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Sample records for clay-based grouting demonstration

  1. Kaolinitic clay-based grouting demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative Kaolinitic Clay-Based Grouting Demonstration was performed under the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP), funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by the EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of the technology was to demonstrate the effectiveness of kaolinitic clay-based grouting in reducing/eliminating infiltration of surface and shallow groundwater through fractured bedrock into underground mine workings. In 1993, the Mike Horse Mine was selected as a demonstration site for the field implementation and evaluation of the grouting technology. The mine portal discharge ranged between 114 to 454 liters per minute (30 to 120 gpm) of water containing iron, zinc, manganese, and cadmium at levels exceeding the National Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels. The grout formulation was designed by the developer Morrison Knudsen Corporation/Spetstamponazhgeologia (MK/STG), in May 1994. Grout injection was performed by Hayward Baker, Inc. under the directive of MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE-TA) during fall of 1994. The grout was injected into directionally-drilled grout holes to form a grout curtain at the project site. Post grout observations suggest the grout was successful in reducing the infiltration of the surface and shallow groundwater from entering the underground mine workings. The proceeding paper describes the demonstration and technology used to form the subsurface barrier in the fracture system

  2. Erosion of clay-based grouts in simulated rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a laboratory study on the erosion of clay-based grouts in a simulated rock fracture and in a simulated rock fracture network. The apparatus specially constructed for these experiments and the testing procedure are described. The testing results have shown that a partially eroded clay-based grout may still be effective in sealing rock fractures and that the addition of cement in a clay grout can minimize erosion

  3. Clay-based grout injection in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the sealing of an underground disposal facilities for the high-level radioactive waste, a concept of the clay grouting in the sealing of the underground facilities applied to the hard rock is summarized, based on the results of clay grouting experiments Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has performed. JNC performed the clay grouting experiments in-situ of the hard rock. In the experiments, clay grout slurry was injected to the fractures on the floor of the test tunnel and to the excavated damage zone around the key cut off the excavated damage zone along the tunnel. Through the results of these experiments, the injected grout slurry to the target excavated damage zone area improved the hydraulic conductivity of the target area using the injection boreholes opened from the wall of the tunnel. Regarding the adequate design of the clay grouting in the hard rock, information of the fracture characterization (scale and distribution), distribution of the excavated damage zone (hydraulic characteristics), selection of the clay material, injection technique, target area of the injection of the grout (position and region) and so on is required. (author)

  4. Innovative grout/retrieval demonstration final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of an innovative retrieval technique for buried transuranic waste. Application of this retrieval technique was originally designed for full pit retrieval; however, it applies equally to a hot spot retrieval technology. The technique involves grouting the buried soil waste matrix with a jet grouting procedure, applying an expansive demolition grout to the matrix, and retrieving the debris. The grouted matrix provides an agglomeration of fine soil particles and contaminants resulting in an inherent contamination control during the dusty retrieval process. A full-scale field demonstration of this retrieval technique was performed on a simulated waste pit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Details are reported on all phases of this proof-of-concept demonstration including pit construction, jet grouting activities, application of the demolition grout, and actual retrieval of the grouted pit. A quantitative evaluation of aerosolized soils and rare earth tracer spread is given for all phases of the demonstration, and these results are compared to a baseline retrieval activity using conventional retrieval means. 8 refs., 47 figs., 10 tabs

  5. Maxey Flats in situ waste grouting demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maxey Flats Disposal Site located in Fleming County, Kentucky was added to the US EPA National Priority List in 1986 and is currently being evaluated for remediation and closure under the CERCLA/Superfund program. The Commonwealth of Kentucky has cosponsored a program with the US DOE Low Level Waste Management Program to demonstrate various remedial technologies which may be applied to source containment at the Maxey Flats site. This paper describes the field demonstration of in-situ waste grouting using a particulate (cement) grout. This demonstration is a follow-on to a similar demonstration using a solution grout. Both programs were designed to develop injection techniques, to assess the ability of the grout to fill the accessible voids within the waste/backfill matrix, to measure the reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of the waste/backfill matrix, and to determine the operational difficulties in implementing a site-wide grouting program. The paper concludes with lessons-learned during the project and estimated costs for full scale implementation

  6. Study on applicability of clay-based grout injection in the excavated damaged zone around the plug (TSX project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNC has joined the international joint project, the TSX project, with AECL at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada. Full-scale sealing technologies are applied to an underground tunnel in the TSX project. Regarding clay grouting, which supports the performance of the clay plug, a grouting experiment in the Excavated Damaged Zone around the tunnel was performed in the TSX project. A pre-injection test was the trial for the development of the grouting procedure, and the injection test was to evaluate the grouting effectiveness of the grouting in the EDZ around the tunnel. The results of the experiments showed the efficiency injection concentration of the grout slurry was between 4.0 and 6.0wt%. Grouted EDZ had lower hydraulic conductivity than that before grouting. (author)

  7. Colloidal silica-grouting in demonstration tunnel 2 in ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva carried out grouting using colloidal silica as the grouting material and with the time stop method as the design approach.Three fans were pre-grouted at Posiva Oy's research space ONKALO demonstration tunnel 2 in autumn 2011 and early winter 2012. Colloidal silica is a mix of one-component colloidal silica and accelerator. Before gelling, colloidal silica behaves like a Newtonian liquid. Colloidal silica's efficiency of penetrating hydraulic apertures in small fractures in rock is significantly better than that of cement-based grout. The grouting design was based on an analytical calculation model. A new technique was used in the grouting implementation, which primarily differed from the previous technique in regard to vacuum pumping and packers. The goal of the first grouting fan in the demonstration tunnel was to check the functionality of the equipment and the method; therefore, the fan was drilled into rock mass with no hydraulic conducting fractures. The second grouting fan was drilled into rock mass with an observed fairly low hydraulic conductivity that was lower than the start criterion established in Posiva Oy's requirements to manage groundwater inflows. Nevertheless, the grouting was carried out. The sealing effect was estimated from the control holes, and a slight improvement in sealing was noted. The holes of the third grouting fan clearly penetrated a water conductive rock mass. The grouting was carried out in two phases, in which the new holes in the second phase were drilled between the existing ones that were drilled in the first phase. In the third fan, the grouting holes of the first phase were noted to be significantly crooked and the second phase grouting holes were drilled in locations that differed from the original design. The quantity of grouting holes was increased in the second phase. The sealing effect was estimated by monitoring the second phase holes and control holes. Based on observations from the control holes

  8. Colloidal silica-grouting in demonstration tunnel 2 in ONKALO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmen, K.; Sievaenen, U. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Funehag, J.; Granberg, N. [Tyrens AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lyytinen, T.; Syrjaenen, P. [ELY Management Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    Posiva carried out grouting using colloidal silica as the grouting material and with the time stop method as the design approach.Three fans were pre-grouted at Posiva Oy's research space ONKALO demonstration tunnel 2 in autumn 2011 and early winter 2012. Colloidal silica is a mix of one-component colloidal silica and accelerator. Before gelling, colloidal silica behaves like a Newtonian liquid. Colloidal silica's efficiency of penetrating hydraulic apertures in small fractures in rock is significantly better than that of cement-based grout. The grouting design was based on an analytical calculation model. A new technique was used in the grouting implementation, which primarily differed from the previous technique in regard to vacuum pumping and packers. The goal of the first grouting fan in the demonstration tunnel was to check the functionality of the equipment and the method; therefore, the fan was drilled into rock mass with no hydraulic conducting fractures. The second grouting fan was drilled into rock mass with an observed fairly low hydraulic conductivity that was lower than the start criterion established in Posiva Oy's requirements to manage groundwater inflows. Nevertheless, the grouting was carried out. The sealing effect was estimated from the control holes, and a slight improvement in sealing was noted. The holes of the third grouting fan clearly penetrated a water conductive rock mass. The grouting was carried out in two phases, in which the new holes in the second phase were drilled between the existing ones that were drilled in the first phase. In the third fan, the grouting holes of the first phase were noted to be significantly crooked and the second phase grouting holes were drilled in locations that differed from the original design. The quantity of grouting holes was increased in the second phase. The sealing effect was estimated by monitoring the second phase holes and control holes. Based on observations from the control holes

  9. Supercompaction/grouting demonstration project: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this supercompaction demonstration project was to allow Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (The Company), to obtain cost analysis and performance information on volume reduction and waste encapsulation of solid, low-level contaminated waste (SLW). Ultimately, this information will be used to help define a waste disposal process for SLW that is acceptable to regulatory agencies and the US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations (DOE/ORO). The technical objectives of the demonstration project were: (1) to obtain detailed performance data on each of the compacted barrels; (2) evaluate operating performance problems that may have occurred; (3) describe in detail the compaction and encapsulation process; and (4) to obtain operating cost data for the performance of this demonstration

  10. Grout for closure of the demonstration vault at the US DOE Hanford Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold- (nonradioactive) cap or void-fill grout between the solidified low-level waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration vault for disposal of phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Facility. The project consisted of formulation and evaluation of candidate grouts and selection of the best candidate grout, followed by a physical scale-model test to verify grout performance under project-specific conditions. Further, the project provided data to verify numerical models (accomplished elsewhere) of stresses and isotherms inside the Hanford demonstration vault. Evaluation of unhardened grout included obtaining data on segregation, bleeding, flow, and working time. For hardened grout, strength, volume stability, temperature rise, and chemical compatibility with surrogate wasteform grout were examined. The grout was formulated to accommodate unique environmental boundary conditions (vault temperature = 45 C) and exacting regulatory requirements (mandating less than 0.1% shrinkage with no expansion and no bleeding); and to remain pumpable for a minimum of 2 hr. A grout consisting of API Class H oil-well cement, an ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash, sodium bentonite clay, and a natural sand from the Hanford area met performance requirements in laboratory studies. It is recommended for use in the DOE Hanford demonstration PSW vault

  11. Grouting design based on characterization of the fractured rock. Presentation and demonstration of a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design methodology presented in this document is based on an approach that considers the individual fractures. The observations and analyses made during production enable the design to adapt to the encountered conditions. The document is based on previously published material and overview flow charts are used to show the different steps. Parts of or the full methodology has been applied for a number of tunneling experiments and projects. SKB projects in the Aespoe tunnel include a pillar experiment and pre-grouting of a 70 meter long tunnel (TASQ). Further, for Hallandsas railway tunnel (Skaane south Sweden), a field pre-grouting experiment and design and post-grouting of a section of 133 meters have been made. For the Nygard railway tunnel (north of Goeteborg, Sweden), design and grouting of a section of 86 meters (pre-grouting) and 60 meters (post-grouting) have been performed. Finally, grouting work at the Tornskog tunnel (Stockholm, Sweden) included design and grouting along a 100 meter long section of one of the two tunnel tubes. Of importance to consider when doing a design and evaluating the result are: - The identification of the extent of the grouting needed based on inflow requirements and estimates of tunnel inflow before grouting. - The selection of grout and performance of grouting materials including penetration ability and length. The penetration length is important for the fan geometry design. - The ungrouted compared to the grouted and excavated rock mass conditions: estimates of tunnel inflow and (if available) measured inflows after grouting and excavation. Identify if possible explanations for deviations. For the Hallandsas, Nygard and Tornskog tunnel sections, the use of a Pareto distribution and the estimate of tunnel inflow identified a need for sealing small aperture fractures (< 50 - 100 μm) to meet the inflow requirements. The tunneling projects show that using the hydraulic aperture as a basis for selection of grout is a good

  12. Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site's 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF's exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls

  13. Grout quality and its impact on guided ultrasonic waves in grouted rock bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, D. H. Steve; Cheng, Jiulong; Yue, Renjie; Sun, Xiaoyun

    2010-10-01

    Rock bolts are widely used in mining and geotechnical engineering as ground anchorage. The supporting capacity of grouted rock bolts depends greatly on the grout quality in rocks. Measurement of the grout quality in the field is an outstanding issue. In an effort to develop a non-destructive method for estimating the grout quality of grouted rock bolts, the characteristics of guided ultrasonic waves are investigated in this paper. Particular attention is paid to the effects of grout quality on group wave velocity and attenuation. Issues associated to grout quality and bolt failure are also discussed. To simulate the in-situ condition, several specimens were prepared using 20 mm diameter rebar. Each specimen was grouted in a 200 mm diameter concrete cylinder, which was designed with different compressive strength. A large number of tests were conducted on these specimens using ultrasonic waves with frequencies from 10 to 100 kHz. The effects of air content and compressive strength of the grout on attenuation and group velocity of ultrasonic waves in the grouted rock bolts were studied. The results showed large influence from the grout strength and air content and demonstrated the potential for using ultrasonic waves to test grout quality.

  14. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This task is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34,000 liters of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. The grout was also completely contained within the two trenches as no grout constituents were observed in the 12 perimeter ground water monitoring wells. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over polyacrylate grout because of its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty of controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization process in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 115 years in the test soil. However, this calculated value is likely to be conservatively low because microbial degradation of the grout set accelerator or residual monomer may be contributing most to the measured microbial respiration. Addition work, using 14C-labeled acrylate and acrylamide grouts, is being carried out to more accurately estimate the grouts' microbiological half-life

  15. Strength of Experimental Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  16. Practical designs for clay based engineered barrier systems for heat emitting radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the present designs of repositories for radioactive wastes derive from generic feasibility studies which emphasize post-closure safety. These include little (or no) treatment of the practicality of safe and quality-assured construction of engineered barriers under the conditions (humidity, dust, etc.) and requirements (emplacement rate, remote handling, etc.) of an operational underground facility. Indeed, as soon as attempts are made to demonstrate such concepts in-situ at full scale, considerable practical problems are encountered and, in many cases, additional engineering components are introduced (liners, borehole caps, grouts, rock-bolts, drainage systems, etc.) which could be detrimental to - or at leas t complicate - the long-term safety case. As the discrepancy between the idealized concepts illustrated in performance assessment and the actual systems which are shown to be feasible grows, there is a critical need for design rationalization. Such a process needs to include careful balancing of factors influencing safety during the operational phase - which should not be compromised - with those which contribute to potential hazards which occur only in the distant future. Apart from such almost philosophical considerations, the robustness of the EBS construction procedure to possible operational perturbations needs serious consideration. Even if closed and sealed repositories are very insensitive to disruptive events such as earthquakes, hurricanes, industrial actions and terrorist actions, the operational system may be more vulnerable to perturbation. Designs should be introduced which, to the greatest extent possible, not only fail safe, but are also easy to remedy (or reverse) in case the assurance of EBS quality is lost. This paper will expand on ideas for a second generation of clay-based EBS designs, which are both practical and safe. Associated requirements for R and D and performance assessment model development will also be outlined, with a

  17. Grouting Rock Fractures with Cement Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tani, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    The radial flow rate of a cement grout in a rock fracture is obtained from Bingham's relation and the fact that the power expended by the injection mechanism is the energy dissipated by viscous effects. The energy balance reveals that the advance ratio is of fundamental importance in the grouting process and is inherently related to the rest and advance phases of a cement grout. This allows giving a precise definition of the zero flow path that divides the energy diagram into two distinct domains for advancing and non-advancing grout. The advance ratio and the zero flow path are used to explore the grouting of one or more fractures, analyze the GIN model in the context of the SL dispute, draw a terminal sequence considering the energy interval alternative, and reformulate the refusal criterion of the North American grouting method. Secondary grouting effects are also investigated.

  18. Polyurethane grouting technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bodi, Jan; Bodi, Zoltan; Scucka, Jiri; Martinec, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Grouting with polyurethane [PU] resins represents an effective method of improvement of mechanical and sealing properties of soil and rock environment and constructions. The principle of grouting technologies is injection of liquid grouting material into the rock environment or construction under pressure. During the grouting process, fissures and pores are filled with the grouting material, which subsequently hardens and connects the disintegrated parts of the rock mass or grains of loo...

  19. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  20. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr90, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  1. In-situ grouting of shallow landfill radioactive waste trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses how a backfilled trench containing low-level radioactive waste was grouted with a particulate grout. The accessible void volume of the waste zone was estimated to be 20% or 28 m3, but 30.6 m3 of grout was infected into the trench. Part of the grout forced a path outside the trench. The water permeation into the trench from monitoring wells was reduced by two orders of magnitude. The grout costs only $0.055/L; but most of the cost was in manpower, 1220 man-hours for this demonstration

  2. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs

  3. Data report on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Small-Scale Seal Performance Test, Series F grouting experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dale, T.F.; Van Pelt, R.S. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-03-01

    SSSPT-F was designed to evaluate sealing materials at WIPP. It demonstrated: (1) the ability to practically and consistently produce ultrafine cementitious grout at the grouting site, (2) successful, consistent, and efficient injection and permeation of the grout into fractured rock at the repository horizon, (3) ability of the grout to penetrate and seal microfractures, (4) procedures and equipment used to inject the grout. Also techniques to assess the effectiveness of the grout in reducing the gas transmissivity of the fractured rock were evaluated. These included gas-flow/tracer testing, post-grout coring, pre- and post-grout downhole televiewer logging, slab displacement measurements, and increased loading on jacks during grout injection. Pre- and post-grout diamond drill core was obtained for use in ongoing evaluations of grouting effectiveness, degradation, and compatibility. Diamond drill equipment invented for this test successfully prevented drill cuttings from plugging fractures in grout injection holes.

  4. Data report on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Small-Scale Seal Performance Test, Series F grouting experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SSSPT-F was designed to evaluate sealing materials at WIPP. It demonstrated: (1) the ability to practically and consistently produce ultrafine cementitious grout at the grouting site, (2) successful, consistent, and efficient injection and permeation of the grout into fractured rock at the repository horizon, (3) ability of the grout to penetrate and seal microfractures, (4) procedures and equipment used to inject the grout. Also techniques to assess the effectiveness of the grout in reducing the gas transmissivity of the fractured rock were evaluated. These included gas-flow/tracer testing, post-grout coring, pre- and post-grout downhole televiewer logging, slab displacement measurements, and increased loading on jacks during grout injection. Pre- and post-grout diamond drill core was obtained for use in ongoing evaluations of grouting effectiveness, degradation, and compatibility. Diamond drill equipment invented for this test successfully prevented drill cuttings from plugging fractures in grout injection holes

  5. Screening of waste for use in clay-based bricks in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    2014-01-01

    hazardous waste, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes and minetailings from Greenland, were investigated in order to determine their potential suitability for incorporationin the production of clay-based bricks. Furthermore, the MSWI fly ash was subjected to two remediation techniques......Clay-based ceramics, such as bricks, are heterogeneous materials, which can incorporate raw materials ofwide ranging compositions, without impairing their technical properties (Dondi et al., 1997a,b). Due to thisability, bricks have become a popular material in waste management research worldwide...... and several studies have demonstrated that clay-based bricks and tiles can successfully accommodate waste types,such as incineration ashes, mine tailings and dredged harbour sediments (Zhang et al., 2011; Roy et al.,2007; Mezencevova et al., 2012). In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact of...

  6. Microfine grouting in tight fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfine cements were used to grout tight fractures in basalt at McNary Dam in Umatilla, Oregon. Six boreholes were grouted with different microfine mixes. Hydraulic conductivity testing before and after the grouting provided a quantitative estimate of average fracture apertures and the effect of grouting on rock mass permeability. A downhole video camera survey was conducted in each hole to determine which fractures and joint sets allowed grout penetration. Pressure and the flow rate for grout were monitored during the testing. Total grout takes were calculated for each borehole stage grouted. Grouting pressures varied from less than a quarter to more than five times the estimated overburden pressure. The results of this testing indicate that tight fractures can be grouted with microfine cements. In addition, for tight fracture the relationship of injection pressures to grout take is significantly more non-linear than conventional grouting experience has suggested

  7. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  8. Feasibility of permeation grouting for constructing subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts are being made to devise technologies that provide interim containment of waste sites while final remediation alternatives are developed. Permeation grouting, a technique used extensively in the civil and mining engineering industry has been investigated as a method for emplacing a subsurface containment barrier beneath existing waste sites. Conceptually an underlying barrier is placed by injecting grout into the formation at less than fracturing pressure from a series of directionally drilled boreholes beneath the waste site. This study evaluated the penetration and performance characteristics in varying soil conditions of four different grout materials (two microfine cements, mineral wax, and sodium silicate) at a field scale. Field testing consisted of grout injection via sleeve (tube-a'-manchette) pipe into both vertical and horizontal borehole configurations at the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration site at Sandia National Laboratories. Prior to, during, and after grout injection non-intrusive geophysical techniques were used to map grout flow. Following the tests, the site was excavated to reveal details of the grout permeation, and grouted soil samples were cored for laboratory characterization. The non-intrusive and intrusive grout mapping showed preferential flow patterns, i.e., the grout tended to follow the path of least resistance. Preliminary testing indicates that permeation grouting is a feasible method for emplacing a low permeability subsurface barrier in the semi-arid unconsolidated alluvial soils common to the Southwest. Despite the success of this project, difficulties in predicting grout flow in heterogeneous soils and non-intrusive methods for imaging grout location and continuity are issues that need more attention

  9. Grouting Applications in Cindere Dam

    OpenAIRE

    Alkaya, Devrim; Burak YEŞİL

    2011-01-01

    Grouting is one of the most popular method to control the water leakage in fill dam constructions. With this regard this method is widely used in all the world. Geological and geotechnical properties of rock are important parameters affect the design of grouting. In this study, geotechnical properties of Cindere Dam's base rock and the grouting prosedure have been investigated with grouting pressure.

  10. Strength of High Performance Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations.......The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  11. Grout Treatment Facility waste feed acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes criteria for the acceptance of grout waste feed to provide assurance that the final grout form produced by the Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) will meet the regulatory, design, product, and process requirements. Contained in the report is an evaluation of the regulatory requirements associated with the grout disposal option along with a description of the waste currently stored on the site. An evaluation of the heat generation requirements for the waste feed stream is presented. This evaluation includes the heat resulting from the grout curing process as well as heat associated with the radiolytic decay of the radioisotopes present. Limits for individual elements as well as limits for classes of materials such as organics, sulfates, etc. are presented in Table 1-1. These values are based on regulatory, heat generation, and compositional limits to assure the integrity of the final grout products. Some compositional limits such as heavy metals will require Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing to demonstrate regulatory compliance

  12. Tail gap grouting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolymbas, D.; Maehr, M.; Herle, Ivo

    Torino: Associazione Georisorse e Ambiente , 2002, s. -. [International Conference ACUUS 2002. Torino (IT), 14.11.2002-16.11.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : tunnel construction, tail gap, grouting Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  13. Polyurethane grouting technologies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bódi, J.; Bódi, Z.; Ščučka, Jiří; Martinec, Petr

    Rijeka: InTech Open Access Publisher, 2012 - (Zafar, F.; Sharmin, E.), s. 307-336 ISBN 978-953-51-0726-2 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : grouting technologies * polyurethane * geocomposite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.intechopen.com/books/polyurethane/polyurethane-grouting-technologies

  14. Steering Parameters for Rock Grouting

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnar Gustafson; Johan Claesson; Åsa Fransson

    2013-01-01

    In Swedish tunnel grouting practice normally a fan of boreholes is drilled ahead of the tunnel front where cement grout is injected in order to create a low permeability zone around the tunnel. Demands on tunnel tightness have increased substantially in Sweden, and this has led to a drastic increase of grouting costs. Based on the flow equations for a Bingham fluid, the penetration of grout as a function of grouting time is calculated. This shows that the time scale of grouting in a borehole ...

  15. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A restoration technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability and decreased potential for leachate migration following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. After grouting, soil-penetration tests disclosed that stability had been improved greatly. For example, refusal (defined as > 100 blows to penetrate 1 ft) was encountered in 17 of the 22 tests conducted within the trench area. Mean refusal depths for the two trenches were 3.5 and 2.6 m. Stability of the trench was significantly better than pregrout conditions, and at depths > 2.4 m, the stability was very near that observed in the native soil formation outside the trench. Tests within the trench showed lower stability within this range probably because of the presence of intermediate-sized soil voids (formed during backfilling) that were too small to be penetrated and filled by the conventional cement grout formulation. Hydraulic conductivity within the trench remained very high (>0.1 cm/s) and significantly greater than outside the trench. Postgrout air pressurization tests also revealed a large degree of intervoid linkage within and between the two trenches. To effectively reduce hydraulic conductivity and to develop stability within the upper level of the trench, injection of a clay/microfine cement grout into the upper level of the grouted trench is planned

  16. Steering Parameters for Rock Grouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Swedish tunnel grouting practice normally a fan of boreholes is drilled ahead of the tunnel front where cement grout is injected in order to create a low permeability zone around the tunnel. Demands on tunnel tightness have increased substantially in Sweden, and this has led to a drastic increase of grouting costs. Based on the flow equations for a Bingham fluid, the penetration of grout as a function of grouting time is calculated. This shows that the time scale of grouting in a borehole is only determined by grouting overpressure and the rheological properties of the grout, thus parameters that the grouter can choose. Pressure, grout properties, and the fracture aperture determine the maximum penetration of the grout. The smallest fracture aperture that requires to be sealed thus also governs the effective borehole distance. Based on the identified parameters that define the grouting time-scale and grout penetration, an effective design of grouting operations can be set up. The solution for time as a function of penetration depth is obtained in a closed form for parallel and pipe flow. The new, more intricate, solution for the radial case is presented.

  17. Grout Facilities standby plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan defines how the Grout Facilities will be deactivated to meet the intent of the recently renegotiated Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). The TPA calls for the use of the grout process as an emergency option only in the event that tank space is not available to resolve tank safety issues. The availability of new tanks is expected by 1997. Since a grout startup effort would take an estimated two years, a complete termination of the Grout Disposal Program is expected in December 1995. The former Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) Strategy, adopted in 1988, called for the contents of Hanford's 28 newer double-shell waste tanks to be separated into high-level radioactive material to be vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository; low-level wastes were to be sent to the Grout Facility to be made into a cement-like-mixture and poured into underground vaults at Hanford for disposal. The waste in the 149 older single-shell tanks (SST) were to undergo further study and analysis before a disposal decision was made

  18. Grout Facilities standby plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D.; Kison, P.F.; Nunamaker, D.R.; Yoakum, A.K.

    1994-09-29

    This plan defines how the Grout Facilities will be deactivated to meet the intent of the recently renegotiated Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). The TPA calls for the use of the grout process as an emergency option only in the event that tank space is not available to resolve tank safety issues. The availability of new tanks is expected by 1997. Since a grout startup effort would take an estimated two years, a complete termination of the Grout Disposal Program is expected in December 1995. The former Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) Strategy, adopted in 1988, called for the contents of Hanford`s 28 newer double-shell waste tanks to be separated into high-level radioactive material to be vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository; low-level wastes were to be sent to the Grout Facility to be made into a cement-like-mixture and poured into underground vaults at Hanford for disposal. The waste in the 149 older single-shell tanks (SST) were to undergo further study and analysis before a disposal decision was made.

  19. Microbial analyses of cement and grouting additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, L.; Jaegevall, S.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, S. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    During sampling in the ONKALO tunnel in 2006, heavy growth of a slimy material was observed in connection with grouting. It was suggested to be microbial growth on organic additives leaching from the grout. Two sampling campaigns resulted in the isolation of several aerobic bacterial strains. Some of these strains were used in biodegradation studies of three solid cement powders, eight liquid grout additives, and six plastic drainage materials. Degradation was also studied using ONKALO groundwaters as inoculums. The isolated strains were most closely related to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. The biodegradation of seven of the products was tested using microorganisms isolated from the ONKALO slime in 2006; none of these strains could degrade the tested products. When ONKALO drillhole groundwaters were used as inoculums in the degradation studies, it was demonstrated that Structuro 111X, Mighty 150, and Super-Parmix supported growth of the groundwater microorganisms. Structuro 111X is a polycarboxylate condensate while Mighty 150 and Super-Parmix are condensates with formaldehyde and naphthalene. Some of the isolated microorganisms belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, many strains of which can degrade organic molecules. None of the plastic drainage materials supported growth during the degradation studies. Microorganisms were present in two of the liquid products when delivered, GroutAid and Super-Parmix. The potential of the organic compounds in grout additives to be degraded by microorganisms, increasing the risk of biofilm formation and complexing compound production, must be considered. Microbial growth will also increase the possibility of hydrogen sulphide formation. (orig.)

  20. Grouting Applications in Cindere Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim ALKAYA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouting is one of the most popular method to control the water leakage in fill dam constructions. With this regard this method is widely used in all the world. Geological and geotechnical properties of rock are important parameters affect the design of grouting. In this study, geotechnical properties of Cindere Dam's base rock and the grouting prosedure have been investigated with grouting pressure.

  1. Grouting methodology in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For this paper, an initial literature review was conducted to investigate the potential applications of grouting technology for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (hereafter called geological disposal), and the potential grouting material for each application. The results show the necessity of using suspension grout, such as cement-based grout, during excavation work, especially deep underground. Next, the method to achieve highly effective seals in crystalline rock with cement grout is studied. To enhance the sealing quality, cement grout should penetrate into very fine fractures, e.g. less than 100 μm aperture. In the case of suspension grout, clogging with grout at the openings of rock fractures, especially fine fractures, tends to occur, which results in poor grout penetration. A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the clogging phenomenon; the results suggest that high injection pressures could be effective to prevent clogging. Finally, focusing on pre-excavation grouting for horizontal tunnels in crystalline rock, the effective grout hole patterns for achieving high quality sealing was studied. A series of theoretical calculations for water inflow and cost studies were conducted. The results indicate that a dense arrangement of grout holes in a relatively narrow area around a tunnel section, as practised in the Nordic countries, is favorable in hard crystalline rock. (author)

  2. Evaluation of two new grouts for constructing subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of laboratory and field tests to evaluate two new grout materials for creating low-permeability barriers in unconsolidated soils. The grout materials of interest are a particulate grout developed in Germany, consisting of a naturally occurring wax (montan wax), water, and bentonite, and a glyoxal-modified sodium silicate chemical grout developed in France. The test program assesses the suitability of the grout for creating subsurface containment barriers in contaminated soils over a range of soil and contaminant conditions. Laboratory activities are described that evaluated permeability reductions achieved by grout placement within a range of soil types and assessed the compatibility of the grouts with a variety of waste forms. A series of single-borehole injection tests are described that were conducted at the Mixed Waste Landfill Integration Demonstration site at Sandia National Laboratories to evaluate the grout performance and permeation distances under field-scale conditions. Injection and monitoring methods are described, and the results of the single-borehole tests are reviewed

  3. Performance Impact of Fast Flow Paths Through Grout Monoliths Used for Radioactive Waste Disposal - 13224

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empty HLW handling and storage tanks at SRS and INL contain residual radioactivity; these tanks are being stabilized with cementitious grout during closure operations. The US NRC directed the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRAR) to develop physical analogs of cementitious grout monoliths to investigate their potential to form fast flow pathways such as macro-cracks, separations between grout lifts, and annuli around pipes, supports, and along tank walls. CNWRA developed and tested 15 55-gal-drum-scale specimens and 2 larger specimens of tank-filling cementitious grout, and 9 specimens of pipe-filling grout. These experiments demonstrated that the size of fast flow pathways that develop and the peak temperatures attained during hydration are proportional to the scale of the specimen, and that annular apertures and bulk grout permeability generally increased with time post-placement. Cracks developed overnight following placement of each grout lift in the largest specimen, but developed more slowly in smaller specimens, perhaps due to a ∼20 deg. C difference in peak temperatures, which influence the thermal gradients that can induce cracking. Plastic and drying shrinkage commonly led to poor grout-to-metal and grout-to-grout bonding. Cracks, annular gaps, and grout flow lobe seams transmitted fluids during injection testing. Macro-scale flow pathways such as these are not readily observed in bench-scale specimens of cementitious tank grout. (authors)

  4. Calorimetric examination of hydrofracture grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrofracture grout sample obtained during the SI-10 injection campaign was studied by calorimetry. The calorimetry curve of this grout was compared with laboratory-produced grout containing simulated wastes. Initiation of the cement-water reaction for the actual grout was delayed several days by the presence of a large quantity of boron in the waste. Although the hydration of cement was delayed, eventually the cement reacted with water and the grout hardened. This test indicates the potential need to analyze sludges for compounds known to retard cement hydration. 10 references, 5 figures, 4 tables

  5. Grout gas generation test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed are detailed procedures for measuring the rate of gas generation by grout made from synthetic tanks wastes or actual tank material. Objective is to measure the rate of gas generation for various gases (H2, N2O, etc.) produced when grout, prepared using tank waste, is heated at 65 C. Experiments will also be conducted using grout from synthetic tank waste, as practice. Purpose is to provide data for evaluation of safety risks presented by gas generation in the grout vault after making grout with tank waste, as verification/confirmation for gas generation rates for the ANL testing

  6. Calorimetric examination of hydrofracture grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrofracture grout sample obtained during the SI-10 injection campaign was studied by calorimetry. The calorimetry curve of this grout was compared with laboratory-produced grout containing simulated wastes. Initiation of the cement-water reaction for the actual grout was delayed several days by the presence of a large quantity of boron in the waste. Although the hydration of cement was delayed, eventually the cement reacted with water and the grout hardened. This test indicates the potential need to analyze sludges for compounds known to retard cement hydration

  7. The use of alkali-activated fly ash grouts for the remediation of AMD from underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In preparation for a field demonstration, laboratory studies were conducted using several fly ash grout formulations to determine the optimum grout for an underground mine environment. This paper discusses the portion of the overall project designed to examine grout-acid mine drainage (AMD) interactions including neutralization, leaching and armoring of the grouts. Leaching tests were performed to study the effects of fly ash grout on AMD, including the effects of armoring. The goal of this project is to study the feasibility of in-situ acid mine drainage treatment by injecting alkali-activated fly ash grout into an underground mine

  8. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan (3). In-situ grout injection tests in Grimsel Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the application procedure of grout injection modeling to the plan, design and execution of an in-situ grout injection demonstration test carried out at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland. Both the grout injection model and demonstration test were co-developed using fracture geometry and hydraulic characteristics data obtained from drilling six observation boreholes over the course of three years. Based on the results of the demonstration test, the implications for the design and construction of grouting in the context of building a geologic repository are considered. (author)

  9. Microanalysis of clay-based pigments by XRD techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hradil, David; Bezdička, Petr; Hradilová, J.

    Catania : Technart, 2015. "O-48". [Technart 2015 : non-destructive and microanalytical techniques in art and cultural heritage. 27.04.2015-30.04.2015, Catania] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-22984S Keywords : micro-XRD * clay-based pigments * paintings Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry http://technart2015.lns.infn.it/images/BoA.pdf

  10. Grout performance in support of in situ grouting of the TH4 tank sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.; Kauschinger, J.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1999-04-01

    The cold demonstration test proved that less water was required to pump the in situ grout formulation than had been previously tested in the laboratory. The previous in situ grout formulation was restandardized with the same relative amounts of dry blend ingredients, albeit adding a fluidized admixture, but specifying less water for the slurry mix that must by pumped through the nozzles at high pressure. Also, the target GAAT tank for demonstrating this is situ grouting technique has been shifted to Tank TH4. A chemical surrogate sludge for TH4 was developed and tested in the laboratory, meeting expectations for leach resistance and strenght at 35 wt % sludge loading. It addition, a sample of hot TH4 sludge was also tested at 35 wt % sludge loading and proved to have superior strength and leach resistance compared with the surrogate test.

  11. Grout treatment facility operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the operation of the Grout Treatment Facility from initial testing to the final disposal to date of 3.8 x 103 m3 (1 Mgal) of low-level radioactive waste. It describes actual component testing and verification, testing of the full-scale system with simulated waste feed, summary of the radioactive disposal operation, lessons learned and equipment performance summary, facility impacts from safety analyses, long-term performance assessments, the Part B application, and projected facility modifications. The Grout Treatment Facility is one of two operations for permanently disposing of liquid defense wastes at the Hanford site near Richland, Washington, for the U.S. Department of Energy. High- and low-level radioactive wastes have been accumulating from defense material production since the mid-1940s at the Hanford site. All radioactive low-level and low-level mixed liquid wastes will be disposed of at the future Hanford Vitrification Facility

  12. Cure shrinkage in epoxy grouts for grouted repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddoha, Md.; Islam, Md. Mainul; Aravinthan, Thiru; Manalo, Allan; Lau, Kin-tak

    2013-08-01

    Structures can go through harsh environmental adversity and can experience material loss and cracks during their service lives. Infill material is used to ensure a supporting bed for a grouted repair. Epoxy grouts are used for repairing and rehabilitating structures, such as foundations, bridges, piers, transportation pipelines, etc., because they are resistant to typical chemicals and possess superior mechanical properties than other grouts. The resin based infill used inside the void or cracked space of the repair is vulnerable to shrinkage. When these filled grouts have high resin content, cracks can develop from residual stresses, which can affect the load transfer performance. It follows that interlayer separation and cracking of infill layer can occur in a grouted repair. In this study, volumetric shrinkage of two epoxy grouts was measured over 28 days using a Pycnometer. The highest volumetric shrinkage measured after 7 days was found to be 2.72%. The results suggest that the volumetric shrinkage can be reduced to 1.1% after 7 days, through the introduction of a coarse aggregate filler; a 2.5 times reduction in shrinkage. About 98% and 92% of the total shrinkage over the 28 day period, of the unfilled and filled grouts respectively, was found to occur within 7 days of mixing. The gel-time shrinkages were also calculated, to determine the "postgel" part of the curing contraction which subsequently produces residual stresses in the hardened grout systems.

  13. Leachability studies of hydrofracture grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching studies were performed on simulated hydrofracture grouts containing As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, 90Sr, and 137Cs. The grout samples were leached in three solutions: distilled water, shallow groundwater, and a deep brine. The resulting leach data are compared with the NRC and EPA regulatory requirements for the disposal of solid wastes

  14. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests

  15. Group 2. Grouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the findings of the Grouting Working Group which met during the Workshop on Radioactive, Hazardous, and/or Mixed Waste Sludge Management. The scope of this working group was to identify issues related to laboratory-scale experimentation in support of operation and design of an actual plant. The group recognizes that several stabilization/solidification (S/S) host media are available and, whichever is chosen, must be proven appropriate for the specific disposal scenario. However, the group focused on developing a systematic approach for the selection of cement-based grouting as an option, because of the prevalence of its application. It should be recognized that many of the issues will be generic to any stabilization process. Prior to the workshop, this group's members identified over 30 issues for discussion. At a previous informal session, the group distilled these to four issues that are believed to be at the heart of the 30 considered. The four issues were: (1) that both standard and site process-specific performance criteria must be identified, (2) that the waste-binder chemical interactions and the subsequent effect of these interactions on the chemical and physical properties of the resulting waste form must be better understood, (3) that scale-up factors must be considered in order to improve the probability of successfully developing waste-form products, and (4) that if S/S technology is to remain a widely used treatment option, product quality and performance must be confirmed over time

  16. Clay-based polymer nanocomposites: research and commercial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q H; Yu, A B; Lu, G Q; Paul, D R

    2005-10-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and development of clay-based polymer nanocomposites. Clay minerals, due to their unique layered structure, rich intercalation chemistry and availability at low cost, are promising nanoparticle reinforcements for polymers to manufacture low-cost, lightweight and high performance nanocomposites. We introduce briefly the structure, properties and surface modification of clay minerals, followed by the processing and characterization techniques of polymer nanocomposites. The enhanced and novel properties of such nanocomposites are then discussed, including mechanical, thermal, barrier, electrical conductivity, biodegradability among others. In addition, their available commercial and potential applications in automotive, packaging, coating and pigment, electrical materials, and in particular biomedical fields are highlighted. Finally, the challenges for the future are discussed in terms of processing, characterization and the mechanisms governing the behaviour of these advanced materials. PMID:16245517

  17. The application of strength grouts to the rehabilitation of existing concrete gravity dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new way of improving the stability of concrete dams on rock foundations was investigated involving the development of cohesion in the unbonded contacts of the dam foundation interface by specifically designed strength grouts, using Type 10 Portland cement and MC 900 cement. It was shown that cement based grouts, having low bleed at small viscosities, develop tensile strengths within concrete-rock contacts that exceed 0.4 MPa. This paper presents a methodology to assess the suitability of increasing the stability of a concrete gravity dam through the injection of these specifically-designed strength grouts into the dam-foundation interface. It was shown that strength grouting can be carried out using current grouting practices that are familiar to contractors and engineers. Similarly, it was demonstrated that adequate increases in the safety factor can be obtained even if field grouting achieves only a relatively low penetration ratio in the unbonded interface. 6 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  18. Cold gap grout formulation for waste containment at DOE site, Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that WES developed a grout to be used as a cold (non-radioactive) cap or void-fill material between the solidified low-level waste and the cover blocks of near-surface disposal vaults at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Facility. The project consisted of formulation and evaluation of candidate grout, followed by a physical scale-model test to verify grout performance under project-specific conditions and provide data to verify numerical models of stresses and isotherms inside the Hanford demonstration vault. Evaluation of unhardened grout included segregation, bleed, flow, and working time. For hardened grout, strength, volume stability, thermal heat rise, and geochemical compatibility with surrogate wasteform grout were examined

  19. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS FORMULATION FOR A COOLING COIL GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Erich Hansen, E

    2008-05-23

    The Tank Closure and Technology Development Groups are developing a strategy for closing the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two Type IV tanks, 17 and 20 in the F-Area Tank Farm, have been successfully filled with grout. Type IV tanks at SRS do not contain cooling coils; on the other hand, the majority of the tanks (Type I, II, III and IIIA) do contain cooling coils. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with cooling coils is to pump grout into the cooling coils to prevent pathways for infiltrating water after tank closure. This task addresses the use of grout to fill intact cooling coils present in most of the remaining HLW tanks on Site. The overall task was divided into two phases. Phase 1 focused on the development of a grout formulation (mix design) suitable for filling the HLW tank cooling coils. Phase 2 will be a large-scale demonstration of the filling of simulated cooling coils under field conditions using the cooling coil grout mix design recommended from Phase 1. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1, the development of the cooling coil grout formulation. A grout formulation is recommended for the full scale testing at Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory (CETL) that is composed by mass of 90% Masterflow (MF) 816 (a commercially available cable grout) and 10% blast furnace slag, with a water to cementitious material (MF 816 + slag) ratio of 0.33. This formulation produces a grout that meets the fresh and cured grout requirements detailed in the Task Technical Plan (2). The grout showed excellent workability under continuous mixing with minimal change in rheology. An alternative formulation using 90% MF 1341 and 10% blast furnace slag with a water to cementitious material ratio of 0.29 is also acceptable and generates less heat per gram than the MF 816 plus slag mix. However this MF 1341 mix has a higher plastic viscosity than the MF 816 mix due to the presence of sand in the MF 1341 cable grout and a

  20. Penetration grouting reinforcement of sandy gravel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping; PENG Zhen-bin; TANG Yi-qun; PENG Wen-xiang; HE Zhong-ming

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between grouting effect and grouting factors, three factors (seven parameters) directionless pressure and small cycle grouting model experiment on sandy gravel was done, which was designed according to uniform design method. And regressing was applied to analysis of the test data. The two models test results indicate that when the diffusing radius of grout changes from 26 to 51 era, the grouted sandy gravel compressing strength changes fTom 2.13 to 12.30 MPa; the relationship between diffusing radius(R) and water cement ratio(m), permeability coefficient(k), grouting pressure(p), grouting time(t) is R=19.953m0.121k0.429p0.412t0.437, the relationship between compressing strength(P) and porosity(n), water cement ratio, grouting pressure, grouting time is P=0.984n0.517m-1.488p0.118t0.031.So the porosity of sandy gravel, the permeability coefficient of sandy gravel, grouting pressure, grouting time, water cement ratio are main factors to influence the grouting effect. The grouting pressure is the main factor to influence grouting diffusing radius, and the water cement ratio is the main factor to influence grouted sandy gravel compressing strength.

  1. Effects of curing time and frequency on ultrasonic wave velocity in grouted rock bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenga, V.; Zou, D. H.; Zhang, C.

    2006-05-01

    Grouted rock bolts are widely used to reinforce excavated ground in mining and civil engineering structures. To date, opportunities for testing the quality of the grout in grouted rock bolts have been limited to the pull-out tests and the over-coring methods. Both these methods are destructive, time-consuming and costly. These deficiencies have fueled research into the use of ultrasonic methods for testing the quality of the grout in rock bolts. However, only partial success has been achieved in these efforts chiefly due to inadequate knowledge of the ultrasonic wave characteristics such as wave velocity in grouted rock bolts. This paper presents results of an experimental study into the effects of curing time and testing frequency on the velocity of ultrasonic waves propagating along rock bolts grouted in concrete. A substantial wave velocity decrease, as much as 47.7% at certain frequencies, was recorded in rock bolts grouted in fully cured concrete in comparison to non-grouted bolts. The results demonstrate the importance of optimizing the selection of test frequencies as well as suggesting the possibility of a new approach based on wave velocity decrease for testing the grout quality of rock bolts.

  2. Estimation of deformation and stiffness of fractures close to tunnels using data from single-hole hydraulic testing and grouting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, A.; Tsang, C.-F.; Rutqvist, J.; Gustafson, G.

    2010-05-01

    Sealing of tunnels in fractured rocks is commonly performed by pre- or post-excavation grouting. The grouting boreholes are frequently drilled close to the tunnel wall, an area where rock stresses can be low and fractures can more easily open up during grout pressurization. In this paper we suggest that data from hydraulic testing and grouting can be used to identify grout-induced fracture opening, to estimate fracture stiffness of such fractures, and to evaluate its impact on the grout performance. A conceptual model and a method are presented for estimating fracture stiffness. The method is demonstrated using grouting data from four pre-excavation grouting boreholes at a shallow tunnel (50 m) in Nygard, Sweden, and two post-excavation grouting boreholes at a deep tunnel (450 m) in Aespoe HRL, Sweden. The estimated stiffness of intersecting fractures for the boreholes at the shallow Nygard tunnel are low (2-5 GPa/m) and in agreement with literature data from field experiments at other fractured rock sites. Higher stiffness was obtained for the deeper tunnel boreholes at Aespoe which is reasonable considering that generally higher rock stresses are expected at greater depths. Our method of identifying and evaluating the properties and impact of deforming fractures might be most applicable when grouting takes place in boreholes adjacent to the tunnel wall, where local stresses might be low and where deforming (opening) fractures may take most of the grout.

  3. Influence of clay mineralogy on clay based ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay-based ceramic products can either be produced directly from a suitable clay source without the need further addition or such products can be produced from a ceramic body formulated by additions of other raw materials such as feldspar and silica sand. In either case, the mineralogical make-up of the clay component plays a dominating role in the fabrication and properties of the ceramic product. This study was sparked off by a peculiar result observed in one of five local ball clay samples that were used to reformulate a ceramic body. Initial characterisation tests conducted on the clays indicated that these clays can be classified as kaolinitic. However, one of these clays produced a ceramic body that is distinctively different in terms of whiteness, smoothness and density as compared to the other four clays. Careful re-examination of other characterisation data, such as particle size distribution and chemical analysis, failed to offer any plausible explanation. Consequently, the mineralogical analysis by x-ray diffraction was repeated by paying meticulous attention to specimen preparation. Diffraction data for the clay with anomalous behaviour indicated the presence of a ∼ 10A peak that diminished when the same specimen was re-tested after heating in an oven at 12O degree C whilst the other four clays only exhibit the characteristic kaolinite (Al sub 2 O sub 3. 2SiO sub 2. 2H sub 2 0) and muscovite peaks at ∼ 7A and ∼ 10A before and after heat treatment. This suggests the presence of the mineral halloysite (A1 sub 2 0 sub 3. 2SiO sub 2.4H sub 2 0) in that particular clay. This difference in mineralogy can be attributed to account for the variations in physical properties of the final product. Consequently, this paper reviews in general the precautionary measures that must be adhered to during any mineralogical investigation of clay minerals or clay-based materials. The common pitfalls during specimen preparation, machine settings and interpretation of

  4. THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS FOR GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS. PROGRESS REPORT BY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLAN,M.L.; PHILIPPACOPOULOS,A.J.

    1998-11-01

    Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98.

