更好的抗氧化性能。

  18. Hollow nano-particles formation for CuO-CeO2-ZrO2 via a supercritical anti-solvent process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜浩锡; 周佳丽; 孙焕花; 李永辉; 张敏华

    2016-01-01

    Hollow CuO-CeO2-ZrO2nano-particles were prepared with supercritical anti-solvent apparatus by using methanol as sol-vent and supercritical carbon dioxide as anti-solvent. Two key factors (i.e., pressure and temperature) were investigated to explore the effects of catalyst structure and physic-chemical properties (i.e., morphology, reducing property, oxygen storage capacity and specific surface area). The resulting materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron micros-copy (HRTEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET),hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and oxygen storage capac-ity (OSC) measurement, respectively. The experimental results showed that lower temperatures promoted production of hollow struc-ture nano-particulates. The particle morphology also changed significantly, i.e. the solid construction was first transferred to hollow structure then back to solid construction. The optimal conditions for obtaining hollow nano-particles were determined at 45 °C, 18.0–24.0 MPa.

  19. Development of a silica monolith modified with Fe3O4 nano-particles in centrifugal spin column format for the extraction of phosphorylated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwy, Ali; Clarke, Sarah P; Brougham, Dermot F; Twamley, Brendan; Paull, Brett; White, Blánaid; Connolly, Damian

    2015-01-01

    In this study, citrate-stabilised iron oxide nano-particles (∼16 nm) have been immobilised on commercial silica monolithic centrifugal spin columns (MonoSpin) for the extraction of phosphorylated compounds. Two alternative strategies were adopted involving either direct electrostatic attachment to an aminated MonoSpin (single-layer method) in the first instance, or the use of a layer-by-layer method with poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride. Field-emission scanning electron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used for confirming notably higher coverage of nano-particles using the layer-by-layer method (2.49 ± 0.53 wt%) compared with the single-layer method (0.43 ± 0.30 wt%). The modified monolith was used for the selective separation/extraction of adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate with elution using a phosphate buffer. A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic assay was used for confirming that adenosine, as a non-phosphorylated control was not retained on the modified MonoSpin devices, whereas recovery of 80% for adenosine monophosphate, 86% for adenosine diphosphate and 82% for adenosine triphosphate was achieved.

  20. Comparative study of three magnetic nano-particles (FeSO4, FeSO4/SiO2, FeSO4/SiO2/TiO2) in plasmid DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, H; Sattarzadeh, A; Kazemi, F; Ahmadi, N; Sanjarian, F; Zand, Z

    2016-11-15

    Recent updates on Magnetic Nano-Particles (MNPs) based separation of nucleic acids have received more attention due to their easy manipulation, simplicity, ease of automation and cost-effectiveness. It has been indicated that DNA molecules absorb on solid surfaces via hydrogen-bonding, and hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. These properties highly depend on the surface condition of the solid support. Therefore, surface modification of MNPs may enhance their functionality and specification. In the present study, we functionalized Fe3O4 nano-particle surface utilizing SiO2 and TiO2 layer as Fe3O4/SiO2 and Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 and then compare their functionality in the adsorption of plasmid DNA molecules with the naked Fe3O4 nano-particles. The result obtained showed that the purity and amount of DNA extracted by Fe3O4 coated by SiO2 or SiO2/TiO2 were higher than the naked Fe3O4 nano-particles. Furthermore, we obtained pH 8 and 1.5 M NaCl as an optimal condition for desorption of DNA from MNPs. The result further showed that, 0.2 mg nano-particle and 10 min at 55 °C are the optimal conditions for DNA desorption from nano-particles. In conclusion, we recommended Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 as a new MNP for separation of DNA molecules from biological sources.

  1. Thermo-Poro-Mechanical Properties of Clayey Gouge and Application to Rapid Fault Shearing

    CERN Document Server

    Sulem, Jean; Vardoulakis, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanism of fault pressurization in rapid slip events is analyzed on the basis of a complete characterization of the thermo-poro-mechanical behavior of a clayey gouge extracted at 760m depth in Aigion fault in the active seismic zone of the Gulf of Corinth, Greece. It is shown that the thermally collapsible character of this clayey gouge can be responsible for a dramatic reduction of effective stress and a full fluidization of the material. The thickness of the 'ultra localized' zone of highly strained material is a key parameter that controls the competing phenomena of pore pressure increase leading to fluidization of the fault gouge and temperature increase leading to pore fluid vaporization.

  2. Physical and geotechnical properties of cement-treated clayey soil using silica nanoparticles: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasabkolaei, N.; Janalizadeh, A.; Jahanshahi, M.; Roshan, N.; Ghasemi, Seiyed E.

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the use of nanosilica to improve geotechnical characteristics of cement-treated clayey soil from the coastal area of the eastern Caspian Sea in the Golestan province, Iran. Atterberg limits, unconfined compressive strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were performed to investigate the soil plastic and strength parameters. The specimens were prepared by mixing soil with 9% cement and various contents of nanosilica. An ultrasonic bath device was used to disperse nanosilica in water. The addition of nanosilica enhanced the strength parameters of the clayey soil. Moreover, a nanosilica percentage of 1.5% by weight of cement improved the compressive strength of the cement-treated clay up to 38%, at age of 28 days. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to evaluate specimen morphology. SEM and AFM results confirm the experimental ones. Therefore, nanosilica can be employed for soil improvement in geotechnical engineering.

  3. Structural bonding-breakage constitutive model for natural unsaturated clayey soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Cheng-Gang; Qin, Xiao-Ming

    2010-12-01

    The natural clayey soils are usually structural and unsaturated, which makes their mechanical properties quite different from the remolded saturated soils. A structural constitutive model is proposed to simulate the bonding-breakage micro-mechanism. In this model, the unsaturated soil element is divided into a cementation element and a friction element according to the binary medium theory, and the stress-strain coordination for these two elements is obtained. The cementation element is regarded as elastic, whereas the friction element is regarded as elastoplastic which can be described with the Gallipoli's model. The theoretical formulation is verified with the comparative experiments of isotropic compressions on the saturated and unsaturated structural soils. Parametric analyses of the effects of damage variables on the model predictions are further carried out, which show that breakage deformation of natural clayey soils increases with the rising amount of initial defects.

  4. Ruminal Biohydrogenation Pattern of Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acid as Influenced by Dietary Tannin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuraga Jayanegara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids undergo transformation processes in the rumen through microbial biohydrogenation to form fatty acids with higher saturation degree. The respective process explains the high content of saturated fatty acids in products of ruminants and the potential risk of consumers’ health by consuming such products. Various nutritional approaches have been attempted to modulate biohydrogenation process in order to obtain healthier fatty acid profile from consumers’ perspective. The present paper is aimed to review the influence of dietary tannin, a naturally produced plant secondary compound, on the pattern of polyunsaturated fatty acids biohydrogenation occurring in the rumen. The effect of tannin on some key fatty acids involved in biohydrogenation process is presented together with the underlying mechanisms, particularly from up-to-date research results. Accordingly, different form of tannin as well as different level of the application are also discussed.

  5. Bio-hydrogen production by dark fermentation from organic wastes and residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dawei

    Der er stigende opmærksomhed omkring biohydrogen. Ved hydrogen fermentering kan kun en lille del af det organiske materiale eller COD i affald omdannes til hydrogen. Der findes endnu ingen full-skala bio-hydrogen anlæg, eftersom effektive rentable teknologier ikke er udviklet endnu. En to......-trins proces der kombinerer bio-hydrogen og bio-metan produktionen er en attraktiv mulighed til at øge det totale energi-udbytte af fermentering af organisk materiale. I en to-trins proces, med bio-hydrogen som første trin og bio-methan som andet trin, kunne der opnås 43mL-H2/gVSadded ved 37°C fra...

  6. CFD optimization of continuous stirred-tank (CSTR) reactor for biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Xue-Fei; Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Wan-Qian

    2010-09-01

    There has been little work on the optimal configuration of biohydrogen production reactors. This paper describes three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of gas-liquid flow in a laboratory-scale continuous stirred-tank reactor used for biohydrogen production. To evaluate the role of hydrodynamics in reactor design and optimize the reactor configuration, an optimized impeller design has been constructed and validated with CFD simulations of the normal and optimized impeller over a range of speeds and the numerical results were also validated by examination of residence time distribution. By integrating the CFD simulation with an ethanol-type fermentation process experiment, it was shown that impellers with different type and speed generated different flow patterns, and hence offered different efficiencies for biohydrogen production. The hydrodynamic behavior of the optimized impeller at speeds between 50 and 70 rev/min is most suited for economical biohydrogen production.

  7. Acid tolerance response (ATR) of microbial communities during the enhanced biohydrogen process via cascade acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoqin; Xia, Yan; Yan, Qun; Shen, Wei; Zhao, Mingxing

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced biohydrogen production via cascade acid stress on microbial communities, structure patterns of the microbial communities revealed by PLFAs, and the succession of biohydrogen related species against cascade acid stress were all investigated. It was found that hydrogen production could be improved from 48.7 to 79.4mL/gVS after cascade acid stress. In addition, the Gram negative (G(-)) bacteria were found to be more tolerant to organic acids than those of the Gram positive (G(+)) bacteria, regardless of the dominance of G(+) bacteria within the microbial communities. Moreover, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium aciditolerans and Azospira oryzae, were proved to be enriched, and then might play indispensable roles for the enhanced biohydrogen production after cascade acid stress, as which were responsible for the biohydrogen accumulation, acid tolerance and nitrogen removal, respectively.

  8. Challenges in developing biohydrogen as a sustainable energy source: implications for a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentner, Laura B; Peccia, Jordan; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program aims to develop hydrogen as an energy carrier to decrease emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants and reduce the use of fossil fuels. However, current hydrogen production technologies are not sustainable as they rely heavily on fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly through electricity generation. Production of hydrogen by microorganisms, biohydrogen, has potential as a renewable alternative to current technologies. The state-of-the-art for four different biohydrogen production mechanisms is reviewed, including biophotolysis, indirect biophotolysis, photofermentation, and dark fermentation. Future research challenges are outlined for bioreactor design, optimization of bioreactor conditions, and metabolic engineering. Development of biohydrogen technologies is still in the early stages, although some fermentation systems have demonstrated efficiencies reasonable for implementation. To enhance the likelihood of biohydrogen as a feasible system to meet future hydrogen demands sustainably, directed investment in a strategic research agenda will be necessary.

  9. Catalytic property of an indium-deposited powder-type material containing silicon and its dependence on the dose of indium nano-particles irradiated by a pulse arc plasma process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yoshimura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium nano-particle irradiations onto zeolite powders were carried out using a pulse arc plasma source system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and scanning electron microscopic studies of an indium irradiated zeolite sample revealed that indium nano-particles were successfully deposited on the sample. Besides, the sample was found to be capable of catalyzing an organic chemical reaction (i.e., Friedel-Crafts alkylation. Then, we examined whether or not the catalytic ability depends on the irradiated indium dose, having established the optimal indium dose for inducing the catalytic effect.

  10. Ruminal biohydrogenation as affected by tannins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, Valentina; Makkar, Harinder P S; Mele, Marcello; Priolo, Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effects of tannins from carob (CT; Ceratonia siliqua), acacia leaves (AT; Acacia cyanophylla) and quebracho (QT; Schinopsis lorentzii) on ruminal biohydrogenation in vitro. The tannins extracted from CT, AT and QT were incubated for 12 h in glass syringes in cow buffered ruminal fluid (BRF) with hay or hay plus concentrate as a substrate. Within each feed, three concentrations of tannins were used (0.0, 0.6 and 1.0 mg/ml BRF). The branched-chain volatile fatty acids, the branched-chain fatty acids and the microbial protein concentration were reduced (P < 0.05) by tannins. In the tannin-containing fermenters, vaccenic acid was accumulated (+23 %, P < 0.01) while stearic acid was reduced ( - 16 %, P < 0.0005). The concentration of total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in the BRF was not affected by tannins. The assay on linoleic acid isomerase (LA-I) showed that the enzyme activity (nmol CLA produced/min per mg protein) was unaffected by the inclusion of tannins in the fermenters. However, the CLA produced by LA-I (nmol/ml per min) was lower in the presence of tannins. These results suggest that tannins reduce ruminal biohydrogenation through the inhibition of the activity of ruminal micro-organisms.

  11. Bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Qi Feng; Xie Binfei; Cen Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University No.38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, (China)

    2006-07-01

    The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation of digested sludge is studied in this paper. The compositions of bio-gases and volatile fatty acids in fermentation liquids are determined on TRACE 2000 gas chromatography. It is found that the H{sub 2} concentration in the biogas is 10%-20% and no CH{sub 4} is detected. The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth with the initial pH value of 5.5 is higher than that with the initial pH value of 4.5. The fermentation temperature of 55 C is better than that of 35 C, while the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism of 1:1 is better than that of 3:7. The highest hydrogen production of 122.3 mL/g is obtained when the initial pH value of fermentation solution is 5.5, the fermentation temperature is 55 C and the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism is 1:1. (authors)

  12. Critical parameters for optimal biomass refineries: the case of biohydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukios, Emmanuel; Koullas, Dimitrios; Koukios, Irene Daouti; Avgerinos, Emmanouil [National Technical University of Athens, Bioresource Technology Unit, School of Chemical Engineering, Athens (Greece)

    2010-04-15

    The object of this paper is to identify and assess the elements taken from agro-industries and fossil hydrocarbon refineries, especially with respect to biomass logistics, fractionation kinetics, and process energetics. Such critical information will be of immediate use by policy and decision makers, especially in the early phase of planning and designing the first generation of biorefineries. Concerning feedstock logistics, biorefineries have a lot to learn from food and wood supply chains. This learning could lead to the deployment of complex, decentralised, stage-wise biorefining systems, consisting of local agro-refineries, regional biorefineries, where the primary plant fractions are processed and upgraded to useful intermediates, and central bioconversion units for the generation of market-grade biofuels, such as biohydrogen and other high value-added vectors. The kinetic aspects of biorefineries are related to the physico-chemical nature of the macromolecules. Finally, to solve the problem of the non-optimal energy transformations a tailored-up bioenergy plan is proposed for each biorefinery. The example of a wheat bran-based biorefinery, aiming at the production of biohydrogen will be used to illustrate the way ahead. (orig.)

  13. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology]|[Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Ahring, B.K. [Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Lyberatos, G. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology

    2004-07-01

    Biomass rich in carbohydrates is a potential source of hydrogen. Fermentative hydrogen production includes the transformation of sugars into volatile fatty acids (VFA) without a major effect on the organic content. This study examined the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, the semi-solid residue resulting from the two-phase processing of olives. Formation of VFA during acidogenesis of organic matter precedes methanogenesis. Therefore, anaerobic digestion can potentially be coupled with a preliminary step for hydrogen production. This study focused on production of methane from the raw olive pulp; anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; and, subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with production of methane. Continuous and batch experiments were performed. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen effluent was up to 19 mmole of methane per gram of total solids. It was concluded that olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production and that biohydrogen can be coupled with a subsequent step for methane production. 12 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Improving biohydrogen production using Clostridium beijerinckii immobilized with magnetite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelert, Trevor; Ghosh, Dipankar; Yargeau, Viviane

    2015-05-01

    In order to supplement the need for alternative energy resources within the near future, enhancing the production of biohydrogen with immobilized Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB8052 was investigated. Magnetite nanoparticles were functionalized, with chitosan and alginic acid polyelectrolytes using a layer-by-layer method, to promote bacterial attachment. Cultivating C. beijerinckii with these nanoparticles resulted in a shorter lag growth phase and increased total biohydrogen production within 100-ml, 250-ml and 3.6-L reactors compared with freely suspended organisms. The greatest hydrogen yield was obtained in the 250-ml reactor with a value of 2.1 ± 0.7 mol H2/mol glucose, corresponding to substrate conversion and energy conversion efficiencies of 52 ± 18 and 10 ± 3 %, respectively. The hydrogen yields obtained using the immobilized bacteria are comparable to values found in literature. However, to make this process viable, further improvements are required to increase the substrate and energy conversion efficiencies.

  15. Sodium borohydride removes aldehyde inhibitors for enhancing biohydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-12-01

    To enhance biohydrogen production from glucose and xylose in the presence of aldehyde inhibitors, reducing agent (i.e., sodium borohydride) was in situ added for effective detoxification. The detoxification efficiencies of furfural (96.7%) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 91.7%) with 30mM NaBH4 were much higher than those of vanillin (77.3%) and syringaldehyde (69.3%). Biohydrogen fermentation was completely inhibited without detoxification, probably because of the consumption of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by inhibitors reduction (R-CHO+2NADH→R-CH2OH+2NAD(+)). Addition of 30mM NaBH4 provided the reducing power necessary for inhibitors reduction (4R-CHO+NaBH4+2H2O→4R-CH2OH+NaBO2). The recovered reducing power in fermentation resulted in 99.3% recovery of the hydrogen yield and 64.6% recovery of peak production rate. Metabolite production and carbon conversion after detoxification significantly increased to 63.7mM and 81.9%, respectively.

  16. Mineralogical and particulate morphological characterization of geophagic clayey soils from Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges-Ivo Ekosse

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the minerals composition and particle morphology of geophagic clayey soils from Botswana in order to infer on how they could influence human health. Six representative geophagic clayey soils from Botswana were mineralogically characterized using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD, optical microscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. Results of identified mineral phases revealed quartz (SiO2 as the most dominant in all samples constituting close to 70 wt %; followed by goethite (FeO.OH having a mean concentration of 9 wt%, and kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH4 with a mean concentration of 8 wt%. Other minerals present were smectite ((Na,Ca(Al,Mg6(Si4O103(OH6-n(H2O, mica (AB2-3(Al,SiSi3O10(F,OH2, feldspar (Na/K(AlSi3O8 and hematite (Fe2O3. The quartz particles were generally coarse; and angular to very angular in morphology. Due to ions present in goethite, kaolinite, and smectite, these minerals impact positively on properties of geophagic clayey soils and could possibly influence human health when consumed. The quartz particles could negatively affect dental enamel as a result of mastication; and cause abrasion of the walls of the gastro-intestinal tract which may lead to rupturing. Although the studied clayey soils could have potential to provide medicinal benefits to the consumer, there is need for beneficiation exercise to be conducted to reduce the coarse angular particles contained in them. It is therefore necessary for constructive efforts to be directed at beneficiating geophagic materials which will render them safe for human consumption.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i3.6

  17. An Investigation for Disposal of Drill Cuttings into Unconsolidated Sandstones and Clayey Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mese, Ali; Dvorkin, Jack; Shillinglaw, John

    2000-09-11

    This project include experimental data and a set of models for relating elastic moduli/porosity/texture and static-to-dynamic moduli to strength and failure relationships for unconsolidated sands and clayey sands. The results of the project should provide the industry with a basis for wider use of oil base drilling fluids in water sensitive formations by implementing drill cutting injection into existing wells at abandoned formations and controlling fracture geometry to prevent ground water contamination.

  18. Flow dynamics at the origin of thin clayey sand lacustrine turbidites: Examples from Lake Hazar, Turkey

    KAUST Repository

    Hage, Sophie

    2017-04-18

    Turbidity currents and their deposits can be investigated using several methods, i.e. direct monitoring, physical and numerical modelling, sediment cores and outcrops. The present study focuses on thin clayey sand turbidites found in Lake Hazar (Turkey) occurring in eleven clusters of closely spaced thin beds. Depositional processes and sources for three of those eleven clusters are studied at three coring sites. Bathymetrical data and seismic reflection profiles are used to understand the specific geomorphology of each site. X-ray, thin sections and CT-scans imagery combined with grain-size, geochemical and mineralogical measurements on the cores allow characterisation of the turbidites. Turbidites included in each cluster were produced by remobilization of surficial slope sediment, a process identified in very few studies worldwide. Three types of turbidites are distinguished and compared with deposits obtained in flume studies published in the literature. Type 1 is made of an ungraded clayey silt layer issued from a cohesive flow. Type 2 is composed of a partially graded clayey sand layer overlain by a mud cap, attributed to a transitional flow. Type 3 corresponds to a graded clayey sand layer overlain by a mud cap issued from a turbulence-dominated flow. While the published experimental studies show that turbulence is damped by cohesion for low clay content, type 3 deposits of this study show evidence for a turbulence dominated mechanism despite their high clay content. This divergence may in part relate to input variables such as water chemistry and clay mineralogy that are not routinely considered in experimental studies. Furthermore, the large sedimentological variety observed in the turbidites from one coring site to another is related to the evolution of a sediment flow within a field scale basin made of a complex physiography that cannot be tackled by flume experiments.

  19. Revealing the factors influencing a fermentative biohydrogen production process using industrial wastewater as fermentation substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Boboescu, Iulian Zoltan; Ilie, Mariana; Gherman, Vasile Daniel; Mirel, Ion; Pap, Bernadett; Negrea, Adina; Kondorosi, Éva; Bíró, Tibor; Maróti, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Background Biohydrogen production through dark fermentation using organic waste as a substrate has gained increasing attention in recent years, mostly because of the economic advantages of coupling renewable, clean energy production with biological waste treatment. An ideal approach is the use of selected microbial inocula that are able to degrade complex organic substrates with simultaneous biohydrogen generation. Unfortunately, even with a specifically designed starting inoculum, there is s...

  20. Two-Stage Conversion of Land and Marine Biomass for Biogas and Biohydrogen Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nkemka, Valentine

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of fossil fuels by renewable fuels such as biogas and biohydrogen will require efficient and economically competitive process technologies together with new kinds of biomass. A two-stage system for biogas production has several advantages over the widely used one-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). However, it has not yet been widely implemented on a large scale. Biohydrogen can be produced in the anaerobic two-stage system. It is considered to be a useful fuel for t...

  1. Laboratory assessment of the influence of the proportion of waste foundry sand on the geotechnical engineering properties of clayey soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil improvement can be achieved through mechanical stabilisation using industrial byproducts. Clayey soils were blended with waste foundry sand to examine its influence on the geotechnical engineering properties of the soils. The waste foundry sand...

  2. Removal of copper from copper-contaminated river water and aqueous solutions using Methylobacterium extorquens modified Erzurum clayey soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neslihan Celebi; Hayrunnisa Nadaroglu; Ekrem Kalkan; Recep Kotan

    2016-01-01

    ... adsorbent materials for the removal of copper from aqueous solution. The copper concentrations in the samples of the polluted river water and CuCl solutions treated by the natural and bacteria-modified Erzurum clayey soil (ECS...

  3. Groundwater recharge and capillary rise in a clayey catchment: modulation by topography and the Arctic Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Schrøder

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The signature left by capillary rise in the water balance is investigated for a 16 km2 clayey till catchment in Denmark. Integrated modelling for 1981–99 substantiates a 30% uphill increase in average net recharge, caused by the reduction in capillary rise when the water table declines. Calibration of the groundwater module is constrained by stream flow separation and water table wells. Net recharge and a priori parameterisation has been estimated from those same data, an automatic rain gauge and electrical sounding. Evaluation of snow storage and compensation for a simplified formulation of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity contribute to a modelling of the precipitation-runoff relation that compares well with measurements in other underdrained clayey catchments. The capillary rise is assumed to be responsible for a 30% correlation between annual evapotranspiration and the North Atlantic Oscillation. The observed correlation, and the hypothesis of a hemispherical Arctic Oscillation linking atmospheric pressure with surface temperature, suggests that modelled evapotranspiration from clayey areas is better than precipitation records for identifying the region influenced by oscillation. Keywords: catchment modelling, MIKE SHE, capillary rise, degree-day model, climate

  4. Effect of Industrial By-Products on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Solidified Organic Marine Clayey Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Gi Park

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of industrial by-products as admixture to ASTM Type I cement (ordinary Portland cement (OPC was investigated with the objective of improving the solidification of organic marine clayey soils. The industrial by-products considered in this paper were oyster-shell powder (OSP, steelmaking slag dust (SMS and fuel-gas-desulfurized (FGD gypsum. The industrial by-products were added to OPC at a ratio of 5% based on dry weight to produce a mixture used to solidify organic marine clayey soils. The dosage ratios of mixtures to organic marine clayey soils were 5, 10 and 15% on a dry weight basis. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS test after 28 days revealed that the highest strength was obtained with the OPC + SMS 15% mixing ratio. The UCS of specimens treated with this mixture was >500 kPa, compared with 300 kPa for specimens treated with a 15% OPC + OSP mixture and 200 kPa when 15% of OPC was used alone. These results were attributed to the more active hydration and pozzolanic reaction of the OPC + SMS mixture. This hypothesis was verified through X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses, and was confirmed by variations in the calcium carbonate (CaCO3 content of the materials during curing.

  5. Effect of Nano-particles on Performance of Fresh Cement Paste%纳米颗粒对新拌水泥浆体性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小艳; 王婷; 陈雷

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the activity of nano-SiO2, nano-clay, nano-Al2O3and nano-CaCO3is introduced.Effect of these nano-particles on water requirement of normal consistency, the fluidity and setting time of fresh cement paste are studied.The results show that, except nano-Ca-CO3, the content of the other three nano-particles is larger, the water requirement of normal consistency of cement is greater.All nano-particles enlarge the cohesiveness of fresh cement paste and decrease the fluidity of cement paste.Nano-SiO2, nano-Al2O3 and nano-CaCO3 promote the early hydration of cement and shorten the setting time, and nano-clay plays the role of delaying coagulation.%研究了单掺纳米SiO2、纳米粘土、纳米Al2 O3、纳米CaCO3颗粒对新拌水泥浆体标准稠度用水量、凝结时间、流动性的影响。研究发现:纳米SiO2、纳米粘土、纳米Al2 O3导致水泥浆体标准稠度用水量不同程度的增加,且纳米颗粒掺量越大标准稠度用水量越大;纳米颗粒使水泥浆体粘聚性增大,相同水胶比时掺入纳米颗粒使浆体流动性降低;纳米SiO2、纳米CaCO3、纳米Al2 O3促进了水泥水化,使初凝和终凝时间提前,但纳米粘土表现出一定的缓凝作用。

  6. 纳米粒子作为润滑油脂添加剂的研究进展%The Research of Nano-particles as Lubricant Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何强; 叶军; 牛青坡; 李泽强; 张海鹏; 尹延经

    2011-01-01

    Nano-particles as lubricant additives to improve the lubrication properties of grease lubrication is the future of nanotechnology, and it will profoundly influence the future development of the national economy. The changes in performance caused by the nano-features will bring about a qualitative leap to China-made function parts. Nano-particles as additives for greases can be used to optimize the performance of function parts to improve the consistency, durability, reliability. Besides, owing to the low cost, the nano-particle additive technology is suitable for generalization. The use of nano-lubrication technology will make up our deficiencies in precision manufacturing, thus making the large-scale application of nano-lubrication technology possible.%纳米粒子作为润滑油脂添加剂以改善润滑油脂的润滑特性是纳米润滑技术的前景之一,它将深刻影响国民经济未来的发展.由纳米特征带来的性能变化,将使我国国产功能部件的整体性能产生质的飞跃,纳米粒子作为润滑脂添加剂适用于功能部件性能的优化和改良,能普遍地、根本性地提高功能部件的一致性、耐久性、可靠性,且纳米粒子作为润滑油脂添加剂价格低廉,非常适合国产部件的普及化运用.利用纳米润滑技术弥补我国在精密制造方面的不足,将为纳米润滑技术在功能部件中的大规模应用提供可能.

  7. Structural and optical characterization of NaGdF{sub 4}: Ho{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} UC nano-particles for lateral finger mark detections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A., E-mail: ak.phy87@gmail.com; Tiwari, S. P.; Krishna, K. M.; Kumar, K. [Optical Materials and Bio-imaging Research Laboratory Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of mines, Dhanbad-826004 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Ho{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped NaGdF{sub 4} up-conversion (UC) nano-particles were synthesized by thermal decomposition method. X-ray diffraction and FE-SEM image analysis were done to confirm the structure, morphology and determination of particle size. The UC emission spectra for as prepared as well as 100°C, 200°C, 300°C, 400°C, 800°C, 1000°C and 1200°C heated for 3h samples were recorded and there emission intensities were compared at a constant pump power of excitations 98.1 W/cm{sup 2}. The effect of emission intensity on decay time was also studied through focused and unfocused excitations. The synthesized material was successfully utilized in lateral finger mark detections on the glass substrate through powder dusting method.

  8. Synthesis & Bio-Evaluation of 4-Amino-5-Benzyl-2, 4-Dihydro- 3H-1, 2, 4-Triazole-3-Thione Capped Silver Nano Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Padma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of 4-amino-5-benzyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione Capped Silver NanoParticles by a simple procedure. Spherical shaped Capped Ag-NPs with average size of 14.65 nm are obtained by the treatment of aqueous silver ions with hot ethanolic solution of 4-amino-5-benzyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione as Stabilizing/Reducing agent. The Nanoparticles are characterized using TEM, XRD and FTIR studies. The synthesized Nanoparticles were tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity at concentrations of 50, 100, 200 μg /ml. The Nanoparticles showed good activity, nearly equal to the inhibition zone value of ciprofloxacin, against the E.coli bacteria. For the antifungal activity, the compound showed equipotent activity against A.niger.

