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Sample records for clawed frog xenopus

  1. The Genome of the Western Clawed Frog Xenopus tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M.; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Shu, Shengqiang; Taher, Leila; Blitz, Ira L.; Blumberg, Bruce; Dichmann, Darwin S.; Dubchak, Inna; Amaya, Enrique; Detter, John C.; Fletcher, Russell; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Goodstein, David; Graves, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Grimwood, Jane; Kawashima, Takeshi; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan M.; Mead, Paul E.; Mitros, Therese; Ogino, Hajime; Ohta, Yuko; Poliakov, Alexander V.; Pollet, Nicolas; Robert, Jacques; Salamov, Asaf; Sater, Amy K.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Terry, Astrid; Vize, Peter D.; Warren, Wesley C.; Wells, Dan; Wills, Andrea; Wilson, Richard K.; Zimmerman, Lyle B.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Grainger, Robert; Grammer, Timothy; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Richardson, Paul M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2009-10-01

    The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes over 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1,700 human disease genes. Over a million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like other tetrapods, the genome contains gene deserts enriched for conserved non-coding elements. The genome exhibits remarkable shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.

  2. PHENOBARBITAL AFFECTS THYROID HISTOLOGY AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AFRICAN CLAWED FROG XENOPUS LAEVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abstract highlights our recent study to explore endocrine disrupting effects of phenobarbital in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. In mammals, this chemical is known to induce the biotransforming enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) resulting in increased thyroid...

  3. Inverse Effects on Growth and Development Rates by Means of Endocrine Disruptors in African Clawed Frog Tadpoles ("Xenopus Laevis")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Zachary Carl

    2007-01-01

    Previous work on fish, frogs, and salamanders, showed the ability for estrogen (EE2) and anthropogenic endocrine disruptors to skew sex ratios and cause hermaphrodism. This study addressed the effects of estrogens on growth and development rates of African clawed frog tadpoles ("Xenopus laevis") during their gender determination stages. The…

  4. Reproductive Maturation of the Tropical Clawed Frog, Xenopus tropicalis

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    The model species Xenopus tropicalis is being widely used in developmental biology and amphibian toxicology studies. In order to increase our understanding of the role of steroid hormones in maturation in this species, we collected baseline reproductive data from metamorphosis t...

  5. Sex differences and endocrine regulation of auditory-evoked, neural responses in African clawed frogs (Xenopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ian C; Woolley, Sarah M N; Kwong-Brown, Ursula; Kelley, Darcy B

    2016-01-01

    Mating depends on the accurate detection of signals that convey species identity and reproductive state. In African clawed frogs, Xenopus, this information is conveyed by vocal signals that differ in temporal patterns and spectral features between sexes and across species. We characterized spectral sensitivity using auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs), commonly known as the auditory brainstem response, in males and females of four Xenopus species. In female X. amieti, X. petersii, and X. laevis, peripheral auditory sensitivity to their species own dyad-two, species-specific dominant frequencies in the male advertisement call-is enhanced relative to males. Males were most sensitive to lower frequencies including those in the male-directed release calls. Frequency sensitivity was influenced by endocrine state; ovariectomized females had male-like auditory tuning while dihydrotestosterone-treated, ovariectomized females maintained female-like tuning. Thus, adult, female Xenopus demonstrate an endocrine-dependent sensitivity to the spectral features of conspecific male advertisement calls that could facilitate mating. Xenopus AEPs resemble those of other species in stimulus and level dependence, and in sensitivity to anesthetic (MS222). AEPs were correlated with body size and sex within some species. A frequency following response, probably encoded by the amphibian papilla, might facilitate dyad source localization via interaural time differences. PMID:26572136

  6. Effects of depleted uranium on survival, growth, and metamorphosis in the african clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S.E.; Caldwell, C.A.; Gonzales, G.; Gould, W.R.; Arimoto, R.

    2005-01-01

    Embryos (stage 8-47, Nieuwkoop and Faber) of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) were subjected to water-borne depleted uranium (DU) concentrations that ranged from 4.8 to 77.7 mg/Lusing an acute 96-h frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). In a chronic 64-d assay, X. laevis (from embryo through metamorphosis; stages 8-66) were subjected to concentrations of DU that ranged from 6.2 to 54.3 mg/L Our results indicate DU is a non teratogenic metal. No effects on mortality, malformations, or growth were observed in the 96-h FETAX with concentrations of DU that ranged from 4.8 to 77.7 mg/L From stage 8 to stage 47, X. laevis tadpoles do not actively feed and the gills are not well developed. Thus, uptake of DU was reduced despite exposure to elevated concentrations. The 64-d assay resulted in no concentration response for either mortality or malformations; however, a delay in metamorphosis was observed in tadpoles subjected to elevated DU concentrations (from 13.1 to 54.3 mg/L) compared to tadpoles in both the well-water control and reference. The delay in metamorphosis was likely due to increasing body burden of DU that ranged from 0.98 to 2.82 mg/kg. Copyright?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  7. Immune Defenses against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a Fungus Linked to Global Amphibian Declines, in the South African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Jeremy P.; Reinert, Laura K.; Harper, Laura K.; Douglas C Woodhams; Rollins-Smith, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a chytrid fungus that causes the lethal skin disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians. It is regarded as an emerging infectious disease affecting diverse amphibian populations in many parts of the world. Because there are few model amphibian species for immunological studies, little is known about immune defenses against B. dendrobatidis. We show here that the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is a suitable model for investigating immunity to this path...

  8. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8–34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole−1. This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range. (paper)

  9. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole(-1). This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range. PMID:25078857

  10. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole-1. This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range.

  11. Eugenol Anesthesia in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis) of Different Body Weights

    OpenAIRE

    Goulet, Félix; Hélie, Pierre; Vachon, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to determine the duration of anesthesia in Xenopus laevis frogs of different body weights relative to exposure time in a eugenol (350 µL/L) bath. Two groups of 5 female frogs each weighing 7.5 ± 2.1 g (small frogs) or 29.2 ± 7.4 g (medium frogs) were used. The acetic acid test (AAT), withdrawal reflex, righting reflex, heart rate, and blood oxygen saturation were used to evaluate CNS depression after eugenol bath administration. No responses to the ...

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on the Global Invasion Potential of the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis

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    Ihlow, Flora; Courant, Julien; Secondi, Jean; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Measey, G. John; Lillo, Francesco; De Villiers, F. André; Vogt, Solveig; De Busschere, Charlotte; Backeljau, Thierry; Rödder, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    By altering or eliminating delicate ecological relationships, non-indigenous species are considered a major threat to biodiversity, as well as a driver of environmental change. Global climate change affects ecosystems and ecological communities, leading to changes in the phenology, geographic ranges, or population abundance of several species. Thus, predicting the impacts of global climate change on the current and future distribution of invasive species is an important subject in macroecological studies. The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), native to South Africa, possesses a strong invasion potential and populations have become established in numerous countries across four continents. The global invasion potential of X. laevis was assessed using correlative species distribution models (SDMs). SDMs were computed based on a comprehensive set of occurrence records covering South Africa, North America, South America and Europe and a set of nine environmental predictors. Models were built using both a maximum entropy model and an ensemble approach integrating eight algorithms. The future occurrence probabilities for X. laevis were subsequently computed using bioclimatic variables for 2070 following four different IPCC scenarios. Despite minor differences between the statistical approaches, both SDMs predict the future potential distribution of X. laevis, on a global scale, to decrease across all climate change scenarios. On a continental scale, both SDMs predict decreasing potential distributions in the species’ native range in South Africa, as well as in the invaded areas in North and South America, and in Australia where the species has not been introduced. In contrast, both SDMs predict the potential range size to expand in Europe. Our results suggest that all probability classes will be equally affected by climate change. New regional conditions may promote new invasions or the spread of established invasive populations, especially in France and Great

  13. Dehydration mediated microRNA response in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

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    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

    2013-10-25

    Exposure to various environmental stresses induces metabolic rate depression in many animal species, an adaptation that conserves energy until the environment is again conducive to normal life. The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is periodically subjected to arid summers in South Africa, and utilizes entry into the hypometabolic state of estivation as a mechanism of long term survival. During estivation, frogs must typically deal with substantial dehydration as their ponds dry out and X. laevis can endure >30% loss of its body water. We hypothesize that microRNAs play a vital role in establishing a reversible hypometabolic state and responding to dehydration stress that is associated with amphibian estivation. The present study analyzes the effects of whole body dehydration on microRNA expression in three tissues of X. laevis. Compared to controls, levels of miR-1, miR-125b, and miR-16-1 decreased to 37±6, 64±8, and 80±4% of control levels during dehydration in liver. By contrast, miR-210, miR-34a and miR-21 were significantly elevated by 3.05±0.45, 2.11±0.08, and 1.36±0.05-fold, respectively, in the liver. In kidney tissue, miR-29b, miR-21, and miR-203 were elevated by 1.40±0.09, 1.31±0.05, and 2.17±0.31-fold, respectively, in response to dehydration whereas miR-203 and miR-34a were elevated in ventral skin by 1.35±0.05 and 1.74±0.12-fold, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis of the differentially expressed microRNAs suggests that these are mainly involved in two processes: (1) expression of solute carrier proteins, and (2) regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. This study is the first report that shows a tissue specific mode of microRNA expression during amphibian dehydration, providing evidence for microRNAs as crucial regulators of metabolic depression. PMID:23958654

  14. Diagnosis of Aeromonas hydrophila, Mycobacterium species, and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in an African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis)

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, William A; Newman, Shelley J; Craig, Linden; Carter, Christopher; Czarra, Jane; Brown, J Paige

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe diagnosis of concurrent infection with Aeromonas hydrophila, Mycobacterium spp., and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a wild female Xenopus laevis captured in Chile and transported to the United States. After approximately 130 d in the laboratory, the frog was presented for dysecdysis and obtundation. After euthanasia, tissues were submitted for histopathologic evaluation and PCR analysis for B. dendrobatidis and Ranavirus. Clinically significant gross lesions included cutan...

  15. Cloning of Interleukin-10 from African Clawed Frog (Xenopus tropicalis), with the Finding of IL-19/20 Homologue in the IL-10 Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhitao Qi; Qihuan Zhang; Zisheng Wang; Weihong Zhao; Qian Gao

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in immune system. In the present study, the IL-10 gene of African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) was first cloned, and its expression pattern and 3D structure were also analyzed. The frog IL-10 mRNA encoded 172 amino acids which possessed several conserved features found in IL-10s from other species, including five-exon/four-intron genomic structure, conserved four cysteine residues, IL-10 family motif, and six α-...

  16. Genetics, Morphology, Advertisement Calls, and Historical Records Distinguish Six New Polyploid Species of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus, Pipidae from West and Central Africa.

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    Ben J Evans

    Full Text Available African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness of these new species. We resurrect Xenopus calcaratus from synonymy of Xenopus tropicalis and refer populations from Bioko Island and coastal Cameroon (near Mt. Cameroon to this species. To facilitate comparisons to the new species, we also provide comments on the type specimens, morphology, and distributions of X. epitropicalis, X. tropicalis, and X. fraseri. This includes significantly restricted application of the names X. fraseri and X. epitropicalis, the first of which we argue is known definitively only from type specimens and possibly one other specimen. Inferring the evolutionary histories of these new species allows refinement of species groups within Xenopus and leads to our recognition of two subgenera (Xenopus and Silurana and three species groups within the subgenus Xenopus (amieti, laevis, and muelleri species groups.

  17. Metamorphic remodeling of the olfactory organ of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

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    Dittrich, Katarina; Kuttler, Josua; Hassenklöver, Thomas; Manzini, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The amphibian olfactory system undergoes massive remodeling during metamorphosis. The transition from aquatic olfaction in larvae to semiaquatic or airborne olfaction in adults requires anatomical, cellular, and molecular modifications. These changes are particularly pronounced in Pipidae, whose adults have secondarily adapted to an aquatic life style. In the fully aquatic larvae of Xenopus laevis, the main olfactory epithelium specialized for sensing water-borne odorous substances lines the principal olfactory cavity (PC), whereas a separate olfactory epithelium lies in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). During metamorphosis, the epithelium of the PC is rearranged into the adult "air nose," whereas a new olfactory epithelium, the adult "water nose," forms in the emerging middle cavity (MC). Here we performed a stage-by-stage investigation of the anatomical changes of the Xenopus olfactory organ during metamorphosis. We quantified cell death in all olfactory epithelia and found massive cell death in the PC and the VNO, suggesting that the majority of larval sensory neurons is replaced during metamorphosis in both sensory epithelia. The moderate cell death in the MC shows that during the formation of this epithelium some cells are sorted out. Our results show that during MC formation some supporting cells, but not sensory neurons, are relocated from the PC to the MC and that they are eventually eliminated during metamorphosis. Together our findings illustrate the structural and cellular changes of the Xenopus olfactory organ during metamorphosis. PMID:26294036

  18. Metabolic cost of osmoregulation in a hypertonic environment in the invasive African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

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    Peña-Villalobos, Isaac; Narváez, Cristóbal; Sabat, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Studies of aquatic invertebrates reveal that salinity affects feeding and growth rates, reproduction, survival, and diversity. Little is known, however, about how salinity impacts the energy budget of vertebrates and amphibians in particular. The few studies focused on this topic in vertebrates suggest that the ingestion of salts and the resulting osmoregulatory activity is energetically expensive. We analyzed the effect of saline acclimation on standard metabolic rates (SMR) and the activities of metabolic enzymes of internal organs and osmoregulatory variables (plasma osmolality and urea plasma level) in females of Xenopus laevis by means of acclimating individuals to an isosmotic (235 mOsm NaCl; ISO group) and hyper-osmotic (340 mOsm NaCl; HYP group) environment for 40 days. After acclimation, we found that total and mass-specific SMR was approximately 80% higher in the HYP group than those found in the ISO group. These changes were accompanied by higher citrate synthase activities in liver and heart in the HYP group than in the ISO group. Furthermore, we found a significant and positive correlation between metabolic rates and plasma urea, and citrate synthase activity in liver and heart. These results support the notion that the cost of osmoregulation is probably common in most animal species and suggest the existence of a functional association between metabolic rates and the adjustments in osmoregulatory physiology, such as blood distribution and urea synthesis. PMID:27334694

  19. Effects of cadmium on growth, metamorphosis and gonadal sex differentiation in tadpoles of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, Reynaldo

    2009-01-01

    Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at 0, 1, 8. 85 or 860 mu g L(-1) in FETAX medium from 0 to 86 d postfertilization. Premetamorphic tadpoles were sampled on day 3 1; pre and prometamorphic tadpoles on day 49; and frogs (NF stage 66) between days 50 and 86. Survival, snout-vent length (SVL), tail length, total length, hindlimb length (HLL), initiation of metamorphic climax, size at and completion of metamorphosis, and gonadal condition and sex ratio (assessed histologically) were determined. Survival was unaffected by Cd until day 49, but increased mortality was observed after day 49 at 860 mu g Cd L(-1). On day 31, when tadpoles were in early premetamorphosis, inhibitory effects on tadpole growth were observed only at 860 mu g Cd L(-1). On day 49, when most tadpoles where in late premetamorphosis/early prometamorphosis, reductions in SVL, HLL and total length were observed at 8 and 860 but not 85 mu g L(-1), thus creating a U-shaped size distribution at 0-85 mu g Cd L(-1). However, this U-shaped size pattern was not evident in postmetamorphic individuals. In fact, frog size at completion of metamorphosis was slightly smaller at 85 mu g Cd L(-1) relative to control animals. These observations confirmed a recent report of a Cd concentration-dependent bimodal growth pattern in late-premetamorphic Xenopus tadpoles, but also showed that growth responses to varying Cd concentrations change with development. The fraction of animals initiating or completing metamorphosis during days 50-86 was reduced in a Cd concentration-dependent manner. Testicular histology and population sex ratios were unaffected by Cd suggesting that, unlike mammals, Cd is not strongly estrogenic in Xenopus tadpoles.

  20. Host-defense peptides from skin secretions of Fraser's clawed frog Xenopus fraseri (Pipidae): Further insight into the evolutionary history of the Xenopodinae.

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    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert

    2014-12-01

    Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the tetraploid frog Xenopus fraseri Boulenger, 1905 (Pipidae) led to identification of 13 host-defense peptides. The primary structures of the peptides demonstrate that they belong to the magainin (3 peptides), peptide glycine-leucine-amide, PGLa (4 peptides), and xenopsin-precursor fragment, XPF (2 peptides) families, first identified in Xenopus laevis, together with caerulein precursor fragment-related peptides, CPF-RP (4 peptides), first identified in Silurana tropicalis. In addition, the secretions contain a molecular variant of xenopsin displaying the substitution Arg(4)→Lys compared with X. laevis xenopsin and peptide glycine-tyrosine-amide (PGYa) (GRIIPIYPEFERVFA KKVYPLY.NH2) whose function is unknown. The most potent antimicrobial peptide identified is CPF-RP-F1 (GFGSVLGKALKFGANLL.NH2) with MIC=12.5μM against Staphylococcus aureus and 50μM against Escherichia coli. On the basis of similarities in morphology and advertisement calls, X. fraseri has been placed in a species group that includes the octoploids Xenopus amieti and Xenopus andrei, and the tetraploid Xenopus pygmaeus. Cladistic analyses based upon the primary structures of magainin, PGLa, and CPF-RP peptides support a close evolutionary relationship between X. fraseri, X. amieti and X. andrei but suggest a more distant relationship with X. pygmaeus. PMID:25463057

  1. CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH EMACIATION AND PROLIFERATIVE GASTRITIS IN A LABORATORY SOUTH AFRICAN CLAWED FROG

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    A 2-year-old emaciated female South African Clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) was euthanized due to chronic weight loss. At postmortem, there was no evidence of bacterial, fungal or viral disease, however, the histological findings indicated a proliferative gastritis and the presence of numerous Cryptosp...

  2. Connexins in the early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis (Amphibia: The role of the connexin43 carboxyl terminal tail in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Cofre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Connexins are a family of related proteins identified in vertebrate forming gap junctions, which mediate cell-to-cell communication in early embryos, with an important role in establishing embryonic asymmetry and ‘communication compartments’. By in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and western blotting we show that a Cx43-like molecule is present in oocytes and embryos of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, with specific localization in the animal-vegetal axis. This specific distribution is suggestive for an important role for this protein in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis. Antisense RNA and antibodies directed against rat carboxyl terminal tail of the Cx43 (CT-Cx43 and injected in 1-cell stage Xenopus embryos, induced pronounced alterations in nervous system development, with a severe ventralization phenotype. Coherently, the overexpression of CT-Cx43 produced a dorsalization of the embryos. In antisense treated embryos, the expression of the beta-catenin gene is eliminated from the Nieuwkoop center, the pattern expression of the Chordin, Xnot and Xbra is modified, with no effect in expression of the Goosecoid gene. In CT-Cx43 mRNA treated embryos the pattern of expression of the beta-catenin, Chordin, Goosecoid, Xnot and engrailed-2 genes is modified. The expression of beta-catenin is increased in the Nieuwkoop center, the expression pattern of Chordin and Goosecoid is expanded to the posterior neural plate and engrailed-2 presents ectopic expression in the ventral region. Taken together our data suggest a role for CT-Cx43 as a maternal determinant with a critical function in the formation of the dorso-ventral axis in Xenopus laevis. The Cx43 may be one of the earliest markers of the dorso-ventral axis in these embryos and could possibly be acting through regionalization of factors responsible for the establishment of this axis.

  3. Genetics, morphology, advertisement calls, and historical records distinguish six new polyploid species of African clawed frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evans, B. J.; Carter, T. F.; Greenbaum, E.; Gvoždík, Václav; Kelley, D. B.; McLaughlin, P. J.; Pauwels, O. S. G.; Portik, D. M.; Stanley, E. L.; Tinsley, R. C.; Tobias, M. L.; Blackburn, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2015), e0142823. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-13415Y Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : host-defense peptides * genus Xenopus * skin secretions * South Africa * evolutionary relationships * model organism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  4. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs

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    Tobias, Martha L.; Evans, Ben J.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types — click, burst and trill — that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  5. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Martha L; Evans, Ben J; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types - click, burst and trill - that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  6. Effects of cadmium, estradiol-17β and their interaction on gonadal condition and metamorphosis of male and female African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

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    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, Reynaldo

    2010-01-01

    To assess interaction effects between cadmium (Cd, a putative xenoestrogen) and estradiol-17?? (E2) on sex differentiation and metamorphosis, Xenopus laevis were exposed to solvent-control (0.005% ethanol), Cd (10 ??g L-1), E2 (1 ??g L-1), or Cd and E2 (Cd + E2) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 75 d postfertilization. Each treatment was applied to four aquaria, each with 30 fertilized eggs. Mortality was recorded and animals were sampled as they completed metamorphosis (Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 66). Gonadal sex of individuals (including tadpoles ???NF stage 55 at day 75) was determined gross-morphologically and used to compute sex ratios. Time course and percent completion of metamorphosis, snout-vent length (SVL), hindlimb length (HLL) and weight were analyzed for each gender separately. Survival rates did not differ among treatments. The E2 and Cd + E2 treatments significantly skewed sex ratios towards females; however, no sex-ratio differences were observed between the control and Cd treatments or between the E2 and Cd + E2 treatments. Time course of metamorphosis was generally delayed and percent completion of metamorphosis was generally reduced in males and females exposed to Cd, E2 or their combination compared to control animals. In males, but not females, the effect of Cd + E2 was greater than that of individual chemicals. Weight at completion of metamorphosis was reduced only in females and only by the Cd + E2 treatment. In conclusion, although Cd at an environmentally relevant concentration did not exhibit direct or indirect feminizing effects in Xenopus tadpoles, the metal and E2 both had similar inhibitory effects on metamorphosis that were of greater magnitude in males than females.

  7. Effects of cadmium, estradiol-17beta and their interaction on gonadal condition and metamorphosis of male and female African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, Reynaldo

    2010-01-01

    To assess interaction effects between cadmium (Cd, a putative xenoestrogen) and estradiol-17beta (E(2)) on sex differentiation and metamorphosis, Xenopus laevis were exposed to solvent-control (0.005% ethanol), Cd (10microgL(-1)), E(2) (1microgL(-1)), or Cd and E(2) (Cd+E(2)) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 75d postfertilization. Each treatment was applied to four aquaria, each with 30 fertilized eggs. Mortality was recorded and animals were sampled as they completed metamorphosis (Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 66). Gonadal sex of individuals (including >or= tadpoles NF stage 55 at day 75) was determined gross-morphologically and used to compute sex ratios. Time course and percent completion of metamorphosis, snout-vent length (SVL), hindlimb length (HLL) and weight were analyzed for each gender separately. Survival rates did not differ among treatments. The E(2) and Cd+E(2) treatments significantly skewed sex ratios towards females; however, no sex-ratio differences were observed between the control and Cd treatments or between the E(2) and Cd+E(2) treatments. Time course of metamorphosis was generally delayed and percent completion of metamorphosis was generally reduced in males and females exposed to Cd, E(2) or their combination compared to control animals. In males, but not females, the effect of Cd+E(2) was greater than that of individual chemicals. Weight at completion of metamorphosis was reduced only in females and only by the Cd+E(2) treatment. In conclusion, although Cd at an environmentally relevant concentration did not exhibit direct or indirect feminizing effects in Xenopus tadpoles, the metal and E(2) both had similar inhibitory effects on metamorphosis that were of greater magnitude in males than females.

  8. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linea...

  9. Accelerated Gene Evolution and Subfunctionalization in thePseudotetraploid Frog Xenopus Laevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Grammar, Timothy C.; Harland,Richard M.; Richardson, Paul; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2007-03-01

    Ancient whole genome duplications have been implicated in the vertebrate and teleost radiations, and in the emergence of diverse angiosperm lineages, but the evolutionary response to such a perturbation is still poorly understood. The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis experienced a relatively recent tetraploidization {approx} 40 million years ago. Analysis of the considerable amount of EST sequence available for this species together with the genome sequence of the related diploid Xenopus tropicalis provides a unique opportunity to study the genomic response to whole genome duplication.

  10. Evolution of vertebrate transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 channels: opposite temperature sensitivity between mammals and western clawed frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Saito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential (TRP channels serve as temperature receptors in a wide variety of animals and must have played crucial roles in thermal adaptation. The TRP vanilloid (TRPV subfamily contains several temperature receptors with different temperature sensitivities. The TRPV3 channel is known to be highly expressed in skin, where it is activated by warm temperatures and serves as a sensor to detect ambient temperatures near the body temperature of homeothermic animals such as mammals. Here we performed comprehensive comparative analyses of the TRPV subfamily in order to understand the evolutionary process; we identified novel TRPV genes and also characterized the evolutionary flexibility of TRPV3 during vertebrate evolution. We cloned the TRPV3 channel from the western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis to understand the functional evolution of the TRPV3 channel. The amino acid sequences of the N- and C-terminal regions of the TRPV3 channel were highly diversified from those of other terrestrial vertebrate TRPV3 channels, although central portions were well conserved. In a heterologous expression system, several mammalian TRPV3 agonists did not activate the TRPV3 channel of the western clawed frog. Moreover, the frog TRPV3 channel did not respond to heat stimuli, instead it was activated by cold temperatures. Temperature thresholds for activation were about 16 °C, slightly below the lower temperature limit for the western clawed frog. Given that the TRPV3 channel is expressed in skin, its likely role is to detect noxious cold temperatures. Thus, the western clawed frog and mammals acquired opposite temperature sensitivity of the TRPV3 channel in order to detect environmental temperatures suitable for their respective species, indicating that temperature receptors can dynamically change properties to adapt to different thermal environments during evolution.

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: African clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Xenopus_laevis_NL.png Xenopus_laevis_S.png Xenopus_laevis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=11 ...

  12. The hymenochirins: a family of host-defense peptides from the Congo dwarf clawed frog Hymenochirus boettgeri (Pipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechkarska, Milena; Prajeep, Manju; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; King, Jay D; Conlon, J Michael

    2012-06-01

    Skin secretions of frogs from the subfamily Xenopodinae (Xenopus+Silurana) within the family Pipidae are a rich source of antimicrobial peptides with therapeutic potential but species from the sister taxon Hymenochirus in the subfamily Pipinae (Hymenochirus+Pseudhymenochirus+Pipa) have not been investigated. Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from two distinct populations of the Congo dwarf clawed frog Hymenochirus boettgeri (Tornier, 1896) has led to identification of five structurally related peptides with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Hymenochirin-1B (IKLSPETKDNLKKVLKGAIKGAIAVAKMV.NH(2)) is C-terminally α-amidated whereas hymenochirins-2B-5B have the general structure XKIPX(2)VKDTLKKVAKGX(2)SX(2)AGAX(3).COOH. Hymenochirin-3B (IKIPAVVKDTLKKVAKGVLSAVAGALTQ) was the most abundant peptide in the secretions. The hymenochirins show very low structural similarity with the antimicrobial peptides isolated from skin secretions of Silurana tropicalis and Xenopus laevis consistent with the proposed ancient divergence of the Pipinae and Xenopodinae. Synthetic replicates of hymenochirin-1B-4B inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC in the range 10-40 μM) and Candida albicans (MIC=80 μM). The peptides display relatively weak hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes (LC(50) in the range 160 to >300 μM). PMID:22497805

  13. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Martha L.; Evans, Ben J; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2011-01-01

    For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by g...

  14. Cas de necrose cutanée chez des grenouilles africaines à griffes Xenopus laevis suite à une application topique d'eugénol.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Andréanne; Guénette, Sarah Annie; Hélie, Pierre; Vachon, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Case of cutaneous necrosis in African Clawed frogs Xenopus laevis after the topical application of eugenol. African Clawed frogs showed necrotic cutaneous lesions after a topical application of high concentrations of eugenol, an analgesic and anesthetic agent. Microscopically, ulceration of the epidermis, a loss of mucous and serous glands as well as an infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed.

  15. Peptidomic analysis of the extensive array of host-defense peptides in skin secretions of the dodecaploid frog Xenopus ruwenzoriensis (Pipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquet, Laurent; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Jouenne, Thierry; Nowotny, Norbert; King, Jay D; Conlon, J Michael

    2016-09-01

    The Uganda clawed frog Xenopus ruwenzoriensis with a karyotype of 2n=108 is one of the very few vertebrates with dodecaploid status. Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from this species led to the isolation and structural characterization of 23 host-defense peptides belonging to the following families: magainin (3 peptides), peptide glycine-leucine-amide (PGLa; 6 peptides), xenopsin precursor fragment (XPF; 3 peptides), caerulein precursor fragment (CPF; 8 peptides), and caerulein precursor fragment-related peptide (CPF-RP; 3 peptides). In addition, the secretions contained caerulein, identical to the peptide from Xenopus laevis, and two peptides that were identified as members of the trefoil factor family (TFF). The data indicate that silencing of the host-defense peptide genes following polyploidization has been appreciable and non-uniform. Consistent with data derived from comparison of nucleotide sequences of mitochrondrial and nuclear genes, cladistic analyses based upon the primary structures of the host-defense peptides provide support for an evolutionary scenario in which X. ruwenzoriensis arose from an allopolyploidization event involving an octoploid ancestor of the present-day frogs belonging to the Xenopus amieti species group and a tetraploid ancestor of Xenopus pygmaeus. PMID:27290612

  16. Waterborne infectivity of the ranavirus Frog-Virus 3 in Xenopus laevis

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Jacques; George, Erica; De Jesús Andino, Francisco; Chen, Guangchun

    2011-01-01

    Ranaviruses like Frog Virus 3 (FV3) are responsible of emerging infectious diseases spreading worldwide to fish, amphibian and reptilian species. We have developed, in Xenopus laevis, an experimental model to investigate viral transmission. We show that FV3 released in water by immunocompromised infected adults can infect adult and larval stages of Xenopus within 3 hours of exposure. Time course of virus load and viral transcription in different tissues suggests that early waterborne FV3 infe...

  17. Post-translational Regulation of Hexokinase Function and Protein Stability in the Aestivating Frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Christine L; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-02-01

    Xenopus laevis endure substantial dehydration which can impose hypoxic stress due to impaired blood flow. Tissues may increase reliance on anaerobic glycolysis for energy production making the regulation of hexokinase (HK) important. We investigated the enzymatic properties and phosphorylation state of purified HK from the muscle of control and dehydrated (30 % total body water lost) frogs. Bioinformatic tools were also applied to analyze the structural implication of HK phosphorylation in silico. HK from the muscle of dehydrated frogs showed a significantly higher Vmax (3.4-fold) and Km for glucose (2.4-fold) compared with control HK but the Km for ATP was unaltered. HK from dehydrated frogs also showed greater phosphoserine content (20 % increase) and lower phosphothreonine (22 % decrease) content compared to control HK. Control HK had a higher melting temperature (Tm = 61.9 °C) than from dehydrated (Tm = 54.2 °C) frogs when thermostability was tested using differential scanning fluorimetry. In silico phosphorylation of a Xenopus HK caused alterations in active site binding, corroborating phosphorylation as the probable mechanism for kinetic regulation. Physiological consequences of dehydration-induced HK phosphorylation appear to facilitate glycolytic metabolism in hypoxic situations. Augmented HK function increases the ability of Xenopus to overcome compromised oxidative phosphorylation associated with ischemia during dehydration. PMID:26797504

  18. Assessment of mutagenic damage by monofunctional alkylating agents and gamma radiation in haploid and diploid frogs, Xenopus laevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult male South African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, were mutagenized by 3-day immersion in aqueous solutions of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), diethyl nitrosamine (DEN), or ethyl nitrosourea (ENU), or by acute exposure to gamma radiation. They were then spawned repeatedly at 2-week intervals with untreated females, and embryonic survival of the progeny was used to assess genetic damage. Recessive lethal effects were assessed from reduced survival of androgenetic haploid progeny. Neither recessive nor dominant lethal effects were obtained after exposure to 100 mg/liter EMS or 2 g/liter DEN. At 250 mg/liter EMS, peak dominant lethality occurred 3-5 weeks after treatment. Most embryos hatched, but many were abnormal and died shortly after hatching. Haploid survival was significantly reduced over a broader period, from 1 to 13 weeks after mutagenesis. Treatment with 75 mg/liter ENU produced effects similar to the 250-mg/liter EMS mutagenesis. At 400 mg/liter EMS, the frequency and severity of the effects on both diploid and haploid embryos were increased over the lower dose. Gamma irradiation at 1500 R produced effects similar to the 400-mg/liter mutagenesis, except that peak dominant lethality extended from 1 to 7 weeks

  19. Transcriptomic Responses During Early Development Following Arsenic Exposure in Western Clawed Frogs, Silurana tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Koch, Iris; Gibson, Laura A; Loughery, Jennifer R; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Button, Mark; Caumette, Guilhem; Reimer, Kenneth J; Cullen, William R; Langlois, Valerie S

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic compounds are widespread environmental contaminants and exposure elicits serious health issues, including early developmental anomalies. Depending on the oxidation state, the intermediates of arsenic metabolism interfere with a range of subcellular events, but the fundamental molecular events that lead to speciation-dependent arsenic toxicity are not fully elucidated. This study therefore assesses the impact of arsenic exposure on early development by measuring speciation and gene expression profiles in the developing Western clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis) larvae following the environmental relevant 0.5 and 1 ppm arsenate exposure. Using HPLC-ICP-MS, arsenate, dimethylarsenic acid, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, and tetramethylarsonium ion were detected. Microarray and pathway analyses were utilized to characterize the comprehensive transcriptomic responses to arsenic exposure. Clustering analysis of expression data showed distinct gene expression patterns in arsenate treated groups when compared with the control. Pathway enrichment revealed common biological themes enriched in both treatments, including cell signal transduction, cell survival, and developmental pathways. Moreover, the 0.5 ppm exposure led to the enrichment of pathways and biological processes involved in arsenic intake or efflux, as well as histone remodeling. These compensatory responses are hypothesized to be responsible for maintaining an in-body arsenic level comparable to control animals. With no appreciable changes observed in malformation and mortality between control and exposed larvae, this is the first study to suggest that the underlying transcriptomic regulations related to signal transduction, cell survival, developmental pathways, and histone remodeling may contribute to maintaining ongoing development while coping with the potential arsenic toxicity in S. tropicalis during early development. PMID:26427749

  20. Effects of Endocrine Disruptors Ethinylestradiol and Procloraz on the vocal system of the frog Xenopus tropicalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Nørum, Ulrik; Korsgaard, Bodil;

    2009-01-01

      Prochloraz masculinizes the larynx of female Xenopus tropicalis   Endogenous sex steroids are not only important for sexual differentiation in amphibians, but also for the development of secondary sex characteristics. The advertisement call of male frogs is used to attract females and in male......-male competitive interactions. The call is associated with larger more numerous neural and muscular structures of sound production. The vocalization system of Xenopus and other Pipid frogs, the larynx and associated structures, is extremely sexual dimorphic. This includes both gross morphology such as size and...

  1. Endocrine Toxicity of Trenbolone in the Western Clawed Frog, Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbolone is a veterinarian pharmaceutical that acts as an androgen agonist and is used extensively in the beef industry. It is excreted from cattle is an active form and has been measured in aquatic systems associated with or near concentrated animal feeding operations. In an...

  2. Biophysics of underwater hearing in the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Elepfandt, A

    1995-01-01

    frequency range of the mating call (main energy at 1.7-1.9 kHz) were mainly caused by pulsations of the air in the middle ear cavity; sound transmission via the lungs was more important at low frequencies (below 1 kHz). Furthermore, the low-frequency peak could be reversibly reduced in amplitude by loading...

  3. Pan-African phylogeography of a model organism, the African clawed frog "Xenopus laevis"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Furman, B. L. S.; Bewick, A. J.; Harrison, T. L.; Greenbaum, E.; Gvoždík, Václav; Kusamba, C.; Evans, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 909-925. ISSN 0962-1083 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : gene flow * phylogeography * population genetics * species limits Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.494, year: 2014

  4. Xenopus Vocalizations Are Controlled by a Sexually Differentiated Hindbrain Central Pattern Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Heather J.; Yu, Heather J.; YAMAGUCHI, ayako

    2007-01-01

    Male and female African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) produce rhythmic, sexually distinct vocalizations as part of courtship and mating. We found that Xenopus vocal behavior is governed by a sexually dimorphic central pattern generator (CPG) and that fictive vocalizations can be elicited from an in vitro brain preparation by application of serotonin or by electrical stimulation of a premotor nucleus. Male brains produced fictive vocal patterns representing two calls commonly produced by males...

  5. Xenopus: An Emerging Model for Studying Congenital Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltenbrun, Erin; Tandon, Panna; Amin, Nirav M.; Waldron, Lauren; Showell, Chris; Conlon, Frank L

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart defects affect nearly 1% of all newborns and are a significant cause of infant death. Clinical studies have identified a number of congenital heart syndromes associated with mutations in genes that are involved in the complex process of cardiogenesis. The African clawed frog, Xenopus, has been instrumental in studies of vertebrate heart development and provides a valuable tool to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying human congenital heart diseases. In this review, ...

  6. Single Cell Proteomics Using Frog (Xenopus laevis) Blastomeres Isolated from Early Stage Embryos, Which Form a Geometric Progression in Protein Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Dubiak, Kyle M; Peuchen, Elizabeth H; Zhang, Zhenbin; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W; Dovichi, Norman J

    2016-07-01

    Single cell analysis is required to understand cellular heterogeneity in biological systems. We propose that single cells (blastomeres) isolated from early stage invertebrate, amphibian, or fish embryos are ideal model systems for the development of technologies for single cell analysis. For these embryos, although cell cleavage is not exactly symmetric, the content per blastomere decreases roughly by half with each cell division, creating a geometric progression in cellular content. This progression forms a ladder of single-cell targets for the development of successively higher sensitivity instruments. In this manuscript, we performed bottom-up proteomics on single blastomeres isolated by microdissection from 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, 32-, and 50-cell Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) embryos. Over 1 400 protein groups were identified in single-run reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry from single balstomeres isolated from a 16-cell embryo. When the mass of yolk-free proteins in single blastomeres decreased from ∼0.8 μg (16-cell embryo) to ∼0.2 μg (50-cell embryo), the number of protein group identifications declined from 1 466 to 644. Around 800 protein groups were quantified across four blastomeres isolated from a 16-cell embryo. By comparing the protein expression among different blastomeres, we observed that the blastomere-to-blastomere heterogeneity in 8-, 16-, 32-, and 50-cell embryos increases with development stage, presumably due to cellular differentiation. These results suggest that comprehensive quantitative proteomics on single blastomeres isolated from these early stage embryos can provide valuable insights into cellular differentiation and organ development. PMID:27314579

  7. Developmental toxicity, uptake and distribution of sodium chromate assayed by frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus(FETAX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosisio, Stefano [Via Giuseppe Garibaldi, 21, 21020, Casciago (Italy); Fortaner, Salvador, E-mail: salvador.fortaner@jrc.it [European Commission, ECVAM Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, via Fermi 2749, 21027, Ispra (Italy); Bellinetto, Sonia [Via Gisora, 5, 21039, Bedero Valcuvia (Italy); Farina, Massimo; Del Torchio, Riccardo [European Commission, ECVAM Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, via Fermi 2749, 21027, Ispra (Italy); Prati, Mariangela; Gornati, Rosalba; Bernardini, Giovanni [Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Sciences, University of Insubria, Via Dunant, 3, 21100, Varese (Italy); Sabbioni, Enrico [CeSI, Ageing Research Center, ' G. d' Annunzio' University Foundation, Via Colle dell' Ara, 66100, Chieti (Italy)

    2009-09-01

    The embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of Cr(VI) on the survival and morphology of the anuran Xenopus laevis have been assessed by frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The lethal median (LC{sub 50}) and teratogenic median (TC{sub 50}) concentration values of Cr(VI) were 890 {mu}M and 260 {mu}M, respectively. The calculated teratogenic index (TI) value was 3.42, suggesting that hexavalent chromium has a teratogenic potential. Malformations of embryos included lifting of the body, coiling of the tail and body oedema. Furthermore, the chromium salt caused significant growth retardation at 25 {mu}M exposure concentrations. The use of radiolabelled {sup 51}Cr(VI) allowed the determination of the time course uptake of Cr in Xenopus exposed to concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 500 {mu}M. The evaluation of its distribution into the body (head-abdomen-tail) was evaluated at different exposure times. Chromium is taken up at 24 h by Xenopus embryos for all concentrations tested. At 48 h post fertilization (stage of larva) the amount of Cr accumulated by the two-day-old larva ranged from 0.42 to 580 pg mg{sup -1} wet weight at 0.025 and 500 {mu}M respectively. These amounts were lower than those at 24 h (2.77 to 11016 pg mg{sup -1} wet weight embryo) reaching values of the same order of magnitude at 120 h (five-days-old larva). Since at 48 h Xenopus development leads to a swimming embryo, the observed uptake at 24 h could be the result of the binding of Cr to jelly coat compounds surrounding the embryo body as confirmed by gel filtration experiments on {sup 51}Cr-jelly coat. The interaction of Cr with jelly coat is in agreement with the role of jelly coat in protecting the embryo against pathogen and chemical toxins to ensure fertilization. This work further supports the hypothesis that Cr contamination of surface waters could contribute to explain the reported worldwide depletion of frog population.

  8. Developmental toxicity, uptake and distribution of sodium chromate assayed by frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus(FETAX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of Cr(VI) on the survival and morphology of the anuran Xenopus laevis have been assessed by frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The lethal median (LC50) and teratogenic median (TC50) concentration values of Cr(VI) were 890 μM and 260 μM, respectively. The calculated teratogenic index (TI) value was 3.42, suggesting that hexavalent chromium has a teratogenic potential. Malformations of embryos included lifting of the body, coiling of the tail and body oedema. Furthermore, the chromium salt caused significant growth retardation at 25 μM exposure concentrations. The use of radiolabelled 51Cr(VI) allowed the determination of the time course uptake of Cr in Xenopus exposed to concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 500 μM. The evaluation of its distribution into the body (head-abdomen-tail) was evaluated at different exposure times. Chromium is taken up at 24 h by Xenopus embryos for all concentrations tested. At 48 h post fertilization (stage of larva) the amount of Cr accumulated by the two-day-old larva ranged from 0.42 to 580 pg mg-1 wet weight at 0.025 and 500 μM respectively. These amounts were lower than those at 24 h (2.77 to 11016 pg mg-1 wet weight embryo) reaching values of the same order of magnitude at 120 h (five-days-old larva). Since at 48 h Xenopus development leads to a swimming embryo, the observed uptake at 24 h could be the result of the binding of Cr to jelly coat compounds surrounding the embryo body as confirmed by gel filtration experiments on 51Cr-jelly coat. The interaction of Cr with jelly coat is in agreement with the role of jelly coat in protecting the embryo against pathogen and chemical toxins to ensure fertilization. This work further supports the hypothesis that Cr contamination of surface waters could contribute to explain the reported worldwide depletion of frog population.

  9. Jumping performance in the highly aquatic frog, Xenopus tropicalis: sex-specific relationships between morphology and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Herrel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Frogs are characterized by a morphology that has been suggested to be related to their unique jumping specialization. Yet, the functional demands associated with jumping and swimming may not be that different as suggested by studies with semi-aquatic frogs. Here, we explore whether features previously identified as indicative of good burst swimming performance also predict jumping performance in a highly aquatic frog, Xenopus tropicalis. Moreover, we test whether the morphological determinants of jumping performance are similar in the two sexes and whether jumping performance differs in the two sexes. Finally we test whether jumping capacity is positively associated with burst swimming and terrestrial endurance capacity in both sexes. Our results show sex-specific differences in jumping performance when correcting for differences in body size. Moreover, the features determining jumping performance are different in the two sexes. Finally, the relationships between different performance traits are sex-dependent as well with females, but not males, showing a trade-off between peak jumping force and the time jumped to exhaustion. This suggests that different selective pressures operate on the two sexes, with females being subjected to constraints on locomotion due to their greater body mass and investment in reproductive capacity. In contrast, males appear to invest more in locomotor capacity giving them higher performance for a given body size compared to females.

  10. Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Tyrone B.; Collins, Atif; Lee, Melissa; Mendoza, Magdelena; Noriega, Nigel; Stuart, A. Ali; Vonk, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. and probably the world. It can be present at several parts per million in agricultural runoff and can reach 40 parts per billion (ppb) in precipitation. We examined the effects of atrazine on sexual development in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). Larvae were exposed to atrazine (0.01–200 ppb) by immersion throughout larval development, and we examined gonadal histology and laryngeal size at metamorphosis. Atra...