  5. Grout pump selection process for the Transportable Grout Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected low-level radioactive liquid wastes at Hanford will be disposed by grouting. Grout is formed by mixing the liquid wastes with solid materials, including Portland cement, fly ash, and clay. The mixed grouts will be pumped to disposal sites (e.g., trenches and buried structures) where the grout will be allowed to harden and, thereby, immobilize the wastes. A Transportable Grout Facility (TGF) will be constructed and operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations to perform the grouting function. A critical component of the TGF is the grout pump. A preliminary review of pumping requirements identified reciprocating pumps and progressive cavity pumps as the two classes of pumps best suited for the application. The advantages and disadvantages of specific types of pumps within these two classes were subsequently investigated. As a result of this study, the single-screw, rotary positive displacement pump was identified as the best choice for the TGF application. This pump has a simple design, is easy to operate, is rugged, and is suitable for a radioactive environment. It produces a steady, uniform flow that simplifies suction and discharge piping requirements. This pump will likely require less maintenance than reciprocating pumps and can be disassembled rapidly and decontaminated easily. If the TGF should eventually require discharge pressures in excess of 500 psi, a double-acting duplex piston pump is recommended because it can operate at low speed, with only moderate flow rate fluctuations. However, the check valves, stuffing box, piston, suction, and discharge piping must be designed carefully to allow trouble-free operations

  6. Clay based superior aggregate for making light construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggregate is defined as material consisting of solid minerals with grain size ranging from sand to gravel. This material is usually used for filling components of concrete. Clay based aggregate has special properties that can be useful for making light construction in wet environment. Concrete build using the aggregate is not impermeable, but it can adsorb water in significant amount, so that is very useful to be used as paving block for walker zone (trotoir) and zone surrounding swimming pool. Laboratory test results show that the aggregate has grain size in zone 1 type with specific gravity between 1360 - 1840 kg/cm3. Its abrasive factor about 35.32 % in average and it can be used as building material for light construction. Concrete with mixing ratio cement/aggregate of 1 to 6 with slump condition 3 to 6 cm and curing time of 28 days indicates compressive strength of 10 N/cm3. Qualitative cost analysis reflected that the paving block production cost is relatively low and it will be more profitable if they are product from failed pentile having fail between 10 to 30 %

  7. Development and application demonstration of stemming slurry materials for high-pressure grouting in soft stratum%松软地层高压灌浆封孔浆体研制及应用论证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵金; 曾柳絮; 陈安重; 杨松林; 彭春雷

    2012-01-01

    For the impervious construction in soft stratum, there are various technical problems, such as easy collapse of boreholes, vertical lift induced by difficultly pressed grouting, large waste led by easy grouting leakage, and difficult grouting control. The traditional methods of "sleeve valve pipe grouting", "embedded screen pipe tube" and "orifice closed grouting" are difficult to meet the design requirements in deep soft ground. To reduce cost and to improve efficiency, a new construction method, high pulsating pressure grouting from below with stemming slurry materials, is put forward, and one of the key techniques, slurry sealing technique, is described. For the construction requirements, a kind of lowAntensity, rapidly solidified and hard plastic-like sealing slurry is developed, and its performance parameters are obtained. It is enough to stem grouting and to consume energy by filling slurry materials between grouting pipe and bore hole pipe wall based on the grouting mechanism. The bottom-up pulling force which provides the basis for choosing pulling machines for construction is calculated. In addition, if you turn the grouting pipe continuously during the process of grouting, the work efficiency can be improved and the grouting pipe can be smoothly promoted to avoid locking accidents even in deep borehole cases without pipe drawing machines. Through the tests on the deep soft stratum in the bay area of Tuokou Hydropower Station, the slurry materials achieve the desired effect. Theoretical study and engineering practice show that it's feasible to adopt slurry sealing technology and to implement high-pressure grouting in soft stratum, and that the construction techniques by means of stemming slurry material can meet requirements.%在松软地层进行防渗工程施工时,存在钻孔易塌孔,灌浆难起压易导致垂向挤密抬动,灌浆易漏浆串浆导致耗浆量大,灌浆过程难控制等技术难题。传统的“袖阀

  8. A clay grouting technique for granitic rock adjacent to clay bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, K.; Sugita, Y.; Fujita, T.; Martino, J. B.; Kozak, E. T.; Dixon, D. A.

    Excavation and re-distribution of the stress around the tunnel lead to the development of an excavation damage zone (EDZ). While the bulkheads are keyed into the rock wall of the tunnel to act as cut-offs for the EDZ of the tunnel, clay grouting was conducted around the clay bulkhead as an additional measure to interrupt the connectivity of EDZ at the bulkhead. Clay grouting is being tested to determine if it is an effective method to reduce the permeability of fractured rock. The grouting into the EDZ is difficult because many of the fractures in the EDZ are connected with the excavation surface and cannot be filled efficiently by pressurizing the grout slurry. Therefore, the in situ injection tests of the clay grouting technique for the EDZ adjacent to the clay bulkhead were conducted to demonstrate the clay grouting technique and to estimate the ability of clay grouting to reduce permeability in the EDZ. This paper presents the results of these tests. Three in situ tests of clay grouting were performed during the Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX), conducted at Canada’s Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the granitic rock to demonstrate technologies for tunnel sealing at full-scale. First, a clay grouting trial was conducted at a trial key in the tunnel about 25 m above the TSX tunnel. Secondly, the two series of clay grouting were performed in the TSX tunnel, on the upstream face of the key prior to the installation of the seal material of the clay key and later on the downstream side of the bulkhead. The results of these tests indicated a reduction in the permeability of granitic rock around the holes after grouting.

  9. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the low-level liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Hanford Site Maps, road evaluation for the grout treatment facility, Department of Ecology certificate of non-designation for centralia fly ash, double-shell tank waste compositional modeling, laboratory analysis reports for double-shell tank waste, stored in tanks 241-AN-103, 241-AN-106, and 241-AW-101, grout vault heat transfer results for M-106 grout formulation, test results for extraction procedure toxicity testing, test results for toxicity testing of double-shell tank grout, pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste, characterization of simulated low-level waste grout produced in a pilot-scale test, description of the procedure for sampling nonaging waste storage tanks, description of laboratory procedures, grout campaign waste composition verification, variability in properties of grouted phosphate/sulfate N-reactor waste, engineering drawings, description of operating procedures, equipment list--transportable grout equipment, grout treatment facility--tank integrity assessment plan, long-term effects of waste solutions on concrete and reinforcing steel, vendor information, grout disposal facilities construction quality assurance plan, and flexible membrane liner/waste compatibility test results

  10. Rock grouting. Current competence and development for the final repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report aims at presenting the overall state of grouting competence and development relating to the final repository and at motivating and giving detail to the grouting sections presented in the 2007 version of the overall SKB report 'Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste' that is presented to the government every three years. The report offers suggestions for principles for planning, design and execution of grouting and describes the further work thought to be necessary in order to meet the requirements of the final repository, that are currently given as working premises. This report does not aim to, and cannot, describe the grouting processes in detail. For details of current concepts, experience and development work, a list of references is provided. In Chapter 2, the task of sealing the underground repository is examined and an overall approach presented. Although the requirements related to this task are preliminary, it is made evident that they concern both the actual grouting results and the process leading to the achievement of these results. Chapter 3 is a conceptual description of grouting and the factors that govern the spreading of grout in the rock mass. It is intended as an introduction to Chapters 4-6, which describe the state of grouting competence and the tools available for the sealing of the final repository facility. Both common practice and cutting-edge research are dealt with in these chapters, mainly relying on references where available. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the system consisting of the fundamental components the rock mass, the grout materials and the grouting technology, and how these system components interact whilst, in Chapter 6, the rock/grout technical system is viewed in a brief organizational context. Based on the requirements on results and the overall grouting process on the one hand and the current competence in grouting theory and practice on the

  11. Rock grouting. Current competence and development for the final repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmelin, Ann (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Brantberger, Martin (Ramboell (SE)); Eriksson, Magnus (Vattenfall Power Consultant (SE)); Gustafson, Gunnar (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)); Stille, Haakan (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    The report aims at presenting the overall state of grouting competence and development relating to the final repository and at motivating and giving detail to the grouting sections presented in the 2007 version of the overall SKB report 'Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste' that is presented to the government every three years. The report offers suggestions for principles for planning, design and execution of grouting and describes the further work thought to be necessary in order to meet the requirements of the final repository, that are currently given as working premises. This report does not aim to, and cannot, describe the grouting processes in detail. For details of current concepts, experience and development work, a list of references is provided. In Chapter 2, the task of sealing the underground repository is examined and an overall approach presented. Although the requirements related to this task are preliminary, it is made evident that they concern both the actual grouting results and the process leading to the achievement of these results. Chapter 3 is a conceptual description of grouting and the factors that govern the spreading of grout in the rock mass. It is intended as an introduction to Chapters 4-6, which describe the state of grouting competence and the tools available for the sealing of the final repository facility. Both common practice and cutting-edge research are dealt with in these chapters, mainly relying on references where available. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the system consisting of the fundamental components the rock mass, the grout materials and the grouting technology, and how these system components interact whilst, in Chapter 6, the rock/grout technical system is viewed in a brief organizational context. Based on the requirements on results and the overall grouting process on the one hand and the current competence in grouting theory and

  12. General strategy, clay based disposal concepts and integration (GSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This session gathers 20 articles (posters) dealing with: the assessment of backfill materials and methods for deposition tunnels; HTV-1: a semi technical scale testing of a multi-layer hydraulic shaft sealing system; the development of water content adjust method by mixing powdered-ice and chilled bentonite: application to the construction of bentonite engineered barriers by shot-clay method; repository design issues related to the thermal impact induced by heat emitting radioactive waste; pillared clays, using Romanian montmorillonite; the simulation of differential settlements of clay based engineered barrier systems in a geo-centrifuge; the critical issues regarding clay behaviour in the KBS-3H repository design; an alternative buffer material experiment; assessing the performance of a swelling clay tunnel seal and issues identified in the course of its operation; the activation of a Ca-bentonite as buffer material; a large diameter borehole type repository in the clays for radioactive waste long term storage; the erosion of backfill materials during the installation phase; the behaviour of the clay cover of a site for very low level nuclear waste: field flexion tests; the laboratory tests made on three different backfill candidates for the Swedish KBS- 3V concept; the engineering geological clay research for radioactive waste repository in Slovakia; the ESDRED project, module 1 - Design, fabrication, assembly, handling and packaging of buffer rings; the laboratory experiments on the sealing ability of bentonite pellets; the screening of bentonite resources for use as an engineered barrier component in deep geologic repositories; the assessment of the radionuclide release from the near-field environment of a spent nuclear fuel geological repository; and the emplacement tests with granular bentonite

  13. Results of bentonite grouting experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bentonite grouting, which will not solidify, is mainly expected to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of underground water in the expected damage zone by filling the fractures or cracks, so the evaluation of the degree of hydraulic conductivity, stability and the improvement area becomes important. The study and basic experiments for sealing of the adits have been promoted, up to now, from the aspects of the characteristics and long term stability of candidate materials, and design and construction (Pusch et al., 1987; Tanai and Masuda, 1991). However, in Japan, the application examples of clay type materials for grouting are extremely few and is limited to the construction experience of the national oil underground storage at Kuji (Miyanaga and Ebara, 1993), with the exception of some test cases (Boergesson et al., 1991) from overseas. This report summarize basic characteristics of the clay type material relevant to the hydraulic conductivity, from the result of the clay grouting experiment conducted at the rock site. (author)

  14. Use of bacterial ureolysis for improved gelation of colloidal silica in rock grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Erica

    2013-04-01

    Low pH grouts that are capable of penetrating fine aperture fractures are increasingly being developed for use in engineering applications. One such grout is colloidal silica, which has an initial low viscosity and on destabilisation, typically using a saline solution, develops into a sol-gel. We propose here for the first time that bacterial ureolysis using Sporosarcina pasteurii can be used as an accelerator to destabilise colloidal silica in a much more controlled fashion than via saline solution alone. A number of different accelerators have been investigated in this study including sodium chloride, calcium chloride, ammonium chloride and bacterially-induced production of ammonium ions by ureolysis. For each accelerator, we experimentally determine the gel time and rate of gelation using viscosity measurements, and the shear strength of the grouts after 1 day and 7 days. We demonstrate that using bacterial ureolysis as a means of destabilising colloidal silica, leads to longer gel times than for the direct addition of a traditional chemical accelerator at the same concentration. In addition, for grouts with similar gel times we have illustrated that the bacterial grout has a higher rate of gelation and a higher final shear strength than a grout destabilised by a chemical accelerator. These results suggest that bacterial ureolysis could potentially be used in rock grouting to achieve longer gel times and hence greater penetration, while also maintaining sufficiently rapid gelation to minimise issues related to fingering and erosion of the fresh grout.

  15. Grouted Pile and Its Bearing Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The grouting method applied in bored pile is an improvement to the conventional bored pile. Load tests have proved that grouting under the bored pile tip is an effective method to enhance the bearing capacity of the pile and to reduce the pile settlement. In this paper, the grouting technology is described and pile-load test results are discussed. In order to put the grouting method into design practice, the authors analyze the working mechanism of soil compaction. And, based on the theory of cavities expansion in soil mass, approximate formulae are proposed for estimating the bearing capacity of the grouted pile. The theoretical prediction agrees well with the load test results.

  16. Large volume grouting solidification and disposal of ILLW in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large volume grouting solidification and disposal process for treating intermediate-level liquid waste (ILLW) in near-surface has been developed in China. The ILLW comes from the Lanzhou Reprocessing Plant. This process has been demonstrated by the cold test with simulated waste, and this project is now under implementation on the basis of design and construction

  17. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so that...... different structural problems can be reproduced successfully....

  18. Multipoint Grout Injection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), radioactive waste contained in the 16 cylindrical Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) must retrieved so the tanks can be closed. In many cases, removing the small amounts of sludge that remain in the tank after the bulk of the waste is retrieved is extremely costly and provides little benefit from site health and environmental standpoints. The Tanks Focus Area is working with ORR's M and I contractor (Bechtel-Jacobs), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Ground Environmental Services to demonstrate the application of multi-point-injection (MPI) grout emplacement technology for horizontal cylindrical tanks during a cold demonstration in FY99. GAAT TH-4 has been identified as the tank to be used for the hot demonstration in FY00. Evaluation efforts continue on the effect of slag on strength performance of the grout to be used in TH-4 tank closure. The site must find out what level of slag can be accommodated in the grout while maintaining strength performance requirements. Other efforts in support of the utilization of MPI TM technology in large-scale waste tanks will continue. Also, ORR is collaborating with SRS to evaluate the use this technology to support grouting of the Old Burial Ground tanks at SRS

  19. Gamma irradiation test report of simulated grout specimens for gas generation/liquid advection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from an irradiation test performed on four specimens of grout that were fabricated from synthetic Double Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) liquid waste. The objective was to investigate the radiolytic generation of gases and the potential for advective rejection of waste liquids from the grout matrix and to provide experimental information for the validation of the C-Cubed calculated model. It has been demonstrated that a number of gases can be formed within the grout due to radiolytic decomposition of various chemical components that make up the grout. This observation leads to the conjecture that the potential exists for the rejection of a portion of the 60 vol% free liquid from the grout matrix driven by pressurization by these gases. It was found that, for the specimen geometries used in this test series, and for peak radiation dose accumulation rates on the order of 4 to 60 times of the initial rate expected in the grout vaults (300 Rads/hr), no liquid rejection was observed from 2% to 35% of the target exposure expected in the grout vaults (1E+08 Rads). When the irradiation rate exceeded the projected grout vault dose rate by a factor of 200 a small amount of liquid rejection was observed from one of two specimens that had received 20% more than the goal exposure. Because of the differences in the magnitudes of the relative radiation field strengths between this study and an actual grout vault, it is concluded that the potential for liquid rejection by internal gas pressurization from presently configured grout waste forms is very low for the expected conditions

  20. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H.; Matsuo, T. [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  1. Theoretical investigations of grout seal longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical investigations into the longevity of repository seals have dealt primarily with the development of a methodology to evaluate interactions between portland cement-based grout and groundwater. Groundwater travel times through a seal have been calculated based on Darcy's Law, with an assumed hydraulic gradient for the site and initial hydraulic conductivity for the grout. Chemical interactions between a model grout and actual groundwater compositions have been evaluated by means of geochemical modelling codes. Changes in grout porosity derived from the geochemical modelling have been extended to yield estimates of hydraulic conductivity, based on published experimental results. Also, a preliminary approach to the evaluation of the role of diffusion processes in grout alteration has begun. Results of these investigations suggest that cement grout seals will maintain an acceptable level of performance for tens of thousands to millions of years, provided the repository is sited where groundwater chemistry is compatible with the seals and hydrologic gradients are low. (au) (21 refs.)

  2. Thermally conductive cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1998-11-01

    Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98. The developed thermally conductive grout consists of cement, water, a particular grade of silica sand, superplasticizer and a small amount of bentonite. While the primary function of the grout is to facilitate heat transfer between the U-loop and surrounding formation, it is also essential that the grout act as an effective borehole sealant. Two types of permeability (hydraulic conductivity) tests was conducted to evaluate the sealing performance of the cement-sand grout. Additional properties of the proposed grout that were investigated include bleeding, shrinkage, bond strength, freeze-thaw durability, compressive, flexural and tensile strengths, elastic modulus, Poisson`s ratio and ultrasonic pulse velocity.

  3. A new method for real-time monitoring of grout spread through fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing water ingress into the Shaft at Dounreay is essential for the success of future intermediate level waste (ILW) recovery using the dry retrieval method. The reduction is being realised by forming an engineered barrier of ultrafine cementitious grout injected into the fractured rock surrounding the Shaft. Grout penetration of 6 m in <50μm fractures is being reliably achieved, with a pattern of repeated injections ultimately reducing rock mass permeability by up to three orders of magnitude. An extensive field trials period, involving over 200 grout mix designs and the construction of a full scale demonstration barrier, has yielded several new field techniques that improve the quality and reliability of cementitious grout injection for engineered barriers. In particular, a new method has been developed for tracking in real-time the spread of ultrafine cementitious grout through fractured rock and relating the injection characteristics to barrier design. Fieldwork by the multi-disciplinary international team included developing the injection and real-time monitoring techniques, pre- and post injection hydro-geological testing to quantify the magnitude and extent of changes in rock mass permeability, and correlation of grout spread with injection parameters to inform the main works grouting programme. (authors)

  4. Grouting for Pile Foundation Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Stoel, A.E.C.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the use of grouting methods for pile foundation improvement, a generic term that is used here to define both foundation renovation (increasing the bearing capacity of a pile foundation that has insufficient bearing capacity) and foundation protection (safeguarding the piles of the foundation against possible damage resulting from underground construction activities in the vicinity). A full-scale test, of which the general set-up and consistency check ar...

  5. Comparison of grouted and un-grouted tendons in NPP containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Containments of nuclear power plants are prestressed by post-tensioned prestressing systems using grouted or un-grouted tendons. Cement grout is normally adopted for protection of tendons from corrosion in case of grouted tendon systems. This practice has widely been followed in France and for all the plants of French origin. On the other hand, un-grouted (greased) tendon systems were used for prestressing of containments of American nuclear power plants. Grouted tendons, once grouted, are not available for direct inspection and cannot be replaced after they are grouted, while greased tendons can be directly inspected after installation and may be replaced if required. This paper discusses details of grouted and un-grouted tendons, including their advantages and disadvantages over each other. In addition, in-service inspection techniques normally followed for both categories have been briefed. The question, whether to follow grouted or un-grouted tends to become more a philosophical than a technical one because both the practises have produced good results. lt can possibly be commented that desired results in each case can be obtained through proper detailing, improved construction practices and using more refined material constituents which require further research and development

  6. Jet-Grouting Constructed Laminar Diaphragms

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The high cost of digging and hauling contaminated soil has made enclosure of the contaminated soil an alternative to prevent contamination of ground water and adjacent sites. The jet-grouting method uses special grout nozzles to create a grout sheet of controlled width and thickness from each drilled grout hole. This sheet is commonly 100 mm. to 150 mm. in thickness, 2 to 3 meters in width, and of any desired length. The width of the sheet in one pass can go up to 6 meters. Actual lateral soi...

  7. Investigation of a Hardened Cement Paste Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S.......This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S....

  8. Hanford transportable grout facility: technology and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouting of selected low-level liquid waste (LLW) is a key part of the overall management strategy developed for disposal of some Hanford site wastes. Cement-based grouts will be utilized to immobilize LLW generated from a variety of sources. It is expected that up to 415,000 m3 (108 gal) of grout may be produced over the next 25 yr. The mixing of LLW with cementitious materials to form grout will make valuable double-shell tank storage space available for other wastes, reduce the construction of new double-shell tanks, and dispose of waste in an environmentally safe manner. Specific grout formulations are being developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, tailored for each category of Hanford LLW. Bulk powdered materials will be blended to produce a homogeneous dry mix. Grout formulations are developed to maximize the waste loading using commercially available, low-cost raw materials. The grout production facilities will consist of several major systems the Dry Materials Receiving and Handling Facility (DMRHF), a one-million-gal liquid feed tank, the transportable grout equipment (TGE), and the disposal system. These facilities can be operated safely and within US Dept. of Energy orders and standards

  9. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of low-level radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Geologic data, hydrologic data, groundwater monitoring program, information, detection monitoring program, groundwater characterization drawings, building emergency plan--grout treatment facility, response action plan for grout treatment facility, Hanford Facility contingency plan, training course descriptions, overview of the Hanford Facility Grout Performance, assessment, bland use and zoning map, waste minimization plan, cover design engineering report, and clay liners (ADMIXTURES) in semiarid environments

  10. Microanalysis of clay-based pigments in painted artworks by the means of Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košařová, V.; Hradil, David; Němec, I.; Bezdička, Petr; Kanický, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 11 (2013), s. 1570-1577. ISSN 0377-0486 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * clay-based pigments * clay minerals * iron oxides * microanalysis of paintings Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2013

  11. Design for rock grouting based on analysis of grout penetration. Verification using Aespoe HRL data and parameter analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouting as a method to reduce the inflow of water into underground facilities will be important in both the construction and operation of the deep repository. SKB has been studying grouting design based on characterization of fractured rock and prediction of grout spread. However, as in other Scandinavian tunnels, stop criteria have been empirically set so that grouting is completed when the grout flow is less than a certain value at maximum pressure or the grout take is above a certain value. Since empirically based stop criteria are determined without a theoretical basis and are not related to grout penetration, the grouting result may be inadequate or uneconomical. In order to permit the choice of adequate and cost-effective grouting methods, stop criteria can be designed based on a theoretical analysis of grout penetration. The relationship between grout penetration and grouting time has been studied at the Royal Institute of Technology and Chalmers University of Technology. Based on these studies, the theory has been further developed in order to apply to real grouting work. Another aspect is using the developed method for parameter analysis. The purpose of parameter analysis is to evaluate the influence of different grouting parameters on the result. Since the grouting strategy is composed of many different components, the selection of a grouting method is complex. Even if the theoretically most suitable grouting method is selected, it is difficult to carry out grouting exactly as planned because grouting parameters such as grout properties can easily vary during the grouting operation. In addition, knowing the parameters precisely beforehand is impossible because there are uncertainties inherent in the rock mass. Therefore, it is important to asses the effects of variations in grouting parameters. The parameter analysis can serve as a guide in choosing an effective grouting method. The objectives of this report are to: Further develop the theory concerning

  12. Hanford site grout disposal vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) completed processing and disposal of an initial 3,800 m3 of radioactive waste from the Hanford site's double-shell tanks (DSTs) on July 11, 1989. For the first time in the Hanford site's 46-yr history, tank wastes resulting from weapons-grade plutonium production were moved out of liquid storage and converted into a solid for environmentally safe disposal. In addition to the 3,800 m3 of nonhazardous, low-level waste processed in 1988 and 1989, ∼ 163,000 m3 of mixed waste will be treated for disposal between 1992 and 2013. These low-level wastes are radioactive, concentrated salt solutions classified as hazardous by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and dangerous by the Washington State Department of Ecology. As feed for the grouting process they contain ∼ 11% sodium nitrate, 6% sodium hydroxide, 5% sodium nitrite, 3% sodium aluminate, 1% sodium phosphate, 0.5% sodium chloride, and 73% water. Many radionuclides are present, although 137Cs contributes more than 99% of the 0.3 Ci/l activity. From a long-term performance assessment standpoint, nitrate, 99Tc, and 129I are the primary contaminants of concern

  13. Characterization of double-shell slurry feed grout produced in a pilot-scale test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes at Hanford, Washington include grouting. Grout disposal in this context is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders. and pumping the resultant slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults. Once the slurry is in the vaults. the hydration reactions that occur result in the formation of a highly impermeable solid product that binds and encapsulates the radioactive and hazardous constituents. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) operates the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) (PNL) provides support to the Grout Disposal Program through laboratory support activities, radioactive grout leach testing. performance assessments, and pilot-scale tests. A pilot-scale test was conducted in November 1988 using a simulated Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) waste. The main objective of the pilot-scale test was to demonstrate the processability of a DSSF grout formulation that was developed using laboratory equipment and to provide information on scale-up. The dry blend used in this test included 47 wt% class F fly ash, 47 wt% blast furnace slag, and 6 wt% type I/II portland cement. The dry blend was mixed with the simulated waste at a ratio of 9 lb/gal and pumped to a 2800-gal, insulated tank at about 10.4 gpm. Samples of simulated DSSF waste. dry blend, grout slurry, and cured grout were obtained during and after the pilot-scale test for testing and product characterization. Major conclusions of these activities are included

  14. Bleeding and Filtration of Cement-Based Grout

    OpenAIRE

    Draganovic, Almir

    2009-01-01

    Grouting is a common method of sealing rock around tunnels to reduce or stop water inflow. Successful grouting significantly minimizes the maintenance cost and safety of the tunnel. Some questions about bleeding and penetrability of the grouts have to be examined more closely to carry out a successful grouting. Bleeding of cement-based grout is a complex problem. Measuring methods used today originate from the measuring of the bleeding of cement pastes used in ordinary building industry. Whet...

  15. Design approaches for grouting of rock fractures; Theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghoobi Rafi, Jalaleddin

    2013-01-01

    Currently, cement base grout is used widely for sealing of the rock fractures in order to decrease the permeability of rock mass. Grouting procedure is one of the main tasks in cycle of rock excavation. In addition, huge amount of grout should be used during dam construction in order to seal the bedding and embankment walls. Therefore, considering the effect of grouting in duration and cost of the project, improving the design methods seems essential. In successful grouting the goal is to ach...

  16. Shaft Grouting HATS2A Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Strøm, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis I have been following 5 grouting rounds at Cyberport shaft and 4 grouting rounds at Sandy Bay shaft.There were some communication problems between the grouting team and the geologists, resulting in missing water inflow measurements.The rock quality was very poor (Q-value 0.1 – 1), with coarse ash tuff as the most common rock mass in Cyberport, and rhyolitic tuff as the most common rock mass in Sandy Bay. The Q-values were below 1, with Cyberport just a bit higher than Sandy Bay...

  17. Grouting of nuclear waste vault shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear waste vault must be designed and built to ensure adequate isolation of the nuclear wastes from human contact. Consequently, after a vault has been fully loaded it must be adequately sealed off to prevent radionuclide migration which may be provided by circulating ground water. Of particular concern in vault sealing are the physical and chemical properties of the sealing materials its long-term durability and stability and the techniques used for its emplacement. Present grouting technology and grout material are reviewed in terms of the particular needs of shaft grouting. Areas requiring research and development are indicated

  18. Assessment of annual exposure for grout operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, R.E.

    1994-02-03

    An analysis is presented of the direct radiation exposures and dose rates to personnel from assumed quantities of radioactive grout, and Double Shell Tank (DST) waste feed. This analysis was based on filling four disposal vaults per year. Whole body doses were analyzed for occupational workers assigned to the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). The study makes assumptions that must be met by the facility. Otherwise, the GTF will meet all DOE and WHC direct radiation exposure criteria. This analysis will be published in the Grout Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  19. Assessment of annual exposure for grout operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is presented of the direct radiation exposures and dose rates to personnel from assumed quantities of radioactive grout, and Double Shell Tank (DST) waste feed. This analysis was based on filling four disposal vaults per year. Whole body doses were analyzed for occupational workers assigned to the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). The study makes assumptions that must be met by the facility. Otherwise, the GTF will meet all DOE and WHC direct radiation exposure criteria. This analysis will be published in the Grout Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  20. Grout to meet physical and chemical requirements for closure at Hanford grout vaults. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout based on portland cement, Class F fly ash, and bentonite clay, for the Hanford Grout Vault Program. The purpose of this grout was to fill the void between a wasteform containing 106-AN waste and the vault cover blocks. Following a successful grout development program, heat output, volume change, and compressive strength were monitored with time in simulated repository conditions and in full-depth physical models. This research indicated that the cold-cap grout could achieve and maintain adequate volume stability and other required physical properties in the internal environment of a sealed vault. To determine if contact with 106-AN liquid waste would cause chemical deterioration of the cold-cap grout, cured specimens were immersed in simulated waste. Over a period of 21 days at 150 F, specimens increased in mass without significant changes in volume. X-ray diffraction of reacted specimens revealed crystallization of sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. Scanning electron microscopy used with X-ray fluorescence showed that clusters if this phase had formed in grout pores, increasing grout density and decreasing its effective porosity. Physical and chemical tests collectively indicate a sealing component. However, the Hanford Grout Vault Program was cancelled before completion of this research. This report summarizes close-out Waterways Experiment Station when the Program was cancelled

  1. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout for Wind Turbine Grouted Connection in Wet or Dry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Westhof, Luc; Yde, Elo;

    Grouted connections of monopile supported offshore wind turbine structures are subjected to loads leading to very high oscillating service stresses in the grout material. The fatigue capacity of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens...... at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series: one with the specimens in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during the test. The fatigue life of the grout, in terms of the number of cycles to failure, was found to be significantly...... shorter when tested in water than when tested in air....

  2. Pressure grouting of fractured basalt flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a field trial of pressure grouting in basalt and presents the results of subsequent coring and permeability measurements. The trial shows that hydraulic conductivity of fractured basalt bedrock can be significantly reduced by pressure injection of cementitious materials. The effectiveness of the pressure grout procedure was evaluated by measuring the change in the hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. The extent of grout penetration was determined by analyzing postgrout injection drilling chips for the presence of a tracer in the grout and also by examining cores of the treated basalt. Downhole radar mapping indicated major lava flow patterns and follow water movement during a surface infiltration test. A site called Box Canyon, which is northwest of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), was chosen for the study because its surface outcrop geology is similar to the underlying bedrock fracture system at the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC)

  3. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, S. [Mercer Univ., Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.

  4. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Vault design, run-on/run-off control design, and asphalt compatibility with 90-degree celsius double-shell slurry feed

  5. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here

  6. Strength of Mock-up Trial Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on samples taken and cast during the execution of a mock-up trial placement of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 on January 21, 2009.......The present report describes tests carried out on samples taken and cast during the execution of a mock-up trial placement of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 on January 21, 2009....

  7. Description of the grout system dynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grout system dynamic computer simulation was created to allow investigation of the ability of the grouting system to meet established milestones, for various assumed system configurations and parameters. The simulation simulates the movement of tank waste through the system versus time, from initial storage tanks, through feed tanks and the grout plant, then finally to a grout vault. The simulation properly accounts for the following (1) time required to perform various actions or processes, (2) delays involved in gaining regulatory approval, (3) random system component failures, (4) limitations on equipment capacities, (5) available parallel components, and (6) different possible strategies for vault filling. The user is allowed to set a variety of system parameters for each simulation run. Currently, the output of a run primarily consists of a plot of projected grouting campaigns completed versus time, for comparison with milestones. Other outputs involving any model component can also be quickly created or deleted as desired. In particular, sensitivity runs where the effect of varying a model parameter (flow rates, delay times, number of feed tanks available, etc.) on the ability of the system to meet milestones can be made easily. The grout system simulation was implemented using the ITHINK* simulation language for Macintosh** computers

  8. Effectiveness of fracture sealing with bentonite grouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentonite is known to have an extremely low permeability and a self-healing ability. It has therefore been selected as a major sealing component in several repository concepts. Bentonite grouts have the following advantages, (1) small particle size, can be injected into small fractures or voids, (2) suitable water absorption properties, can produce gels at low concentrations, and (3) stable physical and chemical properties, may have considerable longevity. Bentonite fracture grouting tests are performed on a model made of circular acrylic plates with outer diameter of 30 cm and central injection hole of 2.5 cm diameter. Suspension with bentonite concentration of 15% to 31% have been injected into fractures with apertures of 9 to 90 microns under injection pressures less than 0.6 MPa. Grouting reduces the hydraulic conductivities of the fractures from the 10-1 to the 10-5 cm/s level. When the suspension is thin enough and the fracture is very small, channeling develops in the grouted fractures. Preliminary results indicate that the permeability of a grouted fracture does not increase with time in more than 125 days. The flow properties of bentonite suspensions, viscosity, shear stress, yield stress and gelation, are investigated. Water flow through ungrouted fractures and movement of water in bentonite grout are studies. The physical stability or bleeding capacity of bentonite suspensions is determined. 122 refs., 56 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10-3 cm/s to values approaching 10-7 cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10-8 cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table

  10. Autogenous healing properties of cement-based grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to provide information on the ability of cement-based grouts to self-seal. Autogenous sealing was investigated both on bulk grouts and in thin films of grouts. In both cases, the self-sealing capabilities of the cement-based grouts were investigated with water flowing through the grout. Autogenous sealing was studied through changes in pore structure (decrease in pore radius and volume of pores) and changes in the rate of water flow through the cement-based grouts. (author)

  11. Behavior of Radionuclides and RCRA Elements in Tank Backfill Grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One approach to decommissioning emptied high-level waste tanks is to backfill them with grout. Because of the long lives and high toxicity of some of the contaminants, the chemical behavior of the contaminants in the grout need to be understood, especially as the grout ages and weathers over long times. In this paper, the sequestration of technetium and iodine in contact with two grout formulations, and their component materials, is discussed. Preliminary results are presented of experiments examining the solubility of actinides in contact with the grouts as pH is lowered and carbonate content increased, representing conditions of a weathered grout system. (authors)

  12. Chemical grouting – laboratory study of chemical grouts and geocomposites properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Ščučka, Jiří; Martinec, Petr

    Bombay : Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, 2008 - (Singh, D.), s. 3567-3574 [International Conference of IACMAG /12./. Goa - Panjim (IN), 01.10.2008-06.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1533 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : chemical grouts * grouting, geocomposite properties Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  13. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout in Dry and Wet Environment for Wind Turbine Grouted Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2011-01-01

    fatigue life of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series, one with the specimens tested in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during...... the test. The fatigue life of the grout, in terms of the number of cycles to failure, was found to be significantly shorter when tested in water than when tested in air, particularly at low frequency.......The cementitious material in grouted connections of offshore monopile wind turbine structures is subjected to very high oscillating service stresses. The fatigue capacity of the grout therefore becomes essential to the performance and service life of the grouted connection. In the present work the...

  14. Method for constructing a lined underground cavity by underreaming, grouting, and boring through the grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.H.

    1971-02-02

    A method is described for constructing a lined underground cavity. The process includes the steps of securing a casing in a borehole by grouting, underreaming the casing, filling the underreamed region with additional grouting, and then drilling through and underreaming the added grouting, thereby forming a room having a lining formed of the grouting. By using a structurally strong grouting that is impervious to water, the resulting room is waterproof and is suitable for on-site storage of an atomic device and its associated equipment prior to an underground atomic event. Such cavities also have other uses; for example, the cavities may be made very deep and used for storage of various fluids such as natural gas storage. (5 claims)

  15. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO3 solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO3 solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s

  16. A clay grouting technique for granitic rock adjacent to clay bulkhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masumoto, K. [Kajima Technical Research Institute (Japan); Sugita, Y.; Fujita, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, JNC (Japan); Martino, J.B.; Kozak, E.T.; Dixon, D.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    A major international experiment, the Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX), demonstrating technologies for tunnel sealing at full-scale, was conducted at Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the granitic rock. Two bulkheads were installed; one consisted of high-performance concrete and the other of highly compacted sand-bentonite material. The performance of these two bulkheads was monitored throughout the experiment in order to evaluate the influence of elevated hydraulic head (4 MPa) and chamber temperature (up to 85 C) on these materials. The TSX tunnel was excavated by controlled drilling, and blasting techniques in a highly stressed granite rock mass. The excavation technique and re-distribution of in-situ stress around the TSX tunnel lead to the development of an excavation damage zone (EDZ) of variable extent. Both bulkheads were keyed into the rock wall of the tunnel. The keys were excavated with a mechanical technique using line drilling and perimeter reaming to isolate blocks of rock and rock splitters to break out those blocks. The keys were designed to act as cut-off for the EDZ of the main tunnel. The shape of the keys was selected with the assist of numerical models that indicate the key shapes selected should provide a gap in the EDZ. As an additional measure to interrupt the connectivity of EDZ at the bulkhead, clay grouting was conducted around the clay bulkhead. A clay grouting is effective method to reduce the permeability of fractured rock, but grouting into the EDZ is difficult because many of the fractures in the EDZ are connected with the excavation surface and cannot be filled efficiently by pressurizing the grout slurry. Therefore, the injection boreholes were drilled with shallow inclinations from the wall of the tunnel to allow the boreholes to intersect the EDZ for a longer distance. The grouting technique involved injecting a series of successively thicker bentonite slurries from 0,2%, 0,5%, 1,0%, 2,0%, 4,0%, 6,0% to 8

  17. A clay grouting technique for granitic rock adjacent to clay bulkhead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major international experiment, the Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX), demonstrating technologies for tunnel sealing at full-scale, was conducted at Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the granitic rock. Two bulkheads were installed; one consisted of high-performance concrete and the other of highly compacted sand-bentonite material. The performance of these two bulkheads was monitored throughout the experiment in order to evaluate the influence of elevated hydraulic head (4 MPa) and chamber temperature (up to 85 C) on these materials. The TSX tunnel was excavated by controlled drilling, and blasting techniques in a highly stressed granite rock mass. The excavation technique and re-distribution of in-situ stress around the TSX tunnel lead to the development of an excavation damage zone (EDZ) of variable extent. Both bulkheads were keyed into the rock wall of the tunnel. The keys were excavated with a mechanical technique using line drilling and perimeter reaming to isolate blocks of rock and rock splitters to break out those blocks. The keys were designed to act as cut-off for the EDZ of the main tunnel. The shape of the keys was selected with the assist of numerical models that indicate the key shapes selected should provide a gap in the EDZ. As an additional measure to interrupt the connectivity of EDZ at the bulkhead, clay grouting was conducted around the clay bulkhead. A clay grouting is effective method to reduce the permeability of fractured rock, but grouting into the EDZ is difficult because many of the fractures in the EDZ are connected with the excavation surface and cannot be filled efficiently by pressurizing the grout slurry. Therefore, the injection boreholes were drilled with shallow inclinations from the wall of the tunnel to allow the boreholes to intersect the EDZ for a longer distance. The grouting technique involved injecting a series of successively thicker bentonite slurries from 0,2%, 0,5%, 1,0%, 2,0%, 4,0%, 6,0% to 8,0%. The

  18. Grout Treatment Facility Land Disposal Restriction Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes management plans directed to result in the land disposal of grouted wastes at the Hanford Grout Facilities in compliance with Federal, State of Washington, and Department of Energy land disposal restrictions. 9 refs., 1 fig

  19. Pressure grouting of fractured basalt flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a field trial of pressure grouting in basalt and the results of subsequent coring and permeability measurement activities. The objective was to show that the hydraulic conductivity of fractured basalt bedrock can be significantly reduced by pressure injection of cementitious materials. The effectiveness of the pressure grout procedure was evaluated by measuring the change in the hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. The extent of grout penetration was established by analyzing postgrout injection drilling chips for the presence of a tracer in the grout and also by examining cores of the treated basalt. Downhole radar mapping was used to establish major lava flow patterns and follow water movement during a surface infiltration test. A site called Box Canyon, which is located northwest of the INEL, was chosen for this study due to the similarity of this surface outcrop geology to that of the underlying bedrock fracture system found at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This study showed that hydraulic conductivity of basalt can be reduced through pressure grouting of cementitious material

  20. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term performance of the grout disposal system for Phosphate/Sulfate Waste (PSW) was analyzed. PSW is a low-level liquid generated by activities associated with N Reactor operations. The waste will be mixed with dry solids and permanently disposed of as a cementitious grout in sub-surface concrete vaults at Hanford's 200-East Area. Two categories of scenarios were analyzed that could cause humans to be exposed to radionuclides and chemicals from the grouted waste: contaminated groundwater and direct intrusion. In the groundwater scenario, contaminants are released from the buried grout monoliths, then eventually transported via the groundwater to the Columbia River. As modeled, the contaminants are assumed to leach out of the monoliths at a constant rate over a 10,000-year period. The other category of exposure involves intruders who inadvertently contact the waste directly, either by drilling, excavating, or gardening. Long-term impacts that could result from disposal of PSW grout were expressed in terms of incremental increases of (1) chemical concentrations in the groundwater and surface waters, and (2) radiation doses. None of the calculated impacts exceeded the corresponding regulatory limits set by Washington State, Department of Energy, or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  1. Non-destructive examination of grouted waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data report contains the results of ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and unconfined compressive strength (USC) measurements on a grouted simulant of 106AN tank waste. This testing program was conducted according to the requirements detailed in WHC-1993a. If successful, these methods could lead to a system for the remote verification of waste form quality. The objectives of this testing program were: to determine if a relationship exists between the velocity of ultrasonic compression waves and the unconfined compressive strength of simulated grouted waste, and if so, determine if the relationship is a valid method for grout quality assessment; and to determine if a relationship exists between the attenuation of wave amplitude and the age of test specimens. The first objective was met, in that a relationship between the UPV waves and USC was determined. This method appears to provide a valid measure of the quality of the grouted waste, as discussed in Sections 3.0 and 4.0. The second objective, to determine if the attenuation of UPV waves was related to the age of test specimens was partially met. A relationship does exist between wave amplitude and age, but it is doubtful that this method alone can be used to verify the overall quality of grouted waste. Section 2.0 describes the test methods, with the results detailed in Section 3.0. A discussion of the results are provided in Section 4.0

  2. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  3. Evaluation of Compressive Strength and Stiffness of Grouted Soils by Using Elastic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Mo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement grouted soils, which consist of particulate soil media and cementation agents, have been widely used for the improvement of the strength and stiffness of weak ground and for the prevention of the leakage of ground water. The strength, elastic modulus, and Poisson’s ratio of grouted soils have been determined by classical destructive methods. However, the performance of grouted soils depends on several parameters such as the distribution of particle size of the particulate soil media, grouting pressure, curing time, curing method, and ground water flow. In this study, elastic wave velocities are used to estimate the strength and elastic modulus, which are generally obtained by classical strength tests. Nondestructive tests by using elastic waves at small strain are conducted before and during classical strength tests at large strain. The test results are compared to identify correlations between the elastic wave velocity measured at small strain and strength and stiffness measured at large strain. The test results show that the strength and stiffness have exponential relationship with elastic wave velocities. This study demonstrates that nondestructive methods by using elastic waves may significantly improve the strength and stiffness evaluation processes of grouted soils.

  4. Evaluation of compressive strength and stiffness of grouted soils by using elastic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Mo; Kim, Jong-Sun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-01-01

    Cement grouted soils, which consist of particulate soil media and cementation agents, have been widely used for the improvement of the strength and stiffness of weak ground and for the prevention of the leakage of ground water. The strength, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio of grouted soils have been determined by classical destructive methods. However, the performance of grouted soils depends on several parameters such as the distribution of particle size of the particulate soil media, grouting pressure, curing time, curing method, and ground water flow. In this study, elastic wave velocities are used to estimate the strength and elastic modulus, which are generally obtained by classical strength tests. Nondestructive tests by using elastic waves at small strain are conducted before and during classical strength tests at large strain. The test results are compared to identify correlations between the elastic wave velocity measured at small strain and strength and stiffness measured at large strain. The test results show that the strength and stiffness have exponential relationship with elastic wave velocities. This study demonstrates that nondestructive methods by using elastic waves may significantly improve the strength and stiffness evaluation processes of grouted soils. PMID:25025082

  5. An Experimental Study to Measure And Improve the Grout Penetrability

    OpenAIRE

    Nejad Ghafar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    An essential demand in any underground facility is to seal it against the water ingress to reduce the time and cost of the construction and the corresponding environmental hazards. To achieve this, obtaining sufficient grout spread is of great importance. Among the grouts, cement grouts with lower costs and environmental issues have been more reliable, whereas their main problem is filtration that restricts the grout spread. Several investigations have been therefore aimed to develop instrume...

  6. Mechanical Properties of High Cementitious Grout (I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500, marked WMG 7145 FP, developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500, marked WMG 7145 FP, developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  7. Studies of cement grouts and grouting techniques for sealing a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates a cement-based grout (90% Type 50, 10% silica fume, 0.4< water-to-cement ratio, w/c<0.6) that has been used in field trials to evaluate suitable grouts and grouting techniques that could be used for sealing a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault mined deep in granite. The authors describe laboratory studies carried out to determine the following grout properties: hydraulic conductivity (k); resistance to piping and erosion during setting; influence of group on the pH and chemical composition of water permeating grouted rock; and the ability of the grout to self-seal after fracturing. Laboratory tests have confirmed the low intrinsic k of these cement mixtures (10-14 m/s). Using a specially developed cone-in-cone apparatus, the authors have studied the effect of fracture dilation and temperature changes on the k of thin films of cement. If fractured, the grout has an ability to self-seal and the rate of self-sealing increases with increasing temperature. Test results are reported

  8. In-Situ Grouting Treatability Study for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Subsurface Disposal Area-Transuranic Pits and Trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability study is being performed to examine the technology of in situ grouting for final in situ disposal of buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste. At the INEEL, there is over 56,000 cubic meters of waste commingled with a similar amount of soil in a shallow (3-5 m) land burial referred to as Waste Area Group 7-13/14. Since this buried waste has been declared on the National Priorities List under CERCLA, it is being managed as a superfund site. Under CERCLA, options for this waste include capping and continued monitoring, retrieval and ex situ management of the retrieved waste, in situ stabilization by vitrification or grouting, in situ thermal dissorption, or some combination of these options. In situ grouting involves injecting grout at high pressures (400 bars) directly into the waste to create a solid monolith. The in situ grouting process is expected to both stabilize the waste against subsidence and provide containment against migration of waste to the Snake River Plain Aquifer lying 150-200 m below the waste. The treatability study involves bench testing, implementability testing, and field testing. The bench testing was designed to pick three grouts from six candidate grouts for the implementability field testing in full scale which were designed to down-select from those three grouts to one grout for use in a full-scale field demonstration of the technology in a simulated test pit. During the bench testing, grouts were evaluated for durability using American Nuclear Society 16.1 Leach Protocol as well as evaluating the effect on physical parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and compressive strength due to the presence of interferences such as soil, organic sludge, and nitrate salts. During full-scale implementability testing, three grouts were evaluated for groutability and monolith formation

  9. Development testing of grouting and liner technology for humid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow land burial, although practiced for many years, has not always secured radionuclides from the biosphere in humid environments. To develop and demonstrate improved burial technology the Engineered Test Facility was implemented. An integral part of this experiment was site characterization, with geologic and hydrologic factors as major the components. Improved techniques for burial of low-level waste were developed and tested in the laboratory before being applied in the field. The two techniques studied were membrane trench liner and grouting void spaces

  10. Re-grouting of Maroon Dam foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palassi, M. [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Sharghi, A. [JTMA Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The Maroon dam, built on the Maroon River in the Khoozestan province (southwest) of Iran, has a height of 176 metres and a 1.2 billion cubic metre reservoir. It is one of the largest embankment dams in Iran. A number of unpredicted inflows of water into tunnels and other underground openings occurred during the first impoundment of the Maroon dam. Impoundment was halted and the reservoir was emptied to correct the problem. This paper reviews the measures that were implemented during the remediation process, and presented an evaluation of the effectiveness of the process. The foundation treatment involved placing concrete in the caverns, constructing a concrete lining, and extending the grout curtain. The grouting procedure was also described. The overall effectiveness of the concrete work and grouting resulted in a reduction in leakage from 8.5 cubic metres per second to a more acceptable 10 litres per second. 8 figs.

  11. Bolt-Grout Interactions in Elastoplastic Rock Mass Using Coupled FEM-FDM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Deb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical procedure based on finite element method (FEM and finite difference method (FDM for the analysis of bolt-grout interactions are introduced in this paper. The finite element procedure incorporates elasto-plastic concepts with Hoek and Brown yield criterion and has been applied for rock mass. Bolt-grout interactions are evaluated based on finite difference method and are embedded in the elasto-plastic procedures of FEM. The experimental validation of the proposed FEM-FDM procedures and numerical examples of a bolted tunnel are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method for practical applications.