  9. Effect of Cu seed on the synthesis and characterization of FeCo alloy nano-particles by using polyol method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uk Rae CHO; Young Min LEE; Shalendra KUMAR; Chan Gyu LEE; Bon Heun KOO

    2009-01-01

    Fine metal particles with uniform shape, narrow size distribution and high purity are increasinglyneeded for specific uses in high tech industrial application. We report the direct chemical synthesis of FeCo alloy particles using the mixture of FeCl2·4H2O, Co (Ac)2·4H2O (Ac: acetate) and NaOH in ethylene glycol, and then obtained FeCo alloy particles better dispersed by adding the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and also the size could be controlled by adding copper. The prepared nano-particles were characterized using FESEM, XRD and VSM. The mean diameter of these particles was varied in the range of sub-mi-crometer to nanometer with metal-ion concentration. FeCo particles showed the typical soft magnetic properties.

  10. Effect of Cu seed on the synthesis and characterization of FeCo alloy nano-particles by using polyol method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uk; Rae; CHO; Young; Min; LEE; Shalendra; KUMAR; Chan; Gyu; LEE; Bon; Heun; KOO

    2009-01-01

    Fine metal particles with uniform shape, narrow size distribution and high purity are increasingly needed for specific uses in high tech industrial application. We report the direct chemical synthesis of FeCo alloy particles using the mixture of FeCl2·4H2O, Co (Ac)2·4H2O (Ac: acetate) and NaOH in ethylene glycol, and then obtained FeCo alloy particles better dispersed by adding the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and also the size could be controlled by adding copper. The prepared nano-particles were characterized using FESEM, XRD and VSM. The mean diameter of these particles was varied in the range of sub- mi- crometer to nanometer with metal-ion concentration. FeCo particles showed the typical soft magnetic properties.

  11. Extensive FE-SEM/EDS, HR-TEM/EDS and ToF-SIMS studies of micron- to nano-particles in anthracite fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Joana [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); DaBoit, Kátia [Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Flores, Deolinda [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Geociências, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: felipeqma@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2013-05-01

    The generation of anthropogenic carbonaceous matter and mixed crystalline/amorphous mineral ultrafine/nano-particles in the 1 to 100 nm size range by worldwide coal power plants represents serious environmental problems due to their potential hazards. Coal fly ash (CFA) that resulted from anthracite combustion in a Portuguese thermal power plant was studied in this work. The physico-chemical characterization of ultrafine/nano-particles present in the CFA samples and their interaction with environment are the aim of this study. The methodologies applied for this work were field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (HR-TEM/EDS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Some hazardous volatile elements, C, N, S and Hg contents were also determined in the studied samples. Generally, the CFA samples comprise carbonaceous, glassy and metallic solid spheres with some containing mixed amorphous/crystalline phases. The EDS analysis coupled with the FE-SEM and HR-TEM observations of the fly ash particles with 100 to 0.1 nm demonstrates that these materials contain a small but significant proportion of encapsulated HVEs. In addition, the presence of abundant multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and amorphous carbon particles, both containing hazardous volatile elements (HVEs), was also evidenced by the FE-SEM/EDS and HR-TEM/EDS analysis. A wide range of organic and inorganic compounds was determined by chemical maps obtained in ToF-SIMS analysis. - Highlights: ► We examine changes in the level of ultrafine and nanoparticles of coal mining. ► Increasing geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Electron bean and Tof-SIMS increase area information.

  12. BEHAVIOR STUDY OF ORDER NANO-PARTICLES IN POROUS CERAMICS%纳米颗粒在有序多孔陶瓷中的行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍协; 陈振华; 冯延林; 刘小磐

    2011-01-01

    本文详细研究了纳米颗粒在有序多孔陶瓷中形成协同体的过程.实验结果表明:纳米TiO2和炭黑(CB)能比较容易进入到有序多孔陶瓷中形成具有特定功能的协同体.当纳米TiO2的浓度增加到5wt%和炭黑浓度增加到15 wt%时,有序多孔陶瓷的孔壁上粘附纳米TiO2和炭黑颗粒的量最大从而形成大量的活性点.浓度对两种纳米颗粒的渗透力具有很大的影响,炭黑粒子的渗透能力比纳米纳米TiO2颗粒强.%This study is focused on the fabrication of nano-particles and order porous ceramics association. The experimental results show that the nano-TiO2 and carbon black(CB) enter the pores of order porous ceramics smoothly and forming commonwealth which maybe come out many magical functions; when the concentration of nano-TiO2 added up to 5 wt % and carbon black added up to 15 wt %, many nano-TiO2 or CB adhere to the order porous ceramics pores and walls coming into being functional dots; different concentration of the two nano-particles affect on the process and carbon black particles have better ability than nano-TiO2.

  13. Double-diffusive natural convective boundary layer flow in a porous medium saturated with a nano-fluid over a vertical plate: Prescribed surface heat, solute and nano-particle fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, W.A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Karachi 75350 (Pakistan); Aziz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA 99258 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The Buongiorno model [16] has been used to study the double-diffusive natural convection from a vertical plate to a porous medium saturated with a binary base fluid containing nano-particles. The model identifies the Brownian motion and thermophoresis as the primary mechanisms for enhanced convection characteristics of the nano-fluid. The behavior of the porous medium is described by the Darcy model. The vertical surface has the heat, mass and nano-particle fluxes each prescribed as a power law function of the distance along the wall. The transport equations are transformed into four nonlinear, coupled similarity equations containing eight dimensionless parameters. These equations are solved numerically to obtain the velocity, temperature, solute concentration and nano-particle concentration in the respective boundary layers. Results are presented to illustrate the effects of various parameters including the exponent of the power law describing the imposed surface fluxes on the heat and mass transfer characteristics of the flow. These results are supplemented with the data for the reduced Nusselt number and the two reduced Sherwood numbers, one for the solute and the other for the nano-particles. (authors)

  14. 微通道内纳米颗粒对液滴聚并的影响规律%Effect of nano-particles on droplet coalescence in microchannel device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 易诗婷; 周倩倩; 骆广生

    2016-01-01

    Pickering乳液是纳米颗粒稳定的液液两相体系,微流控技术是制备单分散Pickering乳液的有效方法,而含有纳米颗粒体系在微通道内的液滴聚并规律是该实施方法的关键科学问题之一。以正辛醇为连续相,水为分散相,研究了六边形扩大微通道内液滴碰撞过程,发现了液滴聚并、碰撞不聚并和不相互接触3种流动状态,研究了流量、颗粒浓度和颗粒亲疏水性对于液滴聚并率的影响规律,分析了颗粒在液膜排空过程中的作用机理。%Pickering emulsion is a liquid/liquid system stabilized by nano-particles. Microfluidic technology is an important method for preparing monodispersed Pickering emulsions. The droplet coalescence rule for the working system containing nano-particles is a core scientific issue for proceeding this new method. Using n-octanol and water as the continuous and dispersed phases respectively, the droplet collision processes in a broadening microchannel with a hexagon shape were investigated. Three typical flows (droplet coalescence, contact without coalescence and contactless) were confirmed. The effects of flow rate, nano-particle concentration and wetting property of nano-particles on the droplet coalescence percentage were studied. In addition, the working mechanism of nano-particles in the liquid film drainage processes were analyzed.

  15. Board-invited review: Recent advances in biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids within the rumen microbial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, T C; Wallace, R J; Moate, P J; Mosley, E E

    2008-02-01

    Recent advances in chromatographic identification of CLA isomers, combined with interest in their possible properties in promoting human health (e.g., cancer prevention, decreased atherosclerosis, improved immune response) and animal performance (e.g., body composition, regulation of milk fat synthesis, milk production), has renewed interest in biohydrogenation and its regulation in the rumen. Conventional pathways of biohydrogenation traditionally ignored minor fatty acid intermediates, which led to the persistence of oversimplified pathways over the decades. Recent work is now being directed toward accounting for all possible trans-18:1 and CLA products formed, including the discovery of novel bioactive intermediates. Modern microbial genetics and molecular phylogenetic techniques for identifying and classifying microorganisms by their small-subunit rRNA gene sequences have advanced knowledge of the role and contribution of specific microbial species in the process of biohydrogenation. With new insights into the pathways of biohydrogenation now available, several attempts have been made at modeling the pathway to predict ruminal flows of unsaturated fatty acids and biohydrogenation intermediates across a range of ruminal conditions. After a brief historical account of major past accomplishments documenting biohydrogenation, this review summarizes recent advances in 4 major areas of biohydrogenation: the microorganisms involved, identification of intermediates, the biochemistry of key enzymes, and the development and testing of mathematical models to predict biohydrogenation outcomes.

  16. Removal of PAHs from contaminated clayey soil by means of electro-osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.

    2011-06-01

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from clayey soils is an intricate task. The low porosity of compacted clayey soil hinders bacterial activity and makes convective removal by hydraulic flow impossible. Electro-osmosis is a process that has been used for the mobilization and cleanup of contaminants in clayey soils with varying successes. The present study focuses on the remediation of a contaminated peaty clay soil, located in Olst - the Netherlands, by means of electro-osmosis. The soil was originally contaminated by an asphalt production plant, active from 1903 to 1983, and presents high levels of all 16 priority PAHs indicated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Such a long contact times of PAH with the soil (≥100 years) presents a unique study material with well established solid/liquid contaminant partitioning equilibrium, preferable to artificially spiked soil. A batch of 6 electro-osmosis laboratory experiments was carried out to study the removal of 16 PAHs through electro-osmosis. In these experiments, water and a surfactant (Tween 80) were used to enhance the PAH desorption. The electro-osmotic conductivities ranged from 2.88 × 10-10 to a substantial 1.19 × 10-7 m2 V-1 s -1 when applying a current density of 0.005-0.127 A m-2. Electro-osmosis was expected to occur towards the cathode, because of natural soil characteristics (negative zeta potential), but presented scattered directions. The use of reference electrodes proved to be very effective to the prediction of the flow direction. Finally, the addition of Tween 80 as a surfactant enhanced PAH removal up to 30% of the total PAH content of the soil in 9 days. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Multiscale Study of the Nonlinear Behavior of Heterogeneous Clayey Rocks Based on the FFT Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Xu, Weiya; Shao, Jianfu

    2015-03-01

    A multiscale model based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is applied to study the nonlinear mechanical behavior of Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite, a typical heterogeneous clayey rocks. COx argillite is modeled as a three-phase composite with a clay matrix and two types of mineral inclusions. The macroscopic mechanical behavior of argillite samples with different mineralogical compositions are satisfactorily predicted by unified local constitutive models and material parameters. Moreover, the numerical implementation of the FFT-based nonlinear homogenization is easier than direct homogenization, such as the FEM-based homogenization, because it automatically satisfies the periodic boundary condition.

  18. Affects of different tillage managements on soil physical quality in a clayey soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Mustafa; Selvi, Kemal Çağatay; Dengiz, Orhan; Gürsoy, Fatma Esra

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted in 2011, researches the effects of different tillage practices on the physical soil quality of clayey soil. This soil quality index (SQI) assessment was made by studying the changes in physical soil functions such as suitability for root development, facilitation for water entry, movement and storage, and resistance against surface degradation based on tillage management. When compared with the control parcel, statistically significant decreases were seen in the SQI with different tillage practices (p tillage practices, the highest SQI was seen with the plow + rotary tiller + direct seeding machine, while the lowest SQI was seen with the direct drilling practice. On the other hand, the statistically insignificant effects of tillage practices on the soil quality of the study area were considered to be a result of either the study period or the joint effect of soil texture and climatic features. Thus, long-term tillage practices were recommended in order to get healthier information about soil quality by considering soil and climatic conditions. In addition, for heavy clayey soils, reduced tillage practices, which included plowing, were thought to develop physical soil qualities of root development and water movement.

  19. On the possible contribution of clayey inter-layers to delayed land subsidence above producing aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isotton, G.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Teatini, P.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, measurements of land subsidence above pumped aquifers by permanent GPS and InSAR have exhibited some delay relative to drawdown ranging from months to years. The current modeling approaches accounting for water fluid dynamics and porous medium geomechanics may fail to predict such a delay and may underestimate the land settlement after the well shutdown. In the present communication, an investigation is made on the residual compaction of the intervening clayey formations as a possible contribution to retarded land subsidence. The pore pressure variation within the aquifer and its propagation in the clay are simulated by a finite element flow model, with the resulting pore pressure decline used as input data in a hypo-plastic geomechanical model. A proper sensitivity analysis on (i) aquifer depth, (ii) ratio between the sandy and the clayey layers thickness and hydraulic conductivity, (iii) oedometric compressibility in first and second loading cycles, is performed for a typical geology of a Quaternary sedimentary basin. The results show that a certain fraction, up to 20 % of the overall land subsidence, can take place after the shutdown of the producing wells depending on actual basin, litho-stratigraphy and parameter values.

  20. Biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids by a mixed culture of rumen microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellens, M J; Goderis, H L; Tobback, P P

    1986-08-01

    The biohydrogenation of C-18 unsaturated fatty acids was examined in a mixed culture of microorganisms prepared by inoculating a proper growth medium with a sample of rumen fluid. Some major factors influencing the hydrogenation capacity have been investigated. The age of the mixed culture, the type of inoculum used, the concentration of substrates as well as the presence of sterile rumen fluid in the growth medium were found to be important factors determining biohydrogenation behavior. It could be shown that the mixed microbial culture, which had been grown for about 24 h on a medium similar to that of Bryant and Robinson, contained sterile rumen fluid (10% v/v), and had been inoculated with a sample of the whole untreated rumen content, had the best biohydrogenation capacity. The culture was able to carry out the complete conversion of linoleic and linolenic acid to stearic acid.

  1. A novel anaerobic co-culture system for bio-hydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingrong; Zhu, Mingjun

    2013-09-01

    A novel co-culture of Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense with pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) under mild alkali conditions for bio-hydrogen production was established, exhibiting a cost-effective and synergetic advantage in bio-hydrogen production over monoculture of C. thermocellum or T. aotearoense with untreated SCB. The optimized pretreatment conditions were established to be 3% NaOH, and a liquid to solid ratio of 25:1 at 80°C for 3h. A final hydrogen production of 50.05±1.51 mmol/L was achieved with 40 g/L pretreated SCB at 55°C. The established co-culture system provides a novel consolidated bio-processing strategy for bioconversion of SCB to bio-hydrogen.

  2. Harvesting biohydrogen from cellobiose from sulfide or nitrite-containing wastewaters using Clostridium sp. R1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kuo-Ling; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2011-09-01

    Harvesting biohydrogen from inhibiting wastewaters is of practical interest since the toxicity of compounds in a wastewater stream commonly prevents the bioenergy content being recovered. The isolated Clostridium sp. R1 is utilized to degrade cellobiose in sulfide or nitrite-containing medium for biohydrogen production. The strain can effectively degrade cellobiose free of severe inhibitory effects at up to 200 mgl(-1) sulfide or to 5 mgl(-1) nitrite, yielding hydrogen at >2.0 mol H2 mol(-1) cellobiose. Principal metabolites of cellobiose fermentation are acetate and butyrate, with the concentration of the former increases with increasing sulfide and nitrite concentrations. The isolated strain can yield hydrogen from cellobiose in sulfide-laden wastewaters. However, the present of nitrite significantly limit the efficiency of the biohydrogen harvesting process.

  3. Integrated treatment of municipal sewage sludge by deep dewatering and anaerobic fermentation for biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Yu, Yang; Jiang, Wentian; Wei, Huangzhao; Sun, Chenglin

    2015-02-01

    The increasing sludge generated in wastewater treatment plants poses a threat to the environment. Based on the traditional processes, sludge dewatered by usual methods was further dewatered by hydraulic compression and the filtrate released was treated by anaerobic fermentation. The difficulties in sludge dewatering were associated with the existence of sludge flocs or colloidal materials. A suitable CaO dosage of 125 mg/g dry sludge (DS) could further decrease the moisture content of sludge from 82.4 to 50.9 %. The filtrate from the dewatering procedure was a potential substrate for biohydrogen production. Adding zero-valent iron (ZVI) into the anaerobic system improved the biohydrogen yield by 20 %, and the COD removal rate was lifted by 10 % as well. Meanwhile, the sludge morphology and microbial community were altered. The novel method could greatly reduce the sludge volume and successfully treated filtrate along with the conversion of organics into biohydrogen.

  4. Biohydrogen production from CO-rich syngas via a locally isolated Rhodopseudomonas palustris PT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, Fatemeh; Najafpour, Ghasem; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Tohidfar, Masoud; Younesi, Habiboallah

    2014-05-01

    Biohydrogen production through water–gas shift (WGS) reaction by a biocatalyst was conducted in batch fermentation. The isolated photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris PT was able to utilize carbon monoxide and simultaneously produce hydrogen. Light exposure was provided as an indispensable requirement for the first stage of bacterial growth, but throughout the hydrogen production stage, the energy requirement was met through the WGS reaction. At ambient pressure and temperature, the effect of various sodium acetate concentrations in presence of CO-rich syngas on cell growth, carbon monoxide consumption, and biohydrogen production was also investigated. Maximal efficiency of hydrogen production in response to carbon monoxide consumption was recorded at 86 % and the highest concentration of hydrogen at 33.5 mmol/l was achieved with sodium acetate concentration of 1.5 g/l. The obtained results proved that the local isolate; R. palustris PT, was able to utilize CO-rich syngas and generate biohydrogen via WGS reaction.

  5. Feasibility of biohydrogen production from tofu wastewater with glutamine auxotrophic mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, G.H.; Wang, L.; Kang, Z.H. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2010-12-15

    NH{sub 4}{sup +}, which is normally the integrant in organic wastewater, such as Tofu wastewater, is an inhibitor to hydrogen production by anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium. In order to release inhibition of NH{sub 4}{sup +} to biohydrogen generation by Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a glutamine auxotrophic mutant R. sphaeroides TJ-0803 was obtained by mutagenizing with ethyl methane sulfonate. The mutant could generate biohydrogen efficiently in the medium with high NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration, because the inhibition of NH{sub 4}{sup +} to nitrogenase was released. Under suitable conditions, TJ-0803 could effectively produce biohydrogen from tofu wastewater, which commonly containing 50-60 mg L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and the generation rate was increased by more than 100% compared with that from wild-type R. sphaeroides. (author)

  6. Biohydrogen production with the light-harvesting function of grana from spirulina and colloidal platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amao, Yutaka; Nakamura, Naoki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Oita University Dannoharu 700, Oita 870-1192 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    Biohydrogen production with the light-harvesting function of grana from spirulina by use of three-component system consisting of NADH, methylviologen (MV{sup 2+}) and colloidal platinum was investigated. The decay rate of chlorophyll included in grana was suppressed by addition of NADH and little degradation was observed in 120min irradiation. The biohydrogen production system was developed using the light-harvesting function of grana and platinum colloid in the presence of NADH and MV{sup 2+} and the amount of hydrogen produced was estimated to be 0.14{mu}mol after 4h irradiation. (author)

  7. Integration of biohydrogen fermentation and gas separation processes to recover and enrich hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belafi-Bako, K.; Bucsu, D. [Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Veszprem, Egyetem u. 2., 8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Pientka, Z. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Czech Academy of Sciences, Heyrovsky sq. 2., Prague (Czech Republic); Balint, B.; Herbel, Z.; Kovacs, K.L. [Department of Biotechnology and Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Temesvari krt. 62., 6726 Szeged (Hungary); Wessling, M. [Membrane Technology Group, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    An integrated system for biohydrogen production and separation was designed, constructed and operated where biohydrogen was fermented by Thermococcus litoralis, a heterotrophic archaebacterium, and a two-step gas separation process was coupled to recover and concentrate hydrogen. A special liquid seal system was built to deliver, compress and collect the laboratory scale, low volume gas mixtures consisting of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. As a result, gas mixture with 73% high hydrogen content was produced by a combination of a porous and a non-porous gas separation membrane. (author)

  8. Modification of carbon paste electrode with Fe(III)-clinoptilolite nano-particles for simultaneous voltammetric determination of acetaminophen and ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Samira; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    A novel carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with Fe(III)-exchanged clinoptilolite nano-particles (Fe(III)-NClino/CPE) was constructed and used for simultaneous voltammetric (CV, SqW and chronoamperometry) determination of ascorbic acid and acetaminophen. Raw and modified zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The square wave peak current was linearly increased in the concentration ranges of 1.0 × 10(-9)-1.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) for ascorbic acid and 1.0 × 10(-10-)1.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) for acetaminophen with detection limits of 1.8 × 10(-9) mol L(-1) and 9.9 × 10(-10) mol L(-1), respectively. The detection limits of 2.4 × 10(-10) mol L(-1) and 2.5 × 10(-11) mol L(-1) were also obtained for AA and AC in chronoamperometric measurements, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of 7.5 × 10(-5) cm(2) s(-1) and 2.4 × 10(-5) cm(2) s(-1) were respectively calculated for the oxidation of AC and AA by chronoamperometry. The proposed electrode exhibited high sensitivity and good stability, and would be valuable for the clinical assay of ascorbic acid and acetaminophen.

  9. Bimodal porous silica microspheres decorated with polydopamine nano-particles for the adsorption of methylene blue in fixed-bed columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataei-Germi, Taher; Nematollahzadeh, Ali

    2016-05-15

    Bimodal meso/macro-porous silica microspheres (MSM) were synthesized by a modified sol-emulsion-gel method and then the surface was coated with polydopamine (PDA) nano-particles of 39nm in size. Focusing on the encouraging properties of the synthesized adsorbent, such as high specific surface area (612.3m(2)g(-1), because of mesopores), fast mass transfer (0.9-2.67×10(-3)mLmin(-1)mg, because of macropores), and abundant "adhesive" functional groups of PDA, it was used for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column. The effect of different parameters such as pH, initial concentration, and flow rate was studied. The results revealed that an appropriate sorption condition is an alkaline solution of MB (e.g., pH 10) at low flow rate (less than 5mLmin(-1)). Furthermore, the compatibility of the experimental data with mathematical models such as Thomas and Adams-Bohart was investigated. Both of the models showed a good agreement with the experimental data (R(2)=0.9954-0.9994), and could be applied for the prediction of the column properties and breakthrough curves. Regeneration of the column was performed by using HCl solution with a concentration of 0.1M as an eluent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of the effect of Titanium dioxide nano particle size on efficiency of the dye-sensitized Solar cell using natural Pomegranate juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Behjat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC using natural Pomegranate juice as dye-sensitizeris fabricated and characterized. DSSCS consist of a working electrode, a redox electrolyte containing iodide and tri-iodide ions and a counter electrode. A nanocrystalline TiO2 semiconductor with a wide band-gap coated with a monolayer dye-sensitizer is used as working electrode. The effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticle size on efficiency of the DSSC based Pomegranate juice as a sensitizer is studied. For monolayer structure, we used two sizes of TiO2 nanoparticle (25 nm and 100 nm and a mixture of these two sizes. The highest efficiency of 0.61% was obtained with mixture of 25 and 100 nm TiO2 nano-particles in working electrode. For double-layer structure, we used 100 and 400 nm size TiO2 particles as light-scattering. The best efficiency was obtained using 400 nm TiO2 as light-scattering particles.

  11. Core-Shell Soy Protein-Soy Polysaccharide Complex (Nano)particles as Carriers for Improved Stability and Sustained Release of Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-Ping; Ou, Shi-Yi; Tang, Chuan-He

    2016-06-22

    Using soy protein isolate (SPI) and soy-soluble polysaccharides (SSPS) as polymer matrixes, this study reported a novel process to fabricate unique core-shell complex (nano)particles to perform as carriers for curcumin (a typical poorly soluble bioactive). In the process, curcumin-SPI nanocomplexes were first formed at pH 7.0 and then coated by SSPS. At this pH, the core-shell complex was formed in a way the SPI nanoparticles might be incorporated into the interior of SSPS molecules without distinctly affecting the size and morphology of particles. The core-shell structure was distinctly changed by adjusting pH from 7.0 to 4.0. At pH 4.0, SSPS was strongly bound to the surface of highly aggregated SPI nanoparticles, and as a consequence, much larger complexes were formed. The bioaccessibility of curcumin in the SPI-curcumin complexes was unaffected by the SSPS coating. However, the core-shell complex formation greatly improved the thermal stability and controlled release properties of encapsulated curcumin. The improvement was much better at pH 4.0 than that at pH 7.0. All of the freeze-dried core-shell complex preparations exhibited good redispersion behavior. The findings provide a simple approach to fabricate food-grade delivery systems for improved water dispersion, heat stability, and even controlled release of poorly soluble bioactives.

  12. Development of Photon-Counting Laser-Light- Scattering Method for Size- and Density-Measurements of Nano-Particles Forme d in Processing Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Fukuzawa, T.; Shiratani, M.; Watanabe, Y.

    1998-10-01

    A high sensitive photon-counting laser-light-scattering (PCLLS) method for detection of nano-particles formed in processing plasmas is developed to get information on nucleation and subsequent initial growth of particles. Two different methods are employed to deduce particle-size and -density from time evolution of LLS intensity after turning off the discharge. In one method, size of particles is deduced from their diffusion after turning off the discharge and their density is obtained using the size and absolute LLS intensity.^1. In the other method, density of particles is deduced from their coagulation after turning off the discharge and their size is obtained using the density and absolute LLS intensity. Results obtained by both the methods agree fairly well with each other. Using the developed method, we demonstrate detection of small particles down to a few nm in size and find the corresponding particle density is above 10^10 cm-3 even in low pressure silane rf discharges of low rf power, which are commonly used to deposit high quality a-Si:H films^1M. Shiratani and Y. Watanabe, Rev. Laser Eng. Vol. 26, No. 6 (1998) in press.

  13. Electrochemical performance of La2O3/Li2O/TiO2 nano-particle coated cathode material LiFePO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Yang, Chi; Liu, Shu-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Cathode material, LiFePO4 was modified by coating with a thin layer of La2O3/Li2O/TiO2 nano-particles for improving its performance for lithium ion batteries. The morphology and structure of the modified cathode material were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microcopy and AES. The performance of the battery with the modified cathode material, including cycling stability, C-rate discharge was examined. The results show that the battery composed of the coated cathode materials can discharge at a large current density and show stable cycling performance in the range from 2.5 to 4.0 V. The rate of Li ion diffusion increases in the battery with the La2O3/Li2O/TiO2-coated LiFePO4 as a cathode and the coating layer may acts as a faster ion conductor (La(2/3-x)Li(3x)TiO3).

  14. Gold nano-particles (AuNPs) carrying anti-EBV-miR-BART7-3p inhibit growth of EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianguo; Lyu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yuxiang; Liu, Jinkun; Cai, Hongbing; Wang, Ying; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a major etiological factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Several EBV-encoded BART miRNAs have been associated with viral latency, immune escape, cell survival, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we report that EBV-miR-BART7-3p, an EBV-encoded BART miRNA highly expressed in NPC, was correlated with cell-cycle progression in vitro and increased tumor formation in vivo. This viral miRNA stimulated the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway and induced c-Myc and c-Jun. Knockdown of PTEN mimicked EBV-miR-BART7-3p-induced tumorigenic phenotype. Based on these results, we conducted a therapeutic experiment by using gold nano-particles (AuNPs) carrying anti-EBV-miR-BART7-3p. Silencing of EBV-miR-BART7-3p reduced tumor growth in animal model. We conclude that EBV-miR-BART7-3p favors carcinogenesis, representing a potential target for miRNA-based therapy. PMID:25691053

  15. Polymer brushes containing thermosensitive and functional groups grafted onto magnetic nano-particles for interaction and extraction of famotidine in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Panahi, Homayon; Nasrollahi, Sara

    2014-12-10

    This study introduces a new method for grafting poly[N-isopropylacrylamide-co-allyl glycidyl/iminodiacetic] onto iron oxide nano-particles modified using 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane. The grafted nano-polymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The parameters of pH, contact time and temperature of the grafted nano-polymer were investigated. The determination and extraction of famotidine in human biological fluids was evaluated for high accessibility to active sites on the grafted sorbent. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The sorption capacity of the nano-sorbent was 116 mg g(-1) at an optimum pH of 7. About 73% of famotidine was released into simulated gastric fluid by 1 h and 70% was released into simulated intestinal fluids by 30 h at 37 °C. These results show that this new magnetic grafted nano-polymer is suitable for enteric drug delivery.