  11. Characterization of the host-defense peptides from skin secretions of Merlin's clawed frog Pseudhymenochirus merlini: insights into phylogenetic relationships among the Pipidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Prajeep, Manju; Mechkarska, Milena; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; King, Jay D

    2013-12-01

    The family Pipidae comprises the genera Hymenochirus, Pipa, Pseudhymenochirus, Silurana, and Xenopus but phylogenetic relationships within the family are unclear. Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from Pseudhymenochirus merlini Chabanaud, 1920, the single species within the genus Pseudhymenochirus, led to identification of 13 host-defense peptides with antimicrobial activity. Two peptides (hymenochirin-1Pa and -1Pb) show structural similarity to hymenochirin-1B from Hymenochirus boettgeri and eight peptides (hymenochirin-5Pa, -5Pb, -5Pc, -5Pd, -5Pe, -5Pf, 5Pg and -5Ph) are structurally similar to each other and to hymenochirin-5B from H. boettgeri. Two peptides differing by a single amino acid (IKIPSFFRNILKKVGKEAVSLM/I AGALKQS), termed pseudhymenochirin-1Pa and -1Pb, and pseudhymenochirin-2Pa (GIFPIFAKLLGKVIKVASSLISKGRTE) do not resemble host-defense peptides previously isolated from pipid frogs. Hymenochirin-5Pe was the most abundant peptide in the secretions and hymenochirin-1Pa the most potent against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=2.5μM) and Escherichia coli (MIC=10μM). The data support a close phylogenetic relationship between Hymenochirus and Pseudhymenochirus that is distinct from the Xenopodinae (Xenopus+Silurana) clade with Pipa sister-group to all other extant pipids. PMID:24212286

  12. Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Xenopus collected in Africa (1871-2000 and in California (2001-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance T Vredenburg

    Full Text Available International trade of the invasive South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, a subclinical carrier of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatis (Bd has been proposed as a major means of introduction of Bd into naïve, susceptible amphibian populations. The historical presence of Bd in the indigenous African population of Xenopus is well documented. However, there are no reports documenting the presence of Bd in wild Xenopus populations in the US, particularly in California where introduced populations are well-established after intentional or accidental release. In this report, a survey was conducted on 178 archived specimens of 6 species of Xenopus collected in Africa from 1871-2000 and on 23 archived specimens (all wild-caught Xenopus laevis collected in California, USA between 2001 and 2010. The overall prevalence rate of Bd in the tested Xenopus was 2.8%. The earliest positive specimen was X. borealis collected in Kenya in 1934. The overall prevalence of Bd in the X. laevis collected in California was 13% with 2 positive specimens from 2001 and one positive specimen from 2003. The positive Xenopus (3/23 collected in California were collected in 2001 (2/3 and 2003 (1/3. These data document the presence of Bd-infected wild Xenopus laevis in California. The findings reported here support the prevailing hypothesis that Bd was present as a stable, endemic infection in Xenopus populations in Africa prior to their worldwide distribution likely via international live-amphibian trade.

  13. Cat's Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Cat's Claw Share: On This Page Introduction What the ... More Information Key References © Steven Foster Common Names: cat’s claw, uña de gato Latin Name: Uncaria tomentosa, ...

  14. Occludin and hydromineral balance in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasiotis, Helen; Kelly, Scott P

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the response of the tight junction (TJ) protein occludin to environmental change in an anuran amphibian, we examined occludin tissue distribution, immunolocalization and alterations in mRNA expression in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) acclimated to brackish water (BW) conditions (from freshwater to 2 per thousand, 5 per thousand or 10 per thousand salt water). Occludin mRNA is widely expressed in Xenopus and is abundant in tissues involved in regulating salt and water balance, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, kidney and urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed strong occludin immunolabelling in the apicolateral region of epithelia lining the GI tract and mRNA expression increased along the longitudinal axis of the gut. In kidney tissue, occludin was differentially expressed on the luminal side of the nephron tubule, appearing in the distal tubules and collecting ducts only. In response to BW acclimation, Xenopus exhibited a significant loss of tissue water as well as salinity-dependent elevations in serum osmolality as a result of increased urea levels followed by elevated serum Na(+) and Cl(-) levels. Tissue-specific alterations in the ionomotive enzyme Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were also observed in Xenopus in response to BW acclimation. Most notably, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the rectum increased in response to elevated environmental salt concentrations while renal activity decreased. Furthermore, acclimation to BW caused tissue-specific and salinity-dependent alterations in occludin mRNA expression within select Xenopus osmoregulatory organs. Taken together, these studies suggest that alterations in occludin, in conjunction with active transport processes, may contribute to amphibian hydromineral homeostasis during environmental change. PMID:19112148

  15. Abundant and dynamically expressed miRNAs, piRNAs, and other small RNAs in the vertebrate Xenopus tropicalis

    OpenAIRE

    Armisen, Javier; Gilchrist, Michael J; Wilczynska, Anna; Standart, Nancy; Miska, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. Here we used high-throughput sequencing to determine small RNA populations in the germline and soma of the African clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis. We identified a number of miRNAs that were expressed in the female germline. miRNA expression profiling revealed that miR-202-5p is an oocyte-enriched miRNA. We identified two novel miRNAs that were expressed in the soma. In addition, we sequenced large num...

  16. Sexually differentiated central pattern generators in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornik, Erik; Yamaguchi, Ayako

    2008-06-01

    Understanding the neural mechanisms that underlie the function of central pattern generators (CPGs) presents a formidable challenge requiring sophisticated tools and well-chosen model systems. In this article, we describe recent work on vocalizations of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. These behaviors are driven by sexually differentiated CPGs and are exceptionally well suited to this objective. In particular, a simplified mechanism of vocal production (independent of respiratory musculature) allows straightforward interpretations of nerve activity with respect to behavior. Furthermore, the development of a fictively vocalizing isolated brain, together with the finding of rapid androgen-induced masculinization of female vocalizations, provides an invaluable tool for determining how new behaviors arise from existing circuits. PMID:18471902

  17. Molecular footprinting of skeletal tissues in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula and the clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis identifies conserved and derived features of vertebrate calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Enault, Sébastien; Muñoz, David N.; Silva, Willian T. A. F.; Borday-Birraux, Véronique; Bonade, Morgane; Oulion, Silvan; Ventéo, Stéphanie; Marcellini, Sylvain; Debiais-Thibaud, Mélanie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary emergence and subsequent diversification of the vertebrate skeleton requires a comprehensive view of the diverse skeletal cell types found in distinct developmental contexts, tissues, and species. To date, our knowledge of the molecular nature of the shark calcified extracellular matrix, and its relationships with osteichthyan skeletal tissues, remain scarce. Here, based on specific combinations of expression patterns of the Col1a1, Col1a2, and Col2a1 fibrillar ...

  18. Isolation of Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sive, Hazel L; Grainger, Robert M; Harland, Richard M

    2010-12-01

    Xenopus oocytes are obtained from sexually mature females by surgically removing parts of the ovary. The operation is not fatal and can be performed on an anesthetized frog several times during its lifetime. However, a recovery period of 2 wk is recommended between operations. A careful record of all operations performed, including details of oocyte quality, should be kept. A frog that produces one good batch of oocytes; e.g., those that translate injected messenger RNAs (mRNAs) efficiently, should be recorded and used again, because oocyte quality is generally frog-dependent. PMID:21123421

  19. Single-cell mass spectrometry with multi-solvent extraction identifies metabolic differences between left and right blastomeres in the 8-cell frog (Xenopus) embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onjiko, Rosemary M; Morris, Sydney E; Moody, Sally A; Nemes, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Single-cell metabolic mass spectrometry enables the discovery (untargeted) analysis of small molecules in individual cells. Using single-cell capillary electrophoresis high-resolution mass spectrometry (CE-HRMS), we recently uncovered small-molecule differences between embryonic cells located along the animal-vegetal and dorsal-ventral axes of the 16-cell frog (Xenopus laevis) embryo, raising the question whether metabolic cell heterogeneity also exists along the left-right body axis. To address this question, we here advance single-cell CE-HRMS for identifying and quantifying metabolites in higher analytical sensitivity, and then use the methodology to compare metabolite production between left and right cells. Our strategy utilizes multiple solvents with complementary physicochemical properties to extract small molecules from single cells and improve electrophoretic separation, increasing metabolite ion signals for quantification and tandem HRMS. As a result, we were able to identify 55 different small molecules in D1 cells that were isolated from 8-cell embryos. To quantify metabolite production between left and right cells, we analyzed n = 24 different D1 cells in technical duplicate-triplicate measurements. Statistical and multivariate analysis based on 80 of the most repeatedly quantified compounds revealed 10 distinct metabolites that were significantly differentially accumulated in the left or right cells (p < 0.05 and fold change ≥1.5). These metabolites were enriched in the arginine-proline metabolic pathway in the right, but not the left D1 cells. Besides providing analytical benefits for single-cell HRMS, this work provides new metabolic data on the establishment of normal body asymmetry in the early developing embryo. PMID:27004603

  20. Evolution of Heat Sensors Drove Shifts in Thermosensation between Xenopus Species Adapted to Different Thermal Niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shigeru; Ohkita, Masashi; Saito, Claire T; Takahashi, Kenji; Tominaga, Makoto; Ohta, Toshio

    2016-05-20

    Temperature is one of the most critical environmental factors affecting survival, and thus species that inhabit different thermal niches have evolved thermal sensitivities suitable for their respective habitats. During the process of shifting thermal niches, various types of genes expressed in diverse tissues, including those of the peripheral to central nervous systems, are potentially involved in the evolutionary changes in thermosensation. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the evolution of thermosensation, thermal responses were compared between two species of clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis) adapted to different thermal environments. X. laevis was much more sensitive to heat stimulation than X. tropicalis at the behavioral and neural levels. The activity and sensitivity of the heat-sensing TRPA1 channel were higher in X. laevis compared with those of X. tropicalis The thermal responses of another heat-sensing channel, TRPV1, also differed between the two Xenopus species. The species differences in Xenopus TRPV1 heat responses were largely determined by three amino acid substitutions located in the first three ankyrin repeat domains, known to be involved in the regulation of rat TRPV1 activity. In addition, Xenopus TRPV1 exhibited drastic species differences in sensitivity to capsaicin, contained in chili peppers, between the two Xenopus species. Another single amino acid substitution within Xenopus TRPV1 is responsible for this species difference, which likely alters the neural and behavioral responses to capsaicin. These combined subtle amino acid substitutions in peripheral thermal sensors potentially serve as a driving force for the evolution of thermal and chemical sensation. PMID:27022021

  1. Population-specific incidence of testicular ovarian follicles in Xenopus laevis from South Africa: A potential issue in endocrine testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) has been identified as an appropriate sentinel for testing endocrine activity of existing chemicals in North America and Europe. Some reports suggest that the herbicide, atrazine (CAS Number [1912-24-9]) causes ovarian follicles to form in the testes of this frog. X. laevis collected from North East (NE) sites in South Africa had testicular ovarian follicles, irrespective of exposure to atrazine, while frogs from Southwest Western (SW) Cape region sites had none. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genes indicates that frogs from the SW Cape are evolutionarily divergent from those from NE South Africa and the rest of sub-Saharan Africa. These findings provide a possible explanation for why conflicting results have been reported concerning the impact of atrazine on amphibian sexual differentiation and highlight the importance of understanding taxonomic status of the experimental animal. Even in common laboratory animals, there is a need for their correct taxonomic characterization before their use in tests for endocrine disruption.

  2. Induction of ovulation in Xenopus without hCG injection: the effect of adding steroids into the aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwashina Yu-ki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is widely used in studies of oogenesis, meiotic cell cycle and early embryonic development. However, in order to perform such studies, eggs are normally collected after the injection of hCG into the dorsal lymph sac of fully-grown female frogs following pre-injection of PMSF. Although this protocol is established and used as standard laboratory approach, there are some concerns over whether the injections could cause the transmission of deleterious microorganisms. Moreover, these injection protocols require a competent skilled worker to carry out the procedure efficiently. Methods Recently, we established a novel method to induce fish ovulation by simply adding the natural maturation-inducing hormone of teleosts, 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-DHP, into the surrounding water. In the present study, we demonstrate how we can induce ovulation in frogs using the same methodology. Results In frogs, progesterone was effective in the induction of oocyte maturation in vitro. We then examined the ability of progesterone to induce ovulation in frogs. However treatment of frogs with progesterone alone only occasionally induced ovulation in vivo. The number of oocytes and the frequency of ovulation were significantly lower than that induced by hCG-injection. Thus, conditions were improved by using a combination of progesterone with estradiol and by pre-treating frogs with low concentrations of progesterone or estradiol. Finally, we established an efficient means of inducing ovulation in frogs which involved pre-treatment of frogs with salt solution followed by a mixture of estradiol and progesterone at high concentration. The frequency and numbers of oocytes obtained were identical to those resulting from PMSG-hCG induction. Fertilization rate of eggs ovulated by the new treatment method was comparable to eggs obtained by hCG-injection and juveniles developed normally

  3. Distribution of BDE-99 and effects on metamorphosis of BDE-99 and -47 after oral exposure in Xenopus tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Gunnar [Division of Pathology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7028, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden) and Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU), P.O. Box 7054, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: gunnar.carlsson@bvf.slu.se; Kulkarni, Pushkar [Division of Pathology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7028, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Larsson, Pia [Division of Pathology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7028, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Norrgren, Leif [Division of Pathology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7028, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU), P.O. Box 7054, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    The high concentrations of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in the environment have raised the need for generating more information about the impact of these substances on animals. To study the distribution of {sup 14}C-labelled 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether ({sup 14}C-BDE-99) in Xenopus tropicalis (West African clawed frog) {sup 14}C-BDE-99 was administered by dietary exposure to tadpoles at stage 54 or to juvenile frogs at stage 66. Whole-body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting were used to examine the distribution of the substance at different survival times. Further, X. tropicalis tadpoles were dietarily exposed to the PBDE congeners BDE-47 and BDE-99 to study the effects on metamorphosis process. Measurements like body weight, body length, hind limb length and developmental stage as well as histological measurements on thyroid glands were performed after 14 days of exposure. Autoradiograms revealed high concentrations and long term retention of {sup 14}C-BDE-99 in adipose tissue and melanin in frogs exposed both as tadpoles and juveniles. Further, a difference in uptake was recorded between the exposures at stages 54 and 66, implying that the juvenile frogs have higher uptake and more prolonged retention of the chemical than the tadpoles. Hind limb length was reduced in tadpoles dietarily exposed to 1 mg/g feed of both BDE congeners. This was associated with reduced body weight and body length for BDE-47, suggesting general toxicity. Tadpoles exposed to BDE-99 also showed lower developmental stage but no effects on body weight or body length, suggesting possible thyroid hormone disruption. Higher concentrations of both congeners caused increased mortality. Thus, it can be concluded that in the present study, BDE-99 was retained for a longer period in the juvenile frogs than in metamorphosing tadpoles and that BDE-99 had an impact on X. tropicalis metamorphosis that might be of thyroid disrupting origin.

  4. Distribution of BDE-99 and effects on metamorphosis of BDE-99 and -47 after oral exposure in Xenopus tropicalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high concentrations of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in the environment have raised the need for generating more information about the impact of these substances on animals. To study the distribution of 14C-labelled 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (14C-BDE-99) in Xenopus tropicalis (West African clawed frog) 14C-BDE-99 was administered by dietary exposure to tadpoles at stage 54 or to juvenile frogs at stage 66. Whole-body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting were used to examine the distribution of the substance at different survival times. Further, X. tropicalis tadpoles were dietarily exposed to the PBDE congeners BDE-47 and BDE-99 to study the effects on metamorphosis process. Measurements like body weight, body length, hind limb length and developmental stage as well as histological measurements on thyroid glands were performed after 14 days of exposure. Autoradiograms revealed high concentrations and long term retention of 14C-BDE-99 in adipose tissue and melanin in frogs exposed both as tadpoles and juveniles. Further, a difference in uptake was recorded between the exposures at stages 54 and 66, implying that the juvenile frogs have higher uptake and more prolonged retention of the chemical than the tadpoles. Hind limb length was reduced in tadpoles dietarily exposed to 1 mg/g feed of both BDE congeners. This was associated with reduced body weight and body length for BDE-47, suggesting general toxicity. Tadpoles exposed to BDE-99 also showed lower developmental stage but no effects on body weight or body length, suggesting possible thyroid hormone disruption. Higher concentrations of both congeners caused increased mortality. Thus, it can be concluded that in the present study, BDE-99 was retained for a longer period in the juvenile frogs than in metamorphosing tadpoles and that BDE-99 had an impact on X. tropicalis metamorphosis that might be of thyroid disrupting origin

  5. Tone and call responses of units in the auditory nerve and dorsal medullary nucleus of Xenopus laevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliott, Taffeta M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2007-01-01

    The clawed frog Xenopus laevis produces vocalizations consisting of distinct patterns of clicks. This study provides the first description of spontaneous, pure-tone and communication-signal evoked discharge properties of auditory nerve (n.VIII) fibers and dorsal medullary nucleus (DMN) cells in an...... those in partially terrestrial anurans. Broad tuning exists across characteristic frequencies (CFs). Threshold minima are -101 dB re 1 mm/s at 675 Hz; -87 dB at 1,600 Hz; and -61 dB at 3,000 Hz (-90, -77, and -44 dB re 1 Pa, respectively), paralleling the peak frequency of vocalizations at 1.2-1.6 k...

  6. Lobster claw deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ashish; Agrawal, Rahul; Singh, Rajat; Agrawal, Romi; Agrawal, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form). In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient. PMID:24992861

  7. Lobster claw deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form. In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient.

  8. Lobster claw deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Agrawal; Rahul Agrawal; Rajat Singh; Romi Agrawal; Seema Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-...

  9. Identification of genes associated with regenerative success of Xenopus laevis hindlimbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Donna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimorphic regeneration is the process by which complete regeneration of a complex structure such as a limb occurs through production of a proliferating blastema. This type of regeneration is rare among vertebrates but does occur in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, traditionally a model organism for the study of early development. Xenopus tadpoles can regenerate their tails, limb buds and the lens of the eye, although the ability of the latter two organs to regenerate diminishes with advancing developmental stage. Using a heat shock inducible transgene that remains silent unless activated, we have established a stable line of transgenic Xenopus (strain N1 in which the BMP inhibitor Noggin can be over-expressed at any time during development. Activation of this transgene blocks regeneration of the tail and limb of Xenopus tadpoles. Results In the current study, we have taken advantage of the N1 transgenic line to directly compare morphology and gene expression in same stage regenerating vs. BMP signalling deficient non-regenerating hindlimb buds. The wound epithelium of N1 transgenic hindlimb buds, which forms over the cut surface of the limb bud after amputation, does not transition normally into the distal thickened apical epithelial cap. Instead, a basement membrane and dermis form, indicative of mature skin. Furthermore, the underlying mesenchyme remains rounded and does not expand to form a cone shaped blastema, a normal feature of successful regeneration. Using Affymetrix Gene Chip analysis, we have identified genes linked to regenerative success downstream of BMP signalling, including the BMP inhibitor Gremlin and the stress protein Hsp60 (no blastema in zebrafish. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes involved in embryonic development and growth are significantly over-represented in regenerating early hindlimb buds and that successful regeneration in the Xenopus hindlimb correlates with the induction of

  10. Comparative Analysis of Cartilage Marker Gene Expression Patterns during Axolotl and Xenopus Limb Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumasa Mitogawa

    Full Text Available Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum can completely regenerate lost limbs, whereas Xenopus laevis frogs cannot. During limb regeneration, a blastema is first formed at the amputation plane. It is thought that this regeneration blastema forms a limb by mechanisms similar to those of a developing embryonic limb bud. Furthermore, Xenopus laevis frogs can form a blastema after amputation; however, the blastema results in a terminal cone-shaped cartilaginous structure called a "spike." The causes of this patterning defect in Xenopus frog limb regeneration were explored. We hypothesized that differences in chondrogenesis may underlie the patterning defect. Thus, we focused on chondrogenesis. Chondrogenesis marker genes, type I and type II collagen, were compared in regenerative and nonregenerative environments. There were marked differences between axolotls and Xenopus in the expression pattern of these chondrogenesis-associated genes. The relative deficit in the chondrogenic capacity of Xenopus blastema cells may account for the absence of total limb regenerative capacity.

  11. Significant modulation of the hepatic proteome induced by exposure to low temperature in Xenopus laevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumichi Nagasawa

    2013-08-01

    The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is an ectothermic vertebrate that can survive at low environmental temperatures. To gain insight into the molecular events induced by low body temperature, liver proteins were evaluated at the standard laboratory rearing temperature (22°C, control and a low environmental temperature (5°C, cold exposure. Using nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 58 proteins that differed in abundance. A subsequent Gene Ontology analysis revealed that the tyrosine and phenylalanine catabolic processes were modulated by cold exposure, which resulted in decreases in hepatic tyrosine and phenylalanine, respectively. Similarly, levels of pyruvate kinase and enolase, which are involved in glycolysis and glycogen synthesis, were also decreased, whereas levels of glycogen phosphorylase, which participates in glycogenolysis, were increased. Therefore, we measured metabolites in the respective pathways and found that levels of hepatic glycogen and glucose were decreased. Although the liver was under oxidative stress because of iron accumulation caused by hepatic erythrocyte destruction, the hepatic NADPH/NADP ratio was not changed. Thus, glycogen is probably utilized mainly for NADPH supply rather than for energy or glucose production. In conclusion, X. laevis responds to low body temperature by modulating its hepatic proteome, which results in altered carbohydrate metabolism.

  12. Assessment of laryngeal muscle and testicular cell types in Xenopus laevis (Anura Pipidae) inhabiting maize and non-maize growing areas of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E.E.; Du Preez, L.H.; Gentles, A.; Solomon, K.R.; Tandler, B.; Carr, J.A.; Van Der Kraak, G. L.; Kendall, R.J.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adult African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) inhabiting water bodies in maize-growing areas (MGA) of South Africa would exhibit differences in testicular structure compared to frogs from water bodies in non-maize-growing areas (NMGA) in the same locale. Adults of both sexes were collected during the autumn of 2002 in South Africa, and stereological analytical techniques were used to quantify the distribution of testicular cell types. In addition, total laryngeal mass was used as a gauge of secondary sex differences in animals from MGA and NMGA study sites. Evaluation of the total laryngeal mass revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between X. laevis of the same sex from the NMGA and MGA sites. Mean percent fractional-volume values for seminiferous tubule distribution of testicular cell types of mature X. laevis, ranged from 3-4% for spermatogonia, 26-28% for spermatocytes, 54-57% for spermatozoa, and 14-15% for other cells types. The mean percent volume for blood vessels ranged from 0.3-0.4%. These values did not differ significantly between frogs from NMGA and MGA areas. Collectively, these data demonstrated no differences in gonadal and laryngeal development in X. laevis collected in South Africa from MGA and NMGA areas and that there is little evidence for an effect of agricultural chemicals used in maize production functioning as endocrine disrupters in this species. Screening of X. laevis testes revealed a small incidence of Stage 1 testicular oocytes in adult male frogs collected from the NMGA (3%) and MGA (2%).

  13. De novo Transcriptome Assemblies of Rana (Lithobates catesbeiana and Xenopus laevis Tadpole Livers for Comparative Genomics without Reference Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inanc Birol

    Full Text Available In this work we studied the liver transcriptomes of two frog species, the American bullfrog (Rana (Lithobates catesbeiana and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis. We used high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq data to assemble and annotate these transcriptomes, and compared how their baseline expression profiles change when tadpoles of the two species are exposed to thyroid hormone. We generated more than 1.5 billion RNA-seq reads in total for the two species under two conditions as treatment/control pairs. We de novo assembled these reads using Trans-ABySS to reconstruct reference transcriptomes, obtaining over 350,000 and 130,000 putative transcripts for R. catesbeiana and X. laevis, respectively. Using available genomics resources for X. laevis, we annotated over 97% of our X. laevis transcriptome contigs, demonstrating the utility and efficacy of our methodology. Leveraging this validated analysis pipeline, we also annotated the assembled R. catesbeiana transcriptome. We used the expression profiles of the annotated genes of the two species to examine the similarities and differences between the tadpole liver transcriptomes. We also compared the gene ontology terms of expressed genes to measure how the animals react to a challenge by thyroid hormone. Our study reports three main conclusions. First, de novo assembly of RNA-seq data is a powerful method for annotating and establishing transcriptomes of non-model organisms. Second, the liver transcriptomes of the two frog species, R. catesbeiana and X. laevis, show many common features, and the distribution of their gene ontology profiles are statistically indistinguishable. Third, although they broadly respond the same way to the presence of thyroid hormone in their environment, their receptor/signal transduction pathways display marked differences.

  14. Exploring nervous system transcriptomes during embryogenesis and metamorphosis in Xenopus tropicalis using EST analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegnez Maurice

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The western African clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an anuran amphibian species now used as model in vertebrate comparative genomics. It provides the same advantages as Xenopus laevis but is diploid and has a smaller genome of 1.7 Gbp. Therefore X. tropicalis is more amenable to systematic transcriptome surveys. We initiated a large-scale partial cDNA sequencing project to provide a functional genomics resource on genes expressed in the nervous system during early embryogenesis and metamorphosis in X. tropicalis. Results A gene index was defined and analysed after the collection of over 48,785 high quality sequences. These partial cDNA sequences were obtained from an embryonic head and retina library (30,272 sequences and from a metamorphic brain and spinal cord library (27,602 sequences. These ESTs are estimated to represent 9,693 transcripts derived from an estimated 6,000 genes. Comparison of these cDNA sequences with protein databases indicates that 46% contain their start codon. Further annotation included Gene Ontology functional classification, InterPro domain analysis, alternative splicing and non-coding RNA identification. Gene expression profiles were derived from EST counts and used to define transcripts specific to metamorphic stages of development. Moreover, these ESTs allowed identification of a set of 225 polymorphic microsatellites that can be used as genetic markers. Conclusion These cDNA sequences permit in silico cloning of numerous genes and will facilitate studies aimed at deciphering the roles of cognate genes expressed in the nervous system during neural development and metamorphosis. The genomic resources developed to study X. tropicalis biology will accelerate exploration of amphibian physiology and genetics. In particular, the model will facilitate analysis of key questions related to anuran embryogenesis and metamorphosis and its associated regulatory processes.

  15. Sterility and Gene Expression in Hybrid Males of Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John H.; Chrzanowski, Thomas H.; Michalak, Pawel

    2007-01-01

    Background Reproductive isolation is a defining characteristic of populations that represent unique biological species, yet we know very little about the gene expression basis for reproductive isolation. The advent of powerful molecular biology tools provides the ability to identify genes involved in reproductive isolation and focuses attention on the molecular mechanisms that separate biological species. Herein we quantify the sterility pattern of hybrid males in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus) and apply microarray analysis of the expression pattern found in testes to identify genes that are misexpressed in hybrid males relative to their two parental species (Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri). Methodology/Principal Findings Phenotypic characteristics of spermatogenesis in sterile male hybrids (X. laevis x X. muelleri) were examined using a novel sperm assay that allowed quantification of live, dead, and undifferentiated sperm cells, the number of motile vs. immotile sperm, and sperm morphology. Hybrids exhibited a dramatically lower abundance of mature sperm relative to the parental species. Hybrid spermatozoa were larger in size and accompanied by numerous undifferentiated sperm cells. Microarray analysis of gene expression in testes was combined with a correction for sequence divergence derived from genomic hybridizations to identify candidate genes involved in the sterility phenotype. Analysis of the transcriptome revealed a striking asymmetric pattern of misexpression. There were only about 140 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. laevis but nearly 4,000 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. muelleri. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide an important correlation between phenotypic characteristics of sperm and gene expression in sterile hybrid males. The broad pattern of gene misexpression suggests intriguing mechanisms creating the dominance pattern of the X. laevis genome in hybrids. These findings significantly contribute to growing

  16. Sterility and gene expression in hybrid males of Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Malone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reproductive isolation is a defining characteristic of populations that represent unique biological species, yet we know very little about the gene expression basis for reproductive isolation. The advent of powerful molecular biology tools provides the ability to identify genes involved in reproductive isolation and focuses attention on the molecular mechanisms that separate biological species. Herein we quantify the sterility pattern of hybrid males in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus and apply microarray analysis of the expression pattern found in testes to identify genes that are misexpressed in hybrid males relative to their two parental species (Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phenotypic characteristics of spermatogenesis in sterile male hybrids (X. laevis x X. muelleri were examined using a novel sperm assay that allowed quantification of live, dead, and undifferentiated sperm cells, the number of motile vs. immotile sperm, and sperm morphology. Hybrids exhibited a dramatically lower abundance of mature sperm relative to the parental species. Hybrid spermatozoa were larger in size and accompanied by numerous undifferentiated sperm cells. Microarray analysis of gene expression in testes was combined with a correction for sequence divergence derived from genomic hybridizations to identify candidate genes involved in the sterility phenotype. Analysis of the transcriptome revealed a striking asymmetric pattern of misexpression. There were only about 140 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. laevis but nearly 4,000 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. muelleri. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide an important correlation between phenotypic characteristics of sperm and gene expression in sterile hybrid males. The broad pattern of gene misexpression suggests intriguing mechanisms creating the dominance pattern of the X. laevis genome in hybrids. These findings significantly

  17. Cryopreservation of Xenopus transgenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Daniel R; Fu, Liezhen; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2004-01-01

    Xenopus laevis has been widely used for molecular, cellular, and developmental studies. With the development of the sperm-mediated transgenic method, it is now possible to study gene function during vertebrate development by using this popular model. On the other hand, like other animal species, it is labor intensive, and the maintenance of transgenic lines is expensive. In this article, we investigated the possibility of using sperm-cryopreservation as a means to preserve transgenic frog lines. We demonstrated that cryopreserved sperms are viable but not fertile under our in vitro fertilization (IVF) conditions. However, by microinjecting cryopreserved sperm nuclei, we successfully regenerated a transgenic line carrying a double promoter transgene construct, where the marker gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is driven by the gamma-crystallin gene promoter and a gene of interest, encoding a fusion protein of GFP with the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 (ST3-GFP), is driven by a heat shock-inducible promoter. We demonstrated the functional transmission of the ST3-GFP transgene by analyzing the phenotype of the F1 animals after heat-shock to induce its expression. Our method thus provides an inexpensive means to preserve transgenic frog lines and a convenient way for distribution of transgenic lines. Furthermore, the ease with which to microinject nuclei compared to the technically demanding transgenesis procedure with variable outcome should facilitate more laboratories to use transgenic Xenopus laevis for functional studies in vivo. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 67: 65-69, 2004. PMID:14648875

  18. A Method for Mechanism Analysis of Frog Swimming Based on Motion Observation Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    , Wei Zhang; Jizhuang Fan; Yanhe Zhu; Yulong Qiu; Jie Zhao

    2014-01-01

    For understanding the mechanism of frog swimming under water and designing a frog-inspired swimming robot, kinematics of the frog body and trajectories of joints should be obtained. In this paper, an aquatic frog, Xenopus laevis, was chosen for analysis of swimming motions which were recorded by a high speed camera, and kinematic data were processed in a swimming data extraction platform. According to the shape features of the frog, we propose a method that the frog eyes are set as the natura...

  19. Xenopus laevis a success story of biological research in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Eberhard R.

    2006-01-01

    The clawed toad Xenopus laevis is a common experimental animal used in many disciplines of life sciences, such as integrative, developmental and molecular biology or experimental medicine. Since 30 years, Xenopus is used in biological research in space. Important milestones were the years 1975, when Xenopus embryos flew for the first time on the Russian space station Salut-4 and 1994, when Xenopus eggs were successfully fertilized for the first time in space during the Japanese Spacelab mission STS-47 and developed in microgravity to vital tadpoles. Most Xenopus studies were related to embryogenesis and development. Observations during and after altered gravity revealed changes such as the thickening of the blastocoel roof, the dorsalization of the tail, and modifications of vestibular reflexes, fictive and freely swimming. Many changes were reversible even during microgravity exposure. Studies about the vestibuloocular reflex or synapse formation revealed an age-related sensitivity to altered gravity. Xenopus offers useful tools for studies about microgravity effects on living systems. Its oocyte is a suitable model to study ion channel function in space; the dorsalization model can be used to analyse growth factor sensibilities. Hardware for life support of adults, tadpoles and embryos (cf. SUPPLY unit in combination with miniaquaria) as well as for controlled experiments in space are prerequisites for an extension of research with Xenopus. The application aspect is based on the fact that fundamental research per se brings benefit to man.

  20. Clubbed fingers: the claws we lost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, A.A.M.; Vermeij-Keers, C.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Clubbed digits resemble the human embryonic fingers and toes, which took like the digits of a claw. Clubbed digits, thus, may represent the return of the embryonic claw and may even represent the claws man has lost during evolution, if ontogenesis realty recapitulates phylogenesis. We put forward th

  1. Plasma concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, gonadal aromatase activity and ultrastructure of the testis in Xenopus laevis exposed to estradiol or atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrastructure of testicular cells of adult male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) exposed to either estradiol (0.1 μg/L) or 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl-amino-s-triazine (atrazine; 10 or 100 μg/L) was examined by electron microscopy and compared to plasma concentrations of the steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), testicular aromatase activity and gonad growth expressed as the gonado-somatic index (GSI). Exposure to E2 caused significant changes both at the sub-cellular and biochemical levels. Exposure to E2 resulted in significantly fewer sperm cells, inhibition of meiotic division of germ cells, more lipid droplets that are storage compartments for the sex steroid hormone precursor cholesterol, and lesser plasma T concentrations. Although not statistically significant, frogs exposed to E2 had slightly smaller GSI values. These results may be indicative of an inhibition of gonad growth and disrupted germ cell development by E2. Concentrations of E2 in plasma were greater in frogs exposed to E2 in water. Exposure to neither concentration of atrazine caused effects on germ cell development, testicular aromatase activity or plasma hormone concentrations. These results suggest that atrazine does not affect testicular function. In contrast, exposure of male X. laevis to E2 led to sub-cellular events that are indicative of disruption of testicular development, and demasculinization processes (decrease of androgen hormone titers). These results indicate that atrazine does not cause responses that are similar to those caused by exposure to E2

  2. Diagnosis and management of canine claw diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S

    1999-11-01

    The diagnostic workup for canine claw disease consists of a good history and complete clinical examination which may provide clues for a possible underlying disorder. In dogs with claw disease but no other clinical or historical signs, further recommended diagnostic procedures include cytological evaluation of impression smears or discharge from the claw fold, bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, biopsy of the claw matrix, and an elimination diet for 6 to 8 weeks. If no underlying disease can be identified, trial treatment with essential fatty acid supplementation, vitamin E, or a combination of doxycycline hydrochloride and niacinamide may be useful. In some patients, onychectomy of all claws may be considered. PMID:10563005

  3. Behavioral Repertoire of Xenopus tropicalis: Baseline Female-male Interactions during Spawning Events and Male Vocal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aquatic frog, Xenopus tropicalis, is being developed for use as a model amphibian species for inclusion in the EPA’s Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Current toxicity test designs do not incorporate measures of fecundity due to high variability in the responses of frog...

  4. The Xenopus tropicalis orthologue of TRPV3 is heat sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beiying; Qin, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Thermosensitive members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels (thermal TRP channels) play a crucial role in mammalian temperature sensing. Orthologues of these channels are present in lower vertebrates and, remarkably, some thermal TRP orthologues from different species appear to mediate opposing responses to temperature. For example, whereas the mammalian TRPV3 channel is activated by heat, frog TRPV3 is reportedly activated by cold. Intrigued by the potential implications of these opposing responses to temperature for the mechanism of temperature-dependent gating, we cloned Xenopus laevis TRPV3 and functionally expressed it in both mammalian cell lines and Xenopus oocytes. We found that, when expressed in mammalian cells, the recombinant channel lacks the reported cold sensitivity; rather, it is activated by temperatures >50°C. Furthermore, when expressed in mammalian cells, the frog orthologue shows other features characteristic of mammalian TRPV3, including activation by the agonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and an increased response with repeated stimulation. We detected both heat- and cold-activated currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing the recombinant frog TRPV3 channel. However, cold-activated currents were also apparent in control oocytes lacking recombinant TRPV3. Our data indicate that frog TRPV3 resembles its mammalian orthologues in terms of its thermosensitivity and is intrinsically activated by heat. Thus, all known vanilloid receptors are activated by heat. Our data also show that Xenopus oocytes contain endogenous receptors that are activated by cold, and suggest that cold sensitivity of TRP channels established using Xenopus oocytes as a functional expression system may need to be revisited. PMID:26458875

  5. Conservation Biology of Xenopus Longipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quock, R.; Blackburn, D. C.; Ghose, S.

    2014-12-01

    For the past 9 months, we have been studying the presence of disease and genetic variation in the Cameroonian species Xenopus longipes, found only in a lake on Mount Oku. During research trips to this lake (Lake Oku) over the past decade, mortalities of this species have been observed, and in addition there may be evidence of declines in other frog species in these mountains. It is well understood that in many parts of the world, amphibians are currently declining due to disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and possibly also by the iridovirus ranavirus. A previous study suggested that ranavirus could be found in Lake Oku, and also that Bd may be present. Using 25 X. longipes liver samples collected during the summer of 2013 and 10 samples collected during the summer of 2011, we screened for Ranavirus through PCR amplification and sequencing, and screened for Bd in our 25 samples from 2013 through quantitative PCR. We also PCR amplified and sequenced 1950bp of the X. longipes 16S gene to look for genetic variation. We did not find ranavirus present on these frogs, and we found low prevalence (4%) of Bd. Through our analysis of 16S data, we found low genetic variation among the X. longipes, with a maximum divergence of 0.37% observed between any two individuals. Time is of the essence and it is crucial that the causes of these die offs be identified. While there have been observed mortalities of X. longipes since 2006, and this species remains on the Critically Endangered List, the cause of these mortalities is still unknown. If and when a cause can be identified, it would be monumental for this species' population and can hopefully be used to preserve and save these frogs.

  6. Validation of the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test in the amphibian Xenopus laevis using in situ nick translation and comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, K; Gosálvez, J; Arroyo, F; López-Fernández, C; Guille, M; Noble, A; Johnston, S D

    2015-11-01

    The integrity of sperm DNA is becoming increasingly recognised as an important parameter of semen quality, but there are no published reports of this procedure for any amphibian. The primary aim of this study was to apply a modified sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test (Halomax) to an amphibian sperm model (African clawed frog; Xenopus laevis) and to validate the assay against in situ nick translation (ISNT) and the double-comet assay procedure. Inactivated spermatozoa were collected from fresh testes (n=3). Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) for each sperm sample was conducted immediately following activation (T0) and again after 1h (T1) and 24h (T24) of incubation at room temperature in order to produce a range of spermatozoa with differing levels of DNA damage. The SCD procedure resulted in the production of three nuclear morphotypes; amphibian sperm morphotype 1 (ASM-1) and ASM-2 showed no evidence of DNA damage, whereas ASM-3 spermatozoa were highly fragmented with large halos of dispersed DNA fragments and a reduced nuclear core. ISNT confirmed that ASM-3 nuclei contained damaged DNA. There was a significant correlation (r=0.9613) between the levels of ASM-3 detected by the SCD test and SDF revealed by the double-comet assay. PMID:25482041

  7. Purification and Fluorescent Labeling of Tubulin from Xenopus laevis Egg Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    For many years, microtubule research has depended on tubulin purified from cow and pig brains, which may not be ideal for experiments using proteins or extracts from non-brain tissues and cold-blooded organisms. Here, we describe a method to purify functional tubulin from the eggs of the frog, Xenopus laevis. This tubulin has many benefits for the study of microtubules and microtubule based structures assembled in vitro at room temperature. Frog tubulin lacks many of the highly stabilizing posttranslational modifications present in pig brain-derived tubulin, and polymerizes efficiently at room temperature. In addition, fluorescently labeled frog egg tubulin incorporates into meiotic spindles assembled in egg extract more efficiently than brain tubulin, and is thus superior as a probe for Xenopus egg extract experiments. Frog egg tubulin will provide excellent opportunities to identify active nucleation complexes and revisit microtubule polymerization dynamics in vitro. PMID:27193841

  8. Xenopus laevis Keller Explants

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Hazel L. Sive, Robert M. Grainger and Richard M. Harland This protocol was adapted from “Microdissection,” Chapter 10, in [*Early Development of* *Xenopus laevis*](http://www.cshlpress.com/link/xenopus.htm) by Hazel L. Sive, Robert M. Grainger, and Richard M. Harland. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA, 2000. ### INTRODUCTION The basic Keller explant is a rectangle of dorsal mesendoderm and ectoderm from an early-gastrula-stage *Xenopus laevi...

  9. What are the consequences of being left-clawed in a predominantly right-clawed fiddler crab?

    OpenAIRE

    Backwell, P.R.Y; Matsumasa, M; Double, M; Roberts, A; Murai, M; Keogh, J.S; Jennions, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Male fiddler crabs (genus Uca) have an enlarged major claw that is used during fights. In most species, 50% of males have a major claw on the left and 50% on the right. In Uca vocans vomeris, however, less than 1.4% of males are left-clawed. Fights between opponents with claws on the same or opposite side result in different physical alignment of claws, which affects fighting tactics. Left-clawed males mainly fight opposite-clawed opponents, so we predicted that they would be better fighters ...

  10. Sterility and Gene Expression in Hybrid Males of Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri

    OpenAIRE

    John H Malone; Chrzanowski, Thomas H.; Pawel Michalak

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reproductive isolation is a defining characteristic of populations that represent unique biological species, yet we know very little about the gene expression basis for reproductive isolation. The advent of powerful molecular biology tools provides the ability to identify genes involved in reproductive isolation and focuses attention on the molecular mechanisms that separate biological species. Herein we quantify the sterility pattern of hybrid males in African Clawed Frogs (Xenop...

  11. Heat-shock mediated overexpression of HNF1β mutations has differential effects on gene expression in the Xenopus pronephric kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Sauert

    Full Text Available The transcription factor HNF1B, encoded by the TCF2 gene, plays an important role in the organogenesis of vertebrates. In humans, heterozygous mutations of HNF1B are associated with several diseases, such as pancreatic β-cell dysfunction leading to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY5, defective kidney development, disturbed liver function, pancreas atrophy, and malformations of the genital tract. The African claw frog Xenopus laevis is an excellent model to study the processes involved in embryogenesis and organogenesis, as it can be manipulated easily with a series of methods. In the present study, we overexpressed HNF1β mutants in the developing Xenopus embryo to assess their roles during organogenesis, particularly in the developing pronephric kidney. Towards this goal, we developed a heat-shock inducible binary Cre/loxP system with activator and effector strains. Heat-shock activation of the mutant HNF1B variants P328L329del and A263insGG resulted in malformations of various organs and the affected larvae developed large edemas. Defects in the pronephros were primarily confined to malformed proximal tubules. Furthermore, the expression of the proximal tubule marker genes tmem27 and slc3a1, both involved in amino acid transport, was affected. Both P328L329del and A263insGG downregulated expression of slc3a1. In addition, P328L329del reduced tmem27 expression while A263insGG overexpression decreased expression of the chloride channel clcnk and the transcription factor pax2. Overexpression of two mutant HNF1B derivatives resulted in distinct phenotypes reflected by either a reduction or an enlargement of pronephros size. The expression of selected pronephric marker genes was differentially affected upon overexpression of HNF1B mutations. Based on our findings, we postulate that HNF1B mutations influence gene regulation upon overexpression in specific and distinct manners. Furthermore, our study demonstrates that the newly established

  12. Polystyrene nanoparticles affect Xenopus laevis development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Formiggini, Fabio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Marco, Nadia De [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo Antonio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Carotenuto, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.carotenuto@unina.it [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    Exposing living organisms to nanoparticulates is potentially hazardous, in particular when it takes place during embryogenesis. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of 50-nm-uncoated polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) as a model to investigate the suitability of their possible future employments. We have used the standardized Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus test during the early stages of larval development of Xenopus laevis, and we have employed either contact exposure or microinjections. We found that the embryos mortality rate is dose dependent and that the survived embryos showed high percentage of malformations. They display disorders in pigmentation distribution, malformations of the head, gut and tail, edema in the anterior ventral region, and a shorter body length compared with sibling untreated embryos. Moreover, these embryos grow more slowly than the untreated embryos. Expressions of the mesoderm markers, bra (T-box Brachyury gene), myod1 (myogenic differentiation1), and of neural crest marker sox9 (sex SRY (determining region Y-box 9) transcription factor sox9), are modified. Confocal microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are localized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus, and in the periphery of the digestive gut cells. Our data suggest that PSNPs are toxic and show a potential teratogenic effect for Xenopus larvae. We hypothesize that these effects may be due either to the amount of NPs that penetrate into the cells and/or to the “corona” effect caused by the interaction of PSNPs with cytoplasm components. The three endpoints of our study, i.e., mortality, malformations, and growth inhibition, suggest that the tests we used may be a powerful and flexible bioassay in evaluating pollutants in aquatic embryos.