  12. A new and superior ultrafine cementitious grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealing fractures in nuclear waste repositories concerns all programs investigating deep burial as a means of disposal. Because the most likely mechanism for contaminant migration is by dissolution and movement through groundwater, sealing programs are seeking low-viscosity sealants that are chemically, mineralogically, and physically compatible with the host rock. This paper presents the results of collaborative work directed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and supported by Whiteshell Laboratories, operated by Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. The work was undertaken in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), an underground nuclear waste repository located in a salt formation east of Carlsbad, NM. This effort addresses the technology associated with long-term isolation of nuclear waste in a natural salt medium. The work presented is part of the WIPP plugging and sealing program, specifically the development and optimization of an ultrafine cementitious grout that can be injected to lower excessive, strain-induced hydraulic conductivity in the fractured rock termed the Disturbed Rock Zone (DRZ) surrounding underground excavations. Innovative equipment and procedures employed in the laboratory produced a usable cement-based grout; 90% of the particles were smaller than 8 microns and the average particle size was 4 microns. The process involved simultaneous wet pulverization and mixing. The grout was used for a successful in situ test underground at the WIPP. Injection of grout sealed microfractures as small as 6 microns (and in one rare instance, 3 microns) and lowered the gas transmissivity of the DRZ by up to three orders of magnitude. Following the WIPP test, additional work produced an improved version of the grout containing particles 90% smaller than 5 microns and averaging 2 microns. This grout will be produced in dry form, ready for the mixer

  13. Investigation of Hardened Filling Grout Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     Suzlon Wind Energy A/S requested on August 28, 2007 an investigation of 2 samples of a hardened filling grout to be carried out, comprising drilling and strength determination of 4 test cylinders, and description of the surface characteristics of the samples....... Suzlon Wind Energy A/S requested on August 28, 2007 an investigation of 2 samples of a hardened filling grout to be carried out, comprising drilling and strength determination of 4 test cylinders, and description of the surface characteristics of the samples....

  14. ALKALI-ACTIVATED CEMENT MORTARS CONTAINING RECYCLED CLAY-BASED CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Puertas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of clay-based waste as an aggregate for concrete production is an amply studied procedure. Nonetheless, research on the use of this recycled aggregate to prepare alkaline cement mortars and concretes has yet to be forthcoming. The present study aimed to determine: the behaviour of this waste as a pozzolan in OPC systems, the mechanical strength in OPC, alkali-activated slag (AAS and fly ash (AAFA mortars and the effect of partial replacement of the slag and ash themselves with ground fractions of the waste. The pozzolanic behaviour of clay-based waste was confirmed. Replacing up to 20 % of siliceous aggregate with waste aggregate in OPC mortars induced a decline in 7 day strength (around 23 wt. %. The behaviour of waste aggregate in AAMs mortars, in turn, was observed to depend on the nature of the aluminosilicate and the replacement ratio used. When 20 % of siliceous aggregate was replaced by waste aggregate in AAS mortars, the 7 day strength values remained the same (40 MPa. In AAFA mortars, waste was found to effectively replace both the fly ash and the aggregate. The highest strength for AAFA mortars was observed when they were prepared with both a 50 % replacement ratio for the ash and a 20 % ratio for the aggregate.

  15. Chloride ions promoted the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol over clay-based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Zhang, Changbo; Xu, Rui; Gu, Chuantao; Song, Zhengguo; Xu, Minggang

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) of phenol over clay-based catalysts in the presence and absence of NaCl was investigated. Changes in the H2O2, Cl(-), and dissolved metal ion concentration, as well as solution pH during phenol oxidation, were also studied. Additionally, the intermediates formed during phenol oxidation were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and the chemical bonding information of the catalyst surfaces was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the presence of Cl(-) increased the oxidation rate of phenol to 155%, and this phenomenon was ubiquitous during the oxidation of phenolic compounds by H2O2 over clay-based catalysts. Cl(-)-assisted oxidation of phenol was evidenced by several analytical techniques such as mass spectroscopy (MS) and XPS, and it was hypothesized that the rate-limiting step was accelerated in the presence of Cl(-). Based on the results of this study, the CWPO technology appears to be promising for applications in actual saline phenolic wastewater treatment. PMID:26942523

  16. Grouting guidelines for Hanford Tanks Initiative cone penetrometer borings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouting of an open cone penetrometer (CP) borehole is done to construct a barrier that prevents the vertical migration of fluids and contaminants between geologic units and aquifers intersected by the boring. Whether to grout, the types of grout, and the method of deployment are functions of the site-specific conditions. This report recommends the strategy that should be followed both before and during HTI [Hanford Tanks Initiative] CP deployment to decide specific borehole grouting needs at Hanford SST farms. Topics discussed in this report that bear on this strategy include: Regulatory guidance, hydrogeologic conditions, operational factors, specific CP grouting deployment recommendations

  17. Prevention of clogging phenomenon with high-grouting pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a study on grouting strategy for crystalline rock. First, grouting practices used in Nordic countries are summarized. Their main characteristics are the usage of thick slurry of micro-cement, dense pattern of grout holes and simultaneous injection of plural holes, which enable both of high-level water sealing and shortening of grouting work. To investigate the applicability of thick cement slurry, high-pressure clogging test simulating real grouting work has been conducted. The test results indicated the possibility to prevent the clogging phenomenon of thick cement slurry, i.e. water cement ratio of 1.6, by increasing the injection pressure gradually. (author)

  18. Penetrability due to filtration tendency of cement based grouts

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Grouting as a method of strengthening and sealing rock, soil and concrete is widely used. The possibilities of sealing structures are of great importance from both an economical and environmental point of view. The cost of grouting has in certain projects been as high as the cost for the blasting and excavation of the tunnel. To improve the technique of grouting with cement based material, it is necessary to focus on the properties of the used grout mixture. The ability of a grout to penetrat...

  19. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Grouts for Wastewater Collection Systems, Separation Systems Consultants Inc., GST3 Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Municipalities are discovering rapid degradation of infrastructures in wastewater collection and treatment facilities due to infiltration of leaking water from the surrounding environments. Rehabilitation of these facilities by in situ methods, including the use of grouting, is u...

  20. Influence Mechanism of Grouting on Mechanical Characteristics of Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jixun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouting technology has been widely used in all fields of geotechnical and civil engineering. Prospective engineering objectives including reinforcement of rock mass and groundwater leakage treatment can be achieved by grouting which will change the mechanical parameters of rock mass such as strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of permeability. In this paper, rock mass is assumed as a composite material consisting of rock particles and random microcracks initially. Since part or all of the cracks will be filled with cement slurry after grouting, rock mass consists of rock particles, grout condensate, and some or no random microcracks after grouting. The damage constitutional law of the mesoscopic element is established based on the theory of mesoscopic damage mechanics. With the heterogeneity of the components of rock mass considered, the variation of mechanical characteristics of rock mass is studied before and after grouting. And the influence mechanism of grouting on rock mass is investigated at mesoscale level.

  1. Operational and long-term performance assessment for Hanford grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy and Rockwell Hanford Operations are preparing for the construction of a Transportable Grout Facility to immobilize selected radioactive liquid wastes now stored at Hanford. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is supporting the program by developing initial grout formulations for the facility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is verifying the required operational characteristics of the grout formulation and evaluating the long-term performance of the grouted waste form. Preliminary assessments of the operational characteristics of the grout formulation show that the grout meets established criteria. Preliminary performance assessments indicate that the grouted waste form will provide long-term environmental protection. A series of laboratory and field tests are planned and ongoing to verify these assessments

  2. Electrochemical characterization of grouted radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any long-term disposal system of radioactive waste will require monitoring to warn against structural deterioration and leach of the radioactive or hazardous components into the environment. Although the existing methods, based on physical sampling and testing, provide a higher level of confidence in the data, it also results in generation of secondary waste streams and increased exposure to radiation for workers. Therefore, it is highly desirable that a method be developed for remotely sensing the grout. Efforts are focused on the application of an array of long lasting electrodes that will sense the dynamic properties of ions in the grout. The basic unit structure consists of four electrodes through which the authors perform a variety of measurements such as impedance, single frequency conductivity, electrochemical potential, cyclic voltammetry, etc. Grout and other cementitious materials are described within the general context of composite media in which morphology, chemistry and conductivity are interdependent. They describe experimental results that include time evolution over many months of the impedance and electrochemical potential of hydrating (and drying) cement composite and their attempts at interpreting these data in terms of conductivity and dielectric constant of the matrix. Along with the time evolution tests; they have performed the resistivity measurement during simulated deionized water flooding into the dry grout. The leach test experiment is designed to establish possible correlation with present quality verification methods and standard leach test or other such accepted tests

  3. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) is an existing treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit located in the 200 East Area and the adjacent 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed waste (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. The GTF consists of the following: The 241-AP-02D and 241-AP-04D waste pump pits and transfer piping; Dry Materials Facility (DMF); Grout Disposal Facility (GDF), consisting of the disposal vault and support and monitoring equipment; and Grout Processing Facility (GPF) and Westinghouse Hanford Company on the draft Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit and may not be read to conflict with those comments. The Grout Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this TSD unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). For ease of reference, the checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow chapter headings and subheadings

  4. Experimental study of tile grout material behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpová, I. (Ivana); Kloiber, M. (Michal); Ševčík, R. (Radek); Kytýř, D. (Daniel)

    2014-01-01

    Study provides preliminary results of experimental study of tile grout material behavior. Experiments were performed with the use of microCT, three point bending test and methods for chemical analysis. It was proven that material behave very elastic and the suitability of the combination of used methods.

  5. Some experiences with epoxy resin grouting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, H R

    1980-07-01

    Epoxy resin systems are used in tiling and grouting in the construction industry. Because of the nature of the application, skin contact is the primary hazard. The most prevalent reaction was reddening of the forearms, followed by whole body reddening and loss of appetite, these latter two being associated with smoking while applying the resin. PMID:7415974

  6. Crack Formation in Grouted Annular Composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The objective of the present analysis is to identify the reason for extensive crack formation which occurred during an annulus grouting performance test, to evaluate possible consequences of the cracking, and to recommend measures to be taken in order to avoid similar problems in the future....

  7. PENGENALAN STABILISASI TANAH DENGAN JET GROUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Indrastono Dwi Atmanto

    2013-01-01

    Due to restriction of land availability it is frequently we have to build constructions on soft or low bearingcapacity soils, so that soil stabilization must be applied in order to increase its properties. There are manytechniques of soil stabilization, where its applicability depends on many factors regarding appropriateengineering judgement. This paper presents the soil stabilization method by jet grouting, including its theory andpractice.

  8. Analysis on contaminants transport process through clay-solidified grouting curtain in MSW landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-gui; ZHANG Ke-neng; HUANG Chang-bo

    2005-01-01

    Clay-solidified grouting curtains are commonly used for remediation by containment or pollution prevention, in addition to their use as a barrier to water flow in municipal solid waste(MSW) landfills. A hydrological model.of water flow and a hydrodynamic model of contaminant are presented to simulate the migration of leachate through clay-solidified grouting curtain in MSW landfills, with particular attention paid to the role of diffusive and adsorptive fluxes in contaminant transport. The models were applied to simulate the sensitivity of the curtain's behavior to changes in parameters, such as thickness, depth, permeability coefficient, diffusion coefficient,resistance coefficient and concentration, and also to demonstrate the contaminant distribution on the evolution of travel time and offset distance of clay-solidified grouting curtain in landfills. It is found that a part of leachate components stays or is retarded in clay-solidified grouting curtain by precipitate or exchange, the retention rate is closely related to composition of clay-solidified grouting curtain, more than 800%, and the maximum occurs at the cementclay ratio of 2: 4 under experimental conditions. Contamination distribution is variable on travel time and offset distance, the highest concentration takes place where the contamination intensity is nearest to the pollution resource or takes place at early middle period of transport, and the pollutant attenuates gradually. The results indicate that claysolidified grouting curtain with a proper thickness, a low permeability coefficient and a high resistance coefficient might serve as a sufficiently effective vertical barrier against leachate seepage and contamination migration in MSWlandfills.

  9. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work

  10. ELAWD GROUT HOPPER MOCK-UP TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickenheim, B.; Hansen, E.; Leishear, R.; Marzolf, A.; Reigel, M.

    2011-10-27

    A 10-inch READCO mixer is used for mixing the premix (45 (wt%) fly ash, 45 wt% slag, and 10 wt% portland cement) with salt solution in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The Saltstone grout free falls into the grout hopper which feeds the suction line leading to the Watson SPX 100 duplex hose pump. The Watson SPX 100 pumps the grout through approximately 1500 feet of piping prior to being discharged into the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. The existing grout hopper has been identified by the Saltstone Enhanced Low Activity Waste Disposal (ELAWD) project for re-design. The current nominal working volume of this hopper is 12 gallons and does not permit handling an inadvertent addition of excess dry feeds. Saltstone Engineering has proposed a new hopper tank that will have a nominal working volume of 300 gallons and is agitated with a mechanical agitator. The larger volume hopper is designed to handle variability in the output of the READCO mixer and process upsets without entering set back during processing. The objectives of this task involve scaling the proposed hopper design and testing the scaled hopper for the following processing issues: (1) The effect of agitation on radar measurement. Formation of a vortex may affect the ability to accurately measure the tank level. The agitator was run at varying speeds and with varying grout viscosities to determine what parameters cause vortex formation and whether measurement accuracy is affected. (2) A dry feeds over addition. Engineering Calculating X-ESR-Z-00017 1 showed that an additional 300 pounds of dry premix added to a 300 gallon working volume would lower the water to premix ratio (W/P) from the nominal 0.60 to 0.53 based on a Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant. A grout with a W/P of 0.53 represents the upper bound of grout rheology that could be processed at the facility. A scaled amount of dry feeds will be added into the hopper to verify that this is a recoverable situation

  11. ELAWD Grout Hopper Mock-Up Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10-inch READCO mixer is used for mixing the premix (45 (wt%) fly ash, 45 wt% slag, and 10 wt% portland cement) with salt solution in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The Saltstone grout free falls into the grout hopper which feeds the suction line leading to the Watson SPX 100 duplex hose pump. The Watson SPX 100 pumps the grout through approximately 1500 feet of piping prior to being discharged into the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. The existing grout hopper has been identified by the Saltstone Enhanced Low Activity Waste Disposal (ELAWD) project for re-design. The current nominal working volume of this hopper is 12 gallons and does not permit handling an inadvertent addition of excess dry feeds. Saltstone Engineering has proposed a new hopper tank that will have a nominal working volume of 300 gallons and is agitated with a mechanical agitator. The larger volume hopper is designed to handle variability in the output of the READCO mixer and process upsets without entering set back during processing. The objectives of this task involve scaling the proposed hopper design and testing the scaled hopper for the following processing issues: (1) The effect of agitation on radar measurement. Formation of a vortex may affect the ability to accurately measure the tank level. The agitator was run at varying speeds and with varying grout viscosities to determine what parameters cause vortex formation and whether measurement accuracy is affected. (2) A dry feeds over addition. Engineering Calculating X-ESR-Z-00017 1 showed that an additional 300 pounds of dry premix added to a 300 gallon working volume would lower the water to premix ratio (W/P) from the nominal 0.60 to 0.53 based on a Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant. A grout with a W/P of 0.53 represents the upper bound of grout rheology that could be processed at the facility. A scaled amount of dry feeds will be added into the hopper to verify that this is a recoverable situation

  12. Assessing the effects of insufficient rebar and missing grout in grouted rock bolts using guided ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Zou, D. H.

    2012-04-01

    One of the challenges in field monitoring of grouted rock bolts, which normally have a short exposed end, is to detect the defects of the bolt or grout. In this paper, grouted rock bolts are studied using guided ultrasonic waves. Numerical modeling for grouted rock bolts is performed to assess the effects of insufficient rebar and missing grout. The numerical results are verified with laboratory tests on rock bolt samples. With introduction of correction factors at the reflection end, the results indicate that it is practically possible to identify insufficient rebar and grout defects with guided ultrasonic signals received at the exposed end. It also indicates that with the attenuation and wave velocity of guided waves, defective rock bolts with insufficient rebar length or missing grout in the ground can be detected with reasonable accuracy.

  13. Long-term modeling of glass waste in portland cement- and clay-based matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of ''templates'' was developed for modeling waste glass interactions with cement-based and clay-based matrices. The templates consist of a modified thermodynamic database, and input files for the EQ3/6 reaction path code, containing embedded rate models and compositions for waste glass, cement, and several pozzolanic materials. Significant modifications were made in the thermodynamic data for Th, Pb, Ra, Ba, cement phases, and aqueous silica species. It was found that the cement-containing matrices could increase glass corrosion rates by several orders of magnitude (over matrixless or clay matrix systems), but they also offered the lowest overall solubility for Pb, Ra, Th and U. Addition of pozzolans to cement decreased calculated glass corrosion rates by up to a factor of 30. It is shown that with current modeling capabilities, the ''affinity effect'' cannot be trusted to passivate glass if nuclei are available for precipitation of secondary phases that reduce silica activity

  14. Long-term modeling of glass waste in portland cement- and clay-based matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, H.W.; Nagy, K.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morris, C.E. [Wollongong Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Mining Engineering

    1995-12-01

    A set of ``templates`` was developed for modeling waste glass interactions with cement-based and clay-based matrices. The templates consist of a modified thermodynamic database, and input files for the EQ3/6 reaction path code, containing embedded rate models and compositions for waste glass, cement, and several pozzolanic materials. Significant modifications were made in the thermodynamic data for Th, Pb, Ra, Ba, cement phases, and aqueous silica species. It was found that the cement-containing matrices could increase glass corrosion rates by several orders of magnitude (over matrixless or clay matrix systems), but they also offered the lowest overall solubility for Pb, Ra, Th and U. Addition of pozzolans to cement decreased calculated glass corrosion rates by up to a factor of 30. It is shown that with current modeling capabilities, the ``affinity effect`` cannot be trusted to passivate glass if nuclei are available for precipitation of secondary phases that reduce silica activity.

  15. Laboratory testing of cement grouting of fractures in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractures in the rock mass surrounding a repository and its shafts, access drifts, emplacement rooms and holes, and exploratory or in-situ testing holes, may provide preferential flowpaths for the flow of groundwater or air, potentially containing radionuclides. Such cracks may have to be sealed. The likelihood that extensive or at least local grouting will be required as part of repository sealing has been noted in numerous publications addressing high level waste repository closing. The objective of this work is to determine the effectiveness of fracture sealing (grouting) in welded tuff. Experimental work includes measurement of intact and fracture permeability under various normal stresses and injection pressures. Grout is injected into the fractures. The effectiveness of grouting is evaluated in terms of grout penetration and permeability reduction, compared prior to and after grouting. Analysis of the results include the effect of normal stress, injection pressure, fracture roughness, grout rheology, grout bonding, and the radial extent of grout penetration. Laboratory experiments have been performed on seventeen tuff cylinders with three types of fractures: (1) tension induced cracks, (2) natural fractures, and (3) sawcuts. Prior to grouting, the hydraulic conductivity of the intact rock and of the fractures is measured under a range of normal stresses. The surface topography of the fracture is mapped, and the results are used to determine aperture distributions across the fractures. 72 refs., 76 figs., 25 tabs

  16. Theoretical investigations of grout seal longevity - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical investigations into the longevity of repository seals have dealt primarily with the development of a methodology to evaluate interactions between portland cement-based grout and groundwater. Evaluation of chemical thermodynamic equilibria between grout and groundwater, and among grout, groundwater, and granitic host rock phases using the geochemical codes EQ3NR/EQ6 suggests that a fracture filled with grout and saturated with groundwater will tend to fill and 'tighten' with time. Results of these investigations suggest that cement grout seals will maintain an acceptable level of performance for tens of thousands to millions of years, provided the repository is sited where groundwater chemistry is compatible with the seals and hydrologic gradients are low. The results of the grout: groundwater: rock calculations suggest that buffering of the fracture seals chemical systems by the granite rock may be important in determining the long-term fate of grout seals and the resulting phase assemblage in the fracture. The similarity of the modelled reaction products to those observed in naturally filled fractures suggests that with time equilibrium will be approached and grouted fractures subject to low hydrologic gradients will continue to seal. If grout injected into fractures materially reduces groundwater flux, the approach to chemical equilibrium will likely be accelerated. In light of this, even very thin or imperfectly grouted fractures would tighten in suitable hydrogeologic environments. (29 refs.) (au)

  17. Horizontal grout barrier project results of the latest testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites are situations where storage tanks and pits are leaking or have the potential to leak contamination into the soil. Subsequent leaching from rain and groundwater flow disperses the contamination far from the original site and, in some cases, into aquifers which serve as a drinking water source. Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) at Fernald working with the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) and two subcontractors, is pursuing the goal of placing a barrier beneath the contamination to prevent this dispersion. The technology being developed is an in situ approach based on directional drilling and jet grouting techniques developed in the oil fields. The unique barrier techniques being developed depend on innovative tooling and special grouts to install a horizontal barrier underground without disturbing the contaminated soils above. The initial tool designs were tested in December 1992 and were encouraging enough that the DOE agreed to fund continued development. A second set of designs were tested in August 1994. The testing results were less than expected but did provide a number of lessons learned. This paper reports on the third set of tool designs and the results of testing these tools prior to the full demonstration project at Fernald

  18. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Tank Closure Plan and Grout Development Status Report for FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.E.

    2000-05-08

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities across the country have radioactive waste underground storage tanks, which will require either complete removal of the tank contents and tank shells or in-place stabilization of sludge heels. Complete removal of the sludge and tank shells can become costly while providing little benefit to health, safety, and the environment. An alternative to the removal of the residual wastes and tank shells is the use of in situ solidification and stabilization techniques to immobilize the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and radioactive components present in waste storage tanks. One technology for in situ remediation of tank wastes is Ground Environmental Service's (GES's) Multi-Point-Injection (MPI.) technology. MPI technology is a patented delivery system, which uses simple and inexpensive injection tools for rapid delivery of grout or other treatment agents, as well as for the emplacement of subsurface barriers. Through the use of tailored grout formulations in conjunction with a system of specially designed grout injection tools, MPI technology is capable of producing a uniform mixture of sludge and grout. Grouts can be tailored for the immobilization of specific RCRA and radioactive constituents. The system of injection tools is designed to maximize the mixing efficiency of the grout with the wastes in the tank. MPI technology has been successfully demonstrated on the solidification of shallow buried wastes at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and in large-scale pumping and mixing tests in both cylindrical and horizontal simulated waste tanks. Hot demonstration of the technology will be accomplished during the closure of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tank at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in fiscal year 2000. This report describes the closure plan for the OHF tanks and presents the status of grout formulation development at ORNL.

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Tank Closure Plan and Grout Development Status Report for FY 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities across the country have radioactive waste underground storage tanks, which will require either complete removal of the tank contents and tank shells or in-place stabilization of sludge heels. Complete removal of the sludge and tank shells can become costly while providing little benefit to health, safety, and the environment. An alternative to the removal of the residual wastes and tank shells is the use of in situ solidification and stabilization techniques to immobilize the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and radioactive components present in waste storage tanks. One technology for in situ remediation of tank wastes is Ground Environmental Service's (GES's) Multi-Point-Injection (MPI.) technology. MPI technology is a patented delivery system, which uses simple and inexpensive injection tools for rapid delivery of grout or other treatment agents, as well as for the emplacement of subsurface barriers. Through the use of tailored grout formulations in conjunction with a system of specially designed grout injection tools, MPI technology is capable of producing a uniform mixture of sludge and grout. Grouts can be tailored for the immobilization of specific RCRA and radioactive constituents. The system of injection tools is designed to maximize the mixing efficiency of the grout with the wastes in the tank. MPI technology has been successfully demonstrated on the solidification of shallow buried wastes at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and in large-scale pumping and mixing tests in both cylindrical and horizontal simulated waste tanks. Hot demonstration of the technology will be accomplished during the closure of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tank at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in fiscal year 2000. This report describes the closure plan for the OHF tanks and presents the status of grout formulation development at ORNL

  20. Study on the characteristics of grout permeation based on cylindrical diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-gang LI; Wen ZHAO; Yun-sheng HUANG; Yun-xia LEI; Long-mei YU

    2013-01-01

    Permeation grouting is widely applied for its low grouting pressure and minor disturbance to the stratum in grouting engineering,especially in engineering with strict requirements on ground settlement.However,permeation grouting theory lags behind compared with other engineering disciplines,and the theoretical formulas now available cannot accurately be used to guide grouting engineering design and predict the cost and effects of grouting due to many factors affecting grout permeation in stratum.In this study,permeation grouting experiment devices were independently manufactured with the characteristics of easily controlling grouting pressure,simulating sandy strata grout,and detecting grouting effect.Using a uniform design,the sand consolidation agent,as grouting material,its spread in Shenyang sandy strata was tested with these experiment devices.The quantitative relations between grouting factors (grouting pressure,strata parameters,water-sand consolidation agent ratio)and grouting effects (grout spread radius,gell strength,grout amount) are obtained with regression analysis,and the influence degree of grouting factors on grouting effects is studied.

  1. Strength of a granular medium reinforced by cement grouting

    OpenAIRE

    Maalej, Yamen; Dormieux, Luc; Canou, Jean; Dupla, Jean Claude

    2007-01-01

    The present Note describes an experimental study devoted to the strength of a sand reinforced by cement grouting. Through grouting, the granular medium gains a cohesion without significant change of the friction angle. The most significant experimental feature is that the cohesion is proportional to the volume fraction of cement in the grouted material. This result is interpreted within the framework of a periodic homogenization applied to yield design.

  2. Grouted jetted precast concrete sheet piles: Method, experiments, and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, GH; Yue, ZQ; Liu, DF; He, FR

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative technology - grouted jetted precast concrete piling - that increases the efficiency of piling operations in coastal regions. The technology includes the following steps: (i) casting concrete piles factory-designed especially for jetting and grouting; (ii) jetting to drive the concrete piles with a crane on a floating ship or platform into soil; and (iii) grouting to enhance the sheet pile connections and to increase the pile bearing capacity. This technolog...

  3. Modelling of Jet Grouting and its interactions with surrounding soils

    OpenAIRE

    Gesto Beiroa, José Manuel; Gens Solé, Antonio; Arroyo Alvarez de Toledo, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    The versatility of Jet-Grouting as a soil improvement technique has made this procedure to be widely used in geotechnical engineering practice. In this work we discuss some aspects related to the THMC coupling phenomena that may arise when the Jet-Grouting technique is employed. Namely, we describe some basic constitutive models that may be appropriate to simulate the response of the surrounding soils and that of the Jet-Grouted soil itself while those interactions take place.

  4. Analysis of Homogel Uniaxial Compression Strength on Bio Grouting Material

    OpenAIRE

    Kyungho Park; Daehyeon Kim

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed uniaxial compression strength over time by preparing a homogel specimen from a bio grouting material, a cement-like form produced by environment-friendly microbial reactions. Among chemical grouting methods, the most commonly used method is the Labile Waterglass method. In this study, the homogel uniaxial compressive strength of Labile Waterglass (LW) injection material and that of bio grouting material were measured and analyzed. In order to perform the experiment, a tota...

  5. Bell Canyon Test (BCT) cement grout development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the cement grout for the Bell Canyon Test was accomplished at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. Initial development work centered on a saltwater grout with Class H cement, fly ash, and an expansive additive. Testing of the saltwater grout showed suitable properties except for the interface between anhydrite rock and grout in small core samples. Higher than expected permeability occurred at the interface because of space between the grout and the anhydrite; the space was produced as a result of allowing the specimens to dry. A change to freshwater grout and proper care to prevent the specimens from drying alleviated this condition. The BCT-1FF freshwater grout mixture was used in both the plug ONE and ONEX field grouting operations. Testing of the development grout mixtures was also done at Dowell, Pennsylvania State University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Results of the testing and evaluation by the four laboratories are included in the report. Field batching, mixing, and placement of the grout at the plug locations for both plug ONE and ONEX were satisfactory with adequate quality control. The freshwater grout mixture maintained adequate flow characteristics for pumpability for 3 1/2 h during each of the two field operations. Physical property and expansivity data for the field samples through 90 days' age are in general agreement with laboratory development data. A large number of samples were obtained for inclusion in the long-term durability studies and the geochemical programs. The high-density, low water-cement ratio expansive grout (BCT-1FF) is considered to be an excellent candidate for plugging boreholes at most locations

  6. Rock mass response during high pressure grouting

    OpenAIRE

    Gothäll, Rikard

    2006-01-01

    The sealing of hard jointed rock by grouting involves several complicated mechanical systems. The result is a complex coupled system of hydro- logical and mechanical precesses. In order to determine the higher order effects of the resulting system the fracture deformations must be assessed. This requires a model that mimics the mechanical behaviour of not only fractures under normal load but also the entire rock mass system. This model indicates that there are two dominant regimes involved; a...

  7. Pressured Grouting Method (PGM) in Pile Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴序; 于志强; 王旭

    2002-01-01

    Application of pressured grouting method (PGM) in pile engineering can tackle problems encountered during construction of bored piles. Bearing capacity of piles can be increased through compaction of subsoils around piles. This paper reports research efforts of this technique by the pile research team in Southwest Jiaotong University in last decade with respect to the construction process, test findings, and primary research conclusions. The social-economical benefits of this method and application market in pile engineering are also analyzed.

  8. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tong-Chun

    2004-08-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula. PMID:15236477

  9. PENGENALAN STABILISASI TANAH DENGAN JET GROUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrastono Dwi Atmanto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to restriction of land availability it is frequently we have to build constructions on soft or low bearingcapacity soils, so that soil stabilization must be applied in order to increase its properties. There are manytechniques of soil stabilization, where its applicability depends on many factors regarding appropriateengineering judgement. This paper presents the soil stabilization method by jet grouting, including its theory andpractice.

  10. Cement grouting during installation of ground anchors in non-cohesive soils

    OpenAIRE

    Domes, Xenia A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Pressure grouting during installation of grouted ground anchors is known to increase anchor capacity in non-cohesive soils, but little information is available on correlations between applied grouting pressures, duration of grouting, ground conditions and increase of anchor pull-out capacity. The presented PhD study is concerned with processes taking place during installation of grouted ground anchors in non-cohesive soils, where filtration of the cement grout is assumed. It...

  11. Investigation on geochemical influence of grout material on groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducted a contract study with Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) called 'The project for Grouting Technology Development' since 2008. As a part of the study, the monitoring of groundwater chemistry in a pre-grouted area has been carried out for three and half years after pre-grouting in Mizunami URL. The results suggested that the chemical compositions in groundwater affected by pre-grouting were recovered and the period to recover is evaluated about two years around an underground opening. (author)

  12. Grout pump characteristics evaluated with the UVP+PD method

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mashuqur; Håkansson, Ulf; Wiklund, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Rock grouting is performed to decrease the hydraulic conductivity around underground structures, such as tunnels and caverns. Cement grouts are often used and pumped into joint and fractures of the rock formation. Piston type pumps are mostly used for high pressure rock grouting. A pulsation effect is inevitable when using this type of pump due to the movement of the piston. The effect of this pulsation on rock grouting is yet to be known but believed to be benefi-cial for the penetration of ...

  13. Laboratory studies on the longevity of cement grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes laboratory studies of the longevity of cement-based grouts being carried out as part of the International Stripa Project Phase III. The longevity properties determined for a reference grout (90% Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement, 10% silica fume, 0.4< water/cement<0.6 and superplasticizer) are compared with those of a slag cement grout. Laboratory tests have been carried out to determine the following: the mechanistic function of superplasticizer in fresh cement pastes; the leachability of the sorbed superplasticizer and its location in the structure of hardened cement paste; and the general leaching properties of selected cement-based grouts

  14. Thermal conductivity and other properties of cementitious grouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.

    1998-08-01

    The thermal conductivity and other properties cementitious grouts have been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. In addition to thermal conductivity, the cementitious grouts were also tested for bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the results for selected grout mixes. Relatively high thermal conductivities were obtained and this leads to reduction in predicted bore length and installation costs. Improvements in shrinkage resistance and bonding were achieved.

  15. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND OTHER PROPERTIES OF CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLAN,M.

    1998-05-01

    The thermal conductivity and other properties cementitious grouts have been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. In addition to thermal conductivity, the cementitious grouts were also tested for bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the results for selected grout mixes. Relatively high thermal conductivities were obtained and this leads to reduction in predicted bore length and installation costs. Improvements in shrinkage resistance and bonding were achieved.

  16. Evaluation of the Performance of Grouting Materials for Saturated Riprap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyeon Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four types of grout were developed to evaluate the effect of grouting of saturated riprap layers on ground water flow. The developed types of grout are divided into a quick-setting type and a general-type, and also into high and low viscosities. A number of grout tests were performed in a model acrylic chamber, 0.4 m in diameter and 2.0 m in length, for visual observation of injection. To reproduce the field flow condition of the saturated riprap layers (approach flow, the grout tests were carried out at 0 cm/s and 100 cm/s for the flow speed and 10 L/min for the grout injection speed after installing a flow injection opening on the lower part of the chamber. Based on the results of the grout tests, the injection of each grout in the saturated riprap layers was examined to find out the most effective grout.

  17. Analysis of Homogel Uniaxial Compression Strength on Bio Grouting Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungho Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed uniaxial compression strength over time by preparing a homogel specimen from a bio grouting material, a cement-like form produced by environment-friendly microbial reactions. Among chemical grouting methods, the most commonly used method is the Labile Waterglass method. In this study, the homogel uniaxial compressive strength of Labile Waterglass (LW injection material and that of bio grouting material were measured and analyzed. In order to perform the experiment, a total of 10 types of grouting mixing ratios were prepared by a combination of different materials such as Ordinary Portland Cement, Micro Cement, Bio Grouting Material and Sodium Silicate. They were cured in the air, and their homogel uniaxial compression strengths were measured on days 1, 3, 7 and 28 Based on the test results, it was confirmed that the uniaxial strength of the specimen made with Bio Grouting Material, Ordinary Portland Cement and Micro Cement was increased by more than 30% than that of the specimen only used with Ordinary Portland Cement, as a result of hydrogen-released heat reaction between calcium carbonate, the main ingredient of the bio grouting material, and calcium silicate in the cement. This indicates that the use of 30% bio-grouting material instead of cement in the grouting can be a reasonable mixing ratio to save the use of cement, leading to reduction in CO2 emission.

  18. Evaluation of the Performance of Grouting Materials for Saturated Riprap

    OpenAIRE

    Daehyeon Kim; Sinkyu Jung; Kyungsub Cha

    2013-01-01

    In this study, four types of grout were developed to evaluate the effect of grouting of saturated riprap layers on ground water flow. The developed types of grout are divided into a quick-setting type and a general-type, and also into high and low viscosities. A number of grout tests were performed in a model acrylic chamber, 0.4 m in diameter and 2.0 m in length, for visual observation of injection. To reproduce the field flow condition of the saturated riprap layers (approach flow), the gro...

  19. Fly ash grouts for remediation of acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering investigation into the use of electric utility wastes for grouting acidic mine spoil resulting from coal extraction has been undertaken. Laboratory investigations into the physical and chemical properties of various grout mixtures and grouted spoil materials are underway. Grout mixtures are placed in columns and permeated with distilled water. The hydraulic conductivity of the grout was measured. The effect of the high alkaline ashes on the acidic drainage is of particular interest. This series of experiments provided information so that the most favorable grout (low hydraulic conductivity and high alkalinity) could be selected for injection into acidic spoil material. Both standard combustion and fluidized bed ashes were tested. Grout mixtures include ashes, scrubber sludge, lime, bentonite and/or kaolinite. Permeabilities of the mixtures averaged approximately 1.OE-4 cm/sec. A second series of laboratory experiments consists of grouting large diameter drums of acidic spoil with the fly ash grouts. The drums have been constructed and filled with acidic spoil material. The ungrouted infiltration rates have been determined and the resulting effluents chemically analyzed

  20. Rheology of cement grout  : Ultrasound based in-line measurement technique and grouting design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mashuqur

    2015-01-01

    Grouting is performed in order to decrease the permeability and increase the stiffness of the material, especially soil and rock. For tunnelling and underground constructions, permeation grouting is done where cement based materials are pumped inside drilled boreholes under a constant pressure, higher than the ground water pressure. The aim of permeation grouting is to reduce the water flow into tunnels and caverns and to limit the lowering of the surrounding groundwater table. Cement based m...

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of the Hybrid Clay- Based Material Montmorillonite-Melanoidin: A Potential Soil Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Vilas; B Matthiasch; J Huth; J Kratz; S Rubert de la Rosa; P Michel; T Schäfer

    2011-12-31

    The study of the interactions among metals, minerals, and humic substances is essential in understanding the migration of inorganic pollutants in the geosphere. A considerable amount of organic matter in the environment is associated with clay minerals. To understand the role of organic matter in the environment and its association with clay minerals, a hybrid clay-based material (HCM), montmorillonite (STx-1)-melanoidin, was prepared from L-tyrosine and L-glutamic acid by the Maillard reaction. The HCM was characterized by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and thermal analysis. The presence of organic materials on the surface was confirmed by XPS and STXM. The STXM results showed the presence of organic spots on the surface of the STx-1 and the characterization of the functional groups present in those spots. Thermal analysis confirmed the existence of organic materials in the montmorillonite interlayer, indicating the formation of a composite of melanoidin and montmorillonite. The melanoidin appeared to be located partially between the layers of montmorillonite and partially at the surface, forming a structure that resembles the way a cork sits on the top of a champagne bottle.

  2. Technetium diffusion in clay-based materials under oxic and anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion coefficients were determined for Tc in compacted clay-based materials in both anoxic and oxic environments. The soils were saturated with a synthetic groundwater solution; the principle ions in solution were CA2+, Na+ and Cl-. Anoxic conditions were established by conducting the experiments in low-O2 glove box and by mixing 0.5 wt% powdered Fe with the soils. Under anoxic conditions, apparent diffusion coefficients, Da, were 2/s for Tc in compacted backfill material (a 1:3 mix by dry mass of Lake Agassiz clay and crushed granite aggregate). Distribution coefficients, Kd, for Tc on Lake Agassiz clay and backfill material in anoxic environments were back-calculated from Da values. Based on the Kd values, Tc strongly sorbs on Lake Agassiz clay and backfill under anoxic conditions. Effective diffusion coefficients De, for Tc of 10, 16 and 110 μm2/s were measured in oxic Avonlea bentonite, Lake Agassiz clay and illite-smectite, respectively, at a clay dry bulk density of ∼ 1.2 Mg/m3; the corresponding Da values were 55, 48 and 75 μm2/s. Since anoxic conditions are expected in a disposal vault excavated deep in granitic rock in the Canadian Shield, the results suggest the migration of Tc through the backfill will be relatively slow. (author) 23 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs

  3. PHYSICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF LABORATORY PREPARED SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.; Cozzi, A.; Edwards, T.

    2014-05-05

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) built two new Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU), SDU 3 and SDU 5, in 2013. The variable frequency drive (VFD) for the grout transfer hose pump tripped due to high current demand by the motor during the initial radioactive saltstone transfer to SDU 5B on 12/5/2013. This was not observed during clean cap processing on July 5, 2013 to SDU 3A, which is a slightly longer distance from the SPF than is SDU 5B. Saltstone Design Authority (SDA) is evaluating the grout pump performance and capabilities to transfer the grout processed in SPF to SDU 3/5. To assist in this evaluation, grout physical properties are required. At this time, there are no rheological data from the actual SPF so the properties of laboratory prepared samples using simulated salt solution or Tank 50 salt solution will be measured. The physical properties of grout prepared in the laboratory with de-ionized water (DI) and salt solutions were obtained at 0.60 and 0.59 water to premix (W/P) ratios, respectively. The yield stress of the DI grout was greater than any salt grout. The plastic viscosity of the DI grout was lower than all of the salt grouts (including salt grout with admixture). When these physical data were used to determine the pressure drop and fluid horsepower for steady state conditions, the salt grouts without admixture addition required a higher pressure drop and higher fluid horsepower to transport. When 0.00076 g Daratard 17/g premix was added, both the pressure drop and fluid horsepower were below that of the DI grout. Higher concentrations of Daratard 17 further reduced the pressure drop and fluid horsepower. The uncertainty in the single point Bingham Plastic parameters is + 4% of the reported values and is the bounding uncertainty. Two different mechanical agitator mixing protocols were followed for the simulant salt grout, one having a total mixing time of three minutes and the other having a time of 10 minutes. The Bingham Plastic parameters

  4. Silicate grout curtains behaviour for the protection of coastal aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elektorowicz, M.; Chifrina, R.; Hesnawi, R. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Tests were performed to evaluate the behaviour of silicate grout with different reagents (ethylacetate - formamide SA and calcium chloride SC) in pure silica sand and natural soils from coastal areas containing organic matter, clayey soil and silica sand. The grouted specimens were tested with simulated fresh and salt water. The setting process during chemical grouting in the soil and sand was studied. The grouting of soil and sand with SA caused a transfer to the environment of some compounds: sodium formate, sodium acetate, ammonia and part of the initial ethylacetate and formamide. This process had a tendency to decrease for approximately 4 months. The stability of specimens was low. The grouting of soil and sand with SC caused no significant contamination of the environment. The increase of pH of environmental water was even less than with SA grouting. Also, the stability of specimens is higher in comparison with SA grouting. Salt water protected the specimens grouted with SA and SC from destruction and prevented contamination.

  5. Methods and system for subsurface stabilization using jet grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Guy G.; Weidner, Jerry R.; Farnsworth, Richard K.; Gardner, Bradley M.; Jessmore, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Methods and systems are provided for stabilizing a subsurface area such as a buried waste pit for either long term storage, or interim storage and retrieval. A plurality of holes are drilled into the subsurface area with a high pressure drilling system provided with a drill stem having jet grouting nozzles. A grouting material is injected at high pressure through the jet grouting nozzles into a formed hole while the drill stem is withdrawn from the hole at a predetermined rate of rotation and translation. A grout-filled column is thereby formed with minimal grout returns, which when overlapped with other adjacent grout-filled columns encapsulates and binds the entire waste pit area to form a subsurface agglomeration or monolith of grout, soil, and waste. The formed monolith stabilizes the buried waste site against subsidence while simultaneously providing a barrier against contaminate migration. The stabilized monolith can be left permanently in place or can be retrieved if desired by using appropriate excavation equipment. The jet grouting technique can also be utilized in a pretreatment approach prior to in situ vitrification of a buried waste site. The waste encapsulation methods and systems are applicable to buried waste materials such as mixed waste, hazardous waste, or radioactive waste.

  6. Efficiency of Micro-fine Cement Grouting in Liquefiable Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of strong ground motion, liquefaction hazards are likely to occur in saturated cohesion-less soils. The risk of liquefaction and subsequent deformation can be reduced by various ground improvement methods including the cement grouting technique. The grouting method was proposed for non-disruptive mitigation of liquefaction risk at developed sites susceptible to liquefaction. In this research, a large-scale experiment was developed for assessment of micro-fine cement grouting effect on strength behavior and liquefaction potential of loose sand. Loose sand samples treated with micro-fine grout in multidirectional experimental model, were tested under cyclic and monotonic triaxial loading to investigate the influence of micro-fine grout on the deformation properties and pore pressure response. The behavior of pure sand was compared with the behavior of sand grouted with a micro-fine cement grout. The test results were shown that cement grouting with low concentrations significantly decreased the liquefaction potential of loose sand and related ground deformation

  7. Methods and system for subsurface stabilization using jet grouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods and systems are provided for stabilizing a subsurface area such as a buried waste pit for either long term storage, or interim storage and retrieval. A plurality of holes are drilled into the subsurface area with a high pressure drilling system provided with a drill stem having jet grouting nozzles. A grouting material is injected at high pressure through the jet grouting nozzles into a formed hole while the drill stem is withdrawn from the hole at a predetermined rate of rotation and translation. A grout-filled column is thereby formed with minimal grout returns, which when overlapped with other adjacent grout-filled columns encapsulates and binds the entire waste pit area to form a subsurface agglomeration or monolith of grout, soil, and waste. The formed monolith stabilizes the buried waste site against subsidence while simultaneously providing a barrier against contaminate migration. The stabilized monolith can be left permanently in place or can be retrieved if desired by using appropriate excavation equipment. The jet grouting technique can also be utilized in a pretreatment approach prior to in situ vitrification of a buried waste site. The waste encapsulation methods and systems are applicable to buried waste materials such as mixed waste, hazardous waste, or radioactive waste

  8. Grouting as a waste immobilization/disposal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many options are available today for the immobilization and disposal of wastes that contain environmentally harmful materials. The option chosen depends upon the type of waste, regulatory requirements, and economics of process. Some options are specific to a given waste type; others are more versatile. This presentation discusses a very versatile option for waste immobilization/disposal - grouting. Many types of grout are available, such as chemical, clays or other particulates, fly ash, cements, or a combination of these. This presentation discusses the application of a variety of cement-based grouting techniques available for disposal of environmentally harmful materials. Areas discussed are in situ grouting of pits, ponds and lagoons, grouting as remedial action, and fixation for disposal in burial trenches or vaults. 6 refs

  9. Characterization of phosphate/sulfate waste grout cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1993-09-01

    As part of efforts to clean up federal production sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is treating selected low-level liquid wastes by incorporating them into cementitious waste forms. At the Hanford Site, low-level radioactive liquid wastes will be mixed with a blend of Portland cement, fly ash, clays, and other ingredients in a continuous process at the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). The resulting grout slurry will be pumped to lined, underground concrete vaults where the grout will harden, thereby immobilizing contaminants. Physical property measurements and American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 leach tests have been completed on 45 samples obtained from five cores from the phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW) grout vault. A summary of the compressive strength, bulk density, and sonic velocity data is compared with data from other PSW grout samples. Results of moisture content, thermal conductivity, and the leaching of aluminium, calcium, sodium, sulfate, cobalt-60, and cesium-137 are given.

  10. Grouting as a waste immobilization/disposal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many options are available today for the immobilization and disposal of wastes that contain environmentally harmful materials. The option chosen depends upon the type of waste, regulatory requirements, and economics of process. Some options are specific to a given waste type; others are more versatile. This presentation discusses a very versatile option for waste immobilization/disposal, i.e. grouting. Many types of grout are available, such as chemical, clays or other particulates, fly ash, cements, or a combination of these. Within the limited allowable time, this presentation discusses the application of a variety of cement-based grouting techniques available for disposal of environmentally harmful materials. Areas discussed are in situ grouting of pits, ponds and lagoons, grouting as remedial action, and fixation for disposal in burial trenches or vaults

  11. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  12. MODELING ANALYSIS FOR GROUT HOPPER WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2012-01-04

    The Saltstone facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout nuclear waste slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The primary objective of the work was to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation. Steady state analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed by using the basic concept that local shear rate profiles and flow patterns can be used as a measure of hydraulic performance and spatial stirring. Flow patterns were estimated by a Lagrangian integration technique along

  13. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.

    2003-11-24

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  14. Field evaluation of a cement-bentonite grout and a chlorosulfonated polyethylene fabric liner in hydrologically isolating low-level radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two engineered modifications, trench lining and grouting, have been demonstrated and evaluated. Reinforced chlorosulfonated polyethylene (Hypalon) fabric and a Portland cement-bentonite grout were selected for demonstration within a group of nine 28-m3 experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Groundwater monitoring has shown that standing water is present in all nine experimental trenches (both treated and untreated); however, depth of water and water level fluctuation patterns differed according to trench treatment and were minimal in the case of the grouted trenches. Both water pump-in and water pump-out tests conducted on the lined trenches showed that the original goal of watertight liners was not achieved and that water was entering and leaving these trenches with each precipitation event. Water entering into the grouted trenches was inhibited by the cement-bentonite grout backfill, as reflected in the lower values of hydraulic conductivities that were measured in these three trenches compared with those in the three control (untreated) trenches. In examining engineering properties of the grout and liner material, it was found that no significant change in liner tensile strength or liner aging study, indicating that there were no short-term changes in these engineering properties with field weathering. Cover subsidence has not occurred over the grouted or control trenches, while 2 of the lined trenches have settled 7 to 10 cm (2 to 3% of the trench depth) in the first two years. Based on these treatment evaluation tests, the cement-bentonite grouted trenches appear to offer the highest level of water protection compared to the Hypalon lined and the control trenches

  15. Relationship Between Flowability And Tank Closure Grout Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.; Stefanko, D. B.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-10-08

    After completion of waste removal and chemical cleaning operations, Tanks 5-F and 6-F await final closure. The project will proceed with completing operational closure by stabilizing the tanks with grout. Savannah River Remediation's (SRR) experience with grouting Tanks 18-F and 19-F showed that slump-flow values were correlated with flow/spread inside these tanks. Less mounding was observed when using grouts with higher slump-flow. Therefore, SRNL was requested to evaluate the relationship between flowability and cured properties to determine whether the slump-flow maximum spread of Mix LP#8-16 could be increased from 28 inches to 30 inches without impacting the grout quality. A request was also made to evaluate increasing the drop height from 5 feet to 10 feet with the objective of enhancing the flow inside the tank by imparting more kinetic energy to the placement. Based on a review of the grout property data for Mix LP#8-16 collected from Tank 18-F and 19-F quality control samples, the upper limit for slump-flow measured per ASTM C 1611 can be increased from 28 to 30 inches without affecting grout quality. However, testing should be performed prior to increasing the drop height from 5 to 10 feet or observations should be made during initial filling operations to determine whether segregation occurs as a function of drop heights between 5 and 10 feet. Segregation will negatively impact grout quality. Additionally, increasing the delivery rate of grout into Tanks 5-F and 6-F by using a higher capacity concrete/grout pump will result in better grout spread/flow inside the tanks.