  16. Synthesis of supported metallic nano-particles and their use in air depollution; Des nanoparticules metalliques supportees pour la depollution de l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrault, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 86 - Poitiers (France); Valange, S. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France); Tatibouet, J.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR CNRS 6503, 86 - Poitiers (France); Thollon, St. [CEA Grenoble (DRT/DTNM/LTS), 38 (France); Herlin-Boime, N. [CEA Saclay, IRAMIS, Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, Lab. Francis Perrin, CEA-CNRS URA 2453, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Giraud, S. [CEA Saclay (DEN/SRMA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ruiz, J.Ch. [CEA Marcoule (DTCD/SPDE/LFSM), 30 (France); Bergaya, B. [CRT Plasma lASER, 45 - Orleans (France); Joulin, J.P.; Delbianco, N. [Ceramiques Techniques Industrielles (CTI-SA), 30 - Salindres (France); Gabelica, Z. [Universite de Haute-Alsace (LPI-GSEC), ENSCMu, 68 - Mulhouse (France); Daturi, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Caen (ENSICAEN), CNRS-LCS, UMR 6506, 14 - Caen (France)

    2009-06-15

    The main objectives of the 'NACACOMO' Consortium ('Nano-materials: Catalysts for the Conversion of organic Molecules. Uses in fine chemicals and environment protection ') consisted in generating novel catalysts composed of nanoparticles of metals (Pt, Pd, Ag...) and/or oxides (TiO{sub 2}...) stabilized and well distributed over the surface of a support (foams, ceramics), by monitoring both the particle size and the 'coating' process itself, using new technologies: CVD, plasma-spray, laser pyrolysis, supercritical preparation, which were compared to conventional soft chemistry recipes. The most accurate characterization of particle morphology, local structure, texture, spatial arrangement but also of their reactivity, were achieved by privileging the utilization of various in situ methods. Details on formation mechanisms of a solid nano-particle at the atomic level (nucleation, growth and particle (re)distribution over the support...) could be obtained in selected cases, with opportunities for scaling up and shaping. The (chemical) nature of the so-obtained nano-materials was monitored for selected catalytic applications involving the development of environmental friendly processes, such as oxidation of VOC, with a priority for aromatics and chlorinated compounds. (authors)

  17. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using different particle sizes of TiO2 deposited via nano-particle deposition system (NPDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Su; Lee, Jin-Woong; Kim, Min-Saeng; Choi, Jung-Oh; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2012-04-01

    TiO2 layers were fabricated using a nano-particle deposition system (NPDS) on transparent conductive oxide (TCO) glass for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Conventionally, TiO2 paste for working electrodes has been fabricated using paste type methods. The fabricated paste composed of a mixture of nano-sized TiO2 powders, binders and solutions is then painted on TCO glass. After drying, the TiO2 layer on TCO glass is sintered to make a path for electron transfer. TiO2 layers formed by this paste type method require numerous steps, which can be time consuming. In this study, TiO2 powders were sprayed directly on TCO glass using NPDS in order to simplify the fabrication steps. To improve porosity and produce scattering layers, commercial nanocrystalline TiO, powders with different sizes were alternately deposited. Moreover, powders with different sizes were mixed and deposited on the TCO glass. The results indicate that the DSSCs with a TiO2 layer composed of different particle sizes had better cell performance than the cells assembled with single-sized TiO2 particles. Therefore, this study shows that a dry TiO2 coating process is possible for DSSC fabrication to improve its cell efficiencies, and this method can easily be applied on flexible substrates since NPDS is a room-temperature deposition process.

  18. 大气可吸入肺纳米颗粒的SEM及X射线微分析研究%Microanalysis Study of the Inspirable Nano-Particles into Lungs by SEM and XREDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇满德; 李旭; 王晓燕; 翟永清

    2014-01-01

    以大气中可吸入肺纳米颗粒为研究对象,利用场发射扫描电子显微镜(FSEM )和X射线能谱仪对其形态和常量组分进行了系统研究。研究结果表明:大气可吸入物中的纳米颗粒大多为类球与椭球形,表面较为光滑,结构紧密,较小的纳米颗粒聚集成团呈松散絮状,粒度大小约在30~100 nm之间,纳米颗粒物中含有的常量元素同大颗粒污染物基本一致,主要含有C ,O ,Al ,Si ,Na ,M g ,K ,Ca ,Fe ,S ,Cl等元素,能量色谱仪(EDS)的点分析研究证实一些纳米颗粒物中Cl和S元素的含量明显增大,而另一些颗粒主要为C和O元素,分析其原因,认为主要是气溶胶在形成过程中,以纳米无机灰尘颗粒为中心表面吸附了大气污染物中的有机排放物所致,从而形成了具有核壳结构的纳米颗粒污染物。因此,减少人为有机污染物的排放,对于减少可吸入肺有害纳米颗粒的形成具有很大的影响。%Inspirable nano-particles into lungs in the atmosphere were studied in this paper .Field emission scanning electron mi-croscope (FSEM ) and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer were used to investigate the morphology and major constituents of inspirable nano-particles into lungs systematically .The results showed that most of the inspirable nano-particles in the atmos-phere are spherical and ellipsoidal ,with smooth surface and dense structure .The smaller nano-particles are clustered into loose floccule ,with the sizes in the range of 30 to 100 nm .The constant elements in the nano-particles are close consistent with the large particle pollutants ,which mainly contain C ,O ,A1 ,Si ,Na ,Mg ,K ,Ca ,Fe ,S and Cl etc .The point Analysis of EDS confirmed that the element content of Cl and S in some nano-particles is significantly increased ,while others mainly contain C and O .It is believed that the surface of nano inorganic dust particles was adsorbed by

  19. The Experimental Study on Paraffin Wax Phase Change Heat Transfer Enhancement with Copper Nano-particles%铜纳米粒子强化正十八烷相变传热性能的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆领; 王艳; 路海滨; 周艳

    2013-01-01

    针对纯石蜡(正十八烷)作为固-液相变储能材料存在导热系数小、传热性能差的缺点,采用两步法制备了铜纳米粒子质量分数分别为0%、0.1%、0.2%、0.5%、1%、2%的铜纳米粒子/正十八烷复合相变材料,并对其热物性进行了实验研究.采用瞬态热针法测量复合相变材料的导热系数.实验结果表明,铜纳米粒子可有效提高正十八烷的导热系数.利用DSC对铜纳米粒子/正十八烷复合相变材料进行热分析,结果表明,体系中添加铜纳米粒子后正十八烷的相变温度变化很小,而体系的相变潜热随铜纳米粒子质量分数的增加而逐渐减小,但减小幅度不大,因此铜纳米粒子的加入对正十八烷的蓄热能力影响较小.另外,对铜纳米粒子质量分数为1%的铜纳米粒子/正十八烷复合相变材料的热稳定性进行研究,结果表明其具有良好的热稳定性.%Based on paraffin wax (octadecane) as a kind of solid-liquid phase change materials (PCMs) having the disadvantages of low thermal conductivity and bad heat transfer performance, octadecane/copper nano-particles composite PCMs were prepared by two steps and their thermal properties were measured. The mass fraction of copper nano-particles in PCMs is 0. 1%, 0. 2%, 0. 5%, 1% and 2%, respectively. Transient hot probe method was used to measure the thermal conductivity of PCMs. The results show that copper nano-particles can effectively improve the thermal conductivity of octadecane. Thermoanalysis measurement was finished by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis techniques. The results show that the phase-transition temperature of octadecane which is added with copper nano-particles changes little, while the latent heat of the composite PCMs gradually decrease with the increasing mass fraction of copper nano-particles, but decrease slightly. Therefore copper nano-particles have less influence on the heat storage capacity of octadecane

  20. Removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution by Azolla filicoloides: Synthesis of Fe3O4 nano-particles and its surface modification by the extracted pectin of Azolla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roohan Rakhshaee; Masoud Giahi; Afshin Pourahmad

    2011-01-01

    The modified Fe3O4 nano-particles with the extracted pectin from the cell wall of Azolla filicoloides (FN-EP) can remove methyl orange as a water-soluble azo dye from waste water better than Azolla and the extracted pectin from Azolla (EPA), alone. It could be due to more crowding the main functional groups of uptake after binding pectin with nano-particles. Thermodynamic studies showed that adsorption equilibrium constant (KL) and maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) were increased with decreasing temperature (exothermic). The maximum uptake capacity (Qmax) of dye by FN-EP in a batch reactor was 0.533, 0.498 and 0.446 mmol/g at 5, 25 and 50 ℃, respectively. The enthalpy change (AH) and entropy change (△S) were -15.31 kJ/mol and -0.02434 kJ/mol K, respectively.

  1. Biohydrogen production: strategies to improve process efficiency through microbial routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Kuppam; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-04-14

    The current fossil fuel-based generation of energy has led to large-scale industrial development. However, the reliance on fossil fuels leads to the significant depletion of natural resources of buried combustible geologic deposits and to negative effects on the global climate with emissions of greenhouse gases. Accordingly, enormous efforts are directed to transition from fossil fuels to nonpolluting and renewable energy sources. One potential alternative is biohydrogen (H2), a clean energy carrier with high-energy yields; upon the combustion of H2, H2O is the only major by-product. In recent decades, the attractive and renewable characteristics of H2 led us to develop a variety of biological routes for the production of H2. Based on the mode of H2 generation, the biological routes for H2 production are categorized into four groups: photobiological fermentation, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic and microbial electrolysis, and a combination of these processes. Thus, this review primarily focuses on the evaluation of the biological routes for the production of H2. In particular, we assess the efficiency and feasibility of these bioprocesses with respect to the factors that affect operations, and we delineate the limitations. Additionally, alternative options such as bioaugmentation, multiple process integration, and microbial electrolysis to improve process efficiency are discussed to address industrial-level applications.

  2. Biohydrogen Production: Strategies to Improve Process Efficiency through Microbial Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppam Chandrasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The current fossil fuel-based generation of energy has led to large-scale industrial development. However, the reliance on fossil fuels leads to the significant depletion of natural resources of buried combustible geologic deposits and to negative effects on the global climate with emissions of greenhouse gases. Accordingly, enormous efforts are directed to transition from fossil fuels to nonpolluting and renewable energy sources. One potential alternative is biohydrogen (H2, a clean energy carrier with high-energy yields; upon the combustion of H2, H2O is the only major by-product. In recent decades, the attractive and renewable characteristics of H2 led us to develop a variety of biological routes for the production of H2. Based on the mode of H2 generation, the biological routes for H2 production are categorized into four groups: photobiological fermentation, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic and microbial electrolysis, and a combination of these processes. Thus, this review primarily focuses on the evaluation of the biological routes for the production of H2. In particular, we assess the efficiency and feasibility of these bioprocesses with respect to the factors that affect operations, and we delineate the limitations. Additionally, alternative options such as bioaugmentation, multiple process integration, and microbial electrolysis to improve process efficiency are discussed to address industrial-level applications.

  3. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  4. A comprehensive and quantitative review of dark fermentative biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rittmann Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biohydrogen production (BHP can be achieved by direct or indirect biophotolysis, photo-fermentation and dark fermentation, whereof only the latter does not require the input of light energy. Our motivation to compile this review was to quantify and comprehensively report strains and process performance of dark fermentative BHP. This review summarizes the work done on pure and defined co-culture dark fermentative BHP since the year 1901. Qualitative growth characteristics and quantitative normalized results of H2 production for more than 2000 conditions are presented in a normalized and therefore comparable format to the scientific community. Statistically based evidence shows that thermophilic strains comprise high substrate conversion efficiency, but mesophilic strains achieve high volumetric productivity. Moreover, microbes of Thermoanaerobacterales (Family III have to be preferred when aiming to achieve high substrate conversion efficiency in comparison to the families Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The limited number of results available on dark fermentative BHP from fed-batch cultivations indicates the yet underestimated potential of this bioprocessing application. A Design of Experiments strategy should be preferred for efficient bioprocess development and optimization of BHP aiming at improving medium, cultivation conditions and revealing inhibitory effects. This will enable comparing and optimizing strains and processes independent of initial conditions and scale.

  5. Performance of mesophilic biohydrogen-producing cultures at thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Medhavi; Gomez-Flores, Maritza; Nasr, Noha; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Hesham El Naggar, M; Nakhla, George

    2015-09-01

    In this study, batch tests were conducted to investigate the performance of mesophilic anaerobic digester sludge (ADS) at thermophilic conditions and estimate kinetic parameters for co-substrate fermentation. Starch and cellulose were used as mono-substrate and in combination as co-substrates (1:1 mass ratio) to conduct a comparative assessment between mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (60 °C) biohydrogen production. Unacclimatized mesophilic ADS responded well to the temperature change. The highest hydrogen yield of 1.13 mol H2/mol hexose was observed in starch-only batches at thermophilic conditions. The thermophilic cellulose-only yield (0.42 mol H2/mol hexose) was three times the mesophilic yield (0.13 mol H2/mol hexose). Interestingly, co-fermentation of starch-cellulose at mesophilic conditions enhanced the hydrogen yield by 26% with respect to estimated mono-substrate yields, while under thermophilic conditions no enhancement in the overall yield was observed. Interestingly, the estimated overall Monod kinetic parameters showed higher rates at mesophilic than thermophilic conditions.

  6. Biohydrogen production from tequila vinasses using a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrón, Germán; Prato-Garcia, Dorian; Zhang, Axue

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico, the industrial production of tequila leads to the discharge of more than 31.2 million of m(3) of vinasse, which causes serious environmental issues because of its acidity, high organic load and the presence of recalcitrant compounds. The aim of this research was to study the feasibility of a fixed bed reactor for the production of biohydrogen by using tequila vinasse as substrate. The experiments were carried out in a continuous mode under mesophilic and acidic conditions. The maximum hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate were 1.3 mol H2 mol/mol glucose and 72 ± 9 mL H2/(Lreactor h), respectively. Biogas consisted of carbon dioxide (36%) and hydrogen (64%); moreover methane was not observed. The electron-equivalent mass balance fitted satisfactorily (sink of electrons from 0.8 to 7.6%). For vinasses, hydrogen production accounted for 10.9% of the total available electron-equivalents. In the liquid phase, the principal metabolites identified were acetic, butyric and iso-butyric acids, which indicated a butyrate-acetate type fermentation. Tequila vinasses did not result in potential inhibition of the fermentative process. Considering the process as a water treatment system, only 20% of the original carbon was removed (as carbon dioxide and biomass) when the tequila vinasses are used.

  7. Characterization and phylogenetics of a new species of genus Lactobacillus from the activated sludge in biohydrogen production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic process of biohydrogen production was developed. There is a great deal of Lactobacillus bacteria in the activated sludge of biohydrogen reactor. The isolation and identification of different anaerobic bacteria in the reactor is important for fermented biohydrogen production process by anaerobic digesting organic wastewater. Considering with the physiological and biochemical traits, morphological characteristics and 16SrDNA sequence, the isolated Rennanqilyfl3 is a new species in Lactobacillus genus. And the temporary nomenclature of the species is Lactobacillus Strain Rennanqilyfl3 sp. nov.

  8. Accumulation of Pesticides in Anaerobic Clayey Till-Controls and Implications for Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Peter R.; Spliid, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide residuals after point-source pesticide spills in clay-rich aquitards may potentially affect underlying groundwater for many decades due to slow release of accumulated pollution in the clayey matrix material of the aquitard. In this study, we evaluated factors behind different degrees...... into high concentrations of related mobile degradation products (e.g., 4-CPP and 2-CPP), which extended the total time of groundwater pollution beyond the disappearance of the original phenoxyacids....... of accumulation of phenoxy acids (MCPP, dichlorprop, 2,4-D MCPA) and triazines (simazine and terbutylazine) observed in an old pesticide pollution described by Jorgensen et al. (2016a, this issue). By using leaching experiments, it was shown that a zone of maximum concentrations of MCPP and dichlorprop (mg...

  9. Assessing PAH removal from clayey soil by means of electro-osmosis and electrodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Heister, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent and toxic contaminants which are difficult to remove from fine porous material like clayey soils. The present work aims at studying two electroremediation techniques for the removal of PAHs from a spiked natural silt soil from Saudi Arabia...... and a silty loam soil from The Netherlands which has been exposed to tar contamination for over 100years. The two techniques at focus are electro-osmosis and electrodialysis. The latter is applied for the first time for the removal of PAH. The efficiency of the techniques is studied using these two soils......, having been subjected to different PAH contact times.Two surfactants were used: the non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 and anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to aid desorption of PAHs from the soil. Results show a large discrepancy in the removal rates between spiked soil and long-term field...

  10. 复合膜中纳米银粒子的光吸收特性研究%The research on optical absorption properties of silver nano-particles in composite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵安

    2001-01-01

    本文通过溶胶凝胶法,制备出金属纳米银粒子复合膜.电镜(TEM)测量结果表明,复合膜中所掺入的银粒子尺寸属纳米量级.实验测出了复合膜中银粒子的吸收光谱,与其在银胶中吸收谱相比,发现其吸收峰红移52.5nm.并对测试结果进行了细致分析.%In the paper ,we reported composite film of silver nano-particles prepared via the Sol-Gel technique and its measurements of the optical absorption. The TEM photograph of composite film showed that silver particles size was nanoscale. The absorption peak of silver nano-particles in composite film yield red-shift as compared with silver nano-particles in colloidal solution. The results were analyzed and discussed in detail.

  11. Recycled ABS Resin Toughened and Reinforced by Elastomer/Inorganic Nano-Particle Composite System%弹性体/无机纳米粒子复合体系增强增韧回收ABS树脂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔雪松

    2013-01-01

    The toughening of elastomer and inorganic nano-particle to recycled ABS was studied respectively.The results show that elastomer restores the toughness of recycles ABS,but leads to decrease of rigidity,meanwhile inorganic nano-particle can increase the toughness partly,also leads to increases of rigidity.Finally recycled ABS is modified by elastomer/inorganic nano-particle composite system.When 5%~8% ABS rubber powder and 2% ~3% inorganic particle are added,the recycled ABS resin is toughened and reinforced.%分别研究了弹性体和无机纳米粒子对回收丙烯腈-丁二烯-苯乙烯共聚物(ABS)的增韧.结果表明:弹性体能使回收ABS树脂的韧性得到恢复,但导致刚性下降;无机纳米粒子对ABS树脂的增韧能力有限,但能增加ABS的刚性.最后采用弹性体/无机纳米粒子复合体系改性回收ABS树脂,添加质量分数5%~8%的高胶粉和质量分数2%~3%无机纳米粒子时,实现了对回收ABS树脂的增强增韧.

  12. Enhancement of light harvesting efficiency of silicon solar cell utilizing arrays of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nano-spheres and nano-spheres with embedded silver nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chee-Leong; Goh, Wee-Sheng; Chee, Swee-Yong; Yik, Lai-Kuan

    2017-02-01

    An array of uniformly distributed monolayer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nano-spheres were deposited onto an amorphous silicon photovoltaic cell utilizing dip coating technique. The electrical characteristics of the coated photovoltaic cell reveal that the nano-spheres with an average diameter size of 101 nm exhibits excellent light harvesting characteristics if compared to the nano-spheres of other sizes. The power conversion efficiency from such integration of the nano-structures (i.e. 3.14% per PV cell) indicates that at least 1.6 times of improvement (or relative enhancement of 57%) can be achieved comparatively to the uncoated photovoltaic cell (i.e. 2% per PV cell). Further increment of the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell has been attained with the incorporation of the silver nano-particles into the nano-spheres of similar average size. With the inclusion of the silver nano-particles into such nano-spheres, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell has attained 5.57% per PV cell, which is about 2.8 times (or relative enhancement of 179%) if compared to the uncoated samples. Hence, this novel and controllable technique of fabricating omnidirectional light-harvesting nano-spheres with embedded silver nano-particles will indubitably be beneficial to various types of optoelectronic devices.

  13. Evaluation of nanoscale zerovalent iron particles for trichloroethene degradation in clayey soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsenovich, Yelena P; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando R

    2009-09-01

    The longevity and reactivity of nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) and palladized bimetallic particles (BNP) were evaluated in batch and column experiments for remediation of a trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated plume within a clayey soil from Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Comparative studies assessing the viability of BNP and nZVI confirmed that particle behavior is severely affected by clay sediments. Surface morphology and composition analyses using SEM and SEM-energy-dispersive spectroscopy spectrum revealed particle agglomeration through the formation of clay-iron aggregates of greater mass during the early phase of the experiment. Batch study results suggest that TCE degradation in ORR clayey soil follows a pseudo-first-order kinetic model exhibiting reaction rate constants (k) of 0.05-0.24 day(-1) at varied iron-to-soil ratios. Despite high reactivity in water, BNP were less effective in the site-derived clay sediment with calculated TCE removal efficiencies of 98.7% and 19.59%, respectively. A column experiment was conducted to investigate particle longevity and indicator parameters of the TCE degradation process under flow conditions. It revealed that the TCE removal efficiency gradually declined over the course of the experiment from 86-93% to 51-52%, correlating to a progressive increase in oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) from -485 to -250 mV and pH drop from 8.2-8.6 to 7.4-7.5. The rate of nZVI deactivation reaction was found to be a first order with a k(d) value of 0.0058 day(-1). SEM images of residual nZVI revealed heavily agglomerated particles. However, despite widespread oxidation and agglomeration, particles managed to maintain some capacity for oxidation. A quantitative analysis of nZVI deactivation has the potential of predicting nZVI longevity in order to improve the design strategy of TCE remediation.

  14. Trichloroethylene volatilization enhancement by alcohol/salt cycling injection in unsaturated clayey soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, M. L.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2008-05-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is the most widely detected organic contaminant at National Priority List (NPL) sites. In many sites, TCE is trapped as dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in formations of low permeability, and serve as long-term source of contamination. Remediation of these formations is extremely difficult and expensive. It is, therefore, necessary to develop enhanced, cost effective remediation technologies that can be applied to tight formations of low permeability. This study investigates the applicability of enhanced TCE soil vapor extraction (SVE) from unsaturated clayey soils using capillary delivery of alcohol/salt water cycles. Short chain alcohols are used to modify NAPL air tension and enhance dissolution into the aqueous phase. Brine delivery is used to induce TCE salting out and enhance volatilization. Experimental work involves the use of a 2-D laboratory-scale column packed with tropical clay and contaminated with non-aqueous phase TCE. Rigid porous membranes are inserted into the clay and used to deliver alcohol and brine solutions through competitive capillary forces. Vapor extraction is applied through vacuum well points, whereas a liquid drainage boundary is applied at the bottom of the column. Solution delivery rates and concentrations of TCE, alcohol, and salt solution are monitored to: determine removed and resident mass; assess reactive and transfer processes and develop optimal remedial technologies and parameters (e.g., delivery rates, imposed boundary conditions, contact times). This presentation addresses the preliminary work being conducted to determine the most appropriate alcohol and salt solution. It also discusses the testing of porous membranes of different rigid materials (e.g., stainless steel, Teflon, ceramic) and pore sizes, and the selection of the best one to deliver the selected alcohol and brine solution in unsaturated clays under the imposed boundary conditions. Keywords: Trichloroethylene (TCE), Soil vapor

  15. Geochemistry of Clayey Aquitard Pore Water as Archive of Paleo-Environment, Western Bohai Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Xing Liang; Menggui Jin; Guoqiang Xiao; Jishan He; Yandong Pei

    2015-01-01

    The record of paleo-environment in clayey aquitard pore water is much more effective relative to aquifer groundwater owing to the low permeability of clayey aquitard. Oxygen-18 (18O), deuterium (D), and chemical patterns were determined in pore water samples extracted from two 500 m depth boreholes, G1 and G2, in western Bohai Bay, China. Shallow pore water samples (depth<102 m) are saline water, with the TDS (total dissolved solids) of 3.69–30.75 g/L, and deeper ones (depth=102–500 m) are fresh water, with the TDS<1 g/L. Content of major ions (i.e., Cl-, Na+, K+, Mg2+, SO42-, Ca2+) is high in marine sediment pore water samples and gradually decrease towards to terre-strial sediment pore water, together with the Cl/Br and Sr/Ba ratios changing significantly in different sedimentary facies along the study profile, indicating that pore water may be paleo-sedimentary water and not replaced by modern water.δ18O profile and positive correlation betweenδ18O and Cl-of shal-low saline pore water indicated diffusion as the main transport mechanism, and distinguished four transgressive layers since Late Quaternary (i.e., Holocene marine unit, two Late Pleistocene marine units and Middle Pleistocene marine unit), further supporting the finding that pore water retained the feature of paleo-sedimentary water. Climate was identified as the main influence on the isotopic signa-ture of aquitard pore water and four climate periods were determined byδ18O profile.

  16. Ruminal microbe of biohydrogenation of trans-vaccenic acid to stearic acid in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimization of the unsaturated fatty acid composition of ruminant milk and meat is desirable. Alteration of the milk and fatty acid profile was previously attempted by the management of ruminal microbial biohydrogenation. The aim of this study was to identify the group of ruminal trans-vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1, t-VA hydrogenating bacteria by combining enrichment studies in vitro. Methods The enrichment culture growing on t-VA was obtained by successive transfers in medium containing t-VA. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatograph and changes in the microbial composition during enrichment were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. Prominent DGGE bands of the enrichment cultures were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results The growth of ruminal t-VA hydrogenating bacteria was monitored through the process of culture transfer according to the accumulation of stearic acid (C18:0, SA and ratio of the substrate (t-VA transformed to the product (SA. A significant part of the retrieved 16S rRNA gene sequences was most similar to those of uncultured bacteria. Bacteria corresponding to predominant DGGE bands in t-VA enrichment cultures clustered with t-VA biohydrogenated bacteria within Group B. Conclusions This study provides more insight into the pathway of biohydrogenation. It also may be important to control the production of t-VA, which has metabolic and physiological benefits, through management of ruminal biohydrogenation bacterium.

  17. Critical assessment of anaerobic processes for continuous biohydrogen production from organic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Show, Kuan-Yeow [Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan University, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak (Malaysia); Zhang, Zhen-Peng [Beijing Enterprises Water Group Limited, BLK 25, No. 3 Minzhuang Road, Beijing 100195 (China); Tay, Joo-Hwa [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue (Singapore); Liang, David Tee [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Lee, Duu-Jong [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Production of biohydrogen using dark fermentation has received much attention owing to the fact that hydrogen can be generated from renewable organics including waste materials. The key to successful application of anaerobic fermentation is to uncouple the liquid retention time and the biomass retention time in the reactor system. Various reactor designs based on biomass retention within the reactor system have been developed. This paper presents our research work on bioreactor designs and operation for biohydrogen production. Comparisons between immobilized-cell systems and suspended-cell systems based on biomass growth in the forms of granule, biofilm and flocs were made. Reactor configurations including column- and tank-based reactors were also assessed. Experimental results indicated that formation of granules or biofilms substantially enhanced biomass retention which was found to be proportional to the hydrogen production rate. Rapid hydrogen-producing culture growth and high organic loading rate might limit the application of biofilm biohydrogen production, since excessive growth of fermentative biomass would result in washout of support carrier. It follows that column-based granular sludge process is a preferred choice of process for continuous biohydrogen production from organic wastewater, indicating maximum hydrogen yield of 1.7 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose and hydrogen production rate of 6.8 L-H{sub 2}/L-reactor h. (author)

  18. Two-stage alkaline-enzymatic pretreatments to enhance biohydrogen production from sunflower stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monlau, Florian; Trably, Eric; Barakat, Abdellatif; Hamelin, Jérôme; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Carrere, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Because of their rich composition in carbohydrates, lignocellulosic residues represent an interesting source of biomass to produce biohydrogen by dark fermentation. Nevertheless, pretreatments should be applied to enhance the solubilization of holocelluloses and increase their further conversion into biohydrogen. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermo-alkaline pretreatment alone and combined with enzymatic hydrolysis to enhance biohydrogen production from sunflower stalks. A low increase of hydrogen potentials from 2.3 ± 0.9 to 4.4 ± 2.6 and 20.6 ± 5.6 mL of H2 g(-1) of volatile solids (VS) was observed with raw sunflower stalks and after thermo-alkaline pretreatment at 55 °C, 24 h, and 4% NaOH and 170 °C, 1 h, and 4% NaOH, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment alone showed an enhancement of the biohydrogen yields to 30.4 mL of H2 g(-1) of initial VS, whereas it led to 49 and 59.5 mL of H2 g(-1) of initial VS when combined with alkaline pretreatment at 55 and 170 °C, respectively. Interestingly, a diauxic effect was observed with sequential consumption of sugars by the mixed cultures during dark fermentation. Glucose was first consumed, and once glucose was completely exhausted, xylose was used by the microorganisms, mainly related to Clostridium species.