  13. Radioautographic and histologic investigation of skin in young and old frogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age differences in the skin structure have been studied in young (one year-old) and aged (five and a half year- old) frogs, Xenopus laevis. The epidermis in young frogs is made up of an average of 6.3 and 4.7 layers of epithelial cells at abdominal and dorsal surfaces, respectively. In aged frogs, the number of respective cell layers at abdominal and dorsal surfaces increases to 8.8 and 5.6. The thickness of the dermis (spongiosum) in aged frogs is decrease d 25% on the abdominal side (from 267 μm to 207 μm) but is increased by 11% on the dorsal side (from 275 μm to 305 μm). The nucleolar index and 3H-uridine incorporation, as judged by radioautography, by epithelial cells are drastically reduced in aged frogs.

  14. Proteomics of Xenopus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Champion, Matthew M; Huber, Paul W; Dovichi, Norman J

    2016-03-01

    Modern mass spectrometry-based methods provide an exciting opportunity to characterize protein expression in the developing embryo. We have employed an isotopic labeling technology to quantify the expression dynamics of nearly 6000 proteins across six stages of development in Xenopus laevis from the single stage zygote through the mid-blastula transition and the onset of organogenesis. Approximately 40% of the proteins show significant changes in expression across the development stages. The expression changes for these proteins naturally falls into six clusters corresponding to major events that mark early Xenopus development. A subset of experiments in this study have quantified protein expression differences between single embryos at the same stage of development, showing that, within experimental error, embryos at the same developmental stage have identical protein expression levels. PMID:26396253

  15. Transposon transgenesis in Xenopus

    OpenAIRE

    Yergeau, Donald A.; Kelley, Clair M; Zhu, Haiqing; Kuliyev, Emin; Mead, Paul E

    2010-01-01

    Transposon-mediated integration strategies in Xenopus offer simple and robust methods for the generation of germline transgenic animals. Co-injection of fertilized one-cell embryos with plasmid DNA harboring a transposon transgene and synthetic mRNA encoding the cognate transposase enzyme results in mosaic integration of the transposon at early cleavage stages that are frequently passed through the germline in the adult animal. Micro-injection of fertilized embryos is a routine procedure used...

  16. A method to determine integrated steroid levels in wildlife claws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Devorah; Keren-Rotem, Tammy; Koren, Lee

    2016-05-01

    Glucocorticoids act throughout life to regulate numerous physiological and behavioral processes. Their levels are therefore highly labile, reacting to varying conditions and stressors. Hence, measuring glucocorticoids (and other steroids) in wildlife is challenging, and devising methods that are unaffected by the stress of capture and handling should be explored. Here we use the tip of free-ranging chameleons' claws that were cut to allow individual identification, and report a steroids extraction and quantification method. Claw steroids present an integrated level representing the period of claw growth. We found that we could measure corticosterone in small amounts of chameleon claw matrix using commercial EIA kits. Using this method, we learned that in wild male chameleons, claw corticosterone levels were associated with body size. We suggest that claw-testing can potentially provide an ideal matrix for wildlife biomonitoring. PMID:26993343

  17. Musashi regulates the temporal order of mRNA translation during Xenopus oocyte maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Charlesworth, Amanda; Wilczynska, Anna; Thampi, Prajitha; Cox, Linda L.; MacNicol, Angus M.

    2006-01-01

    A strict temporal order of maternal mRNA translation is essential for meiotic cell cycle progression in oocytes of the frog Xenopus laevis. The molecular mechanisms controlling the ordered pattern of mRNA translational activation have not been elucidated. We report a novel role for the neural stem cell regulatory protein, Musashi, in controlling the translational activation of the mRNA encoding the Mos proto-oncogene during meiotic cell cycle progression. We demonstrate that Musashi interacts...

  18. Modeling human neurodevelopmental disorders in the Xenopus tadpole: from mechanisms to therapeutic targets

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Kara G.; Khakhalin, Arseny S.

    2013-01-01

    The Xenopus tadpole model offers many advantages for studying the molecular, cellular and network mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental disorders. Essentially every stage of normal neural circuit development, from axon outgrowth and guidance to activity-dependent homeostasis and refinement, has been studied in the frog tadpole, making it an ideal model to determine what happens when any of these stages are compromised. Recently, the tadpole model has been used to explore the mechanisms of ...

  19. High-Magnification In Vivo Imaging of Xenopus Embryos for Cell and Developmental Biology

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Esther K. Kieserman, Chanjae Lee, Ryan S. Gray, Tae Joo Park and John B. Wallingford Corresponding author ([]()). ### INTRODUCTION Embryos of the frog *Xenopus laevis* are an ideal model system for in vivo imaging of dynamic biological processes, from the inner workings of individual cells to the reshaping of tissues during embryogenesis. Their externally developing embryos are more amenable to in vivo analysis than in...

  20. Claw-free circular-perfect graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pecher, Arnaud; Zhu, Xuding

    2007-01-01

    The circular chromatic number of a graph is a well studied refinement of the chromatic number. Circular perfect graphs is a superclass of perfect graphs defined by means of this more general coloring concept. This paper studies claw free circular perfect graphs. A consequence of the strong perfect graph theorem is that minimal circular perfect graphs G. In contrast to this result, it is shown in that minimal circular imperfect graphs G can have arbitrarily large independence number and arbitr...

  1. Microinjection of Xenopus oocyte

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    ### Equipment 1. Parafilm - Petri dishes/100mm tissue culture dishes - Marker pen - Microscope slides - Glass capillaries - Very fine tweezers - MBS solution* - Plastic transfer pipettes - Mineral oil - Samples ### Method: Frogs are killed by destruction of the head, ovaries are then dissected and put into MBS solution. **Preparation of the oocytes** 1. Wash the ovary as soon as possible with MBS solution to remove all traces of blood and debris....

  2. Cloning of an origin of DNA replication of Xenopus laevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA fragments of Xenopus laevis, the African frog, were cloned in the EcoRI site of the Eschrichia coli plasmid pACYC189 and tested for ability to initiate and complete replication of the recombinant plasmid when injected into unfertilized eggs of X. laevis. After measurement of the [3H]-thymidine incorporation per egg for a number of recombinant plasmids, pSW14 and pSW9, which respectively contain a small segment (550 base pairs) and several kilobases of frog DNA, were selected for more extensive analysis. In spite of the small size of th segment in pSW14, it incorporates in 2 hr at least 3 times as much labeled thymidine as either pSW9 or the vector alone. To determine the number of replications of pSW14, a novel method was employed. The results showed that about 50% of the labeled, supercoiled DNA recovered from eggs after 4 hr was sensitive to EcoRI digestion, which indicates that most of the DNA that incorporated [3H]thymidine had replicated twice during the 4 hr in the unfertilized eggs of X. laevis. We conclude the pSW14 has a functional origin in the Xenopus DNA segment

  3. Complete nucleotide sequence of an endogenous retrovirus from the amphibian, Xenopus laevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first full-length sequence of an endogenous amphibian retrovirus derived from the African clawed toad Xenopus laevis. The virus, termed Xen1, has one of the largest endogenous retroviral genomes described to date of over 10 kb in length and it also has a relatively complex genomic organisation consisting of LTR-orf1, orf2, gag, pol, env-LTR. Orfs 1 and 2 are novel, duplicated genes of unknown function. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Xen1 is most closely related to the ε-retroviruses WDSV and WEHV types 1 and 2, which are large, complex exogenous retroviruses present within Walleye fish

  4. Morphological and functional diversity in therizinosaur claws and the implications for theropod claw evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Therizinosaurs are a group of herbivorous theropod dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia, best known for their iconically large and elongate manual claws. However, among Therizinosauria, ungual morphology is highly variable, reflecting a general trend found in derived theropod dinosaurs (Maniraptoriformes). A combined approach of shape analysis to characterize changes in manual ungual morphology across theropods and finite-element analysis to assess the biomechanical properties of different ungual shapes in therizinosaurs reveals a functional diversity related to ungual morphology. While some therizinosaur taxa used their claws in a generalist fashion, other taxa were functionally adapted to use the claws as grasping hooks during foraging. Results further indicate that maniraptoriform dinosaurs deviated from the plesiomorphic theropod ungual morphology resulting in increased functional diversity. This trend parallels modifications of the cranial skeleton in derived theropods in response to dietary adaptation, suggesting that dietary diversification was a major driver for morphological and functional disparity in theropod evolution. PMID:24807260

  5. Claw asymmetry in lobsters: case study in developmental neuroethology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, C K

    1992-12-01

    An enduring debate in the study of development is the relative contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors in the genesis of an organism, that is, the nature vs. nurture debate. The behavior of the paired claws in the lobster offers promising material for pursuing this debate because of the way they develop. The paired claws and their closer muscles are initially symmetrical; both are slender in appearance and have a mixture of fast and slow fibers in their closer muscles. During a critical period of development, they become determined into a major (crusher) and minor (cutter) claw and during subsequent development acquire their final form and behavior: The crusher becomes a stout, molar-toothed claw capable of closing only slowly because its closer muscle has 100% slow fibers while the cutter becomes a slender, incisor-toothed claw capable of closing rapidly because its closer muscle has 90% fast fibers. Our initial hypothesis was that the more active claw became the crusher and its less active counterpart the cutter. Presumably, nerve activity would influence muscle transformation, which in turn would influence the exoskeleton to which they attach and hence claw morphology. Curtailing nerve activity to the claw prevented crusher development, while reflex activation of a claw promoted its development; both results support the notion that nerve activity directly regulates claw form and function. This is not, however, the case, for when both claws were reflexly exercised neither formed a crusher, signifying rather that bilateral differences in predominantly mechanoreceptive input to the paired claws somehow lateralized the claw ganglion [central nervous system (CNS)] into a crusher and cutter side. The side experiencing the greater activity becomes the crusher side while the contralateral side becomes the cutter and is also inhibited from ever becoming a crusher. This initial lateralization in the CNS is expressed, via as yet unknown pathways, at the periphery in

  6. Yet More Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, Paul M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Extending a recent paper by Derek Holton, we show how to represent the algorithm for the Frog Problem diagrammatically. This diagrammatic representation suggests a simpler proof of the symmetrical case (equal numbers of frogs of each colour) by allowing the even and odd cases to be treated together. It also provides a proof in the asymmetrical…

  7. Genetic background of claw health in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Van der Spek, D. (2015). Genetic background of claw health in dairy cattle. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands. Claw disorders affect cow welfare and profitability of farms and as such are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding. Aim of this thesi

  8. Utilization of frog waste

    OpenAIRE

    Lekshmy Nair, A.; Prabhu, P.V.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial frog waste samples have been converted into meals by cooking at 0.7 kg/sq. cm for 30 min, draining off the stick water and drying the press cake either in the sun, tunnel dryer under controlled conditions or hot air oven. Yield of the meal varied between 18.6 to 21.5% of the fresh frog waste. Chemical analyses of the meals have shown that the meals prepared from frog waste conform to standards prescribed for fish meal and livestock feed and can therefore be used for supplementation...

  9. Systematic and single cell analysis of Xenopus Piwi-interacting RNAs and Xiwi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nelson C; Ohsumi, Toshiro; Borowsky, Mark; Kingston, Robert E; Blower, Michael D

    2009-10-01

    Piwi proteins and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are essential for germ cell development, but analysis of the molecular mechanisms of these ribonucleoproteins remains challenging in most animal germ cells. To address this challenge, we systematically characterized Xiwi, a Xenopus Piwi homologue, and piRNAs from Xenopus eggs and oocytes. We used the large size of Xenopus eggs to analyze small RNAs at the single cell level, and find abundant piRNAs and large piRNA clusters in the Xenopus tropicalis genome, some of which resemble the Drosophila piRNA-generating flamenco locus. Although most piRNA clusters are expressed simultaneously in an egg, individual frogs show distinct profiles of cluster expression. Xiwi is associated with microtubules and the meiotic spindle, and is localized to the germ plasm--a cytoplasmic determinant of germ cell formation. Xiwi associates with translational regulators in an RNA-dependent manner, but Xenopus tudor interacts with Xiwi independently of RNA. Our study adds insight to piRNA transcription regulation by showing that individual animals can have differential piRNA expression profiles. We suggest that in addition to regulating transposable elements, Xiwi may function in specifying RNA localization in vertebrate oocytes. PMID:19713941

  10. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression during Xenopus tropicalis tadpole tail regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Love Nick R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms governing vertebrate appendage regeneration remain poorly understood. Uncovering these mechanisms may lead to novel therapies aimed at alleviating human disfigurement and visible loss of function following injury. Here, we explore tadpole tail regeneration in Xenopus tropicalis, a diploid frog with a sequenced genome. Results We found that, like the traditionally used Xenopus laevis, the Xenopus tropicalis tadpole has the capacity to regenerate its tail following amputation, including its spinal cord, muscle, and major blood vessels. We examined gene expression using the Xenopus tropicalis Affymetrix genome array during three phases of regeneration, uncovering more than 1,000 genes that are significantly modulated during tail regeneration. Target validation, using RT-qPCR followed by gene ontology (GO analysis, revealed a dynamic regulation of genes involved in the inflammatory response, intracellular metabolism, and energy regulation. Meta-analyses of the array data and validation by RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization uncovered a subset of genes upregulated during the early and intermediate phases of regeneration that are involved in the generation of NADP/H, suggesting that these pathways may be important for proper tail regeneration. Conclusions The Xenopus tropicalis tadpole is a powerful model to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of vertebrate appendage regeneration. We have produced a novel and substantial microarray data set examining gene expression during vertebrate appendage regeneration.

  11. Remobilization of Sleeping Beauty transposons in the germline of Xenopus tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yergeau Donald A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon system has been used for germline transgenesis of the diploid frog, Xenopus tropicalis. Injecting one-cell embryos with plasmid DNA harboring an SB transposon substrate together with mRNA encoding the SB transposase enzyme resulted in non-canonical integration of small-order concatemers of the transposon. Here, we demonstrate that SB transposons stably integrated into the frog genome are effective substrates for remobilization. Results Transgenic frogs that express the SB10 transposase were bred with SB transposon-harboring animals to yield double-transgenic 'hopper' frogs. Remobilization events were observed in the progeny of the hopper frogs and were verified by Southern blot analysis and cloning of the novel integrations sites. Unlike the co-injection method used to generate founder lines, transgenic remobilization resulted in canonical transposition of the SB transposons. The remobilized SB transposons frequently integrated near the site of the donor locus; approximately 80% re-integrated with 3 Mb of the donor locus, a phenomenon known as 'local hopping'. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrate that SB transposons integrated into the X. tropicalis genome are effective substrates for excision and re-integration, and that the remobilized transposons are transmitted through the germline. This is an important step in the development of large-scale transposon-mediated gene- and enhancer-trap strategies in this highly tractable developmental model system.

  12. Thyroid hormone receptor can modulate retinoic acid-mediated axis formation in frog embryogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Banker, D E; Eisenman, R N

    1993-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor acts as a hormone-dependent transcriptional transactivator and as a transcriptional repressor in the absence of thyroid hormone. Specifically, thyroid hormone receptor can repress retinoic acid-induced gene expression through interactions with retinoic acid receptor. (Retinoic acid is a potent teratogen in the frog Xenopus laevis, acting at early embryonic stages to interfere with the formation of anterior structures. Endogenous retinoic acid is thought to act in norm...

  13. Aquatic feeding in pipid frogs: the use of suction for prey capture

    OpenAIRE

    Carreño, Carrie A.; Nishikawa, Kiisa C.

    2010-01-01

    Inertial suction feeding is the most common method of prey capture among aquatic vertebrates. However, it had been unclear whether the aquatic frogs in the family Pipidae also used inertial suction for prey capture. In this study, we examined feeding behavior in four species of pipids, Pipa pipa, Xenopus laevis, Hymenochirus boettgeri and Pseudhymenochirus merlini. Pressure in the buccopharyngeal cavity was measured during prey capture. These pressure measurements were coupled with high-speed...

  14. Mesoderm layer formation in Xenopus and Drosophila gastrulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During gastrulation, the mesoderm spreads out between ectoderm and endoderm to form a mesenchymal cell layer. Surprisingly the underlying principles of mesoderm layer formation are very similar in evolutionarily distant species like the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the frog, Xenopus laevis, in which the molecular and the cellular basis of mesoderm layer formation have been extensively studied. Complementary expression of growth factors in the ectoderm and their receptors in the mesoderm act to orient cellular protrusive activities and direct cell movement, leading to radial cell intercalation and the spreading of the mesoderm layer. This mechanism is contrasted with generic physical mechanisms of tissue spreading that consider the adhesive and physical properties of the cells and tissues. Both mechanisms need to be integrated to orchestrate mesenchymal morphogenesis

  15. Xenopus in Space and Time: Fossils, Node Calibrations, Tip-Dating, and Paleobiogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannatella, David

    2015-01-01

    Published data from DNA sequences, morphology of 11 extant and 15 extinct frog taxa, and stratigraphic ranges of fossils were integrated to open a window into the deep-time evolution of Xenopus. The ages and morphological characters of fossils were used as independent datasets to calibrate a chronogram. We found that DNA sequences, either alone or in combination with morphological data and fossils, tended to support a close relationship between Xenopus and Hymenochirus, although in some analyses this topology was not significantly better than the Pipa + Hymenochirus topology. Analyses that excluded DNA data found strong support for the Pipa + Hymenochirus tree. The criterion for selecting the maximum age of the calibration prior influenced the age estimates, and our age estimates of early divergences in the tree of frogs are substantially younger than those of published studies. Node-dating and tip-dating calibrations, either alone or in combination, yielded older dates for nodes than did a root calibration alone. Our estimates of divergence times indicate that overwater dispersal, rather than vicariance due to the splitting of Africa and South America, may explain the presence of Xenopus in Africa and its closest fossil relatives in South America. PMID:26279165

  16. Ouro proteins are not essential to tail regression during Xenopus tropicalis metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yuya; Nakajima, Keisuke; Robert, Jacques; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2016-03-01

    Tail regression is one of the most prominent transformations observed during anuran metamorphosis. A tadpole tail that is twice as long as the tadpole trunk nearly disappears within 3 days in Xenopus tropicalis. Several years ago, it was proposed that this phenomenon is driven by an immunological rejection of larval-skin-specific antigens, Ouro proteins. We generated ouro-knockout tadpoles using the TALEN method to reexamine this immunological rejection model. Both the ouro1- and ouro2-knockout tadpoles expressed a very low level of mRNA transcribed from a targeted ouro gene, an undetectable level of Ouro protein encoded by a target gene and a scarcely detectable level of the other Ouro protein from the untargeted ouro gene in tail skin. Furthermore, congenital athymic frogs were produced by Foxn1 gene modification. Flow cytometry analysis showed that mutant frogs lacked splenic CD8(+) T cells, which play a major role in cytotoxic reaction. Furthermore, T-cell-dependent skin allograft rejection was dramatically impaired in mutant frogs. None of the knockout tadpoles showed any significant delay in the process of tail shortening during the climax of metamorphosis, which shows that Ouro proteins are not essential to tail regression at least in Xenopus tropicalis and argues against the immunological rejection model. PMID:26847415

  17. Regulation of ALF promoter activity in Xenopus oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this report we evaluate the use of Xenopus laevis oocytes as a matched germ cell system for characterizing the organization and transcriptional activity of a germ cell-specific X. laevis promoter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The promoter from the ALF transcription factor gene was cloned from X. laevis genomic DNA using a PCR-based genomic walking approach. The endogenous ALF gene was characterized by RACE and RT-PCR for transcription start site usage, and by sodium bisulfite sequencing to determine its methylation status in somatic and oocyte tissues. Homology between the X. laevis ALF promoter sequence and those from human, chimpanzee, macaque, mouse, rat, cow, pig, horse, dog, chicken and X. tropicalis was relatively low, making it difficult to use such comparisons to identify putative regulatory elements. However, microinjected promoter constructs were very active in oocytes and the minimal promoter could be narrowed by PCR-mediated deletion to a region as short as 63 base pairs. Additional experiments using a series of site-specific promoter mutants identified two cis-elements within the 63 base pair minimal promoter that were critical for activity. Both elements (A and B were specifically recognized by proteins present in crude oocyte extracts based on oligonucleotide competition assays. The activity of promoter constructs in oocytes and in transfected somatic Xenopus XLK-WG kidney epithelial cells was quite different, indicating that the two cell types are not functionally equivalent and are not interchangeable as assay systems. CONCLUSIONS: Overall the results provide the first detailed characterization of the organization of a germ cell-specific Xenopus promoter and demonstrate the feasibility of using immature frog oocytes as an assay system for dissecting the biochemistry of germ cell gene regulation.

  18. Plasticity of lung development in the amphibian, Xenopus laevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Rose

    2013-10-01

    Contrary to previous studies, we found that Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised in normoxic water without access to air can routinely complete metamorphosis with lungs that are either severely stunted and uninflated or absent altogether. This is the first demonstration that lung development in a tetrapod can be inhibited by environmental factors and that a tetrapod that relies significantly on lung respiration under unstressed conditions can be raised to forego this function without adverse effects. This study compared lung development in untreated, air-deprived (AD and air-restored (AR tadpoles and frogs using whole mounts, histology, BrdU labeling of cell division and antibody staining of smooth muscle actin. We also examined the relationship of swimming and breathing behaviors to lung recovery in AR animals. Inhibition and recovery of lung development occurred at the stage of lung inflation. Lung recovery in AR tadpoles occurred at a predictable and rapid rate and correlated with changes in swimming and breathing behavior. It thus presents a new experimental model for investigating the role of mechanical forces in lung development. Lung recovery in AR frogs was unpredictable and did not correlate with behavioral changes. Its low frequency of occurrence could be attributed to developmental, physical and behavioral changes, the effects of which increase with size and age. Plasticity of lung inflation at tadpole stages and loss of plasticity at postmetamorphic stages offer new insights into the role of developmental plasticity in amphibian lung loss and life history evolution.

  19. Developmental Expression Patterns of Tbx1, Tbx2, Tbx5, and Tbx20 in Xenopus tropicalis†

    OpenAIRE

    Showell, Chris; Christine, Kathleen S.; Mandel, Elizabeth M.; Conlon, Frank L.

    2006-01-01

    T-box genes have diverse functions during embryogenesis and are implicated in several human congenital disorders. Here, we report the identification, sequence analysis, and developmental expression patterns of four members of the T-box gene family in the diploid frog Xenopus tropicalis. These four genes—Tbx1, Tbx2, Tbx5, and Tbx20—have been shown to influence cardiac development in a variety of organisms, in addition to their individual roles in regulating other aspects of embryonic developme...

  20. Frogs and climate change in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Minter, Leslie Rory

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between frog declines and climate change, discusses the possible impact of climate change on the South African frog fauna, and highlights the necessity for increased research and monitoring of our frog populations.

  1. Next generation sequencing and comparative analyses of Xenopus mitogenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Rhiannon E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes comprise a small but critical component of the total DNA in eukaryotic organisms. They encode several key proteins for the cell’s major energy producing apparatus, the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Additonally, their nucleotide and amino acid sequences are of great utility as markers for systematics, molecular ecology and forensics. Their characterization through nucleotide sequencing is a fundamental starting point in mitogenomics. Methods to amplify complete mitochondrial genomes rapidly and efficiently from microgram quantities of tissue of single individuals are, however, not always available. Here we validate two approaches, which combine long-PCR with Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology, to obtain two complete mitochondrial genomes from individual amphibian species. Results We obtained two new xenopus frogs (Xenopus borealis and X. victorianus complete mitochondrial genome sequences by means of long-PCR followed by 454 of individual genomes (approach 1 or of multiple pooled genomes (approach 2, the mean depth of coverage per nucleotide was 9823 and 186, respectively. We also characterised and compared the new mitogenomes against their sister taxa; X. laevis and Silurana tropicalis, two of the most intensely studied amphibians. Our results demonstrate how our approaches can be used to obtain complete amphibian mitogenomes with depths of coverage that far surpass traditional primer-walking strategies, at either the same cost or less. Our results also demonstrate: that the size, gene content and order are the same among xenopus mitogenomes and that S. tropicalis form a separate clade to the other xenopus, among which X. laevis and X. victorianus were most closely related. Nucleotide and amino acid diversity was found to vary across the xenopus mitogenomes, with the greatest diversity observed in the Complex 1 gene nad4l and the least diversity observed in Complex 4 genes (cox1-3. All protein

  2. Genome-wide association study for claw disorders and trimming status in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der D.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) might add to a better understanding of the development of claw disorders and the need for trimming. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to perform a GWAS on claw disorders and trimming status and to validate the results for claw disorders bas

  3. Mosquito repellents in frog skin

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C. R.; Smith, B.P.C; Best, S.M.; Tyler, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin secretions to confirm the existence of mosquito repellent properties. Litoria caerulea secretions were assessed for mosquito repellency by topical a...

  4. Effect of different flooring systems on claw conformation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Bergsten, C; Magnusson, M; Nilsson, C

    2009-06-01

    The effect of different flooring surfaces in walking and standing areas on claw conformation, claw horn growth, and wear was studied in 2 experiments during 2 consecutive housing seasons in a research dairy herd of 170 cows. In experiment 1, the flooring systems tested were solid rubber mats, mastic asphalt with and without rubber-matted feed-stalls, and aged concrete slats. In experiment 2, slatted concrete flooring was compared with slatted rubber flooring. The cows were introduced to the respective flooring systems in early lactation and their claws were trimmed before the exposure period. Toe length, toe angle, sole concavity, and claw width, as well as claw growth and wear rates were recorded for lateral and medial claws of the left hind limb. Claw asymmetry calculations were based on these claw measurements and on differences in sole protrusion between lateral and medial soles. Asphalt floors caused shorter toe length and steeper toe angle. They also increased wear on rear claws (5.30 +/- 0.31 and 5.95 +/- 0.33 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively; LSM +/- SE) and horn growth rate (5.12 +/- 0.36 and 5.83 +/- 0.31 mm/mo of lateral and medial claws, respectively). Rubber mats instead of asphalt in walking areas reduced wear (1.36 +/- 0.19 and 2.02 +/- 0.20 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively) and claw growth (3.83 +/- 0.23 and 3.94 +/- 0.17 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). Rubber-matted feed-stalls together with asphalt walkways decreased claw wear (3.29 +/- 0.31 and 4.10 +/- 0.32 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). The concavity of claw soles was reduced on asphalt, especially in the lateral rear claws. Rubber matting in feed-stalls prevented loss of sole concavity compared with asphalt. Claw asymmetry did not differ between flooring systems. While different access to abrasive flooring affected claw conformation, there was no evidence that flooring system influenced the disproportion between lateral and

  5. Ultrasonic communication in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Albert S; Narins, Peter M; Xu, Chun-He; Lin, Wen-Yu; Yu, Zu-Lin; Qiu, Qiang; Xu, Zhi-Min; Shen, Jun-Xian

    2006-03-16

    Among vertebrates, only microchiropteran bats, cetaceans and some rodents are known to produce and detect ultrasounds (frequencies greater than 20 kHz) for the purpose of communication and/or echolocation, suggesting that this capacity might be restricted to mammals. Amphibians, reptiles and most birds generally have limited hearing capacity, with the ability to detect and produce sounds below approximately 12 kHz. Here we report evidence of ultrasonic communication in an amphibian, the concave-eared torrent frog (Amolops tormotus) from Huangshan Hot Springs, China. Males of A. tormotus produce diverse bird-like melodic calls with pronounced frequency modulations that often contain spectral energy in the ultrasonic range. To determine whether A. tormotus communicates using ultrasound to avoid masking by the wideband background noise of local fast-flowing streams, or whether the ultrasound is simply a by-product of the sound-production mechanism, we conducted acoustic playback experiments in the frogs' natural habitat. We found that the audible as well as the ultrasonic components of an A. tormotus call can evoke male vocal responses. Electrophysiological recordings from the auditory midbrain confirmed the ultrasonic hearing capacity of these frogs and that of a sympatric species facing similar environmental constraints. This extraordinary upward extension into the ultrasonic range of both the harmonic content of the advertisement calls and the frog's hearing sensitivity is likely to have co-evolved in response to the intense, predominantly low-frequency ambient noise from local streams. Because amphibians are a distinct evolutionary lineage from microchiropterans and cetaceans (which have evolved ultrasonic hearing to minimize congestion in the frequency bands used for sound communication and to increase hunting efficacy in darkness), ultrasonic perception in these animals represents a new example of independent evolution. PMID:16541072

  6. DDT exposure of frogs: A case study from Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Ignatius M; Bornman, Riana; Bouwman, Hindrik

    2016-09-01

    Amphibians are globally under pressure with environmental contaminants contributing to this. Despite caution aired more than 80 years ago of threats posed to amphibians by DDT spraying for disease vector control, no data have been published on concentrations or effects of DDT contamination in frogs from areas where DDT is actively sprayed to control the insect vectors of malaria. In this study, we sampled fat bodies of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus muelleri naturally occurring in an area where indoor residual spraying of DDT is employed and from adjacent, non-sprayed, areas. ΣDDT concentrations ranged between frogs from the sprayed area, possibly due to endocrine disruption by compounds such as the DDTs. A previous study from the same area found very high concentrations of DDT in the eggs of the Grey Heron Ardea cinerea. This suggests that the DDT we found in frogs may have contributed to DDT loadings higher in the food web. These findings, combined with other studies from this area, support the need to reduce and eventually move away from DDT in malaria control safely and sustainably. PMID:27317939

  7. Functional joint regeneration is achieved using reintegration mechanism in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Rio; Yamada, Shigehito; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2016-02-01

    A functional joint requires integration of multiple tissues: the apposing skeletal elements should form an interlocking structure, and muscles should insert into skeletal tissues via tendons across the joint. Whereas newts can regenerate functional joints after amputation, Xenopus laevis regenerates a cartilaginous rod without joints, a "spike." Previously we reported that the reintegration mechanism between the remaining and regenerated tissues has a significant effect on regenerating joint morphogenesis during elbow joint regeneration in newt. Based on this insight into the importance of reintegration, we amputated frogs' limbs at the elbow joint and found that frogs could regenerate a functional elbow joint between the remaining tissues and regenerated spike. During regeneration, the regenerating cartilage was partially connected to the remaining articular cartilage to reform the interlocking structure of the elbow joint at the proximal end of the spike. Furthermore, the muscles of the remaining part inserted into the regenerated spike cartilage via tendons. This study might open up an avenue for analyzing molecular and cellular mechanisms of joint regeneration using Xenopus. PMID:27499877

  8. Induced Disjoint Paths in Claw-Free Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Golovach, Petr A; van Leeuwen, Erik Jan

    2012-01-01

    Paths P_1, ..., P_k in a graph G=(V, E) are said to be mutually induced if for any 1 <= i < j <= k, P_i and P_j have neither common vertices nor adjacent vertices (except perhaps their end-vertices). The Induced Disjoint Paths problem is to test whether a graph G with k pairs of specified vertices (s_i, t_i) contains k mutually induced paths P_i such that P_i connects s_i and t_i for i=1, ..., k. This problem is known to be NP-complete already for k=2, but for n-vertex claw-free graphs, Fiala et al. gave an n^O(k)-time algorithm. We improve the latter result by showing that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable for claw-free graphs when parameterized by k. Several related problems, such as the k-in-a-Path problem, are shown to be fixed-parameter tractable for claw-free graphs as well. We also show that an improvement of these results in certain directions is unlikely, for example by observing that the Induced Disjoint Paths problem cannot have a polynomial kernel for line graphs (a type of claw-fr...

  9. Cell autonomy of the mouse claw paw mutation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Darbas (Aysel); M.M. Jaegle (Martine); E.T. Walbeehm (Erik); H. van den Burg (Hans); L.A.M. Broos (Ludo); M. Uyl (Matthijs); P. Visser (Pim); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); D.N. Meijer (Dies); M.J.F. Driegen (Siska)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractMice homozygous for the autosomal recessive mutation claw paw (clp) are characterized by limb posture abnormalities and congenital hypomyelination, with delayed onset of myelination of the peripheral nervous system but not the central nervous system. Although this combination of limb and

  10. Interactive effects of ultraviolet-B radiation and pesticide exposure on DNA photo-adduct accumulation and expression of DNA damage and repair genes in Xenopus laevis embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Interactive effects of UVB radiation-pesticide co-exposures were examined in frogs. • Responses included induction of DNA photo-adducts and DNA damage and repair genes. • Elevated DNA adduct levels occurred for co-exposures compared to UVB alone. • One mechanism is that pesticides may alter nuclear excision repair gene expression. - Abstract: Pesticide use and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation have both been suggested to adversely affect amphibians; however, little is known about their interactive effects. One potential adverse interaction could involve pesticide-induced dysregulation of DNA repair pathways, resulting in greater numbers of DNA photo-adducts from UVB exposure. In the present study, we investigated the interactive effects of UVB radiation and two common pesticides (endosulfan and α-cypermethrin) on induction of DNA photo-adducts and expression of DNA damage and repair related genes in African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. We examined 13 genes that are, collectively, involved in stress defense, cell cycle arrest, nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair, mismatch repair, DNA repair regulation, and apoptosis. We exposed X. laevis embryos to 0, 25, and 50 μg/L endosulfan or 0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/L α-cypermethrin for 96 h, with environmentally relevant exposures of UVB radiation during the last 7 h of the 96 h exposure. We measured the amount of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and mRNA abundance of the 13 genes among treatments including control, pesticide only, UVB only, and UVB and pesticide co-exposures. Each of the co-exposure scenarios resulted in elevated CPD levels compared to UVB exposure alone, suggesting an inhibitory effect of endosulfan and α-cypermethrin on CPD repair. This is attributed to results indicating that α-cypermethrin and endosulfan reduced mRNA abundance of XPA and HR23B, respectively, to levels that may affect the initial recognition of DNA lesions. In contrast, both pesticides

  11. Interactive effects of ultraviolet-B radiation and pesticide exposure on DNA photo-adduct accumulation and expression of DNA damage and repair genes in Xenopus laevis embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shuangying, E-mail: shuangying.yu@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, 1207 S. Gilbert Dr., Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Tang, Song, E-mail: song.tang@usask.ca [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, 1207 S. Gilbert Dr., Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Mayer, Gregory D., E-mail: greg.mayer@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, 1207 S. Gilbert Dr., Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Cobb, George P., E-mail: george_cobb@baylor.edu [Department of Environmental Science, Baylor University, One Bear Place #97266, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Maul, Jonathan D., E-mail: jonathan.maul@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, 1207 S. Gilbert Dr., Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Interactive effects of UVB radiation-pesticide co-exposures were examined in frogs. • Responses included induction of DNA photo-adducts and DNA damage and repair genes. • Elevated DNA adduct levels occurred for co-exposures compared to UVB alone. • One mechanism is that pesticides may alter nuclear excision repair gene expression. - Abstract: Pesticide use and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation have both been suggested to adversely affect amphibians; however, little is known about their interactive effects. One potential adverse interaction could involve pesticide-induced dysregulation of DNA repair pathways, resulting in greater numbers of DNA photo-adducts from UVB exposure. In the present study, we investigated the interactive effects of UVB radiation and two common pesticides (endosulfan and α-cypermethrin) on induction of DNA photo-adducts and expression of DNA damage and repair related genes in African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. We examined 13 genes that are, collectively, involved in stress defense, cell cycle arrest, nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair, mismatch repair, DNA repair regulation, and apoptosis. We exposed X. laevis embryos to 0, 25, and 50 μg/L endosulfan or 0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/L α-cypermethrin for 96 h, with environmentally relevant exposures of UVB radiation during the last 7 h of the 96 h exposure. We measured the amount of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and mRNA abundance of the 13 genes among treatments including control, pesticide only, UVB only, and UVB and pesticide co-exposures. Each of the co-exposure scenarios resulted in elevated CPD levels compared to UVB exposure alone, suggesting an inhibitory effect of endosulfan and α-cypermethrin on CPD repair. This is attributed to results indicating that α-cypermethrin and endosulfan reduced mRNA abundance of XPA and HR23B, respectively, to levels that may affect the initial recognition of DNA lesions. In contrast, both pesticides

  12. Genome-wide transcriptional response of Silurana (Xenopus tropicalis to infection with the deadly chytrid fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Bree Rosenblum

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are of great concern for both wildlife and humans. Several highly virulent fungal pathogens have recently been discovered in natural populations, highlighting the need for a better understanding of fungal-vertebrate host-pathogen interactions. Because most fungal pathogens are not fatal in the absence of other predisposing conditions, host-pathogen dynamics for deadly fungal pathogens are of particular interest. The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (hereafter Bd infects hundreds of species of frogs in the wild. It is found worldwide and is a significant contributor to the current global amphibian decline. However, the mechanism by which Bd causes death in amphibians, and the response of the host to Bd infection, remain largely unknown. Here we use whole-genome microarrays to monitor the transcriptional responses to Bd infection in the model frog species, Silurana (Xenopus tropicalis, which is susceptible to chytridiomycosis. To elucidate the immune response to Bd and evaluate the physiological effects of chytridiomycosis, we measured gene expression changes in several tissues (liver, skin, spleen following exposure to Bd. We detected a strong transcriptional response for genes involved in physiological processes that can help explain some clinical symptoms of chytridiomycosis at the organismal level. However, we detected surprisingly little evidence of an immune response to Bd exposure, suggesting that this susceptible species may not be mounting efficient innate and adaptive immune responses against Bd. The weak immune response may be partially explained by the thermal conditions of the experiment, which were optimal for Bd growth. However, many immune genes exhibited decreased expression in Bd-exposed frogs compared to control frogs, suggesting a more complex effect of Bd on the immune system than simple temperature-mediated immune suppression. This study generates important baseline data for ongoing

  13. Genetic correlations between claw health and feet and leg conformation in Norwegian Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegård, C; Svendsen, M; Heringstad, B

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits in Norwegian Red cows. A total of 188,928 cows with claw health status recorded at claw trimming from 2004 to September 2013 and 210,789 first-lactation cows with feet and leg conformation scores from 2001 to September 2013 were included in the analyses. Traits describing claw health were corkscrew claw, infectious claw disorders (dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and interdigital phlegmon), and laminitis-related claw disorders (sole ulcer, white line disorder, and hemorrhage of sole and white line). The feet and leg conformation traits were rear leg rear view (new and old definition), rear leg side view, foot angle, and hoof quality. Feet and leg conformation traits were scored linearly from 1 to 9, with optimum scores depending on the trait. Claw disorders were defined as binary (0/1) traits for each lactation. Threshold sire models were used to model claw disorders, whereas the feet and leg conformation traits were described by linear sire models. Three multivariate analyses were performed, each including the 5 feet and leg conformation traits and 1 of the 3 claw disorders at a time. Posterior means of heritability of liability of claw disorders ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 and heritabilities of feet and leg conformation traits ranged from 0.04 to 0.11. Posterior standard deviation of heritability was ≤0.01 for all traits. Genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits were all low or moderate, except between corkscrew claw and hoof quality (-0.86), which are supposed to measure the same trait. The genetic correlations between rear leg rear view (new) and infectious claw disorders (-0.20) and laminitis-related claw disorders (0.26), and between hoof quality and laminitis-related claw disorders (-0.33) were moderate. Eight of the 15 genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits had 0

  14. Genetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Spek, D; van Arendonk, J A M; Vallée, A A A; Bovenhuis, H

    2013-09-01

    Claw disorders are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding from an economical and welfare point of view. Selection for reduced claw disorders can be based on hoof trimmer records. Typically, not all cows in a herd are trimmed. Our objectives were to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for claw disorders and investigate the effect of selecting cows for trimming. The data set contained 50,238 cows, of which 20,474 cows had at least one claw trimming record, with a total of 29,994 records. Six claw trimmers scored 14 different claw disorders: abscess (AB), corkscrew claw (CC), (inter-)digital dermatitis or heel erosion (DER), double sole (DS), hardship groove (HG), interdigital hyperplasia (IH), interdigital phlegmon (IP), sand crack (SC), super-foul (SF), sole hemorrhage (SH), sole injury (SI), sole ulcer (SU), white line separation (WLS), yellow discoloration of the sole (YD), and a combined claw disorder trait. Frequencies of the claw disorders for trimmed cows ranged from 0.1% (CC, YD, HG) to 23.8% (DER). More than half of the cows scored had at least one claw disorder. Heritability on the observed scale ranged from 0.02 (DS, SH) to 0.14 (IH) and on the underlying scale from 0.05 to 0.43 in trimmed cows. Genetic correlations between laminitis-related claw disorders were moderate to high, and the same was found for hygiene-related claw disorders. The effect of selecting cows for trimming was first investigated by including untrimmed cows in the analyses and assuming they were not affected by claw disorders. Heritabilities on the underlying scale showed only minor changes. Second, different subsets of the data were created based on the percentage of trimmed cows in the herd. Heritabilities for IH, DER, and SU tended to decrease when a higher percentage of cows in the herd were trimmed. Finally, a bivariate model with a claw disorder and the trait "trimming status" was used, but heritabilities were similar. Heritability for trimming status was

  15. A nonlinear model and force control of a robotic claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago Abraão dos Anjos; Meza, Magno Enrique Mendoza; Fenili, André; Balthazar, José Manoel; da Fonseca Brasil, Reyolando Manoel Lopes Rebello

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain and analyze a simple representative mathematical model for a robotic claw. The claw is represented here through the interaction between two simple pendulums and a sub-system composed of two masses connected by a spring and a damper. The main approach is based on obtaining the constrained mathematical model that represents the configuration of the system including impact and contact dynamics. The governing equations of motion are obtained using the Euler-Lagrange formalism. The numerical integration of the governing equations is realized using the fourth order Runge-Kutta. The explicit force control technique is used in order to maintain the contact force constant during the contact.

  16. Claw-pole Synchronous Generator for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVEL Valentina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a claw-poles generator for compressed air energy storage systems. It is presented the structure of such a system used for compensating of the intermittency of a small wind energy system. For equipping of this system it is chosen the permanent magnet claw pole synchronous generator obtained by using ring NdFeB permanentmagnets instead of excitation coil. In such a way the complexity of the scheme is reduced and the generator become maintenance free. The new magnetic flux density in the air-gap is calculated by magneticreluctance method and by FEM method and the results are compared with measured values in the old and new generator.

  17. Development of a superconducting claw-pole motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed and produced a superconducting claw-pole motor for a trial purpose as a method to make the best use of the characteristic of superconductivity without collector rings or rotating superconducting coils that need to be cryocooled, and made some examinations. The unique feature in this motor is to have the mechanism that supports the reaction magnetic force generated in the axial direction

  18. Quantum Algorithms for Finding Claws, Collisions and Triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, H; Hoyer, P; Magniez, F; Santha, M; De Wolf, R; Buhrman, Harry; Durr, Christoph; Hoyer, Peter; Magniez, Frederic; Santha, Miklos; Wolf, Ronald de

    2000-01-01

    We present several applications of quantum amplitude amplification to finding claws and collisions in ordered or unordered functions. Our algorithms generalize those of Brassard, Hoyer, and Tapp, and imply an N^{3/4} log(N) quantum upper bound for the element distinctness problem (contrasting with N\\log(N) classical complexity). We also give an algorithm to finding a triangle in a graph more efficiently than classically.

  19. THE STRUCTURE OF A FOLKLORE IMAGE OF THE FROG

    OpenAIRE

    ZHUCHKOVA A.V.; GALAY K.N.

    2014-01-01

    We consider an animalistic image of a frog in fairy tales «The Frog-Tsarevna» and «The Prince-frog». We define the typology of this image. Also we offer the psychological and philosophical interpretation of an image of a frog in fairy tales, considering the frog`s skin is a metaphor of egoism.