  16. Relationship Between Flowability And Tank Closure Grout Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After completion of waste removal and chemical cleaning operations, Tanks 5-F and 6-F await final closure. The project will proceed with completing operational closure by stabilizing the tanks with grout. Savannah River Remediation's (SRR) experience with grouting Tanks 18-F and 19-F showed that slump-flow values were correlated with flow/spread inside these tanks. Less mounding was observed when using grouts with higher slump-flow. Therefore, SRNL was requested to evaluate the relationship between flowability and cured properties to determine whether the slump-flow maximum spread of Mix LP no. 8-16 could be increased from 28 inches to 30 inches without impacting the grout quality. A request was also made to evaluate increasing the drop height from 5 feet to 10 feet with the objective of enhancing the flow inside the tank by imparting more kinetic energy to the placement. Based on a review of the grout property data for Mix LP no. 8-16 collected from Tank 18-F and 19-F quality control samples, the upper limit for slump-flow measured per ASTM C 1611 can be increased from 28 to 30 inches without affecting grout quality. However, testing should be performed prior to increasing the drop height from 5 to 10 feet or observations should be made during initial filling operations to determine whether segregation occurs as a function of drop heights between 5 and 10 feet. Segregation will negatively impact grout quality. Additionally, increasing the delivery rate of grout into Tanks 5-F and 6-F by using a higher capacity concrete/grout pump will result in better grout spread/flow inside the tanks

  17. On grouting using a suspension of ultrafine clay on artificially cracked rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there has been increasing social interest in the effective disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The use of underground rock caverns is considered as a possible repository space. This paper presents a new grouting method which uses a suspension of liquefied ultrafine clay in fractured rock masses. In order to demonstrate the effect to block open cracks, two experiments were carried out on large-sized granite samples with open cracks. The experiments proved the method to be highly effective

  18. Fate of Contaminants in Contact with West Valley Grouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrmann,M.; Gillow, J.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the work described here is to determine to what extent a variety of contaminants, including fission products, actinides, and RCRA elements are sequestered by the two grout formulations. The conceptual model for this study is as follows: a large mass of grout having been poured into a high-level waste tank is in the process of aging and weathering for thousands of years. The waste remaining in the tank will contain radionuclides and other contaminants, much of which will adhere to tank walls and internal structures. The grout will encapsulate the contaminants. Initially the grout will be well sequestered, but over time rainwater and groundwater will gain access to it. Ultimately, the grout/waste environment will be an open system. In this condition water will move through the grout, exposing it to O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} from the air and HCO{sub 3}{sup -} from the groundwater. Thus we are considering an oxic environment containing HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. Initially the solubility of many contaminants, but not all, will be constrained by chemistry dominated by the grout, primarily by the high pH, around 11.8. This is controlled and buffered by the portland cement and blast furnace slag components of the grout, which by themselves maintain a solution pH of about 12.5. Slowly the pH will diminish as Ca(OH){sub 2} and KOH dissolve, are carried away by water, and CaCO{sub 3} forms. As these conditions develop, the behavior of these elements comes into question. In our conceptual model, although the grout is formulated to provide some reducing capacity, in order to be conservative this mechanism is not considered. In addition to solubility constraints imposed by pH, the various contaminants may be incorporated into a variety of solid phases. Some may be incorporated into newly forming compounds as the grout sets and cures. Others (like soddyite, (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}) are the result of slower reactions but may become important over time

  19. R20 Programme: The development of grouting technique. Stop criteria and field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a part of the project 'Grouting Technique' by Posiva Oy, which is responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. This study attempts to collect disperse information about the design parameters of the grouting and about a field-test stop criterion, which differs from the prevailing practice. The literature study describes salient processes of grouting design in sufficient extent. Different methods for grouting stop criterion are described in more detail. Grouting design based on selected grouting theory, grouting and evaluating of the grouting results are presented in the experiential part of this study. This study focuses on rock tunnel grouting using cement-based grout. The requirements for water tightness, which are set down by customer, direct the grouting design. Information about fractures in rock mass, which surrounds the rock facility, is the prime initial data for grouting design. In grouting work, fracturing is generally studied by water loss measurements performed in investigation, probe and grouting holes. Besides the water loss measurement, the Posiva Flow Log -tool, which measures location and transmissivity for every single fracture, is used in ONKALO. Grouting pressure and grout must be chosen together and case-specifically. Both pressure and yield strength of grout are influencing the penetration length of grout in a fracture. Grouting pressure must be high enough to ensure sufficient penetration length, but pressure must be under the level where rock mass breaks to avoid hydraulic fracturing. Raising the water to dry material ratio reduces the yield strength of grout, in which case the grouting pressure can be lowered. Stop criterion for grouting aims to define the point, when the result of the grouting is adequate, and the grouting after that point is uneconomical. Properly specified stop criterion minimizes extra grout volume and reduces the running time of grouting work. From the references, three different

  20. ORNL grouting technologies for immobilizing hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cement and Concrete Applications Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed versatile and inexpensive processes to solidify large quantities of hazardous liquids, sludges, and solids. By using standard off the shelf processing equipment, these batch or continuous processes are compatible with a wide range of disposal methods, such as above-ground storage, shallow-land burial, deep geological disposal, sea-bed dumping, and bulk in-situ solidification. Because of their economic advantages, these latter bulk in-situ disposal scenarios have received the most development. ORNL's experience has shown that tailored cement-based formulas can be developed which tolerate wide fluctuations in waste feed compositions and still maintain mixing properties that are compatible with standard equipment. In addition to cements, these grouts contain pozzolans, clays and other additives to control the flow properties, set-times, phase separations and impacts of waste stream fluctuation. The cements, fly ashes and other grout components are readily available in bulk quantities and the solids-blends typically cost less than $0.05 to 0.15 per waste gallon. Depending on the disposal scenario, total disposal costs (material, capital, and operating) can be as low as $0.10 to 0.50 per gallon

  1. CsIX/TRU Grout Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A settlement agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that liquid waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC - formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, ICPP) will be calcined by the end of year 2012. This study investigates an alternative treatment of the liquid waste that removes undissolved solids (UDS) by filtration and removes cesium by ion exchange followed by cement-based grouting of the remaining liquid into 55-gal drums. Operations are assumed to be FR-om January 2008 through December 2012. The grouted waste will be contact-handled and will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico for disposal. The small volume of secondary wastes such as the filtered solids and cesium sorbent (resin) would remain in storage at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for treatment and disposal under another project, with an option to dispose of the filtered solids as a r emote-handled waste at WIPP

  2. THE CONTINUUM APPROACH IN A GROUTING MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Demchuk, M.; Saiyouri, N.

    2014-01-01

    Получено значение максимального размера поры, при котором континуальный подход всё ещё можно применять в моделировании распространения цемента в насыщенном песке при цементации, которая не разрушает структуру грунта.The value of the maximal pore size whereby the continuum approach can still be adopted for modeling cement grout propagation in saturated sand during permeation grouting is obtained....

  3. CsIX/TRU Grout Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. J. Losinski; C. M. Barnes; B. K. Grover

    1998-11-01

    A settlement agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that liquid waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC - formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, ICPP) will be calcined by the end of year 2012. This study investigates an alternative treatment of the liquid waste that removes undissolved solids (UDS) by filtration and removes cesium by ion exchange followed by cement-based grouting of the remaining liquid into 55-gal drums. Operations are assumed to be from January 2008 through December 2012. The grouted waste will be contact-handled and will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico for disposal. The small volume of secondary wastes such as the filtered solids and cesium sorbent (resin) would remain in storage at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for treatment and disposal under another project, with an option to dispose of the filtered solids as a r emote-handled waste at WIPP.

  4. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting

  5. Experimental assessment of the sealing effectiveness of rock fracture grouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the effectiveness of cement grouts as sealants of fractures in rock. Laboratory experiments have been conducted on seven 15-cm granite cubes containing saw cuts, three 23-cm diameter andesite cores containing induced tension cracks, and one 15-cm diameter marble core containing a natural fracture. Prior to grouting, the hydraulic conductivity of the fractures is determined under a range of normal stresses, applied in loading and unloading cycles, from 0 to 14 MPa (2000 psi). Grout is injected through an axial borehole, at a pressure of 1.2 to 8.3 MPa (180 to 1200 psi), pressure selected to provide a likely groutable fracture aperture, while the fracture is stressed at a constant normal stress. The fracture permeability is measured after grouting. Flow tests on the ungrouted samples confirm the inverse relation between normal stress and fracture permeability. The equivalent aperture determined by these tests is a reliable indicator of groutability. Postgrouting permeability measurements as performed here, and frequently in practice, can be misleading, since incomplete grouting of fractures can result in major apparent reductions in permeability. The apparent permeability reduction is caused by grouting of a small area of a highly preferential flowpath directly adjacent to the hole used for grouting and for permeability testing. Experimental results confirm claims in the literature that ordinary portland cement inadequately penetrates fine fractures

  6. High-pH plume from fracture grouting. Application to low-pH-cement grouting at ONKALO (Finland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J. M.; Vuorio, M.; Hautojärvi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Grouting of water-conducting fractures with low-alkali cement is foreseen by Posiva (Finnish nuclear waste management agency) for the potential future repository for high-level nuclear waste in Finland (ONKALO). A possible consequence of the interaction between groundwater and grout is the formation of high-pH solutions which will be able to react with the host rock and engineering-barrier materials, altering their mineralogy and porosity. Calculations were already performed (Soler et al., 2011) simulating the interaction between flowing water and grout and the alteration of the host rock (gneiss) as this water flowed beyond the grouted section of the fracture. The calculations included the hydration and simultaneous leaching of the grout through diffusive exchange between the porewater in the grout and the flowing water in the fracture. The formation of an alkaline plume was extremely limited when the low-pH grout was used. And even when using a grout with a lower silica fume content the extent and magnitude of the alkaline plume were rather minor. New calculations have now addressed the effect of different groundwater compositions. The results show that after grouting with low-pH cement, the duration of the initial high-pH peak is short (grout-fracture interface, which consumes OH-. In the longer term, the results show a gradually decaying pH tail (pH grout-fracture interface. The duration of this tail correlates inversely with the carbonate content of the inflowing groundwater. A major outcome of this study is that mineral precipitation controls the formation of a potential high-pH plume by consuming alkalinity and limiting diffusive solute exchange between the grout and the circulating groundwater. Assumption of long-term interaction between rocks or engineering-barrier materials with flowing high-pH (> 12) solutions is most probably very unrealistic. Funding from POSIVA is gratefully acknowledged. Reference Soler, J.M., Vuorio M., Hautojärvi, A., 2011

  7. Superplasticizer function and sorption in high performance cement based grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes laboratory studies undertaken to determine interactions between the main components of high-performance cement-based grout. These interactions were studied with the grouts in both their unset and hardened states with the specific intention of determining the following: the mechanistic function of superplasticizer; the phase of residence of the superplasticizer in hardened materials; and the permanence of the superplasticizer in hardened grouts. In unset pastes attempts were made to extract superplasticizer by mechanical processes. In hardened grout the superplasticizer was leached from the grouts. A microautoradiographic method was developed to investigate the phases of residence of superplasticizer in hardened grouts and confirm the inferences from the leaching studies. In hardened grout the superplasticizer was located on the hydrated phases formed during the early stages of cement hydration. These include tricalcium aluminate hydrates and tricalcium silicate phases. There is some tendency for the superplasticizer to sorb on ettringite. The presence of superplasticizer did not coincide with the locations of unreacted silica fume and high silica content phases such as C2S-H. The observations explain the findings of the studies of unset pastes which also showed that the sorption of superplasticizer is likely to be enhanced with increased mixing water content and, hence, distribution in and exposure to the hydration reaction surfaces in the grout. Superplasticizer can be leached in very small quantities from the hardened grouts. Rapid release takes place from the unsorbed superplasticizer contained in the accessible pore space. Subsequent release likely occurs with dissolution of the cement phases and the exposure of isolated pores to groundwater. (au) (37 refs.)

  8. Organic material in clay-based buffer materials and its potential impact on radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL has submitted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel disposal at depth in crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. In this disposal concept used fuel would be emplaced in corrosion-resistant containers which would be surrounded by clay-based buffer and backfill materials. Once groundwater is able to penetrate the buffer and corrosion-resistant container, radionuclides could be transported from the waste form to the surrounding geosphere, and eventually to the biosphere. The release of radionuclides from the waste form and their subsequent transport would be determined by the geochemistry of the disposal vault and surrounding geosphere. Organic substances affect the geochemistry of radionuclides through complexation reactions that increase solubility and alter mobility, by affecting the redox of certain radionuclides and by providing food for microbes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the buffer and backfill materials proposed for use in a disposal vault contain organics that could be leached by groundwater in large enough quantities to complex with radionuclides and affect their mobility within the disposal vault and surrounding geosphere. Buffer material, made from a mixture of 50 wt.% Avonlea sodium bentonite and 50 wt.% silica sand, was extracted with deionized water to determine the release of dissolved organic carbon, humic acid and fulvic acid. The effect of radiation and heat from the used fuel was simulated by treating samples of buffer before leaching to various amounts of heat (60 deg C and 90 deg C) for periods of 2, 4 and 6 weeks, and to ionizing radiation with doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy. Humic substances were isolated from the leachates to determine the concentrations of humic and fulvic acids and to determine their functional group content by acid-base titrations. The results showed that groundwater would leach significant amounts of organics that would complex with radionuclides such as

  9. Interaction between clay-based sealing components and crystalline host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of hydraulic-mechanical (H-M) numerical simulation of a shaft seal installed at a fracture zone (FZ) in a crystalline host rock using the finite element method are presented. The primary function of a shaft seal is to limit short-circuiting of the groundwater flow regime via the shaft in a deep geological repository. Two different stages of system evolution were considered in this numerical modelling. Stage 1 simulates the groundwater flow into an open shaft, prior to seal installation. Stage 2 simulates the groundwater flow into the shaft seal after seal installation. Four different cases were completed to: (i) evaluate H-M response due to the interaction between clay-based sealing material and crystalline host rock in the shaft seal structure; (ii) quantify the effect of the different times between the completion of the shaft excavation and the completion of shaft seal installation on the H-M response; and (iii) define the potential effects of different sealing material configurations. Shaft sealing materials include the bentonite-sand mixture (BSM), dense backfill (DBF), and concrete plug (CP). The BSM has greater swelling capacity and lower hydraulic conductivity (K) than the DBF. The results of these analyses show that the decrease of the pore water pressure is concentrated along the fracture zone (FZ), which has the greatest K. As the time increases, the greatest decrease in pore water pressure is found around the FZ. Following FZ isolation and the subsequent filling of the shaft with water as it floods, the pore water pressure profile tends to recover back to the initial conditions prior to shaft excavation. The majority of the fluids that ultimately saturate the centre of the shaft seal flow radially inwards from the FZ. The time between the completion of the shaft excavation and the completion of shaft seal installation has a significant effect on the saturation time. A shorter time can reduce the saturation time. Since most of the inflow comes

  10. Prediction of grout penetration in fractured rocks by numerical simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, MJ; Yue, ZQ; Lee, PKK; Su, B; Tham, LG

    2002-01-01

    As fractures in rock significantly reduce the strength as well as the stiffness of the rock mass, grouting may be required to improve the performance of the rock mass in engineering or mining projects. During grouting, mortar of cement or other materials is injected into the rock mass so that the fractures can be filled up and the rock mass can act as an integral unit. Unlike water, grouts are usually viscous and behave as non-Newtonian fluids. Therefore, the equations describing the flow of ...

  11. Formulation verification study results for 241-AN-106 waste grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the reference formulation and variations around the formulation are adequate for solidifying 241-AN-106 (106-AN) waste into a grout waste form. The reference formulation consists of 21 wt% type I/II Portland cement, 68 wt% fly ash, and 11 wt% attapulgite clay. The mix ratio is 8.4 lb/gal. Variations in dry blend component ratios, mix ratio, and waste concentration were assessed by using a statistically designed experimental matrix consisting of 44 grout compositions. Based on the results of the statistically designed variability study, the 106-AN grout formulations tested met all the formulation criteria except for the heat of hydration

  12. R20 programme: Development of rock grouting design, techniques and procedures for ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy constructs an underground research facility ONKALO at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki. ONKALO is planned to be a part of the deep repository for the high level nuclear waste. Posiva Oy set up R20-programme for the years 2006-2008, with the target of having an acceptable grouting methodology in ONKALO. The programme was divided into three projects and the work and results of Technique-project is presented in this report. The implementation of the results (grouting design and execution) was outlined from the project. That work is under the responsibility of construction of the ONKALO-project. The Grouting Technique -project (INKE) studied the grouting experiences obtained from the first 2 km of the ONKALO access tunnel, searched for suitable grouting design approaches, carried out two grouting tests and one pilot grouting test with colloidal silica in ONKALO, analysed the expected grouting conditions in deep rock from the grouting point of view, studied the feasibility of so called optimal design solution in the expected grouting conditions. Based on these studies recommendations concerning the grouting design, design solutions for different rock conditions, grouting procedures, grouting stop criteria, the characterisation methods for grouting purposes, grouting materials and grouting work performance are presented. Swedish Time Stop Grouting, also named Grouting Time-Method was selected to be studied and used in this project and it was further developed. This work compiles the outcome of the project subtasks and presents the recommendations for developing the grouting in ONKALO. The key conclusion of this work are: (1) Grouting Time-method (time stop grouting) alone is not enough to be used as a grouting stop criterion due to the uncertainties related to the source parameters (fracture characteristics, rheological properties of grouts); these cause too high uncertainties when proving the sealing result via the grouting time, (2) due to the uncertainties related to

  13. Biogrouting compared to jet grouting: environmental (LCA) and economical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Pascal; Hallberg, Niklas; Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Holm, Goran

    2009-03-01

    In order to predict consequences of replacing jet grouting with biogrouting, and identify major contributors to the cost of both technologies, a large road project in Stockholm, Sweden, was used as a case study. Jet grouting had been used to seal the contact between sheet piling and bedrock, biogrouting for the same function was computed. A comparative environmental and economical assessment was carried out using life cycle assessment (LCA). The results show that biogrouting was cheaper than jet grouting and would have had lower environmental impact. The major difference was the transport and use of heavier equipment for jet grouting. Biogrouting also used less water and produced less landfilled waste. However, the production of urea and CaCl(2) for biogrouting required much energy. PMID:19184701

  14. Assessing the influence of jet-grouting underpinning on the nearby buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chepurnova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the underpinning-induced ground movement due to jet-grouting. Jet-grouting technique can cause distortions as a result of an inaccurate processing sequence and/or errors made at different stages of work execution. The aim of this paper is to determine the minimum value of such movement on the basis of the findings obtained at two similar construction sites located in the Historical Center of Moscow, considering that the maximum value is usually unpredictable. Numerical simulation of the process of soil eroding agrees well with the observational data at the current stage. It was found that the minimum value of deformations (only settlement was considered in this study due to jet-grouting is no less than 2–3 mm. By contrast, the negative scenario of deformation due to foundation underpinning is clearly demonstrated. Also, this paper provides some general solutions for excavation supporting system as well as for underpinning design.

  15. Extraction of Contaminated Soil Using High Pressure Jet Grouting

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Removal of contaminated soil underneath existing structures causes settlement. There is a need for a remediation technology that eliminates this problem. The jet grouting by the triple rod system can be combined with an on site remediation technology (e.g., soil washing). Jet grouting was developed primarily for underpinning and/or excavation support. The benefits of this technology lie in the future reduction of structural settlement, and site access flexibility.

  16. Influence Mechanism of Grouting on Mechanical Characteristics of Rock Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jixun; Shu Jiaqing; Ren Xuhua; Ren Hongyun

    2013-01-01

    Grouting technology has been widely used in all fields of geotechnical and civil engineering. Prospective engineering objectives including reinforcement of rock mass and groundwater leakage treatment can be achieved by grouting which will change the mechanical parameters of rock mass such as strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of permeability. In this paper, rock mass is assumed as a composite material consisting of rock particles and random microcracks initially. Since part or all of ...

  17. Proposal of efficient pre-excavation grouting concept for deep underground rock excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a study on efficient pre-excavation grouting concept using cement grout for reducing water-inflow during deep underground excavation in hard crystalline rock. Although thick grout mix is favorable for the efficiency, clogging phenomenon at the entrance of rock fractures in grout hole is a critical issue. The clogging phenomenon is therefore studied by laboratory experiments considering single and plural fractures. Although it is possible to increase grout volume by raising grout pressure for the case of single fracture, it is unrealistic to raise grout pressure for the case of plural fractures due to the concentrated flow into large fracture. Finally, the efficient pre-excavation grouting concept with moderate to thick grout mix is proposed based on laboratory studies. (author)

  18. Real Time Grouting Control Method. Development and application using Aespoe HRL data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spread of grout is governed by a number of complex relations. The desired results, such as grout penetration and sealing of fractures, cannot be directly measured during the grouting process. This means that the issue of how or when the injection of grout should be stopped cannot be answered by simple rules of thumb. This is also the background to the great variety of empirical rules used in the grouting sector worldwide. The research during recent years has given a better understanding of the water-bearing structures of the rock mass as well as analytical solutions. In this report the methodology has been further studied and a method for design and control of rock grouting has been proposed. The concept of what we call the 'Real Time Grouting Control Method' is to calculate the grout penetration and control grouting in real time by applying the development of the theories for grout spread. Our intention is to combine our method with a computerized logging tool to acquire an active tool in order to be able to govern the grout spread in real time during the grouting operation. The objectives of this report are: to further develop the theory concerning the relationship between grout penetration and grouting time to describe the real course of grouting, to establish the concept of 'Real Time Grouting Control Method' for design and control for rock grouting based on the developed theory, and to verify the concept by using the field data from the grouting experiment at the 450 m level in the Aespoe HRL. In this report, the approximations and analysis of dimensionality have been checked and further developments of the theory with respect to varying grouting pressure, time-dependent grout properties, changing grout mixes, and changing the flow dimension of the fracture have been carried out. The concept of 'Real Time Grouting Control Method' has been described in order to calculate the grout penetration and to control grouting in real time by applying developed

  19. Study on Optimal Grouting Timing for Controlling Uplift Deformation of a Super High Arch Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Li, Qingbin; Liu, Hongyuan; Yu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    A grouting model is developed for use during the grouting of the complex foundation of a super high arch dam. The purpose as to determine the optimal grouting timing and appropriate grouting pressure involved in controlling the uplift deformation of the dam. The model determines the optimal grouting time as the height of the arch dam increases with the concrete pouring, by checking the tensile stresses in the dam against standard specifications. The appropriate grouting pressures are given on the basis of the actual grouting pressures monitored during the upstream riverbed foundation grouting. An engineering procedure, applying the model, was then proposed and used during foundation grouting under the toe block of the Xiluodu super high-arch dam in south-western China. The quality of the foundation grouting was evaluated against the results from pressurized water permeability tests, acoustic wave velocity tests, elastic modulus tests and panoramic photographing of the rockmass on completion of the foundation grouting. The results indicated that the proposed grouting model can be applied to effectively reduce the uplift deformation and associated cracking risk for super high arch dams, and it can be concluded that the proposed engineering grouting procedure is a valuable tool for improving foundation grouting under the toe blocks of a super high arch dam.

  20. Cement-based grouts in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofrei, M. [AECL Research, Pinnawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    The behavior and performance of a specially developed high-performance cement-based grout has been studied through a combined laboratory and in situ research program conducted under the auspices of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP). A new class of cement-based grouts - high-performance grouts-with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures was developed and investigated. These high-performance grouts, which were injected into fractures in the granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, are shown to successfully reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass from <10{sup -7} m s{sup -1} to 10{sup -9} m s{sup -1} and to penetrate fissures in the rock with apertures as small as 10 {mu}m. Furthermore, the laboratory studies have shown that this high - performance grout has very low hydraulic conductivity and is highly leach resistant under repository conditions. Microcracks generated in this materials from shrinkage, overstressing or thermal loads are likely to self-seal. The results of these studies suggest that the high-performance grouts can be considered as viable materials in disposal-vault sealing applications. Further work is needed to fully justify extrapolation of the results of the laboratory studies to time scales relevant to performance assessment.

  1. The physical model for research of behavior of grouting mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajovsky, Radovan; Pies, Martin; Lossmann, Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with description of physical model designed for verification of behavior of grouting mixtures when applied below underground water level. Described physical model has been set up to determine propagation of grouting mixture in a given environment. Extension of grouting in this environment is based on measurement of humidity and temperature with the use of combined sensors located within preinstalled special measurement probes around grouting needle. Humidity was measured by combined capacity sensor DTH-1010, temperature was gathered by a NTC thermistor. Humidity sensors measured time when grouting mixture reached sensor location point. NTC thermistors measured temperature changes in time starting from initial of injection. This helped to develop 3D map showing the distribution of grouting mixture through the environment. Accomplishment of this particular measurement was carried out by a designed primary measurement module capable of connecting 4 humidity and temperature sensors. This module also takes care of converting these physical signals into unified analogue signals consequently brought to the input terminals of analogue input of programmable automation controller (PAC) WinPAC-8441. This controller ensures the measurement itself, archiving and visualization of all data. Detail description of a complex measurement system and evaluation in form of 3D animations and graphs is supposed to be in a full paper.

  2. Cement-based grouts in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior and performance of a specially developed high-performance cement-based grout has been studied through a combined laboratory and in situ research program conducted under the auspices of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP). A new class of cement-based grouts - high-performance grouts-with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures was developed and investigated. These high-performance grouts, which were injected into fractures in the granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, are shown to successfully reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass from -7 m s-1 to 10-9 m s-1 and to penetrate fissures in the rock with apertures as small as 10 μm. Furthermore, the laboratory studies have shown that this high - performance grout has very low hydraulic conductivity and is highly leach resistant under repository conditions. Microcracks generated in this materials from shrinkage, overstressing or thermal loads are likely to self-seal. The results of these studies suggest that the high-performance grouts can be considered as viable materials in disposal-vault sealing applications. Further work is needed to fully justify extrapolation of the results of the laboratory studies to time scales relevant to performance assessment

  3. Biological toxicity evaluation of Hanford Site waste grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 50 years of operation of the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy near Richland, Washington. These wastes are currently stored onsite in single- and double-shell carbon steel tanks. To effectively handle and treat these wastes, their degree of toxicity must be determined. The disposal of the low-level radioactive liquid portion of the wastes involves mixing the wastes with pozzolanic blends to form grout. Potential environmental hazards posed by grouts are largely unknown. Biological evaluation of grout toxicity is needed to provide information on the potential risks of animal and plant exposure to the grouts. The fish, rat, and Microtox toxicity tests described herein indicate that the grouts formed from Formulations I and 2 are nonhazardous and nondangerous. Using the Microtox solid-phase protocol, both soluble and insoluble organic and inorganic toxicants in the grouts can be detected. This protocol may be used for rapid screening of environmental pollutants and toxicants

  4. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Grouts for Wastewater Collection Systems, Warren Environmental, Inc. 301-04 Epoxy Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Municipalities are discovering rapid degradation of infrastructures in wastewater collection and treatment facilities due to infiltration of leaking water from the surrounding environments. Rehabilitation of these facilities by in situ methods, including the use of grouting, is u...

  5. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukens, Wayne W; Bucher, Jerome I; Shuh, David K; Edelstein, Norman M

    2005-10-15

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to stabilize nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U. S. Department of Energy. Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs because of the high solubility and mobility of Tc(VII), pertechnetate (TcO4-), the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively stabilize 99Tc if they contain additives that chemically reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. The 99Tc leach rate of reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much lower than that for CWFs that contain TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure studies showed that Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be of concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, referred to as "permeable samples", the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were sealed in cuvettes made of polystyrene, which has a relatively large O2 diffusion coefficient. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as a Tc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The EXAFS data is consistent with a structure consisting of triangular clusters of Tc(IV) centers linked together through a combination of disulfide and sulfide bridges as in MoS3. From the EXAFS model, the stoichiometry of TcSx is TC3S10, which is presumably the compound generally referred to as "Tc2S7". The TcSX initially present in the permeable samples was steadily

  7. Laboratory Study on Grout Injection for Improving Subgrade of Airfield Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck Shang Goh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shares the authors’ experience of using low pressure grouting to improve the subgrade performance. The first part of the paper introduced a case history where low pressure grouting was applied in weakened subgrade of the active airport pavements in Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA. The treated areas seemed to have been improved and only one of all eight treated areas had reoccurrence of depression. However, the performance of the treated area was difficult to be evaluated. The latter part of the paper investigated the effectiveness of grout injection through laboratory experiments. The laboratory equipment used for the grout injection tests included an injection mold and a steel tank of 1 m length x 0.6 m wide x 0.6 m depth for subgrade soil sample. Three grout types namely neat cement grout, fly ash cement grout, bentonite cement grout were used for this study. Six tests were conducted on sandy soil samples to examine the effect of grout type on the effectiveness of injection. The sandy soil was compacted to approximate 80 % of the maximum dry density. The injection pressure was fixed at 0.5 MPa. Insitu CBR test was also conducted to determine the strength of the grouted sample. The results showed that the fly ash cement grout could penetrate further than the neat cement grout; however its strength was lower than the neat cement grout.

  8. Cement based grouts - longevity laboratory studies: leaching behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a series of laboratory tests carried out to determine the possible leaching behaviour of cement-based grouts in repository environments. A reference high-performance cement-based grout, comprised of Canadian Type 50 (U.S. Type V) Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement, silica fume, potable water and superplasticizer, and a commercially available cement grout were subjected to leaching in distilled water and three simulated groundwaters of different ionic strength. Hardened, monolithic specimens of the grout were leached in static, pulsed-flow and continuous flow conditions at temperatures from 10 degrees C to 150 degrees C for periods of up to 56 days. The changes in concentration of ions in the leachants with time were determined and the changes in the morphology of the surfaces of the grout specimens were examined using electron microscopy. After a review of possible mechanisms of degradation of cement-based materials, the data from these experiments are presented. The data show that the grouts will leach when in contact with water through dissolution of more soluble phases. Comparison of the leaching performance of the two grouts indicates that, while there are some minor differences, they behaved quite similarly. The rate of the leaching processes were found to tend to decrease with time and to be accompanied by precipitation and/or growth of an assemblage of secondary alteration phases (i.e., CaCO3, Mg(OH)2). The mechanisms of leaching depended on the environmental conditions of temperature, groundwater composition and water flow rate. Matrix dissolution occurred. However, in many of the tests leaching was shown to be limited by the precipitated/reaction layers which acted as protective surface coatings. (37 refs.) (au)

  9. Leach test of cladding removal waste grout using Hanford groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Legore, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes laboratory experiments performed during 1986-1990 designed to produce empirical leach rate data for cladding removal waste (CRW) grout. At the completion of the laboratory work, funding was not available for report completion, and only now during final grout closeout activities is the report published. The leach rates serve as inputs to computer codes used in assessing the potential risk from the migration of waste species from disposed grout. This report discusses chemical analyses conducted on samples of CRW grout, and the results of geochemical computer code calculations that help identify mechanisms involved in the leaching process. The semi-infinite solid diffusion model was selected as the most representative model for describing leaching of grouts. The use of this model with empirically derived leach constants yields conservative predictions of waste release rates, provided no significant changes occur in the grout leach processes over long time periods. The test methods included three types of leach tests--the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent solution exchange test, a static leach test, and a once-through flow column test. The synthetic CRW used in the tests was prepared in five batches using simulated liquid waste spiked with several radionuclides: iodine ({sup 125}I), carbon ({sup 14}C), technetium ({sup 99}Tc), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), strontium ({sup 85}Sr), americium ({sup 241}Am), and plutonium ({sup 238}Pu). The grout was formed by mixing the simulated liquid waste with dry blend containing Type I and Type II Portland cement, class F fly ash, Indian Red Pottery clay, and calcium hydroxide. The mixture was allowed to set and cure at room temperature in closed containers for at least 46 days before it was tested.

  10. Leach test of cladding removal waste grout using Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes laboratory experiments performed during 1986-1990 designed to produce empirical leach rate data for cladding removal waste (CRW) grout. At the completion of the laboratory work, funding was not available for report completion, and only now during final grout closeout activities is the report published. The leach rates serve as inputs to computer codes used in assessing the potential risk from the migration of waste species from disposed grout. This report discusses chemical analyses conducted on samples of CRW grout, and the results of geochemical computer code calculations that help identify mechanisms involved in the leaching process. The semi-infinite solid diffusion model was selected as the most representative model for describing leaching of grouts. The use of this model with empirically derived leach constants yields conservative predictions of waste release rates, provided no significant changes occur in the grout leach processes over long time periods. The test methods included three types of leach tests--the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent solution exchange test, a static leach test, and a once-through flow column test. The synthetic CRW used in the tests was prepared in five batches using simulated liquid waste spiked with several radionuclides: iodine (125I), carbon (14C), technetium (99Tc), cesium (137Cs), strontium (85Sr), americium (241Am), and plutonium (238Pu). The grout was formed by mixing the simulated liquid waste with dry blend containing Type I and Type II Portland cement, class F fly ash, Indian Red Pottery clay, and calcium hydroxide. The mixture was allowed to set and cure at room temperature in closed containers for at least 46 days before it was tested

  11. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations

  12. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 14 Appendices. Topics include Engineering Drawings, Maps, Roads, Toxicity Testing, and Pilot-Scale Testing

  13. Numerical Simulation and Optimization of Hole Spacing for Cement Grouting in Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine fissures of V-diabase were the main stratigraphic that affected the effectiveness of foundation grout curtain in Dagang Mountain Hydropower Station. Thus, specialized in situ grouting tests were conducted to determine reasonable hole spacing and other parameters. Considering time variation of the rheological parameters of grout, variation of grouting pressure gradient, and evolution law of the fracture opening, numerical simulations were performed on the diffusion process of cement grouting in the fissures of the rock mass. The distribution of permeability after grouting was obtained on the basis of analysis results, and the grouting hole spacing was discussed based on the reliability analysis. A probability of optimization along with a finer optimization precision as 0.1 m could be adopted when compared with the accuracy of 0.5 m that is commonly used. The results could provide a useful reference for choosing reasonable grouting hole spacing in similar projects.

  14. Chemical modeling of cementitious grout materials alteration in HLW repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an investigation initiated into the nature of the chemical alteration of cementitious grout in HLW repository seals, and the implications for long-term seal performance. The equilibrium chemical reaction of two simplified portland cement-based grout models with natural Canadian Shield groundwater compositions was modeled with the computer codes PHREEQE and EQ3NR/EQ6. Increases in porosity and permeability of the grout resulting from dissolution of grout phases and precipitation of secondary phases were estimated. Two bounding hydrologic scenarios were evaluated, one approximating a high gradient, high flow regime, the other a low-gradient, sluggish flow regime. Seal longevity depends in part upon the amount of groundwater coming into intimate contact with, and dissolving, the grout per unit time. Results of the analyses indicate that, given the assumptions and simplifications inherent in the models, acceptable seal performance (i.e., acceptable increases in hydraulic conductivity of the seals) may be expected for at least thousands of years in the worst cases analyzed, and possibly much longer

  15. High-Performance Grouting Mortar Based on Mineral Admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on high-performance grouting mortar is reported. The common mortar was modified by mineral admixtures such as gypsum, bauxite, and alunite. The effects of mineral admixtures on the fluidity, setting time, expansion, strength, and other properties of mortar were evaluated experimentally. The microstructure of the modified mortar was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Moreover, the expansive performance and strength of the grouting mortar were verified by anchor pullout test. The results show that the best conditions for gypsum-bauxite grouting mortar are as follows: a water-to-binder ratio of 0.3, a mineral admixture content of ~15%, and a molar ratio K of 2. The ultimate bearing capacity of the gypsum-bauxite grouting mortar anchor increased by 39.6% compared to the common mortar anchor. The gypsum-bauxite grouting mortar has good fluidity, quick-setting, microexpansion, early strength, and high strength performances.

  16. Numerical Simulation and Optimization of Hole Spacing for Cement Grouting in Rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Ping; Zhang, Jinjie; Xing, Zhanqing; Yang, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    The fine fissures of V-diabase were the main stratigraphic that affected the effectiveness of foundation grout curtain in Dagang Mountain Hydropower Station. Thus, specialized in situ grouting tests were conducted to determine reasonable hole spacing and other parameters. Considering time variation of the rheological parameters of grout, variation of grouting pressure gradient, and evolution law of the fracture opening, numerical simulations were performed on the diffusion process of cement g...

  17. The use of cement grouts for the immobilisation of solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of cement grouts is being considered for the immobilisation of solid items of radioactive waste. In this report the factors which influence the selection of a grout for use in an active plant are identified. The properties and limitations of standard cement grouts are summarised. Inactive grouting trials carried out in the period September 1981 to June 1982 on the 220 dm3 scale are described. (author)

  18. STUDI EKSPERIMENTAL KARAKTERISTIK TIANG PASIR GROUTING UNTUK PERKUATAN TANAH LEMPUNG KEPASIRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Lawalenna Samang; Bakri Muhiddin, Achmad; Ardy Arsyad; Ariningsih Suprapti

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji karakteristik sifat fisik dan mekanis tanah lempung kepasiran, tanah pasir dan sifat mekanis tiang pasir grouting dan mengetahui besarnya kapasitas dukung yang terjadi pada tiang pasir grouting akibat pengaruh tanah lempung kepasiran disekitarnya serta mengevaluasi pola deformasi sistem pondasi tiang pasir grouting guna perbaikan kekuatan daya dukung tanah lempung kepasiran. Pengujian karakteristik tanah pasir dan tiang pasir grouting menggunakan standar...

  19. In-Line Rheological Measurements of Cement Based Grouts Using the UVP-PD Method

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, MD. Mashuqur

    2010-01-01

    In underground construction grouting is performed to seal tunnels and caverns against excessive water inflow or to reduce the lowering of the ground water table. The rheological properties, such as viscosity and yield stress, of the used grouts play a fundamental role in grouting. No method has been developed yet to measure these properties in-line in the field during grouting. Methods used today are rather primitive and not robust enough for field use and they are mainly performed in order t...

  20. Design of pumpable cement-based grouts for the immobilization of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cement-based grouts have proven to be an economical and environmentally acceptable means of waste disposal. Costs can be reduced if the grout is pumped to the dispoal site. This paper presents a systematic approach to guide the development of pumpable grouts. 7 refs., 1 fig

  1. Systematic approach for the design of pumpable cement-based grouts for immobilization of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cement-based grouts have been proven to be an economical and environmentally acceptable means of waste disposal. Costs can be reduced if the grout is pumped to the disposal site. This paper presents a systematic approach to guide the development of pumpable grouts. 20 refs., 2 figs

  2. Modified-sulfur cements for use in concretes, flexible pavings, coatings, and grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1981-05-01

    A family of modified-sulfur cements was developed for the preparation of construction materials with improved properties. Various types of sulfur cements were prepared by reacting sulfur with mixtures of dicyclopentadiene and oligomers of cyclopentadiene. Durable cements were prepared with structural characteristics ranging from rigid to flexible. These cements were used to prepare corrosion-resistant materials for use in a wide variety of industrial applications where resistance to acidic and salt conditions is needed. These materials were prepared as rigid concretes, flexible pavings, spray coatings, and grouts. Production of modified-sulfur cements in a commercial-size plant was demonstrated.

  3. Innovative technology summary report: Innovative grouting and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovative grouting and retrieval (IGR) technology provides an innovative and cost-effective approach for full-pit and hot-spot retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste sites and in situ disposal of buried waste with improved confinement. Innovative grouting technology: minimizes spreading of contamination by agglomerating the soil particles containing plutonium/americium particulates into nonaerosolizable particles; minimizes worker risks and exposure; is more effective in controlling the spread of contamination than common mining practices such as directed air flow, misting, and fixant sprays; eliminates further treatment because the grouted, rubberized waste is ready for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); reduces capital expenditures, operating costs, and containment structure requirements; and is an estimated five times faster than the baseline technology of removal, packaging, and storage

  4. Measurement of rock mass deformation with grouted coaxial antenna cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, C. H.; Su, M. B.; O'Connor, K.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques presented herein show how reflected voltage pulses from coaxial antenna cable grouted in rock masses can be employed to quantify the type and magnitude of rock mass deformation. This measurement is similar to that obtained from a combined full profile extensometer (to measure local extension) and inclinometer (to measure local shearing). Rock mass movements deform the grouted cable, which locally changes cable capacitance and thereby the reflected wave form of the voltage pulse. Thus, by monitoring changes in these reflection signatures, it is possible to monitor rock mass deformation. This paper presents laboratory measurements necessary to quantitatively interpret the reflected voltage signatures. Cables were sheared and extended to correlate measured cable deformation with reflected voltage signals. Laboratory testing included development of grout mixtures with optimum properties for field installation and performance of a TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) monitoring system. Finally, the interpretive techniques developed through laboratory measurements were applied to previously collected field data to extract hitherto unrealized information.

  5. Liquid return from gas pressurization of grouted waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to force pore liquids out of a simulated waste grout matrix using air pressure was measured. Specimens cured under various conditions were placed in a permeameter and subjected to increasing air pressure. The pressure was held constant for 24 hours and then stepped up until either liquid was released or 150 psi was reached. One specimen was taken to 190 psi with no liquid release. Permeability to simulated tank waste was then measured. Compressive strength was measured following these tests. This data is to assess the amount of fluid that might be released from grouted waste resulting from the buildup of radiolytically generated hydrogen and other gasses within the waste form matrix. A plot of the unconfined compressive strength versus breakthrough pressures identifies a region of ''good'' grout, which will resist liquid release

  6. Development of grouting technologies for disposal of high level waste (4). Hydrogeological descriptive modeling by discrete fracture network in Grimsel Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrogeological model has been generated to support the plan, design and execution of an in-situ grout injection demonstration test at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland. The model uses discrete fracture networks (DFN) based on the fracture data obtained from observation boreholes. The equivalent porous media with consideration of the hydraulic heterogeneity has been created from the DFN to be used for the simulation of the injection process of a colloidal silica grout. Uncertainties and remaining issues associated with the assumption in interpreting the data and its modeling were addressed systematically. (author)

  7. Performance of Grouted Splice Sleeve Connector under Tensile Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The grouted splice sleeve connector system takes advantage of the bond-slip resistance of the grout and the mechanical gripping of reinforcement bars to provide resistance to tensile force. In this system, grout acts as a load-transferring medium and bonding material between the bars and sleeve. This study adopted the end-to-end rebars connection method to investigate the effect of development length and sleeve diameter on the bonding performance of the sleeve connector. The end-to-end method refers to the condition where reinforcement bars are inserted into the sleeve from both ends and meet at the centre before grout is filled. Eight specimens of grouted splice sleeve connector were tested under tensile load to determine their performance. The sleeve connector was designed using 5 mm thick circular hollow section (CHS steel pipe and consisted of one external and two internal sleeves. The tensile test results show that connectors with a smaller external and internal sleeve diameter appear to provide better bonding performance. Three types of failure were observed in this research, which are bar fracture (outside the sleeve, bar pullout, and internal sleeve pullout. With reference to these failure types, the development length of 200 mm is the optimum value due to its bar fracture type, which indicates that the tensile capacity of the connector is higher than the reinforcement bar. It is found that the performance of the grouted splice sleeve connector is influenced by the development length of the reinforcement bar and the diameter of the sleeve.

  8. Sealing of fractured rock: grout composition and group properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of smectite-rich clay with additives of quartz filler and salt and the properties of cement with additives of silica fume and superplasticizer are tested with respect to their usefulness for sealing fractured rock. Laboratory tests of the viscous properties as well as the longevity of the materials are performed. A flow theory for the behaviour of the grouts at static and dynamic pressure has been developed and tested in laboratory injection tests. The results show, so far, that the grout materials and the dynamic injection technique are well suited for sealing rock with narrow fractures

  9. The study on bentonite slurry grout with ethanol for fractured rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to propose the grouting material and method for fractured rock masses. So experimental study is executed in order to grasp that the properties of grouting material is stable and impermeable. In this study, experiments of hydraulic test and grouting injection test are performed on bentonite slurry mixes in the laboratory. From the results of the tests, a mixer of ethanol and bentonite is found to be very suitable for a grouting material. Also, dynamic grouting method is able to inject the concentrated bentonite slurry in the fractured aperture. (author)

  10. Study on the mechanism of seepage flow in the grouting for multiple fractured model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of study is to improve the grouting method for fractured rock masses. In this paper, the results on the fundamental phenomenon for grasping the properties of grouting injection and seepage flow are discussed. The case of grouting stage is studied about the multiple hydraulic fractured apertures in the injected borehole. So the theory on the mechanism is constructed, and experiment is executed in order to verify the availability of the theory. From the results, it is shown that Bernoulli's law is able to prove the behavior of the grouting. And the theoretical evaluation is executed on the experiential procedure of the grouting. (author)

  11. Chemical and biological toxicity assessment of simulated Hanford site low-level waste grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defining the potential damage to the biosphere associated with exposure to low-level waste grouting operations at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, is difficult and controversial. Combined chemical and biological assessment of grout toxicity is needed to provide information on the potential risks of animal and plant exposure to the grouts. This paper will identify and predict the chemical components of the grout that will have the greatest potential of causing deleterious effects on fish and wildlife indigenous to the Hanford Site. This paper will also determine whether the current grout technology is adequate in controlling toxicant and pollutant releases for regulatory compliance

  12. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan (2). Selection of grout materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the construction of an underground facility for the geological disposal of high level waste, it is important to limit the ingress of high pressure groundwaters to ensure site safety during the emplacement of buffer materials and waste canisters in the disposal tunnels and galleries. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed three candidate grout materials with consideration to the long-term chemical compatibility with other facility components. Reported here are the necessary selection criteria for grout materials to fulfill their intended purpose with special emphasis on the determination procedure of design hydrological fracture aperture. (author)

  13. Montmorillonite Clay-Based Polyurethane Nanocomposite As Local Triamcinolone Acetonide Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Carmo Horta Pinto; Armando Silva-Cunha; Gerson Antônio Pianetti; Eliane Ayres; Rodrigo Lambert Oréfice; Gisele Rodrigues Da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradable polyurethane was synthesized by preparing aqueous polyurethane dispersion having poly(caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) as soft segments. Montmorillonite particles were delaminated within the waterborne polyurethane to produce a nanocomposite. The triamcinolone acetonide (TA), an important corticoid drug, was dispersed into the nanocomposite followed by a drying step to produce an implantable drug delivery system. Infrared (FTIR) results demonstrated that the original chem...

  14. Comparing the shear strength of grouted fractures: conventional methods vs biomineralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mountassir, G.; Tobler, D. J.; Moir, H.; Lunn, R. J.; Phoenix, V. R.

    2011-12-01

    For many engineering applications, such as geological disposal of nuclear waste, underground railways etc., it is necessary to limit fluid flow through fractures. The particle size of conventional cementitious grouts limits the size of fractures into which they can penetrate. To address this issue increasingly microfine and ultrafine cement grouts are becoming commercially available. Despite this the radius of penetration remains dependent on the grout viscosity alongside injection pressure, pumping rate, grout setting time and grout cohesion. As such lower viscosity aqueous solutions may have a greater radius of penetration potentially requiring fewer injection points. In addition cementitious grouts typically undergo volumetric shrinkage during setting. In many applications this change in volume may not be of particular importance but in others where a very low hydraulic conductivity is a critical design criterion, as in nuclear waste repositories, this reduction in volume may be highly significant. This study investigates the use of microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MCP) as a technique for grouting fine aperture rock fractures. Artificial fractures were created in granite cores and were subjected to conventional cementitious grouting methods and MCP. Following treatment the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the grouted fractures were investigated. The mechanical properties of grouts after setting is not usually considered to be a significant issue, but in applications which consider much longer timescales (100,000 years) grouts which result in fractures with improved strength and lower hydraulic conductivity are likely to be preferred.

  15. Thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Grout is used to seal the annulus between the borehole and heat exchanger loops in vertical geothermal (ground coupled, ground source, GeoExchange) heat pump systems. The grout provides a heat transfer medium between the heat exchanger and surrounding formation, controls groundwater movement and prevents contamination of water supply. Enhanced heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) and reduced up-front loop installation costs can be achieved through optimization of the grout thermal conductivity. The objective of the work reported was to characterize thermal conductivity and other pertinent properties of conventional and filled cementitious grouts. Cost analysis and calculations of the reduction in heat exchanger length that could be achieved with such grouts were performed by the University of Alabama. Two strategies to enhance the thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts were used simultaneously. The first of these was to incorporate high thermal conductivity filler in the grout formulations. Based on previous tests (Allan and Kavanaugh, in preparation), silica sand was selected as a suitable filler. The second strategy was to reduce the water content of the grout mix. By lowering the water/cement ratio, the porosity of the hardened grout is decreased. This results in higher thermal conductivity. Lowering the water/cement ratio also improves such properties as permeability, strength, and durability. The addition of a liquid superplasticizer (high range water reducer) to the grout mixes enabled reduction of water/cement ratio while retaining pumpability. Superplasticizers are commonly used in the concrete and grouting industry to improve rheological properties.