  19. Development of net energy ratio and emission factor for biohydrogen production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the energy and environmental aspects of producing biohydrogen for bitumen upgrading from a life cycle perspective. Three technologies are studied for biohydrogen production; these include the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) gasifier, and fast pyrolysis. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered including forest residue (FR), whole forest (WF), and agricultural residue (AR). The fast pyrolysis pathway includes two cases: truck transport of bio-oil and pipeline transport of bio-oil. The net energy ratios (NERs) for nine biohydrogen pathways lie in the range of 1.3-9.3. The maximum NER (9.3) is for the FR-based pathway using GTI technology. The GHG emissions lie in the range of 1.20-8.1 kg CO₂ eq/kg H₂. The lowest limit corresponds to the FR-based biohydrogen production pathway using GTI technology. This study also analyzes the intensities for acid rain precursor and ground level ozone precursor.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Amino-functionalized Silica Nano-particles%氨基官能化介孔二氧化硅的制备和表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟莉; 许艳玲; 杨雪莲; 王倩; 严伟; 石善滕; 李晴

    2016-01-01

    采用不同试验方法合成介孔二氧化硅纳米粒子(MSN),分别对不同方法所得样品进行粒径分析。结果得出:采用NaOH做pH调节剂,以乙醇与水的适宜比例做溶剂,在一定条件下所制得的介孔二氧化硅粒子粒径分布相对均匀,均在200~300 nm间。而后以此方法制得所需样品,分别采用盐酸酸化和煅烧两种方法除去模板剂CTAB,得到MSN,然后在其表面接枝上了-NH2,得到了氨基官能化介孔二氧化硅,并利用TGA、FTIR等方法对产物的结构进行了表征。%Mesoporous silica nano-particles(MSN) were synthesized using different experimental methods, respectively. The result of zize analysis showed that using NaOH as pH adjusting agent, a suitable proportion of ethanol and water as solvent, in certain conditions prepared the MSN particle, which has relatively uniform and concentrated particle size distribution, between 200 nm to 300 nm. The preferred sample prepared in this way, used hydrochloric acid or calcined to romove template CTAB, and then grafted -NH2 on its surface, to obtain amino-functionalized medium mesoporous silica. The TGA, FTIR were used to characterize the product.

  1. Energy transfer based photoluminescence spectra of (Tb{sup 3+}+ Sm{sup 3+}):PEO+PVP polymer nano-composites with Ag nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naveen Kumar, K., E-mail: knaveenphy@gmail.com; Chandra Babu, B.; Buddhudu, S.

    2015-05-15

    Sm{sup 3+}:PEO+PVP, Sm{sup 3+}+Tb{sup 3+}:PEO+PVP and Sm{sup 3+}+Tb{sup 3+}+Ag NPs:PEO+PVP polymer films have successfully been synthesized by a solution casting method. For these polymer films, their XRD, FTIR and RAMAN spectral profiles have been analyzed. Both absorption and photoluminescence spectra have been measured in evaluating their optical properties. The Sm{sup 3+}:PEO+PVP polymer film has displayed a reddish-orange emission at 600 nm under an UV lamp and its absorption and emission spectra have also been measured to evaluate its optical characteristics. A reddish-orange emission at 600 nm ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→ {sup 6}H{sub 7/2}) of Sm{sup 3+} has been measured for which lifetime has also been evaluated suitably. The Photoluminescence efficiency of Sm{sup 3+} ion has been enhanced due to the addition of Tb{sup 3+} by means of an energy transfer process. The energy transfer mechanism, from Tb{sup 3+} to Sm{sup 3+} has been explained. In Ag nano-filler embedded in Tb{sup 3+}+Sm{sup 3+}:PEO+PVP polymer system, a different energy transfer process which exists between Ag nano-particles and Sm{sup 3+} ions also taking place in the polymer matrix has been identified. From these results, these films could be suggested as potential reddish-orange luminescent optical materials.

  2. Immunogenic inhibition of prominent ruminal bacteria as a means to reduce lipolysis and biohydrogenation activity in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through the microbial processes of lipolysis and biohydrogenation, ruminal animals promote the accumulation of saturated fatty acids in their meat and milk. Anaerovibrio lipolyticus, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and Propionibacterium avidum and acnes have been identified as contributors to ruminal li...

  3. Biohydrogen production from glucose in upflow biofilm reactors with plastic carriers under extreme thermophilic conditions (70(degree)C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, H.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Biohydrogen could efficiently be produced in glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers and operated at 70°C. Batch experiments were, in addition, conducted to enrich and cultivate glucose-fed extremethermophilic hydrogen producing microorganisms from a biohydrogen CSTR reactor fed...... with household solid waste. Kinetic analysis of the biohydrogen enrichment cultures show that substrate (glucose) likely inhibited hydrogen production when its concentration was higher than 1 g/L. Different start up strategies were applied for biohydrogen production in biofilm reactors operated at 70°C, and fed...... with synthetic medium with glucose as the only carbon and energy source. A biofilm reactor, started up with plastic carriers, that were previously inoculated with the enrichment cultures, resulted in higher hydrogen yield (2.21 mol H2/mol glucose consumed) but required longer start up time (1 month), while...

  4. Biohydrogen production from soluble condensed molasses fermentation using anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Chyi-How; Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Wu, Jou-Hsien; Hsiao, Chin-Lang [Department of Water Resource Engineering, Feng Chia University (China); Chang, Jui-Jen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University (China); Chen, Chin-Chao [Environmental Resources Laboratory, Department of Landscape Architecture, Chungchou Institute of Technology (China)

    2010-12-15

    Using anaerobic micro-organisms to convert organic waste to produce hydrogen gas gives the benefits of energy recovery and environmental protection. The objective of this study was to develop a biohydrogen production technology from food wastewater focusing on hydrogen production efficiency and micro-flora community at different hydraulic retention times. Soluble condensed molasses fermentation (CMS) was used as the substrate because it is sacchariferous and ideal for hydrogen production. CMS contains nutrient components that are necessary for bacterial growth: microbial protein, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins and coenzymes. The seed sludge was obtained from the waste activated sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant in Central Taiwan. This seed sludge was rich in Clostridium sp. A CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor) lab-scale hydrogen fermentor (working volume, 4.0 L) was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3-24 h with an influent CMS concentration of 40 g COD/L. The results showed that the peak hydrogen production rate of 390 mmol H{sub 2}/L-d occurred at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 320 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 3 h. The peak hydrogen yield was obtained at an OLR of 80 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 12 h. At HRT 8 h, all hydrogenase mRNA detected were from Clostridium acetobutylicum-like and Clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogen-producing bacteria by RT-PCR analysis. RNA based hydrogenase gene and 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that Clostridium exists in the fermentative hydrogen-producing system and might be the dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria at tested HRTs (except 3 h). The hydrogen production feedstock from CMS is lower than that of sucrose and starch because CMS is a waste and has zero cost, requiring no added nutrients. Therefore, producing hydrogen from food wastewater is a more commercially feasible bioprocess. (author)

  5. Effects of various pretreatments on biohydrogen production from sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO BenYi; LIU JunXin

    2009-01-01

    The sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plant is a kind of biomass which contains many organics,mainly carbohydrates and proteins. Four pretreatments, acid pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment,thermal pretreatment and ultrasonic pretreatment, were used to enhance biohydrogen production from sewage sludge. The experimental results showed that the four pretreatments could all increase the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of sludge and decrease the dry solid (DS) and volatile solid(VS) because the pretreatments could disrupt the floc structure and even the microbial cells of sludge.The results of batch anaerobic fermentation experiments demonstrated that all of the four pretreat-ments could select hydrogen-producing microorganisms from the microflora of sludge and enhance the hydrogen production. The hydrogen yield of the alkaline pretreated sludge at initial pH of 11.5 was the maximal (11.68 mL H2/g VS) and that of the thermal pretreated sludge was the next (8.62 mL H2/g VS).The result showed that the hydrogen yield of pretreated sludge was correlative with its SCOD. The hydrogen yields of acid pretreated sludge and alkaline pretreated sludge were also influenced by their initial pH. No methane could be detected in the anaerobic fermentation of alkaline pretreated sludge and thermal pretreated sludge, which suggested that these pretreatments could fully inhibit the activity of methanogens. The volatile fatty acids (VFA) production in anaerobic fermentation of alkaline pretreated sludge was the maximum and the next is that of thermal pretreated sludge.

  6. Biohydrogen production from beet molasses by sequential dark and photofermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezguer, Ebru; Eroglu, Inci [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Mars, Astrid E.; Louwerse, Annemarie; Claassen, Pieternel A.M. [Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Peksel, Beguem; Yuecel, Meral; Guenduez, Ufuk [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biology, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Biological hydrogen production using renewable resources is a promising possibility to generate hydrogen in a sustainable way. In this study, a sequential dark and photofermentation has been employed for biohydrogen production using sugar beet molasses as a feedstock. An extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was used for the dark fermentation, and several photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodobacter capsulatus wild type, R. capsulatus hup{sup -} mutant, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris) were used for the photofermentation. C. saccharolyticus was grown in a pH-controlled bioreactor, in batch mode, on molasses with an initial sucrose concentration of 15 g/L. The influence of additions of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and yeast extract on sucrose consumption and hydrogen production was determined. The highest hydrogen yield (4.2 mol of H{sub 2}/mol sucrose) and maximum volumetric productivity (7.1 mmol H{sub 2}/L{sub c}.h) were obtained in the absence of NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The effluent of the dark fermentation containing no NH{sub 4}{sup +} was fed to a photobioreactor, and hydrogen production was monitored under continuous illumination, in batch mode. Productivity and yield were improved by dilution of the dark fermentor effluent (DFE) and the additions of buffer, iron-citrate and sodium molybdate. The highest hydrogen yield (58% of the theoretical hydrogen yield of the consumed organic acids) and productivity (1.37 mmol H{sub 2}/L{sub c}.h) were attained using the hup{sup -} mutant of R. capsulatus. The overall hydrogen yield from sucrose increased from the maximum of 4.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose in dark fermentation to 13.7 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose (corresponding to 57% of the theoretical yield of 24 mol of H{sub 2}/mole of sucrose) by sequential dark and photofermentation. (author)

  7. Biohydrogen, biomethane and bioelectricity as crucial components of biorefinery of organic wastes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Munoz-Paez, Karla M; Escamilla-Alvarado, Carlos; Robledo-Narváez, Paula N; Ponce-Noyola, M Teresa; Calva-Calva, Graciano; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Estrada-Vázquez, Carlos; Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí F

    2014-05-01

    Biohydrogen is a sustainable form of energy as it can be produced from organic waste through fermentation processes involving dark fermentation and photofermentation. Very often biohydrogen is included as a part of biorefinery approaches, which reclaim organic wastes that are abundant sources of renewable and low cost substrate that can be efficiently fermented by microorganisms. The aim of this work was to critically assess selected bioenergy alternatives from organic solid waste, such as biohydrogen and bioelectricity, to evaluate their relative advantages and disadvantages in the context of biorefineries, and finally to indicate the trends for future research and development. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products, which means: energy, materials, chemicals, food and feed. Dark fermentation of organic wastes could be the beach-head of complete biorefineries that generate biohydrogen as a first step and could significantly influence the future of solid waste management. Series systems show a better efficiency than one-stage process regarding substrate conversion to hydrogen and bioenergy. The dark fermentation also produces fermented by-products (fatty acids and solvents), so there is an opportunity for further combining with other processes that yield more bioenergy. Photoheterotrophic fermentation is one of them: photosynthetic heterotrophs, such as non-sulfur purple bacteria, can thrive on the simple organic substances produced in dark fermentation and light, to give more H2. Effluents from photoheterotrophic fermentation and digestates can be processed in microbial fuel cells for bioelectricity production and methanogenic digestion for methane generation, thus integrating a diverse block of bioenergies. Several digestates from bioenergies could be used for bioproducts generation, such as cellulolytic enzymes and saccharification processes, leading to ethanol fermentation (another bioenergy), thus completing

  8. Optimizing the impact of temperature on bio-hydrogen production from food waste and its derivatives under no pH control using statistical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sattar; C. Arslan; Ji, C.; Sattar, S.; K. Yousaf; S. Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The effect of temperature on bio-hydrogen production by co-digestion of sewerage sludge with food waste and its two derivatives, i.e. noodle waste and rice waste, was investigated by statistical modelling. Experimental results showed that increasing temperature from mesophilic (37 °C) to thermophilic (55 °C) was an effective mean for increasing bio-hydrogen production from food waste and noodle waste, but it caused a negative impact on bio-hydrogen productio...

  9. Geological study of sedimentary clayey materials of the Bomkoul area in the Douala region (Douala sub-basin, Cameroon) for the ceramic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngon Ngon, Gilbert François; Etame, Jacques; Ntamak-Nida, Marie Joseph; Mbog, Michel Bertrand; Mpondo, Anne Maureen Maliengoue; Gérard, Martine; Yongue-Fouateu, Rose; Bilong, Paul

    2012-06-01

    A geological study carried out in the Bomkoul area (Douala sub-basin, Cameroon) has revealed the presence of heterogeneous clayey materials on hills (80-120 m altitude). The clay deposits are thick at the upper slope where sandstones and sandy-clay overlying clay layers, and thin at the middle and lower slopes where weathered clays overlying clay layers. Clayey materials identified are grey, dark-grey and mottled in color, with sandy-clay, clayey-silt, silty-clay and clay textures. Raw materials are mostly made up of fine particles ranging from 52 to 82% clay and silt in the mottled clayey material, 50 to 82% clay and silt in the dark-grey clayey material and 70 to 85% in the grey clayey material. Their chemical composition is characterized by silica (clay minerals are disorganized and poorly crystallized kaolinite and few smectite. The physical, mineralogical and geochemical properties of these materials presented and discussed in this work show that the clayey raw materials of the Bomkoul area have a good potential for pottery as well as brick, tile and soil sandstone manufacture.

  10. Increasing levels of two different fish oils lower ruminal biohydrogenation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Dohme, Frigga; Fievez, Veerle; Raes, Katleen; Demeyer, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary $n-3$ fatty acids limits any attempt to increase their contents in products of ruminants. The aim of the study was to determine whether total lipolysis, release rate of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) from triacylglycerols (TG), their biohydrogenation and their accumulation as unesterified fatty acids was affected by the fish oil type (FOa; FOb), inclusion level (12.5, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 mg per incubation ...

  11. Simultaneous glucose sensing and biohydrogen evolution from direct photoelectrocatalytic glucose oxidation on robust Cu₂O-TiO₂ electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadoss, Anitha; Sudhagar, P; Ravidhas, C; Hishinuma, Ryota; Terashima, Chiaki; Nakata, Kazuya; Kondo, Takeshi; Shitanda, Isao; Yuasa, Makoto; Fujishima, Akira

    2014-10-21

    We report simultaneous photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) glucose sensing and biohydrogen generation for the first time from the direct PEC oxidation of glucose at multifunctional and robust Cu2O-TiO2 photocatalysts. Striking improvement of 30% in overall H2 gas evolution (∼122 μmol h(-1) cm(-2)) by photoholes assisted glucose oxidation opens a new platform in solar-driven PEC biohydrogen generation.

  12. Sorption/desorption processes of uranium in clayey samples of the Bangombe natural reactor zone, Gabon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, M. del [Inst. de Recherches Subatomiques, CNRS/IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Salah, S.; Clement, A.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F. [Centre de Geochimie de la Surface, CNRS, Strasbourg (France); Miura, T. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba-Shi Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Experimental studies have been undertaken in order to provide new insights into the relative efficiency of the different mineral phases and sorption processes for the control of U retention in the weathered zones surrounding the natural nuclear reactor at Bangombe (Oklo, Gabon). Clayey and Fe-oxihydroxides rich samples from the oxidizing weathered zones located above the reactor were examined. An experimental study of uranium adsorption/desorption processes in these samples was carried out using a uranium isotope exchange technique in order to estimate the proportion of uranium adsorbed on mineral surfaces. A sequential extraction technique was used to identify the major U-containing minerals in the samples. In the U-rich iron crust rocks close to the reactor, the fraction of total uranium adsorbed at mineral surfaces is small. Extraction experiments reveal that a large part of uranium is associated to Fe-oxihydroxides, to minor P-rich phases, and presumably to Mn-oxihydroxides. A possible mechanism for U retention is an incorporation into the structure of iron oxihydroxides and/or of ferric phosphates occurring as surface precipitates on Fe-oxihydroxides. Traces of autunite-like mineral are also present in the zone. For the clayey samples in the weathering profile, it may be inferred that several processes and minerals contribute significantly to U retention: adsorption processes occurring mainly at clay surfaces, association with traces of Mn-containing carboantes and iron oxihydroxides. A significant proportion of total U is adsorbed at mineral surfaces and is thereby easily accessible to weathering solutions. In a second part of this work, {sup 233}U sorption data obtained on a Fe- and Mn-poor illitic Bangombe sample were modeled using a surface complexation modeling approach. As a first approximation, it was assumed in modeling that uranyl binding occurs at aluminol edge sites of the illite component. The binding constant required for modeling was firstly

  13. Bio-hydrogen production from tempeh and tofu processing wastes via fermentation process using microbial consortium: A mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengga, Wara Dyah Pita; Wati, Diyah Saras; Siregar, Riska Yuliana; Wulandari, Ajeng Riswanti; Lestari, Adela Ayu; Chafidz, Achmad

    2017-03-01

    One of alternative energies that can replace fossil fuels is hydrogen. Hydrogen can be used to generate electricity and to power combustion engines for transportation. Bio-hydrogen produced from tempeh and tofu processing waste can be considered as a renewable energy. Bio-hydrogen produced from tempeh and tofu processing waste is beneficial because the waste of soybean straw and tofu processing waste is plentiful, cheap, renewable and biodegradable. Specification of tempeh and tofu processing waste were soybean straw and sludge of tofu processing. They contain carbohydrates (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) and methane. This paper reviews the optimal condition to produce bio-hydrogen from tempeh and tofu processing waste. The production of bio-hydrogen used microbial consortium which were enriched from cracked cereals and mainly dominated by Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium roseum. The production process of bio-hydrogen from tempeh and tofu processing waste used acid pre-treatment with acid catalyzed hydrolysis to cleave the bond of hemicellulose and cellulose chains contained in biomass. The optimal production of bio-hydrogen has a yield of 6-6.8 mL/g at 35-60 °C, pH 5.5-7 in hydraulic retention time (HRT) less than 16 h. The production used a continuous system in an anaerobic digester. This condition can be used as a reference for the future research.

  14. Progress of SERS Based on Nano-particles/Coupled Metalic Structure between Nano-particles and Film with Micro-nano Structure%金属纳米颗粒/微纳结构金属膜增强拉曼研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易明芳

    2014-01-01

    被称为“指纹谱”的分子拉曼谱及拉曼散射成像在生物及化学单分子识别领域具有重要应用。问题的关键是分子的拉曼散射截面小,利用金属纳米颗粒(LSP)局域场增强特性及其与金属膜(SPP)相互作用可产生比 LSP ( SPP)更强的局域场及尖角结构金属纳米颗粒的“热点天线”效应,可实现单分子拉曼信号的激发与辐射双共振增强效应。本文综述有关金属纳米颗粒和微纳结构金属膜相耦合增强分子拉曼信号的研究进展。%The “fingerprint” Raman spectra have important application in the field of chemistry or biotechnology which makes it possible to visualize individual molecules with chemical recognition .The key question is that the Raman scattering cross section of a single molecule is very small.The localized field enhancements of the surface plasmon polaritons is the physical basement of surface enhanced Raman spectra( SERS) .The hybrid plasmons which is a kind of coupling electric field between the LSP and SPP will produce stronger electric field than the LSP or SPP alone and the nano-metal particles with sharp corners structure can produce"hot spot"effect.It can realize the double-resonance enhancement for both Raman excitation and Raman emission.This paper will summarize the progress of SERS based on nano-particles/coupled metalic structrue between nano-particles and film with micro-nano structures.

  15. Hydric transfer in swelling clayey soils: influence of confinement; Transfert hydrique dans des sols argileux gonflants: influence du confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, S

    2002-01-01

    Description of imbibition and swelling mechanisms in clayey soils represents an important stake in different scientific domains such as agronomy, geotechnics or petroleum industry. The aim of the present work is to show the effects of hydro-mechanical couplings during imbibition in a swelling clayey medium, under different confinement conditions. Our material is a bentonite-silt mixture, prepared with a known water content and compacted with a double-piston technique. This method allows us to produce uniform soil samples, in terms of humidity and bulk density. Experiments related to bottom imbibition are then carried out for three types of mechanical boundary conditions (free, oedometric, fixed volume). The non-intrusive dual-energy gamma-ray technique is used to assess the local variation of bulk density and humidity. Finally, the three imbibition kinetics are compared for each experiment in terms of hydraulic diffusivity, described in a Lagrangian way. (author)

  16. Physical modeling of shrink-swell cycles and cracking in a clayey vadose zone

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, V Y

    2014-01-01

    Physical understanding of the crack origin and quantitative physical prediction of the crack volume variation far from the clay soil surface are necessary to protect the underlying aquifers from pollutants. The basis of this work is an available physical model for predicting the shrinkage and swelling curves in the maximum water content range (the primary curves) and crack volume variation. The objective of the work is to generalize this model to the conditions of the deep layer of a clayey vadose zone with the overburden pressure, multiple shrinkage-swelling, and variation of water content in a small range. We aim to show that the scanning shrinkage and swelling curves, and steady shrink-swell cycles existing in such conditions, inevitably lead to the occurrence of cracks and a hysteretic crack volume. The generalization is based on the transition to the increasingly complex soil medium from the contributive clay, through the intra-aggregate matrix and aggregated soil with no cracking, to the soil with crack...

  17. Distribution of petrophysical properties for sandy-clayey reservoirs by fractal interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lozada-Zumaeta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The sandy-clayey hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Upper Paleocene and Lower Eocene located to the north of Veracruz State, Mexico, present highly complex geological and petrophysical characteristics. These reservoirs, which consist of sandstone and shale bodies within a depth interval ranging from 500 to 2000 m, were characterized statistically by means of fractal modeling and geostatistical tools. For 14 wells within an area of study of approximately 6 km2, various geophysical well logs were initially edited and further analyzed to establish a correlation between logs and core data. The fractal modeling based on the R/S (rescaled range methodology and the interpolation method by successive random additions were used to generate pseudo-well logs between observed wells. The application of geostatistical tools, sequential Gaussian simulation and exponential model variograms contributed to estimate the spatial distribution of petrophysical properties such as effective porosity (PHIE, permeability (K and shale volume (VSH. From the analysis and correlation of the information generated in the present study, it can be said, from a general point of view, that the results not only are correlated with already reported information but also provide significant characterization elements that would be hardly obtained by means of conventional techniques.

  18. Kinetic modelling of a diesel-polluted clayey soil bioremediation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Engracia Lacasa; Merlo, Elena Moliterni [Chemical Engineering Department, Research Institute for Chemical and Environmental Technology (ITQUIMA), University of Castilla La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Mayor, Lourdes Rodríguez [National Institute for Hydrogen Research, C/Fernando el Santo, 13500 Puertollano (Spain); Camacho, José Villaseñor, E-mail: jose.villasenor@uclm.es [Chemical Engineering Department, Research Institute for Chemical and Environmental Technology (ITQUIMA), University of Castilla La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    A mathematical model is proposed to describe a diesel-polluted clayey soil bioremediation process. The reaction system under study was considered a completely mixed closed batch reactor, which initially contacted a soil matrix polluted with diesel hydrocarbons, an aqueous liquid-specific culture medium and a microbial inoculation. The model coupled the mass transfer phenomena and the distribution of hydrocarbons among four phases (solid, S; water, A; non-aqueous liquid, NAPL; and air, V) with Monod kinetics. In the first step, the model simulating abiotic conditions was used to estimate only the mass transfer coefficients. In the second step, the model including both mass transfer and biodegradation phenomena was used to estimate the biological kinetic and stoichiometric parameters. In both situations, the model predictions were validated with experimental data that corresponded to previous research by the same authors. A correct fit between the model predictions and the experimental data was observed because the modelling curves captured the major trends for the diesel distribution in each phase. The model parameters were compared to different previously reported values found in the literature. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to show the reproducibility level of the model. - Highlights: • A mathematical model is proposed to describe a soil bioremediation process. • The model couples mass transfer phenomena among phases with biodegradation. • Model predictions were validated with previous data reported by the authors. • A correct fit and correlation coefficients were observed.

  19. THE POTENTIAL OF γ-RAY SPECTROSCOPY FOR SOIL PROXIMAL SURVEY IN CLAYEY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Priori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray spectroscopy surveys the intensity and distribution of γ-rays emitted from radionuclides of soils and bedrocks. The most important radionuclides of soils and rocks are: 40K, 232Th, 238U and 137Cs, the latter due to Chernobyl burst or radioactive pollution. Distribution and quantity of these radionuclides into the soil is strictly linked to parent material mineralogy and soil cation exchange capacity. The aim of this work is to show the makings of γ-ray spectroscopy proximal survey within experimental fields with clayey soils in western Sicily.The γ-ray spectrometer used for the fieldwork was “The Mole”, made by “The Soil Company”, “Medusa system” and the University of Groningen, from The Netherlands. During the survey of eight experimental fields, 55 soil samples were collected for laboratory analysis of particle size distribution, calcium carbonate, organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The results of the work showed the statistical correlations between soil features and γ-ray data. 

  20. Assessing PAH removal from clayey soil by means of electro-osmosis and electrodialysis

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.

    2012-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent and toxic contaminants which are difficult to remove from fine porous material like clayey soils. The present work aims at studying two electroremediation techniques for the removal of PAHs from a spiked natural silt soil from Saudi Arabia and a silty loam soil from The Netherlands which has been exposed to tar contamination for over 100. years. The two techniques at focus are electro-osmosis and electrodialysis. The latter is applied for the first time for the removal of PAH. The efficiency of the techniques is studied using these two soils, having been subjected to different PAH contact times. Two surfactants were used: the non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 and anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to aid desorption of PAHs from the soil. Results show a large discrepancy in the removal rates between spiked soil and long-term field contaminated soil, as expected. In spiked soil, electro-osmosis achieves up to 85% while electrodialysis accomplishes 68% PAH removal. In field contaminated soil, electro-osmosis results in 35% PAH removal whereas electrodialysis results in 79%. Short recommendations are derived for the up-scale of the two techniques. © 2012.

  1. Evaluation of tritiated water diffusion through the Toarcian clayey formation of the Tournemire experimental site (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motellier, S; Devol-Brown, I; Savoye, S; Thoby, D; Alberto, J-C

    2007-10-30

    Through-diffusion experiments with tritiated water were performed on argillaceous samples from various zones of the Tournemire test site. It was intended to evaluate the homogeneity of the transport property of unfracturated samples and the influence of the orientation and the nature of the samples (presence of an opened fracture or a pre-existing tectonic fracture filled with calcite and pyrite). Homogeneous values of the tritiated water (HTO) effective diffusion coefficients were deduced from experiments carried out when diffusion occurred parallel to the stratigraphic bedding, with an apparent sensitivity to experimental conditions. Anisotropy was significant, De(HTO) perpendicular to the bedding being 1/3 lower than that parallel to the bedding. The observed fractures of the samples created by mechanical stress and partial dehydration during sawing and the presence of a pre-existing opened fracture did not affect the effective diffusion coefficients of tritiated water, which is probably due to the healing ability of the clayey medium during the re-saturation phases of the equilibrium steps performed prior to the diffusion experiments. On the contrary, a significant decrease of this transport parameter was induced by the occurrence of a pre-existing tectonic fracture, which was assigned to the dense structure of the filling phases.

  2. Nano Particles on Aging Characteristics of Polyimide Film%纳米颗粒对聚酰亚胺膜老化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹开江; 吴广宁; 张依强; 徐慧慧; 罗杨; 王鹏

    2013-01-01

    为了研究高频方波脉冲电压下高速铁路牵引电机绝缘的老化、失效机理,给电机绝缘结构的设计和优化提供理论基础,本文研究了高频方波脉冲下牵引电机定子绝缘的老化特性.在高频方波脉冲下,对普通和纳米复合薄膜进行了老化,通过扫描电镜分析了试样表面形貌的变化情况,并对试样的剩余击穿场强进行了测试分析.研究表明:老化1小时后两种薄膜的表面形貌都发生了明显改变但变化不同,纳米粒子的添加延缓了局部放电对纳米复合薄膜的老化速率,老化2小时后普通薄膜和纳米复合薄膜的击穿场强分别下降了27.55%和12.90%.%To provide theoretical basis for design and optimization of traction motor insulation structure, an investigation of aging and failure mechanism of insulation materials under high frequency impulse voltage was carried out through inspecting aging characteristics of stator insulation under high frequency square impulse voltage. Electrical aging test was performed on the common and corona resistant polyimide (PI) films with different aging time under high frequency square impulse voltage. The dammage instance of polyimide films' surface was observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the residual insulation strength was measured and analyzed. Results show that after one hour time aging the surface morphology of the two polyimide film are changed distinctly, but the damage instances were completely different. Nano particles in the corona resistant film slow down the aging rate compared with that of common film. Residual dielectric strength of common and corona resistant polyimide films were reduced by 27. 55% and 12. 90% after two hours aging, respectively.

  3. Megacity pollution by modern Diesel cars: New insights into the nature and formation of volatile nano-particles with high lung intrusion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, F.; Reichl, U.; Muschik, Ch.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Pirjola, L.; Rönkkö, T.; Keskinen, J.; Rothe, D.; Lähde, T.