  20. The unique myelopoiesis strategy of the amphibian Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaparla, Amulya; Wendel, Emily S; Grayfer, Leon

    2016-10-01

    Myeloid progenitors reside within specific hematopoietic organs and commit to progenitor lineages bearing megakaryocyte/erythrocyte (MEP) or granulocyte/macrophage potentials (GMP) within these sites. Unlike other vertebrates, the amphibian Xenopus laevis committed macrophage precursors are absent from the hematopoietic subcapsular liver and instead reside within their bone marrow. Presently, we demonstrate that while these frogs' liver-derived cells are unresponsive to recombinant forms of principal X. laevis macrophage (colony-stimulating factor-1; CSF-1) and granulocyte (CSF-3) growth factors, bone marrow cells cultured with CSF-1 and CSF-3 exhibit respectively archetypal macrophage and granulocyte morphology, gene expression and functionalities. Moreover, we demonstrate that liver, but not bone marrow cells possess erythropoietic capacities when stimulated with a X. laevis erythropoietin. Together, our findings indicate that X. laevis retain their MEP within the hematopoietic liver while sequestering their GMP to the bone marrow, thus marking a very novel myelopoietic strategy as compared to those seen in other jawed vertebrate species. PMID:27234705

  1. The spleen and skin wound healing in Xenopus adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Antonella; Della Rocca, Annalaura; Bertolotti, Evelina

    2016-07-01

    In most vertebrates, the regenerative capacity to restore lost/damage tissues to original structure and functionality decreases at some time during ontogenesis. To evaluate the role of the acquired immunity in the decline of regenerative potential, we examined the cellular responses elicited in the spleen during skin repair in Xenopus adults. Modifications in the architecture were found to be induced and were remarkable 14 days postinjury when the spleen increased significantly in size. In white pulp, the periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths were associated with follicles having central light zones, morphologically similar to germinal centers. With the progress of healing, pigment-containing cells were seen to accumulate in both white and red pulp regions. Moreover, compared to controls, the cells immunoreactive to anti-cytokines (TNF-α, TGF-β1) and -iNOS increased from the first days after wounding. The 14th day, the positive cells formed a dense network of reticular cells in central regions of lymphoid follicles and more frequent reactive leukocytes were detected within the red pulp. A higher number of lymphoid cells immunostained with anti-CD3ε were also observed in the perifollicular zone. The results suggest that the spleen of adult frogs is involved in skin wound healing with the expansion of lymphoid compartments. J. Morphol. 277:888-895, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27059432

  2. Axially aligned organic fibers and amorphous calcium phosphate form the claws of a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittori, Miloš; Srot, Vesna; Žagar, Kristina; Bussmann, Birgit; van Aken, Peter A; Čeh, Miran; Štrus, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal elements that are exposed to heavy mechanical loads may provide important insights into the evolutionary solutions to mechanical challenges. We analyzed the microscopic architecture of dactylus claws in the woodlice Porcellio scaber and correlated these observations with analyses of the claws' mineral composition with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Extraordinarily, amorphous calcium phosphate is the predominant mineral in the claw endocuticle. Unlike the strongly calcified exocuticle of the dactylus base, the claw exocuticle is devoid of mineral and is highly brominated. The architecture of the dactylus claw cuticle is drastically different from that of other parts of the exoskeleton. In contrast to the quasi-isotropic structure with chitin-protein fibers oriented in multiple directions, characteristic of the arthropod exoskeleton, the chitin-protein fibers and mineral components in the endocuticle of P. scaber claws are exclusively axially oriented. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that the claw cuticle is highly structurally anisotropic and fracture resistant and can be explained as adaptations to predominant axial loading of the thin, elongated claws. The nanoscale architecture of the isopod claw may inspire technological solutions in the design of durable machine elements subjected to heavy loading and wear. PMID:27320700

  3. High-speed cinematographic evaluation of claw-ground contact pattern of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Tanja; Weishaupt, Michael A; Meyer, Sven W; Waldern, Nina; Peinen, Katja von; Nuss, Karl

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the manner in which a cow's claws make contact with the ground at the walk, the gait, and in particular the claw-ground contact pattern, were studied in 12 healthy, lactating dairy cows, using high-speed cinematography (500frames/s) while the animals were walking on a treadmill. The results showed that the limbs were advanced around the contralateral limbs in a sigmoid curve. The feet contacted the ground with the foot axis and the tips of the claws rotated slightly outwards. In all cows the lateral claws contacted the ground before the medial claws in the hindlimbs, and in 10/12 cows in the forelimbs. The heel of the lateral claws was the region of initial contact with the ground in the hindlimbs of all cows and in the forelimbs in 9/12 cows. Lateral 'heel first' contact in the fore and hindlimbs appeared to be the normal gait pattern in these animals. Compared with a previous study of heifers, lactating cows had a larger step width in the hindlimbs and a smaller step width in the forelimbs. These ground contact patterns offer an explanation for the predisposition to claw disorders of the lateral claw of the hindlimb. The results of this study reinforce the suggestion that soft floor surfaces should be provided for cattle to prevent mechanical injury to the claws. PMID:18424198

  4. Kugelzellen in larval anuran epidermis: an ultrastructural study on tadpoles of Pelobates cultripes (Pelobatidae) and Phyllobates bicolor (Dendrobatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Delfino, G.; Quagliata, S.; Giachi, F.; Malentacchi, C.

    2007-01-01

    Prior to hind limb development, tadpoles of the western spadefoot frog Pelobates cultripes (Pelobatidae) and dart-arrow frog Phyllobates bicolor (Dendrobatidae) possess large clear cells in the basal layer of the epidermis. These cells closely resemble Kugelzellen (KZn) of larval clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (Pipidae) and share ultrastructural traits with Leydig cells (LCs) of Caudata and Caecilia. In both species, KZn possess a transparent cytoplasm and a remarkable peripheral cytoskeleton of...

  5. A Comparison of V-Frog[C] to Physical Frog Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalley, James P.; Piotrowski, Phillip S.; Battaglia, Barbara; Brophy, Keith; Chugh, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effectiveness of virtual frog dissection using V-Frog[C] and physical frog dissection on learning, retention, and affect. Subjects were secondary students enrolled in year-long life science classes in a suburban high school (N=102). Virtual dissections were done with V-Frog[C], a…

  6. Spargana infection of frogs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastura, A B; Ambu, S; Hasnah, O; Rosli, R

    1996-03-01

    Frogs caught from two States (Selangor and Langkawi) in Malaysia were examined for spargana of Spirometra sp. Infected frogs usually show no marks of infection but some had swelling and bleeding at the infection site. The size and weight of the infected frogs did not correlate with the infection status. The infection status in relation to human health is discussed. PMID:9031400

  7. Genetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der D.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Vallee, A.A.A.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Claw disorders are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding from an economical and welfare point of view. Selection for reduced claw disorders can be based on hoof trimmer records. Typically, not all cows in a herd are trimmed. Our objectives were to estimate heritabilities and ge

  8. Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M. V.; Boelling, D.; Mark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    ,877 Danish Holstein cows in first lactation. Binary health traits were divided into 3 subcategories: claw health, leg health, and absence of all claw and leg disorders. Genetic (r(g)) and phenotypic correlations were estimated using a bivariate linear sire model and REML. Estimated heritabilities were 0...

  9. Absence of invasive Chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in native Fijian ground frog (Platymantis vitiana populations on Viwa-Tailevu, Fiji Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Narayan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first survey of chytridiomycosis (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis- Bd in the endangered Fijian ground frog (Platymantis vitiana population on Viwa-Tailevu, Fiji Islands. This fungal pathogen has been implicated as the primary cause of amphibian declines worldwide. Few cases have been reported from tropical Asia however it was recently documented in 4 species of frogs in Indonesia. Two hundred individual frogs were swabbed from 5 different sites on Viwa Island. Swabs were tested to quantify the number of Bd zoospore equivalents using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR technique. We found zero (% prevalence of Bd in ground frogs. The lack of Bd may be due to 1 hot weather all year round inhibiting the spread of Bd, 2 Bd may be absent from Viwa Island due to a lack of amphibian introductions (not introduced or importation of exotic frogs such as Rana catesbeia-na, or Xenopus spp or pet trade spp or 3 the lack of introduction by human vectors due to the geographic isolation, and low visitation of non-local people into the island. While it is difficult to test these hypotheses, a precautionary approach would suggest an effective quarantine is required to protect Fiji’s endemic frogs from future disease outbreak. Conservation effort and research is needed at international level to assist the Fiji government in monitoring and protecting their unique endemic amphibians from outbreaks of B. dendrobatidis.

  10. Rhodopsin Forms Nanodomains in Rod Outer Segment Disc Membranes of the Cold-Blooded Xenopus laevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatini Rakshit

    Full Text Available Rhodopsin forms nanoscale domains (i.e., nanodomains in rod outer segment disc membranes from mammalian species. It is unclear whether rhodopsin arranges in a similar manner in amphibian species, which are often used as a model system to investigate the function of rhodopsin and the structure of photoreceptor cells. Moreover, since samples are routinely prepared at low temperatures, it is unclear whether lipid phase separation effects in the membrane promote the observed nanodomain organization of rhodopsin from mammalian species. Rod outer segment disc membranes prepared from the cold-blooded frog Xenopus laevis were investigated by atomic force microscopy to visualize the organization of rhodopsin in the absence of lipid phase separation effects. Atomic force microscopy revealed that rhodopsin nanodomains form similarly as that observed previously in mammalian membranes. Formation of nanodomains in ROS disc membranes is independent of lipid phase separation and conserved among vertebrates.

  11. Modeling human neurodevelopmental disorders in the Xenopus tadpole: from mechanisms to therapeutic targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara G. Pratt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Xenopus tadpole model offers many advantages for studying the molecular, cellular and network mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental disorders. Essentially every stage of normal neural circuit development, from axon outgrowth and guidance to activity-dependent homeostasis and refinement, has been studied in the frog tadpole, making it an ideal model to determine what happens when any of these stages are compromised. Recently, the tadpole model has been used to explore the mechanisms of epilepsy and autism, and there is mounting evidence to suggest that diseases of the nervous system involve deficits in the most fundamental aspects of nervous system function and development. In this Review, we provide an update on how tadpole models are being used to study three distinct types of neurodevelopmental disorders: diseases caused by exposure to environmental toxicants, epilepsy and seizure disorders, and autism.

  12. How Xenopus laevis embryos replicate reliably: investigating the random-completion problem

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Scott Cheng-Hsin

    2008-01-01

    DNA synthesis in \\textit{Xenopus} frog embryos initiates stochastically in time at many sites (origins) along the chromosome. Stochastic initiation implies fluctuations in the time to complete and may lead to cell death if replication takes longer than the cell cycle time ($\\approx 25$ min). Surprisingly, although the typical replication time is about 20 min, \\textit{in vivo} experiments show that replication fails to complete only about 1 in 300 times. How is replication timing accurately controlled despite the stochasticity? Biologists have proposed two solutions to this "random-completion problem." The first solution uses randomly located origins but increases their rate of initiation as S phase proceeds, while the second uses regularly spaced origins. In this paper, we investigate the random-completion problem using a type of model first developed to describe the kinetics of first-order phase transitions. Using methods from the field of extreme-value statistics, we derive the distribution of replication-c...

  13. Effects of claw autotomy on green crab (Carcinus maenas) feeding rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummon Flynn, Paula S.; Mellish, Cassandra L.; Pickering, Tyler R.; Quijón, Pedro A.

    2015-09-01

    The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) is a voracious non-indigenous predator and a threat to Atlantic Canada's shellfish industry. Its foraging ability, however, may be affected by the occurrence of injuries such as the loss of a cheliped (claw). Given that green crab claws are differentiated into a major crusher and a minor cutter, we argue that autotomy (the reflexive loss of a limb) affects feeding rates, and that this effect depends on which particular claw is lost. We examined the incidence of injuries in two green crab populations of the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence during July-October, 2012. Then we experimentally assessed the influence of the loss of each type of claw upon crab feeding rates over two size-classes of American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria). Field injury surveys showed that 12.4% of the green crabs collected were missing a claw (the cutter and/or crusher claw). Injury rates increased linearly with crab size, and were found to vary with location. Laboratory experiments showed that, compared to intact crabs, the loss of the crusher claw reduced oyster mortality rates by ~ 93-100%. The loss of the crusher also reduced feeding on small soft-shell clams but only temporarily. The loss of the cutter claw had little impact on green crab feeding rates on oysters and soft-shell clams of either size. Combined, these results suggest that the loss of a claw has an effect on the ability of green crabs to consume commercially important species but this effect depends on which claw is lost and which prey is targeted. It follows that injury rates should be taken into consideration when monitoring and forecasting the potential impacts of green crab populations, particularly on oyster beds.

  14. FROG: Time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Alasdair

    2014-06-01

    FROG performs time series analysis and display. It provides a simple user interface for astronomers wanting to do time-domain astrophysics but still offers the powerful features found in packages such as PERIOD (ascl:1406.005). FROG includes a number of tools for manipulation of time series. Among other things, the user can combine individual time series, detrend series (multiple methods) and perform basic arithmetic functions. The data can also be exported directly into the TOPCAT (ascl:1101.010) application for further manipulation if needed.

  15. Insertional Mutagenesis for Genes involved in Otic/Vestibular Development and Function in Xenopus Tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrejon, Marcela; Li, Erica; Nguyen, Minh; Winfree, Seth; Wang, Esther; Reinsch, Sigrid; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sensitivity to gravity is essential for spatial orientation. Consequently, the gravity receptor system is one of the phylogenetically oldest sensory systems, and the special adaptations that enhance sensitivity to gravity are highly conserved. The main goal of this project is to use Xenopus (frog) to identify genes expressed during vestibular and auditory development. These studies will lead a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in vestibular and auditory development and function. We are using a gene-trap approach in Xenopus tropicalis with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene as the transgene reporter. GFP expression occurs only when the GFP gene is correctly integrated in actively transcribed genes. Using the GFP as a tag we can easily identify and clone the mutated gene. In addition, we can study the function of the mutated gene by analyzing the defects generated by insertion of the GFP transgene. To date we have tissue specific GFP expression in X. tropicalis including expression in ear, neural tube, kidney, muscle, eyes and nose. Our transgenic animals will soon reach maturity so that we can outcross them and analyze their progeny. Our next goal is to isolate RNA from our transgenics and clone the tagged genes using RACE-PCR. Currently we are optimizing the RACE-PCR method using transgenics with crystallin GFP expression.

  16. A Simple Behavioral Assay for Testing Visual Function in Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viczian, Andrea S.; Zuber, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the visual function in the tadpoles of the frog, Xenopus laevis, allows screening for blindness in live animals. The optokinetic response is a vision-based, reflexive behavior that has been observed in all vertebrates tested. Tadpole eyes are small so the tail flip response was used as alternative measure, which requires a trained technician to record the subtle response. We developed an alternative behavior assay based on the fact that tadpoles prefer to swim on the white side of a tank when placed in a tank with both black and white sides. The assay presented here is an inexpensive, simple alternative that creates a response that is easily measured. The setup consists of a tripod, webcam and nested testing tanks, readily available in most Xenopus laboratories. This article includes a movie showing the behavior of tadpoles, before and after severing the optic nerve. In order to test the function of one eye, we also include representative results of a tadpole in which each eye underwent retinal axotomy on consecutive days. Future studies could develop an automated version of this assay for testing the vision of many tadpoles at once. PMID:24962702

  17. FROG - Fingerprinting Genomic Variation Ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Abinaya

    Full Text Available Genetic variations play a crucial role in differential phenotypic outcomes. Given the complexity in establishing this correlation and the enormous data available today, it is imperative to design machine-readable, efficient methods to store, label, search and analyze this data. A semantic approach, FROG: "FingeRprinting Ontology of Genomic variations" is implemented to label variation data, based on its location, function and interactions. FROG has six levels to describe the variation annotation, namely, chromosome, DNA, RNA, protein, variations and interactions. Each level is a conceptual aggregation of logically connected attributes each of which comprises of various properties for the variant. For example, in chromosome level, one of the attributes is location of variation and which has two properties, allosomes or autosomes. Another attribute is variation kind which has four properties, namely, indel, deletion, insertion, substitution. Likewise, there are 48 attributes and 278 properties to capture the variation annotation across six levels. Each property is then assigned a bit score which in turn leads to generation of a binary fingerprint based on the combination of these properties (mostly taken from existing variation ontologies. FROG is a novel and unique method designed for the purpose of labeling the entire variation data generated till date for efficient storage, search and analysis. A web-based platform is designed as a test case for users to navigate sample datasets and generate fingerprints. The platform is available at http://ab-openlab.csir.res.in/frog.

  18. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  19. Phylogeny, Functional Annotation, and Protein Interaction Network Analyses of the Xenopus tropicalis Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The previous survey identified 70 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH proteins, but it was proved to be incomplete, and the functional information and regulatory networks of frog bHLH transcription factors were not fully known. Therefore, we conducted an updated genome-wide survey in the Xenopus tropicalis genome project databases and identified 105 bHLH sequences. Among the retrieved 105 sequences, phylogenetic analyses revealed that 103 bHLH proteins belonged to 43 families or subfamilies with 46, 26, 11, 3, 15, and 4 members in the corresponding supergroups. Next, gene ontology (GO enrichment analyses showed 65 significant GO annotations of biological processes and molecular functions and KEGG pathways counted in frequency. To explore the functional pathways, regulatory gene networks, and/or related gene groups coding for Xenopus tropicalis bHLH proteins, the identified bHLH genes were put into the databases KOBAS and STRING to get the signaling information of pathways and protein interaction networks according to available public databases and known protein interactions. From the genome annotation and pathway analysis using KOBAS, we identified 16 pathways in the Xenopus tropicalis genome. From the STRING interaction analysis, 68 hub proteins were identified, and many hub proteins created a tight network or a functional module within the protein families.

  20. Specification of anteroposterior axis by combinatorial signaling during Xenopus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Clémence; Shi, De-Li

    2016-01-01

    The specification of anteroposterior (AP) axis is a fundamental and complex patterning process that sets up the embryonic polarity and shapes a multicellular organism. This process involves the integration of distinct signaling pathways to coordinate temporal-spatial gene expression and morphogenetic movements. In the frog Xenopus, extensive embryological and molecular studies have provided major advance in understanding the mechanism implicated in AP patterning. Following fertilization, cortical rotation leads to the transport of maternal determinants to the dorsal region and creates the primary dorsoventral (DV) asymmetry. The activation of maternal Wnt/ß-catenin signaling and a high Nodal signal induces the formation of the Nieuwkoop center in the dorsal-vegetal cells, which then triggers the formation of the Spemann organizer in the overlying dorsal marginal zone. It is now well established that the Spemann organizer plays a central role in building the vertebrate body axes because it provides patterning information for both DV and AP polarities. The antagonistic interactions between signals secreted in the Spemann organizer and the opposite ventral region pattern the mesoderm along the DV axis, and this DV information is translated into AP positional values during gastrulation. The formation of anterior neural tissue requires simultaneous inhibition of zygotic Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals, while an endogenous gradient of Wnt, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), retinoic acid (RA) signaling, and collinearly expressed Hox genes patterns the trunk and posterior regions. Collectively, DV asymmetry is mostly coupled to AP polarity, and cell-cell interactions mediated essentially by the same regulatory networks operate in DV and AP patterning. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26544673

  1. Potentiators exert distinct effects on human, murine, and Xenopus CFTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guiying; Khazanov, Netaly; Stauffer, Brandon B; Infield, Daniel T; Imhoff, Barry R; Senderowitz, Hanoch; McCarty, Nael A

    2016-08-01

    VX-770 (Ivacaftor) has been approved for clinical usage in cystic fibrosis patients with several CFTR mutations. Yet the binding site(s) on CFTR for this compound and other small molecule potentiators are unknown. We hypothesize that insight into this question could be gained by comparing the effect of potentiators on CFTR channels from different origins, e.g., human, mouse, and Xenopus (frog). In the present study, we combined this comparative molecular pharmacology approach with that of computer-aided drug discovery to identify and characterize new potentiators of CFTR and to explore possible mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that 1) VX-770, NPPB, GlyH-101, P1, P2, and P3 all exhibited ortholog-specific behavior in that they potentiated hCFTR, mCFTR, and xCFTR with different efficacies; 2) P1, P2, and P3 potentiated hCFTR in excised macropatches in a manner dependent on the degree of PKA-mediated stimulation; 3) P1 and P2 did not have additive effects, suggesting that these compounds might share binding sites. Also 4) using a pharmacophore modeling approach, we identified three new potentiators (IOWH-032, OSSK-2, and OSSK-3) that have structures similar to GlyH-101 and that also exhibit ortholog-specific potentiation of CFTR. These could potentially serve as lead compounds for development of new drugs for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. The ortholog-specific behavior of these compounds suggest that a comparative pharmacology approach, using cross-ortholog chimeras, may be useful for identification of binding sites on human CFTR. PMID:27288484

  2. Frogs as integrative models for understanding digestive organ development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Mandy; Pickett, Melissa; Nascone-Yoder, Nanette

    2016-03-01

    The digestive system comprises numerous cells, tissues and organs that are essential for the proper assimilation of nutrients and energy. Many aspects of digestive organ function are highly conserved among vertebrates, yet the final anatomical configuration of the gut varies widely between species, especially those with different diets. Improved understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that orchestrate digestive organ development is pertinent to many areas of biology and medicine, including the regeneration or replacement of diseased organs, the etiology of digestive organ birth defects, and the evolution of specialized features of digestive anatomy. In this review, we highlight specific examples of how investigations using Xenopus laevis frog embryos have revealed insight into the molecular and cellular dynamics of digestive organ patterning and morphogenesis that would have been difficult to obtain in other animal models. Additionally, we discuss recent studies of gut development in non-model frog species with unique feeding strategies, such as Lepidobatrachus laevis and Eleutherodactylous coqui, which are beginning to provide glimpses of the evolutionary mechanisms that may generate morphological variation in the digestive tract. The unparalleled experimental versatility of frog embryos make them excellent, integrative models for studying digestive organ development across multiple disciplines. PMID:26851628

  3. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH promotes wound re-epithelialisation in frog and human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia T Meier

    Full Text Available There remains a critical need for new therapeutics that promote wound healing in patients suffering from chronic skin wounds. This is, in part, due to a shortage of simple, physiologically and clinically relevant test systems for investigating candidate agents. The skin of amphibians possesses a remarkable regenerative capacity, which remains insufficiently explored for clinical purposes. Combining comparative biology with a translational medicine approach, we report the development and application of a simple ex vivo frog (Xenopus tropicalis skin organ culture system that permits exploration of the effects of amphibian skin-derived agents on re-epithelialisation in both frog and human skin. Using this amphibian model, we identify thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH as a novel stimulant of epidermal regeneration. Moving to a complementary human ex vivo wounded skin assay, we demonstrate that the effects of TRH are conserved across the amphibian-mammalian divide: TRH stimulates wound closure and formation of neo-epidermis in organ-cultured human skin, accompanied by increased keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing-associated differentiation (cytokeratin 6 expression. Thus, TRH represents a novel, clinically relevant neuroendocrine wound repair promoter that deserves further exploration. These complementary frog and human skin ex vivo assays encourage a comparative biology approach in future wound healing research so as to facilitate the rapid identification and preclinical testing of novel, evolutionarily conserved, and clinically relevant wound healing promoters.

  4. CARE AND FEEDING OF FROGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Propellers' are features in Saturn's A ring associated with moonlets that open partial gaps. They exhibit non-Keplerian motion (Tiscareno et al.); the longitude residuals of the best-observed propeller, 'Blériot', appear consistent with a sinusoid of period ∼4 years. Pan and Chiang proposed that propeller moonlets librate in 'frog resonances' with co-orbiting ring material. By analogy with the restricted three-body problem, they treated the co-orbital material as stationary in the rotating frame and neglected non-co-orbital material. Here we use simple numerical experiments to extend the frog model, including feedback due to the gap's motion, and drag associated with the Lindblad disk torques that cause Type I migration. Because the moonlet creates the gap, we expect the gap centroid to track the moonlet, but only after a time delay tdelay, the time for a ring particle to travel from conjunction with the moonlet to the end of the gap. We find that frog librations can persist only if tdelay exceeds the frog libration period Plib, and if damping from Lindblad torques balances driving from co-orbital torques. If tdelay ib, then the libration amplitude damps to zero. In the case of Blériot, the frog resonance model can reproduce the observed libration period Plib ≅ 4 yr. However, our simple feedback prescription suggests that Blériot's tdelay ∼ 0.01Plib, which is inconsistent with the observed libration amplitude of 260 km. We urge more accurate treatments of feedback to test the assumptions of our toy models.

  5. Developmental role of plk4 in Xenopus laevis and Danio rerio: implications for Seckel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapchak, Candace Elaine; Patel, Neeraj; Hudson, John; Crawford, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The polo-like kinases are a family of conserved serine/threonine kinases that play multiple roles in regulation of the cell cycle. Unlike its four other family members, the role of Plk4 in embryonic development has not been well characterized. In mice, Plk4(-)(/)(-) embryos arrest at E7.5, just prior to the initiation of somitogenesis. This has led to the hypothesis that Plk4 expression may be essential to somitogenesis. Recently characterized human mutations lead to Seckel Syndrome. Riboprobe in situ hybridization revealed that plk4 is ubiquitously expressed during early stages of development of Xenopus and Danio; in later stages, expression in frogs restricts to somites as well as eye, otic vesicle, and branchial arch, and brain. Expression patterns in fish remain ubiquitous. Both somite and eye development require planar cell polarity, and disruption of plk4 function in frog by means of morpholino-mediated translational knockdown yields orientational disorganization of both these structures. These results provide the first steps in defining a new role for plk4 in organogenesis and implies a role in planar cell polarity, segmentation, and in recently described PLK4 mutations in human. PMID:26150138

  6. Effects of Transgenic cry1Ca Rice on the Development of Xenopus laevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Chen

    Full Text Available In fields of genetically modified, insect-resistant rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt proteins, frogs are exposed to Bt Cry proteins by consuming both target and non-target insects, and through their highly permeable skin. In the present study, we assessed the potential risk posed by transgenic cry1Ca rice (T1C-19 on the development of a frog species by adding purified Cry1Ca protein or T1C-19 rice straw into the rearing water of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, and by feeding X. laevis froglets diets containing rice grains of T1C-19 or its non-transformed counterpart MH63. Our results showed that there were no significant differences among groups receiving 100 μg L-1 or 10 μg L-1 Cry1Ca and the blank control in terms of time to completed metamorphosis, survival rate, body weight, body length, organ weight and liver enzyme activity after being exposed to the Cry1Ca (P > 0.05. Although some detection indices in the rice straw groups were significantly different from those of the blank control group (P < 0.05, there was no significant difference between the T1C-19 and MH63 rice straw groups. Moreover, there were no significant differences in the mortality rate, body weight, daily weight gain, liver and fat body weight of the froglets between the T1C-19 and MH63 dietary groups after 90 days, and there were no abnormal pathological changes in the stomach, intestines, livers, spleens and gonads. Thus, we conclude that the planting of transgenic cry1Ca rice will not adversely affect frog development.

  7. Geometric distance-regular graphs without 4-claws

    CERN Document Server

    Bang, Sejeong

    2011-01-01

    A non-complete \\drg $\\Gamma$ is called geometric if there exists a set $\\mathcal{C}$ of Delsarte cliques such that each edge of $\\Gamma$ lies in a unique clique in $\\mathcal{C}$. In this paper, we determine the non-complete distance-regular graphs satisfying $\\max \\{3, 8/3}(a_1+1)\\}claws that any non-complete distance-regular graph satisfying $\\max \\{3, \\8/3}(a_1+1)\\}

  8. PetClaw: A scalable parallel nonlinear wave propagation solver for Python

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Amal

    2011-01-01

    We present PetClaw, a scalable distributed-memory solver for time-dependent nonlinear wave propagation. PetClaw unifies two well-known scientific computing packages, Clawpack and PETSc, using Python interfaces into both. We rely on Clawpack to provide the infrastructure and kernels for time-dependent nonlinear wave propagation. Similarly, we rely on PETSc to manage distributed data arrays and the communication between them.We describe both the implementation and performance of PetClaw as well as our challenges and accomplishments in scaling a Python-based code to tens of thousands of cores on the BlueGene/P architecture. The capabilities of PetClaw are demonstrated through application to a novel problem involving elastic waves in a heterogeneous medium. Very finely resolved simulations are used to demonstrate the suppression of shock formation in this system.

  9. An active ingredient of Cat's Claw water extracts identification and efficacy of quinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yezhou; Akesson, Christina; Holmgren, Kristin; Bryngelsson, Carl; Giamapa, Vincent; Pero, Ronald W

    2005-01-15

    Historic medicinal practice has defined Cat's Claw, also known as Una de Gato or Uncaria tomentosa, as an effective treatment for several health disorders including chronic inflammation, gastrointestinal dysfunction such as ulcers, tumors and infections. The efficacy of Cat's Claw was originally believed, as early as the 1960s, to be due to the presence of oxindole alkaloids. However, more recently water-soluble Cat's Claw extracts were shown not to contain significant amounts of alkaloids (<0.05%), and yet still were shown to be very efficacious. Here we characterize the active ingredients of a water-soluble Cat's Claw extract called C-Med-100 as inhibiting cell growth without cell death thus providing enhanced opportunities for DNA repair, and the consequences thereof, such as immune stimulation, anti-inflammation and cancer prevention. The active ingredients were chemically defined as quinic acid esters and could also be shown to be bioactive in vivo as quinic acid. PMID:15619581

  10. Gene : CBRC-DDIS-02-0170 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-02-0170 Novel 2 C UNKNOWN KCC1D_MOUSE 6e-45 40% ref|XP_643776.1| putative protein seri ... 52341.1| similar to Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog ). Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I al ...

  11. Gene : CBRC-DDIS-02-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-02-0021 2 D UNKNOWN VHS3_YEAST 6e-32 70% ref|XP_645491.1| hypothetical protein DDBDRAF ... 38907.1| similar to Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog ). Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in ...

  12. EST Table: FY017740 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY017740 rbmov20g11 11/11/04 62 %/209 aa pir||S52242 protein kinase \\(EC 2.7.1.-\\) p46XlEg22 - A ... frican clawed frog ... emb|CAA78914.1| p46XlEg22 [Xenopus laevis] 11/11/0 ...

  13. Gene : CBRC-OANA-01-0430 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-0430 Novel UN B Family 2 (B) receptors CALRL_RAT 5e-35 93% ref|NP_001080206.1| calc ... pir|R3XL3A ribosomal protein S3a - African clawed frog ... emb|CAA40592.1| ribosomal protein S1a [Xenopus lae ...

  14. Temporally selective processing of communication signals by auditory midbrain neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliott, Taffeta M; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    Perception of the temporal structure of acoustic signals contributes critically to vocal signaling. In the aquatic clawed frog Xenopus laevis, calls differ primarily in the temporal parameter of click rate, which conveys sexual identity and reproductive state. We show here that an ensemble of aud...... compute temporally selective receptive fields are described....

  15. Balancing tension in transferred slips in some dynamic procedures for claw finger correction

    OpenAIRE

    Malaviya G

    2005-01-01

    The adjustment of tension on the tendon slips which are being inserted to correct finger clawing, is the critical step in claw finger correction procedures. Several methods have been described in literature but ultimately every thing boils down to the experience of the operating surgeon who has to make decisions on the operating table. Attempt is being made to translate this experience (an abstract noun) in to words to help make life easier for the surgeons who are venturing into the field of...

  16. Care and feeding of frogs

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Margaret; 10.1088/0004-6256/143/1/9

    2012-01-01

    "Propellers" are features in Saturn's A ring associated with moonlets that open partial gaps. They exhibit non-Keplerian motion (Tiscareno 2010); the longitude residuals of the best-observed propeller, "Bl\\'eriot," appear consistent with a sinusoid of period ~4 years. Pan and Chiang (2010) proposed that propeller moonlets librate in "frog resonances" with co-orbiting ring material. By analogy with the restricted three-body problem, they treated the co-orbital material as stationary in the rotating frame and neglected non-co-orbital material. Here we use simple numerical experiments to extend the frog model, including feedback due to the gap's motion, and drag associated with the Lindblad disk torques that cause Type I migration. Because the moonlet creates the gap, we expect the gap centroid to track the moonlet, but only after a time delay t_diff, the time for a ring particle to travel from conjunction with the moonlet to the end of the gap. We find that frog librations can persist only if t_diff exceeds the...

  17. Foot and leg conformation traits have a small effect on genomic predictions of claw disorders in Norwegian Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegård, C; Svendsen, M; Heringstad, B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the predictive correlation of genomic breeding values (GEBV) for claw disorders increased by including genetically correlated traits as additional information in the analyses. Predictive correlations of GEBV for claw disorders were calculated based on claw disorders only and by analyzing claw disorders together with genetically correlated foot and leg conformation traits. The claw disorders analyzed were corkscrew claw (CSC); infectious claw disorder, including dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and interdigital phlegmon; and laminitis-related claw disorder, including sole ulcer, white line disorder, and hemorrhage of sole and white line. The foot and leg conformation traits included were hoof quality, foot angle, rear leg rear view new, and rear leg rear view old. The data consisted of 183,728 daughters with claw health records and 421,319 daughters with foot and leg conformation scores. A 25K/54K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data set containing 48,249 SNP was available for the analyses. The number of genotyped sires with daughter information in the analyses was 1,093 including claw disorders and 3,111 including claw disorders and foot and leg conformation traits. Predictive correlations of GEBV for CSC, infectious claw disorder, and laminitis-related claw disorder were calculated from a 10-fold cross-validation and from an additional validation set including the youngest sires. Only sires having daughters with claw health records were in the validation sets, thus increasing the reference population when adding foot and leg conformation traits. The results showed marginal improvement in the predictive correlation of GEBV for CSC when including hoof quality and foot angle, both in 10-fold cross-validation (from 0.35 to 0.37) and in the validation including the youngest sires (from 0.38 to 0.49). For infectious claw disorder and laminitis-related claw disorder, including foot and leg conformation traits had no effect

  18. Snoring puddle frog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of this paper is to hold a biological mirror in front of ourselves, the nuclear energy community, and to suggest that the reflection we will see there will help us both professionally and as members of a broader society. Let us start with sex. For sex to function as a means of reproduction, a male and a female of a particular species have to recognise each other and mate. The important terms here are 'particular species' and 'recognise'. Within most species, extraordinarily precise mate recognition systems have evolved. The precise frequency of the croak of a particular species of frog; the precise seasonal coloration of a particular species of salmon; the precise length of the tail of a particular species of bird; each is recognisable instantly to a prospective mate, though not to untrained human ears or eyes. 'The Recognition Concept of Species' (1985) is a monograph that has become something of a 'classic' in annals of evolutionary biology. Its author, HEH Paterson, suggests that a species can be defined as a group of organisms that share a common mate recognition system. Mating is an exchange of genes, and creatures that do not recognise each other do not exchange genes. A mate recognition system closes off the gene pool and may increasingly isolate its participants from even their nearest relatives. Biological evolution has numerous links and parallels with the evolution of human cultures. Some of our recognition systems seem to have a knack for drawing everyone in - American popular culture, for example, is now inescapable. Other recognition systems repel all but a few - take, or rather don't take, the Hell's Angels or the Ku Klux Klan. We, as members of the nuclear energy culture, are members of a closed and even repellent gene pool. We share a recognition system by which we perpetuate ourselves from generation to generation, from Hiroshima to Chernobyl. Outsiders do not understand our language: terms like 'credit for fission products

  19. 3-D Finite Element Investigation of Flux Regulation Performance of a Novel Hybrid Excitation Brushless Claw-Pole Alternator

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao Dongwei; Li Yanhong; Shang Jianhua; Zhong Hui

    2015-01-01

    In consideration of low power density of electric excitation claw-pole synchronous alternator (EECA) and some difficulties in magnetic field regulation of permanent magnet claw-pole synchronous alternator (PMCA), a novel hybrid excitation brushless claw-pole alternator (HEBCA) is proposed in this paper. Its structure and field control principle are described. Three dimensional finite element analysis is used to obtain the no-load magnetic field distributions and field control capability under...

  20. Gait pattern of heifers before and after claw trimming: a high-speed cinematographic study on a treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S W; Weishaupt, M A; Nuss, K A

    2007-02-01

    The manner in which the claws contacted the ground at the walk was evaluated in 18 healthy heifers. The animals were filmed before and after claw trimming while walking on a treadmill using high-speed cinematography (500 frames/s). For each limb, 4 consecutive steps were recorded from a side and a frontal plane. The objectives of the study were to evaluate 1) the order of claw contact with the treadmill surface, 2) the initial claw contact area, and 3) the effect of trimming on claw contact patterns. The heifers placed their front feet on the ground in a plane sagittal to the shoulders, whereas the hind feet were advanced more toward the median plane. Before trimming, the lateral claws contacted the ground before the medial in 83% of front and 100% of hind limbs. Trimming changed the percentage to 92% in the front and to 97% in the hind limbs. The percentage with which the heel of the lateral claws became the region of initial contact with the ground increased from 47 to 64% in the front feet and from 50 to 78% in the hind feet. In the medial claws of the forelimbs, claw trimming shifted the region of initial contact from the toe to the abaxial wall and heel. In the hind limbs, the main region of initial contact of the medial claws became the abaxial wall. Weight bearing by the medial claw became visibly apparent only during the midstance, propulsion, and push-off phases. "Heel first" contact of the lateral claws in the front and hind limbs may be the normal gait pattern in cattle. On hard surfaces, this pattern may lead to overload and predispose to disease, especially in the hind limbs. PMID:17235142

  1. Measuring Claw Conformation in Cattle: Assessing the Agreement between Manual and Digital Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. Laven

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Five measurements of claw conformation (toe angle, claw height, claw width, toe length and abaxial groove length taken directly from the hoof were compared with the measurements taken from digital images of the same claws. Concordance correlation coefficients and limits-of-agreement analysis showed that, for four of the five measures (claw height, claw width, toe length and abaxial groove length, agreement was too poor for digital and manual measures to be used interchangeably. For all four of these measures, Liao’s modified concordance correlation coefficient (mCCC was ≤0.4, indicating poor concordance despite Pearson’s correlation being >0.6 in all cases. The worst concordance was seen for toe length (mCCC = 0.13. Limits-of-agreement analysis showed that, for all four measures, there was a large variation in the difference between the manual and digital methods, even when the effect of mean on difference was accounted for, with the 95% limits-of-agreement for the four measures being further away from the mean difference than 10% of the mean in all four cases. The only one of the five measures with an acceptable concordance between digital and manual measurement was toe angle (mCCC = 0.81. Nevertheless, the limits-of-agreement analysis showed that there was a systematic bias with, on average, the manual measure of toe angle, being 2.1° smaller than the digital. The 95% limits-of-agreement for toe angle were ±3.4°, probably at the upper limit of what is acceptable. However, the lack of data on the variability of individual measurements of claw conformation means that it is unclear how this variability compares to measurement of toe angle in the same animal using the same or a different manual technique.

  2. Synthesis and distribution of cytokeratins in healthy and ulcerated bovine claw epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, K A; MacCallum, A J; Knight, C H; Wilde, C J

    2001-11-01

    Keratinization of the epidermal cells of the bovine claw generates the horn that gives the tissue its mechanical strength. Disruption of keratinization is likely to have a detrimental effect on the strength and integrity of the horn, and could lead to solar lesions and lameness. As part of a wider investigation of the cell biological causes of lameness in dairy animals, we have compared keratin synthesis and distribution in healthy bovine claw tissue with those in hooves with solar ulcers. Protein synthesis was measured by [35S]-labelled amino acid incorporation in claw tissue explant cultures. [35S]-labelled protein synthesis was higher in tissue from diseased claws than in healthy claws, and highest at the ulcer site. The identity of proteins synthesised in vitro did not differ between healthy and diseased tissue. DNA synthesis indicative of cell proliferation was also elevated in diseased tissue. Immunoblotting after one- or two-dimensional electrophoresis showed cytokeratins (CK) 4, 5/6, 10 and 14 to be amongst those expressed in healthy claw tissue. The relative abundance of these keratins was not altered in healthy regions of ulcerated hooves, nor at the ulcer site, but CK16, not usually found in healthy tissue, was detected in the sole of diseased claws. CK5/6 and CK14 were shown by immunohistochemistry to be present in the basal epidermis of healthy tissue, whereas CK10 was found in supra-basal layers. In healthy tissue from ulcerated claws, this distribution was unaltered, but at the site of solar ulcers, CK5/6 and CK14 were each found in both basal and supra-basal epidermis. The study suggests that solar ulceration of the bovine claw is not associated with gross alteration in the keratin composition of the tissue, but causes abnormal distribution of cytokeratins, perhaps as a result of loss of positional cues from the basement membrane. Ulceration did, however, stimulate cell repair involving epidermal protein synthesis (including keratins), and

  3. GeoClaw-STRICHE: A coupled model for Sediment TRansport In Coastal Hazard Events

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    GeoClaw-STRICHE is designed for simulating the physical impacts of tsunami as it relates to erosion, transport and deposition. GeoClaw-STRICHE comprises of three components: (1) nonlinear shallow water equations; (2) advection-diffusion equation; (3) an equation for morphology updating. Multiple grain sizes and sediment layers are added into GeoClaw-STRICHE to simulate grain-size distribution and add the capability to develop grain-size trends from bottom to the top of a simulated deposit as well as along the inundation. Unlike previous models based on empirical equations or sediment concentration gradient, the standard Van Leer method is applied to calculate sediment flux. We tested and verified GeoClaw-STRICHE with flume experiment by \\citet{johnson2016experimental} and data from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Kuala Meurisi as published in \\citet{JGRF:JGRF786}. The comparison with experimental data shows GeoClaw-STRICHE's capability to simulate sediment thickness and grain-size distribution in experimenta...

  4. PEX11β induces peroxisomal gene expression and alters peroxisome number during early Xenopus laevis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanovski Sashko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisomes are organelles whose roles in fatty acid metabolism and reactive oxygen species elimination have contributed much attention in understanding their origin and biogenesis. Many studies have shown that de novo peroxisome biogenesis is an important regulatory process, while yeast studies suggest that total peroxisome numbers are in part regulated by proteins such as Pex11, which can facilitate the division of existing peroxisomes. Although de novo biogenesis and divisions are likely important mechanisms, the regulation of peroxisome numbers during embryonic development is poorly understood. Peroxisome number and function are particularly crucial in oviparous animals such as frogs where large embryonic yolk and fatty acid stores must be quickly metabolized, and resulting reactive oxygen species eliminated. Here we elucidate the role of Pex11β in regulating peroxisomal gene expression and number in Xenopus laevis embryogenesis. Results Microinjecting haemagglutinin (HA tagged Pex11β in early embryos resulted in increased RNA levels for peroxisome related genes PMP70 and catalase at developmental stages 10 and 20, versus uninjected embryos. Catalase and PMP70 proteins were found in punctate structures at stage 20 in control embryos, whereas the injection of ectopic HA-Pex11β induced their earlier localization in punctate structures at stage 10. Furthermore, the peroxisomal marker GFP-SKL, which was found localized as peroxisome-like structures at stage 20, was similarly found at stage 10 when co-microinjected with HA-Pex11β. Conclusions Overexpressed Pex11β altered peroxisomal gene levels and induced the early formation of peroxisomes-like structures during development, both of which demonstrate that Pex11β may be a key regulator of peroxisome number in early Xenopus embryos.

  5. Determining the influence of muscle operating length on muscle performance during frog swimming using a bio-robotic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frogs are capable of impressive feats of jumping and swimming. Recent work has shown that anuran hind limb muscles can operate at lengths longer than the ‘optimal length’. To address the implications of muscle operating length on muscle power output and swimming mechanics, we built a robotic frog hind limb model based upon Xenopus laevis. The model simulated the force–length and force–velocity properties of vertebrate muscle, within the skeletal environment. We tested three muscle starting lengths, representing long, optimal and short starting lengths. Increasing starting length increased maximum muscle power output by 27% from 98.1 W kg−1 when muscle begins shortening from the optimal length, to 125.1 W kg−1 when the muscle begins at longer initial lengths. Therefore, longer starting lengths generated greater hydrodynamic force for extended durations, enabling faster swimming speeds of the robotic frog. These swimming speeds increased from 0.15 m s−1 at short initial muscle lengths, to 0.39 m s−1 for the longest initial lengths. Longer starting lengths were able to increase power as the muscle's force–length curve was better synchronized with the muscle's activation profile. We further dissected the underlying components of muscle force, separating force–length versus force–velocity effects, showing a transition from force–length limitations to force–velocity limitations as starting length increased. (paper)

  6. Determining the influence of muscle operating length on muscle performance during frog swimming using a bio-robotic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Christofer J; Richards, Christopher

    2012-09-01

    Frogs are capable of impressive feats of jumping and swimming. Recent work has shown that anuran hind limb muscles can operate at lengths longer than the 'optimal length'. To address the implications of muscle operating length on muscle power output and swimming mechanics, we built a robotic frog hind limb model based upon Xenopus laevis. The model simulated the force-length and force-velocity properties of vertebrate muscle, within the skeletal environment. We tested three muscle starting lengths, representing long, optimal and short starting lengths. Increasing starting length increased maximum muscle power output by 27% from 98.1 W kg(-1) when muscle begins shortening from the optimal length, to 125.1 W kg(-1) when the muscle begins at longer initial lengths. Therefore, longer starting lengths generated greater hydrodynamic force for extended durations, enabling faster swimming speeds of the robotic frog. These swimming speeds increased from 0.15 m s(-1) at short initial muscle lengths, to 0.39 m s(-1) for the longest initial lengths. Longer starting lengths were able to increase power as the muscle's force-length curve was better synchronized with the muscle's activation profile. We further dissected the underlying components of muscle force, separating force-length versus force-velocity effects, showing a transition from force-length limitations to force-velocity limitations as starting length increased. PMID:22677569

  7. A Technological Process of the Baiyun Chicken Claw%白云凤爪的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧玲

    2001-01-01

    本文详述了白云凤爪的加工技术、工艺配方及质量要求。%In this paper the technological process of the Baiyun ChickenClaw,formula and quality requirement for Baiyun Chicken claw are detailed.