  16. Rheological behaviour of hydraulic lime-based grouts. Shear-time and temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Ana; Henriques, Fernando M. A.; Cidade, M. T.

    2013-05-01

    This paper deals with the coupled effect of temperature and fly ash (FA) addition on rheological behaviour of natural hydraulic lime (NHL5) based grouts, currently used in masonry consolidation. The use of a grout injection technique for masonry consolidation may lead to an increase of hydrostatic pressure and lead to structural damage. This means that the thixotropic effects become self-evident in grout design. It was shown that there is a relation between the structuration rate of each grout and the pressure that occurs inside masonry during its consolidation. According to the results, it seems also that there is a grout threshold temperature ( T limit) that separates a domain where the grout build-up structure area is almost constant, from another where flocculation area starts to increase significantly. We believe that in the first region the thixotropic effects are almost isolated from the irreversible effects (due to hydration). For the NHL5 based grout T limit=20 °C and for the grout with NHL5+15 % of FA T limit=15 °C. Grouts' characterization based on maximum resisting time, structuration rate and on the analysis of the hydraulic lime grout behaviour tested at different shear rates was performed using a shear thinning model and assuming that the structure is shear- and time-dependent. The goal is to use this methodology during mix proportioning and design for masonry injection purpose. The tested grout compositions were optimized compositions obtained in previous research using the design of experiments method.

  17. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan. 3. Numerical simulation for grout injection using equivalent continuum model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, to simulate the grout injection process, the 3-D numerical model based on equivalent continuum approach was developed. The viscosity measurement for silica sol was performed to measure the time-dependent viscosity. The developed numerical model was applied to the planned in-situ grout injection tests at Grimsel test site (GTS), Switzerland. The rock type is fractured granite and the equivalent porous media was created from the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) based on the fracture data obtained from the observation boreholes. The preliminary simulation was carried out to determine the suitable grout injection pressure and investigate the arrival distance of grout from injection boreholes. (author)

  18. Water pressure resistance of liquid-type grout in rock fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have conducted several tests of durable liquid-type grout (colloidal silica) to investigate basic characteristics of liquid-type grout for geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW). Liquid-type grout is inferior to cement grout in the resistance strength against high water pressure. Laboratory tests were performed to measure resistance strength of liquid-type grout in rock fracture, which was modelized by a parallel plane made of iron and acryl plate. As tests results, the shear resistance of the liquid-type grout could be expected about 3% of shear strength derived from triaxial compression tests. Based on test results, we conducted simple calculation for required grout injection area. (author)

  19. Improvement of engineering properties of liquefied soil using Bio-VegeGrout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lab tests were carried out in order to analyze and investigate the liquefaction behavior of marine deposit soil which was placed in the region of LCCT, Sepang. The soil was found exposed to liquefaction. Step to improvise the soil was to inject Biovege grout into the soil sample. Soil sample was prepared with three different grout amount, 10%, 25% and 50%. The relation between percentage of Biovege grout injected and soil improvement were observed and recorded. The void ratio and the permeability of the soil sample decreased with increasing grout percentage. The soil becomes stiffer as the amount of grout used increase. The results obtained indicate, higher amount of grout injection reflects better soil improvement in term of cohesion, friction angle, shear stress and void ratio. The Biovege grout increases the resistance of soil against liquefaction

  20. Properties of cement-fly ash grout admixed with bentonite, silica fume, or organic fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed laboratory study was conducted to investigate the properties of cement-fly ash grout mixtures as barriers for isolation of hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In the grout studied, fly ash was used to replace 30 percent by mass of cement. Three additives including bentonite, silica fume, and polypropylene fiber were used individually in the grout mixes to improve the properties of the grouts in different aspects. The flowability, bleeding, and setting time of freshly mixed grouts were determined; and the unconfined compressive strength, pore size distribution, and water permeability were determined for hardened grouts at various curing durations up to 120 days. Finally, the durability of cement-fly ash grouts was carefully examined in terms of the changes in their physical properties after different levels of exposure to sulfate attack and wet-dry cycles

  1. Differentiation between anonymous paintings of the 17th and the early 18th century by composition of clay-based grounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hradil, David; Hradilová, J.; Bezdička, Petr; Švarcová, Silvie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 118, DEC (2015), s. 8-20. ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-22984S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : paintings * clay-based grounds * X-ray powder micro-diffraction * historical technology Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.467, year: 2014

  2. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references

  3. Numerical modelling of compensation grouting above shallow tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, C.; Augarde, C. E.; Burd, H. J.

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a numerical model for compensation grouting which is a useful technique for the protection of surface structures from the potentially damaging movements arising from tunnel construction. Pipes are inserted into the ground between the tunnel and the overlaying structure from an access shaft. Buildings on the surface are instrumented and movements are carefully monitored. Once the deformations exceed a certain Trigger Level, grout is injected into the ground to prevent damage. In the finite element model described here, compensation grouting is modelled by applying an internal pressure to zero-thickness interface elements embedded in the mesh. An observational algorithm is used, where the deformations of the surface are monitored and used to control the injection process. Example analyses of compensation grouting are given for three-dimensional tunnel construction underneath a greenfield site. Different strategies are used to control the injection process and their effectiveness in preventing surface movement is assessed. The numerical model is shown to replicate general behaviour expected in the field and is capable of modelling the control of ground surface movements at a greenfield site.

  4. Prediction of critical grout parameters: critical flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste disposal is rapidly becoming one of the most important technological endeavors of our time and fixation of waste in cement-based materials is an important part of the endeavor. Investigations of given wastes are usually individually conducted and reported. In this study, data obtained from investigation of critical flow rates for three distinctly different wastes are correlated with apparent viscosity data via a single empirical equation. Critical flow rate, which is an important variable in waste grout work, is defined as the flow rate at which a grout must be pumped through a reference pipe to obtain turbulent flow. It is important that the grout flow be turbulent since laminar flow allows caking on pipe walls and causes eventual plugging. The three wastes used in this study can be characterized as containing: (1) high nitrate, carbonate, and sulfate; (2) high phosphate; and (3) high fluoride, ammonium, and suspended solids waste. The measurements of apparent viscosity (grouts are non-Newtonian fluids) and other measurements to obtain data to calculate the critical flow rates were made using a Fann-Direct Reading Viscometer, Model 35A

  5. Fatigue Behaviour of High Performance Cementitious Grout Masterflow 9500

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes the fatigue behaviour of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 subjected to cyclic loading, in air as well as submerged in water, at various frequencies and levels of maximum stress. Part of the results were also reported in [1] together with other mechanical...

  6. Evaluation tests for colloidal silica for use in grouting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colloidal silica (CS) is a low-viscosity chemical grout that can be injected to form an impermeable barrier in the subsurface. Such a barrier was proposed to be placed under a disused unlined retention basin at the Savannah River site. Specifications for the CS grout were included in the bid package, including performance tests. The product must meet requirements of low viscosity, low permeability when gelled, and controllable gel time both in vitro and in situ. Bidders submitted samples for evaluation, and this paper describes the tests that were conducted and presents typical results. Gel time in soil was assessed by injection tests in packed-soil columns and the monitoring of gelling in the columns. Injection tests were designed to ensure that grout injection would not be impeded by rapid gellation caused by contact with soil. The requirement was that the injection pressure during 2 h of injection be less than 2.5 times as great as the injection pressure without gelling. Gelling of the grout in the soil columns was monitored by repeated falling-head tests that showed that mobility decreased to zero during the prescribed time for gelling in situ

  7. Examinations of samples of Bell Canyon Test 1-FF grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portland cement grout identified as BCT-1-FF (Bell Canyon Test 1-FF) was used in borehole plugging experiments of the Bell Canyon Tests in Holl AEC-7 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in New Mexico during September 1979 and February 1980. This grout was made with fresh water. A study of this grout was begun in August 1979 in the laboratory to evauate the possible effects of temperature, pressure, and storage in fresh water or simulated groundwater (brine) on its phase composition and compressive strength at early ages. Phase composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. Temperatures ranged up to about 1500F and included elevation at a few hours age after mixing; pressure was as high as 1500 psi; specimens were stored in simulated groundwater (brine) or in fresh water. Data from 1 to 90 days showed: (a) Higher temperature accelerated early strength gain. These differences essentially vanished by 90 days age. (b) Hydration products as identified by X-ray diffraction were normal; this indicated that a temperature range of 78 to 1530F was not significant. (c) Pressure did not affect composition. (d) Storage in simulated groundwater (brine) or fresh water had no detectable effect. (e) Since the BCT-1-FF grout mixture contained added sulfate, it formed more ettringite as judged by X-ray diffraction than comparable portland cement mixtures without added sulfate

  8. A Real-Time Analysis and Feedback System for Quality Control of Dam Foundation Grouting Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, D. H.; Yan, F. G.; Li, M. C.; Huang, C. X.; Fan, K.; Tang, J. F.

    2015-09-01

    Real-time analysis and feedback systems play a vital role in obtaining good results from grouting processes. However, when there are intense construction schedules and complex geological structures, it is difficult for existing systems to provide to site engineers, prior to the borehole construction, prompt and accurate feedback, such as detailed geological information about grouting boreholes, which limits the use of such systems in practical applications. This paper proposes combining a three-dimensional (3D) geological model with real-time data collection technology in a system for both monitoring grouting, and providing analysis and feedback. This integrated grouting model, which comprises the geological model, the grouting borehole model and the grouting parameter database set, can be coupled and associated dynamically with grouting data. Additionally, the following methods are applied in this system: real-time grouting data processing and a monitoring alarm, prediction and visualization of geological conditions, forecasting of rock uplift, and visualization analysis of grouting parameters. The application of this system in Hydropower Project A, China is used as a case study. The predictions of geological conditions are closely matched with the actual situation, and this system can be used to monitor construction processes remotely and to help site engineers to design reasonable construction plans, optimize layouts for grouting boreholes and adjust construction measures.

  9. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Injected Granular Soil with Thick Super Plasticized Grouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas A. Anagnostopoulos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of super-plasticizers in micro fine or regular cement-based grouts has become of vital importance in advanced professional grouting practices. These super-plasticizers play an important role in the production of more durable grouts with improved rheological characteristics. This report presents a laboratory study of the effect of a new-generation Polycarboxylate Super-plasticizer (PCE on the inject ability of thick cement grouts into a coarse soil, under different grouting pressures, in comparison to that of a polynaphthalene (SNF super-plasticizer. Finally, the physical (dry unit weight, porosity and permeability and mechanical properties (compressive strength, elastic modulus of grouted specimens with various grouts were examined. The experiments were conducted using different additive dosages with grouts proportioned with a water to cement ratio (w/c of 0.33, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively. The results showed that PCE super-plasticizer is more effective than the SNF one for the increase of grout inject ability and the improvement of physical and mechanical properties of grouted soil.

  10. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  11. Design, construction and performance of the clay-based isolation of the SFR silo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    accurate pressure evaluation for the utilized Gloetzl cell system and the predicted pressure level. Most of the recorded wall pressures are lower then predicted. The slight, successive pressure increase at the base and top of the silo is probably due to slow hydration but may also be partly or wholly caused by creep effects. Slip of rock wedges can hardly take place because of the lateral support provided by the wall fill but slight movement of a major wedge can occur before resistance is fully mobilized. It can cause minor densification of the fill and a slight increase in pressure on the silo wall. A major conclusion is that such events and build-up of swelling pressures can not damage the silo or displace it. No piezometric pressures have been recorded, which shows that the drainage system works satisfactorily. Movements yielding some compression or expansion of the wall fill are still small but may be important when the hydration becomes significant, which is not yet the case. Complete water saturation of the entire clay mass may take several hundred years. The wetting process should be of diffusion type as shown by pilot tests in the field and laboratory but local piping by inflowing water followed by self-sealing seems to have taken place as well. The system of interconnected drains works satisfactorily as demonstrated by the absence of pore water pressures in the pizometers and by the very small movements of the wall fill found by levelling of the cement pavement that covers the wall fill. In order to certify acceptable performance of the engineered barriers in the future recording of the settlement of the silo, build-up of soil pressure on the silo and rock, and drainage of the rock are recommended. The equipments used presently for the recording turn out to serve satisfactorily in principle

  12. Tank 18-F And 19-F Tank Fill Grout Scale Up Test Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level waste (HLW) tanks 18-F and 19-F have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure the tanks will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) entombing waste removal equipment, (4) discouraging future intrusion, and (5) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. This report documents the results of a four cubic yard bulk fill scale up test on the grout formulation recommended for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F. Details of the scale up test are provided in a Test Plan. The work was authorized under a Technical Task Request (TTR), HLE-TTR-2011-008, and was performed according to Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The bulk fill scale up test described in this report was intended to demonstrate proportioning, mixing, and transportation, of material produced in a full scale ready mix concrete batch plant. In addition, the material produced for the scale up test was characterized with respect to fresh properties, thermal properties, and compressive strength as a function of curing time.

  13. TANK 18-F AND 19-F TANK FILL GROUT SCALE UP TEST SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2012-01-03

    High-level waste (HLW) tanks 18-F and 19-F have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure the tanks will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) entombing waste removal equipment, (4) discouraging future intrusion, and (5) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. This report documents the results of a four cubic yard bulk fill scale up test on the grout formulation recommended for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F. Details of the scale up test are provided in a Test Plan. The work was authorized under a Technical Task Request (TTR), HLE-TTR-2011-008, and was performed according to Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The bulk fill scale up test described in this report was intended to demonstrate proportioning, mixing, and transportation, of material produced in a full scale ready mix concrete batch plant. In addition, the material produced for the scale up test was characterized with respect to fresh properties, thermal properties, and compressive strength as a function of curing time.

  14. The diffusion of radionuclides through waste encapsulation grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Kingdom Nirex Limited develops and advises on safe, environmentally sound and publicly acceptable options for the long-term management of radioactive waste. One option Nirex has developed is a phased geological repository concept for intermediate level waste and some low level wastes that makes use of a combination of engineered and natural barriers. Physical containment of radionuclides would be achieved by immobilisation and packaging of wastes (mostly) in stainless steel containers. Existing models of the migration of dissolved radionuclides from packaged wastes suggest that radionuclide release is determined largely by the rate of diffusion through the encapsulation grout used to immobilise the waste. The use of such models requires diffusion coefficient data for radionuclides in waste encapsulation grouts. This paper describes a programme of through-diffusion experiments, and modelling interpretation, aimed at deriving diffusion coefficients for some radionuclides in two types of encapsulation grout. An intrinsic diffusion coefficient of HTO of around 1x10-13 to 2x10-13 m2s-1 was determined for a 3:1 mix of blast furnace slag to ordinary Portland cement, compared to around 4x10-13 to 5x10-13 m2s-1 for a 3:1 mix of pulverised fuel ash to ordinary Portland cement. These values are lower than that assumed for a non-sorbing radionuclide in an earlier modelling exercise. Porosity values around 0.3 were obtained in each case. For 36Cl as chloride, the experiments showed no significant breakthrough over the experimental timescale of about one year, suggesting an intrinsic diffusion coefficient below 5x10-13 m2s-1. One possibility is that chlorine-containing solids are precipitating in the cement. An intrinsic diffusion coefficient for 137Cs in the 3:1 mix of pulverised fuel ash to ordinary Portland cement of 4x10-15 m2s-1 was estimated, significantly lower than that determined for HTO. The results from three of the sixteen experiments could not be fitted with

  15. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan. 1. Preliminary study for in-situ grout injection test in crystalline rock mass test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouting technology is fundamental to the safe and efficient construction of underground facilities for the geological disposal of High Level Waste in Japan. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been developing grouting materials and technologies with consideration to the long term chemical interactions between the grout material and the natural barrier rock mass. An in-situ grout injection test has been carried out at the Grimsel Test Site to optimize grouting design. This report is for the in-situ grout injection test plan and the result of the preliminary study. (author)

  16. Field test of ethanol/bentonite slurry grouting into rock fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline rocks have fractures which may cause unexpected routes of groundwater seepage. Cement grouting is one of the most effective methods to minimize seepage; however, cement materials may not be suitable for the purpose of extra-long durability, because cement is neutralized or degraded by chemical and physical influence of chemical reaction. Natural clay like bentonite is one of the most promising materials for seepage barrier; however, water/bentonite grout is so viscous that enough amount of bentonite can not be grouted into rock fractures. To increase bentonite content in grout with low viscosity, the utilization of ethanol as a mixing liquid was studied. Ethanol suppresses bentonite swelling, and more bentonite can be injected more than that of water/bentonite slurry. In this paper, grouting into in-situ rock mass fracture from the ground surface was tested to investigate the barrier performance and workability of ethanol/bentonite slurry as a grouting material. (author)

  17. Revised Methodology for Determining Cesium-137 Content of HN-200 Grout Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHELOR, J.L.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this technical paper is to examine the accuracy of the existing method of determining the Cs-137 content of HN-200 grout containers and compare that accuracy to the accuracy attainable by other methods of measurement. The methods of measurement to be compared include: Contact measurements on a grouted container (existing method); Measurements at 5 feet from the surface of a grouted container; Measurements at 10 feet from a grouted container; Measurements on contact with the surface of an ungrouted container; Measurements at 5 feet from the surface of an ungrouted container; and Measurements at 10 feet from the surface of an ungrouted container. Once the most accurate and useable method is determined, the precepts for an operating procedure will be provided for determining the Cs-137 content of newly generated and future HN-200 grout containers as well as the grouted legacy containers currently stored in B Cell.

  18. Characteristics of thermally-enhanced bentonite grouts for geothermal heat exchanger in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chulho; LEE; Kangja; LEE; Hangseok; CHOI; Hyo-Pum; CHOI

    2010-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and viscosity of bentonite grouts have been evaluated and compared each other to determine the suitability of these materials for backfilling vertical boreholes of ground heat exchangers.Seven bentonite grouts from different product sources were considered in this paper.Two additives,silica sand and graphite were added in bentonite grouts to enhance thermal performance.The bentonite grouts indicate that both the thermal conductivity and the viscosity increase with the content of silica sand and graphite.Therefore,it is recommended to select cautiously the amount of silica sand and graphite considering not only thermal conductivity but also viscosity for the optimum condition of backfilling.Finally,the effect of salinity in the pore water on the change of swelling potential of the bentonite-based grouts has been quantitatively evaluated to show the feasibility of bentonite grouts in the coastal area.

  19. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  20. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout

  1. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-27

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  2. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-09-25

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  3. PNC'S research and development of sealing technology and the field grouting test of single fractures in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980, PNC has been continuing the R and D of sealing technology such as studies on sealing materials and designing and executing methods. Field grouting tests were carried out at the granite quarry. Single fractures within 5 meters below the surface were selected for the grouting test. The conventional grouting method and the supersonic grouting method were adopted. Effective grouting was achieved at a fracture of around 0.05 mm aperture up to 1 m away from the grout injection hole by these methods using super fine cement and colloid cement

  4. On the development of unmodified mud grouts for repairing earth constructions: rheology, strength and adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, R A; Schueremans, L.; Oliveira, D. V.; Dekoning, K.; Gyssels, T.

    2012-01-01

    The conservation and rehabilitation of several sites of cultural heritage and of the large housing stock built from earth requires the development of techniques and materials compatible with this kind of construction. Grout injection is one repair solution which has been put forward over the last few years, whereas there is preference for employing grouts that incorporate earth in their composition. However, knowledge of such grouts is still very limited and requires further research. The exp...

  5. Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation for In Situ Grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slate, L.J.; Taylor, J.T.

    2000-08-31

    A preliminary criticality safety evaluation is presented for in situ grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The grouting materials evaluated are cement and paraffin. The evaluation determines physical and administrative controls necessary to preclude criticality and identifies additional information required for a final criticality safety evaluation. The evaluation shows that there are no criticality concerns with cementitious grout but a neutron poison such as boron would be required for the use of the paraffin matrix.

  6. Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation for In Situ Grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slate, Lawrence J; Taylor, Joseph Todd

    2000-08-01

    A preliminary criticality safety evaluation is presented for in situ grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The grouting materials evaluated are cement and paraffin. The evaluation determines physical and administrative controls necessary to preclude criticality and identifies additional information required for a final criticality safety evaluation. The evaluation shows that there are no criticality concerns with cementitious grout but a neutron poison such as boron would be required for the use of the paraffin matrix.

  7. Study of Pumping Pressure and Stop Criteria in Grouting of Rock Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghoobi Rafi, Jalaleddin

    2014-01-01

    Today practice of grouting is based on empirical approaches in that, pumping pressure and stop criteria are determined by benchmarking similar projects. Considering a maximum limit for grouting pressure would allow applying a relatively high pressure that may lead to jacking of the fracture or even uplift of the rock mass. On the other hand, keeping the pressure lower than the overburden, in order to avoid any deformation, will prolong grouting process. Determination of pumping pressure is mo...

  8. Parameters Optimization of Curtain Grouting Reinforcement Cycle in Yonglian Tunnel and Its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Qingsong Zhang; Peng Li; Gang Wang; Shucai Li; Xiao Zhang; Qianqing Zhang; Qian Wang; Jianguo Liu

    2015-01-01

    For practical purposes, the curtain grouting method is an effective method to treat geological disasters and can be used to improve the strength and permeability resistance of surrounding rock. Selection of the optimal parameters of grouting reinforcement cycle especially reinforcement cycle thickness is one of the most interesting areas of research in curtain grouting designs. Based on the fluid-structure interaction theory and orthogonal analysis method, the influence of reinforcement cycle...

  9. Choice of grouting method for jointed hard rock based on sealing time predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmalm, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This thesis concerns subjects related to the choice of agrouting method in a jointed hard rock mass. By calculating thetotal sealing time to reach the requested sealing level,different grouting methods could be compared and the mostfavourable chosen. A methodology, to calculate the sealing time for differentgrouting methods in different rock masses has been developed.Five main activities are included in the methodology; drilling,grouting, waiting, probing and re-grouting, which to differingde...

  10. Application of resistivity monitoring to evaluate cement grouting effect in earth filled dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Mo; Yoon, Wang-Jung [Department of Energy and Resources, Chonnam national university, Gwangju, 500-757, Rep of KOREA (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-10

    In this paper, we applied electrical resistivity monitoring method to evaluate the cement grouting effect. There are a lot of ways to evaluate cement grouting effect. In order to do this evaluation in a great safety, high efficiency, and lower cost, resistivity monitoring is found to be the most appropriate technique. In this paper we have selected a dam site from Korea to acquire resistivity monitoring data and compare the results of inversion to estimate the cement grouting effect.

  11. Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation for In Situ Grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary criticality safety evaluation is presented for in situ grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The grouting materials evaluated are cement and paraffin. The evaluation determines physical and administrative controls necessary to preclude criticality and identifies additional information required for a final criticality safety evaluation. The evaluation shows that there are no criticality concerns with cementitious grout but a neutron poison such as boron would be required for the use of the paraffin matrix

  12. Numerical Simulations of Settlement of Jet Grouting Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juzwa Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the comparison of results of numerical analyses of interaction between group of jet grouting columns and subsoil. The analyses were conducted for single column and groups of three, seven and nine columns. The simulations are based on experimental research in real scale which were carried out by authors. The final goal for the research is an estimation of an influence of interaction between columns working in a group.

  13. Expected performances for mosaic-grouting monitoring by GPR

    OpenAIRE

    DEROBERT, X; Cote, P.; DELINIKOLAS, N; MILTIADOU FEZANS, A

    2004-01-01

    Due to the 1999 Athens earthquake, both the masonry structure and the mosaics of the Katholikon of Dafni's Monastery have suffered severe damages. In order to design the appropriate intervention scheme for mosaic conservation, first for the detection and mapping of delaminated mosaic's areas, and second for the monitoring the movement of the grout during infection, using a non-destructive testing such as ground penetrating radar, presents a great interest. Two experimental studies have been r...

  14. High-Performance Grouting Mortar Based on Mineral Admixtures

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A study on high-performance grouting mortar is reported. The common mortar was modified by mineral admixtures such as gypsum, bauxite, and alunite. The effects of mineral admixtures on the fluidity, setting time, expansion, strength, and other properties of mortar were evaluated experimentally. The microstructure of the modified mortar was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Moreover, the expansive performance and strength of th...

  15. Mosaic-grouting monitoring by ground penetrating radar

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, P.; DEROBERT, X; DELINIKOLAS, N; MINOS, N; MILTIADOU FEZANS, A

    2004-01-01

    Due to the 1999 Athens earthquake, both the masonry structure and the mosaics of the Katholikon of Dafni's Monastery have suffered severe damages. In order to design the appropriate intervention scheme for mosaic conservation, first for the detection and mapping of delaminated mosaic's areas, and second for the monitoring the movement of the grout during infection, using a non-destructive testing such as ground penetrating radar, presents a great interest. Two experimental studies have been r...

  16. Experimental study of contaminant release from reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A column experiment was conducted to study the release behavior of technetium, uranium, and selenium initially sequestered in reducing grout similar in composition to Savannah River Site (SRS) saltstone, a cementitious waste form made by mixing salt solution from SRS liquid waste storage tanks with a dry mix containing blast furnace slag, fly ash, and Portland cement. The data suggest that uranium was retained in the grout possibly as a CaUO4 phase, whereas most of the selenium was released. Technetium release initially was relatively constant, and then increased significantly after 26 pore volumes. The increase in technetium release was slightly delayed relative to the observed Eh increase. The system Eh-pH started under conditions in which technetium solubility is low, constrained by Tc3O4 solubility, but eventually transitioned into the stability field of the pertechnetate ion. The delay in technetium release relative to the Eh increase was possibly due to slow oxidation of technetium at depth within the grout particles, which in turn was likely controlled by O2 diffusion into the particles. In contrast to technetium and uranium, selenium release was not solubility limited and selenium likely was present in the pore solution initially as a HSe- species. (authors)

  17. Estimated longevity of performance of Portland cement grout seal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sealing of boreholes, fractures and underground workings of repositories is a common concern for all programs investigating the deep burial of nuclear waste as a disposal mechanism. Two grouting materials, bentonite and portland cement, have been identified by many programs as likely candidate seal materials. The longevity of performance of both of these materials is currently being investigated under the auspices of the Stripa Project. These investigations comprise coordinated laboratory, field and modeling studies to produce fundamental data, practical experience and estimates of long-range performance, respectively. Long-term performance is an especially sensitive issue for cement because the phases that comprise cement are metastable. Accordingly, it may be assumed that cement grout performance will degrade with time. For a simplified cement system, two mechanisms for chemical degradation have been considered: phase change and dissolution. When considering dissolution, both equilibrium (slow flow) and open (fast flow) systems have been analyzed to establish bounds. Granitic terrain groundwaters ranging from fresh to saline have been taken as solvents. To assess the consequences in terms of flow, an empirical relation between cement permeability and porosity has been developed. Predictions of performance changes with time have been produced by making conservative estimates of local hydraulic head conditions for various periods of repository history. For the crystalline rock environments considered, preliminary results indicate that cement grout performance may be acceptable for tens of thousands to millions of years providing its initial hydraulic conductivity is on the order of 10-12 m/s

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to r educe the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, V.J.; Pao, J.H.; Demmer, R.L.; Tripp, J.L.

    2002-01-17

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to r educe the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Virgil James; Pao, Jenn Hai; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Tripp, Julia Lynn

    2002-02-01

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to reduce the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  1. Experimental Study of Contaminant Release from Reducing Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabalan, R. T.; Alexander, G. W.; Waiting, D. J.; Barr, C. S.

    2013-07-01

    A column experiment was conducted to study the release behavior of technetium, uranium, and selenium initially sequestered in reducing grout similar in composition to Savannah River Site (SRS) saltstone, a cementitious waste form made by mixing salt solution from SRS liquid waste storage tanks with a dry mix containing blast furnace slag, fly ash, and Portland cement. The data suggest that uranium was retained in the grout possibly as a CaUO4 phase, whereas most of the selenium was released. Technetium release initially was relatively constant, and then increased significantly after 26 pore volumes. The increase in technetium release was slightly delayed relative to the observed Eh increase. The system Eh-pH started under conditions in which technetium solubility is low, constrained by Tc3O4 solubility, but eventually transitioned into the stability field of the pertechnetate ion. The delay in technetium release relative to the Eh increase was possibly due to slow oxidation of technetium at depth within the grout particles, which in turn was likely controlled by O2 diffusion into the particles. In contrast to technetium and uranium, selenium release was not solubility limited and selenium likely was present in the pore solution initially as a HSe- species.

  2. Formulation studies and grout development for fixation of variable phosphate/sulfate waste, Milestone 195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to develop a range of cement-based blended dry solids which, when mixed with variable phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW), produce grouts that are processible in the Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO) Transportable Grout Facility (TGF). The selected formula(s) will also utilize commerically available materials requiring no custom processing and meet all criteria as identified and quantified by RHO, not only for grouts made with the reference formula, but also for those grouts made with reasonable deviations from the reference formula expected during routine TGF operation. This report presents experimental data for processibility and solid performance as well as graphical representations of the data. Based upon the results of the preliminary study, several grout formulas were found that produced acceptable grouts. One such formula, composed of Type III Portland cement (50 wt%), class F fly ash (28 wt%), Attapulgite-150 clay (14 wt%), and Indian red pottery clay (IRPC) (8 wt%), produced acceptable grouts with several of the waste concentrations studied. When mixed with 100% sulfate waste, this blend produced acceptable grouts at mix ratios of 8, 8.5, and 9 lb/gal. This particular blend also produced acceptable grouts at waste concentrations of 25/75 and 75/25 PSW. 12 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs

  3. Brief overview of the various families of grouts and their aplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandts, A.

    1989-04-01

    It is difficult to maintain an up-to-date overview of all the grouts presently used on the international market. Better grouts are continuously developed and more formulators are making their appearance. Consequently, it is difficult to clearly define all of the products in the industry. This topic has been the subject of numerous papers and textbooks. Most authors, however, only focus on their fields of interest: applications in geotechnical, or rehabilitation, or seepage control in civil engineering, oil or mining industry. There has been a limited transfer of technology from one field to the other because of the enormous differences in magnitude, site conditions and consequently the application techniques. The tools an engineer has are: his expertise in grouting and engineering background, equipment available or to be designed or modified to carry out a particular job, relevant data available from other sciences, and products with a variety of characteristics. This paper concentrates on product selection. The most suitable product for a particular project requires a good understanding of the general chemical and mechanical characteristics of the grout. The grouts have been classified into four categories for the purpose of this paper. There may be other methods of classification; however, this is only an attempt to help the industry with the selection of the most suitable grout for a given application. The four categories are: suspension grouts, chemical grouts, hot melts, and precipitation grouts. 1 fig.

  4. Theoretical model and solution for the rheological problem of anchor-grouting a soft rock tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an analytical method for analysis of the soft rock tunnel, based on a model dividing soft rock tunnels into a region of anchor-grouting and a region of non-anchor-grouting surrounding rock. The Poynting-Thomson model and the Kelvin-Hooke model are applied to the region of non-anchor-grouting surrounding rock and the region of anchor-grouting, respectively. Stress expressions in the region of non-anchor-grouting surrounding rock and the region of anchor-grouting are obtained. Expanding the expression of displacements in the region of anchor-grouting into a Maclaurin series, and utilizing the cumulative displacement curve of the surrounding rock through observation, a theoretical model is set up. This model and its solution for the rheology problem of anchor-grouting a soft tunnel have been proved to be effective in practical engineering; according to the Mohr-Coulomb yield condition, a safe criterion for an anchor-grouting soft rock of a tunnel can be found

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON IMPROVEMENT OF DEFORMATION AND STRENGTH OF ROCK MASSES BY GROUT TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuki, Shinji; Oyanagi, Satoshi; Yoshino, Naoto; Naruse, Takuya; Asakura, Toshihiro; Kikuchi, Kohkichi

    The purpose of consolidation grouting for dam foundation is to improve the permeability and mechanical properties of rock masses. For permeability, the grouting effect is usually confirmed by the permeability test at check holes. But for the change of mechanical properties, it has been difficult of confirmation. So, the mechanical improvement of foundation by grouting, like the changes of elasticity and strength, has not been considered in dam foundation design. In this study, an in-situ and laboratory tests were made in order to examine the grouting effect on mechanical properties of rock masses.

  6. The thermal behaviour of three different auger pressure grouted piles used as heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Loveridge, F.; Olgun, C.G.; Brettmann, T.; Powrie, W.

    2014-01-01

    Three auger pressure grouted (APG) test piles were constructed at a site in Richmond, Texas. The piles were each equipped with two U-loops of heat transfer pipes so that they could function as pile heat exchangers. The piles were of two different diameters and used two different grouts, a standard APG grout and a thermally enhanced grout. Thermal response tests, where fluid heated at a constant rate is circulated through the pipe loops, were carried out on the three piles, utilising either ...

  7. Grout testing and characterization for shallow-land burial trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was conducted to develop grout formulations suitable for in situ stabilization of low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste in shallow-land burial trenches at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The acceptabilities of soil, ordinary particulate, and fine particulate grouts were evaluated based on phase separation, compressive strength, freeze/thaw, penetration resistance, rheological, water permeability, column, and other tests. Soil grouts with soil-to-cement weight ratios from 0.91 to 1.60 were found to be suitable for open trench or drum disposal. Ordinary particulate grouts containing type I,II Portland cement, class C fly ash, bentonite, water, and a fluidizer were formulated to fill large voids within the soil/waste matrix of a closed shallow-land burial trench. Fine particulate grouts containing fine (mean particle size, 9.6 m) cement and water were formulated to fill smaller voids and to establish a grout-soil barrier to prevent water intrusion into the grouted waste trench. Solution, or chemical grouts, were evaluated as possible substitutes for the fine particulate grouts

  8. Variability in properties of grouted Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Transportable Grout Facility (TGF) is being constructed at the Hanford site in Washington State to convert various low-level liquid wastes to a grout waste form for onsite disposal. The TGF Project is managed by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has provided a grout formulation for Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste, the first waste stream scheduled for grouting beginning in late 1987. The formulation includes a blend of portland cement, fly ash, attapulgite clay, and an illitic clay. Grout will be produced by mixing the blend with Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste. These wastes result from decontamination and ion-exchange regeneration activities at Hanford's N-Reactor. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting studies on grouted Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste to verify that the grout can be successfully processed and, when hardened, that it will meet all performance and regulatory requirements. As part of these studies, PNL is assessing the variability that may be encountered when processing Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste grout. Sources of variability that may affect grout properties include the composition and concentrations of the waste and dry solids, temperature, efficiency of dry solids blending, and dry blend storage time. 13 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Study on grout-filled coupling steel sleeve. Part 1. Basic characteristics; Kokan sleeve wo mochiita grout juten shiki tekkin tsugite ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kisoteki seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, K.; Shimizu, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Sato, Y. [Okumura Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-11-15

    With an objective to establish a design technology on a grout-filled bar-reinforced joint consisted of a sleeve made of electric resistance welded steel tube and grout, discussions were given on the effects of different factors on the joint performance. The factors discussed include the kinds of grout (cement paste and mortar), reinforcing bar settlement length, and reinforcing bar quality. Increase in the grout strength causes the joint strength and rigidity to increase. To obtain the strength and rigidity equivalent to those in the reinforcing bars in the base material, the compaction strength required in the grout for the case of SB400 class reinforcing bars is 900 kgf/cm{sup 2}. A longer settlement length may increase the joint strength and rigidity, but its effect on tenacity is not clear. Increased grout strength can improve the tenacity. The maximum deposition stress increases in proportion with the compaction strength of the grout in any of the reinforcing bar unyielding positions and the yield occurring positions. The experiment resulted in estimating the following three fracture modes: a fracture mode with reinforcing bar slipping out without yield, a fracture mode with a reinforcing bar slipping out after yield, and a reinforcing bar tensile fracture mode. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. R20 Programme: Grout setting and strength development in ONKALO. Literature review, observations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ONKALO is an underground rock characterisation facility planned to be a part of nuclear waste repository in future. ONKALO is located in Olkiluoto Finland. Posiva Oy owned by Teollisuuden Voima Oy and Fortum Power and Heat Oy is responsible for the repository, research, construction and use of the ONKALO and closing of the underground facility after use. During construction of ONKALO it has been observed that the setting and strength of grouting materials have not sporadically developed as expected (in ONKALO). The phenomenon has been observed for the first time in the year 2005. The observations examined in this report are made in the grouting field tests and in ordinary grouting during the year 2007. The phenomenon has been observed with low pH and standard grouts and bolt grouting mortars. The reasons for this phenomenon are studied based on literature review, observations and tests in the field and laboratory. The effect of reactions between groundwater and grout, the effect of the raw materials as well as curing conditions, temperature and pressure are studied. There are several potential factors that can cause observed phenomenon. Some factors are more probable than others. Laboratory experiments for the samples of poor strength development were done. These samples were taken from the grouting holes or packers in which the strength of the grout was not developed as expected. The results of these experiments were compared to the results gained from the samples cast from the same grout batches and cured in the tunnel conditions. The purpose was to find out the factor causing slow strength development of the grouted mixes. One single reason, which can slow the setting of the grouts in ONKALO is the low temperature in the rock, but the temperature cannot cause the phenomenon alone. Locally groundwater contains compounds that can create chemically aggressive environment for (the Portland) cement based grouts. The groundwater chemistry in ONKALO has not been proved

  11. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G

    2002-04-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation.

  12. On the use of hydration heat for quality management of borehole heat exchanger grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suibert Oskar Seibertz, Klodwig; Händel, Falk; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing energy transition from conventional, fossil fuel based energy generation, over to renewable energy sources led to an increase in geothermal energy use. Different systems for extracting heat from the subsurface are in use, whereas a commonly used system is the borehole heat exchanger (BHE). A BHE generally consist of a closed loop pipe system through which a heat exchanging fluid is circulated. The BHE is surrounded by grouting. The grouting, focus of this work, has two main objectives to fulfill: Firstly, to thermally couple the subsurface and the BHE pipes; and, secondly, to protect the pipes and to prevent the heat exchanging fluid from entering the subsurface in case of BHE mechanical failure. Therefore, to provide proper functionality, efficiency, and safety of a BHE, it has to be guaranteed that the grouting does not have defects. The hardening reaction (hydration) of the grouting is exothermic, whereas the grouting is mostly a variant of (thermally enhanced) cement. The hydration temperature depends on the type of grout as well as the possible dilutions (resulting in defects) of the grouting material by water, air or drilling debris, and the thermal transport potential of the subsurface. Therefore the quality of the grouting can be investigated by temperature measurements during the hardening process. To validate this further, tests on field and laboratory scale were conducted. For laboratory testing, different columns were built in which different defects of BHE grouting and pipes were simulated. For defect simulation isolation and mixing with drilling debris were chosen, representing inclusions of water and/or air during cement casting as well as partial collapse of the borehole. The temperature changes during installation and hardening of the grouting are measured by fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). This allows for temporal and spatial high resolution, continuous temperature measurements at the interface of pipe to grout

  13. Sealing properties of cement-based grout materials. Final report on the Rock sealing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of laboratory studies of material properties. A number of different high performance grouts were investigated. The laboratory studies focused on mixtures of sulphate resistant portland cement, silica fume, superplasticizer and water. The ability of the thin films to self seal was confirmed. The surface reactions were studied in specimens of hardened grouts. The leach rates were found to vary with grout and water composition and with temperature. The short-term hydraulic and strength or properties of the hardened grout were determined. These properties were determined for the grouts both in-bulk and as thin-films. The hydraulic conductivities of the bulk, hardened material were found to be less than 10-14 m/s. The hydraulic conductivities of thin films were found to be less than 10-11 m/s. Broken, the hydraulic conductivity of the thin films could be increased to 10-7 m/s. Examination of the leached grout specimens revealed a trend for the pore sizes to decrease with time. The propensity for fractured grouts to self seal was also observed in tests in which the hydraulic conductivity of recompacted mechanically disrupted, granulated grouts was determined. These tests showed that the hydraulic conductivity decreased rapidly with time. The decreases were associated with decreases in mean pore size. In view of the very low hydraulic conductivity it is likely that surface leaching at the grout/groundwater interface will be that major process by which bulk high-performance grouts may degrade. With the completion of the laboratory, in situ and modelling studies it appears that high-performance cement based grouts can be considered as viable materials for some repository sealing applications. Some of the uncertainties that remain are identified in this report. (54 refs.)

  14. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency

  15. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingbang, Han; Ling, Chen; Changping, Zhu [Changzhou Key Laboratory of Sensor Networks and Environmental Sensing, College of IOT, Hohai University Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213022 (China)

    2014-02-18

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency.

  16. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingbang, Han; Ling, Chen; Changping, Zhu

    2014-02-01

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency.

  17. Demonstration of in situ-constructed horizontal soil containment barrier at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new design of jet grouting tool that can be guided by horizontal well casings and that operates in the horizontal plane has been used for the in situ placement of grout and construction of a prototype horizontal barrier that is free of windows. Jet grouting techniques have been advanced to permit construction of horizontal barriers underneath contaminated soil without having to excavate or disturb the waste. The paper describes progress on the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) In Situ Land Containment Project which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) for DOE's Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The Fernald project is to demonstrate a novel, enabling technology for the controlled underground placement of horizontal panels of grout, and the joining of adjacent panels to construct practical, extensive barriers. Construction strategy, equipment mechanics and operating details of this new method are described

  18. Heat transfer analyses for grout disposal of radioactive double-shell slurry and customer wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grout immobilization is being considered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell Hanford) as a permanent disposal method for several radioactive waste streams. These include disposal of customer and double-shell slurry wastes in earthen trenches and in single-shell underground waste storage tanks. Heat transfer studies have previously been made to determine the maximum heat loading for grout disposal of various wastes under similar conditions, but a sensitivity analysis of temperature profiles to input parameters was needed. This document presents the results of heat transfer calculations for trenches containing grouted customer and double-shell slurry wastes and for in situ disposal of double-shell wastes in single-shell, domed concrete storage tanks. It discusses the conditions that lead to maximum grout temperatures of 2500F during the curing stage and 3500F thereafter and shows the dependence of these temperatures on input parameters such as soil and grout thermal conductivity, grout specific heat, waste loading, and disposal geometries. Transient heat transfer calculations were made using the HEATING6 computer code to predict temperature profiles in solidified low-level radioactive waste disposal scenarios at the Rockwell Hanford site. The calculations provide guidance for the development of safe, environmentally acceptable grout formulas for the Transportable Grout Facility. 11 refs

  19. Geochemical modelling of grout-groundwater-rock interactions at the seal-rock interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical investigations into the longevity of repository seals have dealt primarily with the development of a methodology to evaluate interactions between portland cement-based grout and groundwater. Evaluation of chemical thermodynamic equilibria among grout, groundwater, and granitic host rock phases using the geochemical codes EQ3NR/EQ6 suggests that a fracture filled with grout and saturated with groundwater will tend to fill and 'tighten' with time. These calculations predict that some grout and rock phases will dissolve, and that there will be precipitation of secondary phases which collectively have a larger overall volume than that of the material dissolved. Model assumptions include sealing of the fracture in a sluggish hydrologic regime (low gradient) characterized by a saline groundwater environment. The results of the calculations suggest that buffering of the fracture seals chemical system by the granitic rock may be important in determining the long-term fate of grout seals and the resulting phase assemblage in the fracture. The similarity of the predicted reaction product phases to those observed in naturally filled fractures suggests that with time equilibrium will be approached and grouted fractures subject to low hydrologic gradients will continue to seal. If grout injected into fractures materially reduces groundwater flux, the approach to chemical equilibrium will likely be accelerated. In light of this, even very thin or imperfectly grouted fractures would tighten in suitable hydrogeologic environments. In order to determine the period of time necessary to approach equilibrium, data on reaction rates are required. (au)

  20. Mixing conditions in application of bentonite grouting to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to understand the flow properties and permeability of bentonite grout with NaCl added, using laboratory tests, and to clarify the mixing conditions of bentonite as a material. Given that the required permeability of clay grout is 10-9 (m/s), the combination of grout (W/B) becomes 6 or less. The viscosity of the grout was measured, and because the viscosity was higher than the thickest cement milk on dam grouting, it was found that grout with a W/B of less than 10 was difficult to inject into rock joints. We then added NaCl to grout with a W/B is 6, and its viscosity decreased as the amount of NaCl increased. A grout of viscosity able to be injected into rock joints was achieved by adding NaCl in a density higher than 'W:NaCl=40:1'. Next, the permeability of a bentonite suspension with NaCl was examined using the falling head permeability test. Testing the sample 'B:W:NaCl=20:20:1' for 10 days revealed that the initial permeability 10-8 (m/s) decreased to 10-10 - 10-11 (m/s). These results showed that a suspension to inject into rock joints could be made by adding NaCl, and clarified that permeation of groundwater into the suspension causes a decline in permeability. (author)

  1. Numerical simulation of attenuation and group velocity of guided ultrasonic wave in grouted rock bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Zou, D. H.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the guided ultrasonic wave propagating in grouted rock bolts was simulated with finite element method. An 800 mm partially grouted cylindrical rock bolt model was created. Dynamic input signals with frequency from 25 to 100 kHz were used to excite ultrasonic wave. The simulated waveform, group velocity and amplitude ratio matched well with the experimental results. This model made it possible to study the behaviour of the guided waves in the grouted bolt along its central axis. Analysis of the simulated results showed that the group velocity in grouted rock bolts is constant along the grouted length, and the boundary effect on the group velocity is negligible. This paper also presents methods to determine the attenuation coefficient from simulation and to determine the boundary effect on attenuation at the bolt ends. The analysis showed that the attenuation of the guided wave propagating inside the grouted bolts is similar to the theoretical solution in steel bar with infinite length. After correction for the boundary effects the grout length of a grouted rock bolt can be determined using the measured attenuation, with sufficient accuracy.

  2. Performance testing of blast furnace slag for immobilization of technetium in grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cement-based grouts are the most widely used method for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous waste because of their low processing costs, compatibility with a wide variety of disposal scenarios, and ability to meet stringent processing and performance requirements. Grouts, which meet all applicable regulatory requirements for the disposal of heavy metals, selected organics, and radionuclides, have been developed. In general, the performance of these grouts in sequestering the waste constituents of concern is most successful when the constituent of interest is relatively insoluble in the high pH of the grout pore water. Grouts, particularly neat cement-paste grouts, have proven less successful ins equestering species such as technetium and nitrates, which are readily soluble in pore water. Technetium is one of four radionuclides (99Tc, 3H, 14C, and 131I) of particular concern to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of their mobility and biological activity. This paper presents preliminary results of a grout development effort to identify grout formulas that can satisfactorily sequester 99Tc contained in an existing Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant waste

  3. Durability of particulate grouts: For isolation of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years particulate grouts have been used for isolating low-concerns that over time and following exposure to adverse environmental conditions, durability of the grouts may become grossly affected and contamination of groundwater system may result. To address some of these problems, a detailed laboratory study was conducted to characterize the fabric and performance of particulate grouts. Before and after exposure to several wet-dry and freeze-thaw cycles, pore size distribution measurements via mercury intrusion porosimetry, unconfined compressive strength, permeability and pulse velocity tests were performed on the studied grouts. Prediction equations were developed for assessing grout durability. Formulation factors: water/solid ratio; mix composition, and interaction between these were found to have significant statistical effect on both wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability of the studied grouts. Fly ash in excess of 30% by weight of total solids present, was found to lower durability considerably. Addition of 7 grams of fiber to the high fly ash grout mix improved durability. Silica fume caused considerable reduction in pore sizes and initial grain in strength, but appear to lower durability particularly under wet-dry conditions. Latex, showed a potential for use as an additive for formulating durable grout mixes. Statistically based design procedures were developed to aid the waste management practitioner to select a range of formulation factors that will assure a desired magnitude of behavior over a specified service period

  4. GEOTECHNICAL ASPECTS OF BOTTOM SEALING EXISTING HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS BY INJECTION GROUTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary results are given of compatibility testing for various grouts with selected hazardous wastes. The testing is a part of an ongoing project to determine the geotechnical feasibility of utilizing selected grouts and state-of-the-art techniques in the bottom sealing of ex...