    2009-04-01

    Aerosol particles generated by Diesel vehicles represent mayor health affecting air pollutants in cities and near motor ways. To mitigate the Diesel particle pollution problem, Diesel vehicles become increasingly fitted or retro-fitted with modern exhaust after treatment systems (ATS), which remove most engine-generated primary particles, particularly soot. Unfortunately however, ATS have undesired side effects including also the formation of low vapour pressure gases, which may undergo nucleation and condensation leading to volatile nucleation particles (NUP). NUP are substantially smaller (diameters: 5-15 nm) than soot particles (diameters: 40-100 nm), and therefore may be termed real nano-particles. NUP can intrude with maximum efficiency the lowest, least protected, and most vulnerable compartment of the human lung. However, the chemical nature and mechanism of formation of NUP are only poorly explored. Using a novel mass spectrometric method, we have made the first on line and off line measurements of low vapour pressure NUP precursor gases in the exhaust of a modern heavy duty Diesel vehicle engine, operated with and without ATS and combusting low and ultra-low sulphur fuels including also bio fuel. In addition, we have made accompanying NUP measurements and NUP model simulations. The on line measurements involved a CIMS (Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry) method originally developed by MPIK. They took place directly in the Diesel exhaust and had a large sensitivity and a fast time response (1 s). The off line measurements involved adsorption of exhaust gases on stainless steel, followed by thermo desorption and detection of desorbed exhaust molecules by CIMS. We find that modern Diesel ATS strongly increase the formation of hydroxyl radicals, which induce conversion of fuel sulphur to the important NUP precursor gaseous sulphuric acid. We also find that appreciable amounts of di-carboxylic acids survive the passage of the ATS or are even formed by the

  4. FeMnMg氧化物Fenton催化降解有机废水%Research of FeMnMg Oxide Nano Particles Fenton-Degraded Methylene Blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾若琨; 李佳

    2014-01-01

    采用高温煅烧硝化法制备FeMnMg氧化物纳米晶,并采用扫描电镜( SEM)对FeMnMg氧化物进行表征。结果表明,高温煅烧硝化法制备的FeMnMg氧化物粒径为纳米范围,具有均匀的粒子尺寸和晶体尺寸。采用不同配比的FeMnMg氧化物纳米晶催化剂对亚甲基蓝模拟的有机废水进行Fenton催化降解实验,对实验结果进行分析讨论。 FeMnMg的摩尔比为2∶3∶1的氧化物对亚甲基蓝的降解效果最好。当pH值为7左右,反应温度为25℃时,降解速率最快。 FeMnMg 氧化物催化剂的投加量为0.012 g,保证了亚甲基蓝较好的降解率。在反应体系中采用选取30% H2O20.5 mL(即2 mmol/L),能达到较好的氧化降解效果。%FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals were prepared by a high temperature calcination method,and they were characterized by scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) . The results showed that FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals prepared with temperature calcination method were nano particle size range, and the FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals had uniform particle size and crystallite size. The strong H2 O2-activating ability of FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals showed promising applications in the oxidative degradation of organic pollutants methylene blue. Using the best catalyst of degradation effect of methylene blue in the experiments,carried on the optimal Fenton catalytic conditions on the exploring experiment. We studied the dosing quantity of catalyst FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals,the addition content of H2 O2 ,pH value and reaction temperature effect influence on catalytic deg-radation of methylene blue solution.

  5. Modification of carbon paste electrode with Fe(III)-clinoptilolite nano-particles for simultaneous voltammetric determination of acetaminophen and ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifian, Samira [Department of Chemistry, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 311-86145, Shahreza, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza, E-mail: arnezamzadeh@iaush.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 311-86145, Shahreza, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razi Chemistry Research Center (RCRC), Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    A novel carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with Fe(III)-exchanged clinoptilolite nano-particles (Fe(III)-NClino/CPE) was constructed and used for simultaneous voltammetric (CV, SqW and chronoamperometry) determination of ascorbic acid and acetaminophen. Raw and modified zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The square wave peak current was linearly increased in the concentration ranges of 1.0 × 10{sup −9}–1.0 × 10{sup −2} mol L{sup −1} for ascorbic acid and 1.0 × 10{sup –10–}1.0 × 10{sup −2} mol L{sup −1} for acetaminophen with detection limits of 1.8 × 10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1} and 9.9 × 10{sup −10} mol L{sup −1}, respectively. The detection limits of 2.4 × 10{sup −10} mol L{sup −1} and 2.5 × 10{sup −11} mol L{sup −1} were also obtained for AA and AC in chronoamperometric measurements, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of 7.5 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1} and 2.4 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1} were respectively calculated for the oxidation of AC and AA by chronoamperometry. The proposed electrode exhibited high sensitivity and good stability, and would be valuable for the clinical assay of ascorbic acid and acetaminophen. - Graphical abstract: Comparison of CV voltammograms of the raw CPE (‘a’ and ‘b’) and the modified Fe(III)-NClino-CPE (‘c’ and ‘d’) confirmed good electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode for voltammetric determination of AC and AA, so the peak currents significantly increased in presence of AA or AC species in solution (‘c’ and ‘d’). - Highlights: • Usefulness of Fe(III)-Nclino for simultaneous voltammetric determination of AA + AC • Electrocatalytic behavior of the electrode for AA determination • Complexation behavior of the electrode for AC determination • Considerable increase in sensitivity of the process • More efficient of nanonized clinoptilolite than the micronized one.

  6. The Ndop plain clayey materials (Bamenda area – NW Cameroon: Mineralogical, geochemical, physical characteristics and properties of their fired products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Yongue-Fouateu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical, mineralogical and technological properties of clayey materials from the Ndop plain (NW Cameroon have been investigated, for their ceramic applications. The clayey materials have mixed facies with colour ranging from brown, grey, mottled and yellowish brown. The thickness of the exploitable clay layer is more than 5 m. Their mineralogical constituents are quartz, kaolinite, illite and feldspars, with kaolinite as major clay mineral. Based on the geochemistry, their source rocks might be felsic, with a mafic rock inference. These materials display high percentage in fine particles and high Atterberg limits. For all the firing temperatures, flexural strength (1.2–11 MPa, water absorption (8.03–24.27%, linear shrinkage (2.10%, weight loss (4.88–16.54% and bulk density (1.57–2.03 g/cm3 indicate good ceramic properties for firing samples between 900 and 1100 °C. Most of the fired test bricks show a brick red colour with good to very good cohesion. The studied clays were thus, suitable as raw materials for roof tiles, light weight blocks and hollow bricks; however, mixing of high clayey and highly silty materials could improve the quality of the products.

  7. 纳米涂层在污水源热泵中的抗垢性研究%Characteristics of a nano-particle containing anti-fouling coating for sewage cooling and heating piping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学慧; 孙德兴; 杨维好

    2011-01-01

    One efficient way to solve fouling in urban sewage cooling and heating systems is the use of a new nano-particle containing paint. On site experiments have determined the anti-fouling properties of coated pipes. The coating used was XK-368 titanium nano-particle polymeric paint for heat exchangers. These experiments are finished in range of engineering application. The stable thermal resistance of the coated pipes was found to be 50% of that seen for normal steel pipe in the same application. The time constant of fouling equation was 2.5 times for the coated pipe. It is demonstrated that the anti-fouling performance of the nano-particle containing coating was very good.%采用新型纳米抗垢涂料是解决城市原生污水冷热源系统污垢的有效措施之一.通过工程现场的实验,对XK-368钛纳米聚合物换热器专用涂料涂层管在污水冷热源系统中抗垢性能进行了测试.结果表明,在工程应用范围内,相同工作条件下,系统污垢达到稳定时纳米涂层管换热热阻约为普通无缝钢管的50%;结垢时间常数约为普通无缝钢管的2.5倍.表现出良好的抗垢性能.

  8. 自组装制备铁质文物保护用纳米缓蚀颗粒%Corrosion inhibitor nano-particles for iron relics protection prepared by self-assembling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何本桥; 李亭亭; 张桐阳; 沈大娲

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion protection plays a very important role in the protection of iron relics. A novel corrosion inhibitor nano-particle for iron relics was fabricated by consecutively layer-by-layer self-assembling of positive polyethylene imide (PEI), negative poly(sulfonated styrene) (PSS) and positive benzotriazole (BTA) on the surface of negatively charged SiO2 nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy, zetasizer and X-ray photoe-lectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize the inhibitor nano-particles. Results reveal that the size of particles increases with the increase in the number of coating layers. The surface charge appears corresponding changes. The XPS result shows that the chemical surrounding of nitrogen atoms in the inhibitor nano-particles is changed with the assembly process due to the electrostatic effect between layers. The content of BTA in the inhibitor nano-particle with mono-layer of BTA reached 35. 4mg/g SiO2, which can be readily controlled by improving the number of the PSS and BTA layers.%长效缓蚀材料对于铁质文物的长期保护有着至关重要的作用.通过层层自组装的方法,在带负电荷的SiO2胶粒表面交替组装上了带正电荷的聚乙烯亚胺(PEI)层,带负电荷的聚苯乙烯磺酸钠(PSS)层,以及带正电荷的缓蚀活性成分苯并三氮唑(BTA)层.利用透射电子显微镜、zeta电位仪、X射线光电子能谱仪(XPS)等对纳米缓蚀颗粒进行了表征.结果表明,随着组装过程的进行,胶体粒子尺寸依次增大,颗粒表面zeta电位出现负正交替变化,表面元素化学环境也随之改变,氮原子的结合能随静电作用的增强向高位移动.缓蚀剂的负载量可通过多层组装方式提高,BTA单层负载量可达到35.4mg/g SiO2.

  9. Elaboration of silicon carbides nano particles (SiC): from the powder synthesis to the sintered ceramic; Elaboration de ceramiques nanostructurees en carbure de silicium (SiC): de la synthese de poudre a la ceramique frittee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reau, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    Materials for the reactor cores of the fourth generation will need materials supporting high temperatures with fast neutrons flux. SiC{sub f}/SiC ceramics are proposed. One of the possible elaboration process is to fill SiC fiber piece with nano particles SiC powder and to strengthen by sintering. The aim of this thesis is to obtain a nano structured SiC ceramic as a reference for the SiC{sub f}/SiC composite development and to study the influence of the fabrication parameters. (A.L.B.)

  10. Influence of nano-particle diameter on superconducting properties in BaMO{sub 3}(M = Sn, Hf)/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} quasi-multilayered films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotaki, T.; Uraguchi, Y.; Makihara, T.; Suenaga, M.; Sueyoshi, T.; Fujiyoshi, T., E-mail: fuji@cs.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Mitugi, F.; Ikegami, T.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • BSO nanoparticles which grown at higher temperature have larger diameter. • BSO nanoparticles which have large diameter make a broad peak of J{sub c} around B || c. • BSO/YBCO film which grown at 770 °C shows the improvement of J{sub c} at high temperature. • BHO doped YBCO multilayered film does not show the improvement of J{sub c.} - Abstract: In order to investigate the influence of diameter and spatial distribution of three-dimensional (3D) pinning centers on critical current density J{sub c}, BMO (BaSnO{sub 3} (BSO) or BaHfO{sub 3} (BHO)) doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (YBCO) thin films were fabricated by a quasi-multilayering process using a pulsed laser deposition method. The prepared films are referred as BMO(m,n)T{sub s}, where m and n denotes the number of laser pulse on the BMO target and the total number of BMO/YBCO bilayers, respectively and T{sub s} is the growth temperature. BSO(1,100)750 and BSO(1,100)770 show the improvement of J{sub c} in comparison with the pure YBCO sample in wide range of magnetic field directions at 65 K. However, at 77.3 K, improvement of J{sub c} was seen in only BSO(1,100)770. The BSO nano-particles within BSO(1,100)770 are considered to have larger diameter, so that BSO nano-particles can immobilize the flux lines in the high temperature region. In addition, BSO(1,100)770 shows the high peak of J{sub c} centered at θ = 0° in the angular dependence of J{sub c}. On the other hand, the J{sub c} of BHO(1,100)770 falls below that of pure YBCO samples in all magnetic field orientation. In addition, at 65 K, there is no peak of J{sub c} at any angles except for θ = 90°. These results indicates that the diameter of BHO nano-particles in BHO(1,100)770 might be much smaller than that of BSO nano-particle and BHO nanoparticles cannot work as effective pinning center.

  11. Biohydrogen production from waste bread in a continuous stirred tank reactor: A techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yun Yi; Li, Shi Yi; Li, Fei Fei; Tang, Jun Hong

    2016-12-01

    Biohydrogen production from waste bread in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was techno-economically assessed. The treating capacity of the H2-producing plant was assumed to be 2 ton waste bread per day with lifetime of 10years. Aspen Plus was used to simulate the mass and energy balance of the plant. The total capital investment (TCI), total annual production cost (TAPC) and annual revenue of the plant were USD931020, USD299746/year and USD639920/year, respectively. The unit hydrogen production cost was USD1.34/m(3) H2 (or USD14.89/kg H2). The payback period and net present value (NPV) of the plant were 4.8years and USD1266654, respectively. Hydrogen price and operators cost were the most important variables on the NPV. It was concluded that biohydrogen production from waste bread in the CSTR was feasible for practical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Insights into the global regulation of anaerobic metabolism for improved biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2016-01-01

    To improve the biohydrogen yield in bacterial dark fermentation, a new approach of global anaerobic regulation was introduced. Two cellular global regulators FNR and NarP were overexpressed in two model organisms: facultatively anaerobic Enterobacter aerogenes (Ea) and strictly anaerobic Clostridium paraputrificum (Cp). The overexpression of FNR and NarP greatly altered anaerobic metabolism and increased the hydrogen yield by 40%. Metabolic analysis showed that the global regulation caused more reducing environment inside the cell. To get a thorough understanding of the global metabolic regulation, more genes (fdhF, fhlA, ppk, Cb-fdh1, and Sc-fdh1) were overexpressed in different Ea and Cp mutants. For the first time, it demonstrated that there were approximately linear relationships between the relative change of hydrogen yield and the relative change of NADH yield or ATP yield. It implied that cellular reducing power and energy level played vital roles in the biohydrogen production.

  13. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Serrano, Maria; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    The production of bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas from wheat straw was investigated within a biorefinery framework. Initially, wheat straw was hydrothermally liberated to a cellulose rich fiber fraction and a hemicellulose rich liquid fraction (hydrolysate). Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent......, multiple biofuels production from wheat straw can increase the efficiency for material and energy and can presumably be more economical process for biomass utilization. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved........ Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus......The production of bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas from wheat straw was investigated within a biorefinery framework. Initially, wheat straw was hydrothermally liberated to a cellulose rich fiber fraction and a hemicellulose rich liquid fraction (hydrolysate). Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent...

  14. Optimization of biohydrogen yield produced by bacterial consortia using residual glycerin from biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mariana de Oliveira; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana Santana

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to simplify the fermentation medium and to optimize the conditions of dark fermentation of residual glycerin to produce biohydrogen. It was possible to remove all micronutrients of fermentation medium and improve biohydrogen production by applying residual glycerin as feedstock. After statistical analysis of the following parameters pH, glycerin concentration and volatile suspended solids, the values of 5.5; 0.5g.L(-1) and 8.7g.L(-1), respectively, were defined as optimum condition for this process. It generated 2.44molH2/molglycerin, an expressive result when compared to previous results reported in literature and considering that theoretical yield of H2 from glycerol in dark fermentation process is 3molH2/molglycerol. This study allowed the improvement of yield and productivity by 68% and 67%, respectively.

  15. Effect of fermentation conditions on biohydrogen production from cassava starch by anaerobic mixed cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Hai M.; Le, Kien A.; Tran, An T.; Le, Phung K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a series of batch tests were conducted to investigate the effect of pH, temperature, fermentation time, and inoculums ratio to hydrogen production using cassava starch as a substrate. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that the significant effects for the fermentation yield were the main effect of temperature, pH and inoculums ratio. It was fouund that the suitable fermentation conditions of biohydrogen production should be at temperature 40 ° C; pH 6.5, inoculums to medium ratio 10 % and COD operation at 4800 g/mL. The maximum value of hydrogen volume produced was 76.22 mL. These affected has been evaluated and the result can be used as an reference for the pilot or industrial biohydrogen production.

  16. Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Li, Yong-feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

  17. Small proton exchange membrane fuel cell power station by using bio-hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志祥; 毛宗强; 王诚; 任南琪

    2006-01-01

    In fermentative organic waste water treatment process, there was hydrogen as a by-product. After some purification,there was about 50% ~ 70% hydrogen in the bio-gas, which could be utilized for electricity generation with fuel cell. Half a year ago, joint experiments between biological hydrogen production in Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) power station in Tsinghua University were conducted for electricity generation with bio-hydrogen from the pilot plant in HIT. The results proved the feasibility of the bio-hydrogen as a by-product utilization with PEMFC power station and revealed some problems of fuel cell power station for this application.

  18. Biohydrogen-production from beer lees biomass by cow dung compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yao-Ting; Zhang, Gao-Sheng; Xing, Yan [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052 (China); Guo, Xin-Yong [Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475001 (China); Fan, Mao-Hong [Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Efficient conversion of beer lees wastes into biohydrogen gas by microorganisms was reported for the first time. Batch tests were carried out to analyze influences of several environmental factors on yield of H{sub 2} from beer lees wastes. The maximum yield of H{sub 2} 68.6mlH{sub 2}/g TVS was observed, the value is about 10-fold as compared with that of raw beer lees wastes. The hydrogen content in the biogas was more than 45% and there was no significant methane observed in this study. In addition, biodegradation characteristics of the substrate were also discussed. The results indicated that the HCl pretreatment of the substrate plays a key role in the conversion of the beer lees wastes into biohydrogen by the cow dung composts. (author)

  19. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield.

  20. Timeline of bio-hydrogen production by anaerobic digestion of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadette E. TELEKY; Mugur C. BĂLAN; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of biomass is a process capable to produce biohydrogen, a clean source of alternative energy. Lignocellulosic biomass from agricultural waste is considered a renewable energy source; therefore its utilization also contributes to the reduction of water, soil and air pollution. The study consists in five consecutive experiments designed to utilize anaerobic bacterial enrichment cultures originating from the Hungarian Lake, Hévíz. Wheat straw was used as com...

  1. Effects of pre-treatment technologies on dark fermentative biohydrogen production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundhoo, M A Zumar; Mohee, Romeela; Hassan, M Ali

    2015-07-01

    Biohydrogen production from dark fermentation of lignocellulosic materials represents a huge potential in terms of renewable energy exploitation. However, the low hydrogen yield is currently hindering its development on industrial scale. This study reviewed various technologies that have been investigated for enhancing dark fermentative biohydrogen production. The pre-treatment technologies can be classified based on their applications as inoculum or substrates pre-treatment or they can be categorised into physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological based on the techniques used. From the different technologies reviewed, heat and acid pre-treatments are the most commonly studied technologies for both substrates and inoculum pre-treatment. Nevertheless, these two technologies need not necessarily be the most suitable since across different studies, a wide array of other emerging techniques as well as combined technologies have yielded positive findings. To date, there exists no perfect technology for either inoculum or substrate pre-treatment. Although the aim of inoculum pre-treatment is to suppress H2-consumers and enrich H2-producers, many sporulating H2-consumers survive the pre-treatment while some non-spore H2-producers are inhibited. Besides, several inoculum pre-treatment techniques are not effective in the long run and repeated pre-treatment may be required for continuous suppression of H2-consumers and sustained biohydrogen production. Furthermore, many technologies employed for substrates pre-treatment may yield inhibitory compounds that can eventually decrease biohydrogen production. Consequently, much research needs to be done to find out the best technology for both substrates and inoculum pre-treatment while also taking into consideration the energetic, economic and technical feasibility of implementing such a process on an industrial scale.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium sp. Strain Ade.TY, a New Biohydrogen- and Biochemical-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Landfill Leachate Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y M; Juan, J C; Ting, Adeline; Wu, T Y; Gan, H M; Austin, C M

    2014-03-06

    Clostridium sp. strain Ade.TY is potentially a new biohydrogen-producing species isolated from landfill leachate sludge. Here we present the assembly and annotation of its genome, which may provide further insights into its gene interactions for efficient biohydrogen production.

  3. Biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste in batch and continuous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Yan, Yingting; Shi, Yiwen; Gu, Jingjing; Tang, Junhong; Zhao, Hongting

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245.7 mL hydrogen/g glucose (1.97 mol hydrogen/mol glucose) in the batch system. In the continuous system, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on biohydrogen production from food waste hydrolysate was investigated. The optimal HRT obtained from this study was 6 h with the highest hydrogen production rate of 8.02 mmol/(h·L). Ethanol and acetate were the major soluble microbial products with low propionate production at all HRTs. Enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste could effectively accelerate hydrolysis speed, improve substrate utilization rate and increase hydrogen yield. PMID:27910937

  4. [Characteristics and operation of enhanced continuous bio-hydrogen production reactor using support carrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Nan-qi; Tang, Jing; Gong, Man-li

    2006-06-01

    A kind of granular activated carbon, whose granular size is no more than 2mm and specific gravity is 1.54g/cm3, was used as the support carrier to allow retention of activated sludge within a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) using molasses wastewater as substrate for bio-hydrogen production. Continuous operation characteristics and operational controlling strategy of the enhanced continuous bio-hydrogen production system were investigated. It was indicated that, support carriers could expand the activity scope of hydrogen production bacteria, make the system fairly stable in response to organic load impact and low pH value (pH reactor at low HRT. The reactor with ethanol-type fermentation achieved an optimal hydrogen production rate of 0.37L/(g x d), while the pH value ranged from 3.8 to 4.4, and the hydrogen content was approximately 40% approximately 57% of biogas. It is effective to inhibit the methanogens by reducing the pH value of the bio-hydrogen production system, consequently accelerate the start-up of the reactor.

  5. Optimization of organosolv pretreatment of rice straw for enhanced biohydrogen production using Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Nooshin; Zilouei, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Ethanol organosolv pretreated rice straw was used to produce biohydrogen using Enterobacter aerogenes. The effect of temperature (120-180°C), residence time (30-90min), and ethanol concentration (45-75%v/v) on the hydrogen yield, residual biomass, and lignin recovery was investigated using RSM. In contrast to the residual solid and lignin recovery, no considerable trend could be observed for the changes in the hydrogen yield at different treatment severities. The maximum hydrogen yield of 19.73mlg(-1) straw was obtained at the ethanol concentration of 45%v/v and 180°C for 30min. Furthermore, the potential amount of biohydrogen was estimated in the top ten rice producing nations using the experimental results. Approximately 355.8kt of hydrogen and 11.3Mt of lignin could globally be produced. Based on a Monte Carlo analysis, the production of biohydrogen from rice straw has the lowest risk in China and the highest in Japan.

  6. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmidevi, Rajendran; Muthukumar, Karuppan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology Campus, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme (0.8-2.2FPU/ml) obtained from Trichoderma reesei and from the hydrolysate biohydrogen was produced using Enterobacter aerogenes. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T. reesei was found to be around 29 C. The enzyme activity of 2.5 FPU/ml was found to produce about 22 g/l of total sugars consisting mainly of glucose, xylose and arabinose. Relevant kinetic parameters with respect to sugars production were estimated using two fraction model. The enzymatic hydrolysate was used for the biohydrogen production using E. aerogenes. The growth data obtained for E. aerogenes were fitted well with Monod and Logistic equations. The maximum hydrogen yield of 2.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol sugar and specific hydrogen production rate of 225 mmol of H{sub 2}/g cell/h were obtained with an initial concentration of 22 g/l of total sugars. The colour and COD of effluent was also decreased significantly during the production of hydrogen. The results showed that the paper and pulp industry effluent can be used as a substrate for biohydrogen production. (author)

  7. Biohydrogen production from microalgal biomass: energy requirement, CO2 emissions and scale-up scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana F; Ortigueira, Joana; Alves, Luís; Gouveia, Luísa; Moura, Patrícia; Silva, Carla

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a life cycle inventory of biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum through the fermentation of the whole Scenedesmus obliquus biomass. The main purpose of this work was to determine the energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the production of hydrogen. This was accomplished through the fermentation of the microalgal biomass cultivated in an outdoor raceway pond and the preparation of the inoculum and culture media. The scale-up scenarios are discussed aiming for a potential application to a fuel cell hybrid taxi fleet. The H2 yield obtained was 7.3 g H2/kg of S. obliquus dried biomass. The results show that the production of biohydrogen required 71-100 MJ/MJ(H2) and emitted about 5-6 kg CO2/MJ(H2). Other studies and production technologies were taken into account to discuss an eventual process scale-up. Increased production rates of microalgal biomass and biohydrogen are necessary for bioH2 to become competitive with conventional production pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment from organic wastewater by anaerobic fermentation with UASB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Yong-feng; Wang, Yi-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    In order to discuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesized substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. The results show that when the biomass of inoculants was 22.5 g SSṡL-1 and the influent concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial pH were within the ranges of 4000˜6000 mg CODṡL-1, 8 h and 5-5.5, respectively, and the biohydrogen producing reactor could work effectively. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 5.98 Lṡd-1. Simultaneously, the concentration of ethanol and acetic acid is around 80% of the aqueous terminal production in the system, which presents the typical ethanol type fermentation. pH is at the range of 4˜4.5 during the whole performing process, however, the removal rate of COD is just about 20%. Therefore, it's still needs further research to successfully achieve the biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment, simultaneously.

  9. Enhancement of photoheterotrophic biohydrogen production at elevated temperatures by the expression of a thermophilic clostridial hydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shou-Chen; Shih, Shau-Hua; Chang, Jui-Jen; Wang, Chun-Ying; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2012-08-01

    The working temperature of a photobioreactor under sunlight can be elevated above the optimal growth temperature of a microorganism. To improve the biohydrogen productivity of photosynthetic bacteria at higher temperatures, a [FeFe]-hydrogenase gene from the thermophile Clostridium thermocellum was expressed in the mesophile Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 (strain CGA-CThydA) using a log-phase expression promoter P( pckA ) to drive the expression of heterogeneous hydrogenase gene. In contrast, a mesophilic Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase gene was also constructed and expressed in R. palustris (strain CGA-CAhydA). Both transgenic strains were tested for cell growth, in vivo hydrogen production rate, and in vitro hydrogenase activity at elevated temperatures. Although both CGA-CThydA and CGA-CAhydA strains demonstrated enhanced growth over the vector control at temperatures above 38 °C, CGA-CThydA produced more hydrogen than the other strains. The in vitro hydrogenase activity assay, measured at 40 °C, confirmed that the activity of the CGA-CThydA hydrogenase was higher than the CGA-CAhydA hydrogenase. These results showed that the expression of a thermophilic [FeFe]-hydrogenase in R. palustris increased the growth rate and biohydrogen production at elevated temperatures. This transgenic strategy can be applied to a broad range of purple photosynthetic bacteria used to produce biohydrogen under sunlight.

  10. Process simulation of integrated biohydrogen production: hydrogen recovery by membrane separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Koók

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this project, the production of biohydrogen, as a renewable and sustainable energy source was studied. Biohydrogen was manufactured by using E. coli strain in a batch dark fermentative process integrated with membrane gas separation. Two different methods were applied: Firstly, the amount of the produced gas and component concentrations were measured, but CO2 and H2 gases were not separated. In the second experiment CO2 was removed from the gas mixture via chemical sorption (reacting with NaOH. Both methods use continuous product removal in order to enhance the biohydrogen formation. In addition, process modeling was carried out with a simulation software (SuperPro Designer, Intelligen Inc. so that experimental and computational results could be compared. CO2 and H2 flow rates and fluxes were calculated on the basis of the membrane permeation data obtained by using pure gases and silicone (PDMS hollow-fiber membrane module (PermSelect – MedArray Inc..

  11. Enhanced bioelectricity harvesting in microbial fuel cells treating food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho

    2015-05-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) treating the food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation were examined to enhance power generation and energy recovery. In batch mode, the maximum voltage production was 0.56 V and the power density reached 1540 mW/m(2). The maximum Coulombic efficiency (CEmax) and energy efficiency (EE) in the batch mode were calculated to be 88.8% and 18.8%, respectively. When the organic loading rate in sequencing batch mode varied from 0.75 to 6.2 g COD/L-d (under CEmax), the maximum power density reached 769.2 mW/m(2) in OLR of 3.1 g COD/L-d, whereas higher energy recovery (CE=52.6%, 0.346 Wh/g CODrem) was achieved at 1.51 g COD/L-d. The results demonstrate that readily biodegradable substrates in biohydrogen fermentation can be effectively used for the enhanced bioelectricity harvesting of MFCs and a MFC coupled with biohydrogen fermentation is of great benefit on higher electricity generation and energy efficiency.