  8. Promoter control of translation in Xenopus oocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Gunkel, N; Braddock, M; Thorburn, A M; Muckenthaler, M; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1995-01-01

    The HIV-1 promoter directs the high level production of transcripts in Xenopus oocytes. However, despite being exported to the cytoplasm, the transcripts are not translated [M. Braddock, A. M. Thorburn, A. Chambers, G. D. Elliott, G. J. Anderson, A. J. Kingsman and S. M. Kingsman (1990) Cell, 62, 1123-1133]. We have shown previously that this is a function of promoter sequences and is independent of the TAR RNA element that is normally located at the 5' end of all HIV mRNAs. We now show that ...

  9. Molecular cloning of cDNA for the B beta subunit of Xenopus fibrinogen, the product of a coordinately-regulated gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A; Shepard, A R; Moser, D R; Roberts, L R; Holland, L J

    1991-02-01

    Fibrinogen, the principal blood-clotting protein, is made up of three different subunits synthesized in the liver. In vitro administration of glucocorticoids to liver cells from the frog Xenopus laevis causes a dramatic increase in fibrinogen synthesis. Investigations of molecular mechanisms underlying this hormonal stimulation at the mRNA level require cDNA clones complementary to the mRNAs coding for the three fibrinogen subunits, called A alpha, B beta, and gamma. We describe here the isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for the B beta subunit of Xenopus fibrinogen. cDNA libraries in both plasmid (pBR322) and phage (lambda gt10) cloning vectors were constructed from frog liver mRNA and screened with a rat B beta cDNA. Clones thus isolated hybridized to two Xenopus liver mRNAs 2500 and 1800 bases long, the previously-determined sizes for B beta mRNAs. The identity of the plasmid clone B beta-27 was confirmed by hybridization-selection of complementary mRNA which translated in vitro into the B beta polypeptide, as determined by size and susceptibility to thrombin cleavage. lambda/B beta 10, a clone representing nearly all of the 2500-base B beta mRNA, was isolated from the phage cDNA library. The 3'-end of this clone includes a polyadenylation signal about 20 residues upstream of a stretch of 34 adenosine residues, which probably represents the 3'-poly(A) tail of the messenger RNA. lambda/B beta 10 lacks only 20 nucleotides of full-length B beta mRNA at the 5'-end and there is one major start site of transcription. The 2500-base B beta mRNA has a 700-base extension at the 3'-end that is not present in the 1800-base mRNA. The Xenopus laevis genome contains two or three genes for the B beta fibrinogen subunit. Using the cDNA clone as a probe, B beta mRNA was shown to be induced at least 20-fold by glucocorticoid treatment of purified parenchymal cells of Xenopus liver maintained in primary culture. PMID:2050271

  10. Malformed frog survey Dahomey NWR - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains field data sheets assoicated with malformed frog survey on Dahomey NWR in 2001. Work was done in support of regional sampling on refuges for...

  11. Frog Call Survey Summary 2002-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since 2002, Patuxent Research Refuge has conducted frog surveys on South Tract, Central Tract, and North Tract locations. These surveys are conducted by Patuxent...

  12. Planar cell polarity enables posterior localization of nodal cilia and left-right axis determination during mouse and Xenopus embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antic

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is initiated in an early embryonic structure called the ventral node in human and mouse, and the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in the frog. Within these structures, each epithelial cell bears a single motile cilium, and the concerted beating of these cilia produces a leftward fluid flow that is required to initiate left-right asymmetric gene expression. The leftward fluid flow is thought to result from the posterior tilt of the cilia, which protrude from near the posterior portion of each cell's apical surface. The cells, therefore, display a morphological planar polarization. Planar cell polarity (PCP is manifested as the coordinated, polarized orientation of cells within epithelial sheets, or as directional cell migration and intercalation during convergent extension. A set of evolutionarily conserved proteins regulates PCP. Here, we provide evidence that vertebrate PCP proteins regulate planar polarity in the mouse ventral node and in the Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate. Asymmetric anterior localization of VANGL1 and PRICKLE2 (PK2 in mouse ventral node cells indicates that these cells are planar polarized by a conserved molecular mechanism. A weakly penetrant Vangl1 mutant phenotype suggests that compromised Vangl1 function may be associated with left-right laterality defects. Stronger functional evidence comes from the Xenopus GRP, where we show that perturbation of VANGL2 protein function disrupts the posterior localization of motile cilia that is required for leftward fluid flow, and causes aberrant expression of the left side-specific gene Nodal. The observation of anterior-posterior PCP in the mouse and in Xenopus embryonic organizers reflects a strong evolutionary conservation of this mechanism that is important for body plan determination.

  13. The Expression of TALEN before Fertilization Provides a Rapid Knock-Out Phenotype in Xenopus laevis Founder Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Miyamoto

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genome editing using programmable nucleases have revolutionized gene targeting in various organisms. Successful gene knock-out has been shown in Xenopus, a widely used model organism, although a system enabling less mosaic knock-out in founder embryos (F0 needs to be explored in order to judge phenotypes in the F0 generation. Here, we injected modified highly active transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN mRNA to oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV stage, followed by in vitro maturation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, to achieve a full knock-out in F0 embryos. Unlike conventional injection methods to fertilized embryos, the injection of TALEN mRNA into GV oocytes allows expression of nucleases before fertilization, enabling them to work from an earlier stage. Using this procedure, most of developed embryos showed full knock-out phenotypes of the pigmentation gene tyrosinase and/or embryonic lethal gene pax6 in the founder generation. In addition, our method permitted a large 1 kb deletion. Thus, we describe nearly complete gene knock-out phenotypes in Xenopus laevis F0 embryos. The presented method will help to accelerate the production of knock-out frogs since we can bypass an extra generation of about 1 year in Xenopus laevis. Meantime, our method provides a unique opportunity to rapidly test the developmental effects of disrupting those genes that do not permit growth to an adult able to reproduce. In addition, the protocol shown here is considerably less invasive than the previously used host transfer since our protocol does not require surgery. The experimental scheme presented is potentially applicable to other organisms such as mammals and fish to resolve common issues of mosaicism in founders.

  14. Seasonal Patterns in Hydrogen Isotopes of Claws from Breeding Wood-Warblers (Parulidae: Utility for Estimating Migratory Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Fraser

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in many species of migratory birds has focused attention on the extent of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering populations. Stable-hydrogen isotope (δD analysis of feathers is a useful technique for measuring connectivity, but is constrained by features of molt location and timing. Claws are metabolically inert, keratinous tissues that grow continuously and can be sampled at any point in the annual cycle, thus providing potentially useful clues about an individual's previous movements. However, variation in the rate at which claws incorporate local δD values is not well described. We measured δD values in claws of two species of Neotropical-Nearctic migrant wood-warblers (Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler breeding in eastern Ontario, Canada to investigate the rate of δD change through the breeding season and the utility of claw δD values for estimating migratory origins. δD values of claw tips from 66 different individuals, each sampled once during the breeding season, showed an average change of -0.3‰ to -0.4‰ per day in the direction of the expected local Ontario value. There were no significant sex or species differences in the rate of change. These results suggest δD values of claw tips in Parulids may reflect those of the non-breeding area for 3–7 weeks after arrival on the breeding grounds, and are useful estimators of non-breeding migratory origin. Our results also suggest that these species may leave the breeding ground before claw tips fully incorporate a local δD signature, as claws sampled at the end of the breeding season did not match locally grown feather and claw δD values. This is the first study to examine the seasonal rate of the change in δD values of claws in long-distance, insectivorous, migratory birds.

  15. A contribution to the unbalance control of claw poles for automotive alternators

    OpenAIRE

    Boltežar, Miha; Nastran, Miha; Krušič, Vid

    2015-01-01

    The claw pole still represents the largest and the heaviest part of an alternator's rotor: and it is expected that alternators will continue to be used for electric power generation in motor vehicles for at least a decade. Due to the high speeds of the rotor during operation its mass centricity is very important for the service life of the bearings, low noise and smooth running. This paper presents the production of claw poles using cold-forming technology, and a focus on reducing the electri...

  16. Influence of inductance variation on performance of a permanent magnet claw pole soft magnetic composite motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jian Guo; Lin, Zhi Wei; Lu, Haiyan; Wang, Xiaolin; Chen, Jiaxin

    2008-04-01

    Winding inductance is an important parameter in determining the performance of electrical machines, particularly those with large inductance variation. This paper investigates the influence of winding inductance variation on the performance of a three-phase three-stack claw pole permanent magnet motor with soft magnetic composite (SMC) stator by using an improved phase variable model. The winding inductances of the machine are computed by using a modified incremental energy method, based on three-dimensional nonlinear time-stepping magnetic field finite element analyses. The inductance computation and performance simulation are verified by the experimental results of an SMC claw pole motor prototype.

  17. Storage of cut Heliconia bihai (L.) cv. Lobster Claw flowers at low temperatures Armazenamento de hastes florais de Heliconia bihai (L.) cv. Lobster Claw em baixa temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    Andreza S. Costa; Luis C. Nogueira; Venézio F. dos Santos; Terezinha R. Camara; Vivian Loges; Lilia Willadino

    2011-01-01

    The postharvest conservation of cut Heliconia flowers is an important factor to the success of commercialization, especially with regard to exportation. In the present study, the maximal storage time of cut inflorescences of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw at two different temperatures (12 and 19 °C) was evaluated and compared to laboratory conditions (25 °C, control treatment). Changes in visual quality, fresh weight and bract color (L*, a* and b*) were determined. The visual quality of the...

  18. Effects of GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation during the oogenesis and spermiogenesis of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boga, Ayper; Emre, Mustafa; Sertdemir, Yasar; Uncu, İbrahim; Binokay, Secil; Demirhan, Osman

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of GSM-like radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the oogenesis, and spermiogenesis of Xenopus laevis, and so the development of the embryos obtained from Normal Females+Normal Males (i.e. "N(F)+N(M)"); Normal Females+RF-exposed Males (i.e. "N(F)+RF(M)"); RF-exposed Female+Normal Male (i.e. "RF(F)+N(M)"); and RF-exposed Female+RF-exposed Male (i.e. "RF(F)+RF(M)". Various, assessments were performed to determine potential teratogenic effects and mortality, body growth and behavior on first generation embryos. After exposing adults frogs of both sexes to 900MHz RF-EMR (at 1.0W/kg) for 8h a day over a 5-week period, the embryos' specific energy absorption rate (SAR) was calculated. In our present study (control group; 2.2% abnormal, 0.0% dead); with the N(F)+RF(M) combination, the long-term exposure of adult males to GSM-like radiation at 900MHz (RF: 2W) for 5 week/8h/day resulted in normal, abnormal and dead embryo ratios of 88.3%, 3.3% and 8.3%, respectively (pCell phones radiation can thus lead to detrimental effects in humans' male and female reproductive cells. PMID:27017260

  19. Gene expression analysis of the ovary of hybrid females of Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone John H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybrids of frogs of the genus Xenopus result in sterile hybrid males and fertile hybrid females. Previous work has demonstrated a dramatic asymmetrical pattern of misexpression in hybrid males compared to the two parental species with relatively few genes misexpressed in comparisons of hybrids and the maternal species (X. laevis and dramatically more genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to the paternal species (X. muelleri. In this work, we examine the gene expression pattern in hybrid females of X. laevis × X. muelleri to determine if this asymmetrical pattern of expression also occurs in hybrid females. Results We find a similar pattern of asymmetry in expression compared to males in that there were more genes differentially expressed between hybrids and X. muelleri compared to hybrids and X. laevis. We also found a dramatic increase in the number of misexpressed genes with hybrid females having about 20 times more genes misexpressed in ovaries compared to testes of hybrid males and therefore the match between phenotype and expression pattern is not supported. Conclusion We discuss these intriguing findings in the context of reproductive isolation and suggest that divergence in female expression may be involved in sterility of hybrid males due to the inherent sensitivity of spermatogenesis as defined by the faster male evolution hypothesis for Haldane's rule.

  20. Application of Xenopus laevis in ecotoxicology (I)--Introduction and quality control of laboratory animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Zhanfen; XU Xiaobai

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the series of papers is to discuss the application of Xenopus laevis, as model animal in biology, in ecotoxicology. X. laevis as model animal is wildly used in biological study and has provided a lot of relating data because of many advantages, such as living in water and being easily maintained, laying eggs in the whole year, and externally fertilizing and developing. Embryos and larvae of X. laevis like other amphibians are directly exposed in the aquatic environment and sensitive to pollutants. In addition, sex differentiation and sex organ development of X. laevis are sensitive to sex hormones and endocrine disruptors with sex hormone activities, which enable X. laevis to be used in studies on sex hormone disruption and reproductive toxicity of endocrine disruptors. Metamorphic development of X. laevis is very sensitive to thyroid hormones and thyroid disruptors, which enables X. laevis to be used for evaluating thyroid disruptors. Also, X. laevis ecotoxicology can be linked with amphibian population declines and malformed frog occurrence, being one of the hotspots in ecology. Thus, more and more laboratories have introduced X. laevis to ecotoxicological study. The quality of laboratory animals correlates with scientificity and reliability of results from animal experiments. It is especially important for toxicology. Quality control of X. laevis involving several factors such as water and food is discussed in this paper.

  1. Left-right patterning in Xenopus conjoined twin embryos requires serotonin signaling and gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Blackiston, Douglas J; Rea, Adam C; Dore, Timothy M; Levin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A number of processes operating during the first cell cleavages enable the left-right (LR) axis to be consistently oriented during Xenopus laevis development. Prior work showed that secondary organizers induced in frog embryos after cleavage stages (i.e. conjoined twins arising from ectopic induced primary axes) correctly pattern their own LR axis only when a primary (early) organizer is also present. This instructive effect confirms the unique LR patterning functions that occur during early embryogenesis, but leaves open the question: which mechanisms that operate during early stages are also involved in the orientation of later-induced organizers? We sought to distinguish the two phases of LR patterning in secondary organizers (LR patterning of the primary twin and the later transfer of this information to the secondary twin) by perturbing only the latter process. Here, we used reagents that do not affect primary LR patterning at the time secondary organizers form to inhibit each of 4 mechanisms in the induced twin. Using pharmacological, molecular-genetic, and photo-chemical tools, we show that serotonergic and gap-junctional signaling, but not proton or potassium flows, are required for the secondary organizer to appropriately pattern its LR axis in a multicellular context. We also show that consistently-asymmetric gene expression begins prior to ciliary flow. Together, our data highlight the importance of physiological signaling in the propagation of cleavage-derived LR orientation to multicellular cell fields. PMID:25896280

  2. Rapamycin treatment causes developmental delay, pigmentation defects, and gastrointestinal malformation on Xenopus embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Does famous anti-aging drug rapamycin work from the beginning of life? The answer is yes. → This study shows that developmental speed of frog embryo was dose-dependently decreased by rapamycin treatment. → In additions, morphogenetic effects such as less pigmentations and gut malformation are occurred by rapamycin. -- Abstract: Rapamycin is a drug working as an inhibitor of the TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and influences various life phenomena such as cell growth, proliferation, and life span extension in eukaryote. However, the extent to which rapamycin controls early developmental events of amphibians remains to be understood. Here we report an examination of rapamycin effects during Xenopus early development, followed by a confirmation of suppression of TOR downstream kinase S6K by rapamycin treatment. First, we found that developmental speed was declined in dose-dependent manner of rapamycin. Second, black pigment spots located at dorsal and lateral skin in tadpoles were reduced by rapamycin treatment. Moreover, in tadpole stages severe gastrointestinal malformations were observed in rapamycin-treated embryos. Taken together with these results, we conclude that treatment of the drug rapamycin causes enormous influences on early developmental period.

  3. A Tunable Silk Hydrogel Device for Studying Limb Regeneration in Adult Xenopus Laevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Golding

    Full Text Available In certain amphibian models limb regeneration can be promoted or inhibited by the local wound bed environment. This research introduces a device that can be utilized as an experimental tool to characterize the conditions that promotes limb regeneration in the adult frog (Xenopus laevis model. In particular, this device was designed to manipulate the local wound environment via a hydrogel insert. Initial characterization of the hydrogel insert revealed that this interaction had a significant influence on mechanical forces to the animal, due to the contraction of the hydrogel. The material and mechanical properties of the hydrogel insert were a factor in the device design in relation to the comfort of the animal and the ability to effectively manipulate the amputation site. The tunable features of the hydrogel were important in determining the pro-regenerative effects in limb regeneration, which was measured by cartilage spike formation and quantified by micro-computed tomography. The hydrogel insert was a factor in the observed morphological outcomes following amputation. Future work will focus on characterizing and optimizing the device's observed capability to manipulate biological pathways that are essential for limb regeneration. However, the present work provides a framework for the role of a hydrogel in the device and a path forward for more systematic studies.

  4. 3-D finite element analysis of claw-poled stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepping motors are widely used for various electric instruments. It is necessary for the optimum design to analyze the magnetic field accurately. The 3-D finite element method with edge elements taking into account the rotation of the rotor has been applied to analyze the magnetic field of a claw-poled stepping motor. (Author)

  5. Sow and piglet skin, claw and nipple lesions on two concrete flooring materials during lactation period

    OpenAIRE

    Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna; Munksgaard, Lene; Saloniemi, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the skin, claw and nipple lesions of sows and their piglets while they were kept on two different flooring materials: concrete cement and concrete covered with polyurethane and graveled with sand (particles 0.5-1.2 mm).

  6. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION VARIABILITY IN THE Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw WILD POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Maribel Condori Peñaloza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw is a vine widely distributed throughout the South-American rainforest. Many studies investigating the chemical composition of cat's claw have focused on the pentacyclic (POA and tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (TOA, quinovic acid glycosides (QAG, and polyphenols (PPH. Nevertheless, it is still uncertain how environmental factors affect chemical groups. The aim of this work was to better understand the influence of environmental factors (geographic origin, altitude, and season on cat's claw chemical composition. Stem bark, branches and leaf samples were extracted and analyzed by HPLC-PDA. The data obtained were explored by multivariate analysis (HCA and PCA. Higher amounts of oxindole alkaloids and PPH were found in leaves, followed by stem bark and branches. No clear relationship was verified among geographic origin or altitude and chemical composition, which remained unchanged regardless of season (dry or rainy. However, three oxindole alkaloid chemotypes were clearly recognized: chemotype I (POA with cis D/E ring junction; chemotype II (POA with trans D/E ring junction; and chemotype III (TOA. Thus, environmental factors appear to have only a minor influence on the chemical heterogeneity of the cat's claw wild population. Nevertheless, the occurrence of different chemotypes based on alkaloid profiles seems to be clear.

  7. Analysis of factors affecting milking claw vacuum levels using a simulated milking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokidani, Masafumi; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is typically caused by microbial infection of the udder, but the factors responsible for this condition are varied. One potential cause is the milking system, and although previous studies have investigated various methods for inspecting these devices, most have not assessed methods for evaluating the milking units. With this in mind, we analyzed the factors that affect the vacuum inside the milking claw by using a simulated milking device and by measuring milking claw vacuum when adjusting the flow rate in five stages. The factors analyzed in each milking system were the vacuum pressure settings (high and low line system) , milk tube length (200-328 cm), aperture diameter (14-22.2 mm), constricted aperture diameter (12 mm), tubing configurations, lift formation (0-80 cm), claw type (bottom and top flow) and use or non-use of a milk sampler. The study findings demonstrated that all of these variables had a significant impact on claw vacuum and suggest that a diagnostic method using a simulated milking device should be considered when inspecting modern milking systems. PMID:26336796

  8. PyClaw: Accessible, Extensible, Scalable Tools for Wave Propagation Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2012-08-15

    Development of scientific software involves tradeoffs between ease of use, generality, and performance. We describe the design of a general hyperbolic PDE solver that can be operated with the convenience of MATLAB yet achieves efficiency near that of hand-coded Fortran and scales to the largest supercomputers. This is achieved by using Python for most of the code while employing automatically wrapped Fortran kernels for computationally intensive routines, and using Python bindings to interface with a parallel computing library and other numerical packages. The software described here is PyClaw, a Python-based structured grid solver for general systems of hyperbolic PDEs [K. T. Mandli et al., PyClaw Software, Version 1.0, http://numerics.kaust.edu.sa/pyclaw/ (2011)]. PyClaw provides a powerful and intuitive interface to the algorithms of the existing Fortran codes Clawpack and SharpClaw, simplifying code development and use while providing massive parallelism and scalable solvers via the PETSc library. The package is further augmented by use of PyWENO for generation of efficient high-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstruction code. The simplicity, capability, and performance of this approach are demonstrated through application to example problems in shallow water flow, compressible flow, and elasticity.

  9. Do culverts impact the movements of the endangered white-clawed crayfish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Culverts can impact the migration and dispersal of aquatic animals and result in population fragmentation, increasing the risk of local extinction for endangered species such as the white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. This study used radio telemetry and passive integrated transponder (PIT telemetry to determine whether existing and experimental covered culverts affect the upstream and downstream movements of adult white-clawed crayfish. Daily crayfish movement rates did not differ significantly between an unlit 363-m long culvert and open stream channel sections. Crayfish moved into dark, covered sections volitionally. However, limited upstream movement occurred at sudden transitions of bed height or smooth-concrete box culvert sections with fast flow, suggesting partial barrier effects. In the 20-m long experimental in-stream culvert, also dark, but with natural stream bed, 70% of radio-tagged crayfish released downstream entered the culvert, as did 60% of those released upstream. Overall 35% passed through, with similar numbers in each direction. We conclude that dark culverts up to several hundred metres do not inhibit dispersal of white-clawed crayfish, provided stream slope, bed type and water velocity are amenable for movement and refuge. Care is required to ensure that culverts are bioengineered to ensure that average water velocity is sufficiently low and local hydraulic variation high, the bed and/or sidewalls contain refuge structures, and there are no cross-channel steps in bed level. Smooth-bedded box culverts are unlikely to be suitable for white-clawed crayfish.

  10. Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants : clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar / plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the 'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates.

  11. 3-D Finite Element Investigation of Flux Regulation Performance of a Novel Hybrid Excitation Brushless Claw-Pole Alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of low power density of electric excitation claw-pole synchronous alternator (EECA and some difficulties in magnetic field regulation of permanent magnet claw-pole synchronous alternator (PMCA, a novel hybrid excitation brushless claw-pole alternator (HEBCA is proposed in this paper. Its structure and field control principle are described. Three dimensional finite element analysis is used to obtain the no-load magnetic field distributions and field control capability under different field currents. The result shows that the flux of the prototype machine can be adjusted over a wide range with a relatively low field current.

  12. The propeller and the frog

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    "Propellers" in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller, and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the "frog" resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Bl\\'eriot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of ~4 years, similar to the ~3.7 yea...

  13. Telomerase activity in germline and embryonic cells of Xenopus.

    OpenAIRE

    Mantell, L L; Greider, C W

    1994-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein which synthesizes telomere repeats onto chromosome ends. Telomerase activity is involved in telomere length maintenance. We used Xenopus laevis as a model system to study the expression of telomerase activity in germline cells and during early development. We identified a non-processive telomerase activity in manually dissected nuclei of Xenopus stage VI oocytes. Telomerase activity was detected throughout oogenesis and embryogenesis. Telomerase was active in...

  14. EBF proteins participate in transcriptional regulation of Xenopus muscle development

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Yangsook Song; Vetter, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    EBF proteins have diverse functions in the development of multiple lineages, including neurons, B cells and adipocytes. During Drosophila muscle development EBF proteins are expressed in muscle progenitors and are required for muscle cell differentiation, but there is no known function of EBF proteins in vertebrate muscle development. In this study, we examine the expression of ebf genes in Xenopus muscle tissue and show that EBF activity is necessary for aspects of Xenopus skeletal muscle de...

  15. FROG: The Fast & Realistic OPENGL Displayer

    CERN Document Server

    Quertenmont, Loic

    2009-01-01

    FROG is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light (<3 MB) and fast (browsing time ~20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OPENGL and GLUT libraries. Moreover, FROG does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This document describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisations, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally, several examples of its current applications are presented for illustration.

  16. FROG The Fast and Realistic OPENGL Displayer

    CERN Document Server

    Quertenmont, Loic

    2009-01-01

    FROG is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light ($<3\\textrm{MB}$) and fast (browsing time ~20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OPENGL and GLUT libraries. Moreover, FROG does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This document describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisations, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally, several examples of its current applications are presented for illustration.

  17. Use of the modified Stainsby procedure in correcting severe claw toe deformity in the rheumatoid foot: a retrospective review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Queally, Joseph M

    2009-06-01

    In claw toe deformity, the plantar plate of the metarsophalangeal joint becomes displaced onto the dorsal aspect of the metatarsal head. The Stainsby procedure replaces the displaced plantar plate to its correct position beneath the metatarsal head.

  18. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  19. F.R.O.G. - Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    From October 17th to 19th the international Games Conference "Future and Reality of Gaming" (F.R.O.G. 08) took place in Vienna as part of the Game City. The three days of the conference offered a large variety of international keynote speakers as well as a broad review on the cutting edge research on the topic of gaming. The presentations at F.R.O.G. 08 covered topics such as theory of gaming, culture of gaming, future perspectives of the games industry, game design as well as various pedagog...

  20. F.R.O.G. - Abstracts Keynotes

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    From October 17th to 19th the international Games Conference "Future and Reality of Gaming" (F.R.O.G. 08) took place in Vienna as part of the Game City. The three days of the conference offered a large variety of international keynote speakers as well as a broad review on the cutting edge research on the topic of gaming. The presentations at F.R.O.G. 08 covered topics such as theory of gaming, culture of gaming, future perspectives of the games industry, game design as well as various pedagog...

  1. On the Erdős-Gyárfás Conjecture in Claw-Free Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowbandegani Pouria Salehi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Erdős-Gyárfás conjecture states that every graph with minimum degree at least three has a cycle whose length is a power of 2. Since this conjecture has proven to be far from reach, Hobbs asked if the Erdős-Gyárfás conjecture holds in claw-free graphs. In this paper, we obtain some results on this question, in particular for cubic claw-free graphs

  2. Microhabitat use by foraging white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes) in stream pools in the NE Iberian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Clavero, Miguel; Benejam, L.; Seglar, A.

    2009-01-01

    The white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes) is an endangered species across most of its distribution range, and information on its ecological requirements is needed to implement effective conser- vation measures. Its habitat use has been studied in different areas and at various spatial scales. However, being a nocturnal species, there is scarce information on its habitat selection during foraging periods. In this work we analyse nocturnal habitat use of white-clawed crayfish...

  3. Conservation Aspects of the Ecology of Asian Small-Clawed and Smooth Otters on the Malay Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Foster-Turley P.

    1992-01-01

    Between April 1989 and June 1990 I made four six-week study visits to Tanjong Piandang, Perak, Malaysia where I studied otters in collaboration with Mr Burhannudin ("Bond") Mohd of the Department of National parks and Wildlife of Peninsular Malaysia. We mostly studied field signs and collected scats of both smooth (Lutra perspicillata) and small clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea) inhabiting the rice fields and fringing mangroves of the study site. With experience, smooth and small-clawed otters si...

  4. The Observation of Frog Species at State University of Malang as a Preliminary Effort on Frog Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Ratri Wulandari; Muhammad Habibi; Dwi Listyorini

    2013-01-01

    Frog is an amphibian which is widely spread around the world. Indonesia houses 450 species which represent 11% of frog species in the world. In Java Island alone, there live 42 species of frogs and toads. Frogs can be used as an environment indicator in that the presence of frog in a particular place indicates that the place stays natural and unpolluted. The 1st Campus of State University of Malang, which is located in the heart of Malang District, has been developing rapidly currently. Thus,...

  5. Storage of cut Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Claw flowers at low temperatures Armazenamento de hastes florais de Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Claw em baixa temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza S. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest conservation of cut Heliconia flowers is an important factor to the success of commercialization, especially with regard to exportation. In the present study, the maximal storage time of cut inflorescences of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw at two different temperatures (12 and 19 °C was evaluated and compared to laboratory conditions (25 °C, control treatment. Changes in visual quality, fresh weight and bract color (L*, a* and b* were determined. The visual quality of the inflorescences and fresh weight decreased with time in all treatments. Symptoms of chilling injury were observed on the inflorescences stored at 12 °C for six and eight days. Bract color was not affected by temperature, storage time or the senescence process. The results indicate that a temperature of 12 °C is not recommended for a storage time longer than four days, whereas 19 °C can be used for a storage time of up to eight days for cut inflorescences of H. bihai cv. Lobster Claw.A conservação pós-colheita de flores de corte de Heliconia é fator relevante para o sucesso da comercialização, principalmente para a exportação. Neste estudo, o período máximo de armazenamento de hastes florais de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw, foi avaliado em duas diferentes temperaturas (12 e 19 °C e comparado com as condições de laboratório (25 °C, tratamento controle. As variáveis avaliadas foram: qualidade visual, massa de matéria fresca e a coloração das inflorescências (L*, a* e b*. A qualidade visual das inflorescências e a massa de matéria fresca de todos os tratamentos reduziram ao longo do tempo. Sintomas de injúria por frio foram observados nas inflorescências armazenadas a 12 °C, durante seis e oito dias. A coloração das brácteas não foi afetada pela temperatura, período de armazenamento nem pelo processo de senescência. Os resultados indicam que a temperatura de 12 °C não é recomendada para armazenar hastes florais de

  6. The synergy between the insect-inspired claws and adhesive pads increases the attachment ability on various rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Dai, Zhendong; Wang, Zhouyi; Ji, Aihong; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-01-01

    To attach reliably on various inclined rough surfaces, many insects have evolved both claws and adhesive pads on their feet. However, the interaction between these organs still remains unclear. Here we designed an artificial attachment device, which mimics the structure and function of claws and adhesive pads, and tested it on stiff spheres of different dimensions. The results show that the attachment forces of claws decrease with an increase of the sphere radius. The forces may become very strong, when the sphere radius is smaller or comparable to the claw radius, because of the frictional self-lock. On the other hand, adhesive pads generate considerable adhesion on large sphere diameter due to large contact areas. The synergy effect between the claws and adhesive pads leads to much stronger attachment forces, if compared to the action of claw or adhesive pads independently (or even to the sum of both). The results carried out by our insect-inspired artificial attachment device clearly demonstrate why biological evolution employed two attachment organs working in concert. The results may greatly inspire the robot design, to obtain reliable attachment forces on various substrates. PMID:27198650

  7. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D.; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  8. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D; Prideaux, Gavin J

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  9. Pars plana vitrectomy with posterior iris claw implantation for posteriorly dislocated nucleus and intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor B Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the safety and efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with primary posterior iris claw intraocular lens (IOL implantation in cases of posterior dislocation of nucleus and IOL without capsular support. This was a retrospective interventional case series. Fifteen eyes underwent PPV with primary posterior iris claw IOL implantation performed by a single vitreoretinal surgeon. The main outcome measures were changes in best corrected visual acuity and anterior and posterior segment complications. A total of 15 eyes were included in this study. Eight had nucleus drop, three had IOL drop during cataract surgery and four had traumatic posterior dislocation of lens. The final postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 20/60 or better in 11 patients. This procedure is a viable option in achieving good functional visual acuity in eyes without capsular support.

  10. Variability of a dynamic visual signal: the fiddler crab claw-waving display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Martin J; Zeil, Jochen; Hemmi, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    Fiddler crabs use elaborate, species-specific claw-waving displays to communicate with rivals and mates. However, detailed comparative studies of fiddler crab signal structure and structural variations are lacking. This paper provides an analysis of the claw-waving displays of seven Australian species of fiddler crab, Uca mjoebergi, U. perplexa, U. polita, U. seismella, U. signata, U. elegans and U. vomeris. We used digital video to record and analyse the fine-scale spatiotemporal properties of these movement-based visual signals. We found that the structure and timing of the displays is species-specific, exhibiting inter-specific differences that follow phylogenetic relationships. The displays showed intra-specific variation according to individual identity, geographic location and fine-scale behavioural context. The observed differences and variations are discussed in the light of the evolutionary forces that may shape their design. PMID:19002693

  11. Devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens in a Brahman's preputial sheath : a case report from Botswana : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.W. Isa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Failure of penile protrusion during attempted service of a cow on heat was investigated in a 3-year-old Brahman bull at Kwakwadi cattle-post in the Kgalahadi sandveld, Kweneng District, Botswana. The investigation revealed that penile protrusion was obstructed by a devil's claw (grapple thorn, a dry fruit of the plant Harpagophytum procumbens, which had lodged in the cavum preputiale. The thorn, which was removed almost completely manually with minimal tissue dissection, had also caused minor lacerations and puncture wounds on the lamina interna pars parietalis. The wounds healed well following treatment with antiseptics and antibiotics and subsequently the bull regained full penile protrusion and served the cows well. This report describes the first case of lodgement of a devil's claw fruit in, and its extraction from, the cavum preputiale of a Brahman.

  12. Frog egg growth, experiment S003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.; Tremor, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The objective of experiment was to determine the effect of weightlessness on the ability of a fertilized frog egg to divide normally and to differentiate and form a normal embryo. This experiment was first attempted on the Gemini 8 mission and was completed only partially because of the early termination of that mission.

  13. Venomous Frogs Use Heads as Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Carlos; Mailho-Fontana, Pedro Luiz; Antoniazzi, Marta Maria; Mendes, Vanessa Aparecida; Barbaro, Katia Cristina; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Brodie, Edmund D

    2015-08-17

    Venomous animals have toxins associated with delivery mechanisms that can introduce the toxins into another animal. Although most amphibian species produce or sequester noxious or toxic secretions in the granular glands of the skin to use as antipredator mechanisms, amphibians have been considered poisonous rather than venomous because delivery mechanisms are absent. The skin secretions of two Brazilian hylid frogs (Corythomantis greening and Aparasphenodon brunoi) are more toxic than the venoms of deadly venomous Brazilian pitvipers, genus Bothrops; C. greeningi secretion is 2-fold and A. brunoi secretion is 25-fold as lethal as Bothrops venom. Like the venoms of other animals, the skin secretions of these frogs show proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity and have hyaluronidase, which is nontoxic and nonproteolytic but promotes diffusion of toxins. These frogs have well-developed delivery mechanisms, utilizing bony spines on the skull that pierce the skin in areas with concentrations of skin glands. C. greeningi has greater development of head spines and enlarged skin glands producing a greater volume of secretion, while A. brunoi has more lethal venom. C. greeningi and A. brunoi have highly toxic skin secretions and an associated delivery mechanism; they are therefore venomous. Because even tiny amounts of these secretions introduced into a wound caused by the head spines could be dangerous, these frogs are capable of using their skin toxins as venoms against would-be predators. PMID:26255851

  14. Water Frogs, Aquariums, and Salmonella -- Oh My!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-09

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses how people can get Salmonella from water frogs and aquariums.  Created: 12/9/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 12/9/2009.

  15. Comparison of TALEN scaffolds in Xenopus tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nakajima

    2013-11-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs are facile and potent tools used to modify a gene of interest for targeted gene knockout. TALENs consist of an N-terminal domain, a DNA-binding domain, and a C-terminal domain, which are derived from a transcription activator-like effector, and the non-specific nuclease domain of FokI. Using Xenopus tropicalis (X. tropicalis, we compared the toxicities and somatic mutation activities of four TALEN architectures in a side-by-side manner: a basic TALEN, a scaffold with the same truncated N- and C-terminal domains as GoldyTALEN, a scaffold with the truncated N- and C-terminal domains and an obligate heterodimeric nuclease domain, and a scaffold with the truncated N- and C-terminal domains and an obligate heterodimeric Sharkey nuclease domain. The strongest phenotype and targeted somatic gene mutation were induced by the injection of TALEN mRNAs containing the truncated N- and C-terminal domains and an obligate heterodimeric nuclease domain. The obligate heterodimeric TALENs exhibited reduced toxicity compared to the homodimeric TALENs, and the homodimeric GoldyTALEN-type scaffold showed both a high activity of somatic gene modification and high toxicity. The Sharkey mutation in the heterodimeric nuclease domain reduced the TALEN-mediated somatic mutagenesis.

  16. Promoter control of translation in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel, N; Braddock, M; Thorburn, A M; Muckenthaler, M; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1995-02-11

    The HIV-1 promoter directs the high level production of transcripts in Xenopus oocytes. However, despite being exported to the cytoplasm, the transcripts are not translated [M. Braddock, A. M. Thorburn, A. Chambers, G. D. Elliott, G. J. Anderson, A. J. Kingsman and S. M. Kingsman (1990) Cell, 62, 1123-1133]. We have shown previously that this is a function of promoter sequences and is independent of the TAR RNA element that is normally located at the 5' end of all HIV mRNAs. We now show that a three nucleotide substitution at position -340, upstream of the RNA start site, reverses the translation inhibition. This site coincides with a sequence that can bind the haematopoietic transcription factor GATA. The inhibition of translation can also be reversed by treatment with inhibitors of casein kinase II or by injection into the nucleus of antibodies specific for the FRGY2 family of RNP proteins. We suggest that the -340 site influences the quality of the transcription complex such that transcripts are diverted to a nucleus-dependent translation inhibition pathway. PMID:7885836

  17. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel A; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of "frog swarms" from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported "frog swarms" are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by juvenile animals migrating away from their breeding pond, after a fruitful reproductive season. As amphibian populations undergo large fluctuations in numbers from year to year, this phenomenon will not occur on a yearly basis but will depend on successful reproduction, which is related to numerous climatic and geophysical factors. Hence, most large swarms of amphibians, particularly those involving very small frogs and occurring in late spring or summer, are not unusual and should not be considered earthquake precursors. In addition, it is likely that reports of several mass migration of small toads prior to the Great Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 were not linked to the subsequent M = 7.9 event (some occurred at a great distance from the epicentre), and were probably co

  18. Development of Alternative Crab Claw Processing Systems to Minimize Environmental Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Benning, Jennifer Lyn

    1997-01-01

    Development of Alternative Crab Claw Processing Systems to Minimize Environmental Impact by Jennifer Lyn Benning Chair: Dr. Gregory Boardman Environemental Engineering (ABSTRACT) In the recent years, environmental regulations enforced by federal,state, and local agencies have increasingly addressed water quality issues through progressively more stringent regulations. These regulations have raised concerns in the blue crab industry because processors are now subject to regulations u...

  19. A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus) Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata) in a West Sumatra Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jabang; Wilson Novarino; Aadrean

    2011-01-01

    A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell) in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characterist...

  20. Effects of 17α-trenbolone and melengestrol acetate on Xenopus laevis growth, development, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Bryson E; Blackwell, Brett R; Faust, Derek R; Wooten, Kimberly J; Maul, Jonathan D; Cox, Stephen B; Smith, Philip N

    2013-02-01

    The synthetic growth-promoting hormones trenbolone and melengestrol acetate have been detected in the environment near beef cattle feedlots and are reportedly transported via wind-borne particulate matter. Therefore, movement of synthetic hormones from beef cattle feedlots to water bodies via particulate matter is possible. Our objective was to evaluate potential effects of 17α-trenbolone (17α-TB), melengestrol acetate (MGA), and combinations of both on growth, development, and survival of Xenopus laevis larvae. On post-hatch day 2 (stage 33/34), X. laevis larvae were exposed to three nominal concentrations of 17α-TB (10, 100, and 500 ng/L), MGA (1, 10, and 100 ng/L), a combination of both (1/10, 10/100, and 100/500 ng/L MGA/17α-TB), frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus medium, or a solvent control. Significant increases in all X. laevis growth metrics were observed among larvae in the 1 ng/L MGA + 10 ng/L 17α-TB and 10 ng/L MGA + 100 ng/L 17α-TB treatments. Stage of development was increased among larvae in the 1 ng/L MGA + 10 ng/L 17α-TB treatment group and significantly decreased among those in the 500 ng/L 17α-TB treatment. Total body mass and snout-vent length of X. laevis larvae were significantly reduced in the 100 ng/L MGA and 100 ng/L MGA + 500 ng/L 17α-TB treatment groups. Larvae exposed to 500 ng/L 17α-TB had decreased total body mass, snout-vent length, and total length. In general, growth measurements decreased with increasing concentration of MGA, 17α-TB, or a combination of both. Survival among all treatments was not significantly different from controls. Amphibians exposed to MGA and 17α-TB in the environment may experience alterations in growth and development. PMID:22890510

  1. Prenatal Diagnosis of EEC Syndrome with "Lobster Claw" Anomaly by 3D Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia T Rios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The EEC syndrome is a genetic anomaly characterized by the triad: ectodermal dysplasia (development of anomalies of the structures derived from the embryonic ectodermal layer, ectrodactyly (extremities, hands and feet malformations and cleft lip and/or palate; these malformations can be seen together or in isolation. The prenatal diagnosis can be made by two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS that identifies the facial and/or limb anomalies, most characteristic being the "lobster-claw" hands. The three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS provides a better analysis of the malformations than the 2DUS. A 25-year-old primigravida, had her first transvaginal ultrasonography that showed an unique fetus with crow-rump length of 47 mm with poorly defined hands and feet,. She was suspected of having sporadic form of EEC syndrome. The 2DUS performed at 19 weeks confirmed the EEC syndrome, showing a fetus with lobster-claw hands (absence of the 2 nd and 3 rd fingers, left foot with the absence of the 3rd toe and the right foot with syndactyly, and presence of cleft lip/palate. The 3DUS defined the anomalies much better than 2DUS including the lobster-claw hands.

  2. Retropupillary Fixation of Iris-Claw Intraocular Lens for Aphakic Eyes in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Brandner

    Full Text Available To report outcome, complications and safety of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses in a pediatric population.Retrospective study.Ten consecutive pediatric patients (15 eyes underwent placement of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses between October 2007 and July 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Graz and General Hospital Klagenfurt, Austria. Postoperative visual acuity and complications were analyzed.Median final best-corrected visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR from preoperative baseline. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent was -0.05 ± 1.76 D. No serious complications were observed intra- or postoperatively during the entire follow-up period of up to 40 months. One patient experienced a haptic disenclavation with IOL subluxation immediately after a car accident.Our study demonstrates that iris-claw intraocular lens implantation behind the iris is safe in children with lack of capsular support and yields excellent visual outcome with low complication rate.

  3. Optimization Design and Performance Analysis of a PM Brushless Rotor Claw Pole Motor with FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of permanent magnet (PM brushless claw pole motor (CPM with soft magnetic composite (SMC core is designed and analyzed in this paper. The PMs are mounted on the claw pole surface, and the three-phase stator windings are fed by variable-frequency three-phase AC currents. The advantages of the proposed CPM are that the slip rings on the rotor are cast off and it can achieve the efficiency improvement and higher power density. The effects of the claw-pole structure parameters, the air-gap length, and the PM thinner parameter of the proposed CPM on the output torque are investigated by using three-dimensional time-stepping finite element method (3D TS-FEM. The optimal rotor structure of the proposed CPM is obtained by using the response surface methodology (RSM and the particle swarm optimization (PSO method and the comparison of full-load performances of the proposed CPM with different material cores (SMC and silicon steel is analyzed.

  4. Sand Floor for Farmed Blue Foxes: Effects on Claws, Adrenal Cortex Function, Growth and Fur Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Ahola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus are traditionally housed on mesh floors where they are unable to perform certain species-specific behaviours, such as digging, which may compromise the animals' welfare. This study describes how a possibility to use in-cage sand floor affects welfare-related variables like growth of the claws, adrenal cortex function, and fur properties in juvenile blue foxes. The foxes (N=32 were housed in male-female sibling pairs in an outdoor fur animal shed in cage systems consisting of two traditional fox cages. For the eight male-female sibling pairs of the Control group, there was a mesh floor in both cages of each cage system, whereas for the eight pairs of the Sand group there was a mesh floor in one cage and a 30–40 cm deep earth floor in the other cage. The results show that sand floor is beneficial for the wearing of the claws of foxes. Furthermore, an early experience of sand floor may have positive effects on the foxes' fur development. The results, however, also suggest that there might appear welfare problems observed as disturbed claw growth and increased adrenal cortex activation if foxes that are once provided with clean and unfrozen sand floor are not allowed to enjoy this floor all the time.