  5. Pilot-scale grout production using a simulated low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program under way at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of selected liquid radioactive wastes to a cementitious grout form for near-surface disposal. Grout slurry, consisting of a mixture of liquid waste and a solids blend, will be pumped to near-surface disposal vaults where it will harden, thereby immobilizing the waste. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been supporting the program through pilot-scale tests, performance assessments, and formulation verification activities. A pilot-scale test was conducted in July 1986 to assess the effectiveness of the grouting operations and to characterize grout produced with pilot-scale equipment and disposed of in a monolithic form. The objectives of the pilot-scale test were threefold: to determine the homogeneity of the grout produced under conditions similar to those planned for the GTF (grout treatment facility), to evaluate performance of candidate grout processing equipment for the GTF, and to evaluate properties of grout produced during continuous operation over an extended time period and cured in a large monolith

  6. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cement Grouts Mixed with Different Super Plasticisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas A. Anagnostopoulos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of super plasticisers in microfine or regular cement-based grouts has become of vital importance in advanced professional grouting practices. These super plasticisers play an important role in the production of more durable grouts with improved rheological characteristics. This report presents a laboratory study of the effects of a new-generation Polycarboxylate Super Plasticiser (PCE on the rheological properties, mechanical strength, final setting time and bleeding of cement grouts in comparison to that of a polynaphthalene (SNF and a modified Lignosulfonate (MLS superplasticisers. The experiments were conducted using different super plasticiser dosages with cement grouts proportioned with a water to cement ratio (w/c of 0.33, 0.4 or 0.5. The results showed that grouts with PCE had higher viscosity, slightly increased bleeding and longer setting times compared with the SNF admixture. However, the PCE improved the final strength, especially for grouts with a w/c ratio of 0.4 and 0.5 and decreased the yield stress. Among the three super plasticisers, MLS had the less effect on improving the different properties of the grouts.

  7. Injection of a microfine cement grout through a porous medium : modelling and experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchelaghem, Fatiha

    2001-01-01

    In order to describe the basic phenomenon of miscible grout injection in a saturated and deformable porous medium, a general mathematical model is proposed, which accounts for the existing coupling between the fluid flow analysis, the miscible grout transport, and the solid skeleton deformation, leading to a realistic prediction of the injected zone.

  8. Characterization of simulated low-level waste grout produced in a pilot-scale test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of a pilot-scale grout test were to determine the homogeneity of the grout produced under conditions similar to those planned for the TGF, to evaluate performance of candidate grout processing equipment for the TGF, and to evaluate properties of grout that was produced during continuous operation over an extended time period and cured in a large monolith. This report addresses the first and third objectives. Tests were conducted on pilot-scale grout slurry, simulated waste solution, dry solids blend samples, and cured grout samples. Grout slurry collected at two points during the pilot-scale test and slurry produced in the laboratory were characterized by measuring rheology, drainable liquid, and penetration resistance. Cured grout samples included samples collected during the pilot-scale test and cured in the laboratory, samples produced in the laboratory, samples obtained from tubes inserted into the monolith, and samples from cored sections of the monolith. Tests conducted on the cured samples included compressive strength, density, ultrasonic pulse velocity, leachability, and microstructural characterization. 10 refs., 12 figs., 16 tabs

  9. 77 FR 69508 - Inservice Inspection of Prestressed Concrete Containment Structures With Grouted Tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... Register on April 28, 2011 (76 FR 23845) for a 60-day public comment period. The public comment period... COMMISSION Inservice Inspection of Prestressed Concrete Containment Structures With Grouted Tendons AGENCY... Concrete Containment Structures with Grouted Tendons.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC...

  10. Characterisation, design and execution of two grouting fans at 450 m level, Aespoe HRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During June 2003 a grouting field experiment was carried out at Aespoe HRL, in connection with the construction of a tunnel (TASQ) for the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). The tunnel is situated in connection to the elevator shaft landing at 450 m depth and runs in direction N/E. The grouting was carried out as part of the ordinary construction work, but was accompanied by extra investigations and analyses during operations and an active adaptation of a basic grouting design to the encountered conditions. The main objectives of this set-up were to Investigate what can be achieved with best available technology, material and knowledge under the current conditions, i.e. a relatively tight crystalline rock mass at great depth; Collect data and evaluate theories resulting from previous research projects on characterisation and predictions on grout spread; Collect data to further develop those above mentioned theories; Contribute to the achievement of good conditions at the experimental site for the pillar stability experiments. The characterization method is based on analyses of stepwise investigations consisting of investigations in an initially drilled core-drill hole followed by probe and grouting boreholes with pressure-build-up tests and measuring of inflow during drilling, all aiming at identifying the singular fractures that are to be sealed. The decision about grouting design is based on the successively up-dated rock description from the characterization and iterative selection and testing of grouting design and grout in a numeric model, resulting in an expected grout spread and sealing effect. Based on investigations and analysis of results from investigations of a core-drilled hole at the site, a basic design was set up, together with conditions for application. Probe boreholes covering the first anticipated fan gave substantially larger inflows than expected, and subsequently the design was changed. A first round was drilled and grouted, sealing

  11. Characterisation, design and execution of two grouting fans at 450 m level, Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmelin, Ann [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Magnus [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Fransson, Aasa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    During June 2003 a grouting field experiment was carried out at Aespoe HRL, in connection with the construction of a tunnel (TASQ) for the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). The tunnel is situated in connection to the elevator shaft landing at 450 m depth and runs in direction N/E. The grouting was carried out as part of the ordinary construction work, but was accompanied by extra investigations and analyses during operations and an active adaptation of a basic grouting design to the encountered conditions. The main objectives of this set-up were to Investigate what can be achieved with best available technology, material and knowledge under the current conditions, i.e. a relatively tight crystalline rock mass at great depth; Collect data and evaluate theories resulting from previous research projects on characterisation and predictions on grout spread; Collect data to further develop those above mentioned theories; Contribute to the achievement of good conditions at the experimental site for the pillar stability experiments. The characterization method is based on analyses of stepwise investigations consisting of investigations in an initially drilled core-drill hole followed by probe and grouting boreholes with pressure-build-up tests and measuring of inflow during drilling, all aiming at identifying the singular fractures that are to be sealed. The decision about grouting design is based on the successively up-dated rock description from the characterization and iterative selection and testing of grouting design and grout in a numeric model, resulting in an expected grout spread and sealing effect. Based on investigations and analysis of results from investigations of a core-drilled hole at the site, a basic design was set up, together with conditions for application. Probe boreholes covering the first anticipated fan gave substantially larger inflows than expected, and subsequently the design was changed. A first round was drilled and grouted, sealing

  12. An investigation into increasing the interface strength of concrete dams on rock foundations by grouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method to improve the stability of concrete dams on rock foundations was studied. Currently, tensioned anchors are used to increase normal stress and relief drains are used to decrease the uplift. The new method involves injecting a specifically designed cement based grout into the unbonded dam foundation interface. These strength grouts develop a cohesion component of the interface strength and improve stability. Laboratory tests were conducted to study the bleed, Marsh funnel viscosity, and the tensile strengths developed by the strength grouts. The tensile strengths developed by the strength grouts showed good comparison with the tensile strengths of concrete-rock contacts recovered from the dam-foundation interface. The use of this new method for the rehabilitation of existing dams was also discussed. It was shown that the use of strength grouts can improve the stability of concrete dams on rock foundations at a lower cost than tensioned anchors

  13. Introducing aggregate into grouting material and its influence on load transfer of the rock bolting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Chen; Ren Ting; Chris Cook

    2014-01-01

    A fully grouted bolt provides greater shear load capacity for transmitting the load from the rock to the bolt, and vice versa. When grout fills irregularities between the bolt and the rock, a keying effect is cre-ated to transfer the load to the bolt via shear resistance at the interface and within the grout. Previous research has revealed that the mechanical properties of the grout had a great impact on the load transfer capacity of the rock bolting system. This paper presents a method to enhance the rock bolting strength by introducing metal granules into the grouting material. Experimental results suggest that both the average peak load of pullout tests and the total energy absorption of the system will increase if some metal gran-ules are mixed into the resin.

  14. Experimental study on the compressive strength of grouted concrete block masonry based on nondestructive detection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-bin; LI Long-fei

    2009-01-01

    Existing nondestructive detection methods were adopted to test the compressive strength of grouted concrete block masonry, i.e. the rebound method, pulling-out method and core drilling method were employed to test the strength of block, mortar and grouted concrete, respectively. The suitability of these methods for the testing of strength of grouted concrete block masonry was discussed, and the comprehensive strength of block masonry was appraised by combining existing nondestructive or micro-destructive detection methods. The nondestructive detection test on 25 grouted concrete block masonry specimens was carried out. Experimental results show that these methods mentioned above are applicable for the strength detection of grouted concrete block masonry. Moreover, the formulas of compressive strength, detection methods and proposals are given as well.

  15. Bonding stress-slip constitutive behavior between bars and grout concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi; LIU Ming; ZHOU Jing-hai; WANG Bing

    2009-01-01

    To establish bonding stress--slip constitutive model between bars and grout concrete, 13 test specimens were employed to study the bonding behavior and the force transfer of bars adhered to grout concrete. The bonding stress development of bars adhered to grout concrete was analyzed. The local bonding stress--slip curve was obtained. Based on the test results, a new bonding stress--slip constitutive model between bars and grout concrete was proposed. The results show that the maximum bonding stress is not influenced by the bar bond length, but it is strengthened when the splitting strength of grout concrete is increased. The model matches the experimental results well, and the regressing coefficient equals 1.7.

  16. Cementitious Grout for Closing SRS High Level Waste Tanks - 12315

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. Ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks will also be filled to the extent practical. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and to be chemically reducing with a reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400. Grouts with this chemistry stabilize potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  17. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  18. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H. [Chemical Grouting Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  19. Evaluation of final waste forms and recommendations for baseline alternatives to grout and glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of final waste forms was made as part of the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement/Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (FFCA/DDT ampersand E) Program because supplemental waste-form technologies are needed for the hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes of concern to the Department of Energy and the problematic wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal objective was to identify a primary waste-form candidate as an alternative to grout (cement) and glass. The effort principally comprised a literature search, the goal of which was to establish a knowledge base regarding four areas: (1) the waste-form technologies based on grout and glass, (2) candidate alternatives, (3) the wastes that need to be immobilized, and (4) the technical and regulatory constraints on the waste-from technologies. This report serves, in part, to meet this goal. Six families of materials emerged as relevant; inorganic, organic, vitrified, devitrified, ceramic, and metallic matrices. Multiple members of each family were assessed, emphasizing the materials-oriented factors and accounting for the fact that the two most prevalent types of wastes for the FFCA/DDT ampersand E Program are aqueous liquids and inorganic sludges and solids. Presently, no individual matrix is sufficiently developed to permit its immediate implementation as a baseline alternative. Three thermoplastic materials, sulfur-polymer cement (inorganic), bitumen (organic), and polyethylene (organic), are the most technologically developed candidates. Each warrants further study, emphasizing the engineering and economic factors, but each also has limitations that regulate it to a status of short-term alternative. The crystallinity and flexible processing of sulfur provide sulfur-polymer cement with the highest potential for short-term success via encapsulation. Long-term immobilization demands chemical stabilization, which the thermoplastic matrices do not offer. Among the properties of the

  20. Automatic system of dam grouting in Tenjin dam construction works; Tenjin damu kensetsu koji ni okeru gurauchingu no jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaga, K.

    1996-03-01

    Since construction management of grouting is controlled by many factors like operators` technical skill and experience, grouting quality is not expected to be good and random and deteriorated quality is feared. Reduction of random quality with different operating individuals and prevention of simple miss due to human errors are expected to be necessary factors to ensure stable quality. Automatic system for Tenjin dam`s grouting quality is developed and its outline is reported in this research study. Considering grouting system`s flow and system`s drawing, grouting automatic system`s summary is explained. Again present grouting automatic system is compared with past systems reported in literature. Then operating personnel cut down in automation of grouting, artificial miss prevention in automatic supplement judgement system, needed time reduction in supplement decision and labor saving are made it possible. Details of above mentioned points are illustrated clearly. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Long-term degradation (or improvement?) of cementitious grout/concrete for waste disposal at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepho, M.G. [Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    If grout and/or concrete barriers and containments are considered for long-term (500 yrs to 100,000 ) waste disposal, then long-term degradation of grout/cement materials (and others) need to be studied. Long-term degradations of a cementitious grout monolith (15.4mW x 10.4mH x 37.6mL) and its containment concrete shell and asphalt shell (each 1-m thick) were analyzed. The main degradation process of the concrete shell was believed to be fractures due to construction joints, shrinkage, thermal stress, settlement, and seismic events. A scenario with fractures was modeled (flow and transport model) for long-term risk performance (out to a million yrs). Even though the concrete/grout is expected to fracture, the concrete/grout chemistry, which has high Ph value, is very beneficial in causing calcite deposits from calcium in the water precipitating in the fractures. These calcite deposits will tend to plug the fracture and keep water from entering. The effectiveness of such plugging needs to be studied more. It`s possible that the plugged fractures are more impermeable than the original concrete/grout. The long-term performance of concrete/grout barriers will be determined by its chemistry, not its mechanical properties.

  2. Development of a grout database for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed a grout database (GDB) comprising the latest technical data of grout materials relevant to the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Currently, only newly developed grout materials of low pH cements, superfine spherical silica and colloidal silica, which are expected to provide a target pH ≤ 11 leachate, are included in the GDB. Case examples from on-site works and laboratory-based tests that have been published in the literature have been used to add construction and material details to the GDB. The GDB is available online (https://groutdb.jaea.go.jp/grout/ [in Japanese]) for registered users to obtain and provide data of grout technology. Furthermore, the GDB can be used to correlate requirements of mechanical, physical, and/or chemical properties of a grout material to specifically address concerns over safety assessment, material and injection method development, and/or prediction of grout penetration. (author)

  3. Laboratory leach tests of phosphate/sulfate waste grout and leachate adsorption tests using Hanford sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; McLaurine, S.B.; Airhart, S.P.; LeGore, V.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-12-01

    An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout disposal at Hanford requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of waste species contained in the grout via contact with water that percolates through the ground. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of Hanford sediment (soil) surrounding the grout and concrete vault to retard migration of any wastes released from the grout. This report describes specific laboratory experiments that are producing empirical leach rate data and leachate-sediment adsorption data for Phosphate-Sulfate Waste (PSW) grout. The leach rate and adsorption values serve as inputs to computer codes used to forecast potential risk resulting from the use of ground water containing leached species. In addition, the report discusses other chemical analyses and geochemical computer code calculations that were used to identify mechanisms that control leach rates and adsorption potential. Knowledge of the controlling chemical and physical processes provides technical defensibility for using the empirical laboratory data to extrapolate the performance of the actual grout disposal system to the long time periods of interest. 59 refs., 83 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Development and enhancement of grouting technologies in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory. Part 2 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Tono Geoscience Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereafter, JAEA), Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project has been conducted to develop scientific and technological basis for geological disposal. The concept of geological disposal is based on a multi-barrier system which combines a stable geological environment with an engineered barrier system (EBS). In order to develop an engineering basis for the construction of disposal system, the enhancement of grouting technologies among engineering technologies is needed. In this study, the comprehensive performance of suspension type grouting materials to seal rock fractures encountered in excavation works at deep underground has been checked, and the clogging phenomenon at the entrance of rock fractures has been investigated following the previous year. Research issues are as follows: study on rheology of high viscous grouting material, study of clogging phenomenon of suspension type grouting materials under high injection pressure, literature review on infiltration characteristics of grouting materials to point out research issues to be solved and summary of this research works to date. Among these, in high-pressure clogging test, prototype test equipment developed last year has been improved completely to simulate grout flow accurately in actual grouting scene. The test results indicate the possibility to prevent the clogging phenomenon of thick cement slurry by increasing the injection pressure gradually. (author)

  5. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  6. Durability of low-pH injection grout. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides an overview of the durability of injection grouts. It is intended for use during planning and construction at the ONKALO underground research facility. The review has been done with respect to the application conditions, materials and service life requirements expressed by Posiva Oy. The publication describes all types of cement-based material durability, with an emphasis on the key issues of shrinkage cracking, leaching and sulphate attack. The second part of the report provides information on how durability expectations have changed with the history of injection grout development. The report gives information specific to low-pH injection grouts containing high amounts of silica fume performance and how their durability is expected to differ from traditional normal cement-based mixtures. The final part of the report provides suggestions for future research needs for ensuring the service life of injection grouts. The key finding from this study is that the low-pH grout material is not expected to have worse durability performance compared to the standard injection grout. Combining high amounts of silica fume with the cement to produce low-pH grout should result in a material having lower permeability and thus greater resistance to leaching and chemical attack. Further laboratory testing is needed to quantitatively verify these findings and to provide inputs for future service life modeling. (orig.)

  7. Acid mine drainage abatement using fluidized bed combustion ash grout after geophysical site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyritic coal refuse and pit cleanings buried in a 15-ha (37-acre) surface mine produce severe acid mine drainage (AMD). The pyritic material had been buried in discrete piles or pods in the backfill. The pods and the resulting contaminant plumes were initially defined using geophysical techniques and were confirmed by drilling. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash, mixed with water to form a grout, was used in different ways to isolate the pyritic material from water and oxygen. In the first approach, grout was pressure injected directly into the buried pods to fill the void spaces within the pods and to coat the pyritic materials with a cementitious layer. A second approach used the grout to divert water from specific areas. Pods which did not accept grout because of a clay matrix were isolated from percolating water with a cap and trench seal of the grout. The grout was also used in certain areas to blanket the clay pit floor since clays are believed to be a primary source of aluminum at this site. In certain areas, the AMD migrates downward though fractures in the pit floor to the groundwater table. Grout was injected along the fractures in some of these areas to seal them. This would inhibit further AMD migration toward one of the receiving streams. The initial postgrouting water quality data have been encouraging

  8. Bio-grout based on microbially induced sand solidification by means of asparaginase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Fu, Qing-Long; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Achal, Varenyam; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2015-11-01

    Bio-grout, a new ground improvement method, has been recently developed to improve the mechanical properties, decrease the permeability of porous materials, reinforce or repair cementitious materials and modify the properties of soil or sand. Bio-grout production depends on microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP), which is driven mainly by an enzyme, urease. However, urease-based MICP process produces excessive ammonia, in addition to secondary pollution generated by urea that is used as substrate in it. In the present study, we reported asparaginase-based MICP process for sand bio-grout development using Bacillus megaterium, and results were also compared with urease-based bio-grouts. The asparaginase activity led to significantly less ammonia production compared to urease without compromising with desired properties of a novel grout. The UCS of bio-grout was obtained at 980 kPa, while the permeability was decreased substantially. The mineralogical composition of precipitated substance was identified as calcite using XRD and the crystal morphology was observed under SEM. The mass percentage of calcite in bio-grout was calculated by thermogravimetric analysis and XCT verified calcite precipitation in it. The results confirmed that biocalcification by means of bacterial asparaginase is a potential solution for geotechnical problems. The asparaginase-based MICP process could be of wider acceptance in future.

  9. Blast furnace slag-cement grout blends for the immobilization of technetium-containing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed low-level radioactive and chemically toxic process treatment wastes from the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are stabilized by solidification in cement-based grouts. Conventional portland cement and fly ash grouts are shown to be very effective for retention of hydrolyzable heavy metals (including lead, cadmium, uranium, and nickel), but are marginally acceptable for retention of radioactive 99Tc (which is present in the waste as the highly mobile pertechnate anion). Addition of ground blast furnace slag to the grout is shown to reduce the effective diffusivity of technetium by several orders of magnitude; retention of technetium is improved by decreasing the waste loading in the grout or by increasing the proportion of blast furnace slag in the grout dry mix. The selective effect of slag is believed to be due to its ability to reduce Tc(VIII) to the less soluble Tc(IV) species. The addition of other reductive grout admixtures (e.g., sodium sulfide, ferrous ion, and powdered iron metal) also appear to improve the retention of technetium in grout. 31 refs., 2 figs., 25 tabs

  10. Acute toxicity screening of Hanford Site waste grouts using aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 50 years operation of the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy near Richland, Washington. The current strategy for the disposal of the low-level radioactive portion of these wastes involves immobilization of the waste in the form of grout. Because the potential risk of animal and plant exposure to grouts is unknown, acute toxicity screening of grouts is needed. Grouts were prepared by mixing a surrogate nonradioactive liquid waste with a blend consisting of cement, fly ash, and clay. Aqueous extracts of the grout were then screened for acute toxicity using aquatic invertebrates as test organisms and a fluorogenic substrate as the toxic stress indicator. After a 1-hour exposure of juvenile daphnids (D, magna, D. pulex, and C. dubia) to the grout extracts followed by a 15-minute reaction with the fluorogenic substrate, the degree of in vivo enzymatic inhibition was measured by the number of resulting fluorescent daphnids. The EC50 values calculated by probit analysis were 2,877 mg/L, 2,983 mg/L, and 3,174 mg/L for D. pulex, D. magna, and C. dubia, respectively. The slight difference in the responses may be attributed to the subjective pass-fail scoring of the fluorescence criterion. The results indicated that the grout studied is nonhazardous and nondangerous

  11. Design procedure for formulating and assessing the durability of particulate grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current disposal plans for low-level wastes call for stabilizing or encapsulating and storing of these wastes in steel drums which in turn are buried in shallow trenches. Complete sealing is accomplished with grout, a liquid injection comprising principally of cement and fly ash, etc. Upon solidification, the grout forms a rigid mass around the drum, thereby eliminating access of groundwater into or out of the waste barrier, or leaching of radionuclides. Since the primary mechanism for the likely introduction of hazardous and/or radioactive elements into the biosphere in this situation, is through physical or chemical deterioration of the waste barrier, it is necessary that the effect of adverse environments on the durability of the grouts be examined and incorporated in barrier design. Currently, procedures for formulating grout mixes to assure a given impermeability or durability of the grout over its service period is lacking, and so are the techniques for monitoring the in-service performance of waste barrier systems. This paper depicts a serious limitation in waste barrier system technology, for it is time that optimization in design be possible. To allow this, a method is needed that creates the grout formulation specification for an optimization of behavior parameters in the resulting product. These considerations suggest a strong need for improvement in the grout formulation specification to allow a focus upon behavior properties desired by the engineer in the creation of optimum performance. This paper addresses these problems

  12. Magnesium Mono Potassium Phosphate Grout For P-Reactor Vessel In-Situ Decomissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material (≤ 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH2PO4 and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete(regsign) magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  13. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the ''hottest'' (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates for WAXFIX/paraffin do not indicate any immediate problems with the use of WAXFIX for grouting beryllium or other wastes in the SDA

  14. Parameters Optimization of Curtain Grouting Reinforcement Cycle in Yonglian Tunnel and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For practical purposes, the curtain grouting method is an effective method to treat geological disasters and can be used to improve the strength and permeability resistance of surrounding rock. Selection of the optimal parameters of grouting reinforcement cycle especially reinforcement cycle thickness is one of the most interesting areas of research in curtain grouting designs. Based on the fluid-structure interaction theory and orthogonal analysis method, the influence of reinforcement cycle thickness, elastic modulus, and permeability on water inflow of tunnel after grouting and stability of surrounding rock was analyzed. As to the water inflow of tunnel after grouting used as performance evaluation index of grouting reinforcement cycle, it can be concluded that the permeability was the most important factor followed by reinforcement cycle thickness and elastic modulus. Furthermore, pore water pressure field, stress field, and plastic zone of surrounding rock were calculated by using COMSOL software under different conditions of reinforcement cycle thickness. It also can be concluded that the optimal thickness of reinforcement cycle and permeability can be adopted as 8 m and 1/100 of the surrounding rock permeability in the curtain grouting reinforcement cycle. The engineering case provides a reference for similar engineering.

  15. Laboratory leach tests of phosphate/sulfate waste grout and leachate adsorption tests using Hanford sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout disposal at Hanford requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of waste species contained in the grout via contact with water that percolates through the ground. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of Hanford sediment (soil) surrounding the grout and concrete vault to retard migration of any wastes released from the grout. This report describes specific laboratory experiments that are producing empirical leach rate data and leachate-sediment adsorption data for Phosphate-Sulfate Waste (PSW) grout. The leach rate and adsorption values serve as inputs to computer codes used to forecast potential risk resulting from the use of ground water containing leached species. In addition, the report discusses other chemical analyses and geochemical computer code calculations that were used to identify mechanisms that control leach rates and adsorption potential. Knowledge of the controlling chemical and physical processes provides technical defensibility for using the empirical laboratory data to extrapolate the performance of the actual grout disposal system to the long time periods of interest. 59 refs., 83 figs., 18 tabs

  16. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We use LCA to study environmental impacts of grouting techniques for site remediation. ► We consider colloidal silica permeation grouting and cement jet grouting. ► Manufacturing and transportation contribute significantly in all impact categories. ► Activity outside of direct site activity is important in assessing impacts. ► LCA can be used to consider sustainability criteria for remediation decisions. -- Abstract: Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental “systems-level” decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required

  17. Literature review of stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds and the implications for Hanford grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review was conducted on the stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Based on this literature, it is likely that the limestone-containing grout will not permanently immobilize VOCs and that no presently available additives can guarantee permanent immobilization. The Westinghouse hanford company grout may be fairly effective at retarding aqueous leaching of VOCs, and commercial additives can improve this performance. Significant VOC losses do occur during stabilization/solidification, and the high temperatures of the Westinghouse Hanford Company waste and grout should exacerbate this problem. In fact, these high temperatures raise doubts about the presence of VOCs in the double-shell tanks supernates

  18. Pre-excavation grouting for reduction of water inflow into a deep shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is currently being constructed. During its construction, water inflow into the shafts of the MIU has been increasing and affecting the project progress. In order to reduce the water inflow into the shafts, pre-excavation grouting has been planned. A pre-excavation grouting has been undertaken in the Ventilation Shaft and the applicability of several techniques has been evaluated. This paper describes the plan and results of the pre-excavation grouting, and evaluate the effectiveness of the planning process. (author)

  19. Reactive transport modeling of grout-rock interaction at the ONKALO site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouting of water-conducting fractures with low-alkali cement is foreseen for the potential future repository for spent nuclear fuel in Finland (ONKALO site). A possible consequence of the interaction between groundwater and grout is the formation of high pH solutions which will be able to react with the host rock (gneisses) and alter its mineralogy and porosity. A reactive transport modeling study of this possible alteration has been conducted. First, the hydration of the low-alkali cementitious grout has been modeled, using results from the literature as a guide. The hydrated cement is characterized by the absence of portlandite and the presence of a C-S-H gel with a Ca/Si ratio about 0.8 after tens of years (Ca/Si is about 1.7 in Ordinary Portland Cement). Afterwards, a one-dimensional system simulating the contact between a grouted section of a fracture and the gneiss has been studied. Diffusion is the only solute transport mechanism in this case. The results from the simulations show a very fast (days to tens of days) sealing of porosity at the rock-grout interface. The precipitation of C-S-H, and also ettringite in some cases, is responsible for this fast sealing of porosity. The mixing by diffusion of a high-pH Carich solution from the grout and a Si-rich solution from the rock (plagioclase dissolution) causes this precipitation. Finally, calculations have simulated the interaction between flowing water and grout and the formation of an alkalinity plume, which flows beyond the grouted section of the fracture. The calculations include the hydration and simultaneous leaching of the grout through diffusive exchange between the porewater in the grout and the flowing water in the fracture. The formation of an alkaline plume is extremely limited when the low-pH grout is used. Even when using a grout with a lower silica fume content, the extent and magnitude of the alkaline plume is rather minor. These results are in qualitative agreement with monitoring at ONKALO

  20. Discussion on the Influence of Various Technological Parameters on Jet Grouting Columns Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bzówka Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular elements created by using jet grouting technology are columns. During designing such columns, it is a problem of estimating their shape and dimensions. The main factors that influence on columns geometry are soil characteristic and technological parameters. At the frame of Authors scientific research, following technological factors were taken into account: system of jet grouting, injection pressure, dimension of nozzles and rotation speed during injection. In the paper some results of the field tests of jet grouting columns are presented

  1. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Duanduan; Wang Longfei; Zhang Lipeng

    2015-01-01

    Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capac...

  2. In situ grouting of a low-level radioactive waste trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shallow land burial trench containing low level radioactive waste was injected with a particulate grout to help control subsidence and radionuclide migration. The trench's accessible voids have been estimated at 20 vol %, and most of these voids appear to have been filled with grout. This injection was accomplished with a simple, labor intensive technique, and an inexperienced crew at an estimated cost of about $55,000. The grout costs $0.21/gal and 8081 gal was injected into the trench. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Effects of grouting, shotcreting and concrete leachates on backfill geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of concrete to seal open fractures (grouting) and to impermeabilise the deposition tunnels (shotcreting) has been envisaged in the construction of a high level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository according to SKB designs. Nevertheless, the geochemical effect of using concrete in the repository is not fully understood. Concrete degradation due to the interaction with groundwater can affect the performance of other repository barriers, such as the backfill material used for sealing the deposition tunnels. One of the main effects of concrete degradation is the generation of alkaline plumes. For this reason, SKB is currently planning to use a type of concrete whose degradation result in lower pH values than those developed with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). In order to assess the long-term geochemical effect of including low-pH concrete elements in a HLNW repository, we performed a 2D reactive-transport model of a backfilled deposition tunnel that intersects a hydraulic conductive fracture which has been partially grouted. An additional case has been modelled where part of the deposition tunnel walls were covered with a shotcrete layer. The modelling results predict the development of a high-alkalinity plume, larger in the case of considering a grouted fracture, accompanied by the precipitation of CSH-phases in the fracture. However, the effect on the backfill material is only significant if concrete is in contact with the backfill (shotcrete case). In order to conduct these models, and considering that at the beginning of the present work there was not a specific composition for such a low-pH concrete, its composition has been assumed in order to meet the expected geochemical evolution of concrete degradation according to SKB expectations. This is a pH of pore water of around 11 and the degradation of CSH phases resulting in a source for Ca and Si into the system. For this reason, jennite and tobermorite have been selected, although it is known that jennite is

  4. Effects of grouting, shotcreting and concrete leachates on backfill geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Miguel; Arcos, David; Duro, Lara [Enviros Consulting, Valldoreix, Barc elona (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    The use of concrete to seal open fractures (grouting) and to impermeabilise the deposition tunnels (shotcreting) has been envisaged in the construction of a high level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository according to SKB designs. Nevertheless, the geochemical effect of using concrete in the repository is not fully understood. Concrete degradation due to the interaction with groundwater can affect the performance of other repository barriers, such as the backfill material used for sealing the deposition tunnels. One of the main effects of concrete degradation is the generation of alkaline plumes. For this reason, SKB is currently planning to use a type of concrete whose degradation result in lower pH values than those developed with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). In order to assess the long-term geochemical effect of including low-pH concrete elements in a HLNW repository, we performed a 2D reactive-transport model of a backfilled deposition tunnel that intersects a hydraulic conductive fracture which has been partially grouted. An additional case has been modelled where part of the deposition tunnel walls were covered with a shotcrete layer. The modelling results predict the development of a high-alkalinity plume, larger in the case of considering a grouted fracture, accompanied by the precipitation of CSH-phases in the fracture. However, the effect on the backfill material is only significant if concrete is in contact with the backfill (shotcrete case). In order to conduct these models, and considering that at the beginning of the present work there was not a specific composition for such a low-pH concrete, its composition has been assumed in order to meet the expected geochemical evolution of concrete degradation according to SKB expectations. This is a pH of pore water of around 11 and the degradation of CSH phases resulting in a source for Ca and Si into the system. For this reason, jennite and tobermorite have been selected, although it is known that jennite is

  5. GROUT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN 105-R DISASSEMBLY BASIN D AND E CANAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogle, R.; Collins, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2010-06-03

    The 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin Grout Placement Strategy Report (SRNL-TR-2009-00157) identifies various portions of the facility that will undergo an in-situ decommissioning process. The estimated residual radioactive contamination in the 105-R facility is shown in Figure 1. Cementitious grout formulations developed by SRNL are being used to immobilize and isolate the radioactive contamination in existing below grade portions of the 105-R building as shown by the gray-hatched area in Figure 2. A Zero Bleed flowable fill was formulated for both dry placement and for underwater placement. The first major area in the 105-R Disassembly Basin to undergo the grouting process was the D&E Canal and an underlying void space known as the Chase. Grout temperature data was needed to ensure that the grout mix design was on the correct grout curing trajectory to meet the material compressive strength requirement of 50 pounds per square inch. Initial grout temperature measurements were needed to confirm and optimize grout mix design fresh property characteristics; i.e. material strength, and set time. Grout curing temperature is an integrating fresh property characteristic that is used to estimate cementitious material strength in accordance with the Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method, ASTM C 1074. The Maturity Method is used in the construction industry to estimate in-place strength of concrete to allow the start of critical construction activities; e.g. formwork removal, removal of cold weather protection, opening of roadways to traffic, etc. Applying this methodology provides an expeditious means to estimate in-place grout strength based on compressive strength laboratory results. The Maturity Method results define the relationship between strength-time and age-time that may be utilized in the field for estimating strength after a given time of placement. Maturation curves were developed under the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin

  6. Evaluation of grout behind the lining of shield tunnels using ground-penetrating radar in the Shanghai Metro Line, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiongyao; Liu, Yujian; Huang, Hongwei; Du, Jun; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Lanbo

    2007-09-01

    For shield tunnelling construction in soft soil areas, the coverage uniformity and quality of consolidation of the injected grout mortar behind the prefabricated tunnel segment is the main concern for tunnel safety and ground settlement. In this paper, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was applied to evaluate the grout behind the tunnel lining segments in Shanghai, China. The dielectric permittivity of the grout material in Shanghai Metro tunnelling construction was measured in the laboratory. Combining physical modelling results with finite different time domain numerical modelling results, we suggest that the antenna with frequency 200 MHz is well suited to penetrate the reinforced steel bar network of the tunnel lining segment and testing grout patterns behind the segment. The electromagnetic velocity of the grout behind the segment of the tunnel is 0.1 m ns-1 by the analysis of field common-middle point data. A wave-translated method was put forward to process the GPR images. Furthermore, combining the information acquired by GPR with experience data, a GPR non-destructive test standard for the grout mortar evaluation in Shanghai Metro tunnel construction was brought forward. The grout behind the tunnel lining segment is classified into three types: uncompensated grout mortar with a thickness less than 10 cm, normal grout mortar with a thickness between 10 cm and 30 cm and overcompensated grout mortar, which is more than 30 cm thick. The classified method is easily put into practice.

  7. Disposal of radioactive grouts into hydraulically fractured shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for permanent waste disposal has been in operation for nearly 20 years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this method, intermediate-level radioactive waste effluents in the form of a slurry containing hydraulic binders (grouts) are injected by means of fracturing into a deep underground formation (a nearly impervious shale formation) considered to be isolated from the surface. The composition of the grout is carefully chosen so that the slurry thus injected solidifies in situ, ensuring fixation of the waste and rendering this type of disposal final in character. This process - ''hydrofracture'' or ''shale fracturing'' - immobilizes the wastes directly in situ, in such a condition that is well removed from the biosphere. It is an inexpensive process that is particularly suited for the permanent disposal of large batches of certain types of wastes under specific conditions. Some sections of this report are concerned with the general aspects of the hydrofracture process. Other sections are site specific and discuss the development of the process at ORNL and the operating experience with the ORNL facility. Sections 2 and 3 are concerned with the general aspects of site selection and are not site specific. Sections 4, 5, 6 and 8 are concerned with operating experience at ORNL and are site specific. Section 7 (safety assessment) is based on ORNL experience, but the considerations that are discussed in this section have general application. Details of the operating experience with the process at ORNL and West Valley are given in Appendix 1. Appendix 2 is a brief treatment of the theory of fracture mechanics

  8. Concept study: Use of grout vaults for disposal of long-length contaminated equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clem, D.K.

    1994-09-21

    Study considers the potential for use of grout vaults for disposal of untreated long length equipment removed from waste tanks. Looks at ways to access vaults, material handling, regulatory aspects, and advantages and disadvantages of vault disposal.

  9. Concept study: Use of grout vaults for disposal of long-length contaminated equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study considers the potential for use of grout vaults for disposal of untreated long length equipment removed from waste tanks. Looks at ways to access vaults, material handling, regulatory aspects, and advantages and disadvantages of vault disposal

  10. Grouting techniques for the unfavorable geological conditions of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingli Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges during subsea tunnel construction is to seal the potential water inflow. The paper presents a case study of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in Xiamen, the first subsea tunnel in China. During its construction, different grades of weathered geomaterials were encountered, which was the challenging issue for this project. To deal with these unfavorable geological conditions, grouting was adopted as an important measure for ground treatment. The grouting mechanism is first illustrated by introducing a typical grouting process. Then the site-specific grouting techniques employed in the Xiang'an subsea tunnel are elaborated. By using this ground reinforcement technique, the tunneling safety of the Xiang'an subsea tunnel was guaranteed.

  11. Field lysimeter studies for performance evaluation of grouted Hanford defense wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.

    1995-02-01

    The Grout Waste Test Facility (GWTF) consisted of four large field lysimeters designed to test the leaching and migration rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive wastes generated by Hanford Site operations. Each lysimeter was an 8-m-deep by 2-media closed-bottom caisson that was placed in the ground such that the uppermost rim remained just above grade. Two of these lysimeters were used; the other two remained empty. The two lysimeters that were used (A-1 and B-1) were backfilled with a two-layer soil profile representative of the proposed grout disposal site. The proposed grout disposal site (termed the Grout Treatment Facility Landfill) is located immediately east of the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. This soil profile consisted of a coarse sand into which the grout waste forms were placed and covered by 4 m of a very fine sand. The A-1 lysimeter was backfilled in March 1985, with a grout-solidified phosphate/sulfate liquid waste from N Reactor decontamination and ion exchange resin regeneration. The B-1 lysimeter was backfilled in September 1985 and received a grout-solidified simulated cladding removal waste representative of waste generated from fuel reprocessing operations at the head end of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant. Routine monitoring and leachate collection activities were conducted for over three years, terminating in January 1989. Drainage was collected sporadically between January 1989 and December 1992. Decontamination and decommissioning of these lysimeters during the summer of 1994, confirmed the presence of a 15 to 20-cm-long hairline crack in one of the bottom plate welds. This report discusses the design and construction of the GWTF, presents the routine data collected from this facility through January 1989 and subsequent data collected sporadically between 1989 and 1993, and provides a brief discussion concerning preliminary interpretation of the results.

  12. Durability and compressive strength of blast furnace slag-based cement grout for special geotechnical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Álvarez, José Marcos; Pastor Navarro, José Luis; Albaladejo Ruiz, Arturo; Sánchez Martín, Isidro; Climent, Miguel-Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Special foundations, most prominently micropiles and soil anchors, are frequently used in construction today. In Spain, the grout for these special technical applications is generally prepared with portland cement, although the codes and standards in place stipulate only the minimum compressive strength required, with no mention of cement type. Those texts also establish a range of acceptable water:cement ratios. In the present study, durability and compressive strength in cement grout prepar...

  13. The grouting handbook a step-by-step guide for foundation design and machinery installation

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Minimize loss of revenue and the downtime of critical assets by avoiding foundation cracking, poor bonds, and initial alignment changes. After their successful introduction as a maintenance material, machinery grouts are now being used for equipment placement in new construction. While certainly suitable for both markets and applications, a successful installation depends on proper grout selection, application, foundation preparation, and forming methods. Therefore, guidelines on their uses and limitations are needed for engineers and maintenance personnel. Based on 45 years of field experi

  14. System design, construction, and start-up of the Hanford Site Transportable Grout Equipment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) have developed a grouting process for the immobilization and final disposal of mixed low-level tank wastes from various Hanford N-Reactor operations. Associated Technologies, Inc. (ATI), now part of US Ecology Nuclear, was selected to design, construct, and start-up the Transportable Grout Equipment (TGE) facility with technical assistance from SGN of France

  15. Laboratory research of sealing possibilities of cohesionless soils by means of chemical grouts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír

    Atény : Heliootopos Conferences Ltd, 2009 - (Agioutantis, Z.; Komnitsas, K.), s. 394-399 ISBN N. [AMIREG 2009 /3./. Atény (GR), 07.09.2009-09.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1533 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : chemical grouts * chemical grouting * soils sealing Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  16. Applying "Real Time Grouting Control Method" in sedimentary rock with gotvand dam data

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghoobi Rafi, Jalaleddin

    2010-01-01

    “Real Time Grouting Control Method” is a pioneer idea informulating grouting works which provides possibility for monitoring groutingprocess in real time to optimize it to performance and cost. Currently this theoryhas been tested with data from tunnels in Stockholm. In this report the effort istesting the validity of this method in a kind of geology which is situated insouthwest of Iran. Data are taken from the Gotvand dam project which is underconstruction on Karoon River. To achieve this g...

  17. Evaluation of the Grouting Methodology used in the Stockholm City Line Project

    OpenAIRE

    Brynjolfsson, Brynjolfur

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Stockholm City Line project a grouting design was conducted and documentedduring the planning phase, based on theoretical grounds. This comprehensive design is the first of its kind for a tunneling project in Sweden. Due to the scale of the undertaking, the general design was ordered by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) to apply for the pregrouting operations at the City Line’s rock tunnels. During the local design however, the grouting work developed differen...

  18. Field lysimeter studies for performance evaluation of grouted Hanford defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Waste Test Facility (GWTF) consisted of four large field lysimeters designed to test the leaching and migration rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive wastes generated by Hanford Site operations. Each lysimeter was an 8-m-deep by 2-media closed-bottom caisson that was placed in the ground such that the uppermost rim remained just above grade. Two of these lysimeters were used; the other two remained empty. The two lysimeters that were used (A-1 and B-1) were backfilled with a two-layer soil profile representative of the proposed grout disposal site. The proposed grout disposal site (termed the Grout Treatment Facility Landfill) is located immediately east of the Hanford Site's 200 East Area. This soil profile consisted of a coarse sand into which the grout waste forms were placed and covered by 4 m of a very fine sand. The A-1 lysimeter was backfilled in March 1985, with a grout-solidified phosphate/sulfate liquid waste from N Reactor decontamination and ion exchange resin regeneration. The B-1 lysimeter was backfilled in September 1985 and received a grout-solidified simulated cladding removal waste representative of waste generated from fuel reprocessing operations at the head end of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant. Routine monitoring and leachate collection activities were conducted for over three years, terminating in January 1989. Drainage was collected sporadically between January 1989 and December 1992. Decontamination and decommissioning of these lysimeters during the summer of 1994, confirmed the presence of a 15 to 20-cm-long hairline crack in one of the bottom plate welds. This report discusses the design and construction of the GWTF, presents the routine data collected from this facility through January 1989 and subsequent data collected sporadically between 1989 and 1993, and provides a brief discussion concerning preliminary interpretation of the results

  19. Grout and Glass Performance Maximizing the Loading of ORNL Tank Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization and solidification alternatives for radioactive and hazardous mixed wastes stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as a mixed-waste alternative disposal technology

  20. Application of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technology in the Anomaly Detection of Shaft Lining in Grouting

    OpenAIRE

    Chunde Piao; Jun Yuan; Bin Shi; Haijun Lu; Guangqing Wei; Chunsheng Gu

    2015-01-01

    The rupture of the shaft lining caused by grouting has seriously undermined the safety in coal mining. Based on BOTDR distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this paper studied the layout method of optical fiber sensors and the anomaly detection method of the deformation and obtained the evolution law of shaft deformation triggered by grouting. The research results showed that the bonding problem of optical fiber sensors in damp environment could be effectively solved, by applying the b...

  1. Soil movements associated with compensation grouting during line 9 excavation in Barcelona: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mariano, Alessandra; Gens Solé, Antonio; Mair, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes a case history -related to the Line 9 excavation in Barcelonawhere compensation grouting was initially proposed to minimize the movements of the buildings close to or directly above the tunnel alignment, some of which have piled foundations. Unexpectedly, the ground settlements due to the pre-conditioning stage of the compensation grouting became very significant leading to some light damage to one of the buildings. Eventually, the decision was taken to stop the treatme...

  2. Grout and Glass Performance Maximizing the Loading of ORNL Tank Sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, M.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Spence, R.D.; Travis, J.R.

    1999-03-01

    Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization and solidification alternatives for radioactive and hazardous mixed wastes stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as a mixed-waste alternative disposal technology.

  3. CONSIDERATIONS FOR GROUT FORMULATIONS FOR FACILITY CLOSURES USING IN SITU STRATEGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.; Serrato, M.; Langton, C.; Long, T.; Blankenship, J.; Hannah, G.; Stubblefield, R.; Szilagyi, A.

    2010-08-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting in situ closures (entombment) at a large number of facilities throughout the complex. Among the largest closure actions currently underway are the closures of the P and R Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. In these facilities, subgrade open spaces are being stabilized with grout; this ensures the long term structural integrity of the facilities and permanently immobilizes and isolates residual contamination. The large size and structural complexity of these facilities present a wide variety of challenges for the identification and selection of appropriate fill materials. Considerations for grout formulations must account for flowability, long term stability, set times, heat generation and interactions with materials within the structure. The large size and configuration of the facility necessitates that grout must be pumped from the exterior to the spaces to be filled, which requires that the material must retain a high degree of flowability to move through piping without clogging while achieving the required leveling properties at the pour site. Set times and curing properties must be controlled to meet operations schedules, while not generating sufficient heat to compromise the properties of the fill material. The properties of residual materials can result in additional requirements for grout formulations. If significant quantities of aluminum are present in the facility, common formulations of highly alkaline grouts may not be appropriate because of the potential for hydrogen generation with the resultant risks. SRS is developing specialized inorganic grout formulations that are designed to address this issue. One circum-neutral chemical grout formulation identified for initial consideration did not possess the proper chemical characteristics, having exceptionally short set times and high heat of hydration. Research efforts are directed toward developing grout formulations

  4. Grouting techniques for the unfavorable geological conditions of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dingli Zhang; Qian Fang; Haicheng Lou

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges during subsea tunnel construction is to seal the potential water inflow. The paper presents a case study of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in Xiamen, the first subsea tunnel in China. During its construction, different grades of weathered geomaterials were encountered, which was the challenging issue for this project. To deal with these unfavorable geological conditions, grouting was adopted as an important measure for ground treatment. The grouting mechanism is first illu...

  5. Finite Element Analysis on the Main Frame of Horizontal Type High-pressure Grouting Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhicheng Huang

    2012-01-01

    For understanding the stress, strain and dynamic characteristics and improving the stability of the main frame of the horizontal type high-pressure grouting machine, took a type of ceramics for daily use horizontal high pressure grouting machine’s main frame as the object of study, established its CAD model and then conducted finite element static analysis and modal analysis on it. Got the values and distribution of the stress and strain, obtained the first six order natural frequencies and t...

  6. CONSIDERATIONS FOR GROUT FORMULATIONS FOR FACILITY CLOSURES USING IN SITU STRATEGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting in situ closures (entombment) at a large number of facilities throughout the complex. Among the largest closure actions currently underway are the closures of the P and R Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. In these facilities, subgrade open spaces are being stabilized with grout; this ensures the long term structural integrity of the facilities and permanently immobilizes and isolates residual contamination. The large size and structural complexity of these facilities present a wide variety of challenges for the identification and selection of appropriate fill materials. Considerations for grout formulations must account for flowability, long term stability, set times, heat generation and interactions with materials within the structure. The large size and configuration of the facility necessitates that grout must be pumped from the exterior to the spaces to be filled, which requires that the material must retain a high degree of flowability to move through piping without clogging while achieving the required leveling properties at the pour site. Set times and curing properties must be controlled to meet operations schedules, while not generating sufficient heat to compromise the properties of the fill material. The properties of residual materials can result in additional requirements for grout formulations. If significant quantities of aluminum are present in the facility, common formulations of highly alkaline grouts may not be appropriate because of the potential for hydrogen generation with the resultant risks. SRS is developing specialized inorganic grout formulations that are designed to address this issue. One circum-neutral chemical grout formulation identified for initial consideration did not possess the proper chemical characteristics, having exceptionally short set times and high heat of hydration. Research efforts are directed toward developing grout formulations

  7. Discussion on the Influence of Various Technological Parameters on Jet Grouting Columns Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bzówka Joanna; Juzwa Anna; Wanik Konrad; Wanik Lidia; Żyrek Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    One of the most popular elements created by using jet grouting technology are columns. During designing such columns, it is a problem of estimating their shape and dimensions. The main factors that influence on columns geometry are soil characteristic and technological parameters. At the frame of Authors scientific research, following technological factors were taken into account: system of jet grouting, injection pressure, dimension of nozzles and rotation speed during injection. In the pape...

  8. Jet grouting for a groundwater cutoff wall in difficult glacial soil deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, R.F.; Pepe, F. Jr. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, New York, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Jet grouting is being used as part of a groundwater cutoff wall system in a major New York City subway construction project to limit drawdowns in an adjacent PCB contamination plume. A circular test shaft of jet grout columns was conducted during the design phase to obtain wall installation parameters. The test program also included shaft wall mapping, and measurements of; inflows, piezometric levels, ground heave and temperature, and jet grout hydraulic conductivity. An axisymmetric finite element method groundwater model was established to back calculate the in-situ hydraulic conductivities of both the surrounding glacial soils and the jet grout walls by matching observed inflows and piezometric levels. The model also verified the use of packer permeability test as a tool in the field to evaluate the hydraulic conductivities of jet grout columns. Both the test program and analytic studies indicated that adjustments to the construction procedures would be required to obtain lower hydraulic conductivities of the jet grout walls for construction. A comparison is made with the conductivities estimated from the test program/analytic studies with those from the present construction.