  12. Biohydrogen production from a novel alkalophilic isolate Clostridium sp. IODB-O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anil Kumar; Debroy, Arundhati; Sharma, Sandeep; Saini, Reetu; Mathur, Anshu; Gupta, Ravi; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen producing bacteria IODB-O3 was isolated from sludge and identified as Clostridium sp. by 16S rDNA gene analysis. In this study, biohydrogen production process was developed using low-cost agro-waste. Maximum H2 was produced at 37°C and pH 8.5. Maximum H2 yield was obtained 2.54±0.2mol-H2/mol-reducing sugar from wheat straw pre-hydrolysate (WSPH) and 2.61±0.1mol-H2/mol-reducing sugar from pre-treated wheat straw enzymatic-hydrolysate (WSEH). The cumulative H2 production (ml/L), 3680±105 and 3270±100, H2 production rate (ml/L/h), 153±5 and 136±5, and specific H2 production (ml/g/h), 511±5 and 681±10 with WSPH and WSEH were obtained, respectively. Biomass pre-treatment via steam-explosion generates ample amount of WSPH which remains unutilized for bioethanol production due to non-availability of efficient C5-fermenting microorganisms. This study shows that Clostridium sp. IODB-O3 is capable of utilizing WSPH efficiently for biohydrogen production. This would lead to reduced economic constrain on the overall cellulosic ethanol process and also establish a sustainable biohydrogen production process.

  13. Trends in biohydrogen production: major challenges and state-of-the-art developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Kumari, Sheena; Reddy, Karen; Bux, Faizal

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen has shown enormous potential to be an alternative fuel of the future. Hydrogen production technology has gained much attention in the last few decades due to advantages such as its high conversion efficiency, recyclability and non-polluting nature. Over the last few decades, biological hydrogen production has shown great promise for generating large scale sustainable energy to meet ever increasing global energy demands. Various microorganisms, namely bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae which are capable of producing hydrogen from water, solar energy, and a variety of organic substrates, are explored and studied in detail. Current biohydrogen production technologies, however, face two major challenges such as low-yield and high production cost. Advances have been made in recent years in biohydrogen research to improve the hydrogen yield through process modifications, physiological manipulations, through metabolic and genetic engineering. Recently, cell immobilization such as microbes trapping with nanoparticles within the bioreactor has shown an increase in hydrogen production. This review critically evaluated various biological hydrogen production technologies, key challenges, and recent advancements in biohydrogen research and development.

  14. Permanent electrical resistivity measurements for monitoring water circulation in clayey landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gance, J.; Malet, J.-P.; Supper, R.; Sailhac, P.; Ottowitz, D.; Jochum, B.

    2016-03-01

    Landslides developed on clay-rich slopes are controlled by the soil water regime and the groundwater circulation. Spatially-distributed and high frequency observations of these hydrological processes are important for improving our understanding and prediction of landslide triggering. This work presents observed changes in electrical resistivity monitored at the Super-Sauze clayey landslide with the GEOMON 4D resistivity instrument installed permanently on-site for a period of one year. A methodological framework for processing the raw measurement is proposed. It includes the filtering of the resistivity dataset, the correction of the effects of non-hydrological factors (sensitivity of the device, sensitivity to soil temperature and fluid conductivity, presence of fissures in the topsoil) on the filtered resistivity values. The interpretation is based on a statistical analysis to define possible relationships between the rainfall characteristics, the soil hydrological observations and the soil electrical resistivity response. During the monitoring period, no significant relationships between the electrical response and the measured hydrological parameters are evidenced. We discuss the limitations of the method due to the effect of heat exchange between the groundwater, the vadose zone water and the rainwater that hides the variations of resistivity due to variations of the soil water content. We demonstrate that despite the absence of hydrogeophysical information for the vadose zone, the sensitivity of electrical resistivity monitoring to temperature variations allows imaging water fluxes in the saturated zone and highlighting the existence of matrix and preferential flows that does not occur at the same time and for the same duration. We conclude on the necessity to combine electrical resistivity measurements with distributed soil temperature measurements.

  15. Intrinsic degradation of volatile fatty acids in laboratory-compacted clayey soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrapovic, L.; Rowe, R. K.

    2002-10-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) represent the major organic constituent of landfill leachate and provide the greatest potential for leachate induced organic contamination of groundwater (e.g. as represented by an increase in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand). Long-term diffusion tests were performed for laboratory-compacted clayey soil plugs exposed to continuous supply of synthetic leachate containing VFAs. Significant microbial activity developed upon exposure of the soil's indigenous microorganisms to these degradable contaminants. The growth of heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (HAB, which include facultative anaerobes), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic bacteria carrying out fermentation and mineralization of the VFAs became evident after 30-50 days of testing. The maximum microbial counts of (2-8)×10 8 and (0.1-1)×10 8 cfu/g for HAB and SRB were localized in the soil layer at the interface with the source of organic and inorganic nutrients. Regardless of this rapid growth in microbial population, the VFA consumption was small and measurable only after a lag of 140-180 days. It is considered that this lag of otherwise readily degradable organic compounds (such as VFAs) persisted due to a combination of the effects of a high initial concentration of these acids (2.4 g/l as dissolved organic carbon, DOC) applied to carbon starved soil microorganisms and the small pore size of the compacted clay. Once the significant amounts of gas were generated from fermentation, conditions developed for improved mass transport and exchange of the nutrients and bacteria and the outcome of the intrinsic degradation was more apparent. The breakdown of VFAs that followed after the lag was localized near the top of the soil and was characterized by a short half-life of 0.75-5 days for DOC (total VFAs as dissolved organic carbon).

  16. Transport and biodegradation of creosote compounds in clayey till, a field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broholm, Kim; Nilsson, Bertel; Sidle, Roy C.; Arvin, Erik

    2000-02-01

    The transport and biodegradation of 12 organic compounds (toluene, phenol, o-cresol, 2,6-, 3,5-dimethylphenol, naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, benzothiophene, dibenzofuran, indole, acridine, and quinoline) were studied at a field site located on the island of Funen, Denmark, where a clayey till 10-15 m deep overlies a sandy aquifer. The upper 4.8 m of till is highly fractured and the upper 2.5 m contains numerous root and worm holes. A 1.5-2 m thick sand lens is encountered within the till at a depth of 4.8 m. Sampling points were installed at depths of 2.5 m, 4 m, and in the sand lens (5.5 m) to monitor the downward migration of a chloride tracer and the organic compounds. Water containing organic compounds and chloride was infiltrated into a 4 m×4.8 m basin at a rate of 8.8 m 3 day -1 for 7 days. The mass of naphthalene relative to chloride was 0.39-0.98 for the sampling points located at a depth of 2.5 m, 0.11-0.61 for the sampling points located at a depth of 4 m, and 0-0.02 for the sampling points located in the sand lens. A similar pattern was observed for eight organic compounds for which reliable results were obtained (toluene, phenol, o-cresol, 2,6-, 3,5-dimethylphenol, 1-methylnaphthalene, benzothiophene, and quinoline). This shows that the organic compounds were attenuated during the downward migration through the till despite the high infiltration rate. The attenuation process may be attributed to biodegradation.

  17. Comparison of tubular and panel type photobioreactors for biohydrogen production utilizing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii considering mixing time and light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, S; Kose, A

    2014-01-01

    Two different photobioreactor designs; tubular and panel, were investigated for the biohydrogen production utilizing a green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC124 following the two stage protocol. Mixing time and light intensity of the systems were adjusted to compare the productivity of both aerobic culture phase and the following anaerobic biohydrogen production phase. The results showed there was an effect on both phases related with the design. During the aerobic phase bigger illumination area serving more energy, tubular photobioreactor reached higher biomass productivity of 31.8±2.1 mg L(-1) h(-1) which was about 11% higher than the panel photobioreactor. On the other hand biohydrogen productivity in the panel photobioreactor reached a value of 1.3±0.05 mL L(-1) h(-1) based on the efficient removal of biohydrogen gas. According to the results it would be a good approach to utilize tubular design for aerobic phase and panel for biohydrogen production phase.

  18. Biohydrogen production from rotten orange with immobilized mixed culture: Effect of immobilization media for various composition of substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damayanti, Astrilia, E-mail: liasholehasd@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Semarang State University, E1 Building, 2nd floor, Kampus Sekaran, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Grafika No. 2, Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Sarto,; Syamsiah, Siti; Sediawan, Wahyudi B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Grafika No. 2, Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Enriched–immobilized mixed culture was utilized to produce biohydrogen in mesophilic condition under anaerobic condition using rotten orange as substrate. The process was conducted in batch reactors for 100 hours. Microbial cultures from three different sources were subject to a series of enrichment and immobilized in two different types of media, i.e. calcium alginate (CA, 2%) and mixture of alginate and activated carbon (CAC, 1:1). The performance of immobilized culture in each media was tested for biohydrogen production using four different substrate compositions, namely orange meat (OM), orange meat added with peel (OMP), orange meat added with limonene (OML), and mixture of orange meat and peel added with limonene (OMPL). The results show that, with immobilized culture in CA, the variation of substrate composition gave significant effect on the production of biohydrogen. The highest production of biohydrogen was detected for substrate containing only orange meet, i.e. 2.5%, which was about 3-5 times higher than biohydrogen production from other compositions of substrate. The use of immobilized culture in CAC in general has increased the hydrogen production by 2-7 times depending on the composition of substrate, i.e. 5.4%, 4.8%, 5.1%, and 4.4% for OM, OMP, OML, and OMPL, respectively. The addition of activated carbon has eliminated the effect of inhibitory compounds in the substrate. The major soluble metabolites were acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid.

  19. Biohydrogen production from rotten orange with immobilized mixed culture: Effect of immobilization media for various composition of substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Astrilia; Sarto, Syamsiah, Siti; Sediawan, Wahyudi B.

    2015-12-01

    Enriched-immobilized mixed culture was utilized to produce biohydrogen in mesophilic condition under anaerobic condition using rotten orange as substrate. The process was conducted in batch reactors for 100 hours. Microbial cultures from three different sources were subject to a series of enrichment and immobilized in two different types of media, i.e. calcium alginate (CA, 2%) and mixture of alginate and activated carbon (CAC, 1:1). The performance of immobilized culture in each media was tested for biohydrogen production using four different substrate compositions, namely orange meat (OM), orange meat added with peel (OMP), orange meat added with limonene (OML), and mixture of orange meat and peel added with limonene (OMPL). The results show that, with immobilized culture in CA, the variation of substrate composition gave significant effect on the production of biohydrogen. The highest production of biohydrogen was detected for substrate containing only orange meet, i.e. 2.5%, which was about 3-5 times higher than biohydrogen production from other compositions of substrate. The use of immobilized culture in CAC in general has increased the hydrogen production by 2-7 times depending on the composition of substrate, i.e. 5.4%, 4.8%, 5.1%, and 4.4% for OM, OMP, OML, and OMPL, respectively. The addition of activated carbon has eliminated the effect of inhibitory compounds in the substrate. The major soluble metabolites were acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid.

  20. Effects of pH, glucose and iron sulfate concentration on the yield of biohydrogen by Clostridium butyricum EB6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Mei-Ling; Abdul Rahman, Nor' Aini; Yee, Phang Lai; Aziz, Suraini Abd; Hassan, Mohd Ali [Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Raha Abdul [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shirai, Yoshihito [Graduate School of Life Sciences and System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 808-0196 Hibikino 2-4, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    A local bacterial isolate from palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge, identified as Clostridium butyricum EB6, was used for biohydrogen production. Optimization of biohydrogen production was performed via statistical analysis, namely response surface methodology (RSM), with respect to pH, glucose and iron concentration. The results show that pH, glucose concentration and iron concentration significantly influenced the biohydrogen gas production individually, interactively and quadratically (P < 0.05). The center composite design (CCD) results indicated that pH 5.6, 15.7 g/L glucose and 0.39 g/L FeSO{sub 4} were the optimal conditions for biohydrogen production, yielding 2.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. In confirmation of the experimental model, t-test results showed that curve fitted to the experimental data had a high confidence level, at 95% with t = 2.225. Based on the results of this study, optimization of the culture conditions for C. butyricum EB6 significantly increased the production of biohydrogen. (author)

  1. Predictive models of biohydrogen and biomethane production based on the compositional and structural features of lignocellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monlau, Florian; Sambusiti, Cecilia; Barakat, Abdellatif; Guo, Xin Mei; Latrille, Eric; Trably, Eric; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Carrere, Hélène

    2012-11-01

    In an integrated biorefinery concept, biological hydrogen and methane production from lignocellulosic substrates appears to be one of the most promising alternatives to produce energy from renewable sources. However, lignocellulosic substrates present compositional and structural features that can limit their conversion into biohydrogen and methane. In this study, biohydrogen and methane potentials of 20 lignocellulosic residues were evaluated. Compositional (lignin, cellulose, hemicelluloses, total uronic acids, proteins, and soluble sugars) as well as structural features (crystallinity) were determined for each substrate. Two predictive partial least square (PLS) models were built to determine which compositional and structural parameters affected biohydrogen or methane production from lignocellulosic substrates, among proteins, total uronic acids, soluble sugars, crystalline cellulose, amorphous holocelluloses, and lignin. Only soluble sugars had a significant positive effect on biohydrogen production. Besides, methane potentials correlated negatively to the lignin contents and, to a lower extent, crystalline cellulose showed also a negative impact, whereas soluble sugars, proteins, and amorphous hemicelluloses showed a positive impact. These findings will help to develop further pretreatment strategies for enhancing both biohydrogen and methane production.

  2. Nano-engineering by implanting Al2O3 nano particle as sandwiched scattering centers in between the Lao.5Pr0.2Sr0.3MnO3 thin film layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markna, J H; Vachhani, P S; Kuberkar, D G; Shah, N A; Misra, P; Singh, B N; Kukreja, L M; Rana, D S

    2009-09-01

    We report the use of non-magnetic Al2O3 nano particles deposited between two ferromagnetic La0.5Pr0.2Sr0.3MnO3 (LPSMO) manganite layers with an aim to improve the electronic and magnetotransport properties of the layered supper lattice grown on single crystal STO(100) substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique. We studied the electronic-transport and magnetotransport properties of this system wherein Al2O3 particles are expected to act as insulating scattering centers between two ferromagnetic LPSMO layers. The scattering due to additional scattering centers (insulating Al2O3 nano particles) could be controlled by application of external field, resulting in high magnetoresistance (MR) approximately 72% as compared to pristine LPSMO film (MR approximately 51%) at temperature close to their T(M) values. In addition, incorporation of nanostructured Al2O3 barrier between the two ferromagnetic LPSMO layers results in a 2-3 fold increase in the values of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the field coefficient of resistance (FCR) as compared to pristine LPSMO film, suggesting the use of such nanoengineered manganite layered structure for better device application.

  3. Ionic liquid-impregnated activated carbon for biohydrogen purification in an adsorption unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, N. Y.; Masdar, M. S.; Isahak, W. N. R. W.; Nordin, D.; Husaini, T.; Majlan, E. H.; Rejab, S. A. M.; Chew, C. L.

    2017-06-01

    Biological methods for hydrogen production (biohydrogen) are known as energy intensive and can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure; however, consecutive productions such as purification and separation processes still remain challenging in the industry. Various techniques are used to purify and separate hydrogen. These techniques include the use of sorbents/solvents, membranes and cryogenic distillation. In this study, carbon dioxide (CO2) was purified and separated from biohydrogen to produce high purity hydrogen gas. CO2 capture was studied using the activated carbon (AC) modified with the ionic liquid (IL) choline chloride as adsorbent. The physical and chemical properties of the adsorbents were characterized through XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDX, TGA, and BET analyses. The effects of IL loading, flow rate, temperature, and gas mixture were also investigated based on the absorption and desorption of CO2. The CO2 level in the biohydrogen composition was analyzed using a CO2 gas analyzer. The SEM image indicated that the IL homogeneously covered the AC surface. High IL dispersion inlet enhanced the capability of the adsorbent to capture CO2 gas. The thermal stability and presence of the functionalized group of ILs on AC were analyzed by TGA and FTIR techniques, respectively. CO2 adsorption experiments were conducted using a 1 L adsorber unit. Hence, adsorption technologies exhibit potential for biohydrogen purification and mainly affected by adsorbent ability and operating parameters. This research presents an improved biohydrogen technique based on adsorption technology with novel adsorbents. Two different types of commercial CO2 adsorbents were used in the experiment. Results show that the IL/AC exhibited properties suitable for CO2 adsorption. The IL/AC sample presented a high CO2 uptake of 30 wt. % IL when treated at 30 °C for 6 h under a flow rate of 1 L/min. The presence of IL increased the selectivity of CO2 removal during the adsorption process. This IL

  4. First results on Fe solid-phase extraction from coastal seawater using anatase TiO{sub 2} nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quetel, Christophe R.; Petrov, Ivan [Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Vassileva, Emilia [Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); IAEA-Marine Environment Laboratories, Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Chakarova, Kristina; Hadjiivanov, Konstantin I. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-03-15

    This paper describes the application of TiO{sub 2} nano-particles (anatase form) for the solid-phase extraction of iron from coastal seawater samples. We investigated the adsorption processes by infra-red spectroscopy. We compared in batch and on-(mini)column extraction approaches (0.1 and 0.05 g TiO{sub 2} per sample, respectively), combined to external calibration and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at medium mass resolution. Globally, this titania phase was slightly more efficient with seawater than with ultra-pure water, although between pH 2 and pH 7, the Fe retention efficiency progressed more in ultra-pure water than in seawater (6.9 versus 4.8 times improvement). Different reaction schemes are proposed between Fe(III) species and the two main categories of titania sites at pH 2 (adsorption of [FeL{sub x}]{sup (3-x)+} via possibly the mediation of chlorides) and at pH 7 (adsorption of [Fe(OH){sub 2}]{sup +} and precipitation of [Fe(OH){sub 3}]{sup 0}). Under optimised conditions, the inlet system was pre-cleaned by pumping 6% HCl for {proportional_to}2 h, and the column was conditioned by aspirating ultra-pure water (1.7 g min {sup -1}) and 0.05% ammonia (0.6 g min {sup -1}) for 1 min. Then 3 g seawater sample was loaded at the same flow rate while being mixed on-line with 0.05% ammonia at 0.6 g min {sup -1} to adjust the pH to 7. The iron retained on the oxide powder was then eluted with 3 g 6% HCl (<0.002% residual salinity in the separated samples). The overall procedural blank was 220 {+-} 46 (2 s, n = 16) ng Fe kg {sup -1} (the titania was renewed in the column every 20 samples, with 2-min rinsing in between samples with 6% HCl at 1.5 g min {sup -1}). The recovery estimated from the Canadian certified reference material CASS-2 was 69.5 {+-} 7.6% (2 s, n = 4). Typically, the relative combined uncertainty (k = 2) estimated for the measurement of {proportional_to}1 {mu}g Fe kg {sup -1} (0.45 {mu}m filtered and acidified to pH 1

  5. Assessment of optimum dilution ratio for biohydrogen production by anaerobic co-digestion of press mud with sewage and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjaram, B; Saravanane, R

    2011-02-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of press mud with water or sewage at ratios of 1:7.5, 1:10 and 1:12.5 were performed in continuously fed UASB reactors for hydrogen production. At a constant hydraulic retention time of 30 h, the specific hydrogen production rate was 187 mL/g volatile solids (VS) reduced during maximum biohydrogen production of 7960 mL/day at a 1:10 ratio of press mud to sewage. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and VS reductions of 61% and 59% were noted on peak biohydrogen yield. A pH range of 5-6 was suitable at ambient temperature for entire process; a lower pH was inhibitory. Co-digestion of acidic press mud with sewage controlled pH for fermentation. Hence press mud can be exploited for biohydrogen production.

  6. Evaluation of physico-mechanical properties of clayey soils using electrical resistivity imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam

    undisturbed soil samples, resistivity decreased as much as sixteen fold (49.4 to 3.2 Ohm-m) for an increase of saturation from 31 to 100%. Furthermore, the resistivity results were different for the specimens at a specific degree of saturation because of varied surface activity and isomorphous substitution of clayey soils. In addition to physical properties, compressibility of clays was correlated with electrical conductivity. Based on the investigation, it was determined that the electrical conductivity vs. pressure curves followed similar trends as e vs. logp curves. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models were developed for compacted and undisturbed samples using statistical analysis software SAS (2009). During model development, degree of saturation and CEC were selected as independent variables. The proposed models were validated using experimental results on a different set of samples. Moreover, the applicability of the models in the determination of degrees of saturation was evaluated using field RI tests.

  7. Removal of copper from copper-contaminated river water and aqueous solutions using Methylobacterium extorquens modified Erzurum clayey soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celebi Neslihan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using natural and bacteria-modified Erzurum clayey soil with Methylobacterium extorquens as an alternative to high cost commercial adsorbent materials for the removal of copper from aqueous solution. The copper concentrations in the samples of the polluted river water and CuCl2 solutions treated by the natural and bacteria-modified Erzurum clayey soil (ECS have been determined by spectrophotometric method. Firstly, the surface of ECS was modified with M. extorquens and surface functionality was increased. Then, the adsorption of Cu (II from solution phases was studied with respect to varying metal concentration, pH, and temperature and agitation time. The maximum adsorption of Cu (II for natural and bacteria-modified Erzurum clayey soil was observed at pH: 5.0. At different copper concentrations, copper adsorption analysis was performed on 1 g using clay soil or modified clay soil. Maximum adsorption of Cu (II was obtained as 45.7 and 48.1 mg g-1 at initial concentration (50 mg/50 mL and optimal conditions by natural and bacteria-modified clay soil, respectively. The copper concentration was decreased in the substantial amount of the leachates solutions of natural and bacteria-modified clay soil. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to describe the adsorption behavior of Cu (II ions. The results showed that modified clay soil had a high level of adsorption capacity for copper ion. The various thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were analyzed to observe the nature of adsorption. The structural properties of the natural and bacteria-modified-ECS have been characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD techniques. Consequently, it was concluded that the bacteria-modified clay soil could be successfully used for the removal of the copper ions from the aqueous solutions.

  8. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-09-15

    Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15°C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day(-1) in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day(-1) in slurry bioreactors for C16-C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were comparable in these two systems.

  9. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis, E-mail: subhasis.ghoshal@mcgill.ca

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Aeration and moisture addition alone caused extensive hydrocarbon biodegradation. • 30-day slurry reactor remediation endpoints attained in 385 days in biopiles. • High nitrogen concentrations inhibited hydrocarbon degradation. • Inhibition of biodegradation linked to lack of shifts in soil microbial community. - Abstract: Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16–C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16–C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day{sup −1} in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day{sup −1} in slurry bioreactors for C16–C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction

  10. Effects of saponins, quercetin, eugenol, and cinnamaldehyde on fatty acid biohydrogenation of forage polyunsaturated fatty acids in dual-flow continuous culture fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, M; Cardozo, P W; Calsamiglia, S; Fievez, V

    2008-11-01

    Four different plant secondary metabolites were screened for their effect on rumen biohydrogenation of forage long-chain fatty acids, using dual-flow continuous culture fermenters. Treatments were as follows: control (no additive), positive control (12 mg/L of monensin), and plant extracts (500 and 1,000 mg/L of triterpene saponin; 250 and 500 mg/L of quercetin; 250 mg/L of eugenol; 500 mg/L of cinnamaldehyde). Monensin increased propionate, decreased acetate and butyrate proportions, and inhibited the complete biohydrogenation of fatty acids resulting in the accumulation of intermediates of the biohydrogenation process (C18:2 trans-11, cis-15 rather than C18:1 trans-11). Cinnamaldehyde decreased total VFA concentration and proportions of odd and branched-chain fatty acids in total fat effluent. Apparent biohydrogenation of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 was also less, and a shift from the major known biohydrogenation pathway to a secondary pathway of C18:2n-6 was observed, as evidenced by an accumulation of C18:1 trans-10 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Quercetin (500 mg/L) increased total VFA concentration, but no shifts in the pathways or extent of biohydrogenation were observed. Eugenol resulted in the accumulation of C18:1 trans-15 and C18:1 cis-15, end products of an alternative biohydrogenation pathway of C18:3n-3. Triterpene saponins did not affect the fermentation pattern, the biohydrogenation pathways, or the extent of biohydrogenation. At the doses tested in this study, we could only show a direct relation between changes in the rumen fatty acid metabolism and the presence of cinnamaldehyde but not for eugenol, quercetin, or triterpene saponins.

  11. Long-term influence of biochar on native organic carbon mineralisation in a low-carbon clayey soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Cowie, Annette L.

    2014-01-01

    Biochar can influence native soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation through ``priming effects''. However, the long-term direction, persistence and extent of SOC priming by biochar remain uncertain. Using natural 13C abundance and under controlled laboratory conditions, we show that biochar-stimulated SOC mineralisation (``positive priming'') caused a loss of 4 to 44 mg C g-1 SOC over 2.3 years in a clayey, unplanted soil (0.42% OC). Positive priming was greater for manure-based or 400°C biochars, cf. plant-based or 550°C biochars, but was trivial relative to recalcitrant C in biochar. From 2.3 to 5.0 years, the amount of positively-primed soil CO2-C in the biochar treatments decreased by 4 to 7 mg C g-1 SOC. We conclude that biochar stimulates native SOC mineralisation in the low-C clayey soil but that this effect decreases with time, possibly due to depletion of labile SOC from initial positive priming, and/or stabilisation of SOC caused by biochar-induced organo-mineral interactions.

  12. Electro-chemo-hydro-mechanical coupling in clayey media; Couplage electro-chimio-hydro-mecaniques dans les milieux argileux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, Th

    2004-12-15

    The aim of this study is to understand coupled phenomena that occur in swelling porous materials like clays. Electro-chemo-hydro-mechanical contributions are taken into account to analyze transfers in such minerals. In a first part, a general discussion is proposed to introduce mineralogical and physico- chemical considerations of clayey media. An important objective of this chapter is to show the crucial role of the microstructure. In a second part is presented an imbibition test in a MX80 bentonite powder. The hydraulic diffusivity versus water content curve's decrease is explained thanks to a double porosity model that shows the progressive collapse of meso-pores due to swelling effects at the micro-scale. Thus a multi-scale analysis is necessary to well describe clayey media behaviour. The third chapter exposes such a multi-scale modelling (periodic homogenization). It is based on the double-layer theory and introduces an innovative concept of virtual electrolyte solution. First numerical results are given in a simple geometry (parallel platelets). In the next part are proposed numerical simulations of two kinds: response of the system to a chemical gradient and simulation of electro-osmosis. The end of this chapter puts into relief the necessity to integrate pH effects in the model. In the last part, chemical surface exchanges are incorporated in the modelling to understand pH and ionic force roles in electro-osmotic process. (author)

  13. In-situ monitoring of deformation of clayey and volcanic sequences in the lacustrine plain of Iztapalapa, Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon-Freyre, D.; Cerca, M.; Barrientos, B.; Gutierrez, R.; Blancas, D.

    2012-12-01

    Major cities of Central Mexico with lowering of land elevation problems are located in inter-volcanic and fault bounded basins within the central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). The most representative and studied case of ground deformation is Mexico City, where the Iztapalapa Municipality presents the highest population density. This area is located over the geological contact between the "Sierra de Santa Catarina" volcanic range and a lacustrine plain. Filling of lacustrine basins includes silty and clayey sediments as well as pyroclastic deposits (coarse and fine grained) and volcanic rocks layers. We used Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and MASW prospection to evaluate contrasts in the physical properties of fine grained soils and identify geometry of the deformational features and implemented a mechanical system for in situ monitoring in fractured sites. Deformational features in this basin reflect an interplay between the geological history (depositional conditions), load history, seismic activity, and faulting. Plastic mechanical behaviour predominates in these clayey sediments and differential deformation locally triggers brittle fracturing and/or subsidence of the surface. In this work we present the results of monitoring and characterization of ground deformation and fracturing in different sequences, our results show a dynamic interplay between the mechanisms of ground fracturing and the stress history of sedimentary sequences. Relating the mechanical behaviour of the studied sequences with variations of physical and geological properties should be taken into account to estimate land level lowering and risk of fracturing for urban development planning.