  5. Color and intensity discrimination in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Gabriel R; Blackiston, Douglas J; Levin, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Investigations into the physiology of Xenopus laevis have the potential to greatly accelerate biomedical research, especially concerning neural plasticity and sensory systems, but are limited by the lack of available information on behavioral learning in this species. Here, we attempt to lay the foundations for a behavioral assay in Xenopus that can be used in conjunction with biological manipulations. We tested cohorts of Xenopus tadpoles across four light-mediated active-avoidance experiments, using either wavelength or intensity as the salient discriminative cue. In the wavelength task, we determine a baseline learning rate and characterize retention of learning, identifying active extinction effects as far more potent than the passage of time in the loss of behavior. In the intensity task, we examine the effects of varying differences between the discriminative stimuli on acquisition and extinction and identify a critical range of intensity differences where learning changes. The results of our experiments demonstrate that Xenopus is a tractable model organism for cognitive research and can learn a variety of associative tasks in the laboratory settings. These data reveal new aspects of the Xenopus larval visual processing system and facilitate future research between cognitive methods and biological/chemical manipulations to study mechanisms of brain structure and function. PMID:27146661

  6. The Xenopus ORFeome: A resource that enables functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ian M; Balcha, Dawit; Hao, Tong; Shen, Yun; Trivedi, Prasad; Patrushev, Ilya; Fortriede, Joshua D; Karpinka, John B; Liu, Limin; Zorn, Aaron M; Stukenberg, P Todd; Hill, David E; Gilchrist, Michael J

    2015-12-15

    Functional characterisation of proteins and large-scale, systems-level studies are enabled by extensive sets of cloned open reading frames (ORFs) in an easily-accessible format that enables many different applications. Here we report the release of the first stage of the Xenopus ORFeome, which contains 8673 ORFs from the Xenopus Gene Collection (XGC) for Xenopus laevis, cloned into a Gateway® donor vector enabling rapid in-frame transfer of the ORFs to expression vectors. This resource represents an estimated 7871 unique genes, approximately 40% of the non-redundant X. laevis gene complement, and includes 2724 genes where the human ortholog has an association with disease. Transfer into the Gateway system was validated by 5' and 3' end sequencing of the entire collection and protein expression of a set of test clones. In a parallel process, the underlying ORF predictions from the original XGC collection were re-analysed to verify quality and full-length status, identifying those proteins likely to exhibit truncations when translated. These data are integrated into Xenbase, the Xenopus community database, which associates genomic, expression, function and human disease model metadata to each ORF, enabling end-users to search for ORFeome clones with links to commercial distributors of the collection. When coupled with the experimental advantages of Xenopus eggs and embryos, the ORFeome collection represents a valuable resource for functional genomics and disease modelling. PMID:26391338

  7. Triclosan exposure alters postembryonic development in a Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla) Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (TREEMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlatt, Vicki L. [Nautilus Environmental, 8864 Commerce Court, Burnaby, B.C. V5A 4N7 (Canada); Veldhoen, Nik [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055 Stn CSC, Victoria, B.C. V8W 3P6 (Canada); Lo, Bonnie P. [Nautilus Environmental, 8864 Commerce Court, Burnaby, B.C. V5A 4N7 (Canada); Bakker, Dannika; Rehaume, Vicki; Vallee, Kurtis [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055 Stn CSC, Victoria, B.C. V8W 3P6 (Canada); Haberl, Maxine; Shang, Dayue; Aggelen, Graham C. van; Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Emergencies Operational Analytical Laboratories and Research Support Division, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, B.C. V7H 1B1 (Canada); Elphick, James R. [Nautilus Environmental, 8864 Commerce Court, Burnaby, B.C. V5A 4N7 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055 Stn CSC, Victoria, B.C. V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA), developed for Xenopus laevis, is designed to identify chemicals that disrupt thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated biological processes. We adapted the AMA for use on an ecologically-relevant North American species, the Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla), and applied molecular endpoints to evaluate the effects of the antibacterial agent, triclosan (TCS). Premetamorphic (Gosner stage 26-28) tadpoles were immersed for 21 days in solvent control, 1.5 {mu}g/L thyroxine (T{sub 4}), 0.3, 3 and 30 {mu}g/L (nominal) TCS, or combined T{sub 4}/TCS treatments. Exposure effects were scored by morphometric (developmental stage, wet weight, and body, snout-vent and hindlimb lengths) and molecular (mRNA abundance using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction) criteria. T{sub 4} treatment alone accelerated development concomitant with altered levels of TH receptors {alpha} and {beta}, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and gelatinase B mRNAs in the brain and tail. We observed TCS-induced perturbations in all of the molecular and morphological endpoints indicating that TCS exposure disrupts coordination of postembryonic tadpole development. Clear alterations in molecular endpoints were evident at day 2 whereas the earliest morphological effects appeared at day 4 and were most evident at day 21. Although TCS alone (3 and 30 {mu}g/L) was protective against tadpole mortality, this protection was lost in the presence of T{sub 4}. The Pacific tree frog is the most sensitive species examined to date displaying disruption of TH-mediated development by a common antimicrobial agent.

  8. Triclosan exposure alters postembryonic development in a Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla) Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (TREEMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA), developed for Xenopus laevis, is designed to identify chemicals that disrupt thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated biological processes. We adapted the AMA for use on an ecologically-relevant North American species, the Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla), and applied molecular endpoints to evaluate the effects of the antibacterial agent, triclosan (TCS). Premetamorphic (Gosner stage 26–28) tadpoles were immersed for 21 days in solvent control, 1.5 μg/L thyroxine (T4), 0.3, 3 and 30 μg/L (nominal) TCS, or combined T4/TCS treatments. Exposure effects were scored by morphometric (developmental stage, wet weight, and body, snout-vent and hindlimb lengths) and molecular (mRNA abundance using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction) criteria. T4 treatment alone accelerated development concomitant with altered levels of TH receptors α and β, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and gelatinase B mRNAs in the brain and tail. We observed TCS-induced perturbations in all of the molecular and morphological endpoints indicating that TCS exposure disrupts coordination of postembryonic tadpole development. Clear alterations in molecular endpoints were evident at day 2 whereas the earliest morphological effects appeared at day 4 and were most evident at day 21. Although TCS alone (3 and 30 μg/L) was protective against tadpole mortality, this protection was lost in the presence of T4. The Pacific tree frog is the most sensitive species examined to date displaying disruption of TH-mediated development by a common antimicrobial agent.

  9. Fibre-selective recording from the peripheral nerves of frogs using a multi-electrode cuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuettler, Martin; Donaldson, Nick; Seetohul, Vipin; Taylor, John

    2013-06-01

    Objective. We investigate the ability of the method of velocity selective recording (VSR) to determine the fibre types that contribute to a compound action potential (CAP) propagating along a peripheral nerve. Real-time identification of the active fibre types by determining the direction of action potential propagation (afferent or efferent) and velocity might allow future neural prostheses to make better use of biological sensor signals and provide a new and simple tool for use in fundamental neuroscience. Approach. Fibre activity was recorded from explanted Xenopus Laevis frog sciatic nerve using a single multi-electrode cuff that records whole nerve activity with 11 equidistant ring-shaped electrodes. The recorded signals were amplified, delayed against each other with variable delay times, added and band-pass filtered. Finally, the resulting amplitudes were measured. Main Result. Our experiments showed that electrically evoked frog CAP was dominated by two fibre populations, propagating at around 20 and 40 m/s, respectively. The velocity selectivity, i.e. the ability of the system to discriminate between individual populations was increased by applying band-pass filtering. The method extracted an entire velocity spectrum from a 10 ms CAP recording sample in real time. Significance. Unlike the techniques introduced in the 1970s and subsequently, VSR requires only a single nerve cuff and does not require averaging to provide velocity spectral information. This makes it potentially suitable for the generation of highly-selective real-time control-signals for future neural prostheses. In our study, electrically evoked CAPs were analysed and it remains to be proven whether the method can reliably classify physiological nerve traffic. The work presented here was carried out at the laboratories of the Implanted Devices Group, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, UK.

  10. Xenopus pax6 mutants affect eye development and other organ systems, and have phenotypic similarities to human aniridia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Takuya; Fisher, Marilyn; Nakajima, Keisuke; Odeleye, Akinleye O; Zimmerman, Keith B; Fish, Margaret B; Yaoita, Yoshio; Chojnowski, Jena L; Lauderdale, James D; Netland, Peter A; Grainger, Robert M

    2015-12-15

    Mutations in the Pax6 gene cause ocular defects in both vertebrate and invertebrate animal species, and the disease aniridia in humans. Despite extensive experimentation on this gene in multiple species, including humans, we still do not understand the earliest effects on development mediated by this gene. This prompted us to develop pax6 mutant lines in Xenopus tropicalis taking advantage of the utility of the Xenopus system for examining early development and in addition to establish a model for studying the human disease aniridia in an accessible lower vertebrate. We have generated mutants in pax6 by using Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease (TALEN) constructs for gene editing in X. tropicalis. Embryos with putative null mutations show severe eye abnormalities and changes in brain development, as assessed by changes in morphology and gene expression. One gene that we found is downregulated very early in development in these pax6 mutants is myc, a gene involved in pluripotency and progenitor cell maintenance and likely a mediator of some key pax6 functions in the embryo. Changes in gene expression in the developing brain and pancreas reflect other important functions of pax6 during development. In mutations with partial loss of pax6 function eye development is initially relatively normal but froglets show an underdeveloped iris, similar to the classic phenotype (aniridia) seen in human patients with PAX6 mutations. Other eye abnormalities observed in these froglets, including cataracts and corneal defects, are also common in human aniridia. The frog model thus allows us to examine the earliest deficits in eye formation as a result of pax6 lesions, and provides a useful model for understanding the developmental basis for the aniridia phenotype seen in humans. PMID:25724657

  11. Frog value chain case study in Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Minh Quoc

    2012-01-01

    Frog is valuable product in Vietnam but the natural frogs are overexploited thus, the new model to raising frog is desired. Many species of frogs are cultured in Vietnam, especially in Ho Chi Minh City, for trial of the adaptive ability of exotic species in Vietnam condition. Recently, the frogs’ species from Thailand and Taiwan are prepotent and spread out Vietnam. Nowadays, frog culture becomes one of the newest industries in Vietnam. With a short life cycle, frog culture is farming as econ...

  12. Development of the retinotectal system in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui in comparison with other anurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlosser Gerhard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frogs primitively have a biphasic life history with an aquatic larva (tadpole and a usually terrestrial adult. However, direct developing frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus have lost a free living larval stage. Many larval structures never form during development of Eleutherodactylus, while limbs, spinal cord, and an adult-like cranial musculoskeletal system develop precociously. Results Here, I compare growth and differentiation of the retina and tectum and development of early axon tracts in the brain between Eleutherodactylus coqui and the biphasically developing frogs Discoglossus pictus, Physalaemus pustulosus, and Xenopus laevis using morphometry, immunohistochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and acetylated tubulin, biocytin tracing, and in situ hybridization for NeuroD. Findings of the present study indicate that retinotectal development was greatly altered during evolution of Eleutherodactlyus mostly due to acceleration of cell proliferation and growth in retina and tectum. However, differentiation of retina, tectum, and fiber tracts in the embryonic brain proceed along a conserved slower schedule and remain temporally coordinated with each other in E. coqui. Conclusion These findings reveal a mosaic pattern of changes in the development of the central nervous system (CNS during evolution of the direct developing genus Eleutherodactylus. Whereas differentiation events in directly interconnected parts of the CNS such as retina, tectum, and brain tracts remained coordinated presumably due to their interdependent development, they were dissociated from proliferation control and from differentiation events in other parts of the CNS such as the spinal cord. This suggests that mosaic evolutionary changes reflect the modular character of CNS development.

  13. The T cell receptor beta genes of Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, I; Marcuz, A; Fellah, J; Charlemagne, J; Du Pasquier, L

    1997-03-01

    cDNA of the T cell receptor beta (TCRB) have been isolated from the anuran amphibian Xenopus and they show strong structural homology to TCRB sequences of other vertebrates. Ten BV families, two D segments, ten J segments, and a single C region have been defined so far. Each V family consists of one to two members per haploid genome. A unique feature of the Xenopus TCRB constant region is the lack of N-linked carbohydrate glycosylation sites. The recombination signal sequences suggest that the mechanism of rearrangements are identical to those of mammals. The locus is inherited in a diploid manner despite the pseudotetraploidy of the Xenopus laevis and X. gilli used in this study. PMID:9079820

  14. Probing the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome for biological function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powers TuShun R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The senses of hearing and balance depend upon mechanoreception, a process that originates in the inner ear and shares features across species. Amphibians have been widely used for physiological studies of mechanotransduction by sensory hair cells. In contrast, much less is known of the genetic basis of auditory and vestibular function in this class of animals. Among amphibians, the genus Xenopus is a well-characterized genetic and developmental model that offers unique opportunities for inner ear research because of the amphibian capacity for tissue and organ regeneration. For these reasons, we implemented a functional genomics approach as a means to undertake a large-scale analysis of the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome through microarray analysis. Results Microarray analysis uncovered genes within the X. laevis inner ear transcriptome associated with inner ear function and impairment in other organisms, thereby supporting the inclusion of Xenopus in cross-species genetic studies of the inner ear. The use of gene categories (inner ear tissue; deafness; ion channels; ion transporters; transcription factors facilitated the assignment of functional significance to probe set identifiers. We enhanced the biological relevance of our microarray data by using a variety of curation approaches to increase the annotation of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Xenopus laevis Genome array. In addition, annotation analysis revealed the prevalence of inner ear transcripts represented by probe set identifiers that lack functional characterization. Conclusions We identified an abundance of targets for genetic analysis of auditory and vestibular function. The orthologues to human genes with known inner ear function and the highly expressed transcripts that lack annotation are particularly interesting candidates for future analyses. We used informatics approaches to impart biologically relevant information to the Xenopus inner ear transcriptome

  15. The checklist of protozoan and acanthocephalan from frogs in China

    OpenAIRE

    XIA Weili; Huang, Bing; Zhu, Shunhai; Men Qifei; Han, Hongyu; Dong, Hui; Zhao, Qiping

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the species of protozoan and acanthocephalan from frogs and their geographic distributions in China.Relevant literatures that reported protozoan and acanthocephalan in frogs of China were collected and a checklist was provided according to newer classification system on protozoan and acanthocephalan based on these literatures.In summary,61 species of protozoan and 8 species of acanthocephalan have been recorded in 31 species of frogs in China.Among them,the species of p...

  16. Regulation of Xenopus laevis DNA topoisomerase I activity by phosphorylation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA topoisomerase I has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from ovaries of the frog Xenopus laevis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the most purified fraction revealed a single major band at 110 kDa and less abundant minor bands centered at 62 kDa. Incubation of the most purified fraction with immobilized calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase abolished all DNA topoisomerase enzymatic activity in a time-dependent reaction. Treatment of the dephosphorylated X. laevis DNA topoisomerase I with a X. laevis casein kinase type II activity and ATP restored DNA topoisomerase activity to a level higher than that observed in the most purified fraction. In vitro labeling experiments which employed the most purified DNA topoisomerase I fraction, [γ-32P]ATP, and the casein kinase type II enzyme showed that both the 110- and 62-kDa bands became phosphorylated in approximately molar proportions. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that only serine residues became phosphorylated. Phosphorylation was accompanied by an increase in DNA topoisomerase activity in vitro. Dephosphorylation of DNA topoisomerase I appears to block formation of the initial enzyme-substrate complex on the basis of the failure of the dephosphorylated enzyme to nick DNA in the presence of camptothecin. The authors conclude that X. laevis DNA topoisomerase I is partially phosphorylated as isolated and that this phosphorylation is essential for expression of enzymatic activity in vitro. On the basis of the ability of the casein kinase type II activity to reactivate dephosphorylated DNA topoisomerase I, they speculate that this kinase may contribute to the physiological regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity

  17. Xenopus tropicalis Genome Re-Scaffolding and Re-Annotation Reach the Resolution Required for In Vivo ChIA-PET Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Buisine

    Full Text Available Genome-wide functional analyses require high-resolution genome assembly and annotation. We applied ChIA-PET to analyze gene regulatory networks, including 3D chromosome interactions, underlying thyroid hormone (TH signaling in the frog Xenopus tropicalis. As the available versions of Xenopus tropicalis assembly and annotation lacked the resolution required for ChIA-PET we improve the genome assembly version 4.1 and annotations using data derived from the paired end tag (PET sequencing technologies and approaches (e.g., DNA-PET [gPET], RNA-PET etc.. The large insert (~10 Kb, ~17 Kb paired end DNA-PET with high throughput NGS sequencing not only significantly improved genome assembly quality, but also strongly reduced genome "fragmentation", reducing total scaffold numbers by ~60%. Next, RNA-PET technology, designed and developed for the detection of full-length transcripts and fusion mRNA in whole transcriptome studies (ENCODE consortia, was applied to capture the 5' and 3' ends of transcripts. These amendments in assembly and annotation were essential prerequisites for the ChIA-PET analysis of TH transcription regulation. Their application revealed complex regulatory configurations of target genes and the structures of the regulatory networks underlying physiological responses. Our work allowed us to improve the quality of Xenopus tropicalis genomic resources, reaching the standard required for ChIA-PET analysis of transcriptional networks. We consider that the workflow proposed offers useful conceptual and methodological guidance and can readily be applied to other non-conventional models that have low-resolution genome data.

  18. Diurnal variation of tight junction integrity associates inversely with matrix metalloproteinase expression in Xenopus laevis corneal epithelium: implications for circadian regulation of homeostatic surface cell desquamation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan F Wiechmann

    Full Text Available The corneal epithelium provides a protective barrier against pathogen entrance and abrasive forces, largely due to the intercellular junctional complexes between neighboring cells. After a prescribed duration at the corneal surface, tight junctions between squamous surface cells must be disrupted to enable them to desquamate as a component of the tissue homeostatic renewal. We hypothesize that matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs are secreted by corneal epithelial cells and cleave intercellular junctional proteins extracellularly at the epithelial surface. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of specific MMPs and tight junction proteins during both the light and dark phases of the circadian cycle, and to assess their temporal and spatial relationships in the Xenopus laevis corneal epithelium.Expression of MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 (TIMP-2, membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP and the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-4 were examined by confocal double-label immunohistochemistry on corneas obtained from Xenopus frogs at different circadian times. Occludin and claudin-4 expression was generally uniformly intact on the surface corneal epithelial cell lateral membranes during the daytime, but was frequently disrupted in small clusters of cells at night. Concomitantly, MMP-2 expression was often elevated in a mosaic pattern at nighttime and associated with clusters of desquamating surface cells. The MMP-2 binding partners, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP were also localized to surface corneal epithelial cells during both the light and dark phases, with TIMP-2 tending to be elevated during the daytime.MMP-2 protein expression is elevated in a mosaic pattern in surface corneal epithelial cells during the nighttime in Xenopus laevis, and may play a role in homeostatic surface cell desquamation by disrupting intercellular junctional proteins. The sequence of MMP secretion and activation, tight junction protein cleavage, and subsequent surface

  19. PetClaw: Parallelization and Performance Optimization of a Python-Based Nonlinear Wave Propagation Solver Using PETSc

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Amal Mohammed

    2012-04-01

    Clawpack, a conservation laws package implemented in Fortran, and its Python-based version, PyClaw, are existing tools providing nonlinear wave propagation solvers that use state of the art finite volume methods. Simulations using those tools can have extensive computational requirements to provide accurate results. Therefore, a number of tools, such as BearClaw and MPIClaw, have been developed based on Clawpack to achieve significant speedup by exploiting parallel architectures. However, none of them has been shown to scale on a large number of cores. Furthermore, these tools, implemented in Fortran, achieve parallelization by inserting parallelization logic and MPI standard routines throughout the serial code in a non modular manner. Our contribution in this thesis research is three-fold. First, we demonstrate an advantageous use case of Python in implementing easy-to-use modular extensible scalable scientific software tools by developing an implementation of a parallelization framework, PetClaw, for PyClaw using the well-known Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation, PETSc, through its Python wrapper petsc4py. Second, we demonstrate the possibility of getting acceptable Python code performance when compared to Fortran performance after introducing a number of serial optimizations to the Python code including integrating Clawpack Fortran kernels into PyClaw for low-level computationally intensive parts of the code. As a result of those optimizations, the Python overhead in PetClaw for a shallow water application is only 12 percent when compared to the corresponding Fortran Clawpack application. Third, we provide a demonstration of PetClaw scalability on up to the entirety of Shaheen; a 16-rack Blue Gene/P IBM supercomputer that comprises 65,536 cores and located at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). The PetClaw solver achieved above 0.98 weak scaling efficiency for an Euler application on the whole machine excluding the

  20. Parallelization of GeoClaw code for modeling geophysical flows with adaptive mesh refinement on many-core systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Yuen, D.A.; Zhu, A.; Song, S.; George, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We parallelized the GeoClaw code on one-level grid using OpenMP in March, 2011 to meet the urgent need of simulating tsunami waves at near-shore from Tohoku 2011 and achieved over 75% of the potential speed-up on an eight core Dell Precision T7500 workstation [1]. After submitting that work to SC11 - the International Conference for High Performance Computing, we obtained an unreleased OpenMP version of GeoClaw from David George, who developed the GeoClaw code as part of his PH.D thesis. In this paper, we will show the complementary characteristics of the two approaches used in parallelizing GeoClaw and the speed-up obtained by combining the advantage of each of the two individual approaches with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), demonstrating the capabilities of running GeoClaw efficiently on many-core systems. We will also show a novel simulation of the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami waves inundating the Sendai airport and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants, over which the finest grid distance of 20 meters is achieved through a 4-level AMR. This simulation yields quite good predictions about the wave-heights and travel time of the tsunami waves. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  1. Reducing outage times: a FROG perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, the Framatome Owners Group (FROG) was set up. It provides a forum for the members, who are all users of Framatome nuclear steam supply systems, to share and benefit from each others experience. Joint activities have been focused on safety and economic performance. Through effective control of outage duration, the average capability factor for the 60 plus nuclear units operated by the members rose from 74% in 1992 to 81.5% in 1993, while the average unplanned capability loss factor reduced from 9% to 3.5%. The specific measures now being taken by three FROG members to improve these results still further are described. The members concerned are Electrabel of Belgium, Electrite de France and the Korea Electric Power Co. (UK)

  2. Faint Infrared-Excess Field Galaxies FROGs

    CERN Document Server

    Moustakas, L A; Zepf, S E; Bunker, A J

    1997-01-01

    Deep near-infrared and optical imaging surveys in the field reveal a curious population of galaxies that are infrared-bright (I-K>4), yet with relatively blue optical colors (V-I20, is high enough that if placed at z>1 as our models suggest, their space densities are about one-tenth of phi-*. The colors of these ``faint red outlier galaxies'' (fROGs) may derive from exceedingly old underlying stellar populations, a dust-embedded starburst or AGN, or a combination thereof. Determining the nature of these fROGs, and their relation with the I-K>6 ``extremely red objects,'' has implications for our understanding of the processes that give rise to infrared-excess galaxies in general. We report on an ongoing study of several targets with HST & Keck imaging and Keck/LRIS multislit spectroscopy.

  3. Frogs of the Magela Creek system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facets of the reproductive biology of 24 species of frogs from the Magela Creek system were examined over two Wet seasons. Data are presented for the onset, duration and termination of activity, calling and breeding, and are correlated with temperature and relative humidity. Most species breed at the onset of the Wet season before the flood plain is completely inundated. For each species the eggs and form of the spawn clump are described

  4. Frog skin epithelium: electrolyte transport and chytridiomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Craig R.; Voyles, Jamie; Cook, David I.; Dinudom, Anuwat

    2011-01-01

    One unique physiological characteristic of frogs is that their main route for intake of water is across the skin. In these animals, the skin acts in concert with the kidney and urinary bladder to maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Water absorption across the skin is driven by the osmotic gradient that develops as a consequence of solute transport. Our recent study demonstrated that chytridiomycosis, an infection of amphibian skin by the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, inhibits...

  5. Cellular mechanisms of nociception in the frog

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuffler, D. P.; Lyfenko, Alla; Vyklický st., Ladislav; Vlachová, Viktorie

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2002), s. 1843-1850. ISSN 0022-3077 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1639; GA MŠk LN00B122 Grant ostatní: NATO(XX) Grant 977062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cellular mechanisms of nociception * frog Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2002

  6. Biogeographic patterns of Colombian frogs and toads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the data provided in Ruiz-Carranza et al. (1996) the distributions of the 540 species of frogs and toads are partitioned among ten ecogeographic units of Colombia defined on the basis of precipitation and elevation. Some lowlands areas (pacific lowlands, Amazonian) exhibit high diversity (85-94 species) but lowlands areas in general are impoverished (30-52 species), especially when contrasted with upland areas. The three Andean cordilleras harbor between 87 and 121 species of frogs and toads, demonstrating that the biodiversity of Colombia resides primarily in its montane components, not in its lowland rain forests. When biological endemicity is separated from political endemicity, five areas of high endemicity remain (the three Andean cordilleras, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, and the pacific lowlands). We endeavor to explain this description by recourse to cladistic analyses of several groups of leptodactylid frogs where we find that the general pattern of diversification is by means of horizontal diversification (allopatric speciation) with a minor contribution from vertical diversification

  7. Regulation of Na+ channels in frog lung epithelium: a target tissue for aldosterone action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H; Clauss, W

    1990-04-01

    Sodium transport across isolated lung tissue of the frog Xenopus laevis was measured in Ussing chambers under voltage-clamp conditions. Perfusing the lungs with NaCl-Ringer's solutions on both sides, a basal distinct amiloride-blockable Na+ current was present. Incubating the lungs with 1 mumol/l aldosterone from the pleural side raised the short circuit current after a 1-h latent period. Maximal values were reached after 4-5 h of aldosterone treatment, at which time the transepithelial Na+ current was more than doubled compared to the control. The stimulatory effect was totally inhibited when the aldosterone treatment was preceded by incubation of the lung tissues with spironolactone in 2000-fold excess. In the presence of amiloride (0.5-8 mumol/l) in the alveolar compartment, a Lorentzian noise component appeared in the power spectrum of the fluctuations in the short circuit current. This enabled the calculation of single Na+ channel current and Na+ channel density under both experimental conditions. Aldosterone stimulation did not change single Na+ channel current. On the other hand, the number of conducting Na+ channels increased in parallel with the transepithelial Na+ transport. This suggests that the alveolar epithelium may be a physiological target tissue for aldosterone. Since fluid absorption in the lung is secondary to active Na+ transport, aldosterone may be a potent regulator for maintaining the relatively fluid-free state of the lumen of the lung in some cases of fluid accumulation. PMID:2162035

  8. Aquatic feeding in pipid frogs: the use of suction for prey capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño, Carrie A; Nishikawa, Kiisa C

    2010-06-15

    Inertial suction feeding is the most common method of prey capture among aquatic vertebrates. However, it had been unclear whether the aquatic frogs in the family Pipidae also used inertial suction for prey capture. In this study, we examined feeding behavior in four species of pipids, Pipa pipa, Xenopus laevis, Hymenochirus boettgeri and Pseudhymenochirus merlini. Pressure in the buccopharyngeal cavity was measured during prey capture. These pressure measurements were coupled with high-speed recordings of feeding behavior. For each species, the internal buccopharyngeal pressure was found to drop significantly below ambient pressure, and changes in pressure corresponded with the onset of mouth opening. Kinematic analysis revealed that all species of pipids generated subambient pressure during prey capture; H. boettgeri and P. merlini relied solely on inertial suction feeding. Pipa pipa and X. laevis additionally employed forelimb scooping during prey capture but both of these species demonstrated the ability to capture prey with inertial suction alone. Based on buccopharyngeal pressure measurements as well as kinematic analyses, we conclude that inertial suction feeding is used during prey capture in these four species of pipids. PMID:20511513

  9. Muscle function and hydrodynamics limit power and speed in swimming frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Christofer J; Richards, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the muscle force-velocity relationship and its derived n-shaped power-velocity curve offer important insights into muscular limits of performance. Given the power is maximal at 1/3 V(max), geometric scaling of muscle force coupled with fluid drag force implies that this optimal muscle-shortening velocity for power cannot be maintained across the natural body-size range. Instead, muscle velocity may decrease with increasing body size, conferring a similar n-shaped power curve with body size. Here we examine swimming speed and muscle function in the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis. Swimming speed shows an n-shaped scaling relationship, peaking at 47.35 g. Further, in vitro muscle function of the ankle extensor plantaris longus also shows an optimal body mass for muscle power output (47.27 g), reflecting that of swimming speed. These findings suggest that in drag-based aquatic systems, muscle-environment interactions vary with body size, limiting both the muscle's potential to produce power and the swimming speed. PMID:24177194

  10. OCT imaging of craniofacial anatomy in xenopus embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Engin; Jonas, Stephan M.; Griffin, John; Hooper, Michael C.; Choma, Michael A.; Khokha, Mustafa K.

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of craniofacial defects is incompletely understood. The ability to obtain large amounts of gene sequence data from families affected by craniofacial defects is opening up new ways to understand molecular genetic etiological factors. One important link between gene sequence data and clinical relevance is biological research into candidate genes and molecular pathways. We present our recent research using OCT as a nondestructive phenotyping modality of craniofacial morphology in Xenopus embryos, an important animal model for biological research in gene and pathway discovery. We define 2D and 3D scanning protocols for a standardized approach to craniofacial imaging in Xenopus embryos. We define standard views and planar reconstructions for visualizing normal anatomy and landmarks. We compare these views and reconstructions to traditional histopathology using alcian blue staining. In addition to being 3D, nondestructive, and having much faster throughout, OCT can identify craniofacial features that are lost during traditional histopathological preparation. We also identify quantitative morphometric parameters to define normative craniofacial anatomy. We also note that craniofacial and cardiac defects are not infrequently present in the same patient (e.g velocardiofacial syndrome). Given that OCT excels at certain aspects of cardiac imaging in Xenopus embryos, our work highlights the potential of using OCT and Xenopus to study molecular genetic factors that impact both cardiac and craniofacial development.

  11. Neuronal, neurohormonal, and autocrine control of Xenopus melanotrope cell activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubos, E.W.; Scheenen, W.J.J.M.; Jenks, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian pituitary melanotropes are used to investigate principles of neuroendocrine translation of neural input into hormonal output. Here, the steps in this translation process are outlined for the melanotrope cell of Xenopus laevis, with attention to external stimuli, neurochemical messengers, r

  12. Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation of the Casting-Forging Complex Near Net Forming of Alternator Claw-pole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.L.Song; D.J.Hu; Q.C.Wang; H.Q.Chen; H.G.Guo

    2004-01-01

    As a newly developed precision technology, casting-forging complex near net forming process is utilized to produce complex components with a short lead time, low cost and high precision, thus to accelerate the response speed of the market and enhance the competitive power of products. In this paper, the casting-forging complex near net forming process of alternator claw pole was developed and investigated with a combination of experimental and numerical simulation method. Qualified near net workpiece was manufactured, mechanical parameter and relative field information during the forming process was also obtained. While the alternator claw-pole is processed with this technology, the forming force is small, the process is short and the quality of forgings is perfect. Therefore, the complex casting-forging near net forming process of claw-pole is an energy and material saving technology, which will have a vast developing and application prospect in the future.

  13. The ribosome biogenesis factor Nol11 is required for optimal rDNA transcription and craniofacial development in Xenopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N Griffin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of ribosomes is ubiquitous and fundamental to life. As such, it is surprising that defects in ribosome biogenesis underlie a growing number of symptomatically distinct inherited disorders, collectively called ribosomopathies. We previously determined that the nucleolar protein, NOL11, is essential for optimal pre-rRNA transcription and processing in human tissue culture cells. However, the role of NOL11 in the development of a multicellular organism remains unknown. Here, we reveal a critical function for NOL11 in vertebrate ribosome biogenesis and craniofacial development. Nol11 is strongly expressed in the developing cranial neural crest (CNC of both amphibians and mammals, and knockdown of Xenopus nol11 results in impaired pre-rRNA transcription and processing, increased apoptosis, and abnormal development of the craniofacial cartilages. Inhibition of p53 rescues this skeletal phenotype, but not the underlying ribosome biogenesis defect, demonstrating an evolutionarily conserved control mechanism through which ribosome-impaired craniofacial cells are removed. Excessive activation of this mechanism impairs craniofacial development. Together, our findings reveal a novel requirement for Nol11 in craniofacial development, present the first frog model of a ribosomopathy, and provide further insight into the clinically important relationship between specific ribosome biogenesis proteins and craniofacial cell survival.

  14. Highly efficient gene knockout by injection of TALEN mRNAs into oocytes and host transfer in Xenopus laevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nakajima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins system are potentially powerful tools for producing tailor-made knockout animals. However, their mutagenic activity is not high enough to induce mutations at all loci of a target gene throughout an entire tadpole. In this study, we present a highly efficient method for introducing gene modifications at almost all target sequences in randomly selected embryos. The gene modification activity of TALEN is enhanced by adopting the host-transfer technique. In our method, the efficiency is further improved by injecting TALEN mRNAs fused to the 3′UTR of the Xenopus DEADSouth gene into oocytes, which are then transferred into a host female frog, where they are ovulated and fertilized. The addition of the 3′UTR of the DEADSouth gene promotes mRNA translation in the oocytes and increases the expression of TALEN proteins to near-maximal levels three hours post fertilization (hpf. In contrast, TALEN mRNAs without this 3′UTR are translated infrequently in oocytes. Our data suggest that genomic DNA is more sensitive to TALEN proteins from fertilization to the midblastula (MBT stage. Our method works by increasing the levels of TALEN proteins during the pre-MBT stages.

  15. Combining different mRNA capture methods to analyze the transcriptome: analysis of the Xenopus laevis transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Blower

    Full Text Available mRNA sequencing (mRNA-seq is a commonly used technique to survey gene expression from organisms with fully sequenced genomes. Successful mRNA-seq requires purification of mRNA away from the much more abundant ribosomal RNA, which is typically accomplished by oligo-dT selection. However, mRNAs with short poly-A tails are captured poorly by oligo-dT based methods. We demonstrate that combining mRNA capture via oligo-dT with mRNA capture by the 5' 7-methyl guanosine cap provides a more complete view of the transcriptome and can be used to assay changes in mRNA poly-A tail length on a genome-wide scale. We also show that using mRNA-seq reads from both capture methods as input for de novo assemblers provides a more complete reconstruction of the transcriptome than either method used alone. We apply these methods of mRNA capture and de novo assembly to the transcriptome of Xenopus laevis, a well-studied frog that currently lacks a finished sequenced genome, to discover transcript sequences for thousands of mRNAs that are currently absent from public databases. The methods we describe here will be broadly applicable to many organisms and will provide insight into the transcriptomes of organisms with sequenced and unsequenced genomes.

  16. Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Bonfanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1–100 mg/L specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod and surface coatings (PEG, PVP was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

  17. Short term effect of treating claw horn lesions in dairy cattle on their locomotion, activity and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A. Montgomery

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The immediate effect on dairy cow mobility, daily activity and milk yield following treatment for claw horn disease was examined in 306 lame cows located on four Cheshire dairy farms over twelve months. The daily activity and milk yield of all cows in these herds was recorded on computer using pedometers and in-parlour milk flow meters. Lame cows identified by stockmen were assessed subjectively by locomotion score, then restrained and their claws examined to identify the predominant lesion present. Those with locomotion scores > 2.5 that presented with sole ulcer, haemorrhage and bruising, or white line disease were studied. Claws of the affected limb were trimmed by one paraprofessional claw trimmer using the five-step Dutch method and the affected claw unloaded either by trimming or application of a block to the healthy digit: those on the contra-lateral limb were trimmed similarly. The same observer repeated the locomotion score assessment seven days later: trimming reduced the proportion of lame cows (score >3 by 55% and those with poor gait (score <3>2.5 by 49%, and the proportion of all cows not lame after trimming was 51% (χ2 4.94: P≤0.001. Night time activity levels increased from 76 to 81 steps/hour on day 2 after treatment (P<0.05 but this was not maintained: daily milk yields fell by 2%. Using univariate mixed models, year and season, parity and farm all had significant effects on locomotion and activity levels. This treatment for claw horn disease in lame dairy cows improved their immediate health and welfare.

  18. Development of a superconducting claw-pole linear test-rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radyjowski, Patryk; Keysan, Ozan; Burchell, Joseph; Mueller, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Superconducting generators can help to reduce the cost of energy for large offshore wind turbines, where the size and mass of the generator have a direct effect on the installation cost. However, existing superconducting generators are not as reliable as the alternative technologies. In this paper, a linear test prototype for a novel superconducting claw-pole topology, which has a stationary superconducting coil that eliminates the cryocooler coupler will be presented. The issues related to mechanical, electromagnetic and thermal aspects of the prototype will be presented.

  19. Using a Phototransduction System to Monitor the Isolated Frog Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method of monitoring the movement of an isolated frog heart provides comparable results to those obtained with a force transducer. A commercially available photoresistor is integrated into a Wheatstone bridge circuit, and the output signal is interfaced directly with a recording device. An excised, beating frog heart is…

  20. Coleman Revisited: School Segregation, Peers, and Frog Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Students from minority segregated schools tend to achieve and attain less than similar students from White segregated schools. This study examines whether peer effects can explain this relationship using normative models and frog-pond models. Normative models (where peers become alike) suggest that minority schoolmates are a liability. Frog-pond…

  1. Lameness and Claw Lesions of the Norwegian Red Dairy Cattle Housed in Free Stalls in Relation to Environment, Parity and Stage of Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.

  2. Lameness and Claw Lesions of the Norwegian Red Dairy Cattle Housed in Free Stalls in Relation to Environment, Parity and Stage of Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogstad ÅM

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.

  3. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  4. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  5. Antimutagenic and antiherpetic activities of different preparations from Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, Thiago; Kaiser, Samuel; Feltrin, Clarissa; de Carvalho, Annelise; Sincero, Thaís Cristine Marques; Ortega, George González; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Uncaria tomentosa have been used to treat viral diseases such as herpes due to multiple pharmacological effects, but its therapeutic efficacy against this virus have not been reported yet. Thus, in vitro antiherpetic activity of hydroethanolic extract from barks, purified fractions of quinovic acid glycosides and oxindole alkaloids was evaluated by plaque reduction assay, including mechanistic studies (virucidal, attachment and penetration action). Once exposure to physical agents might lead to reactivation of the herpetic infection, antimutagenic effect (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment protocols) was also evaluated by Comet assay. The antiherpetic activity from the samples under investigation seemed to be associated with the presence of polyphenols or their synergistic effect with oxindole alkaloids or quinovic acid glycosides, once both purified fractions did not present activity when evaluated alone. Inhibition of viral attachment in the host cells was the main mechanism of antiviral activity. Although both purified fractions displayed the lowest antimutagenic activity in pre and simultaneous treatment, they provided a similar effect to that of cat's claw hydroethanolic extract in post-treatment. Given that purified fractions may result in a reduced antiherpetic activity, the use of cat's claw hydroethanolic extract from barks should be prioritized in order to obtain a synergistic effect. PMID:24447975

  6. Analysis of Torque Ripple Caused by Three-Phase Unbalance in Claw Teeth Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takayuki; Nakatsugawa, Junnosuke; Enomoto, Yuji

    A soft magnetic composite (SMC) has some advantages, namely, three-dimensional magnetic isotropy and low eddy current loss. Thus, it can be used to build a new type of motor with a three-dimensional structure, improved space factor of winding improved the power density. A claw teeth motor is one of the motors that have three-dimensional structure, and it is made of an SMC. Due to its structure, the claw teeth motor has an unbalanced three-phase magnetic circuit, which leads to low-order harmonic components in the torque waveform. For reducing the torque ripple, it is important to estimate the magnetic torque and the cogging torque because the total torque is the sum of these torques. In this study a method for decomposing the total torque under the load condition into the magnetic torque and cogging torque is presented. The proposed method can quantitatively estimate low-order harmonic components of the magnetic torque and cogging torque caused by an unbalanced three-phase magnetic circuit for each phase.

  7. Modelling habitat requirements of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes using support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favaro L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish’s habitat has been profoundly modified in Piedmont (NW Italy due to environmental changes caused by human impact. Consequently, native populations have decreased markedly. In this research project, support vector machines were tested as possible tools for evaluating the ecological factors that determine the presence of white-clawed crayfish. A system of 175 sites was investigated, 98 of which recorded the presence of Austropotamobius pallipes. At each site 27 physical-chemical, environmental and climatic variables were measured according to their importance to A. pallipes. Various feature selection methods were employed. These yielded three subsets of variables that helped build three different types of models: (1 models with no variable selection; (2 models built by applying Goldberg’s genetic algorithm after variable selection; (3 models built by using a combination of four supervised-filter evaluators after variable selection. These different model types helped us realise how important it was to select the right features if we wanted to build support vector machines that perform as well as possible. In addition, support vector machines have a high potential for predicting indigenous crayfish occurrence, according to our findings. Therefore, they are valuable tools for freshwater management, tools that may prove to be much more promising than traditional and other machine-learning techniques.

  8. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A.; Donnavan J.D. Kruger; Du Preez, Louis H.; Smit, Nico J.

    2015-01-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracell...

  9. The Observation of Frog Species at State University of Malang as a Preliminary Effort on Frog Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Ratri Wulandari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Frog is an amphibian which is widely spread around the world. Indonesia houses 450 species which represent 11% of frog species in the world. In Java Island alone, there live 42 species of frogs and toads. Frogs can be used as an environment indicator in that the presence of frog in a particular place indicates that the place stays natural and unpolluted. The 1st Campus of State University of Malang, which is located in the heart of Malang District, has been developing rapidly currently. Thus, it requires the construction of new various facilities to support its huge activities. Extensive construction can be destructive even damaging to the habitat of frog, which potentially threats the frog’s life, if it does not take the environmental impact into careful consideration. This study is aimed to identify the species of frog which survives at State University of Malang with, particularly the frog species found in 1995. Species identification was conducted by observing the morphological character. This study found that there were four species with three species remained survived in 1995; those were Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Polypedates leucomystax, and Kaloula baleta; and one new species called Rana chalconota. This study also revealed that there were four species which were extinct; those were Fejervarya cancrivora, Fejervarya limnocharis, Ingerophrynus biporcatus, and Occidoziga lima. This situation shows the decreasing amount of species from 7 to 4 within the last 17 years. This result indicates that there is a serious environmental degradation which causes the losing of frog habitats. Further research is needed to study the ecological condition changing in order to save the frog species.

  10. In-cell NMR in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongwichian, Rossukon; Selenko, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of studying IDPs inside cells of higher organisms, several eukaryotic in-cell NMR systems have been developed over the past years. In this chapter we will focus on high-resolution in-cell NMR applications in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the first eukaryotic cellular model system to be established. In contrast to prokaryotic in-cell NMR samples, eukaryotic in-cell NMR specimens are prepared by cytoplasmic delivery of an exogenously produced, isotope-labeled protein into the non-isotope-labeled environment of the respective "host" cell. In-cell NMR applications in Xenopus oocytes rely on intracellular sample deposition by direct microinjection into the oocyte cytoplasm. Here, we describe the preparation of oocyte in-cell NMR samples for IDP studies in this cellular model environment. PMID:22760310

  11. Landing on branches in the frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijma, Nienke N; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kleinteich, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura) are famous for their saltatory or hopping locomotion, which is related to numerous anatomical specialisations that are characteristic for the group. However, while the biomechanics of take-off in frogs have been studied in detail, much less is known on how frogs land after a jump. Besides terrestrial and aquatic species, several lineages of frogs adopted an arboreal lifestyle and especially the biomechanics of landing on challenging, small, and unpredictable substrates, such as leaves or branches, are virtually unknown. Here we studied the landing kinematics of the arboreal frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Hylidae) on a wooden stick that was used to mimic a small tree branch. We observed two different landing behaviours: (1) landing on the abdomen and (2) attachment with the toes of either the forelimb or the hindlimb. In the latter case, the frogs performed a cartwheel around the stick, while they were only attached by their adhesive toe pads. We estimated the forces that act on the toes during this behaviour to be up to fourteen times the body weight of the animals. This behaviour demonstrates the remarkable adhesive capabilities of the toe pads and the body control of the frogs. PMID:26803830

  12. Frog community responses to recent American bullfrog invasions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming LI; Zhunwei KE; Yihua WANG; Tim M. BLACKBURN

    2011-01-01

    Native species may decline quickly when confronted with an exotic species to which they are not adapted. The extent of decline may depend on the abundance of an invader and the length of time since it first arrived in the community (residence time), and the interaction between these two variables. We tested these effects using data on the effects of American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus invasion on native frog communities in 65 permanent lentic waters on islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China. We examined variation in native frog abundance and species richness in relation to features of the American bullfrog invasion, habitat disturbance, characteristics of the water body and fish communities and the presence of red swamp crayfish.Bullfrog invaded sites had lower native frog density and species richness, higher submerged vegetation cover and greater frequency of repairs to the water body than did non-invaded sites. The minimum adequate general linear mixed models showed that both native frog density and species richness were negatively related to post-metamorphosis bullfrog density, and that native frog species richness was also positively related to the vegetation cover. There was no effect on either native frog density or species richness of residence time or its interaction with bullfrog density, or of the abundance of bullfrog tadpoles. The results suggested that post-metamorphosis bullfrogs had impacts on native frog communities in the islands, and that the extents of these impacts are proportional to post-metamorphosis bullfrog density.