  9. Use of jet grouting to create a low permeability horizontal barrier below an incinerator ash landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, A.J.; Burke, G.K. [Hayward Baker Inc., Odenton, MD (United States); Deutsch, W.L. Jr. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., West Chester, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The City of Philadelphia`s Division of Aviation (DOA) has begun construction of a new commuter runway, designated as Runway 8-26, at the Philadelphia International Airport. A portion of this runway will be constructed over a former Superfund site known as the Enterprise Avenue Landfill, which for many years was used to dispose of solid waste incinerator ash and other hazardous materials. The site was clay capped in the 1980`s, but in order for the DOA to use the site, additional remediation was needed to meet US EPA final closure requirements. One component of the closure plan included installation of a low permeability horizontal barrier above a very thin (approximately 0.61 to 0.91 meters) natural clay stratum which underlies an approximately 1020 m{sup 2} area of the landfill footprint so as to insure that a minimum 1.52 meter thick low permeability barrier exists beneath the entire 150,000 m{sup 2} landfill. The new barrier was constructed using jet grouting techniques to achieve remote excavation and replacement of the bottom 0.91 meters of the waste mass with a low permeability grout. The grout was formulated to meet the low permeability, low elastic modulus and compressive strength requirements of the project design. This paper will discuss the advantages of using jet grouting for the work and details the development of the grout mixture, modeling of the grout zone under load, field construction techniques, performance monitoring and verification testing.

  10. New composite grouting materials:Modified urea-formaldehyde resin with cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Hongfei; Jiang Zhenquan; Zhu Shuyun; Yao Pu; Sun Qiang

    2012-01-01

    A new composite two component grout comprised of modified urea-formaldehyde resin and cement was formulated to take account of the advantages and disadvantages of both the cement grout and the chemical grout.The new grout is designed for water blocking by reinforcing as well as seepage control by bore grouting.The A component consists of a modified urea-formaldehyde resin A component,some cement,and some water.The B component is an alkaline coagulant.An orthogonal test of four factors at three levels showed that gel time increased with increased water content and with urea-formaldehyde resin content.Gel time decreased at increased levels of alkaline coagulant.The A component of this new composite grout is stable over time.A mixed cross-over test showed that as the volume ratio of A to B increases the gel time falls at first but then increases.The solid strength decreases with increasing levels of the B component.The solid strength increases over time and becomes stable by the 28th day after mixing.The viscosity increases with increasing levels of resin A component.The increase is exponential and may be fit to;μ = 8.162e0.0286x.

  11. Jet grouting for a groundwater cutoff wall in difficult glacial soil deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jet grouting is being used as part of a groundwater cutoff wall system in a major New York City subway construction project to limit drawdowns in an adjacent PCB contamination plume. A circular test shaft of jet grout columns was conducted during the design phase to obtain wall installation parameters. The test program also included shaft wall mapping, and measurements of; inflows, piezometric levels, ground heave and temperature, and jet grout hydraulic conductivity. An axisymmetric finite element method groundwater model was established to back calculate the in-situ hydraulic conductivities of both the surrounding glacial soils and the jet grout walls by matching observed inflows and piezometric levels. The model also verified the use of packer permeability test as a tool in the field to evaluate the hydraulic conductivities of jet grout columns. Both the test program and analytic studies indicated that adjustments to the construction procedures would be required to obtain lower hydraulic conductivities of the jet grout walls for construction. A comparison is made with the conductivities estimated from the test program/analytic studies with those from the present construction

  12. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations (±10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample

  13. An Analysis of Consolidation Grouting Effect of Bedrock Based on its Acoustic Velocity Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Lu, Wen-bo; Zhang, Wen-ju; Yan, Peng; Zhou, Chuang-bing

    2015-05-01

    Acoustic velocity is an important parameter to evaluate the mechanical properties of fractured rock masses. Based on the in situ acoustic velocity measurement data of ~20 hydropower stations in China, we assessed the acoustic velocity increase of rock masses as a result of consolidation grouting in different geological conditions, such as fault sites, weathered areas and excavation-induced damage zones. We established an empirical relationship between the acoustic velocity of rock masses before and after consolidation grouting, and examined the correlation between acoustic velocity and deformation modulus. A case study is presented about a foundation consolidation grouting project for an intake tower of Pubugou Hydropower Station. The results show that different types of rock masses possess distinct ranges for resultant acoustic velocity increase by consolidation grouting. Under a confidence interval of 95 %, the ranges of the increasing rate of acoustic velocity in a faulted zone, weathered zone, and excavation-induced damage zone are observed to be 12.7-43.1, 12.3-31.2, and 6.9-14.5 %, respectively. The acoustic velocity before grouting and its increasing rate can be used to predict the effectiveness of consolidation grouting.

  14. Monitoring of grout material injected under a reservoir using electrical and electromagnetic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Oyama, Takahiro; Kawashima, Fumiharu; Tsukada, Tomoyuki; Jyomori, Akira

    2010-02-01

    In order to reduce leakage from a reservoir, a large amount of cement milk (grout) was injected from boreholes drilled around the shores of the reservoir, and monitored to establish the infiltration of cement milk into the bedrock under the reservoir. From laboratory tests using rock core samples, it was revealed that the resistivity of cement milk is much lower than that of the groundwater at this location. Therefore, it was expected that the resistivity of the zones filled with cement milk would be significantly reduced. Geophysical surveys are expected to be suitable methods to check the effectiveness of grouting in improving the water-retaining performance of a reservoir. DC electrical surveys (seven in total) and two Controlled Source Audio-frequency Magneto-Telluric (CSAMT) surveys were conducted along survey lines in the reservoir to monitor the infiltration of cement milk during the grouting. Extremely low resistivity zones (10Ωm or less) were observed in resistivity sections obtained by 2D inversion. The zones are inferred to be fractured zones filled with cement milk. In sections showing the rate of change of resistivity, three zones that showed significant change showed gradual expansion to deeper parts as the grouting progressed. These zones correspond to highly permeable zones detected by Lugeon tests at grout boreholes. We have confirmed that it is possible to measure the resistivity change by DC electrical and CSAMT surveys from the surface of the reservoir. It seems that such monitoring results could be reflected in future grouting plans.

  15. Application of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technology in the Anomaly Detection of Shaft Lining in Grouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rupture of the shaft lining caused by grouting has seriously undermined the safety in coal mining. Based on BOTDR distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this paper studied the layout method of optical fiber sensors and the anomaly detection method of the deformation and obtained the evolution law of shaft deformation triggered by grouting. The research results showed that the bonding problem of optical fiber sensors in damp environment could be effectively solved, by applying the binder consisting of sodium silicate and cement. Through BOTDR-based deformation detection, the real-time deformation of the shaft lining caused by grouting was immediately spotted. By comparing the respective strain of shaft lining deformation and concrete deformation, the risk range of shaft lining grouting was identified. With the additional strain increment of the shaft lining triggered by each process of grouting, the saturated condition of grouting volume in strata was analyzed, providing an important technical insight into the field construction and the safety of the shaft lining.

  16. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; R. J. Kirkham

    2004-01-01

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum "recipe" for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600ºC.

  17. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. PMID:23500422

  18. Low-level radioactive Hanford wastes immobilized by cement-based grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 5,300,000 liters (1,400,000 gal) of phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW) grout were produced and placed in vault 101 at the Hanford Site. This waste was generated during decontamination operations and maintenance of the fuel storage basin at the N Reactor. The low-level radioactive liquid wastes were mixed with a blend of portland cement, fly ash, and clays. Through cementing and pozzolanic reactions with water, the grout was solidified to immobilize contaminants and retain low permeability to groundwater. Testing conducted before the campaign is described. The usefulness of each quality verification technique is discussed, focusing mainly on data from the core samples. These data provide the best information on PSW grout since core samples from all regions and depths in the vault were tested. The nondestructive testing data are also useful as they provide property data from broad regions of the vault. The mean compressive strength of the PSW grout cores is 4.17 MPa, much higher than the criterion value of 0.35 MPa. Results also show that the leachability indices for 137Cs, 60Co, sodium, and SO4 for PSW grout cores exceed the leachability criterion by at least one index point. This means that the ability of the grout to resist leaching of waste species is at least ten times greater than the limiting criterion

  19. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum ''recipe'' for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600 C

  20. Jet Grouting. Control of execution and result parameters. Test fields - Experience in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article emphasizes the importance of Test Fields in project that includes the Jet Grouting technique. In particular, the Chilean experience is analyzed, where the Jet Grouting was first introduced by Pilots Terratest S. A. in the year 2010, only, only in 2011 the first project using jet columns was constructed. The versatilely of this technique allows its use in a wide variety of projects, for example, soil capacity improvement, settlement control, reduction of soil permeability and other environmental applications. Currently, the most common applications are underpinning existing foundations, ground improvement, lateral support of excavations, hydraulic barriers, slope stabilization, liquefaction control, among others. The Jet Grouting is one of the most demanding soil improvement technique and requires excellence in designing and execution engineers and other involved specialist. It is therefore essential to ensure exhaustive control to the execution and final parameters, in order to check that the product- Jet Grouting element-have the design properties, and implement modifications if necessary. Many authors strongly advises that if there is no comparable experience and even if there is, a Test Field of Jet Grouting elements has to be executed in site. This field consists in a nearby area with similar geotechnical conditions of the project, where Jet Grouting test columns will be constructed. This Test Field will allow selecting the most effective execution parameters and verifying that the final product has he correct design properties. (Author)

  1. Real-scale miscible grout injection experiment and performance of advection-dispersion-filtration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelaghem, F.; Vulliet, L.; Leroy, D.; Laloui, L.; Descoeudres, F.

    2001-10-01

    A model was developed, to describe miscible grout propagation in a saturated deformable porous medium, based on Bear's statistical model with spatial volume averaging. In a previous paper, the model was first successfully confronted to one-dimensional laboratory experiments.In the present paper, the numerical model is used to simulate practical grouting operation in a cylindrical injection model. The cylindrical injection model lends itself to study main flow and propagation character istics for a dispersed suspension-type grout, under axisymmetric conditions close to real scale conditions.Comparison between numerical solutions and experimental results is essential to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed model from a phenomenological standpoint. The numerical model performances show that the underlying mathematical model constitutes a realistic predictive model reproducing most prominent features during injection of a suspension-type grout into a deformable porous medium. The basic mechanism by which injected miscible grout permeates a soil mass is discussed in detail. Such a tool leads to quality control criteria for grouting on a theoretical basis, which complements existing criteria acquired through engineering practice.

  2. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan (5). Numerical simulation for in-situ grout injection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, to simulate the grout injection process, the 3-D numerical model based on equivalent continuum approach was developed. The developed numerical model was applied to the in-situ grout injection tests at Grimsel test site (GTS), Switzerland. The rock type is fractured granite and the equivalent porous media was created from the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) based on the fracture data obtained from the observation boreholes. The simulation results was compared with the ones obtained from in-situ measurements and show qualitatively good agreement. (author)

  3. Structural model testing for prestressed concrete pressure vessels: a study of grouted vs nongrouted posttensioned prestressing tendon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nongrouted tendons are predominantly used in this country as the prestressing system for prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) because they are more easily surveyed to detect reductions in prestressing level and distress such as results from corrosion. Grouted tendon systems, however, offer advantages which may make them cost-effective for PCPV applications. Literature was reviewed to (1) provide insight on the behavior of grouted tendon system, (2) establish performance histories for structures utilizing grouted tendons, (3) examine corrosion protection procedures for prestressing tendons, (4) identify arguments for and against using grouted tendons, and (5) aid in the development of the experimental investigation. The experimental investigation was divided into four phases: (1) grouted-nongrouted tendon behavior, (2) evaluation of selected new material systems, (3) bench-scale corrosion studies, and (4) preliminary evaluation of acoustic emission techniques for monitoring grouted tendons in PCPVs. The groutability of large tendon systems was also investigated

  4. Structural model testing for prestressed concrete pressure vessels: a study of grouted vs nongrouted posttensioned prestressing tendon systems. [HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.

    1979-04-01

    Nongrouted tendons are predominantly used in this country as the prestressing system for prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) because they are more easily surveyed to detect reductions in prestressing level and distress such as results from corrosion. Grouted tendon systems, however, offer advantages which may make them cost-effective for PCPV applications. Literature was reviewed to (1) provide insight on the behavior of grouted tendon system, (2) establish performance histories for structures utilizing grouted tendons, (3) examine corrosion protection procedures for prestressing tendons, (4) identify arguments for and against using grouted tendons, and (5) aid in the development of the experimental investigation. The experimental investigation was divided into four phases: (1) grouted-nongrouted tendon behavior, (2) evaluation of selected new material systems, (3) bench-scale corrosion studies, and (4) preliminary evaluation of acoustic emission techniques for monitoring grouted tendons in PCPVs. The groutability of large tendon systems was also investigated.

  5. Properties of low-ph cement grout as a sealing material for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current solution to the problem of using cementitious material for sealing purposes in a final radioactive waste repository is to develop a low-pH cement grout. In this study, the material properties of a low-pH cement grout based on a recipe used at ONKALO are investigated by considering such factors as pH variation, compressive strength, dynamic modulus, and hydraulic conductivity by using silica fume and micro-cement. From the pH measurements of the hardened cement grout, the required pH (< pH 11) is obtained after 130 days of curing. Although the engineering properties of the low-pH cement grout used in this study are inferior to those of conventional high-pH cement grout, the utilization of silica fume and micro-cement effectively meets the long-term environmental and durability requirements for cement grout in a radioactive waste repository

  6. The change in bioavailability of organic matter associated with clay-based buffer materials as a result of heat and radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compacted clay-based buffer surrounds corrosion-resistant waste containers in the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Clays naturally contain small quantities of organic matter that may be resistant to bacterial degradation. The containers with highly radioactive material would subject the surrounding buffer to both heat and radiation. Both could potentially break down complex organic material to smaller, more bioavailable compounds. This could stimulate microbial growth and possibly affect gas production, microbially-influenced corrosion or radionuclide migration. Experiments were carried out in which buffer was heated at 60 and 90 C for periods of 2, 4 and 6 weeks, in some cases followed by irradiation to 25 kGy. Unheated buffer was also irradiated to 25 and 50 kGy at different moisture contents. The treated materials were subsequently suspended in distilled water, shaken for 24 h and centrifuged to remove the solids. The 0.22 microm filter-sterilized leachates were inoculated with equal volumes of fresh groundwater and incubated at room temperature for 10 d to determine the increase in total and viable bacteria compared to a groundwater control. Results indicated that leachates from buffer subjected to heat, radiation or combinations of these, had a stimulating effect on both total and viable cell counts in groundwater, compared to unamended groundwater controls. This stimulating effect was generally most pronounced for viable counts and could be larger than two orders of magnitude. Leachates from untreated buffer material also stimulated the growth of groundwater bacteria, but to a lesser extent than leachates from heat- and radiation-treated buffer material. The effects of heat and radiation on nutrient availability in clay-based sealing materials should, therefore, be taken into account when attempting to quantify the effects of microbial activity on vault performance

  7. Pre-excavation grouting design, results and evaluation of a gallery at great depth in Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-excavation grouting of shafts and galleries has been conducted during the construction of Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in the aspect of safe works and reducing the discharge treatment of the water inflow. The grouting methodology has been simultaneously studied and developed as there is less experience of grouting in low conductive rock with high water pressure, especially in Japan. Ahead of excavating GL.-500 m gallery on the ventilation shaft side, grouting design was performed based on the estimation of water inflow by the pilot-boring investigations and the design was properly revised during the campaign. The gallery satisfied the inflow requirement with good sealing effect. (author)

  8. Test execution of liquid-type grout at depth of 300 m of Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, the water inflow should be minimized, considering water treatment expense. Although cement grout has been applied to reduce water inflow up to 460 m depth, water inflow through small fractures which cement grout cannot penetrate cannot be neglected at deeper underground. Liquid-type grout which has high durability as well as good penetrability was therefore tested at the depth of 300 m. Test results indicated that liquid-type grout could sufficiently reduce hydraulic conductivity of rock mass with less than 1 Lu, and could keep improvement effect even after applied water pressure of more than 9 MPa was applied. (author)

  9. Laboratory testing of rock core samples from pre-excavation grouting area at Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting a research project on 'Grouting Technology Development for the Radioactive Waste Repository' funded by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), Japan. As a part of the project, various investigations were carried out in the -200m Refuge Niche where pre-excavation grouting was performed and the distribution of the injected grouting material, also the effectiveness of grouting penetration for reduction of groundwater inflow were confirmed. As the continuation of these investigations, chemical influences of grouting material on the rock mass were determined through 'Laboratory testing of rock core samples from pre-excavation grouting area at Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory'. Specifically, core samples were obtained by check boring at where infiltration solidification of the grouting material was expected, and X-ray florescent analysis and Transmission Electron Microscope observation were performed focused on the contact parts of the grouting material and rock mass in fractures. As a result, the chemical influences of grouting material on the rock mass were identified. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  10. Reactive transport modeling of the interaction between water and a cementitious grout in a fractured rock. Application to ONKALO (Finland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → It is planned to seal conductive fractures near a repository with cementitious grout. → Modeling includes simultaneous hydration and leaching of the grout. → Modeling results show a very limited formation of the high-pH plume. → Results are in qualitative agreement with borehole monitoring data. - Abstract: Grouting of water-conducting fractures with low-alkali cement is foreseen for the potential future repository for spent nuclear fuel in Finland (ONKALO). A possible consequence of the interaction between groundwater and grout is the formation of high-pH solutions which will be able to react with the host rock (gneisses) and alter its mineralogy and porosity. A reactive transport modeling study of this possible alteration has been conducted. First, the hydration of the low-alkali cementitious grout has been modeled, using results from the literature as a guide. The hydrated cement is characterized by the absence of portlandite and the presence of a C-S-H gel with a Ca/Si ratio about 0.8 after tens of years (Ca/Si is about 1.7 in Ordinary Portland Cement). Second, calculations have simulated the interaction between flowing water and grout and the formation of an alkalinity plume, which flows beyond the grouted section of the fracture. The calculations include the hydration and simultaneous leaching of the grout through diffusive exchange between the porewater in the grout and the flowing water in the fracture. The formation of an alkaline plume is extremely limited when the low-pH grout is used. Even when using a grout with a lower silica fume content, the extent and magnitude of the alkaline plume is quite minor. These results are in qualitative agreement with monitoring at ONKALO.

  11. TANKS 18 AND 19-F EQUIPMENT GROUT FILL MATERIAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2011-12-15

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) intends to remove Tanks 18-F and 19-F at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from service. The high-level waste (HLW) tanks have been isolated from the F-area Tank Farm (FTF) facilities and will be filled with cementitious grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the empty volumes in the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways from the surface to residual waste on the bottom of the tanks, (3) providing an intruder barrier, and (4) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to limit solubility of residual radionuclides. Bulk waste and heel waste removal equipment will remain in Tanks 18-F and 19-F when the tanks are closed. This equipment includes: mixer pumps, transfer pumps, transfer jets, equipment support masts, sampling masts and dip tube assemblies. The current Tank 18-F and 19-F closure strategy is to grout the internal void spaces in this equipment to eliminate fast vertical pathways and slow water infiltration to the residual material on the tank floor. This report documents the results of laboratory testing performed to identify a grout formulation for filling the abandoned equipment in Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The objective of this work was to formulate a flowable grout for filling internal voids of equipment that will remain in Tanks 18-F and 19-F during the final closures. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, Tank Farm Closure Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The scope for this task is provided in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The specific objectives of this task were to: (1) Prepare and evaluate the SRR cooling coil grout identified in WSRC-STI-2008-00298 per the TTR for this work. The cooling coil grout is a mixture of BASF MasterFlow{reg_sign} 816 cable grout (67.67 wt. %), Grade 100 ground granulated blast furnace slag (7.52 wt. %) and water (24.81 wt. %); (2) Identify equipment grout placement and

  12. Tanks 18 And 19-F Equipment Grout Fill Material Evaluation And Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) intends to remove Tanks 18-F and 19-F at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from service. The high-level waste (HLW) tanks have been isolated from the F-area Tank Farm (FTF) facilities and will be filled with cementitious grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the empty volumes in the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways from the surface to residual waste on the bottom of the tanks, (3) providing an intruder barrier, and (4) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to limit solubility of residual radionuclides. Bulk waste and heel waste removal equipment will remain in Tanks 18-F and 19-F when the tanks are closed. This equipment includes: mixer pumps, transfer pumps, transfer jets, equipment support masts, sampling masts and dip tube assemblies. The current Tank 18-F and 19-F closure strategy is to grout the internal void spaces in this equipment to eliminate fast vertical pathways and slow water infiltration to the residual material on the tank floor. This report documents the results of laboratory testing performed to identify a grout formulation for filling the abandoned equipment in Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The objective of this work was to formulate a flowable grout for filling internal voids of equipment that will remain in Tanks 18-F and 19-F during the final closures. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, Tank Farm Closure Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The scope for this task is provided in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The specific objectives of this task were to: (1) Prepare and evaluate the SRR cooling coil grout identified in WSRC-STI-2008-00298 per the TTR for this work. The cooling coil grout is a mixture of BASF MasterFlow(regsign) 816 cable grout (67.67 wt. %), Grade 100 ground granulated blast furnace slag (7.52 wt. %) and water (24.81 wt. %); (2) Identify equipment grout placement and

  13. Development and enhancement of grouting technologies in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Tono Geoscience Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereafter, JAEA), Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project is being advanced to develop a scientific and technological basis for geological disposal. The concept of geological disposal is based on a multi-barrier system which combines a stable geological environment with an engineered barrier system (EBS). In order to develop a engineering basis for the construction of disposal system, the enhancement of grouting technologies among engineering technologies is needed. In this study, the comprehensive performance of suspension type grouting materials to seal rock fractures encountered in excavation works at deep underground has been checked, and the clogging phenomenon at the entrance of rock fractures has been investigated following the previous year. Research issues are as follows; Study on grouting concept to secure high-level water sealing, study on the test method to check grout clogging under high injection pressure, study on grouting material which can penetrate into finer fractures. Among these, in the study on penetrability test method, prototype test instruments were made and a series of preliminary tests were conducted. (author)

  14. Grout performance in support of in situ stabilization/solidification of the GAAT tank sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kauschinger, J. L. [Ground Environmental Services, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The Gunite{trademark} and associated tanks (GAATs) were constructed at ORNL between 1943 and 1951 and were used for many years to collect radioactive and chemical wastes. These tanks are currently inactive. Varying amounts of the sludge were removed and disposed of through the Hydrofracture Program. Thus, some tanks are virtually empty, while others still contain significant amounts of sludge and supernatant. In situ grouting of the sludges in the tanks using multi-point injection (MPI{trademark}), a patented, proprietary technique, is being investigated as a low-cost alternative to (1) moving the sludges to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) for later solidification and disposal, (2) ex situ grouting of the sludges followed by either disposal back in the tanks or containerizing and disposal elsewhere, and (3) vitrification of the sludges. The paper discusses the chemical characteristics of the GAATs and the type of chemical surrogate that was used during the leachability tests. T his is followed by the experimental work, which, consisted of scope testing and sensitivity testing. The scope testing explored the rheology of the proposed jetting slurries and the settling properties of the proposed grouts using sand-water mixes for the wet sludge. After establishing a jetting slurry and grout with an acceptable rheology and settling properties, the proposed in situ grout formulation was subjected to sensitivity testing for variations in the formulation.

  15. Pressurized grout applications in fractured tuff for containment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently under study by the Department of Energy are the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ash-flow deposits under Yucca mountain at the Nevada test site. Of interest at this site is the potential for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the unsaturated zone of the densely welded portions of the tuffs. These studies include the performance-assessment of barriers and seals for boreholes, ramps, drifts and shafts at the Yucca mountain site. In-situ tests on standard Type II Portland cement and microfine cement as grout materials have been performed on a similar rock type to Yucca Mountain's near Superior Arizona. The tests were performed in a vertical borehole drilled in highly fractured and densely welded tuff (brown unit of Apache Leap) through a series of pressurized grout applications. Packer flow tests prior to and after each grout application measure the effectiveness of the grout application in reducing the permeability of the rock surrounding the borehole. Overall the grout applications have reduced the permeability of the test hole by three orders of magnitude. (author)

  16. A new approach for field instrumentation in grouted rock bolt monitoring using guided ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, D. H.; Cui, Y.

    2011-11-01

    A rock bolt installed in the field for ground support has only one short exposed end on the rock surface. This condition has posed challenges in field instrumentation. In this paper, a new approach for field monitoring of grouted rock bolts using guided ultrasonic waves is proposed with the receiving transducer on the grout surface near the exposed end of the bolt. The effects of the receiver location are studied with numerical modeling. A location correction factor is introduced to correlate the amplitude ratio along the bolt and that on the grout surface. Experiments are conducted to verify the modeling results. This research indicates that it is practically possible to receive meaningful signals with the receiver on the grout surface and that with the recorded data the attenuation and wave velocity of guided waves in grouted rock bolts can be determined with reasonable accuracy. The proper receiver location is found to be 27 to 32 mm from the bolt center for the test condition.

  17. Experimental study of the interaction between low-pH grout and gneiss from ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouting of water-conducting fractures with low-alkali cement is foreseen for the potential future repository for spent nuclear fuel in Finland (ONKALO site). Results from a previous modeling study showed a quick (2 days) sealing of porosity at the grout-rock interface due to the precipitation of C-S-H (also C-A-S-H) and ettringite. The spatial extent of this alteration and sealing of the rock was in the order of a few tens of micrometers. Following on these results, experiments were designed to observe this possible effect of the low-pH grout on the rock (migmatitic gneiss). A series of centimetric rock cubes were placed in contact with the low-pH grout. After different times (4 - 19 days), electron microprobe analyses (EMP) were carried out to evaluate any variation in the original rock composition. The results show that contact between the low-pH cementitious grout and gneiss from ONKALO did not induce any alteration in the rock, at least at the scale of the EMP observations (micrometers to tens of micrometers). The low porosity of the bulk rock (1%) compared to the porosity used in the previous calculations (5%; zone of increased porosity near fractures), together with the large reactive surface areas used in the calculations (all surfaces assumed to be in contact with water), are probably the cause of the apparent discrepancy between model results and observations (lack of alteration). (orig.)

  18. Grout for closure of waste-disposal vaults at the US DOE Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For permanent disposal of radioactive wastes from reprocessing, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen to grout wastes in concrete vaults within a subsurface multiple-barrier system. The subject of this research is the non-radioactive, or ''cold cap'' grout, which fills the upper 120 cm of these vaults, and provides support for overlying barriers. Because of the heat evolved by the wasteform, this void-filling grout must perform at temperatures higher than those of usual large-volume grouting operations. It must have: low potential for thermal expansion and heat retention; a low modulus to withstand thermal and mechanical stresses without cracking; strength adequate to support overlying barrier-system components; and minimal potential for shrinkage. In addition, it must be pumpable, self-leveling, and non-segregating. Materials for formulation included a large percentage of Class F fly ash, and coarsely ground oil-well cement. Grout development included chemical and physical characterization, and physical and thermal modeling

  19. Characterization results for 106-AN grout produced in a pilot-scale test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford. Washington, will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over one million gallons of phosphate/sulfate waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank waste scheduled for treatment is 106-AN (the waste from Tank 241-AN-106). After laboratory studies were conducted to select the grout formulation, tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) were conducted as part of the formulation verification process. The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilotscale equipment. to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat, and to characterize the solidified grout

  20. Grout performance in support of in situ stabilization/solidification of the GAAT tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gunite trademark and associated tanks (GAATs) were constructed at ORNL between 1943 and 1951 and were used for many years to collect radioactive and chemical wastes. These tanks are currently inactive. Varying amounts of the sludge were removed and disposed of through the Hydrofracture Program. Thus, some tanks are virtually empty, while others still contain significant amounts of sludge and supernatant. In situ grouting of the sludges in the tanks using multi-point injection (MPI trademark), a patented, proprietary technique, is being investigated as a low-cost alternative to (1) moving the sludges to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) for later solidification and disposal, (2) ex situ grouting of the sludges followed by either disposal back in the tanks or containerizing and disposal elsewhere, and (3) vitrification of the sludges. The paper discusses the chemical characteristics of the GAATs and the type of chemical surrogate that was used during the leachability tests. This is followed by the experimental work, which, consisted of scope testing and sensitivity testing. The scope testing explored the rheology of the proposed jetting slurries and the settling properties of the proposed grouts using sand-water mixes for the wet sludge. After establishing a jetting slurry and grout with an acceptable rheology and settling properties, the proposed in situ grout formulation was subjected to sensitivity testing for variations in the formulation

  1. Formulation and Analysis of Compliant Grouted Waste Forms for SHINE Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Youker, Amanda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Optional grouted waste forms were formulated for waste streams generated during the production of 99Mo to be compliant with low-level radioactive waste regulations. The amounts and dose rates of the various waste form materials that would be generated annually were estimated and used to determine the effects of various waste processing options, such as the of number irradiation cycles between uranium recovery operations, different combinations of waste streams, and removal of Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams for separate disposition (which is not evaluated in this report). These calculations indicate that Class C-compliant grouted waste forms can be produced for all waste streams. More frequent uranium recovery results in the generation of more chemical waste, but this is balanced by the fact that waste forms for those waste streams can accommodate higher waste loadings, such that similar amounts of grouted waste forms are required regardless of the recovery schedule. Similar amounts of grouted waste form are likewise needed for the individual and combined waste streams. Removing Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams lowers the waste form dose significantly at times beyond about 1 year after irradiation, which may benefit handling and transport. Although these calculations should be revised after experimentally optimizing the grout formulations and waste loadings, they provide initial guidance for process development.

  2. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabilization/solidification technology is one of the most widely used techniques for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Cement-based products, commonly referred to as grouts, are the predominant materials of choice because of their low associated processing costs, compatibility with a wide variety of disposal scenarios, and ability to meet stringent processing and performance requirements. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. This blend is mixed with 106-AN at a mix ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents the final results of efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of WHC's Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula

  3. Grouted waste leach tests: Pursuit of mechanisms and data for long-term performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Hanford, low-level liquid nuclear waste is being mixed with cementitious materials (grout) to form leach-resistant solid waste. Prior to grouting each liquid waste, an assessment must be performed to evaluate the long-term environmental impact. These predictions rely upon a diffusion-controlled release model and short-term laboratory leach data on small grout samples. This paper describes size scale-up and inventory scale-up experiments that evaluate whether diffusion does in fact control the release of contaminants. The results of the volume scale-up test suggest that tests on grout cylinders between the sizes 3 cm dia. by 3 cm length and 30 cm dia. by 29 cm length yield comparable results. These data and other available literature suggest that extrapolation of leach results to large blocks of solidified waste is defensible. The inventory scale-up tests for 125I and selenium show a constant effective diffusivity regardless of the original inventory. This suggests that diffusion processes do in fact control the release of iodide and selenium from grout. The 99Tc effective diffusivities may not remain constant with changes in inventory. 9 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Grouting of Multiple Leaf-Masonry Walls: Application on Some Islamic Historical Monuments in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study summarizes an overview on the available experimental and practical data and results from laboratory testing (ungrouted and grouted three leaf masonry wallettes in compression and in diagonal compression. On the basis of the experimental results, (A the structural behavior of the multiple leaf-masonry walls studied in details (b the parameters that affect the behavior of ungrouted masonry are detected and commented upon, and (c the behavior of grouted masonry studied in details. Particularly attention to be paid to large walls whose construction may comprise different kinds of materials. Such walls include cavity walls; rubble filled masonry walls and veneered brick walls which have poor quality core. Not only may the interior of the wall be less capable of carrying load but movement of the core material may also be a source of new stresses. As the experimental results show that the key parameter for the improvement of the mechanical properties of masonry is not the compressive strength of the injected grout, emphasis is given to ternary, as well as to hydraulic lime based grouts: those materials are expected to ensure durable interventions, they lead to a significant enhancement of the mechanical properties of masonry. On the basis of the experimental data on wallettes, as well as based on recent data from tests on grouted cylinders made of filling materials, simple formulae are drived, allowing for the strength of masonry to be calculated, and scientifically interventions processes and techniques had been applied to selected historical monuments in Cairo.

  5. In situ grouting for improved confinement of buried tru waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reports that in situ grouting was experimentally examined as an improved confinement technique for buried transuranic (TRU) waste in a simulated waste trench at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Prior to 1970, the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) served as a disposal site for defense-generated TRU waste. Between 1953 and 1970, approximately 56,000 m3 of TRU waste were buried in shallow-land-filled trenches. As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) charter for managing the TRU waste, improved confinement techniques are being examined as a long-term management alternative. The object of the INEL in situ grouting study was to examine the capability of the in situ grouting technique to reduce voids in the waste and to hydrologically isolate the waste. To be considered a successful candidate for long-term confinement of the TRU waste, the acceptance criterion was that the grouted trench have a hydraulic conductivity no more than 1 x 10-8 cm/s, which is 100 times less than the undisturbed soil of the RWMC. In addition, the injected grout must reduce accessible voids by 80%

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations which are intended for chemistry college students. These demonstrations are: (1) enhancement of concentration quenching by micelles; and (2) the thermite lecture demonstration. (HM)

  7. Low-pH injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sievaenen, Ursula [JP-Suoraplan Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-06-01

    . Colloidal silica seems to be a feasible material to seal very small fractures (< 0.05 mm). The gel is sufficiently stable to prevent water flow through the sealed fractures. Colloidal silica can be considered to pose no threat to human health or the environment. No significant release of colloids is foreseen because the Ca and Na ion concentration in the groundwater is expected to be high enough to suppress colloid formation. The salt used as accelerator will not affect the salt levels in the groundwaters expected in the Finnish and Swedish sites. The long-term stability of silica sol gel has not been clearly demonstrated and it's favourable to gain a better understanding of its durability and mechanical properties before it can be recommended for repository grouting. Experiments with silica sol and sand columns show that by assuming that the hydraulic aperture is a good estimate of the aperture of a fracture, the results from the sand column test can be applied to interpret both the penetration length in fractures and the grout characteristics themselves. A literature review on periclase and discussions with grouting experts show that, based on present knowledge, periclase couldn't be recommended for further studies.

  8. Low-pH injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    material to seal very small fractures (< 0.05 mm). The gel is sufficiently stable to prevent water flow through the sealed fractures. Colloidal silica can be considered to pose no threat to human health or the environment. No significant release of colloids is foreseen because the Ca and Na ion concentration in the groundwater is expected to be high enough to suppress colloid formation. The salt used as accelerator will not affect the salt levels in the groundwaters expected in the Finnish and Swedish sites. The long-term stability of silica sol gel has not been clearly demonstrated and it's favourable to gain a better understanding of its durability and mechanical properties before it can be recommended for repository grouting. Experiments with silica sol and sand columns show that by assuming that the hydraulic aperture is a good estimate of the aperture of a fracture, the results from the sand column test can be applied to interpret both the penetration length in fractures and the grout characteristics themselves. A literature review on periclase and discussions with grouting experts show that, based on present knowledge, periclase couldn't be recommended for further studies

  9. Evaluation of In Situ Grouting as a Potential Remediation Method for the Hanford Central Plateau Deep Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2011-01-11

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau report identifies in situ grouting as a potential remediation technology for the deep vadose zone and includes a planned effort to evaluate in situ grouting to provide information for future feasibility studies. This report represents the first step in this evaluation effort.

  10. In-situ grouting of the low-level radioactive waste disposal silos at ORNL's Solid Waste Storage Area Six

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), one method of solid low-level radioactive waste disposal has been disposed of in below-grade cylindrical concrete silos. Located in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6), each silo measures 8 ft in diameter and 20 ft deep. Present day operations involve loading the silos with low-level radioactive waste and grouting the remaining void space with a particulate grout of low viscosity. Initial operations involving the disposal of wastes into the below-grade silos did not include the grouting process. Grouting was stated as a standard practice (in late 1988) after discovering that ∼75% of the silos accumulated water in the bottom of the silos in the ∼2 years after capping. Silo water (leachate) contained a wide range of types and concentrations of radionuclides. The migration of contaminated leachate out of the silo into adjoining soil and groundwater was considered to be a serious environmental concern. This report describes how a specially designed particulate-base grout was used to grout 54 silos previously filled with low-level radioactive waste. Grouting involved three steps: (1) silo preparation, (2) formulation and preparation of the grout mixture, and (3) injection of the grout into the silos. Thirty-five of the 54 silos grouted were equipped with a 3-in.-diam Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe used to monitor water levels in the silos. A method for rupturing the bottom section of these PVC wells was developed so that grout could be pumped to the bottom of those silos. Holes (2-in. diam) were drilled through the ∼18 in. thick concrete to fill the remaining 19 wells without the PVC monitoring wells. The formulation of grout injected into the silos was based on a Portland Type I cement, flyash, sand, and silica fume admixture. Compressive strength of grout delivered to SWSA6 during grouting operations averaged 1,808 lb/in2 with a bulk density of 3,549 lb/yd3

  11. Final design and start-up of the transportable grout equipment facility at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its Hanford operations contractors have designated certain low-level radioactive liquid wastes to be immobilized by means of a grouting process. The process is now being implemented on a production basis under the management of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Associated Technologies, Incorporated (ATI) has completed the design, fabrication, and installation of the Transportable Grout Equipment (TGE) Facility, the waste processing unit of the overall storage, treatment and disposal system. SGN of France under contract to ATI assisted with remote maintenance design considerations and field start-up support. The TGE Facility provides for the remotely-operated mixing of the selected liquid wastes with the dry grout solids and delivery of the resulting slurry to the disposal vaults where solidification occurs. TGE includes the processing module and all necessary control and supporting systems for safe, self-contained operation. All processing and support modules have been fabricated, delivered, and installed

  12. Study on the theoretical evaluation of grouting area and effective porosity for fractured rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate evaluation of the grouting area in fractured rock is very important for designing the grouting pitch in the field. In this study, a method of determining the effective porosity and the grouting area of a three-dimensional (3-D) fractured rock mass are described. To evaluate the validity of this method, constant injection rate experiments were carried out in the laboratory. First, an experiment was performed on a gravel ground model. Then, a second experiment was performed on an axisymmetric cubic block model with gaps between the blocks minicking fractures in rocks. The results obtained from the experiments agree well with proposed theory. The effect of gravity on high permeability fractured rock mass was also evaluated and the Hele-Shaw's seepage model was applied in explaining the laboratory results. (author)

  13. Influence of degree of saturation on the borehole sealing performance of an expansive cement grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strength measures of expansive cement grout borehole plugs cast in welded tuff cylinders is investigated as a function of the degree of saturation of the plugged rock cylinder and of borehole size. Details on experimental procedure regarding rock cylinder and cement grout preparation, sample curing conditions, experimental apparatus, sample loading, mechanical characterization of the rock, and cement grout, along with procedures for the determination of the sample saturation assuming uniform saturation, and strength measures are presented. The extrapolated axial strengths to a plug radius of 100 mm show that the more saturated samples show higher strengths as compared to the dry samples. The strength measures decrease with increasing plug radius, obeying a power law

  14. The effect of using different sources of dry materials on waste-form grout properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reference grout formulation had been developed for a liquid low-level radioactive waste using the following dry materials: ground limestone, ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement. The effect of varying the sources of these dry materials was tested. Two limestones, two fly ashes, two cements, and eight slags were tested. Varying the source of dry materials significantly affected the grout properties, but only the 28-d free-standing liquid varied outside of the preferred range. A statistical technique, Tukey's paired comparison, can be used to ascertain whether a given combination of dry materials resulted in grout properties significantly different from those of other combinations of dry materials. (author)

  15. Acid mine drainage abatement resulting from pressure grouting of buried bituminous mine spoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 37 acre surface coal mine located in Clinton County, PA, USA, was mined and reclaimed between 1974 and 1977. Buried pyrite-rich pit floor cleanings and tipple refuse were found to be producing severe acid mine drainage. The pyritic material is located in discrete piles or pods in the backfill. The pods and the resulting contaminant plumes were initially defined using geophysical techniques and confirmed by drilling. The approach taken was to use a cementitious grout, composed of fluidized bed combustion ash and water, which would be placed in a manner which would prevent water and oxygen from contacting the pyritic materials. Statistically significant water quality improvements have been noted as a result of the grouting. After four years of post-grouting monitoring, reductions in concentrations of most of the mine drainage parameters range from 40 to 90%. 12 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  16. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients-Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice

  17. Finite Element Analysis on the Main Frame of Horizontal Type High-pressure Grouting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicheng Huang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For understanding the stress, strain and dynamic characteristics and improving the stability of the main frame of the horizontal type high-pressure grouting machine, took a type of ceramics for daily use horizontal high pressure grouting machine’s main frame as the object of study, established its CAD model and then conducted finite element static analysis and modal analysis on it. Got the values and distribution of the stress and strain, obtained the first six order natural frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes of the main frame based on the theory of finite element and vibration mechanics and the influence of each vibration mode to the working condition of the main frame was analyzed. The analysis results can provide a reference for some reference to improve and enhance the design of the main frame of the main frame of horizontal type high-pressure grouting machine and have a large general engineering and practical value.

  18. Summary report on close-coupled subsurface barrier technology: Initial field trials to full-scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the installation and measure the performance of a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional, low-cost, cement-grout containment barrier followed by a thin lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement-polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of the issues concerning the use of polymers to laboratory compatibility and performance measurements of various polymer systems to a pilot-scale, single column injection at Sandia to full-scale demonstration. The feasibility of the close-coupled barrier concept was proven in a full-scale cold demonstration at Hanford, Washington and then moved to the final stage with a full-scale demonstration at an actual remediation site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). At the Hanford demonstration the composite barrier was emplaced around and beneath a 20,000 liter tank. The secondary cement layer was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45 degree angle to the ground, forming a cone-shaped barrier. The primary barrier was placed by panel jet-grouting with a dual-wall drill stem using a two part polymer grout. The polymer chosen was a high molecular weight acrylic. At the BNL demonstration a V-trough barrier was installed using a conventional cement grout for the secondary layer and an acrylic-gel polymer for the primary layer. Construction techniques were identical to the Hanford installation. This report summarizes the technology development from pilot- to full-scale demonstrations and presents some of the performance and quality achievements attained

  19. Summary report on close-coupled subsurface barrier technology: Initial field trials to full-scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, J.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Waste Technology Center; Dwyer, B. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the installation and measure the performance of a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional, low-cost, cement-grout containment barrier followed by a thin lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement-polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of the issues concerning the use of polymers to laboratory compatibility and performance measurements of various polymer systems to a pilot-scale, single column injection at Sandia to full-scale demonstration. The feasibility of the close-coupled barrier concept was proven in a full-scale cold demonstration at Hanford, Washington and then moved to the final stage with a full-scale demonstration at an actual remediation site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). At the Hanford demonstration the composite barrier was emplaced around and beneath a 20,000 liter tank. The secondary cement layer was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45{degree} angle to the ground, forming a cone-shaped barrier. The primary barrier was placed by panel jet-grouting with a dual-wall drill stem using a two part polymer grout. The polymer chosen was a high molecular weight acrylic. At the BNL demonstration a V-trough barrier was installed using a conventional cement grout for the secondary layer and an acrylic-gel polymer for the primary layer. Construction techniques were identical to the Hanford installation. This report summarizes the technology development from pilot- to full-scale demonstrations and presents some of the performance and quality achievements attained.

  20. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Unirradiated Magnox uranium was encapsulated in grout and exposed to hydrogen. • Synchrotron X-ray tomography imaged the uranium corrosion before and after exposure. • Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction identified the corrosion products; UH3 and UO2. • Uranium encapsulated in grout oxidised via the anoxic U + H2O regime. • Successful in-situ, non-invasive examination of pyrophoric and radioactive material - Abstract: How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H2 corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U + H2O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO2 and UH3, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems

  1. Estimation of longevity of portland cement grout using chemical modeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portland cement has been identified as a likely candidate seal material by programs investigating the deep burial of nuclear waste as a disposal mechanism. The longevity of performance of cement grout is currently being investigated, along with bentonite, under the auspices of the Stripa Project. Coordinated laboratory, field, and modeling studies are underway to produce fundamental data, practical experience, and estimates of long-range performance, respectively. Long-term performance of cement grout is of particular concern. Since most of the solid phases of which grout is comprised are metastable, it is likely that grout performance will decrease with time. The question is whether performance will still be acceptable after this decrease. This issue is being addressed with the coupled use of geochemical and permeability modeling. For a simplified cement system, two mechanisms for chemical degradation have been considered: phase change and dissolution. For dissolution, both equilibrium (slow flow) and open (fast flow) systems have been analyzed as bounding scenarios. Granitic terrain groundwaters ranging from fresh to saline have been used in the analyses. To assess the consequences in terms of flow, an empirical relation between cement permeability and porosity has been developed. Performance changes with time have been predicted by making conservative estimates of local hydraulic head conditions for successive periods of repository history. For the granitic rock environments considered, preliminary results indicate that cement grout performance may be acceptable for tens of thousands to millions of years, providing its initial hydraulic conductivity is on the order of 10-12 m/s. Other conditions favoring long-term performance include minimizing the ettringite content of the grout, and emplacement at a site where the groundwater has an elevated TDS, and where the local hydraulic gradient is flat or repository resaturation times are short

  2. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stitt, C.A., E-mail: Camilla.stitt@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hart, M., E-mail: oxford.mike@gmail.com [Diamond Light Source Limited, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Harker, N.J., E-mail: nicholas.harker@esrf.fr [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hallam, K.R., E-mail: k.r.hallam@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); MacFarlane, J., E-mail: james.macfarlane@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Banos, A., E-mail: antonis.banos@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Paraskevoulakos, C., E-mail: cp13846@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Butcher, E., E-mail: ed.j.butcher@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1 PG (United Kingdom); Padovani, C., E-mail: cristiano.padovani@nda.gov.uk [Radioactive Waste Management Limited (formerly the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), Curie Avenue, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RH (United Kingdom); Scott, T.B., E-mail: t.b.scott@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Unirradiated Magnox uranium was encapsulated in grout and exposed to hydrogen. • Synchrotron X-ray tomography imaged the uranium corrosion before and after exposure. • Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction identified the corrosion products; UH{sub 3} and UO{sub 2}. • Uranium encapsulated in grout oxidised via the anoxic U + H{sub 2}O regime. • Successful in-situ, non-invasive examination of pyrophoric and radioactive material - Abstract: How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H{sub 2} corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U + H{sub 2}O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO{sub 2} and UH{sub 3}, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems.

  3. Experimental studies on the physico-mechanical properties of jet-grout columns in sandy and silty soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Muge K.

    2016-04-01

    The term of ground improvement states to the modification of the engineering properties of soils. Jet-grouting is one of the grouting methods among various ground improvement techniques. During jet-grouting, different textures of columns can be obtained depending on the characteristics of surrounding subsoil as well as the adopted jet-grouting system for each site is variable. In addition to textural properties, strength and index parameters of jet-grout columns are highly affected by the adjacent soil. In this study, the physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns constructed at two different sites in silty and sandy soil conditions were determined by laboratory tests. A number of statistical relationships between physical and mechanical properties of soilcrete were established in this study in order to investigate the dependency of numerous variables. The relationship between qu and γd is more reliable for sandy soilcrete than that of silty columns considering the determination coefficients. Positive linear relationships between Vp and γd with significantly high determination coefficients were obtained for the jet-grout columns in silt and sand. The regression analyses indicate that the P-wave velocity is a very dominant parameter for the estimation of physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns and should be involved during the quality control of soilcrete material despite the intensive use of uniaxial compressive strength test. Besides, it is concluded that the dry unit weight of jet-grout column is a good indicator of the efficiency of employed operational parameters during jet-grouting.

  4. Quantitative modelling of the degradation processes of cement grout. Project CEMMOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Galindez, Juan-Manuel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-05-15

    Grout cement is planned to be used in the sealing of water-conducting fractures in the deep geological storage of spent nuclear fuel waste. The integrity of such cementitious materials should be ensured in a time framework of decades to a hundred of years as mimum. However, their durability must be quantified since grout degradation may jeopardize the stability of other components in the repository due to the potential release of hyperalkaline plumes. The model prediction of the cement alteration has been challenging in the last years mainly due to the difficulty to reproduce the progressive change in composition of the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) compounds as the alteration proceeds. In general, the data obtained from laboratory experiments show a rather similar dependence between the pH of pore water and the Ca-Si ratio of the CSH phases. The Ca-Si ratio decreases as the CSH is progressively replaced by Si-enriched phases. An elegant and reasonable approach is the use of solid solution models even keeping in mind that CSH phases are not crystalline solids but gels. An additional obstacle is the uncertainty in the initial composition of the grout to be considered in the calculations because only the recipe of low-pH clinker is commonly provided by the manufacturer. The hydration process leads to the formation of new phases and, importantly, creates porosity. A number of solid solution models have been reported in literature. Most of them assumed a strong non-ideal binary solid solution series to account for the observed changes in the Ca-Si ratios in CSH. However, it results very difficult to reproduce the degradation of the CSH in the whole Ca-Si range of compositions (commonly Ca/Si=0.5-2.5) by considering only two end-members and fixed nonideality parameters. Models with multiple non-ideal end-members with interaction parameters as a function of the solid composition can solve the problem but these can not be managed in the existing codes of reactive

  5. Assessing the influence of jet-grouting underpinning on the nearby buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Chepurnova

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the underpinning-induced ground movement due to jet-grouting. Jet-grouting technique can cause distortions as a result of an inaccurate processing sequence and/or errors made at different stages of work execution. The aim of this paper is to determine the minimum value of such movement on the basis of the findings obtained at two similar construction sites located in the Historical Center of Moscow, considering that the maximum value is usually unpredictable. Numerical s...