  14. Modelling Water Flow, Heat Transport, Soil Freezing and Thawing, and Snow Processes in a Clayey, Subsurface Drained Agricultural Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsta, L.; Turunen, M.; Koivusalo, H. J.; Paasonen-Kivekäs, M.; Karvonen, T.; Taskinen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Simulation of hydrological processes for the purposes of agricultural water management and protection in boreal environment requires description of winter time processes, including heat transport, soil freezing and thawing, and snow accumulation and melt. Finland is located north of the latitude of 60 degrees and has one third to one fourth of the total agricultural land area (2.3 milj. ha) on clay soils (> 30% of clay). Most of the clayey fields are subsurface drained to provide efficient drainage and to enable heavy machines to operate on the fields as soon as possible after the spring snowmelt. Generation of drainflow and surface runoff in cultivated fields leads to nutrient and sediment load, which forms the major share of the total load reaching surface waters at the national level. Water, suspended sediment, and soluble nutrients on clayey field surface are conveyed through the soil profile to the subsurface drains via macropore pathways as the clayey soil matrix is almost impermeable. The objective of the study was to develop the missing winter related processes into the FLUSH model, including soil heat transport, snow pack simulation and the effects of soil freezing and thawing on the soil hydraulic conductivity. FLUSH is an open source (MIT license), distributed, process-based model designed to simulate surface runoff and drainflow in clayey, subsurface drained agricultural fields. 2-D overland flow is described with the diffuse wave approximation of the Saint Venant equations and 3-D subsurface flow with a dual-permeability model. Both macropores and soil matrix are simulated with the Richards equation. Soil heat transport is described with a modified 3-D convection-diffusion equation. Runoff and groundwater data was available from different periods from January 1994 to April 1999 measured in a clayey, subsurface drained field section (3.6 ha) in southern Finland. Soil temperature data was collected in two locations (to a depth of 0.8 m) next to the

  15. Application of SiO_2 Nano-particles in Treatment of Raw Water Containing Anionic Surfactant%纳米SiO_2用于含表面活性剂原水的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮彩群; 李冬梅; 任毅; 李绍秀; 李斌; 李志生

    2009-01-01

    By adding SiO_2 nano-particles into kaolin suspensions with turbidity of 6 NTU in the presence of anionic surfactant--sedium dodeeyl sulphate (SDS), dynamic coagulation experiments and quiescent settling experiments were done. The action efficiency and morphologic properties of SiO_2 nano-particles were discussed using image analysis technology and a quantitative faetor---fractal dimension. The formation and growth of flocs have fractal properties. The fractal structure formation is a main effect factor of particles coagulation, flocs compact degree and settleability. The flocs formation is interfered at the ini-tial flocculation stage in the presence of SDS. Afterwards, the mixture of SDS and the coagulant acta on particles together and enhances the flocculation efficiency. The flocs become larger and compacter, and the settleability is improved. There is competitive adsorption between SDS and SiO_2. When SiO_2 nano-particles are added alone, small and fragile flocs are formed. When PAC serves as a primary coagulant, SiO_2 nano-particles as floeeulant aid are beneficial for PAC flocs structure evolution to more compact con-figurations. The removal rates of turbidity and SDS are improved.%在含表面活性剂十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)的低浊(6 NTU)高岭土原水中,投加纳米SiO_2进行动态混凝与静沉试验,借助图像分析技术与定量控制参数,探讨了纳米SiO_2的作用效果与形态学特性.结果表明:絮体的形成与生长具有分形特征,分形结构是影响颗粒混凝、絮团密实度与沉降特性的主要因素;SDS的存在对絮凝初期絮体的形成起阻碍作用,随后SDS与混凝剂的混合体共同对粒子作用,促进絮凝,絮体变大且密实,沉降性能改善;SDS和SiO_2对高岭土粒子存在竞争吸附;单独投加纳米SiO_2时形成的絮体小而脆弱,而以纳米SiO_2为助凝剂能促使PAC絮体结构向更密实的构型转变,对浊度和SDS的去除率提高.

  16. 微乳液结合Sol-Gel法制备纳米ZnTiO3及其表征%Preparation and Characterization of ZnTiO3 Nano Particles by Sol-Gel-Microemulsion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘西京; 干信; 刘红雨

    2012-01-01

    将溶胶-凝胶法与微乳液化学剪裁法相结合,以钛酸丁酯和氯化锌制备凝胶,在OP-10-SDS/-丁醇/环己烷/水复配微乳体系中进行化学剪裁制备前驱物,再经煅烧制备了组成单一的球状纳米ZnTiO3粉体,通过XRD、TEM、SEM、TG-DSC等方法对产物进行了表征,并讨论了凝胶的陈化时间、煅烧温度和煅烧时间对蚋米ZnTiO3的组成、拉径和形貌的影响,提出了蚋米ZnTiO3可能的形成机理.结果表明,在700℃煅烧2h制备的蚋米ZnTiO3平均粒径为35 nm,粒径分布比较均匀,基本呈单分散;适当延长陈化时间会减少ZnO及TiO2杂质;随着煅烧时间的延长,ZnTiO3晶体粒径开始增大;煅烧温度过高会使六方相ZnTiO3分解为立方相的Zn2 TiO4和金红石型TiO2.%Zinc titanate(ZnTiO3) nano particles had been prepared by sol-gel-microemulsion chemical tailoring method. The gel prepared by Ti(OC4H9)4 and zinc chloride was tailored in OP-10-SDS/n-butanol/cyclohex-ane/water microemulsion. ZnTiO3 Nano particles were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM and TG-DSC. The influence of aging time of the gel,calcination temperature and calcination time on the composition,particle size and morphology of ZnTiO3 nano particles were investigated. The results showed that the average particle size of ZnTiO3 nano particles was 35 nm,the particle size distribution was uniform with good monodispersity when it was calcined at 700 ℃ for 2 h. The TiO2 and ZnO impurities were reduced with aging time extension,particle size of ZnTiO3 was increased with calcination time extension, hexagonal ZnTiO3 was decomposed of cubic Zn2TiO4 and rutile TiO2 at higher calcination temperature.

  17. Electrical Resistivity Imaging of a Thin Clayey Aquitard Developed on Basement Rocks in Parts of Adekunle Ajasin University Campus, Akungba-Akoko, South-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim B Aminu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 2-dimensional electrical resistivity surveying has been used to reveal the nature and development of a thin clayey aquitard on basement complex rocks of the Adekunle Ajasin University campus, Akungba-Akoko south-western Nigeria. The aim was to evaluate the occurrence, geometry and groundwater viability of this clayey aquitard as an alternative source of water supply on the Campus. Prior, a hand-dug well, which supplied moderate volumes of water all year round, had been abstracting water from this aquitard. Three east-west geo-electric traverses were surveyed using the dipole-dipole array configuration with an electrode separation of 5 m and a maximum dipole length of 45 m. Each of the three traverses was 60 m long. The observed field data were inverted for subsurface 2D resistivity structure using a commercially available 2.5D finite element modelling inversion software. The clayey aquitard is imaged to exist as low resistivity response patterns which have developed in elongated trough-like depressions created as a result of deep weathering of the feldspar and amphibolite-rich sections of the basement rocks of the area. This clayey layer reaches a thickness of 10 m at the southern end of the survey and in some sections is compartmentalised into segments by basement rocks which have better resisted weathering. Where the topographic slope of the ground surface is low enough as to allow the accumulation of run-off, the clayey aquitard develops into visible marshy swamps. Although, clayey aquitards of this nature supply water at low rates, their capacity to store high volumes and to be available all-year-round could prove essential to ameliorating acute water shortages experienced in the area during the dry season.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.1.9016

  18. Biohydrogen production from xylose at extreme thermophilic temperatures (70 degrees C) by mixed culture fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongjan, Prawit; Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    high hydrogen partial pressure (>0.14 atm) was present in the headspace of the batch reactors. Biohydrogen could be successfully produced in continuously stirred reactor (CSTR) operated at 72-h hydraulic retention time (HRT) with 1 g/L of xylose as substrate at 70 degrees C. The hydrogen production...... yield achieved in the CSTR was 1.36 +/- 0.03 mol-H-2/Mol-xylose(consumed),, and the production rate was 62 +/- 2 ml/d.L-reactor. The hydrogen content in the methane-free mixed gas was approximately 31 +/- 1%, and the rest was carbon dioxide. The main intermediate by-products from the effluent were...

  19. Biohydrogen production from xylose at extreme thermophilic temperatures (70 degrees C) by mixed culture fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongjan, Prawit; Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-03-01

    Biohydrogen production from xylose at extreme thermophilic temperatures (70 degrees C) was investigated in batch and continuous-mode operation. Biohydrogen was successfully produced from xylose by repeated batch cultivations with mixed culture received from a biohydrogen reactor treating household solid wastes at 70 degrees C. The highest hydrogen yield of 1.62+/-0.02 mol-H2/mol-xylose(consumed) was obtained at initial xylose concentration of 0.5 g/L with synthetic medium amended with 1g/L of yeast extract. Lower hydrogen yield was achieved at initial xylose concentration higher than 2g/L. Addition of yeast extract in the cultivation medium resulted in significant improvement of hydrogen yield. The main metabolic products during xylose fermentation were acetate, ethanol, and lactate. The specific growth rates were able to fit the experimental points relatively well with Haldane equation assuming substrate inhibition, and the following kinetic parameters were obtained: the maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) was 0.17 h(-1), the half-saturation constant (K(s)) was 0.75g/L, and inhibition constant (K(i)) was 3.72 g/L of xylose. Intermittent N2 sparging could enhance hydrogen production when high hydrogen partial pressure (> 0.14 atm) was present in the headspace of the batch reactors. Biohydrogen could be successfully produced in continuously stirred reactor (CSTR) operated at 72-h hydraulic retention time (HRT) with 1g/L of xylose as substrate at 70 degrees C. The hydrogen production yield achieved in the CSTR was 1.36+/-0.03 mol-H2/mol-xylose(sonsumed), and the production rate was 62+/-2 ml/d x L(reactor). The hydrogen content in the methane-free mixed gas was approximately 31+/-1%, and the rest was carbon dioxide. The main intermediate by-products from the effluent were acetate, formate, and ethanol at 4.25+/-0.10, 3.01+/-0.11, and 2.59+/-0.16 mM, respectively.

  20. Newly-designed Traditional Glutinous Rice-lime Mortar with Micron-nano-particles%微纳米复合掺和料对传统糯米-石灰砂浆强度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华山; 车玉君; 江华利; 林戈; 魏东

    2015-01-01

    Portland cement and polymers have low chemical and physical affinity for traditional building materials .This hinders the restoration of historical buildings .Glutinous rice-lime mortars (GLM ) used in construction since ancient times in China were recov‐ered ,and attempts were made to enhance their performances .Micron particles ,such as limestone ,fly ash and slag ,with silicon fume contained nano-particles were selected on the basis of their properties .Flexural strength and compressive strength of GLM with micron-nano-particles were measured .Test results show that the mechanical performances of newly-designed traditional GLM were improved .And they are compatible with ancient building materials in China ,so it can be used in the restoration of architectural heritage .%水泥基修补材料和高分子修补材料与古迹本体材料存在相容性问题,不利于古迹的修复工作。糯米-石灰砂浆是中国古代传统的一种建筑材料,拟挖掘并提升其性能用于古迹的修补。分别采用石灰石粉、粉煤灰和矿粉等微米级掺和料与硅灰复合,研究微纳米掺和料对糯米-石灰砂浆强度的影响。试验研究的结果表明,微纳米复合掺和料提高了糯米石灰砂浆的力学性能。这种材料与中国古代建筑材料相容,可用于古迹的修复工作。

  1. Fabrication and antibacterial activity of ZnO nano particles through Sol-gel method%纳米ZnO粒子的溶胶凝胶制备及抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚微; 贺惠蓉; 张弘弛; 马养民; 顾鑫

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nano particles were fabricated through sol-gel method. The phase, the crys-tallographic structure and the surface topography of the ZnO were charactered by XRD and SEM. The antibacterial activities of the ZnO paticles before and after ultraviolet irradiation were performed by the K-B disk diffusion method. The results show that the ZnO nano particles prepared with sizes about 200 am display great antibacterial activity, which show strong antibacterial activity with inhibition zone diameter of 18 to 22 mm against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus without ultraviolet irradiation. The mechanism of ZnO antibacterial activity is discussed.%采用溶胶凝胶法制备了纳米ZnO粒子,通过XRD、SEM对所制备粉体颗粒的物相组成以及表面形貌进行表征,并且通过K-B纸片扩散法研究了抗菌性能,并对比了紫外光照前后的抗菌性能.结果表明,所制备的ZnO纳米粒子粒径约为200 nm左右,显示优良的抗菌活性,未经紫外光照对大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)和金黄色葡萄球菌(Sta ph ylococcus aureus)的抑菌圈达到18~22 mm,并对其机理做了初步探讨.

  2. Parametric investigations on the influence of nano-second Nd{sup 3+}:YAG laser wavelength and fluence in synthesizing NiTi nano-particles using liquid assisted laser ablation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Nandini, E-mail: nandinipatra2007@gmail.com [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India); Akash, K.; Shiva, S.; Gagrani, Rohit; Rao, H. Sai Pranesh; Anirudh, V.R. [Mechatronics and Instrumentation lab, Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India); Palani, I.A., E-mail: palaniia@iiti.ac.in [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India); Mechatronics and Instrumentation lab, Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India); Singh, Vipul [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Influence of laser wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) and fluences (40 J/cm{sup 2}, 30 J/cm{sup 2} and 20 J/cm{sup 2}) on generation of underwater laser ablated NiTi nanoparticles. • Particle size range of 140–10 nm was generated at varying laser wavelengths. • The alloy formation of NiTi nanoparticles was confirmed from XRD and TEM analysis where the crystalline peaks of NiTi, Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} and Ni{sub 3}Ti were observed from XRD. • Formation efficiency of NiTi nanoparticles was maximum at 1064 nm wavelength and 40 J/cm{sup 2} fluence. - Abstract: This paper investigates the influence of laser wavelengths and laser fluences on the size and quality of the NiTi nanoparticles, generated through underwater solid state Nd:YAG laser ablation technique. The experiments were performed on Ni55%–Ti45% sheet to synthesize NiTi nano-particles at three different wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) with varying laser fluences ranging from 20 to 40 J/cm{sup 2}. Synthesized NiTi nano-particles were characterized through SEM, DLS, XRD, FT-IR, TEM and UV–vis spectrum. It was observed that, maximum particle size of 140 nm and minimum particle size of 10 nm were generated at varying laser wavelengths. The crystallinity and lattice spacing of NiTi alloy nanoparticles were confirmed from the XRD analysis and TEM images, respectively.

  3. Biohydrogen production from glucose in upflow biofilm reactors with plastic carriers under extreme thermophilic conditions (70 degrees C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hang; Zeng, Raymond J; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-08-01

    Biohydrogen could efficiently be produced in glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers and operated at 70 degrees C. Batch experiments were, in addition, conducted to enrich and cultivate glucose-fed extreme-thermophilic hydrogen producing microorganisms from a biohydrogen CSTR reactor fed with household solid waste. Kinetic analysis of the biohydrogen enrichment cultures show that substrate (glucose) likely inhibited hydrogen production when its concentration was higher than 1 g/L. Different start up strategies were applied for biohydrogen production in biofilm reactors operated at 70 degrees C, and fed with synthetic medium with glucose as the only carbon and energy source. A biofilm reactor, started up with plastic carriers, that were previously inoculated with the enrichment cultures, resulted in higher hydrogen yield (2.21 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed) but required longer start up time (1 month), while a biofilm reactor directly inoculated with the enrichment cultures reached stable state much faster (8 days) but with very low hydrogen yield (0.69 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed). These results indicate that hydraulic pressure is necessary for successful immobilization of bacteria on carriers, while there is the risk of washing out specific high yielding bacteria.

  4. Bio-hydrogen production from glycerol by a strain of Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, P.A.S.S; Bartolomeu, M.L.; Tome, M.M.; Rosa, M.F. [INETI, Unit of Biomass/Renewable Energy Department, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the H2 production from glycerol-containing byproducts obtained from biodiesel industrial production, using Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 Sputum. H2 production using as substrate pure glycerol and glycerol-containing biodiesel byproducts was compared. The effect of parameters such as initial substrate concentration and sodium chloride addition on the bio-hydrogen production efficiency was also investigated. The results showed that using 10 g/L of pure glycerol or biodiesel residues, containing the same concentration of glycerol as substrate, lead to similar bio-hydrogen productions (3.46 LH2/L and 3.28 LH2/L fermentation medium, respectively). This indicates that the performance of the E. aerogenes strain used was not influenced by the presence of other components than glycerol in biodiesel residues, at least for the tested waste concentration range. When sodium chloride was added to the fermentation medium with pure 10 g/L glycerol, H2 production was not affected (3.34 LH2/L fermentation medium), showing that metabolism of the E. aerogenes strain was not inhibited by this biodiesel waste component up to 4 g/L chloride concentration. Biodiesel residues used without sterilization provided a higher H2 production (1.03 L) than the ones submitted to previous sterilization in autoclave (0.89 L).

  5. The organic agricultural waste as a basic source of biohydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwuryandari, Lies; Priantoro, E. Agung; Sintawardani, Neni; Astuti, J. Tri; Nilawati, Dewi; Putri, A. Mauliva Hada; Mamat, Sentana, Suharwadji; Sembiring, T.

    2016-02-01

    Biohydrogen production research was carried out using raw materials of agricultural organic waste that was obtained from markets around the Bandung city. The organic part, which consisted of agricultural waste material, mainly fruit and vegetable waste, was crushed and milled using blender. The sludge that produced from milling process was then used as a substrate for mixed culture microorganism as a raw material to produce biohydrogen. As much as 1.2 kg.day-1 of sludge (4% of total solid) was fed into bioreactor that had a capacity of 30L. Experiment was done under anaerobic fermentation using bacteria mixture culture that maintained at pH in the range of 5.6-6.5 and temperature of 25-30oC on semi-continuous mode. Parameters of analysis include pH, temperature, total solid (TS), organic total solid (OTS), total gas production, and hydrogen gas production. The results showed that from 4% of substrate resulted 897.86 L of total gas, which contained 660.74 L (73.59%) of hydrogen gas. The rate of hydrogen production in this study was 11,063 mol.L-1.h-1.

  6. Biohydrogen production from specified risk materials co-digested with cattle manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilroyed, Brandon H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 4B1 (Canada); Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Li, Chunli; Hao, Xiying; McAllister, Tim A. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 4B1 (Canada); Chu, Angus [Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    Biohydrogen production from the anaerobic digestion of specified risk materials (SRM) co-digested with cattle manure was assessed in a 3 x 5 factorial design. Total organic loading rates (OLR) of 10, 20, and 40 g L{sup -1} volatile solids (VS) were tested using manure:SRM (wt/wt) mixtures of 100:0 (control), 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, and 50:50 using five 2 L continuously stirred biodigesters operating at 55 C. Gas samples were taken daily to determine hydrogen production, and slurry samples were analyzed daily for volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), and VS degradation. Hydrogen production (mL g{sup -1} VS fed) varied quadratically according to OLR (P < 0.01), with maximum production at OLR20, while production decreased linearly (P < 0.0001) as SRM concentration increased. Reduced hydrogen production associated with SRM inclusion at >10% VS may be attributed to a rapid increase in TAN (r = -0.55) or other inhibitors such as long chain fatty acids. Reduced hydrogen production (P < 0.01) at OLR40 versus OLR20 may be related to increased rate of VFA accumulation and final VFA concentration (P < 0.001), as well as inhibition due to hydrogen accumulation (P < 0.001). Biohydrogen production from SRM co-digested with cattle manure may not be feasible on an industrial scale due to reduced hydrogen production with increasing levels of SRM. (author)

  7. Anaerobic bio-hydrogen production from ethanol fermentation: the role of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Moon H; Jang, Nam J; Hyun, Seung H; Kim, In S

    2004-08-01

    Hydrogen was produced by an ethanol-acetate fermentation at pH of 5.0 +/- 0.2 and HRT of 3 days. The yield of hydrogen was 100-200 ml g Glu(-1) with a hydrogen content of 25-40%. This fluctuation in the hydrogen yield was attributed to the formation of propionate and the activity of hydrogen utilizing methanogens. The change in the operational pH for the inhibition of this methanogenic activity induced a change in the main fermentation pathway. In this study, the main products were butyrate, ethanol and propionate, in the pH ranges 4.0-4.5, 4.5-5.0 and 5.0-6.0, respectively. However, the activity of all the microorganisms was inhibited below pH 4.0. Therefore, pH 4.0 was regarded as the operational limit for the anaerobic bio-hydrogen production process. These results indicate that the pH plays an important role in determining the type of anaerobic fermentation pathway in anaerobic bio-hydrogen processes.

  8. Enhanced biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by Clostridium thermocellum supplemented with CaCO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing-Qing; Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 was used to degrade sugarcane bagasse (SCB) directly for hydrogen production, which was significantly enhanced by supplementing medium with CaCO3. The effect of CaCO3 concentration on the hydrogen production was investigated. The hydrogen production was significantly enhanced with the CaCO3 concentration increased from 10mM to 20mM. However, with the CaCO3 concentration further increased from 20mM to 100mM, the hydrogen production didn't increase further. Under the optimal CaCO3 concentration of 20mM, the hydrogen production reached 97.83±5.19mmol/L from 2% sodium hydroxide-pretreated SCB, a 116.72% increase over the control (45.14±1.03mmol/L), and the yield of hydrogen production reached 4.89mmol H2/g SCBadded. Additionally, CaCO3 promoted the biodegradation of SCB and the growth of C. thermocellum. The stimulatory effects of CaCO3 on biohydrogen production are mainly attributed to the buffering capacity of carbonate. The study provides a novel strategy to enhance biohydrogen production from lignocellulose.

  9. Biohydrogen production and kinetic modeling using sediment microorganisms of Pichavaram mangroves, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullai, P; Rene, Eldon R; Sridevi, K

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove sediments host rich assemblages of microorganisms, predominantly mixed bacterial cultures, which can be efficiently used for biohydrogen production through anaerobic dark fermentation. The influence of process parameters such as effect of initial glucose concentration, initial medium pH, and trace metal (Fe(2+)) concentration was investigated in this study. A maximum hydrogen yield of 2.34, 2.3, and 2.6 mol H2 mol(-1) glucose, respectively, was obtained under the following set of optimal conditions: initial substrate concentration-10,000 mg L(-1), initial pH-6.0, and ferrous sulphate concentration-100 mg L(-1), respectively. The addition of trace metal to the medium (100 mg L(-1) FeSO4 ·7H2O) enhanced the biohydrogen yield from 2.3 mol H2 mol(-1) glucose to 2.6 mol H2 mol(-1) glucose. Furthermore, the experimental data was subjected to kinetic analysis and the kinetic constants were estimated with the help of well-known kinetic models available in the literature, namely, Monod model, logistic model and Luedeking-Piret model. The model fitting was found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations, for all the models, with regression coefficient values >0.92.

  10. Biohydrogen Production and Kinetic Modeling Using Sediment Microorganisms of Pichavaram Mangroves, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mullai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove sediments host rich assemblages of microorganisms, predominantly mixed bacterial cultures, which can be efficiently used for biohydrogen production through anaerobic dark fermentation. The influence of process parameters such as effect of initial glucose concentration, initial medium pH, and trace metal (Fe2+ concentration was investigated in this study. A maximum hydrogen yield of 2.34, 2.3, and 2.6 mol H2 mol−1 glucose, respectively, was obtained under the following set of optimal conditions: initial substrate concentration—10,000 mg L−1, initial pH—6.0, and ferrous sulphate concentration—100 mg L−1, respectively. The addition of trace metal to the medium (100 mg L−1 FeSO4·7H2O enhanced the biohydrogen yield from 2.3 mol H2 mol−1 glucose to 2.6 mol H2 mol−1 glucose. Furthermore, the experimental data was subjected to kinetic analysis and the kinetic constants were estimated with the help of well-known kinetic models available in the literature, namely, Monod model, logistic model and Luedeking-Piret model. The model fitting was found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations, for all the models, with regression coefficient values >0.92.

  11. Evidence for the inhibition of the terminal step of ruminal alpha-linolenic acid biohydrogenation by condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Bryner, S F; Scheeder, M R L; Wettstein, H-R; Leiber, F; Kreuzer, M; Soliva, C R

    2009-01-01

    Effects of condensed tannins (CT), either via extract or plant-bound, and saponin extract on ruminal biohydrogenation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) were investigated in vitro. Grass-clover hay served as basal diet (control). The control hay was supplemented with extracts contributing either CT from Acacia mearnsii [7.9% of dietary dry matter (DM)] or saponins from Yucca schidigera (1.1% of DM). The fourth treatment consisted of dried sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), a CT-containing forage legume, in an amount also providing 7.9% CT in dietary DM. All diets were supplemented with linseed oil at a level contributing 60% of total dietary ALA in all treatments. Diets were incubated for 10 d (n = 4) in the rumen simulation technique system, using the last 5 d for statistical evaluation. Fatty acids were analyzed in feed, feed residues, incubation fluid, and its effluent. Data were subjected to ANOVA considering diet and experimental run as main effects. Both CT treatments reduced ruminal fiber and crude protein degradation, and lowered incubation fluid ammonia concentration. Only the CT extract suppressed methane formation and shifted microbial populations toward bacteria at cost of protozoa. The saponin extract remained without clear effects on fermentation characteristics except for increased protozoal counts. The extent of ALA biohydrogenation was 20% less with the CT plant, but this probably resulted from reduced organic matter degradability rather than from an inhibition of biohydrogenation. After incubation analysis of incubation fluid effluent and feed residues showed a considerable proportion of the 3 biohydrogenation intermediates, cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 C18:3, trans-11, cis-15 C18:2, and trans-11 C18:1, which did not occur in the initial feeds. Only the CT-extract diet led to a different profile in the effluent compared with the control diet with trans-11 C18:1 being considerably increased at cost of C18:0. This could have been achieved by suppressing

  12. Effects of chemically or technologically treated linseed products and docosahexaenoic acid addition to linseed oil on biohydrogenation of C18:3n-3 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, A; Hovenier, R; Vlaeminck, B; van Vuuren, A M; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2010-11-01

    Rumen biohydrogenation kinetics of C18:3n-3 from several chemically or technologically treated linseed products and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) addition to linseed oil were evaluated in vitro. Linseed products evaluated were linseed oil, crushed linseed, formaldehyde treated crushed linseed, sodium hydroxide/formaldehyde treated crushed linseed, extruded whole linseed (2 processing variants), extruded crushed linseed (2 processing variants), micronized crushed linseed, commercially available extruded linseed, lipid encapsulated linseed oil, and DHA addition to linseed oil. Each product was incubated with rumen liquid using equal amounts of supplemented C18:3n-3 and fermentable substrate (freeze-dried total mixed ration) for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24h using a batch culture technique. Disappearance of C18:3n-3 was measured to estimate the fractional biohydrogenation rate and lag time according to an exponential model and to calculate effective biohydrogenation of C18:3n-3, assuming a fractional passage rate of 0.060/h. Treatments showed no differences in rumen fermentation parameters, including gas production rate and volatile fatty acid concentration. Technological pretreatment (crushing) followed by chemical treatment applied as formaldehyde of linseed resulted in effective protection of C18:3n-3 against biohydrogenation. Additional chemical pretreatment (sodium hydroxide) before applying formaldehyde treatment did not further improve the effectiveness of protection. Extrusion of whole linseed compared with extrusion of crushed linseed was effective in reducing C18:3n-3 biohydrogenation, whereas the processing variants were not different in C18:3n-3 biohydrogenation. Crushed linseed, micronized crushed linseed, lipid encapsulated linseed oil, and DHA addition to linseed oil did not reduce C18:3n-3 biohydrogenation. Compared with the other treatments, docosahexaenoic acid addition to linseed oil resulted in a comparable trans11,cis15-C18

  13. Dispersing of Fe2O3 Nano-Particles in Ammonia- Water Suspension%氨水-Fe2O3纳米流体稳定性影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 杜垲; 李彦军; 程波

    2011-01-01

    为了将纳米颗粒的强化传热传质作用应用于氨水吸收制冷中,提出了在氨水溶液中添加Fe203纳米颗粒和表面活性剂十二烷基苯磺酸纳(SDBS)的纳米流体的配制方法,并通过沉降试验和吸光度测试方法对其稳定性进行了实验研究。研究了活性剂质量分数、超声分散时间和氨水浓度对稳定性的影响,确定了Fe2O3-氨水纳米流体分散的最佳工艺为:SDBS质量分数为0.8%,超声时间为30min,基液为25%的氨水。最后根据双电层原理分析了活性剂质量分数对悬浮液的稳定性的影响。结果表明在悬浮液的稳定性条件下,活性剂存在最佳质量分数,此结论与实验结果一致。%In this paper, the dispersion stability of Fe2O3 nano-particles in ammonia water was investigated using the sedimentation and the light transmission ratio index methods with different concentration of surfactant, different durations of ultrasonic vibration and different concentrations of ammonia-water basefluid in order to apply nanofluid to the absorption system. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) is used as the surfactants. The results show that the stability of nanofluid was exacerbated firstly, then was improved, and then was exacerbated again with the increase of concentrations of the ionic surfactants. The optimal dispersing condition was 0.8% of SDBS in 25% ammonia water base fluid with 30 minutes of ultrasonic vibration. Finally, based on electric double layer theory, the influence of concentration of surfactant on the stability of nanofluid was analyzed. The reaction of anionic surfactants to the Fe2O3 nano-particles and the existence of the optimal surfactant concentration were explained in accordance with the experimental results.