  13. Xenopus oocyte maturation does not require new cyclin synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Progesterone induces fully grown, stage VI, Xenopus oocytes to pass through meiosis I and arrest in metaphase of meiosis II. Protein synthesis is required twice in this process: in order to activate maturation promoting factor (MPF) which induces meiosis I, and then again after the completion of meiosis I to reactivate MPF in order to induce meiosis II. We have used antisense oligonucleotides to destroy maternal stores of cyclin mRNAs, and demonstrate that new cyclin synthesis is not required...

  14. Behavioral observation of xenopus tadpole swimming for neuroscience labs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenchang; Wagner, Monica Anne; Porter, Nicola Jean

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience labs benefit from reliable, easily - monitored neural responses mediated by well - studied neural pathways . Xenopus laevis tadpoles have been used as a simple vertebrate model preparation in motor control studies. Most of the neuronal pathways underlying different aspects of tadpole swimming behavior have been revealed. These include the skin mechanosensory touch and pineal eye light - sensing pathways whose activation can initiate swimming , and the cement gland pressure - sens...

  15. XGef Mediates Early CPEB Phosphorylation during Xenopus Oocyte Meiotic Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Susana E.; Yuan, Lei; Lacza, Charlemagne; Ransom, Heather; Mahon, Gwendolyn M.; Whitehead, Ian P.; Hake, Laura E.

    2005-01-01

    Polyadenylation-induced translation is an important regulatory mechanism during metazoan development. During Xenopus oocyte meiotic progression, polyadenylation-induced translation is regulated by CPEB, which is activated by phosphorylation. XGef, a guanine exchange factor, is a CPEB-interacting protein involved in the early steps of progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. We find that XGef influences early oocyte maturation by directly influencing CPEB function. XGef and CPEB interact dur...

  16. Confocal Imaging of Early Heart Development in Xenopus laevis

    OpenAIRE

    Kolker, Sandra J.; Tajchman, Urszula; Weeks, Daniel L.

    2000-01-01

    Xenopus laevis provides a number of advantages for studies on cardiovascular development. The embryos are fairly large, easy to obtain, and can develop at ambient temperature in simple buffer solutions. Although classic descriptions of heart development exist, the ability to use whole mount immunohistochemical methods and confocal microscopy may enhance the ability to understand both normal and experimentally perturbed cardiovascular development. We have started to examine the early stages of...

  17. Amphibian pathogens in Southeast Asian frog trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Martin; Bickford, David; Clark, Leanne; Johnson, Arlyne; Joyner, Priscilla H; Ogg Keatts, Lucy; Khammavong, Kongsy; Nguyễn Văn, Long; Newton, Alisa; Seow, Tiffany P W; Roberton, Scott; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Singhalath, Sinpakhone; Yang, Angela; Seimon, Tracie A

    2012-12-01

    Amphibian trade is known to facilitate the geographic spread of pathogens. Here we assess the health of amphibians traded in Southeast Asia for food or as pets, focusing on Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), ranavirus and general clinical condition. Samples were collected from 2,389 individual animals at 51 sites in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and Singapore for Bd screening, and 74 animals in Cambodia and Vietnam for ranavirus screening. Bd was found in one frog (n = 347) in Cambodia and 13 in Singapore (n = 419). No Bd was found in Lao PDR (n = 1,126) or Vietnam (n = 497), and no ranavirus was found in Cambodia (n = 70) or Vietnam (n = 4). Mild to severe dermatological lesions were observed in all East Asian bullfrogs Hoplobatrachus rugolosus (n = 497) sampled in farms in Vietnam. Histologic lesions consistent with sepsis were found within the lesions of three frogs and bacterial sepsis in two (n = 4); one had Gram-negative bacilli and one had acid-fast organisms consistent with mycobacterium sp. These results confirm that Bd is currently rare in amphibian trade in Southeast Asia. The presence of Mycobacterium-associated disease in farmed H. rugolosus is a cause for concern, as it may have public health implications and indicates the need for improved biosecurity in amphibian farming and trade. PMID:23404036

  18. Autometallographic tracing of mercury in frog liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of mercury in the liver of the frog Rana ridibunda with the autometallographic method was investigated. The mercury specific autometallographic (HgS/SeAMG) technique is a sensitive histochemical approach for tracing mercury in tissues from mercury-exposed organisms. Mercury accumulates in vivo as mercury sulphur/mercury selenium nanocrystals that can be silver-enhanced. Thus, only a fraction of the Hg can be visualized. Six animals were exposed for one day and another group of six animals for 6 days in 1 ppm mercury (as HgCI2 ) dissolved in fresh water. A third group of six animals, served as controls, were sacrificed the day of arrival at the laboratory. First, mercury appears in the blood plasma and erythrocytes. Next, mercury moves to hepatocytes and in the apical part of the cells, that facing bile canaliculi. In a next step, mercury appears in the endothelial and Kupffer cells. It seems likely that, the mercury of hepatocytes moves through bile canaliculi to the gut, most probably bound to glutathione and/or other similar ligands. Most probably, the endothelial and Kupffer cells comprise the first line of defense against metal toxicity. - Frogs can be good bioindicators of mercury

  19. A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata in a West Sumatra Rice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characteristics of the shell remains and spraints are described.

  20. Elastic modulus of tree frog adhesive toe pads

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, W. Jon. P.; Goodwyn, Pablo J. Perez; Nokhbatolfoghahai, Mohsen; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work using an atomic force microscope in nanoindenter mode indicated that the outer, 10- to 15-μm thick, keratinised layer of tree frog toe pads has a modulus of elasticity equivalent to silicone rubber (5–15 MPa) (Scholz et al. 2009), but gave no information on the physical properties of deeper structures. In this study, micro-indentation is used to measure the stiffness of whole toe pads of the tree frog, Litoria caerulea. We show here that tree frog toe pads are amongst the softes...

  1. Analysis of behavioral changes in dairy cows associated with claw horn lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechanitzky, K; Starke, A; Vidondo, B; Müller, H; Reckardt, M; Friedli, K; Steiner, A

    2016-04-01

    Detecting lame cows is important in improving animal welfare. Automated tools are potentially useful to enable identification and monitoring of lame cows. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of various physiological and behavioral parameters to automatically detect lameness in dairy cows housed in a cubicle barn. Lame cows suffering from a claw horn lesion (sole ulcer or white line disease) of one claw of the same hind limb (n=32; group L) and 10 nonlame healthy cows (group C) were included in this study. Lying and standing behavior at night by tridimensional accelerometers, weight distribution between hind limbs by the 4-scale weighing platform, feeding behavior at night by the nose band sensor, and heart activity by the Polar device (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) were assessed. Either the entire data set or parts of the data collected over a 48-h period were used for statistical analysis, depending upon the parameter in question. The standing time at night over 12 h and the limb weight ratio (LWR) were significantly higher in group C as compared with group L, whereas the lying time at night over 12 h, the mean limb difference (△weight), and the standard deviation (SD) of the weight applied on the limb taking less weight were significantly lower in group C as compared with group L. No significant difference was noted between the groups for the parameters of heart activity and feeding behavior at night. The locomotion score of cows in group L was positively correlated with the lying time and △weight, whereas it was negatively correlated with LWR and SD. The highest sensitivity (0.97) for lameness detection was found for the parameter SD [specificity of 0.80 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84]. The highest specificity (0.90) for lameness detection was present for Δweight (sensitivity=0.78; AUC=0.88) and LWR (sensitivity=0.81; AUC=0.87). The model considering the data of SD together with lying time at night was the best

  2. Aphakia correction with retropupillary fixated iris-claw lens (Artisan – long-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schallenberg M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maurice Schallenberg,1,2 Dirk Dekowski,1 Angela Hahn,1 Thomas Laube,1,3 Klaus-Peter Steuhl,1 Daniel Meller11Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 2HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany; 3Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, GermanyPurpose: To evaluate the technique, safety, and efficacy of the retropupillary implantation of iris-claw intraocular lenses in a long-term follow-up study.Patients and methods: This retrospective study included 31 eyes of 31 patients who underwent an Artisan aphakic intraocular lens implantation between January 2006 and February 2011 at the University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany and at the Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, Germany. Preoperative data collected included demographics, etiology of aphakia, previous surgeries, preoperative eye pathology, intraocular pressure, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and best corrected visual acuity. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included the best corrected visual acuity, lens position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, development of macular edema, and other complications.Results: Thirty-one patients were included. The mean follow-up was 25.2 months (range: 4–48 months. The mean best corrected visual acuity postoperatively was 0.64 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR and varied from 0 logMAR to 3 logMAR. Some patients had a low visual acuity preoperatively because of preoperative eye pathologies. In 22 patients the visual acuity improved, in two patients the visual acuity remained unchanged, and seven patients showed a decreased visual acuity. Complications were peaked pupils (n=10 and retinal detachment in one case. Four patients showed an iris atrophy and high intraocular pressure was observed only in one patient. Subluxation of the intraocular lens, endothelial cell loss, and

  3. Claws Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In its November 2007 issue,U.S.magazine Science published a photo named"flat cat?"and a column titled"Rare-Tiger Photo Flap Makes Fur Fly in China."The article dealt with the claimed discovery of the South China tiger,which had been believed extinct in the wild.The photo as well as the article stirred up the already heated controversy in China as to whether the photo was a fake or not.

  4. Sequencing and analysis of 10967 full-length cDNA clones from Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, R D; Chang, E; Petrescu, A; Liao, N; Kirkpatrick, R; Griffith, M; Butterfield, Y; Stott, J; Barber, S; Babakaiff, R; Matsuo, C; Wong, D; Yang, G; Smailus, D; Brown-John, M; Mayo, M; Beland, J; Gibson, S; Olson, T; Tsai, M; Featherstone, R; Chand, S; Siddiqui, A; Jang, W; Lee, E; Klein, S; Prange, C; Myers, R M; Green, E D; Wagner, L; Gerhard, D; Marra, M; Jones, S M; Holt, R

    2005-10-31

    Sequencing of full-insert clones from full-length cDNA libraries from both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis has been ongoing as part of the Xenopus Gene Collection initiative. Here we present an analysis of 10967 clones (8049 from X. laevis and 2918 from X. tropicalis). The clone set contains 2013 orthologs between X. laevis and X. tropicalis as well as 1795 paralog pairs within X. laevis. 1199 are in-paralogs, believed to have resulted from an allotetraploidization event approximately 30 million years ago, and the remaining 546 are likely out-paralogs that have resulted from more ancient gene duplications, prior to the divergence between the two species. We do not detect any evidence for positive selection by the Yang and Nielsen maximum likelihood method of approximating d{sub N}/d{sub S}. However, d{sub N}/d{sub S} for X. laevis in-paralogs is elevated relative to X. tropicalis orthologs. This difference is highly significant, and indicates an overall relaxation of selective pressures on duplicated gene pairs. Within both groups of paralogs, we found evidence of subfunctionalization, manifested as differential expression of paralogous genes among tissues, as measured by EST information from public resources. We have observed, as expected, a higher instance of subfunctionalization in out-paralogs relative to in-paralogs.

  5. Performance Measurements of a Low Specific Speed TurboClaw® Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, J.; Cattell, R.; Etemad, S.; Pullen, K. R.

    2015-08-01

    Low specific speed compressors have been historically based on positive displacement machines. Attempts to bring advantages of turbomachinery such as oil free, low parts counts, low cost of manufacture, and reliability to low flow rate applications have not been sparse, but the principle difficulty has always been that the conventional turbomachine design operates at ultra-high speed to deliver low volume flow rates. This is synonymous with low efficiency due to higher losses (windage, surface finish, and tip clearances). The innovative TurboClaw® design is a low specific speed turbomachinery with forward swept impeller geometry. It owes its high efficiency and operational stability to careful design of its nearly tangential forward swept blading and diffuser geometry.

  6. Social partner discrimination based on sounds and scents in Asian small-clawed otters ( Aonyx cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, A.; Mikus, M.-A.; Blois-Heulin, C.; Lodé, T.

    2013-03-01

    Ability to discriminate familiar conspecifics is an essential competence in any group-living species, ensuring socio-spatial cohesion, but in many animals, such as mustelids, the relative importance of the different communicative modalities for discrimination is poorly understood. In otters, there is evidence of intra-specific variation in physical appearance and in feces chemical profile, but the potential for acoustic identity coding as well as for identity decoding in visual, acoustic and olfactive domains remains unexplored. We investigated the acoustic structure of contact calls in five captive groups of small-clawed otters and found that it is possible to reliably assign one particular call to a given adult male caller. Females discriminated between familiar and unfamiliar adult males based on their sound (playback) and smell (feces) but not based on their picture, suggesting abilities to memorize and use acoustic and olfactive signatures in their daily social life.

  7. Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens for aphakia in Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kheirkhah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens (IOL is a surgical option for correction of aphakia; however, these IOLs have not been used in eyes with uveitis including Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI due to possible risk of severe postoperative intraocular inflammation. In the case reported here, we secondarily implanted an Artisan IOL in a 28-year-old man with FHI who had aphakia with no capsular support due to a previous complicated cataract surgery. Enclavation was easily performed and no intraoperative complication was noted. Postoperative course was uneventful with no significant anterior chamber inflammation during 12 months of follow-up. Although there were few deposits on the IOL surface, the patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 without developing glaucoma or other complications. Therefore, Artisan IOL may be considered for correction of aphakia in patients with FHI. However, studies on large number of patients are required to evaluate safety of the procedure.

  8. The GeoClaw software for depth-averaged flows with adaptive refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Marsha J.; George, David L.; LeVeque, Randall J.; Mandli, Kyle T.

    2011-09-01

    Many geophysical flow or wave propagation problems can be modeled with two-dimensional depth-averaged equations, of which the shallow water equations are the simplest example. We describe the GeoClaw software that has been designed to solve problems of this nature, consisting of open source Fortran programs together with Python tools for the user interface and flow visualization. This software uses high-resolution shock-capturing finite volume methods on logically rectangular grids, including latitude-longitude grids on the sphere. Dry states are handled automatically to model inundation. The code incorporates adaptive mesh refinement to allow the efficient solution of large-scale geophysical problems. Examples are given illustrating its use for modeling tsunamis and dam-break flooding problems. Documentation and download information is available at www.clawpack.org/geoclaw.

  9. The GeoClaw software for depth-averaged flows with adaptive refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marsha J; LeVeque, Randall J; Mandli, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Many geophysical flow or wave propagation problems can be modeled with two-dimensional depth-averaged equations, of which the shallow water equations are the simplest example. We describe the GeoClaw software that has been designed to solve problems of this nature, consisting of open source Fortran programs together with Python tools for the user interface and flow visualization. This software uses high-resolution shock-capturing finite volume methods on logically rectangular grids, including latitude--longitude grids on the sphere. Dry states are handled automatically to model inundation. The code incorporates adaptive mesh refinement to allow the efficient solution of large-scale geophysical problems. Examples are given illustrating its use for modeling tsunamis, dam break problems, and storm surge. Documentation and download information is available at www.clawpack.org/geoclaw

  10. Bovine tuberculosis in an Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea) in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Jae-Myung; Jang, Yunho; Lee, Kyunghyun; Baek, Kanghyun; Lee, Boram; Kim, Ha-Young; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Ryoo, Soyoon; Bae, You-Chan; Choi, Eun-Jin; So, ByungJae

    2015-09-01

    Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis has a wide range of hosts including cattle and humans, but its incidence in otters is very rare. Our report describes a case of bovine tuberculosis in an Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea). A deceased female otter ~2-3 years of age that was raised in an aquarium was submitted to the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (Anyang, Republic of Korea) for autopsy in June 2013. Following gross pathological examination, many white nodules were observed in the lungs and mesentery. The nodules showed central necrosis infiltrated with lymphocytes and macrophages and surrounded by fibrous tissue. Acid-fast bacteria were detected in the necrotic foci, but no fungi were observed. Molecular analysis led to the detection of M. bovis, which is identified in otters in some European countries such as Spain and France. PMID:26289719

  11. The roles of Bcl-xL in modulating apoptosis during development of Xenopus laevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderon-Segura Maria

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis is a common and essential aspect of development. It is particularly prevalent in the central nervous system and during remodelling processes such as formation of the digits and in amphibian metamorphosis. Apoptosis, which is dependent upon a balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, also enables the embryo to rid itself of cells damaged by gamma irradiation. In this study, the roles of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-xL in protecting cells from apoptosis were examined in Xenopus laevis embryos using transgenesis to overexpress the XR11 gene, which encodes Bcl-xL. The effects on developmental, thyroid hormone-induced and γ-radiation-induced apoptosis in embryos were examined in these transgenic animals. Results Apoptosis was abrogated in XR11 transgenic embryos. However, the transgene did not prevent the apoptotic response of tadpoles to thyroid hormone during metamorphosis. Post-metamorphic XR11 frogs were reared to sexual maturity, thus allowing us to produce second-generation embryos and enabling us to distinguish between the maternal and zygotic contributions of Bcl-xL to the γ-radiation apoptotic response. Wild-type embryos irradiated before the mid-blastula transition (MBT underwent normal cell division until reaching the MBT, after which they underwent massive, catastrophic apoptosis. Over-expression of Bcl-xL derived from XR11 females, but not males, provided partial protection from apoptosis. Maternal expression of XR11 was also sufficient to abrogate apoptosis triggered by post-MBT γ-radiation. Tolerance to post-MBT γ-radiation from zygotically-derived XR11 was acquired gradually after the MBT in spite of abundant XR11 protein synthesis. Conclusion Our data suggest that Bcl-xL is an effective counterbalance to proapoptotic factors during embryonic development but has no apparent effect on the thyroid hormone-induced apoptosis that occurs during metamorphosis. Furthermore, post-MBT apoptosis

  12. WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH IN MUDDY HABITATS: MONITORING THE POPULATION IN THE RIVER IVEL, BEDFORDSHIRE, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEAY S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available White-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes are usually associated with stony substrates, tree roots, or refuges in submerged banks. The River Ivel has the last known population of white-clawed crayfish in Bedfordshire. Prior to 2005, much of the bed comprised uniform silt, plus leaf-litter. Stands of reedmace Typha latifolia and other emergent vegetation were localised in less shaded areas. Initial survey results suggested a population at low abundance. A low-cost monitoring strategy was started in 2001 and continued three times a year to 2005, using engineering bricks, which offer artificial refuges. Crayfish are counted when bricks are lifted periodically. De-silting of c. 430 m river was carried out in February 2005, to improve habitat and to maintain the flood capacity in the channel upstream of a mill weir. Additional bricks were deployed a few weeks in advance of de-silting, then bricks and crayfish were lifted prior to dredging and were returned the next day. Starting upstream, soft, wet mud was dredged out, placed on the bank and searched manually for crayfish. Banks, tree roots and shallow margins were left undisturbed. In all, 4,142 crayfish were found in dredgings from a 430 m length of the mid channel. Crayfish were strongly associated with emergent vegetation, but many were present below the surface of the silt. Crayfish released in the dredged channel immediately burrowed into the silt retained on the channel margins. Monitoring after dredging showed no change in abundance in the main area with in-bank refuges and lots of bricks, but there was an increase in occupancy of bricks in an area where most crayfish had been in emergent vegetation.

  13. Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinerea): resting and swimming metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgwardt, N; Culik, B M

    1999-03-01

    Open-flow oxygen and carbon dioxide respirometry was used in Neumünster Zoo (Germany) to examine the energy requirements of six Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinerea) at rest and swimming voluntarily under water. Our aim was to compare their energy requirements with those of other warm-blooded species to elucidate scale effects and to test whether the least aquatic of the three otter species differs markedly from these and its larger relatives. While at rest on land (16 degrees C, n = 26), otters (n = 6, mean body mass 3.1 +/- 0.4 kg) had a respiratory quotient of 0.77 and a resting metabolic rate of 5.0 +/- 0.8 Wkg-1(SD). This increased to 9.1 +/- 0.8 Wkg-1 during rest in water (11-15 degrees C, n = 4) and to 17.6 +/- 1.4 Wkg-1 during foraging and feeding activities in a channel (12 degrees C, n = 5). While swimming under water (n = 620 measurements) in an 11-m long channel, otters preferred a speed range between 0.7 ms-1 and 1.2 ms-1. Transport costs were minimal at 1 ms-1 and amounted to 1.47 +/- 0.24 JN-1 m-1 (n = 213). Metabolic rates of small-clawed otters in air were similar to those of larger otter species, and about double those of terrestrial mammals of comparable size. In water, metabolic rates during rest and swimming were larger than those extrapolated from larger otter species and submerged swimming homeotherms. This is attributed to high thermoregulatory costs, and high body drag at low Reynolds numbers. PMID:10227184

  14. Coldwater NWR Malformed Frog Survey Data 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data set contains information concerning surveys for malformed frog collections on Coldwater NWR and the Harris Tract, in MS from 20082010. Data were collected as...

  15. Frog: The fast and realistic OpenGL event displayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FROG is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy physics experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light (< 3 MB) and fast (browsing time ∼ 20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OpenGL and Glut libraries. Moreover, Frog does not require installation of heavy third party libraries for the visualisation. This documents describes the features and principles of Frog version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisation, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally the application of FROG for physic experiment/environement, such as Gastof, CMS, ILD, Delphes will be presented for illustration.

  16. FROG: The Fast And Realistic OpenGL Event Displayer

    CERN Document Server

    Quertenmont, Loic

    2009-01-01

    FROG [1] [2] is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light (< 3 MB) and fast (browsing time 20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OPENGL [3] and GLUT [4] libraries. Moreover, FROG does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This documents describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisation, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally the application of FROG for physic experiment/environement, such as Gastof, CMS, ILD, Delphes will be presented for illustration.

  17. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in frog lens at 50C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unscheduled DNA labeling occurs in the frog even at low temperatures. It is concluded tentatively that UV-induced labeling observed in cold incubated lenses represents repair synthesis of DNA. (author)

  18. 10 years of activities for the Framatome Owners Group (FROG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FROG (Framatome owners group) was created in 1991 by 5 electricity producers Electrabel (Belgium), EDF (France), ESKOM (South-Africa), GNPJVC (Daya bay China) and KEPCO (South-Korea), since then 2 other members joined the group Vattenfall (Sweden) and LANPC ( Ling-Ao China). All the members agree to share their experience in operating nuclear reactors designed by Framatome, FROG members represent more than 80 nuclear units. FROG wants to promote the exchange of information between its members in order to improve performances in a broad sense (safety, techniques, costs and management). The FROG committee opened its 20. meeting last year in Lyon (France), among the different topics that were discussed we have: -) a review of the main events that occurred in nuclear power plants, -) actions to reduce the stress on reactor staff, -) the shortening of downtimes, -) the comparison of production costs, and -) the in-line 3-dimensional monitoring of the nuclear core. (A.C.)

  19. Dahomey NWR Malformed Frog Survey Data 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data set contains information concerning surveys for malformed frog collections on Dahomey NWR in MS from 20032004. Data were collected as part of the national...

  20. Final Critical Habitat for Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of FINAL critical habitat for Rana pretiosa (Oregon Spotted Frog). Maps published in the Federal Register 2016.

  1. Endangered Frogs Coexist with Fungus Once Thought Fatal

    OpenAIRE

    Retallick, Richard W. R; Hamish McCallum; Rick Speare

    2004-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous frog species worldwide. In Queensland, Australia, it has been proposed as the cause of the decline or apparent extinction of at least 14 high-elevation rainforest frog species. One of these, Taudactylus eungellensis, disappeared from rainforest streams in Eungella National Park in 1985-1986, but a few remnant populations were subsequently discovered. Here, we report the analysis of ...

  2. Cross-modal integration in a dart-poison frog

    OpenAIRE

    Narins, Peter M.; Grabul, Daniela S.; Soma, Kiran K.; Gaucher, Philippe; Hödl, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the brain binds together inputs from separate sensory modalities to effect a unified percept of events are poorly understood. This phenomenon was studied in males of the dart-poison frog Epipedobates femoralis. These animals physically and vigorously defend their territories against conspecific calling intruders. In prior field studies with an electromechanical model frog, we were able to experimentally evoke this aggressive behavior only when an auditory cue (advertis...

  3. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio P de Sá; Juliana Zina; Célio F. B. Haddad

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual disp...

  4. Phosphonoacetic Acid Inhibition of Frog Virus 3 Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, R. M.; Bateson, A.; Kelly, D C

    1980-01-01

    Phosphonoacetic acid at concentrations above 200 μg/ml inhibited the replication of frog virus 3 in BHK cells. The inhibition of viral DNA replication observed in these cells was reversible and correlated with the inhibition of the virus-induced DNA polymerase activity in an in vitro assay. The synthesis of frog virus 3-induced late or γ polypeptides was also inhibited by phosphonoacetic acid, although the early (α and β) polypeptides were unaffected.

  5. Chytridiomycosis in dwarf African frogs Hymenochirus curtipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B G; Hillman, C; Groff, J M

    2015-05-11

    Chytridiomycosis, resulting from an infection with the fungal agent Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has resulted in widespread population declines in both wild and captive amphibians. The dwarf African frog (DAF) Hymenochirus curtipes is native to central Africa and is commonly sold throughout North America as an aquarium pet species. Here we document fatal chytridiomycosis resulting from cutaneous Bd infections in DAF purchased directly from a pet store and from a historical lethal epizootic occurring at an aquaculture facility in central California, USA, more than 25 yr ago. Histological lesions and PCR-amplified sequence data were consistent with the etiology of Bd. The potential epidemiological relevance of this infection in DAF is discussed. PMID:25958807

  6. Frogs Communicate by Means of Ultrasonic Sounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ People are always fascinated by ways that some members of mammalian species (such as dolphins, bats and some rodents) communicate using sounds that we cannot hear. But think twice if you say the capacity of producing and detecting ultrasounds (frequencies greater than 20kHz) is limited to mammalians. A study implemented by Prof. SHEN Junxian from the CAS Institute of Biophysics (IBP) and colleagues in CAS and abroad showed that a rare frog species in China should also be added to that list. It is the first documented case of a non-mammalian species being able to use ultrasonic communication. Their work was reported in the March 16 issue of the journal Nature.

  7. Reproductive ecology of Sichuan digging frogs (Microhylidae: Kaloula rugifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We investigated the reproductive ecology of Sichuan digging frogs (Microhylidae: Kaloula rugifera in Mianyang, China during the wet season of 2013. Male Sichuan digging frogs first appear at temporary ponds following the first heavy rain of the wet season and initiate calling. Females arrive at ponds shortly after males. Male frogs chorus extensively throughout the wet season during the evenings and nights following rainstorms. Female frogs leave the pond after laying eggs, and likely only lay one clutch annually. Amplexus lasted up to three hours. Females were larger than males in terms of body size, but we found no evidence of size-assortative mating. Clutch size varied from 920 to 2200 eggs, with egg diameter ranging from 1.33 to 1.93 mm. Larger female frogs laid more eggs, and there was no correlation between egg number and egg size. Tadpoles hatched from eggs within 18-20 hours of oviposition, and grew for 30-40 days before complete metamorphosis occurred. The initial body length of tadpoles ranged from 3-5 mm snout-vent length. Growth was fastest immediately after hatching, and declined asymptotically with increasing tadpole body size. Overall, Sichuan digging frogs have a breeding biology characterized by strong male-male competition with prolonged breeding coinciding with the annual wet season. Keywords. Breeding ecology; Kaloula rugifera; life history; mating system

  8. Participation of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase alpha in amplification of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid in Xenopus laevis.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, W.; Weissbach, A

    1981-01-01

    Aphidicolin, a known inhibitor of eucaryotic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase alpha, efficiently inhibited amplification of ribosomal DNA during oogenesis in Xenopus laevis. DNA polymerase alpha, but not DNA polymerase gamma, as isolated from ovaries, was sensitive to aphidicolin. DNA polymerase beta was not detectable in Xenopus ovary extracts. Therefore, DNA polymerase alpha plays a major role in ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplification.

  9. Interrogating transcriptional regulatory sequences in Tol2-mediated Xenopus transgenics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela G Loots

    Full Text Available Identifying gene regulatory elements and their target genes in vertebrates remains a significant challenge. It is now recognized that transcriptional regulatory sequences are critical in orchestrating dynamic controls of tissue-specific gene expression during vertebrate development and in adult tissues, and that these elements can be positioned at great distances in relation to the promoters of the genes they control. While significant progress has been made in mapping DNA binding regions by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation and next generation sequencing, functional validation remains a limiting step in improving our ability to correlate in silico predictions with biological function. We recently developed a computational method that synergistically combines genome-wide gene-expression profiling, vertebrate genome comparisons, and transcription factor binding-site analysis to predict tissue-specific enhancers in the human genome. We applied this method to 270 genes highly expressed in skeletal muscle and predicted 190 putative cis-regulatory modules. Furthermore, we optimized Tol2 transgenic constructs in Xenopus laevis to interrogate 20 of these elements for their ability to function as skeletal muscle-specific transcriptional enhancers during embryonic development. We found 45% of these elements expressed only in the fast muscle fibers that are oriented in highly organized chevrons in the Xenopus laevis tadpole. Transcription factor binding site analysis identified >2 Mef2/MyoD sites within ~200 bp regions in 6 of the validated enhancers, and systematic mutagenesis of these sites revealed that they are critical for the enhancer function. The data described herein introduces a new reporter system suitable for interrogating tissue-specific cis-regulatory elements which allows monitoring of enhancer activity in real time, throughout early stages of embryonic development, in Xenopus.

  10. A transgenic Xenopus laevis reporter model to study lymphangiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelii Ny

    2013-07-01

    The importance of the blood- and lymph vessels in the transport of essential fluids, gases, macromolecules and cells in vertebrates warrants optimal insight into the regulatory mechanisms underlying their development. Mouse and zebrafish models of lymphatic development are instrumental for gene discovery and gene characterization but are challenging for certain aspects, e.g. no direct accessibility of embryonic stages, or non-straightforward visualization of early lymphatic sprouting, respectively. We previously demonstrated that the Xenopus tadpole is a valuable model to study the processes of lymphatic development. However, a fluorescent Xenopus reporter directly visualizing the lymph vessels was lacking. Here, we created transgenic Tg(Flk1:eGFP Xenopus laevis reporter lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP in blood- and lymph vessels driven by the Flk1 (VEGFR-2 promoter. We also established a high-resolution fluorescent dye labeling technique selectively and persistently visualizing lymphatic endothelial cells, even in conditions of impaired lymph vessel formation or drainage function upon silencing of lymphangiogenic factors. Next, we applied the model to dynamically document blood and lymphatic sprouting and patterning of the initially avascular tadpole fin. Furthermore, quantifiable models of spontaneous or induced lymphatic sprouting into the tadpole fin were developed for dynamic analysis of loss-of-function and gain-of-function phenotypes using pharmacologic or genetic manipulation. Together with angiography and lymphangiography to assess functionality, Tg(Flk1:eGFP reporter tadpoles readily allowed detailed lymphatic phenotyping of live tadpoles by fluorescence microscopy. The Tg(Flk1:eGFP tadpoles represent a versatile model for functional lymph/angiogenomics and drug screening.

  11. DNA replication of mitotic chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Prokhorova, Tatyana A.; Mowrer, Karen; Gilbert, Catherine H.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2003-01-01

    Prereplication complexes are assembled at eukaryotic origins of DNA replication in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and they are activated in S phase by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)2/cyclin E and Cdk2/cyclin A. Previous experiments using Xenopus nuclear assembly egg extracts suggested that Cdk1/cyclin A, which is normally active in early mitosis, can replace the function of Cdk2 in driving DNA replication, whereas Cdk1/cyclin B, which functions later in mitosis, cannot. Here, we use a complet...

  12. Granulocytes of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus can endocytose beads, E. coli and WSSV, but in different ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hu; Jin, Songjun; Zhang, Yan; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-10-01

    The hemocytes of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus are classified by morphologic observation into the following types: hyalinocytes (H), semi-granulocytes (SG) and granulocytes (G). Density gradient centrifugation with Percoll was developed to separate these three subpopulations of hemocytes. Beads, Escherichia coli, and FITC labeling WSSV were used to investigate the characteristics of granulocytes by using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and laser scan confocal microscope. Results showed that granulocytes could phagocytose beads and E. coli by endocytic pathways. WSSV could rely on caveolae-mediated endocytosis to mainly enter into granulocytes. These results could elucidate the mechanism of the innate immunity function of granulocytes, and it also showed the mechanism by which WSSV invaded granulocytes in the red claw crayfish. PMID:24747430

  13. Clinical canine parvovirus type 2C infection in a group of Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjeltema, Jenessa; Murphy, Hayley; Rivera, Sam

    2015-03-01

    Despite the occurrence of clinical disease in a wide range of carnivore hosts, only vague accounts of clinical canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) in any otter species have been reported in the literature. Over the course of 25 days, nine Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea) presented for evaluation of inappetence, lethargy, vomiting, and diarrhea. A diagnosis of canine parvovirus type 2c was made based on electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing of group fecal samples. Supportive care was provided based on individual clinical assessment and included subcutaneous crystalline fluid therapy, antiemetics, antibiotics, appetite stimulants, and a neuraminidase inhibitor. Five of the nine otters exhibited moderate to severe disease requiring treatment, and one case was fatal despite supportive efforts. In light of this case report, CPV-2 should be recognized as a potential cause of gastrointestinal disease in Asian small-clawed otters. PMID:25831584

  14. EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY AND ENDOSCOPIC URETERAL STENT PLACEMENT IN AN ASIAN SMALL-CLAWED OTTER (AONYX CINEREA) WITH NEPHROLITHIASIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojick, Kimberlee B; Berent, Allyson C; Weisse, Chick W; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2015-06-01

    Urolithiasis is a significant disease concern in Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea), with over 60% of captive animals affected. Bilateral ureteral stent placement, using endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance, and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) were performed as salvage procedures in a 13-yr-old intact female Asian small-clawed otter following a 7-yr history of nephrolithiasis and progressive renal insufficiency. Following the procedure, radiographs revealed a slight shifting of urolith position, although a decrease in urolith mass was not observed. As a result of declining quality of life related to severe osteoarthritis, the otter was euthanized 5 wk after the procedure. While this treatment approach was unsuccessful in this case, the technique was clinically feasible, so ESWL and ureteral stent placement may remain a consideration for other individuals of this species presented earlier in the course of this disease. PMID:26056891

  15. FoxA4 Favours Notochord Formation by Inhibiting Contiguous Mesodermal Fates and Restricts Anterior Neural Development in Xenopus Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgan, Sabrina; Castro Colabianchi, Aitana Manuela; Monti, Renato José; Boyadjián López, Laura Elena; Aguirre, Cecilia E.; Stivala, Ernesto González; López, Silvia L.

    2014-01-01

    In vertebrates, the embryonic dorsal midline is a crucial signalling centre that patterns the surrounding tissues during development. Members of the FoxA subfamily of transcription factors are expressed in the structures that compose this centre. Foxa2 is essential for dorsal midline development in mammals, since knock-out mouse embryos lack a definitive node, notochord and floor plate. The related gene foxA4 is only present in amphibians. Expression begins in the blastula –chordin and –noggin expressing centre (BCNE) and is later restricted to the dorsal midline derivatives of the Spemann's organiser. It was suggested that the early functions of mammalian foxa2 are carried out by foxA4 in frogs, but functional experiments were needed to test this hypothesis. Here, we show that some important dorsal midline functions of mammalian foxa2 are exerted by foxA4 in Xenopus. We provide new evidence that the latter prevents the respecification of dorsal midline precursors towards contiguous fates, inhibiting prechordal and paraxial mesoderm development in favour of the notochord. In addition, we show that foxA4 is required for the correct regionalisation and maintenance of the central nervous system. FoxA4 participates in constraining the prospective rostral forebrain territory during neural specification and is necessary for the correct segregation of the most anterior ectodermal derivatives, such as the cement gland and the pituitary anlagen. Moreover, the early expression of foxA4 in the BCNE (which contains precursors of the whole forebrain and most of the midbrain and hindbrain) is directly required to restrict anterior neural development. PMID:25343614

  16. The cost of muscle power production: muscle oxygen consumption per unit work increases at low temperatures in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; Tallis, Jason A; James, Rob S

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic energy (ATP) supply to muscle is essential to support activity and behaviour. It is expected, therefore, that there is strong selection to maximise muscle power output for a given rate of ATP use. However, the viscosity and stiffness of muscle increases with a decrease in temperature, which means that more ATP may be required to achieve a given work output. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ATP use increases at lower temperatures for a given power output in Xenopus laevis. To account for temperature variation at different time scales, we considered the interaction between acclimation for 4 weeks (to 15 or 25°C) and acute exposure to these temperatures. Cold-acclimated frogs had greater sprint speed at 15°C than warm-acclimated animals. However, acclimation temperature did not affect isolated gastrocnemius muscle biomechanics. Isolated muscle produced greater tetanus force, and faster isometric force generation and relaxation, and generated more work loop power at 25°C than at 15°C acute test temperature. Oxygen consumption of isolated muscle at rest did not change with test temperature, but oxygen consumption while muscle was performing work was significantly higher at 15°C than at 25°C, regardless of acclimation conditions. Muscle therefore consumed significantly more oxygen at 15°C for a given work output than at 25°C, and plastic responses did not modify this thermodynamic effect. The metabolic cost of muscle performance and activity therefore increased with a decrease in temperature. To maintain activity across a range of temperature, animals must increase ATP production or face an allocation trade-off at lower temperatures. Our data demonstrate the potential energetic benefits of warming up muscle before activity, which is seen in diverse groups of animals such as bees, which warm flight muscle before take-off, and humans performing warm ups before exercise. PMID:24625645

  17. The antiestrogens tamoxifen and fulvestrant abolish estrogenic impacts of 17α-ethinylestradiol on male calling behavior of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Various synthetic chemicals released to the environment can interfere with the endocrine system of vertebrates. Many of these endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) exhibit estrogenic activity and can interfere with sexual development and reproductive physiology. More recently, also chemicals with different modes of action (MOAs), such as antiestrogenic, androgenic and antiandrogenic EDCs, have been shown to be present in the environment. However, to date EDC-research primarily focuses on exposure to EDCs with just one MOA, while studies examining the effects of simultaneous exposure to EDCs with different MOAs are rare, although they would reflect more real, natural exposure situations. In the present study the combined effects of estrogenic and antiestrogenic EDCs were assessed by analyzing the calling behavior of short-term exposed male Xenopus laevis. The estrogenic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and the antiestrogenic EDCs tamoxifen (TAM) and fulvestrant (ICI) were used as model substances. As previously demonstrated, sole EE2 exposure (10-10 M) resulted in significant alterations of the male calling behavior, including altered temporal and spectral parameters of the advertisement calls. Sole TAM (10-7 M, 10-8 M, 10-10 M) or ICI (10-7 M) exposure, on the other hand, did not affect any of the measured parameters. If frogs were co-exposed to EE2 (10-10 M) and TAM (10-7 M) the effects of EE2 on some parameters were abolished, but co-exposure to EE2 and ICI (10-7 M) neutralized all estrogenic effects. Thus, although EDCs with antiestrogenic MOA might not exhibit any effects per se, they can alter the estrogenic effects of EE2. Our observations demonstrate that there is need to further investigate the combined effects of EDCs with various, not only opposing, MOAs as this would reflect realistic wildlife situations. PMID:23028589

  18. Flesh fly myiasis (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mattias Hagman; Thomas Pape; Rainer Schulte

    2005-01-01

    In this note we review records of myiasis in poison frogs collected in various locations in Peru during 1982-2005 and present evidence that larger and medium-sized poison frogs (Epipedobates) are infected with sarcophagid fly larvae.

  19. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  20. Resurrecting an Extinct Species: Archival DNA, Taxonomy, and Conservation of the Vegas Valley Leopard Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggestions that the extinct Vegas Valley leopard frog (Rana fisheri = Lithobates fisheri) may have been synonymous with one of several declining species has complicated recovery planning for imperiled leopard frogs in southwestern North America. To address this concern, we recon...

  1. What Is The Proximate Cause Of Begging Behaviour In A Group Of Captive Asian Short-Clawed Otters?

    OpenAIRE

    Gothard Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to ascertain the proximate cause of ‘begging’ behaviour in a group of captive Asian short-clawed otters (Aonyx cinereus). Two alternative hypotheses were tested by manipulating aspects of husbandry in three experimental conditions. Condition 1 served as a baseline for comparison. In Condition 2 meal worms and crickets were provided every hour to stimulate natural foraging and hunting behaviour and alleviate boredom. During Condition 3 the food allowance was increased by 7.5% o...

  2. Assessing The Welfare Of Captive Asian Small-Clawed Otters (Amblonyx cinereus): Can Inductive Methods Play A Part?

    OpenAIRE

    Wright L.C.

    2003-01-01

    A large number of factors need to be taken into account when assessing an animal's welfare under field conditions. Grounded Theory, an inductive method, might be of use in correlating these factors with the results of scientific studies to produce a freely available IT tool that could be used by relatively untrained persons to assess the welfare of animals. This ongoing work is intended to establish whether inductive techniques can contribute to welfare assessment of captive Asian Small-Clawe...

  3. Cystic urolithiasis in captive waxy monkey frogs (Phyllomedusa sauvagii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Kate E; Minter, Larry J; Dombrowski, Daniel S; O'Brien, Jodi L; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2015-03-01

    The waxy monkey frog (Phyllomedusa sauvagii) is an arboreal amphibian native to arid regions of South America, and it has developed behavioral and physiologic adaptations to permit survival in dry environments. These adaptations include a uricotelic nitrogen metabolism and unique cutaneous lipid excretions to prevent evaporative water loss. Uroliths are a rare finding in amphibians. Six adult, presumed wild-caught waxy monkey frogs housed in a museum animal collection were diagnosed with cystic urolithiasis over a 7-yr period, and a single animal was diagnosed with four recurrent cases. Six cases were identified incidentally at routine physical or postmortem examination and four cases were identified during veterinary evaluation for coelomic distension, lethargy, anorexia, and increased soaking behavior. Calculi were surgically removed from three frogs via cystotomy, and a single frog underwent three cystotomies and two cloacotomies for recurrent urolithiasis. Two frogs died within the 24-hr postoperative period. Two representative calculi from a single frog were submitted for component analysis and found to consist of 100% ammonium urate. In the present report, cystic calculi are proposed to be the result of a high-protein diet based on a single invertebrate source, coupled with uricotelism, dehydration, increased cutaneous water loss, body temperature fluctuations facilitating supersaturation of urine, and subsequent accumulation and precipitation of urogenous wastes within the urinary bladder. Surgical cystotomy represents a short-term treatment strategy for this condition. Preventative measures, such as supplying a diversified and balanced diet in addition to environmental manipulation aimed at promoting adequate hydration, are anticipated to be more-rewarding management tools for cystic urolithiasis in the waxy monkey frog. PMID:25831582

  4. Panamanian frog species host unique skin bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Lisa K; Hughey, Myra C; Rebollar, Eria A; Umile, Thomas P; Loftus, Stephen C; Burzynski, Elizabeth A; Minbiole, Kevin P C; House, Leanna L; Jensen, Roderick V; Becker, Matthew H; Walke, Jenifer B; Medina, Daniel; Ibáñez, Roberto; Harris, Reid N

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates, including amphibians, host diverse symbiotic microbes that contribute to host disease resistance. Globally, and especially in montane tropical systems, many amphibian species are threatened by a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), that causes a lethal skin disease. Bd therefore may be a strong selective agent on the diversity and function of the microbial communities inhabiting amphibian skin. In Panamá, amphibian population declines and the spread of Bd have been tracked. In 2012, we completed a field survey in Panamá to examine frog skin microbiota in the context of Bd infection. We focused on three frog species and collected two skin swabs per frog from a total of 136 frogs across four sites that varied from west to east in the time since Bd arrival. One swab was used to assess bacterial community structure using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and to determine Bd infection status, and one was used to assess metabolite diversity, as the bacterial production of anti-fungal metabolites is an important disease resistance function. The skin microbiota of the three Panamanian frog species differed in OTU (operational taxonomic unit, ~bacterial species) community composition and metabolite profiles, although the pattern was less strong for the metabolites. Comparisons between frog skin bacterial communities from Panamá and the US suggest broad similarities at the phylum level, but key differences at lower taxonomic levels. In our field survey in Panamá, across all four sites, only 35 individuals (~26%) were Bd infected. There was no clustering of OTUs or metabolite profiles based on Bd infection status and no clear pattern of west-east changes in OTUs or metabolite profiles across the four sites. Overall, our field survey data suggest that different bacterial communities might be producing broadly similar sets of metabolites across frog hosts and sites. Community structure and function may not be as tightly coupled in these skin symbiont

  5. Dermaseptins and Magainins: Antimicrobial Peptides from Frogs' Skin—New Sources for a Promising Spermicides Microbicides—A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Zairi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the causative agents of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, are two great concerns in the reproductive health of women. Thus, the challenge is to find products with a double activity, on the one hand having antimicrobial/antiviral properties with a role in the reduction of STI, and on the other hand having spermicidal action to be used as a contraceptive. In the absence of an effective microbicide along with the disadvantages of the most commonly used spermicidal contraceptive worldwide, nonoxynol-9, new emphasis has been focused on the development of more potential intravaginal microbicidal agents. Topical microbicides spermicides would ideally provide a female-controlled method of self-protection against HIV as well as preventing pregnancies. Nonoxynol-9, the only recommended microbicide spermicide, damages cervicovaginal epithelium because of its membrane-disruptive properties. Clearly, there is an urgent need to identify new compounds with dual potential microbicidal properties; antimicrobial peptides should be candidates for such investigations. Dermaseptins and magainins are two classes of cationic, amphipathic α-helical peptides that have been identified in the skin extracts of frogs Phyllomedusa sauvagei and Xenopus laevis. Regarding their contraceptive activities and their effect against various STI-causing pathogens, we believe that these two peptides are appropriate candidates in the evaluation of newer and safer microbicides spermicides in the future.