  6. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan (1). Overall program and application of developed technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency started a grout project for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in 2007. The aim of the project was to develop new grouting technologies and grout materials and also to develop models for performance assessments, prediction of the long-term radionuclide migration and identify detrimental changes in the host rock by the grout material leachate. This study presents the overall program and the application of key engineering technologies to the construction and operation of an underground facility for the geological disposal of HLW, with particular emphasis on the long-term effects of grout materials. (author)

  7. Mechanism Research on the Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Single Pile by Pile-base Post Grouting Technique and Estimation of Bearing Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The slurry wall bored grouting has some defects. The pile-base post grouting technique can efficiently make up these defects and greatly improve the bearing capacity. Based on the pile-base post grouting technique and its process analysis, this paper carries out a detailed analysis about the improvement of mechanism of bearing capacity and mechanism of spherical expansion by the use of pile-base post grouting technique, as well as the estimation method of the bearing capacity of pile-base post grouting pile, which has a certain reference value for theoretical research and technical application of the technique.

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  9. In Situ Grouting of Liquid Waste Disposal Trenches and Experimental Reactor Fuel Disposal Wells at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early to mid-1960's, liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were disposed of in specially-constructed, gravel-filled trenches within the Melton Valley watershed at the lab. The initial selected remedy for Trenches 5 and 7 was in situ vitrification; however, an amendment to the record of decision changed the remedy to in situ grouting of the trenches. The work was accomplished by filling the void space within the crushed stone section of each trench with cementitious grout. The contaminated soil surrounding the trenches (1-m perimeter) was then grouted with acrylamide grout. At the HRE fuel wells, a 1-m ring of soil surrounding the fuel wells was grouted with acrylamide. The results of the hydraulic conductivity tests ranged from 4.74 x 10-6 to 3.60 x 10-7 cm/sec, values that were well below the 1 x 10-5 cm/sec design criterion. In summary: The ISG Project was conducted to decrease hydraulic conductivity and thereby decrease water flow and contaminate migration from the area of the trenches. The initial remedy for Trenches 5 and 7 in the Melton Valley ROD was for in situ vitrification of the trench matrix. The remedy was changed to in situ grouting of the trenches and HRE fuel wells through an amendment to the ROD after moisture was found in the trenches. The grouting of the trenches was accomplished by filling the void space within the crushed stone section of each trench with cementitious grout. The contaminated soil surrounding the trenches (1-m perimeter) was then grouted with acrylamide grout to further reduce water infiltration. Soil backfill above each of the seven HRE fuel wells was removed to a depth of approximately 1 m by augering, and the soils were replaced with a cement plug to prevent water infiltration from migrating down the original borehole. Soil surrounding the fuel wells was then grouted with acrylamide to ensure water infiltration through the HRE fuel wells is prevented. A summary of the quantities used

  10. Review of results from SKB R and D on grouting technology for sealing the rock, years 1996-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order identify the current state of the art and developments needs, SKB assembled a group of experts from universities and other research organisations. Internal plans were written for the subprojects 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', 'Mechanisms that control the spreading of grout in jointed rock' and 'Cement based grouting material'. Later internal plans for the subprojects 'Demands on grouting' and 'Stabilising and sealing effect of pre-grouting' were written. The aims, which were set for the different subprojects, were in short, to summarise the technological advances, establish a method for rock characterisation from a grouting point of view, develop conceptual and numerical models for simulation of the grouting course, characterise grout in a relevant way, develop understanding and theoretical know-how of durability and chemical influence, identify and develop a number of grouting materials for different situations, develop a specification of requirements for grouting and to verify the theories in laboratory. In the subproject 'Demands on grouting' a literature review was carried out. One important conclusion from the study is that the concept is not very well dealt with in the literature. SKB are currently investigating the prerequisites for the construction of the deep repository. One part of that work is to further specify demands on maximum allowed volume of leakage water for the repository as a whole and also for each part of the deep repository. In the subproject 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', the possibilities of using hydraulic tests for predictions and design have been studied. The idea of this study was to investigate correspondences and deviations to increase the understanding of what is measured in a water-loss measurement. One can draw the conclusion that hydraulic tests are useful when describing the fracture geometry. Numerical modelling and experiments indicate that the specific capacity, Q/Δh, (flow

  11. Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. Close-coupled barrier technology is applicable for final, interim, or emergency containment of subsurface waste forms. Consequently, when considering the diversity of technology application, the construction emplacement and material technology maturity, general site operational requirements, and regulatory compliance incentives, the close-coupled barrier system provides an alternative for any hazardous or mixed waste remediation plan. This paper discusses the installation of a close-coupled barrier and the subsequent integrity verification. The demonstration was installed at a benign site at the Hanford Geotechnical Test Facility, 400 Area, Hanford, Washington. The composite barrier was emplaced beneath a 7,500 liter tank. The tank was chosen to simulate a typical DOE Complex waste form. The stresses induced on the waste form were evaluated during barrier construction. The barrier was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45 degree angle to the ground, forming a conical shaped barrier with the waste form inside the cone. Two overlapping rows of cylindrical cement columns were grouted in a honeycomb fashion to form the secondary backdrop barrier layer. The primary barrier, a high molecular weight polymer manufactured by 3M Company, was then installed providing a relatively thin inner liner for the secondary barrier. The primary barrier was emplaced by panel jet grouting with a dual wall drill stem, two phase jet grouting system

  12. Completion of the Operational Closure of Tank 18F and Tank 19F at the Savannah River Site by Grouting - 13236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is stored in underground waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The low-level fraction of the waste is immobilized in a grout waste form, and the high level fraction is disposed of in a glass waste form. Once the waste is removed, the tanks are prepared for closure. Operational closure of the tanks consists of filling with grout for the purpose of chemically stabilizing residual material, filling the tank void space for long-term structural stability, and discouraging future intrusion. Two of the old-style single-shell tanks at the SRS have received regulatory approval confirming waste removal had been completed, and have been stabilized with grout as part of completing operational closure and removal from service. Consistent with the regulatory framework, two types of grout were used for the filling of Tanks 18F and 19F. Reducing grout was used to fill the entire volume of Tanks 18F and 19F (bulk fill grout) and a more flowable grout was used to fill equipment that was left in the tank (equipment fill grout). The reducing grout was added to the tanks using portable grout pumps filled from concrete trucks, and delivered the grout through slick lines to the center riser of each tank. Filling of the two tanks has been completed, and all equipment has been filled. The final capping of riser penetrations brings the operation closure of Tanks 18F and 19F to completion. (authors)

  13. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K; John Harbour, J; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-11-25

    were determined following a minimum 28 day curing period. Additional testing of the three saltstone formulations was conducted following a minimum 90 day curing period. The compressive strength of each saltstone and concrete material was measured at approximately 14, 28, 56, and 90 days. Recommended hydraulic property values for each saltstone grout and the vault concretes are provided. The hydraulic properties provided for each material include the saturated hydraulic conductivity, dry bulk density, particle density, and porosity. In addition, water retention data are presented for each material along with the van Genuchten transport parameters as determined using the RETC code.

  14. Effects of the injection grout Silica sol on bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silica sol, i.e., colloidal SiO2, may be used as a low-pH injection grout for very fine fractures in the construction of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste in Sweden and in Finland. If the bentonite barrier encounters SiO2-colloid particles under conditions favorable for aggregation, there is concern that it will modify the bentonite barrier at the bentonite/bedrock interface. In this study qualitative experiments were performed with mixed dispersions of SiO2-colloids and bentonite or homo-ionic Na/Ca-montmorillonite. Samples were prepared at different colloid concentrations and treated under various conditions such as low and high ionic strength (0.3 M NaCl), as well as dehydration and re-dispersing. Free swelling and settling experiments were performed in order to qualitatively compare the conditions in which SiO2-colloids affect the bulk/macro properties of bentonite. In order to study specific SiO2-colloid/montmorillonite interactions and preferred type of initial aggregation, dilute dispersions of homo-ionic montmorillonite dispersions mixed with varying concentrations of SiO2-colloids were prepared and selected samples were characterized by PCS, SEM/EDS, AFM and PXRD. The results from this study show that bentonite and montmorillonite particles can be modified by SiO2-colloids when mixed in comparable amounts, due to dehydration or high ionic strength. Some indications for increased colloidal stability for the SiO2-colloid modified clay particles were also found. From the AFM investigation it was found that initial attachment of the SiO2-colloids in Na+ dominated samples seemed to occur on the edges of the montmorillonite layers. In Ca2+ dominated samples not subjected to excess NaCl, SiO2-colloid sorption onto the faces of the montmorillonite layers was also found. In all, contact between the bentonite barrier and un-gelled Silica sol should preferably be avoided. (authors)

  15. General strategy / clay based concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This session gathers 4 articles dealing with: the Ontario Power Generation's proposed deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, Bruce site, Ontario, Canada (M.R. Jensen, F.K. King); the design and realisation of the PRACLAY experimental gallery at the Hades URF (W. Bastiaens, F. Bernier); the extension of the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory and experiment programme (P. Bossart, H.J. Alheid, J. Delay, E. Frank, M. Hugi, K. Kiho, T. Rothfuchs); and the European bentonites as alternatives to MX-80 (D. Koch)

  16. Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power's (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP's Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site

  17. Waste and Disposal: Concept and Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. Within this context, various aspects concerning design and operation are investigated.The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In 2000, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up, which is a surface experiment designed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory

  18. Parametric study on the axial performance of a fully grouted cable bolt with a new pull-out test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jianhang⇑; Hagan Paul C.; Saydam Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Modified cable bolts are commonly used in underground mines due to their superior performance in pre-venting bed separation when compared with plain strands. To better test the axial performance of a wide range of cable bolts, a new laboratory short encapsulation pull test (LSEPT) facility was developed. The facility simulates the interaction between cable bolts and surrounding rock mass, using artificial rock cylinders with a diameter of 300 mm in which the cable bolt is grouted. Furthermore, the joint where the load is applied is left unconstrained to allow shear slippage at the cable/grout or grout/rock interface. Based on this apparatus, a series of pull tests were undertaken using the MW9 modified bulb cable bolt. Various parameters including embedment length, test material strength and borehole size were evalu-ated. It was found that within a limited range of 360 mm, there is a linear relationship between the max-imum bearing capacity of the cable bolt and embedment length. Beyond 360 mm, the peak capacity continues to rise but with a much lower slope. When the MW9 cable bolt was grouted in a weak test material, failure always took place along the grout/rock interface. Interestingly, increasing the borehole diameter from 42 to 52 m in weak test material altered the failure mode from grout/rock interface to cable/grout interface and improved the performance in terms of both peak and residual capacity.

  19. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan (7). Hydrological and chemical change of the groundwater in a pre-grouted crystalline rock after earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has conducted 'The project for Grouting Technology Development' under a contract study with the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). As a part of the study, the groundwater chemistry has been monitored for four years after pre-grouting the crystalline rock in the Mizunami underground research laboratory (URL). Measured groundwater pressures were temporarily changed by earthquakes of seismic intensity ≥ 3 and recovered within about one year. Changes to the chemical composition of the groundwater by the earthquakes were not detected and the injected grout material was not significantly damaged. (author)

  20. An in vitro Assessment on the Efficacy of Clay-Based Formulated Cells of Pseudomonas Isolate UTAR EPA2 for Petrol Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S.Y. Ting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Application of free-cell forms is usually impractical to achieve satisfactory bioremediative effect because the microbes are encumbered by the biotic and abiotic stresses from the environment. Approach: In this study, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium (Pseudomonas isolate UTAR EPA2 was formulated with various combinations of formulative materials, comprising of clay-based carrier materials such as Bentonite (B and Kaolin (K, enrichment materials such as Non-fat skimmed milk (N and Sucrose (S and a UV-protectant agent Para-aminobenzoic acid (P. Formulated cells were treated to sunlight exposure for 6 h to mimic the conditions in the environment prior to testing for their efficacy in degrading petrol, a mixed hydrocarbon substrate. Results: Cells in all formulations including free-cell suspension were able to degrade petrol with a relatively high degradation efficacy of more than 66% even after exposure to sunlight. Degradation efficacy was slightly higher for kaolin-based formulated cells compared to bentonite-based formulations, especially after exposure to sunlight, although their percentages of degradation were not statistically different. Nevertheless, kaolin-based formulations have very low viable cell count especially in formulations with P (KP, KNP, KSP, KNSP. This suggested that aside from viable cells, the physical properties of the clays could have also contributed to the degradation of petrol. Conclusion: For storage purposes and applications in the field, we suggest that the bacterium is formulated with bentonite-based formulations especially using Bentonite (B clay singly, as relatively high percentage of petrol degradation and viable cell count was achieved with this formulation.

  1. Leach and EP [extraction procedure] toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides (60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I, 137Cs, and 241Am), stable major components (NO3-, NO2-, F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 x 10-8 cm2/sec for 99Tc, 3 to 7 x 10-8 cm2/sec for 129I, 4 to 6 x 10-9 cm2/sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 x 10-9 cm2/sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for 99Tc and 129I are 7.4 ± 1.2 and 7.6 ± 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) waste performed in November 1988, and the subsequent thermal behavior of the grout as it cured in a large, insulated vessel. The report was issued in draft form in April 1989 and comments were subsequently received; however, the report was not finalized until 1994. In finalizing this report, references or information gained after the report was drafted in April 1989 have not been incorporated to preserve the report's historical perspective. This report makes use of criteria from Ridelle (1987) to establish formulation criteria. This document has since been superseded by a document prepared by Reibling and Fadeef (1991). However, the reference to Riddelle (1987) and any analysis based on its content have been maintained within this report. In addition, grout is no longer being considered as the waste form for disposal of Hanford's low-level waste. However, grout disposal is being maintained as an option in case there is an emergency need to provide additional tank space. Current plans are to vitrify low-level wastes into a glass matrix

  3. Borehole Investigation of the Effectiveness of Grout Injection Technology on Coal Mine Subsidence Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Dayang; Xu, Jialin; Wang, Binglong; Teng, Hao

    2015-11-01

    Grout injection into the horizontal fracture at the bed separation of an overburden is used as a surface subsidence control measure in coal-producing countries such as Poland, China, and Australia. However, the stiffness and distribution of the grouting mass in the post-injected overburden, as well as its effect on surface subsidence control, have not been investigated. To address these issues, two surface boreholes were drilled into the post-injected overburden above a longwall panel on the study site. It was found that the fly ash injected more than 7 months previously had become compacted. More than 90 % of the total fill was concentrated in the main injection section (MIS) of the overburden (thickness of 4.8-18.4 m). The MIS was located between the bottom of the injection borehole and the key stratum immediately above. Following injection, the central gob area received the maximum possible compression and served as the foundation of the support for the grout, allowing the grout to restrain the deformation of the strata above it, thus reducing surface subsidence. The results of this investigation may facilitate future injection design, thus improving the control of surface subsidence.

  4. High-performance cement-based grouts for use in a nuclear waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National and international agencies have identified cement-based materials as prime candidates for sealing vaults that would isolate nuclear fuel wastes from the biosphere. Insufficient information is currently available to allow a reasonable analysis of the long-term performance of these sealing materials in a vault. A combined laboratory and modelling research program was undertaken to provide the necessary information for a specially developed high-performance cement grout. The results indicate that acceptable performance is likely for at least thousands of years and probably for much longer periods. The materials, which have been proven to be effective in field applications, are shown to be virtually impermeable and highly leach resistant under vault conditions. Special plasticizing additives used in the material formulation enhance the physical characteristics of the grout without detriment to its chemical durability. Neither modelling nor laboratory testing have yet provided a definitive assessment of the grout's longevity. However, none of the results of these studies has contraindicated the use of high-performance cement-based grouts in vault sealing applications. (Author) (24 figs., 6 tabs., 21 refs.)

  5. In-situ grouting of uranium-mill-tailings piles: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passage in 1978 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) initiated a program of remedial action for 22 existing mill tailings piles generated in the period 1940 to 1970 as part of the nation's defense and nuclear power programs. The presence of these piles poses potential health and environmental contamination concerns. Possible remedial actions proposed include multilayer covers over the piles to reduce water infiltration, reduce radon gas releases, and reduce airborne transport of tailings fines. In addition, suggested remedial actions include (1) the use of liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles and (2) chemical stabilization of the tailings to retain the radioactive and nonradioactive sources of contamination. Lining of the piles would normally be applicable only to piles that are to be moved from their present location such that the liner could be placed between the tailings and the groundwater. However, by using civil engineering techniques developed for grouting rocks and soils for strength and water control, it may be possible to produce an in situ liner for piles that are not to be relocated. The Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office requested that ORNL assess the potential application of grouting as a remedial action. This report examines the types of grouts, the equipment available, and the costs, and assesses the possibility of applying grouting technology as a remedial action alternative for uranium mill tailings piles

  6. Numerical simulation of creep characteristics of soft roadway with bolt-grouting support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连国; 李海亮; 张健

    2008-01-01

    Based on the engineering background of a soft rock roadway in Qinan Coal Mine 82 Area,Huaibei Mining Group,three creep models with different support patterns in soft rock roadway were established by using geotechnical software of FLAC2D.According to the calculation results of different models,the change law of mechanical properties with the time of bolt-grouting support structure was obtained.Furthermore,for the test bolt-grouting support roadway,the deformation law of surrounding rock got by underground industrial experiment and field observation accords with the creep law got by numerical calculation.The results of numerical calculation and field observation show that,compared with other supports,the creep of bolt-grouting support roadway enters the steady-state creep stage from tertiary creep stage ahead,the deformations of roof,floor and two sides are decreased greatly,the plastically deforming area in surrounding rock is reduced obviously,and the distribution ranges of maximum and minimum principal stress are shrank obviously.All those fully show that the bolt-grouting support has its remarkable advantages in controlling surrounding rock creep and improving the whole strength of surrounding rock and self-bearing capacity.

  7. Expansive stresses of a grout plug on the walls of borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary function of a concrete plug in a repository seal system is to provide a viable seal at the interface with the host rock by developing and maintaining a positive normal stress across the interface. While standards do exist for unrestrained and restrained expansion of mortar and concrete there are few systems that permit calculation of stress for a stimulated borehole geometry. A system was designed to determine the radial stresses introduced by expansive, cementitious grout on the borehole. It consists of a strain gage instrumented cell and its associated signal conditioner/amplifier. Cell material and thickness can be varied to simulate restraining conditions at given depths. Prior to sample emplacement the cell/system is calibrated by fluid pressurization. Special cell design eliminates the effects of longitudinal stresses during calibration. An analog output as a function of time is recorded, in conjunction with surface temperature of the cylinder. The cell containing grout is maintained under controlled temperature conditions which can be varied from 250C to 900C. Pressure can be applied to the grout column to simulate hydrostatic/geostatic load conditions. Using the equipment described, several expansive grout formulations were studied at 380C. Results obtained for expansive stresses as a function of time are presented together with implications on repository-seal durability

  8. 106-AN grout pilot-scale test HGTP-93-0501-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagaasen, L M

    1993-05-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford, Washington will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over 1,000,000 gal of Phosphate/Sulfate Waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank scheduled for treatment is 106-AN. After conducting laboratory studies to select the grout formulation, part of the normal formulation verification process is to conduct tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilot-scale equipment and to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat.

  9. Occurrence of high-permeability fracture estimated by grouting in Horonobe URL of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater inflow induced by excavation is a major safety issue during excavation, and therefore it is important to understand the characteristics of groundwater inflow zone. In the Horonobe area of Japan, underground facilities have been excavated in soft sedimentary rocks in order to enhance the reliability of relevant technologies for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Japan. Pre-excavation grouting was carried out at 250 to 380 m depth at the location of the planned Ventilation Shaft. After the grouting, the shaft was excavated from 250 to 350 m depth, and fracture mapping was carried out to understand the characteristics of water conductive fractures by focusing on the occurrence of injected grout. Fractures consist mainly of shear fractures, and extension fractures and faults are observed in the shaft. The faults are associated with fault rocks and high continuity. Grout was mainly observed in fractures located on the branching part from faults rather than the fault itself, and therefore high-permeability fractures are not the fault itself (fault core) but fractures located on the branching part in the damage zone of the fault. (author)

  10. Phase I - Laboratory Study Effects of Cement Grout Structures on Colloid Formation from SRS Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted to better understand the influence of grout structures and fills on colloid formation. Low-Level Waste is disposed in concrete vaults and trenches at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF). Two types of enhanced trench disposal are approved for use including; Intimately-Mixed Cement-Stabilized waste forms, such as Ashcrete and Blowcrete resulting from operation of the Consolidated Incinerator Facility, and Cement-Stabilized Encapsulated waste, where waste forms (e.g., contaminated equipment) will be surrounded by a grout or other cementitious material. The presence of concrete structures and process of grouting in trenches are expected to generate colloids, both from the grout itself and as a result of the interactions of these cementitious materials and their degradation products with the surrounding soils. The extent of occurrence, mobility, and influence on contaminant transport of colloidal materials in aquifer systems is the subject of this study. The intent of this study is not to modify the PA but to aid in our understanding of the significance of this phenomenon. Information generated in this study will help in considering whether colloid-enhanced contaminant migration should be considered in establishing waste acceptance criteria and in the design and development of waste disposal systems

  11. Time-lapse electrical resistivity investigations for imaging the grouting injection in shallow subsurface cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Park, Samgyu; Kim, Jung Ho; Song, Young Soo; Amjad Sabir, Mohammad; Umar, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohammad; Muhammad, Said

    2014-01-01

    The highway of Yongweol-ri, Muan-gun, south-western part of the South Korean Peninsula, is underlain by the abandoned of subsurface cavities, which were discovered in 2005. These cavities lie at shallow depths with the range of 5∼15 meters below the ground surface. Numerous subsidence events have repeatedly occurred in the past few years, damaging infrastructure and highway. As a result of continuing subsidence issues, the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) was requested by local administration to resolve the issue. The KIGAM used geophysical methods to delineate subsurface cavities and improve more refined understanding of the cavities network in the study area. Cement based grouting has been widely employed in the construction industry to reinforce subsurface ground. In this research work, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys were accomplished to monitor the grouting injection in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway, which have provided a quasi-real-time monitoring for modifying the subsurface cavities related to ground reinforcement, which would be difficult with direct methods. The results obtained from time-lapse electrical resistivity technique have satisfactory imaged the grouting injection experiment in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway. Furthermore, the borehole camera confirmed the presence of grouting material in the subsurface cavities, and hence this procedure increases the mechanical resistance of subsurface cavities below the highway. PMID:24578621

  12. Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Investigations for Imaging the Grouting Injection in Shallow Subsurface Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highway of Yongweol-ri, Muan-gun, south-western part of the South Korean Peninsula, is underlain by the abandoned of subsurface cavities, which were discovered in 2005. These cavities lie at shallow depths with the range of 5∼15 meters below the ground surface. Numerous subsidence events have repeatedly occurred in the past few years, damaging infrastructure and highway. As a result of continuing subsidence issues, the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM was requested by local administration to resolve the issue. The KIGAM used geophysical methods to delineate subsurface cavities and improve more refined understanding of the cavities network in the study area. Cement based grouting has been widely employed in the construction industry to reinforce subsurface ground. In this research work, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys were accomplished to monitor the grouting injection in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway, which have provided a quasi-real-time monitoring for modifying the subsurface cavities related to ground reinforcement, which would be difficult with direct methods. The results obtained from time-lapse electrical resistivity technique have satisfactory imaged the grouting injection experiment in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway. Furthermore, the borehole camera confirmed the presence of grouting material in the subsurface cavities, and hence this procedure increases the mechanical resistance of subsurface cavities below the highway.

  13. Pretreatment of Tc-Containing Waste and Its Effect on Tc-99 Leaching From Grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A salt solution (doped with Tc-99), that simulates the salt waste stream to be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, was immobilized in grout waste forms with and without (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag and (2) pretreatment with iron salts. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. Although Fe (+2) was shown to be effective in reducing Tc-99 to the +4 state, the strong reducing nature of the blast furnace slag present in the grout formulation dominated the reduction of Tc-99 in the cured grouts. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.75 x 10-12 (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol. The leaching results show that, even in the presence of a concentrated salt solution, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. The measured diffusivity was introduced into a flow and transport model (PORFLOW) to calculate the release of Tc-99 from a Saltstone Vault as a function of hydraulic conductivity of the matrix. (authors)

  14. Effects of closure cap liner on contaminant release rates from grouted wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a groundwater modeling study of waste disposal concepts using grouted waste forms. The focus of the study is on the effects of clay claps and concrete vaults on contaminant migration. The authors modeled three waste disposal scenarios: (1) Grouted waste was solidified in an earthen trench and covered with soil. There was no vault and no cap. (2) Grouted waste was solidified in an earthen trench. The entire waste disposal facility was then closed under clay cap. (3) Grouted waste was solidified in a concrete vault and protected by the same closure as in 2. Because of the huge contrast in hydraulic conductivities and highly non-linear multi-phase flow characteristics, these waste disposal concepts presented a difficult problem for numerical simulation. Advanced fluid flow and contaminant transport codes were used to solve the problem. Among the codes tested, ECLIPSE out-performed other codes in speed, accuracy (smaller material balance errors) and capability in handling sophisticated scenarios. The focus of this study is on groundwater protection. The authors assessed the performance of three unsaturated zone waste disposal concepts. Since unsaturated zone performance relied almost entirely on the properties of the waste form, the liner and the closure, these predictions are generic. For a site-specific performance assessment (PA) and design of waste disposal facility, the authors need to factor in (1) inventory, (2) alternative liners such as polymer and geotextile membranes, (3) degradation histories of waste form, liner and closure, (4) hydrogeological conditions, and (5) cost

  15. Low-alkaline cementitious grout for high-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stratum disposal system for high-level nuclear waste mainly involves the use of natural bedrock, called the natural barrier, and over pack and the buffer, those are designated as the artificial barrier. Grouting technology is indispensable for the environment that the crack and the underground water flow of the bedrock bring about mass transport, also ratio active component. However, typical cementitious grout material is strongly alkaline and the alkalinity that it imparts to the barrier material, especially to mineral substances in the bedrock or buffer, is suspected to compromise the performance of the barrier system over the long term. In order to avoid this undesirable alkaline influence, we have developed a procedure for reducing the alkaline state in cementitious materials by employing high volumes of additives such as pozzolanic materials. In this paper, we discuss the basic properties of low-alkaline cementitious grout, and explain how to select and mix appropriate proportions of grout to accomplish the end-objective, i.e., develop an efficient stratum disposal system. We also elaborate on progress achieved in research on this topic over the last two years. (author)

  16. Performance assessment of grouted double-shell tank waste disposal at Hanford. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document assesses the performance of the Grout Disposal Facility after closure. The facility and disposal environment are modeled to predict the long-term impacts of the disposal action. The document concludes that the disposal system provides reasonable assurance that doses to the public will remain within the performance objectives. This document is required for DOC Order 5820.2A

  17. Long-term performance assessment of grouted phosphate/sulfate waste from N Reactor operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate sulfate waste (PSW) is a low-level liquid generated by activities associated with N Reactor operations. The waste will be mixed with dry solids and permanently disposed of as a cementitious grout in sub-surface concrete vaults at Hanford's 200-East Area. Categories of scenarios were analyzed that could cause humans to be exposed to radionuclides and chemicals from the grouted waste include contaminated groundwater and direct intrusion. In the groundwater scenario, contaminants are released from the buried grout monoliths, then eventually transported via the groundwater to the Columbia River. As modeled, the contaminants are assumed to leach out of the monoliths at a constant rate over a 10,000-year period. The other category of exposure involves intruders who inadvertently contact the waste directly, either by drilling, excavating, or gardening. Long-term impacts that could result from disposal of PSW grout were expressed in terms of incremental increases of chemical concentrations in the groundwater and surface waters, and radiation doses. None of the calculated impacts exceeded the corresponding regulatory limits set by Washington State, the Department of Energy, or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 38 refs., 17 figs., 27 tabs

  18. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, C A; Hart, M; Harker, N J; Hallam, K R; MacFarlane, J; Banos, A; Paraskevoulakos, C; Butcher, E; Padovani, C; Scott, T B

    2015-03-21

    How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H2 corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U+H2O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO2 and UH3, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems. PMID:25497037

  19. Use of Strontium Isotopes to Quantify Interaction of Water With Coal Combustion Byproducts in an Abandoned, Partially Grouted Coal Mine, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, B. L.; Stewart, B. W.; Kim, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Omega Coal Mine, West Virginia, was actively mined until the late 1980s. Subsequently, water filled the mine void and acid discharges developed along the mine perimeter. The mine was partially grouted in 1998 by injecting coal combustion byproducts (CCB) mixed with cement in an attempt to reduce the acid discharge and stabilize the ground surface. Discharge continued after grouting, including from the grouted portions of the mine. In this study, discharge chemistry and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios were determined to identify and quantify the extent of interaction between mine waters and the CCB material used to grout the abandoned mine. Eight sampling sites were monitored around the downdip perimeter of the mine. In general, the major and trace element chemistry of the discharges was not sufficient to distinguish between discharges that interacted with grout and those that did not. Elements that showed the most separation include potassium and arsenic, both of which were elevated in the waters that interacted with CCB grout. In contrast, strontium isotope ratios were capable of delineating discharges that were clearly from grouted portions of the mine vs. those that were derived from non-grouted areas. Discharges that bypassed the grouted portions had 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.7151 to 0.7159, while two discharges that interacted with grout had ratios in the range of 0.7140 to 0.7146. The water treatment system inlet, which receives both grouted and ungrouted discharges, yielded intermediate isotope ratios. Leaching experiments on CCB grout, coal, and surrounding floor and roof rocks are consistent with the isotopic trends observed in the discharges. Based on these results, waters that interacted with grout received 30-40% of their strontium from the CCB grout material, suggesting that leaching of CCB is a significant contributor to discharge chemistry.

  20. Tracing the interaction of acid mine drainage with coal utilization byproducts in a grouted mine: Strontium isotope study of the inactive Omega Coal Mine, West Virginia (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to ameliorate acidic discharge, the inactive Omega Coal Mine, West Virginia was partially filled by injection of a grout consisting of 98% coal utilization byproducts (CUB), including fluidized bed combustion ash and fly ash, and 2% Portland cement. In this study, discharge chemistry and Sr isotope ratios were determined to identify and quantify the extent of interaction between mine waters and the CUB-cement grout. Eight sampling sites were monitored around the downdip perimeter of the mine. The major and trace element chemistry of the discharges was generally not sufficient to distinguish between discharges that interacted with grout and those that did not. Elements that showed the most separation include K and As, which were elevated in some waters that interacted with CUB-cement grout. In contrast, the Sr isotope ratios clearly distinguished discharges from grouted and non-grouted areas. Discharges that bypassed the grouted portions had 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.71510 to 0.71594, while two discharges that interacted with grout had ratios in the range of 0.71401-0.71456. The Treatment Inlet, which includes both grouted and ungrouted discharges, yielded intermediate isotopic ratios. Leaching experiments on CUB-cement grout, coal and surrounding rocks are consistent with the isotopic trends observed in the discharges. Based on these results, waters that interacted with grout received 30-40% of their Sr from the CUB-cement grout material. These results suggest that the grout material is chemically eroding at a rate of approximately 0.04% per year. This novel application of the Sr isotope system illustrates its ability to sensitively track and quantify fluid interaction with coal and CUB-based grout.

  1. Grout long radius flow testing to support Saltstone disposal Unit 5 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Saltstone Facility, located within the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, consists of two facility segments: The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SPF receives decontaminated legacy low level sodium salt waste solution that is a byproduct of prior nuclear material processing. The salt solution is mixed with cementitious materials to form a grout slurry known as ''Saltstone''. The grout is pumped to the SDF where it is placed in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) to solidify. SDU 6 is referred to as a ''mega vault'' and is currently in the design stage. The conceptual design for SDU 6 is a single cell, cylindrical geometry approximately 114.3 meters in diameter by 13.1 meter high and is larger than previous cylindrical SDU designs, 45.7 meters in diameter by 7.01 meters high (30 million gallons versus 2.9 million gallons of capacity). Saltstone slurry will be pumped into the new waste disposal unit through roof openings at a projected flow rate of about 34.1 cubic meters per hour. Nine roof openings are included in the design to discharge material into the SDU with an estimated grout pour radius of 22.9 to 24.4 meters and initial drop height of 13.1 meters. The conceptual design for the new SDU does not include partitions to limit the pour radius of the grout slurry during placement other than introducing material from different pour points. This paper addresses two technical issues associated with the larger diameter of SDU 6; saltstone flow distance in a tank 114.3 meters in diameter and quality of the grout. A long-radius flow test scaled to match the velocity of an advancing grout front was designed to address these technology gaps. The emphasis of the test was to quantify the flow distance and to collect samples to evaluate cured properties including compressive strength, porosity, density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Two clean cap surrogate mixes (saltstone premix plus water) were

  2. Grout Long Radius Flow Testing to Support Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 Design - 13352

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Saltstone Facility, located within the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, consists of two facility segments: The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SPF receives decontaminated legacy low level sodium salt waste solution that is a byproduct of prior nuclear material processing. The salt solution is mixed with cementitious materials to form a grout slurry known as 'Saltstone'. The grout is pumped to the SDF where it is placed in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) to solidify. SDU 6 is referred to as a 'mega vault' and is currently in the design stage. The conceptual design for SDU 6 is a single cell, cylindrical geometry approximately 114.3 meters in diameter by 13.1 meter high and is larger than previous cylindrical SDU designs, 45.7 meters in diameter by 7.01 meters high (30 million gallons versus 2.9 million gallons of capacity). Saltstone slurry will be pumped into the new waste disposal unit through roof openings at a projected flow rate of about 34.1 cubic meters per hour. Nine roof openings are included in the design to discharge material into the SDU with an estimated grout pour radius of 22.9 to 24.4 meters and initial drop height of 13.1 meters. The conceptual design for the new SDU does not include partitions to limit the pour radius of the grout slurry during placement other than introducing material from different pour points. This paper addresses two technical issues associated with the larger diameter of SDU 6; Saltstone flow distance in a tank 114.3 meters in diameter and quality of the grout. A long-radius flow test scaled to match the velocity of an advancing grout front was designed to address these technology gaps. The emphasis of the test was to quantify the flow distance and to collect samples to evaluate cured properties including compressive strength, porosity, density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Two clean cap surrogate mixes (Saltstone premix plus water) were

  3. Effects of closure cap and liner on contaminant release rates from grouted wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a groundwater modeling study of waste disposal concepts using grouted waste forms. The focus of the study is on the effects of clay caps and concrete vaults on contaminant migration. The authors modeled three waste disposal scenarios: (1) Grouted waste was solidified in an earthen trench and covered with soil, there was no vault and no cap; (2) grouted waste was solidified in an earthen trench, the entire waste disposal facility was then closed under a clay cap; (3) grouted waste was solidified in a concrete vault and protected by the same closure as in 2. Because of the huge contrast in hydraulic conductivities and highly non-linear multi-phase flow characteristics, these waste disposal concepts presented a difficult problem for numerical simulation. Advanced fluid flow and contaminant transport codes were used to solve the problem. Among the codes tested, ECLIPSE out-performed other codes in speed, accuracy (smaller material balance errors) and capability in handling sophisticated scenarios. The authors used nitrate as a tracer for the simulation. Nitrate does not absorb in the solid phase and does not decay. As a result, predicted release rate based on nitrate is conservative. They also assumed that the facility is intact for 10,000 years. In other words, properties of the materials used for this study do not change with time. Predicted peak flux for the no vault and no closure case was 5.8 x 10-4 per year at 12 years. If a clay cap was installed, predicted peak flux was 8.5 x 10-5 per year at 110 years. If the grout was disposed in a concrete vault and covered by a clay cap, predicted peak flux became 4.4 x 10-6 per year at 8,000 years. Both concrete liner and clay cap can reduce the rate of contaminant release to the water table and delay the peak time

  4. Quantitative modelling of the degradation processes of cement grout. Project CEMMOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grout cement is planned to be used in the sealing of water-conducting fractures in the deep geological storage of spent nuclear fuel waste. The integrity of such cementitious materials should be ensured in a time framework of decades to a hundred of years as mimum. However, their durability must be quantified since grout degradation may jeopardize the stability of other components in the repository due to the potential release of hyperalkaline plumes. The model prediction of the cement alteration has been challenging in the last years mainly due to the difficulty to reproduce the progressive change in composition of the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) compounds as the alteration proceeds. In general, the data obtained from laboratory experiments show a rather similar dependence between the pH of pore water and the Ca-Si ratio of the CSH phases. The Ca-Si ratio decreases as the CSH is progressively replaced by Si-enriched phases. An elegant and reasonable approach is the use of solid solution models even keeping in mind that CSH phases are not crystalline solids but gels. An additional obstacle is the uncertainty in the initial composition of the grout to be considered in the calculations because only the recipe of low-pH clinker is commonly provided by the manufacturer. The hydration process leads to the formation of new phases and, importantly, creates porosity. A number of solid solution models have been reported in literature. Most of them assumed a strong non-ideal binary solid solution series to account for the observed changes in the Ca-Si ratios in CSH. However, it results very difficult to reproduce the degradation of the CSH in the whole Ca-Si range of compositions (commonly Ca/Si=0.5-2.5) by considering only two end-members and fixed nonideality parameters. Models with multiple non-ideal end-members with interaction parameters as a function of the solid composition can solve the problem but these can not be managed in the existing codes of reactive

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING GROUTING OPERATIONS IN THE R AND P REACTOR VESSELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2010-05-24

    The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS and T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D and D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or Portland cement groupt (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters does not provide a margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. It is recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. The R-reactor vessel cotnains significantly less aluminum based on current facility process knowledge, surface observations, and drawings. Therefore, a Portland cement grout may be considered for grouting operations as well as the other grout formulations. For example, if the grout fill rate is less than 1 inch/min and the grout temperature is maintained at 70 C or less, the risk of hydrogen accumulation during fill

  7. Laboratory evaluation of performance and durability of polymer grouts for subsurface hydraulic/diffusion barriers. Informal report, October 1993--May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated soils, buried waste and leaking underground storage tanks pose a threat to the environment through contaminant transport. One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier. Subsurface barriers increase the performance of waste disposal sites by providing a low permeability layer that can reduce percolation water migration into the waste site, minimize surface transport of contaminants, and reduce migration of volatile species. Also, a barrier can be constructed to envelop the site or plume completely, there by containing the contaminants and the potential leakage. Portland cement grout curtains have been used for barriers around waste sites. However, large castings of hydraulic cements result invariably in cracking due to shrinkage, thermal stresses induced by the hydration reactions, and wet-dry cycling prevalent at and sites. Therefore, improved, low permeability, high integrity materials are under investigation by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development, Integrated Demonstrations and Programs. The binders chosen for characterization include: an acrylic, a vinylester styrene, bitumen, a polyester styrene, furfuryl alcohol, and sulfur polymer cement. These materials cover broad ranges of chemical and physical durability, performance, viscosity, and cost. This report details the results of laboratory formulation, testing, and characterization of several innovative polymer grouts. An appendix containing a database of the barrier materials is at the end of this report

  8. Jet Grouting. Control of execution and result parameters. Test fields - Experience in Chile; Jet Grouting. Control de parametros de ejecucion y de resultados. Campos de prueba-Experiencia en Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayarza, P. M.; Vukotic, G.

    2014-07-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of Test Fields in project that includes the Jet Grouting technique. In particular, the Chilean experience is analyzed, where the Jet Grouting was first introduced by Pilots Terratest S. A. in the year 2010, only, only in 2011 the first project using jet columns was constructed. The versatilely of this technique allows its use in a wide variety of projects, for example, soil capacity improvement, settlement control, reduction of soil permeability and other environmental applications. Currently, the most common applications are underpinning existing foundations, ground improvement, lateral support of excavations, hydraulic barriers, slope stabilization, liquefaction control, among others. The Jet Grouting is one of the most demanding soil improvement technique and requires excellence in designing and execution engineers and other involved specialist. It is therefore essential to ensure exhaustive control to the execution and final parameters, in order to check that the product- Jet Grouting element-have the design properties, and implement modifications if necessary. Many authors strongly advises that if there is no comparable experience and even if there is, a Test Field of Jet Grouting elements has to be executed in site. This field consists in a nearby area with similar geotechnical conditions of the project, where Jet Grouting test columns will be constructed. This Test Field will allow selecting the most effective execution parameters and verifying that the final product has he correct design properties. (Author)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  10. Effects of the Length of Jet Grouted Columns and Soil Profile on the Settlement of Shallow Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Zaheer Ahmed Almani; Ashfaque Ahmed Memon; Naeem Aziz Memon

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of length of jet grouted columns and varying soil profile under shallow foundations of buildings constructed on the liquefiable ground was studied. The isolated shallow footing pad which supports a typical simple frame structure was constructed on the liquefiable ground. This ground was reinforced with jet grouted column rows under the shallow foundations of structure. The system was modeled as plane-strain using the FLAC 2D (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of C...

  11. Low-pressure, single-point grout injection for tank heel sludge mixing and in-situ immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes tests conducted in an approximately 9-ft diameter test tank situated outside the 336 building in Hanford's 300 area. The tests were performed to measure the ability of jets of grout slurry to mobilize and mix simulated tank sludge. The technique is intended for in situ immobilization of tank waste heels. The current approach uses a single, rotated, larger-diameter nozzle driven at lower pressure. Due to the larger diameter, the potential for plugging is reduced and the effective radius around an injection point over which the jet is effective in mobilizing sludge from the tank bottom can be made larger. A total of three grout injection tests were conducted in a 9-ft diameter tank. In each case, a 2-in. layer of kaolin clay paste was placed on a dry tank floor to simulate a sludge heel. The clay was covered with 4 inches of water. The grout slurry, consisting of Portland cement, class F fly ash, and eater, was prepared and delivered by an offsite vendor. In the third test, the sludge in half of the tank was replaced by a layer of 20x50 mesh zeolite, and bentonite clay was added to the grout formulation. After injection, the grout was allowed to set and then the entire grout monolith was manually broken up and excavated using a jack hammer. Intact pieces of clay were visually apparent due to a sharp color contrast between the grout and clay. Remaining clay deposits were collected and weighed and suspended clay pieces within the monolith were photographed. The mobilization performance of the grout jets exceeded expectations

  12. Effective grouting area of jointed slope and stress deformation responses by numerical analysis with FLAC3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zi-qiang; LIU Qun-yi; ZENG Fan-he; QING Du-gan

    2009-01-01

    To study the grouting reinforcement mechanism in jointed rock slope, first, the theoretical deduction was done to calculate the critical length of slipping if the slope angle is larger than that of joint inclination; Second, the numerical calculation model was founded by FLAG3D, so as to find the stress and deformation responses of rock mass in the state before and after grouting, the analysis results show that the range between the boundary of critical slipping block and the joint plane that passes the slope toe is the effective grouting area (EGA). After excavation, large deformation occurs along the joint plane. After grouting, the displacements of rock particles become uniform and continuous, and large deformations along the joint plane are controlled; the dynamic displacement can reflect the deformation response of slope during excavation in the state before and after grouting, as well as the shear location of potential slip plane. After grouting, the dynamic displacement of each monitoring point reaches the peak value with very few time steps,which indicate that the parameters of the joint plane, such as strength and stiffness, are improved; the stress field becomes uniform. Tensile area reduces gradually; whole stability of the slope and its ability to resist tensile and shear stress are improved greatly.

  13. The grout/glass performance assessment code system (GPACS) with verification and benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GPACS is a computer code system for calculating water flow (unsaturated or saturated), solute transport, and human doses due to the slow release of contaminants from a waste form (in particular grout or glass) through an engineered system and through a vadose zone to an aquifer, well and river. This dual-purpose document is intended to serve as a user's guide and verification/benchmark document for the Grout/Glass Performance Assessment Code system (GPACS). GPACS can be used for low-level-waste (LLW) Glass Performance Assessment and many other applications including other low-level-waste performance assessments and risk assessments. Based on all the cses presented, GPACS is adequate (verified) for calculating water flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated-zone sediments and for calculating human doses via the groundwater pathway

  14. Tanks 18 And 19-F Structural Flowable Grout Fill Material Evaluation And Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: 1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non-compressible material; 2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; 3) reduce contaminant mobility by a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and 4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: 1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). 2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. 3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix design. 4

  15. Tanks 18 And 19-F Structural Flowable Grout Fill Material Evaluation And Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.; Stefanko, D. B.

    2013-04-23

    Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: 1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non-compressible material; 2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; 3) reduce contaminant mobility by a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and 4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: 1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). 2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. 3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix design. 4

  16. An Evaluation of Ethyl Silicate-Based Grouts for Weathered Silicate Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolph, Brittany Helen

    Culturally significant monuments made of weathered siliceous stone often display sub-surface condition issues such as cracks and voids. These issues require grouts that are ideally compatible with the composition and properties of the substrate. Based on the successful application of ethyl silicates as consolidants in recent literature, this study examines possible formulation pathways for the development of a grout incorporating ethyl silicate. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTL) as a catalyst, silicone oil (PDMS), various grades of ground quartz, sepiolite, and hollow glass spheres were used in differing concentrations to create samples. These were visually and physically assessed on workability, separation, shrinkage, cracking, strength, and flexibility. Quantitative analysis was performed on selected formulations using UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy in coordination with a weight loss experiment to investigate kinetics, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Successful formulations tended to include oligomeric TEOS, crushed quartz of mixed grades, sepiolite powder, and PDMS, and show promise for future investigations.

  17. Performance testing of blast furnace slag for immobilization of technetium in grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents preliminary results of a grout development effort to identify grout formulas that can satisfactorily sequester 99Tc contained in an existing Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant waste. Technetium is of particular concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of its mobility and biological activity. The mobility of technetium results in large part from the movement of the pertechnate anion [prevalent in low-level radioactive waste (LLW)] through soil and geologic strata with little or no interaction with the surrounding matrix. Ground blast furnace slag has been shown to improve the leach resistance of cement-based waste forms, particularly in regard to technetium. This improved performance has been attributed to fewer and smaller pores in the solidified slags (versus a neat cement paste) and to the reduction of the pertechnate ion to a less soluble form. 9 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Durability and compressive strength of blast furnace slag-based cement grout for special geotechnical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Special foundations, most prominently micropiles and soil anchors, are frequently used in construction today. In Spain, the grout for these special technical applications is generally prepared with portland cement, although the codes and standards in place stipulate only the minimum compressive strength required, with no mention of cement type. Those texts also establish a range of acceptable water:cement ratios. In the present study, durability and compressive strength in cement grout prepared with blast furnace slag cement at different w/c ratios are characterised and compared to the findings for a reference portland cement grout. The results show that slag grout exhibits greater durability than the portland cement material and complies with the compressive strength requirements laid down in the respective codes.Actualmente es muy frecuente el empleo de cimentaciones especiales, entre las que destacan los micropilotes y los anclajes. En España, las lechadas de cemento para estos trabajos geotécnicos especiales se preparan habitualmente con cemento Portland, aunque las diferentes normativas al respecto no restringen el tipo de cemento a emplear, siempre que se alcance una determinada resistencia a compresión. Respecto a la dosificación de las lechadas, la normativa permite emplear diferentes relaciones agua/cemento dentro de un determinado rango. En vista de ello, en este trabajo se han caracterizado las propiedades de durabilidad y resistencia a compresión de lechadas de cemento preparadas con un cemento con escoria de alto horno y con diferentes relaciones a/c, tomando como referencia de comportamiento lechadas de cemento Portland. El uso de un cemento con escoria conlleva una mejora en la durabilidad de las lechadas, cumpliendo los requisitos de resistencia a compresión establecidos por la normativa.

  19. Open-graded asphalt concrete filled with a special cement grout

    OpenAIRE

    Lutonský, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this thesis is the usage of the open-graded asphalt concrete filled with a special cement grout in the road structures. Thesis defines the main concrete properties and explains related legislation and norms that apply. In addition, laboratory design of asfalt mixtures and a tree kind mortal filler and possibilities of mortal filler pigmentation are dealth with. Finally, thesis evaluates the results from various laboratory tests that were performed on the specimens made from final mixtu...

  20. Leach and EP (extraction procedure) toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ({sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {99}Tc, {129}I, {137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am), stable major components (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 99}Tc, 3 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 129}I, 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I are 7.4 {plus minus} 1.2 and 7.6 {plus minus} 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.