  14. Research on Magnetic Fe3O4 Nano-Particles Applied in Water Treatment%用于水处理的磁性Fe3O4纳米微粒研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏洁; 程文; 魏红; 何泽楠; 刘东; 左芬

    2012-01-01

    采用化学共沉淀法和水热法制备Fe3O4纳米磁性粒子及油酸包覆Fe3O4磁流体.通过实验确定最佳反应条件;用XRD分析Fe3O4粒子的晶体结构;用TEM观察磁流体样品的微观结构;用HPLC研究纳米粒子对左旋氧氟沙星溶液模拟废水超声降解的影响.结果表明产物为反尖晶石结构立方晶系的AB2O4型化合物,平均粒径小于15 nm;磁流体基本上为规则的球形,颗粒均匀,无团聚情况;制得的磁流体样品具有较好的流动性和超顺磁性;Fe3O4纳米粒子对左旋氧氟沙星具有一定的降解性能.%The Fe3O4 nano-particles and oil up on the Fe3O4 fluid are prepared by a chemical co-precipitation method and hydrothermal method. The optimum reaction conditions are determined through experiments. The crystal structure of Fe3O4 particles is analyzed via X-ray diffraction (XRD); the microstruc-ture of magnetic fluid sample is observed via transmission electron microscope (TEM); the effects of nano-particles on the degradation of levofloxacin solution imitating wastewater is investigated by high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC). The results show that the product is inverse spinel structure of the cubic crystal system-type compounds of AB204. The average particle size is less than 15 nm; magnetic fluid is regular spherical shape basically, particles uniformly and without agglomeration. Magnetic fluid samples are of good mobility and superparamagneticity; nano-size Fe3O4 can degrada levofloxacin to a certain extent.

  15. Acidogenic spent wash valorization through polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis coupled with fermentative biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amulya, K; Reddy, M Venkateswar; Mohan, S Venkata

    2014-04-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Bacillus tequilensis biocatalyst using spent wash effluents as substrate was evaluated to increase the versatility of the existing PHA production process and reduce production cost. In this study, spent wash was used as a substrate for biohydrogen (H2) production and the resulting acidogenic effluents were subsequently employed as substrate for PHA production. Maximum H2 production of 39.8L and maximum PHA accumulation of 40% dry cell weight was attained. Good substrate removal associated with decrement in acidification (53% to 15%) indicates that the VFA generated were effectively utilized for PHA production. The PHA composition showed presence of copolymer [P (3HB-co-3HV)] with varying contents of hydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate. The results obtained suggest that the use of spent wash effluents as substrate can considerably reduce the production cost of PHA with simultaneous waste valorization. PHA synthesis with B. tequilensis and spent wash effluents is reported for the first time.

  16. Synergistic collaboration of gut symbionts in Odontotermes formosanus for lignocellulosic degradation and bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Gincy Marina; Mathew, Dony Chacko; Lo, Shou-Chen; Alexios, Georgy Mathew; Yang, Jia-Cih; Sashikumar, Jagathala Mahalingam; Shaikh, Tanveer Mahamadali; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2013-10-01

    In this work, gut microbes from the macrotermitine termite Odontotermes formosanus the cellulolytic Bacillus and fermentative Clostridium were studied in batch experiments using different carbon substrates to bio-mimic the termite gut for hydrogen production. Their fungus comb aging and the in vitro lignocellulosic degradation of the mango tree substrates by the synergistic interaction of Bacillus, Clostridium and Termitomyces were detected by Solid-state NMR. From the results, Bacillus species acted as a mutualist, by initiating an anaerobic environment for the growth of Clostridium, for bio-hydrogen production and the presence of Termitomyces enhanced the lignocellulosic degradation of substrates in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the synergistic collaboration of these three microbes can be used for termite-derived bio-fuel processing technology.

  17. Timeline of bio-hydrogen production by anaerobic digestion of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette E. TELEKY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of biomass is a process capable to produce biohydrogen, a clean source of alternative energy. Lignocellulosic biomass from agricultural waste is considered a renewable energy source; therefore its utilization also contributes to the reduction of water, soil and air pollution. The study consists in five consecutive experiments designed to utilize anaerobic bacterial enrichment cultures originating from the Hungarian Lake, Hévíz. Wheat straw was used as complex substrate to produce hydrogen. The timeline evolution of hydrogen production was analyzed and modelled by two functions: Logistic and Boltzmann. The results proved that hydrogen production is significant, with a maximum of 0.24 mlN/ml and the highest hydrogen production occurs between the days 4-10 of the experiment.

  18. Performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) on fermentative biohydrogen production from melon waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyari, K.; Sarto; Syamsiah, S.; Prasetya, A.

    2016-11-01

    This research was meant to investigate performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as bioreactor for producing biohydrogen from melon waste through dark fermentation method. Melon waste are commonly generated from agricultural processing stages i.e. cultivation, post-harvesting, industrial processing, and transportation. It accounted for more than 50% of total harvested fruit. Feedstock of melon waste was fed regularly to CSTR according to organic loading rate at value 1.2 - 3.6 g VS/ (l.d). Optimum condition was achieved at OLR 2.4 g VS/ (l.d) with the highest total gas volume 196 ml STP. Implication of higher OLR value is reduction of total gas volume due to accumulation of acids (pH 4.0), and lower substrate volatile solid removal. In summary, application of this method might valorize melon waste and generates renewable energy sources.

  19. Microbial biofilm community in a thermophilic trickling bio filter used for continuous biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.; Park, E.-J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Oh, Y.-K. [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Park, S. [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of). Inst. for Environmental Technology and Industry

    2004-07-01

    The microbial community in a thermophilic trickling biofilter reactor (TBR) that produces biohydrogen was examined. In particular, nonculture-based molecular methods were used to characterize the microbial community in the biofilm formed on the matrixes that were packed in the reactor. The operation of the bioreactor was described. TBR demonstrated long term stability to produce hydrogen. Biomass volatile suspended solids (VSS) in the TBR decreased gradually as bed height increased from the bottom of the bed. Epifluorescence microscopy of 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained cells and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis both indicate that microbial composition changes in the TBR according to bed height. The dominant phylogenetic groups in the system were identified along with the comparative analysis of morphology of microbial community and the DGGE profiles of the microbial community in terms of total genomic DNA extracted from biofilm cells. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  20. Enhancement of biohydrogen production from brewers' spent grain by calcined-red mud pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jishi; Zang, Lihua

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigated the utilization of calcined-red mud (CRM) pretreatment to enhance fermentative hydrogen yields from brewers' spent grain (BSG). The BSG samples were treated with different concentrations (0.0-20g/L) of CRM at 55°C for 48h, before the biohydrogen process with heat-treated anaerobic sludge inoculum. The highest specific hydrogen production of 198.62ml/g-VS was obtained from the BSG treated with 10g/L CRM, with the corresponding lag time of 10.60h. Hydrogen yield increments increased by 67.74%, compared to the control tests without CRM. The results demonstrated that the CRM could hydrolyze more cellulose and further provided adequate broth and suitable pH value for efficient fermentative hydrogen. The model-based analysis showed that the modified Gompertz model presented a better fit for the experimental data than the first-order model.

  1. Assessing optimal fermentation type for bio-hydrogen production in continuous-flow acidogenic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, N Q; Chua, H; Chan, S Y; Tsang, Y F; Wang, Y J; Sin, N

    2007-07-01

    In this study, the optimal fermentation type and the operating conditions of anaerobic process in continuous-flow acidogenic reactors was investigated for the maximization of bio-hydrogen production using mixed cultures. Butyric acid type fermentation occurred at pH>6, propionic acid type fermentation occurred at pH about 5.5 with E(h) (redox potential) >-278mV, and ethanol-type fermentation occurred at pHhydrogen production capacities between the fermentation types, which remained stable when the organic loading rate (OLR) reached the highest OLR at 86.1kgCOD/m(3)d. The maximum hydrogen production reached up to 14.99L/d.

  2. Biohydrogen production from used diapers: Evaluation of effect of temperature and substrate conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Navarro, P X; Poggi-Varaldo, H M; Turpin-Marion, S J; Vázquez-Morillas, A; Beltrán-Villavicencio, M; Espinosa-Valdemar, R M

    2017-03-01

    This research assessed the viability to use disposable diapers as a substrate for the production of biohydrogen, a valuable clean-energy source. The important content of cellulose of disposable diapers indicates that this waste could be an attractive substrate for biofuel production. Two incubation temperatures (35 °C and 55 °C) and three diaper conditioning methods (whole diapers with faeces, urine, and plastics, WD; diapers without plastic components, with urine and faeces, DWP; diapers with urine but without faeces and plastic, MSD) were tested in batch bioreactors. The bioreactors were operated in the solid substrate anaerobic hydrogenogenic fermentation with intermittent venting mode (SSAHF-IV). The batch reactors were loaded with the substrate at ca. 25% of total solids and 10% w/w inoculum. The average cumulative bioH2 production followed the order WD > MSD > DWP. The bio-H2 production using MSD was unexpectedly higher than DWP; the presence of plastics in the first was expected to be associated to lower degradability and H2 yield. BioH2 production at 55 °C was superior to that of 35 °C, probably owing to a more rapid microbial metabolism in the thermophilic regime. The results of this work showed low yields in the production of H2 at both temperatures compared with those reported in the literature for municipal and agricultural organic waste. The studied process could improve the ability to dispose of this residue with H2 generation as the value-added product. Research is ongoing to increase the yield of biohydrogen production from waste disposable diapers.

  3. Biohydrogen and biomethane production sustained by untreated matrices and alternative application of compost waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizzi, Mariaconcetta; Morra, Simone; Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Valetti, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    Biohydrogen and biomethane production offers many advantages for environmental protection over the fossil fuels or the existing physical-chemical methods for hydrogen and methane synthesis. The aim of this study is focused on the exploitation of several samples from the composting process: (1) a mixture of waste vegetable materials ("Mix"); (2) an unmatured compost sample (ACV15); and (3) three types of green compost with different properties and soil improver quality (ACV1, ACV2 and ACV3). These samples were tested for biohydrogen and biomethane production, thus obtaining second generation biofuels and resulting in a novel possibility to manage renewable waste biomasses. The ability of these substrates as original feed during dark fermentation was assayed anaerobically in batch, in glass bottles, in order to determine the optimal operating conditions for hydrogen and/or methane production using "Mix" or ACV1, ACV2 or ACV3 green compost and a limited amount of water. Hydrogen could be produced with a fast kinetic in the range 0.02-2.45mLH2g(-1)VS, while methane was produced with a slower kinetic in the range 0.5-8mLCH4g(-1)VS. It was observed that the composition of each sample influenced significantly the gas production. It was also observed that the addition of different water amounts play a crucial role in the development of hydrogen or methane. This parameter can be used to push towards the alternative production of one or another gas. Hydrogen and methane production was detected spontaneously from these matrices, without additional sources of nutrients or any pre-treatment, suggesting that they can be used as an additional inoculum or feed into single or two-stage plants. This might allow the use of compost with low quality as soil improver for alternative and further applications.

  4. Innovative self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC) for biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-05-15

    A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC), in which a specially designed anode chamber and external electricity supply were not needed, was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. In batch experiments, the hydrogen production rate reached 17.8 mL/L/d at the initial acetate concentration of 410 mg/L (5 mM), while the cathodic hydrogen recovery ( [Formula: see text] ) and overall systemic coulombic efficiency (CE(os)) were 93% and 28%, respectively, and the systemic hydrogen yield ( [Formula: see text] ) peaked at 1.27 mol-H(2)/mol-acetate. The hydrogen production increased along with acetate and buffer concentration. The highest hydrogen production rate of 32.2 mL/L/d and [Formula: see text] of 1.43 mol-H(2)/mol-acetate were achieved at 1640 mg/L (20 mM) acetate and 100 mM phosphate buffer. Further evaluation of the reactor under single electricity-generating or hydrogen-producing mode indicated that further improvement of voltage output and reduction of electron losses were essential for efficient hydrogen generation. In addition, alternate exchanging the electricity-assisting and hydrogen-producing function between the two cell units of the SMEC was found to be an effective approach to inhibit methanogens. Furthermore, 16S rRNA genes analysis showed that this special operation strategy resulted same microbial community structures in the anodic biofilms of the two cell units. The simple, compact and in situ applicable SMEC offers new opportunities for reactor design for a microbial electricity-assisted biohydrogen production system.

  5. Impact of pH Management Interval on Biohydrogen Production from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes by Mesophilic Thermophilic Anaerobic Codigestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Chaudhry; Sattar, Asma; Changying, Ji; Nasir, Abdul; Mari, Irshad Ali; Bakht, Muhammad Zia

    2015-01-01

    The biohydrogen productions from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) were studied under pH management intervals of 12 h (PM12) and 24 h (PM24) for temperature of 37 ± 0.1°C and 55 ± 0.1°C. The OFMSW or food waste (FW) along with its two components, noodle waste (NW) and rice waste (RW), was codigested with sludge to estimate the potential of biohydrogen production. The biohydrogen production was higher in all reactors under PM12 as compared to PM24. The drop in pH from 7 to 5.3 was observed to be appropriate for biohydrogen production via mesophilic codigestion of noodle waste with the highest biohydrogen yield of 145.93 mL/g CODremoved under PM12. When the temperature was increased from 37°C to 55°C and pH management interval was reduced from 24 h to 12 h, the biohydrogen yields were also changed from 39.21 mL/g COD removed to 89.67 mL/g COD removed, 91.77 mL/g COD removed to 145.93 mL/g COD removed, and 15.36 mL/g COD removed to 117.62 mL/g COD removed for FW, NW, and RW, respectively. The drop in pH and VFA production was better controlled under PM12 as compared to PM24. Overall, PM12 was found to be an effective mean for biohydrogen production through anaerobic digestion of food waste.

  6. Impact of pH Management Interval on Biohydrogen Production from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes by Mesophilic Thermophilic Anaerobic Codigestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry Arslan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biohydrogen productions from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW were studied under pH management intervals of 12 h (PM12 and 24 h (PM24 for temperature of 37±0.1°C and 55±0.1°C. The OFMSW or food waste (FW along with its two components, noodle waste (NW and rice waste (RW, was codigested with sludge to estimate the potential of biohydrogen production. The biohydrogen production was higher in all reactors under PM12 as compared to PM24. The drop in pH from 7 to 5.3 was observed to be appropriate for biohydrogen production via mesophilic codigestion of noodle waste with the highest biohydrogen yield of 145.93 mL/g CODremoved under PM12. When the temperature was increased from 37°C to 55°C and pH management interval was reduced from 24 h to 12 h, the biohydrogen yields were also changed from 39.21 mL/g CODremoved to 89.67 mL/g CODremoved, 91.77 mL/g CODremoved to 145.93 mL/g CODremoved, and 15.36 mL/g CODremoved to 117.62 mL/g CODremoved for FW, NW, and RW, respectively. The drop in pH and VFA production was better controlled under PM12 as compared to PM24. Overall, PM12 was found to be an effective mean for biohydrogen production through anaerobic digestion of food waste.

  7. Roles of microorganisms other than Clostridium and Enterobacter in anaerobic fermentative biohydrogen production systems--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chun-Hsiung; Chang, Yi-Tang; Chang, Yu-Jie

    2011-09-01

    Anaerobic fermentative biohydrogen production, the conversion of organic substances especially from organic wastes to hydrogen gas, has become a viable and promising means of producing sustainable energy. Successful biological hydrogen production depends on the overall performance (results of interactions) of bacterial communities, i.e., mixed cultures in reactors. Mixed cultures might provide useful combinations of metabolic pathways for the processing of complex waste material ingredients, thereby supporting the more efficient decomposition and hydrogenation of biomass than pure bacteria species would. Therefore, understanding the relationships between variations in microbial composition and hydrogen production efficiency is the first step in constructing more efficient hydrogen-producing consortia, especially when complex and non-sterilized organic wastes are used as feeding substrates. In this review, we describe recent discoveries on bacterial community composition obtained from dark fermentation biohydrogen production systems, with emphasis on the possible roles of microorganisms that co-exist with common hydrogen producers.

  8. Hydrogen production from sugar beet juice using an integrated biohydrogen process of dark fermentation and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-12-01

    An integrated dark fermentation and microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) process was evaluated for hydrogen production from sugar beet juice. Different substrate to inoculum (S/X) ratios were tested for dark fermentation, and the maximum hydrogen yield was 13% of initial COD at the S/X ratio of 2 and 4 for dark fermentation. Hydrogen yield was 12% of initial COD in the MEC using fermentation liquid end products as substrate, and butyrate only accumulated in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production from the integrated biohydrogen process was 25% of initial COD (equivalent to 6 mol H2/mol hexoseadded), and the energy recovery from sugar beet juice was 57% using the combined biohydrogen.

  9. Reactivity of palladium nano-particles supported in hydrogenation: role of particles surface density; Reactivite des nanoparticules de palladium supportees en hydrogenation: role de la densite surfacique de particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkhaled, M.

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of the particle surface density on the hydrogenation of polyunsaturated compounds (buta-1,3-diene, ortho-xylene). Highly dispersed Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ({gamma} and {delta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) catalysts were prepared from Pd(nitrite) complexes (size < 7 angstrom, controlled by TEM, HAADF, EXAFS and CO chemisorption). Increasing the particle surface density from 2240 to 12880 particles/{mu}m{sup 2} leads to a modification of the electronic properties as evidenced by CO-FTIR, XPS and XANES. By contrast, the comparison of the supports at iso-density showed no significant difference of the physico-chemical properties of the supported metal particles. In parallel, the catalytic performances in hydrogenation of butadiene and butenes are very sensitive both to the nature of the support for the same density and to the surface density for the same support. It was shown that the reactions of hydrogenation could be controlled at the same time by the electronic properties of the metal nano-particles but also by the phenomenon of hydrogen diffusion around the particles on a zone of support. In this case, the support can play the part of hydrogen tank. (author)

  10. 聚酰亚胺/二氧化硅杂化薄膜性能研究%Studies on the Properties of Polyimide Composites Filled with SiO2 Nano-particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟赤锋

    2011-01-01

    The heat and mechanical properties of polyimide hybrid films filled with SiO2 nano-particles as a function of silica content had been studied. Their structures and properties are characterized by TG, DSC, DMA and TEM. The results show these fihns had the same high thermal behavior as silica content increase. The DMA resuhs show that the storage modulus increases with the increasing of content of silica particles. The morphology of the films is also analyzed by using TEM.%研究了改性纳米二氧化硅对聚酰亚胺薄膜性能的影响。采用DSC,TG和DMA对薄膜热性能进行分析。热分析的结果表明,纳米二氧化硅的含量对聚酰亚胺的玻璃化转变温度(Tg)和耐热性能基本没有影响。DMA的结果还表明,二氧化硅含量越高,薄膜的储存模量越高。TEM分析表明,在聚酰亚胺中存在较大二氧化硅聚集体。

  11. Bayesian Computational Approaches for Gene Regulation Studies of Bioethanol and Biohydrogen Production. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberg, Lee; McCue, Lee Anne; Van Roey, Patrick

    2014-04-17

    The project developed mathematical models and first-version software tools for the understanding of gene regulation across multiple related species. The project lays the foundation for understanding how certain alpha-proteobacterial species control their own genes for bioethanol and biohydrogen production, and sets the stage for exploiting bacteria for the production of fuels. Enabling such alternative sources of fuel is a high priority for the Department of Energy and the public.

  12. Dynamic modelling of high biomass density cultivation and biohydrogen production in different scales of flat plate photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongda; Dechatiwongse, Pongsathorn; Del Rio-Chanona, Ehecatl Antonio; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Hellgardt, Klaus; Vassiliadis, Vassilios S

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the scaling-up of cyanobacterial biomass cultivation and biohydrogen production from laboratory to industrial scale. Two main aspects are investigated and presented, which to the best of our knowledge have never been addressed, namely the construction of an accurate dynamic model to simulate cyanobacterial photo-heterotrophic growth and biohydrogen production and the prediction of the maximum biomass and hydrogen production in different scales of photobioreactors. To achieve the current goals, experimental data obtained from a laboratory experimental setup are fitted by a dynamic model. Based on the current model, two key original findings are made in this work. First, it is found that selecting low-chlorophyll mutants is an efficient way to increase both biomass concentration and hydrogen production particularly in a large scale photobioreactor. Second, the current work proposes that the width of industrial scale photobioreactors should not exceed 0.20 m for biomass cultivation and 0.05 m for biohydrogen production, as severe light attenuation can be induced in the reactor beyond this threshold.

  13. Biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate co-production by Enterobacter aerogenes and Rhodobacter sphaeroides from Calophyllum inophyllum oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, A; Sandhya, M; Ponnusami, V

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of coupled biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Enterobacter aerogenes and Rhodobacter sphaeroides using Calophyllum inophyllum oil cake was studied under dark and photo fermentation conditions. The utilization of a non-edible acidic oil cake (C. inophyllum), and exploitation of a modified minimal salt media led to reduction in the cost of media. Cost of fermentation is reduced by implementation of alternate dark-photo fermentative periods and through the use of a co-culture consisting of a dark fermentative (E. aerogenes) and a photo fermentative (R. sphaeroides) bacterium. The biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate produced were 7.95 L H2/L media and 10.73 g/L media, respectively, under alternate dark and photo fermentation and were 3.23 L H2/L media and 5.6g/L media, respectively under complete dark fermentation. The characteristics of the oil cake and alternate dark (16 h) and photo (8h) fermentative conditions were found to be supportive in producing high biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) yield.

  14. Fatty acid rich effluent from acidogenic biohydrogen reactor as substrate for lipid accumulation in heterotrophic microalgae with simultaneous treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Prathima Devi, M

    2012-11-01

    Acid-rich effluent generated from acidogenic biohydrogen production process was evaluated as substrate for lipid synthesis by integrating with heterotrophic cultivation of mixed microalgae. Experiments were performed both with synthetic volatile fatty acids (SVFA) and fermented fatty acids (FFA) from biohydrogen producing reactor. Fatty acid based platform evidenced significant influence on algal growth as well as lipid accumulation by the formation of triglycerides through fatty acid synthesis. Comparatively FFA documented higher biomass and lipid productivity (1.42mg/ml (wet weight); 26.4%) than SVFAs ((HAc+HBu+HPr), 0.60mg/ml; 23.1%). Lipid profiles varied with substrates and depicted 18 types of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with wide fuel and food characteristics. The observed higher concentrations of Chl b over Chl a supports the biosynthesis of triacylglycerides. Microalgae diversity visualized the presence of lipid accumulating species viz., Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp. Integration of microalgae cultivation with biohydrogen production showed lipid productivity for biodiesel production along with additional treatment.

  15. Effect of silage botanical composition on ruminal biohydrogenation and transfer of fatty acids to milk in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S A; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Thuen, E;

    2013-01-01

    Ruminal biohydrogenation and transfer of fatty acids (FA) to milk were determined for 4 silages with different botanical compositions using 4 multiparous Norwegian Red dairy cows [(mean ± SD) 118 ± 40.9 d in milk, 22.5 ± 2.72 kg of milk/d, 631 ± 3.3 kg of body weight, 3.3 ± 0.40 points on body...... for CON-TI than for the other silages. Silage type had no effect on dry matter intake, but milk yield was lower for CON-TI than for the other silages. Apparent biohydrogenation of C18:3n-3 was lower for ORG-SG (932 g/kg) than for ORG-LG (956 g/kg), CON-PR (959 g/kg), and CON-TI (958 g/kg). Compared....../kg), and milk fat proportion of C18:3n-3 was higher for ORG-SG than for CON-TI. Milk fat proportions of C16:0 were lower for ORG-SG and ORG-LG compared with those for CON-PR and CON-TI. It was concluded that high proportions of red clover and other dicotyledons in the silages affected ruminal biohydrogenation...

  16. Date noi privind compozitia mineralogica a siltului lutitic de la Dumbrava, judetul Cluj (New Mineralogical Data on the Clayey Silt from Dumbrava (Cluj County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucret̡ia Ghergari

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available New Mineralogical Data on the Clayey Silt from Dumbrava (Cluj County. New mineralogical data on the lutitic silt occurrence from the Dumbrava (Cluj County, Romania, based on TEM and X-ray diffraction studies, are presented in the paper. Mainly kaolinite, and subordinately illite and illite/montmorillonite represent the mineralogical compounds of the clayey fraction of the rock. The lutitic silt represents a local facies, sedimented in subaquatic environments (a small lake or pool after a short-distance transport from the sources. The source for the brown clays was probably a paleosoil formed nearby magmatic rocks. The source for the light coloured clays (creamy gray was the alterated zone of metamorphic rocks.

  17. Correlation of near-surface stratigraphy and physical properties of clayey sediments from Chalco Basin, Mexico, using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón-Freyre, Dora; Cerca, Mariano; Hernández-Marín, Martín.

    2003-08-01

    Detailed measurements of water content, liquid and plastic limits, electric conductivity, grain-size distribution, specific gravity, and compressibility were performed on the upper 7 m of the lacustrine sequence from the Chalco Basin, Valley of Mexico. Eight stratigraphic units consisting of alternating layers of clay, silt, sand, and gravel of volcanic origin are described for this sequence. The analysis of contrasts in the physical properties permitted to identify potential reflectors of radar waves: (i) change in the electrical conductivity at 0.4 m depth; (ii) increment in the clay and water content at 0.8 m depth; (iii) bimodal behavior of the water content at 1.3 m depth; (iv) increment in the sand content and decrease in water content at 2.6 m depth; and (v) the presence of a pyroclastic unit at 3.7 m depth. Radargrams with frequencies of 900 and 300 MHz were collected on a grid of profiles covering the study area. Correlation of radargrams with the reference section permitted the spatial interpolation of variations in the physical properties and the near-surface stratigraphy. Contrary to the expected in these clayey sediments, electric contrast enhanced by variations in water content and grain size permitted the recording of the near-surface sedimentary structures. Distinctive radar signatures were identified between reflectors. Furthermore, lateral discontinuities of the reflectors and their vertical displacements permitted the identification of deformational features within the sequence.

  18. Sorption and transport studies of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)and Triton X-100 in clayey soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivaram Harendra; Cumaraswamy Vipulanandan

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants are soil washing agents and facilitators for subsurface remediation of hydrocarbon spills.It is important to understand the sorption and transport behavior of surfactants for enhanced soil remediation.The adsorption and desorption isotherms of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 with sand and kaolinite have been quantified.Kaolinite clay had the highest sorption capacity compared to blasting sand.Transport parameters such as diffusion coefficient (D) and retardation factor (R) of the above mentioned surfactant solutions were determined in clayey soils (82.5% sand and 17.5% kaolinite mixture) with near zero and 0.1 g/L ionic strength.NaCl was used as the electrolyte solution.Convection-Diffusion equation was used to model the breakthrough curves of the surfactants.Bromide ion was chosen as the tracer material in order to characterize the column.CTAB and Triton X-100 were used to flush the perchloroethylene (PCE) contaminated soil.The effectiveness of CTAB and Triton X-100 in flushing the PCE from the contaminated soil was quantified.

  19. Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses of clayey samples used as ceramic sourcing materials, in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quille, Ruben, E-mail: quilleruben@gmail.com; Bustamante, Angel [San Marcos National University, Laboratory of Ceramics and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Physical Sciences (Peru); Palomino, Ybar [National University of San Cristobal de Huamanga, Experimental Center of Ceramics (Peru)

    2011-11-15

    The ceramic industry is an important area of economic activity in the Ayacucho Region, in particular in the District of Quinua. As a consequence, there is a huge demand for clay to produce ceramic pastes in that region. This paper reports on results concerning the mineralogical characterization of four clayey samples, which were collected MAA and SPQA from the area Pampa de La Quinua with geographic coordinates 13 Degree-Sign 02 Prime 49 Double-Prime S 74 Degree-Sign 08 Prime 03 Double-Prime W, CE1M and CE2M from the Quinua locality 13 Degree-Sign 03 Prime 07 Double-Prime S 74 Degree-Sign 08 Prime 31 Double-Prime W, both in the District of Quinua, Province of Huamanga, Ayacucho, Peru. The chemical and mineralogical characterization of these samples was carried out with powder X-ray diffraction detecting quartz, albite, montmorillonite, kaolinite and glauconite mineral phases, Moessbauer spectroscopy detected iron in kaolinite, glauconite and montmorillonite minerals. Chemical analysis was performed through scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Data obtained from the combination of these techniques provided relevant information about the morphology, chemical composition, and the mineralogy of samples.

  20. Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses of clayey samples used as ceramic sourcing materials, in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quille, Rubén; Bustamante, Ángel; Palomino, Ybar

    2011-11-01

    The ceramic industry is an important area of economic activity in the Ayacucho Region, in particular in the District of Quinua. As a consequence, there is a huge demand for clay to produce ceramic pastes in that region. This paper reports on results concerning the mineralogical characterization of four clayey samples, which were collected MAA and SPQA from the area Pampa de La Quinua with geographic coordinates 13° 02' 49″ S 74° 08' 03″ W, CE1M and CE2M from the Quinua locality 13° 03' 07″ S 74° 08' 31″ W, both in the District of Quinua, Province of Huamanga, Ayacucho, Peru. The chemical and mineralogical characterization of these samples was carried out with powder X-ray diffraction detecting quartz, albite, montmorillonite, kaolinite and glauconite mineral phases, Mössbauer spectroscopy detected iron in kaolinite, glauconite and montmorillonite minerals. Chemical analysis was performed through scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Data obtained from the combination of these techniques provided relevant information about the morphology, chemical composition, and the mineralogy of samples.