  6. DNA barcode based wildlife forensics for resolving the origin of claw samples using a novel primer cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Abhayankar, Shil Bapurao; Nalage, Dinesh; Ahmed, Shaikh Nadeem; Khedkar, Chandraprakash D

    2014-12-10

    Abstract Excessive wildlife hunting for commercial purposes can have negative impacts on biodiversity and may result in species extinction. To ensure compliance with legal statutes, forensic identification approaches relying on molecular markers may be used to identify the species of origin of animal material from hairs, claw, blood, bone, or meat. Using this approach, DNA sequences from the COI "barcoding" gene have been used to identify material from a number of domesticated animal species. However, many wild species of carnivores still present great challenges in generating COI barcodes using standard "universal" primer pairs. In the work presented here, the mitochondrial COI gene was successfully amplified using a novel primer cocktail, and the products were sequenced to determine the species of twenty one unknown samples of claw material collected as part of forensic wildlife case investigations. Sixteen of the unknown samples were recognized to have originated from either Panthera leo or P. pardus individuals. The remaining five samples could be identified only to the family level due to the absence of reference animal sequences. This is the first report on the use of COI sequences for the identification of P. pardus and P. leo from claw samples as part of forensic investigations in India. The study also highlights the need for adequate reference material to aid in the resolution of suspected cases of illegal wildlife harvesting. PMID:25492536

  7. Assigning king eiders to wintering regions in the Bering Sea using stable isotopes of feathers and claws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, S.; Powell, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of wintering regions for birds sampled during the breeding season is crucial to understanding how events outside the breeding season may affect populations. We assigned king eiders captured on breeding grounds in northern Alaska to 3 broad geographic wintering regions in the Bering Sea using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes obtained from head feathers. Using a discriminant function analysis of feathers obtained from birds tracked with satellite transmitters, we estimated that 88 % of feathers were assigned to the region in which they were grown. We then assigned 84 birds of unknown origin to wintering regions based on their head feather isotope ratios, and tested the utility of claws for geographic assignment. Based on the feather results, we estimated that similar proportions of birds in our study area use each of the 3 wintering regions in the Bering Sea. These results are in close agreement with estimates from satellite telemetry and show the usefulness of stable isotope signatures of feathers in assigning marine birds to geographic regions. The use of claws is currently limited by incomplete understanding of claw growth rates. Data presented here will allow managers of eiders, other marine birds, and marine mammals to assign animals to regions in the Bering Sea based on stable isotope signatures of body tissues. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  8. Suzaku X-ray Observations of the Fermi Bubbles: Northernmost Cap and Southeast Claw Discovered with MAXI-SSC

    CERN Document Server

    Tahara, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    We report on Suzaku observations of large-scale X-ray structures possibly related with the Fermi Bubbles obtained in 2013 with a total duration of ~ 80 ks. The observed regions were the: (i) northern cap (N-cap; l ~ 0 deg, 45 deg < b < 55 deg) seen in the Mid-band (1.7-4.0 keV) map recently provided by MAXI-SSC and (ii) southeast claw (SE-claw; l ~ 10 deg, -20 deg < b < -10 deg) seen in the ROSAT all-sky map and MAXI-SSC Low-band (0.7-1.7 keV) map. In each region, we detected diffuse X-ray emissions which are represented by a three component plasma model consisting of an unabsorbed thermal component (kT ~ 0.1 keV) from the Local Bubble, absorbed kT = 0.30+/-0.05 keV emission representing the Galactic Halo, and a power-law component due to the isotropic cosmic X-ray background radiation. The emission measure of the GH component in the SE-claw shows an excess by a factor of ~ 2.5 over the surrounding emission at 2 deg away. We also found a broad excess in the 1.7-4.0 keV count rates across the N-cap...

  9. The first see-through frog created by breeding: description, inheritance patterns, and dermal chromatophore structure

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Sumida; Mohammed Mafizul Islam; Takeshi Igawa; Atsushi Kurabayashi; Yukari Furukawa; Naomi Sano; Tamotsu Fujii; Norio Yoshizaki

    2016-01-01

    We have succeeded in creating see-through frogs from natural color mutants of the Japanese brown frog Rana japonica, which usually possesses an ochre or brown back; this coloration enables the organs, blood vessels, and eggs to be observed through the skin without performing dissection. We crossed two kinds of recessive color mutant (black-eyed and gray-eyed) frogs through artificial insemination, and F2 offspring produced frogs whose skin is translucent throughout the life cycle. Three kinds...

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Sebastian; Pabijan, Maciej; Osikowski, Artur; Szymura, Jacek M

    2016-05-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis, a water frog species endemic to the island of Crete. The genome sequence was 17,829 bp in size, and the gene order and contents were identical to those of previously reported mitochondrial genomes of other water frog species. This is the first complete mitogenome (i.e. including control region) described for western Palaearctic water frogs. PMID:25329260

  11. Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Healing Activities of Frog Skin on Guinea Pigs Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Frog skin secretions have potentials against a wide spectrum of bacteria. Also, frog skin compositions have healing properties. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial potentials along with healing properties of frog skin Rana ridibunda, a species which thoroughly lives in Iran marshes, as a biological dressing on wounds. Materials and Methods: In this study, excisional wounds, dressed with frog skin, were compared between experimental and control gr...

  12. Reproductive ecology of Sichuan digging frogs (Microhylidae: Kaloula rugifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Lina Ren; Dujuan He; Ying Wang; David Pike

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We investigated the reproductive ecology of Sichuan digging frogs (Microhylidae: Kaloula rugifera) in Mianyang, China during the wet season of 2013. Male Sichuan digging frogs first appear at temporary ponds following the first heavy rain of the wet season and initiate calling. Females arrive at ponds shortly after males. Male frogs chorus extensively throughout the wet season during the evenings and nights following rainstorms. Female frogs leave the pond after laying eggs, and lik...

  13. Specialist or generalist? Feeding ecology of the Malagasy poison frog Mantella aurantiaca

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhead, Cindy; Vences, Miguel; Vieites, David R.; Gamboni, Ilona; Brian L Fisher; Griffiths, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the diet of a population of free-ranging Mantella aurantiaca, an alkaloid-containing poison frog from Madagascar. As in other poison frogs, this species is thought to sequester alkaloids from arthropod prey. Among prey, mites and ants are known to regularly contain alkaloids and mites appear to be a major source of dietary alkaloids in poison frogs. We predicted that mites and ants would constitute the most important prey item for these frogs. Prey inventories were obtained during ...

  14. Islet-1 is required for ventral neuron survival in Xenopus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islet-1 is a LIM domain transcription factor involved in several processes of embryonic development. Xenopus Islet-1 (Xisl-1) has been shown to be crucial for proper heart development. Here we show that Xisl-1 and Xisl-2 are differentially expressed in the nervous system in Xenopus embryos. Knock-down of Xisl-1 by specific morpholino leads to severe developmental defects, including eye and heart failure. Staining with the neuronal markers N-tubulin and Xisl-1 itself reveals that the motor neurons and a group of ventral interneurons are lost in the Xisl-1 morphants. Terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis shows that Xisl-1 morpholino injection induces extensive apoptosis in the ventral neural plate, which can be largely inhibited by the apoptosis inhibitor M50054. We also find that over-expression of Xisl-1 is able to promote cell proliferation and induce Xstat3 expression in the injected side, suggesting a potential role for Xisl-1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in co-operation with the Jak-Stat pathway.

  15. Islet-1 is required for ventral neuron survival in Xenopus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yu; Zhao, Shuhua; Li, Jiejing [CAS-Max Planck Junior Scientist Group, State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Mao, Bingyu, E-mail: mao@mail.kiz.ac.cn [CAS-Max Planck Junior Scientist Group, State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China)

    2009-10-23

    Islet-1 is a LIM domain transcription factor involved in several processes of embryonic development. Xenopus Islet-1 (Xisl-1) has been shown to be crucial for proper heart development. Here we show that Xisl-1 and Xisl-2 are differentially expressed in the nervous system in Xenopus embryos. Knock-down of Xisl-1 by specific morpholino leads to severe developmental defects, including eye and heart failure. Staining with the neuronal markers N-tubulin and Xisl-1 itself reveals that the motor neurons and a group of ventral interneurons are lost in the Xisl-1 morphants. Terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis shows that Xisl-1 morpholino injection induces extensive apoptosis in the ventral neural plate, which can be largely inhibited by the apoptosis inhibitor M50054. We also find that over-expression of Xisl-1 is able to promote cell proliferation and induce Xstat3 expression in the injected side, suggesting a potential role for Xisl-1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in co-operation with the Jak-Stat pathway.

  16. Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S. [Inst. de Ciencias Ambientales y Salud, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Programa Seguridad Quimica; Cardellini, P.; Pavanati, C. [Univ. degli Studi di Padova Via Trieste (Italy). Dept. di Biologia

    1997-02-01

    The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surface ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.

  17. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  18. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...

  19. 75 FR 8733 - Least Chub and Columbia Spotted Frog Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances; Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Least Chub and Columbia Spotted Frog Candidate Conservation Agreement With... (CCAA) for the least chub (Iotichthys phlegethontis) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana lutreiventris..., least chub and Columbia spotted frog inhabited a variety of aquatic habitat types throughout...

  20. Radioimmunoassay of plasma corticotropin in the edible Frog Rana esculenta L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the green Frog (Rana esculenta) the plasma contains a polypeptide immunologically related to human and porcine corticotropins. A radioimmunoassay capable of detecting 4.10-12 g hog ACTH has been used for a direct plasma ACTH assay in the Frog. Using this method the ACTH rate was determined both in untreated frogs and in animals under various experimental conditions

  1. The biology, economy, hunting and legislation of edible Frogs (Ranidae Intended for Export in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Şereflişan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The frogs production is done on the basis of fully hunting, an important export product in Turkey. The frogs are almost no domestic consumption. The frogs are exported to France, Italy, Switzerland, Lebanon, Greece and Spain by five companies a processed form as live frog, frozen frog legs and chilled frog legs. In Turkey, some regulations related to hunting frogs and exports are prepared by under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs General Directorate of Protection and Control. The hunting frogs is banned by 3/1 the Commercial Fisheries regulating the hunting notification. These prohibitions are designed to be different for each province. The provinces are permitted for frogs hunting by the legislation in Adana, Afyonkarahisar, Balıkesir, Bingöl, Bursa, Edirne, Bursa, Istanbul and Yalova. Frogs were exported in different amounts (kg with different price in every year during the last ten years. The highest amounts of the frogs with the lowest of price were exported in 2013. Prey weight is shrinking due to overfishing. In this case, the price of export materials has got significantly negative effects. As a result, the ban on hunting and restrictive measures for protection should be taken seriously in some of the provinces. Hunting ban is absolutely necessary in Turkey. In many countries including Turkey, in order to ensure sustainability, it is important to do the frog breeding.

  2. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Fábio P; Zina, Juliana; Haddad, Célio F B

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids), we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity. PMID:26760304

  3. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio P de Sá

    Full Text Available Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids, we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity.

  4. Tourism and the Conservation of Critically Endangered Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Clare; Simpkins, Clay; Castley, J. Guy; Buckley, Ralf C.

    2012-01-01

    Protected areas are critical for the conservation of many threatened species. Despite this, many protected areas are acutely underfunded, which reduces their effectiveness significantly. Tourism is one mechanism to promote and fund conservation in protected areas, but there are few studies analyzing its tangible conservation outcomes for threatened species. This study uses the 415 IUCN critically endangered frog species to evaluate the contribution of protected area tourism revenue to conservation. Contributions were calculated for each species as the proportion of geographic range inside protected areas multiplied by the proportion of protected area revenues derived from tourism. Geographic ranges were determined from IUCN Extent of Occurrence maps. Almost 60% (239) of critically endangered frog species occur in protected areas. Higher proportions of total range are protected in Nearctic, Australasian and Afrotopical regions. Tourism contributions to protected area budgets ranged from 5–100%. These financial contributions are highest for developing countries in the Afrotropical, Indomalayan and Neotropical regions. Data for both geographic range and budget are available for 201 critically endangered frog species with proportional contributions from tourism to species protection ranging from 0.8–99%. Tourism's financial contributions to critically endangered frog species protection are highest in the Afrotropical region. This study uses a coarse measure but at the global scale it demonstrates that tourism has significant potential to contribute to global frog conservation efforts. PMID:22984440

  5. Function after correction of a clawed great toe by a modified Robert Jones transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breusch, S J; Wenz, W; Döderlein, L

    2000-03-01

    We carried out a cross-sectional study in 51 patients (81 feet) with a clawed hallux in association with a cavus foot after a modified Robert Jones tendon transfer. The mean follow-up was 42 months (9 to 88). In all feet, concomitant procedures had been undertaken, such as extension osteotomy of the first metatarsal and transfer of the tendon of the peroneus longus to peroneus brevis, to correct the underlying foot deformity. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. The overall rate of patient satisfaction was 86%. The deformity of the hallux was corrected in 80 feet. Catching of the big toe when walking barefoot, transfer lesions and metatarsalgia, hallux flexus, hallux limitus and asymptomatic nonunion of the interphalangeal joint were the most frequent complications. Hallux limitus was more likely when elevation of the first ray occurred (p = 0.012). Additional transfer of the tendon of peroneus longus to peroneus brevis was a significant risk factor for elevation of the first metatarsal (p hallux. PMID:10755436

  6. Insights into the molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the white-clawed crayfish (Decapoda, Astacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelić, Mišel; Klobučar, Göran I V; Grandjean, Frédéric; Puillandre, Nicolas; Franjević, Damjan; Futo, Momir; Amouret, Julien; Maguire, Ivana

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the evolutionary history of the white-clawed crayfish (WCC) was evaluated using large-scale datasets comprising >1350 specimens from the entire distribution range. Using species delimitation methods on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences, we propose four primary species hypotheses for WCC. Sequences for several nuclear regions were screened but none showed significant variation within WCC. This result favours a single secondary species hypothesis and indicates the existence of a mito-nuclear discordance in WCC. Therefore, mtDNA groups were considered only as genetic units that carry information about ancient divergences within WCC and not as taxonomic units. The reconstruction of ancestral ranges and divergence time estimates were used to link the current genetic structure with paleogeographic processes. These results showed that the emergence of mtDNA groups in WCC could be related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis, the climate cooling during the Pliocene and Pleistocene, and (paleo)shifting of the Adriatic Sea coastline in the Padanovenezian Plain. The most recent common ancestor of the mtDNA groups most likely originated from Dalmatia (eastern Adriatic coast) as indicated by the reconstruction of ancestral ranges. This ecoregion, along with the Gulf of Venice Drainages, harbours a high genetic diversity and should be emphasised as an area of the highest conservation priority. PMID:27404041

  7. Histological analysis of thelohaniasis in white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaglio F.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available From 2004 to 2006, a parasitological survey aimed at the detection of the microsporidian parasite Thelohania contejeani Henneguy was carried out on 177 wild white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes complex captured in six streams and rivers of the province of Belluno in north-eastern Italy. Microscopical examination of the skeletal muscles, and histological analysis applying different histochemical stains to full transverse and sagittal sections of the cephalothorax and abdomen were carried out. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was also conducted on the parasites recovered during the survey. Out of 177 crayfish examined, Thelohania contejeani (Microsporidia, Thelohaniidae was present in only one crayfish from the Vena d’oro creek. The parasite was detected in the skeletal muscles in several developmental stages, including mature spores, which represented the most common stage recovered. Sporophorous vesicles were also present. Histological examination revealed that the fibres of the skeletal, cardiac and intestinal muscles were filled with spores. Melanin infiltrations were focally present in the infected striated muscles. The gill phagocytic nephrocytes were engulfed by small masses of spores. Among the staining techniques applied, Crossman’s trichrome stain represented the most effective method of detecting T. contejeani.

  8. Span programs and quantum algorithms for st-connectivity and claw detection

    CERN Document Server

    Belovs, Aleksandrs

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a span program that decides st-connectivity, and generalize the span program to develop quantum algorithms for several graph problems. First, we give an algorithm for st-connectivity that uses O(n d^{1/2}) quantum queries to the n x n adjacency matrix to decide if vertices s and t are connected, under the promise that they either are connected by a path of length at most d, or are disconnected. We also show that if T is a path, a star with two subdivided legs, or a subdivision of a claw, its presence as a subgraph in the input graph G can be detected with O(n) quantum queries to the adjacency matrix. Under the promise that G either contains T as a subgraph or does not contain T as a minor, we give O(n)-query quantum algorithms for detecting T either a triangle or a subdivision of a star. All these algorithms can be implemented time efficiently and, except for the triangle-detection algorithm, in logarithmic space. One of the main techniques is to modify the st-connectivity span program to drop al...

  9. Prevalence and intensity of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in water frogs and brown frogs in natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrelle, Cécile; Portier, Julien; Jouet, Damien; Delorme, Daniel; Ferté, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    In the last 15 years, the mesocercariae of Alaria alata have frequently been reported in the wild boar during routine Trichinella inspections made compulsory for the trade of venison meat in Europe. If these studies have focused primarily on mesocercariae isolated from meat, few works have been done so far to understand the circulation of the parasite in natural conditions especially in the intermediate hosts. This study focuses on the second intermediate hosts of this parasite assessing the suitability of two amphibian groups-brown frogs and water frogs sensu lato-for mesocercarial infection on an area where A. alata has already been identified in water snails and wild boars. During this study, both groups showed to be suitable for mesocercarial infection, with high prevalence and parasite burdens. Prevalence was higher in the brown frog group (56.9 versus 11.54 % for water frogs) which would indicate that it is a preferential group for infection on the study area, though reasons for this remain to be investigated. No significant difference among prevalences was observed between tadpoles and frogs. This study, the first focusing on A. alata in these amphibians in Europe, provides further information on circulation of this parasite in natura. PMID:26319522

  10. Distinct abscisic acid signaling pathways for modulation of guard cell versus mesophyll cell potassium channels revealed by expression studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, F.; Paul, S. S.; Wang, X. Q.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Regulation of guard cell ion transport by abscisic acid (ABA) and in particular ABA inhibition of a guard cell inward K(+) current (I(Kin)) is well documented. However, little is known concerning ABA effects on ion transport in other plant cell types. Here we applied patch clamp techniques to mesophyll cell protoplasts of fava bean (Vicia faba cv Long Pod) plants and demonstrated ABA inhibition of an outward K(+) current (I(Kout)). When mesophyll cell protoplast mRNA (mesophyll mRNA) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, I(Kout) was generated that displayed similar properties to I(Kout) observed from direct analysis of mesophyll cell protoplasts. I(Kout) expressed by mesophyll mRNA-injected oocytes was inhibited by ABA, indicating that the ABA signal transduction pathway observed in mesophyll cells was preserved in the frog oocytes. Co-injection of oocytes with guard cell protoplast mRNA and cRNA for KAT1, an inward K(+) channel expressed in guard cells, resulted in I(Kin) that was similarly inhibited by ABA. However, oocytes co-injected with mesophyll mRNA and KAT1 cRNA produced I(Kin) that was not inhibited by ABA. These results demonstrate that the mesophyll-encoded signaling mechanism could not substitute for the guard cell pathway. These findings indicate that mesophyll cells and guard cells use distinct and different receptor types and/or signal transduction pathways in ABA regulation of K(+) channels.

  11. Conservation of structural and functional domains in complement component C3 of Xenopus and mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossberger, D; Marcuz, A; Du Pasquier, L; LAMBRIS, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    The cDNA sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence of the Mr 34,000 C-terminal fragment of Xenopus laevis complement component C3 are presented. The sequence of Xenopus C3 has 57% nucleotide identity to the corresponding sequence of human C3 and approximately 49% amino acid identity to C3 from human, mouse, and rabbit. The Xenopus C3 sequence shows clusters of high and of low similarity to the mammalian C3 sequences. One of these regions of high similarity represents the domain of mammalia...

  12. Voxel-based frog phantom for internal dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A voxel-based frog phantom has been developed for radiation protection of the environment. The voxel-based frog phantom was applied to evaluating self-absorbed fractions (self-AFs), which are defined as the fraction of energy emitted by a radiation source that is absorbed within the source organ. The self-AFs were evaluated for both photons and electrons in the spleen, kidneys, and liver using Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, self-S values (μGy/MBq·s) for 18F and 90Y in the organs were calculated using the results of the self-AFs. Consequently, the voxel-based frog phantom was found to be useful for the organ dose evaluations, which have not been proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It was also confirmed that the self-AFs and self-S values are largely dependent on the mass of the source organ. (author)

  13. Radiation processing for the control of Salmonella in frog legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large consignments of frogs legs are exported annually from India. Failure to satisfy some of the strict microbiological standards, especially in relating to Salmonellae contamination, has resulted in the rejection of large quantities of the product in recent years. This has emphasised the need for better and more effective methods than those currently in use for the elimination of Salmonellae. With a view to developing an irradiation process for the control of this public health problem, commercial samples of frog legs have been screened to assess the incidence of Salmonella. The various serotypes have been identified and their radiation sensitivities determined. Based on these data, a radiation treatment of frozen frog legs for the elimination of Salmonella has been developed. (author)

  14. Frog: The Fast & Realistic OpenGL Event Displayer

    CERN Document Server

    Quertenmont, Loic

    2009-01-01

    FROG [1] is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable for any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light ($<3~\\textrm{MB}$) and fast (browsing time $\\sim20$ events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OpenGL[2] and GLUT [3] libraries. Moreover, \\textsc{Frog} does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This documents describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisation, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally, several examples of its current applications are presented for illustration.

  15. ’He descended legs-upwards‘: Position and motion in Tzeltal frog stories

    OpenAIRE

    P Brown

    2000-01-01

    How are events framed in narrative? Speakers of English (a 'satellite-framed' language), when 'reading' Mercer Mayer's wordless picture book 'Frog, Where Are You?', find the story self-evident: a boy has a dog and a pet frog; the frog escapes and runs away; the boy and dog look for it across hill and dale, through woods and over a cliff, until they find it and return home with a baby frog child of the original pet frog. In Tzeltal, as spoken in a Mayan community in southern Mexico, the story ...

  16. Position and motion in Tzeltal frog stories: The acquisition of narrative style

    OpenAIRE

    P Brown

    2004-01-01

    How are events framed in narrative? Speakers of English (a 'satellite-framed' language), when 'reading' Mercer Mayer's wordless picture book 'Frog, Where Are You?', find the story self-evident: a boy has a dog and a pet frog; the frog escapes and runs away; the boy and dog look for it across hill and dale, through woods and over a cliff, until they find it and return home with a baby frog child of the original pet frog. In Tzeltal, as spoken in a Mayan community in southern Mexico, the story ...

  17. Lizard and frog prestin: evolutionary insight into functional changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells contains prestin, a unique motor protein. Prestin is the fifth member of the solute carrier protein 26A family. Orthologs of prestin are also found in the ear of non-mammalian vertebrates such as zebrafish and chicken. However, these orthologs are electrogenic anion exchangers/transporters with no motor function. Amphibian and reptilian lineages represent phylogenic branches in the evolution of tetrapods and subsequent amniotes. Comparison of the peptide sequences and functional properties of these prestin orthologs offer new insights into prestin evolution. With the recent availability of the lizard and frog genome sequences, we examined amino acid sequence and function of lizard and frog prestins to determine how they are functionally and structurally different from prestins of mammals and other non-mammals. Somatic motility, voltage-dependent nonlinear capacitance (NLC, the two hallmarks of prestin function, and transport capability were measured in transfected human embryonic kidney cells using voltage-clamp and radioisotope techniques. We demonstrated that while the transport capability of lizard and frog prestin was compatible to that of chicken prestin, the NLC of lizard prestin was more robust than that of chicken's and was close to that of platypus. However, unlike platypus prestin which has acquired motor capability, lizard or frog prestin did not demonstrate motor capability. Lizard and frog prestins do not possess the same 11-amino-acid motif that is likely the structural adaptation for motor function in mammals. Thus, lizard and frog prestins appear to be functionally more advanced than that of chicken prestin, although motor capability is not yet acquired.

  18. Lizard and frog prestin: evolutionary insight into functional changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Pecka, Jason L; Fritzsch, Bernd; Beisel, Kirk W; He, David Z Z

    2013-01-01

    The plasma membrane of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells contains prestin, a unique motor protein. Prestin is the fifth member of the solute carrier protein 26A family. Orthologs of prestin are also found in the ear of non-mammalian vertebrates such as zebrafish and chicken. However, these orthologs are electrogenic anion exchangers/transporters with no motor function. Amphibian and reptilian lineages represent phylogenic branches in the evolution of tetrapods and subsequent amniotes. Comparison of the peptide sequences and functional properties of these prestin orthologs offer new insights into prestin evolution. With the recent availability of the lizard and frog genome sequences, we examined amino acid sequence and function of lizard and frog prestins to determine how they are functionally and structurally different from prestins of mammals and other non-mammals. Somatic motility, voltage-dependent nonlinear capacitance (NLC), the two hallmarks of prestin function, and transport capability were measured in transfected human embryonic kidney cells using voltage-clamp and radioisotope techniques. We demonstrated that while the transport capability of lizard and frog prestin was compatible to that of chicken prestin, the NLC of lizard prestin was more robust than that of chicken's and was close to that of platypus. However, unlike platypus prestin which has acquired motor capability, lizard or frog prestin did not demonstrate motor capability. Lizard and frog prestins do not possess the same 11-amino-acid motif that is likely the structural adaptation for motor function in mammals. Thus, lizard and frog prestins appear to be functionally more advanced than that of chicken prestin, although motor capability is not yet acquired. PMID:23342145

  19. Effect of ionizing radiation on cell death in frog spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was studied the number of dead cells in frog spleen by means of coloration with trypan blue which allowed to estimate last stage of apoptosis dead of cells.The investigated frogs (Rana arvalis) were caught in september 1997 at radionuclide contamination territory (the Gomel Region, the Khojniki District). Control animals were caught in village Ratamka of the Minsk District. The percent of dead cells was less in control group in 1,5 times. Under additional irradiation (2 Gy) the number of dead cells in spleen also differs significantly in the investigated and control groups

  20. Determination of age, longevity and age at reproduction of the frog Microhyla ornata by skeletochronology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suresh M Kumbar; Katti Pancharatna

    2001-06-01

    Skeletochronological estimation of age, longevity, age at sexual maturity and breeding of Microhyla ornata was done. Frogs ( = 62) were collected locally in August (rainy season) 1997 and brought to the laboratory. Body mass and snout-vent-length (SVL) of each frog was recorded; the 4th toe of both the hind limbs was clipped under anaesthesia, fixed in 10% formalin, demineralized in 5% nitric acid and processed for histology. Limb bones (femur, humerus, tibiofibula and radioulna) of 6 large sized frogs were also processed for skeletochronology in order to study the rate of resorption. Gonads of 25 frogs (belonging to different body size ranges) were processed for histology in order to ascertain the gametogenic status of individual frogs. One to four growth rings consisting of growth zones and lines of arrested growth (LAGs) were noticed in frogs of different body sizes; the number of LAGs remained identical in all the limb bones and phalanges in 5 out of 6 frogs. Back calculation indicated that the resorption rate is very low in this frog. Male frogs possessed sperm bundles in seminiferous tubules in the 1st year, while females showed yolky follicles in the ovary in the 2nd year. Frogs found in amplexus were 3–5 years old. The results suggest that this frog may live for a maximum of 5 years in the natural population.

  1. Functional expression of murine multidrug resistance in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, G.; Vera, J.C.; Rosen, O.M. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Research Center, New York, NY (USA)); Yang, Chiaping Huang; Horwitz, S.B. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is associated with the overproduction of a plasma membrane glycoprotein, P glycoprotein. Here the authors report the functional expression of a member of the murine MDR family of proteins and show that Xenopus oocytes injected with RNA encoding the mouse mdr1b P glycoprotein develop a MDR-like phenotype. Immunological analysis indicated that oocytes injected with the mdr1b RNA synthesized a protein with the size and immunological characteristics of the mouse mdr1b P glycoprotein. These oocytes exhibited a decreased accumulation of ({sup 3}H)vinblastine and showed an increased capacity to extrude the drug compared to control oocytes not expressing the P glycoprotein. In addition, competition experiments indicated that verapamil, vincristine, daunomycin, and quinidine, but not colchicine, can overcome the rapid drug efflux conferred by the expression of the mouse P glycoprotein.

  2. Selective carboxyl methylation of structurally altered calmodulins in Xenopus oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eucaryotic protein carboxyl methyltransferase specifically modifies atypical D-aspartyl and L-isoaspartyl residues which are generated spontaneously as proteins age. The selectivity of the enzyme for altered proteins in intact cells was explored by co-injecting Xenopus laevis oocytes with S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine and structurally altered calmodulins generated during a 14-day preincubation in vitro. Control experiments indicated that the oocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase was not saturated with endogenous substrates, since protein carboxyl methylation rates could be stimulated up to 8-fold by increasing concentrations of injected calmodulin. The oocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase showed strong selectivities for bovine brain and bacterially synthesized calmodulins which had been preincubated in the presence of 1 mM EDTA relative to calmodulins which had been preincubated with 1 mM CaCl2. Radioactive methyl groups were incorporated into base-stable linkages with recombinant calmodulin as well as into carboxyl methyl esters following its microinjection into oocytes. This base-stable radioactivity most likely represents the trimethylation of lysine 115, a highly conserved post-translational modification which is present in bovine and Xenopus but not in bacterially synthesized calmodulin. Endogenous oocyte calmodulin incorporates radioactivity into both carboxyl methyl esters and into base-stable linkages following microinjection of oocytes with S-adenosyl-[methyl-3H]methionine alone. The rate of oocyte calmodulin carboxyl methylation in injected oocytes is calculated to be similar to that of lysine 115 trimethylation, suggesting that the rate of calmodulin carboxyl methylation is similar to that of calmodulin synthesis. At steady state, oocyte calmodulin contains approximately 0.0002 esters/mol of protein, which turn over rapidly

  3. The control of melanin synthesis during oogenesis in Xenopus laevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigates the mechanisms that control the synthesis of pigment during Xenopus laevis oogenesis. In this study, in vitro and in vivo assays indicate that the activity of the enzyme tyrosinase, the only enzyme necessary for the synthesis of pigment also reaches a peak during mid-oogenesis. The isotopes carbon 14, tritium, phosphorus 32 and sulfur 35 are used in this experiments. Furthermore, in vitro tyrosinase assays of polysomes isolated from different stage oocytes show that the rise in tyrosinase activity during mid-oogenesis is accompanied by a rise in polysomes synthesizing tyrosinase. This suggests that the synthesis of tyrosinase is restricted to mid-oogenesis. It was also established that oocyte tyrosinase is synthesized as a 32 kd polypeptide and is processed intra-melanosomally into a 120-130 kd tetramer. It is this form that is catalytically active in vivo. Oocyte tyrosinase does not require post-translational protease activation. To investigate the hypothesis that the synthesis of tyrosinase is restricted to mid-oogenesis, the accumulation of messenger RNA coding for tyrosinase was measured at different stages of oogenesis using a tyrosinase cDNA probe. The preparation of the tyrosinase cDNA probe required the purification of tyrosinase mRNA. This was achieved by a technique based on affinity chromatography of polysomes. This enriched 'tyrosinase mRNA' translated in vitro into two major proteins of 32 kd and 20 kd. The mRNA microinjected into Xenopus oocytes is translated into active tyrosinase. Hybridization of the tyrosinase cDNA probe to dot blots of oocyte mRNA suggested that tyrosinase mRNA accumulation reaches a peak just before maximal tyrosinase synthesis. The absence of tyrosinase mRNA late in oogenesis suggests that this message is not synthesized at this stage. These results are interpreted in terms of the functional significance of lampbrush chromosomes

  4. Deficient induction response in a Xenopus nucleocytoplasmic hybrid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Narbonne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Incompatibilities between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of sufficiently distant species result in developmental arrest of hybrid and nucleocytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid embryos. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their lethality, including problems in embryonic genome activation (EGA and/or nucleo-mitochondrial interactions. However, conclusive identification of the causes underlying developmental defects of cybrid embryos is still lacking. We show here that while over 80% of both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus (Silurana tropicalis same-species androgenetic haploids develop to the swimming tadpole stage, the androgenetic cybrids formed by the combination of X. laevis egg cytoplasm and X. tropicalis sperm nucleus invariably fail to gastrulate properly and never reach the swimming tadpole stage. In spite of this arrest, these cybrids show quantitatively normal EGA and energy levels at the stage where their initial gastrulation defects are manifested. The nucleocytoplasmic incompatibility between these two species instead results from a combination of factors, including a reduced emission of induction signal from the vegetal half, a decreased sensitivity of animal cells to induction signals, and differences in a key embryonic protein (Xbra concentration between the two species, together leading to inefficient induction and defective convergence-extension during gastrulation. Indeed, increased exposure to induction signals and/or Xbra signalling partially rescues the induction response in animal explants and whole cybrid embryos. Altogether, our study demonstrates that the egg cytoplasm of one species may not support the development promoted by the nucleus of another species, even if this nucleus does not interfere with the cytoplasmic/maternal functions of the egg, while the egg cytoplasm is also capable of activating the genome of that nucleus. Instead, our results provide evidence that inefficient signalling and differences in the

  5. Landscape genetics of high mountain frog metapopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Melanie A; Dezzani, R; Pilliod, D S; Storfer, A

    2010-09-01

    Explaining functional connectivity among occupied habitats is crucial for understanding metapopulation dynamics and species ecology. Landscape genetics has primarily focused on elucidating how ecological features between observations influence gene flow. Functional connectivity, however, may be the result of both these between-site (landscape resistance) landscape characteristics and at-site (patch quality) landscape processes that can be captured using network based models. We test hypotheses of functional connectivity that include both between-site and at-site landscape processes in metapopulations of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) by employing a novel justification of gravity models for landscape genetics (eight microsatellite loci, 37 sites, n = 441). Primarily used in transportation and economic geography, gravity models are a unique approach as flow (e.g. gene flow) is explained as a function of three basic components: distance between sites, production/attraction (e.g. at-site landscape process) and resistance (e.g. between-site landscape process). The study system contains a network of nutrient poor high mountain lakes where we hypothesized a short growing season and complex topography between sites limit R. luteiventris gene flow. In addition, we hypothesized production of offspring is limited by breeding site characteristics such as the introduction of predatory fish and inherent site productivity. We found that R. luteiventris connectivity was negatively correlated with distance between sites, presence of predatory fish (at-site) and topographic complexity (between-site). Conversely, site productivity (as measured by heat load index, at-site) and growing season (as measured by frost-free period between-sites) were positively correlated with gene flow. The negative effect of predation and positive effect of site productivity, in concert with bottleneck tests, support the presence of source-sink dynamics. In conclusion, gravity models provide a

  6. Meiosis I in Xenopus oocytes is not error-prone despite lacking spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Shao, Hua; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, X Johné

    2014-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint, SAC, is a surveillance mechanism to control the onset of anaphase during cell division. SAC prevents anaphase initiation until all chromosome pairs have achieved bipolar attachment and aligned at the metaphase plate of the spindle. In doing so, SAC is thought to be the key mechanism to prevent chromosome nondisjunction in mitosis and meiosis. We have recently demonstrated that Xenopus oocyte meiosis lacks SAC control. This prompted the question of whether Xenopus oocyte meiosis is particularly error-prone. In this study, we have karyotyped a total of 313 Xenopus eggs following in vitro oocyte maturation. We found no hyperploid egg, out of 204 metaphase II eggs with countable chromosome spreads. Therefore, chromosome nondisjunction is very rare during Xenopus oocyte meiosis I, despite the lack of SAC. PMID:24646611

  7. DNA is a co-factor for its own replication in Xenopus egg extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebofsky, Ronald; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2011-01-01

    Soluble Xenopus egg extracts efficiently replicate added plasmids using a physiological mechanism, and thus represent a powerful system to understand vertebrate DNA replication. Surprisingly, DNA replication in this system is highly sensitive to plasmid concentration, being undetectable below simila

  8. Somaclonal variation in micropropagated Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I plantlets (Heliconiaceae) Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Helicônia, Heliconia Bihai cv. Lobster Claw I (Heliconiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of somaclonal variation is described in various cultures of agronomic interest. Such variation can be of benefit in the development of new flower varieties. In this study, the occurrence of somaclonal variation in micropropagated changes of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I was investigated. Stem apexes were introduced in MS culture media with the addition of 2.5 mg L-1 of benzylaminopure (BAP) and 500 mg L-1 of sodium cefotaxime. After selecting the apex stem, it was sub-cult...

  9. Biochemical Characterization of Pumilio1 and Pumilio2 in Xenopus Oocytes*

    OpenAIRE

    Ota, Ryoma; Kotani, Tomoya; Yamashita, Masakane

    2010-01-01

    Precise control of the timing of translational activation of dormant mRNAs stored in oocytes is required for normal progression of oocyte maturation. We previously showed that Pumilio1 (Pum1) is specifically involved in the translational control of cyclin B1 mRNA during Xenopus oocyte maturation, in cooperation with cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein (CPEB). It was reported that another Pumilio, Pumilio2 (Pum2), exists in Xenopus oocytes and that this protein regulates the tr...

  10. Visual Deprivation Increases Accumulation of Dense Core Vesicles in Developing Optic Tectal Synapses in Xenopus laevis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianli; Cline, Hollis T.

    2010-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in understanding the molecular components of synapses in the central nervous system, the ultrastructural rearrangements underlying synaptic development remain unclear. We used serial section transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions of the optic tectal neuropil of Xenopus laevis tadpoles to detect and quantify changes in synaptic ultrastructure over a 1-week period from stages 39 and 47, during which time the visual system of Xenopus ...

  11. Mapping gene expression in two Xenopus species: evolutionary constraints and developmental flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    YANAI, Itai; Peshkin, Leonid; Jorgensen, Paul; Kirschner, Marc W.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are thought to be important for morphological evolution, though little is known about the nature or magnitude of the differences. Here we examine Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis, two amphibians with very similar development, and ask how their transcriptomes compare. Despite separation for ~30–90 million years there is strong conservation in gene expression in the vast majority of the expressed orthologs. Significant changes occur in the level of gene expressio...

  12. The Dynamics of the Unreplicated DNA Checkpoint in Xenopus laevis Embryos and Extracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Adjerid, Nassiba

    2008-01-01

    When unreplicated or damaged DNA is present, cell cycle checkpoint pathways cause cell cycle arrest by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). In Xenopus laevis, early embryonic development consists of twelve rapid cleavage cycles between DNA replication (S) and mitosis (M) without checkpoints or gap phases. However, checkpoints are engaged in Xenopus once the embryo reaches the midblastula transition (MBT). At this point, the embryo initiates transcription, acquires gap phases between S...

  13. Toxicological aspects of the South American herbs cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) and Maca (Lepidium meyenii) : a critical synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Luis G; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    Recent exceptional growth in human exposure to natural products known to originate from traditional medicine has lead to a resurgence of scientific interest in their biological effects. As a strategy for improvement of the assessment of their pharmacological and toxicological profile, scientific evidence-based approaches are being employed to appropriately evaluate composition, quality, potential medicinal activity and safety of these natural products. Using this approach, we comprehensively reviewed existing scientific evidence for known composition, medicinal uses (past and present), and documented biological effects with emphasis on clinical pharmacology and toxicology of two commonly used medicinal plants from South America with substantial human exposure from historical and current global use: Uncaria tomentosa (common name: cat's claw, and Spanish: uña de gato), and Lepidium meyenii (common name: maca). Despite the geographic sourcing from remote regions of the tropical Amazon and high altitude Andean mountains, cat's claw and maca are widely available commercially in industrialised countries. Analytical characterisations of their active constituents have identified a variety of classes of compounds of toxicological, pharmacological and even nutritional interest including oxindole and indole alkaloids, flavonoids, glucosinolates, sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbolines and other compounds. The oxindole alkaloids from the root bark of cat's claw are thought to invoke its most widely sought-after medicinal effects as a herbal remedy against inflammation. We find the scientific evidence supporting this claim is not conclusive and although there exists a base of information addressing this medicinal use, it is limited in scope with some evidence accumulated from in vitro studies towards understanding possible mechanisms of action by specific oxindole alkaloids through inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. Although controlled clinical

  14. The superoxide dismutase from red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus: molecular cloning and characterization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei; Chen, Jing; Hou, Libo; Huang, Yanqing; Xia, Siyao; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, an extracellular copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (ecCuZnSOD) gene and a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD) gene were cloned from hemocytes of red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. The open reading frame (ORF) of ecCuZnSOD is 498 bp and encodes a 166 amino acids (aa) protein, whereas the ORF of mtMnSOD is 654 bp and encodes a 218 aa protein. The amino acid sequences of C. quadricarinatus ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD showed high similarities with those of ecCuZnSODs and mtMnSODs of other crustaceans, respectively. Both ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD of C. quadricarinatus were highly expressed in hepatopancreas, hemocytes, intestine, and gill; low transcript levels were seen in other tissues (heart, muscle, and nerve). The immune responses of ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD were studied following inoculation with Spiroplasma eriocheiris and Aeromonas hydrophila. After S. eriocheiris or A. hydrophila challenge, mRNA transcription of ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD in hemocytes and gill was upregulated. mRNA transcription of ecCuZnSOD in the hepatopancreas was also upregulated after S. eriocheiris or A. hydrophila inoculation. mtMnSOD in hepatopancreas was upregulated after A. hydrophila inoculation, whereas this was down-regulated after S. eriocheiris challenge. After S. eriocheiris and A. hydrophila challenge, total SOD activity and CuZnSOD activity both increased compared to control group. The results showed that these SODs from C. quadricarinatus likely play an important role in protecting some tissues from reactive oxygen intermediates produced during challenge from S. eriocheiris and A. hydrophila. PMID:25366155

  15. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  16. Iris Claw versus Scleral Fixation Intraocular Lens Implantation during Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoun Farrahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the outcomes of iris claw anterior chamber intraocular lens (ICACIOL with that of scleral fixation posterior chamber intraocular lens (SF-PCIOL implantation during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV as initial surgery to correct aphakia. Methods: Twelve patients with complicated cataract surgery or trauma who had suffered nucleus, whole crystalline lens or intraocular lens (IOL drop into the vitreous cavity, and undergone PPV with IC-ACIOL implantation over a period of one year were evaluated for the purpose of this study. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, central corneal thickness (CCT, spherical equivalent (SE refractive error, astigmatism and complications were recorded. The results were compared to outcomes of another group of 13 patients who had previously undergone PPV with SF-PCIOL implantation. Results: Mean improvement of UCVA was greater in IC-ACIOL eyes as compared to the SF-PCIOL group (-1.17±0.28 versus -0.89±0.21 logMAR, P=0.01, corresponding values for postoperative BCVA were 0.24±0.17 and 0.44±0.22 logMAR (P=0.041, respectively. Average postoperative SE was comparable in the IC-ACIOL and SFPCIOL groups at 0.6±1.03 and 0.56±1.23 diopters, respectively (P=0.290. However, 10 (83.3% IC-ACIOL eyes versus 6 (46.1% SF-PCIOL eyes had SE within 1 diopter of emmetropia (P=0.048. Mean postoperative increase in CCT was comaparble between the study groups (P=0.126. Conclusion: In the absence of sufficient capsular support, the use of an IC-ACIOL for correction of aphakia during PPV can be a good alternative and seems to entail better visual outcomes as compared to SF-PCIOL.

  17. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    frequencies ranged from 700 to 1200 Hz. Spontaneous activities for the fibers showing one-tone suppression ranged from 3 to 75 spikes/s. Spontaneous activities above 40 spikes/s and the phenomenon of one-tone suppression itself has not been reported previously for frogs. The population of fibers showing one...

  18. Research on moving object detection based on frog's eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongwei; Li, Dongguang; Zhang, Xinyuan

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of object's information processing mechanism with frog's eyes, this paper discussed a bionic detection technology which suitable for object's information processing based on frog's vision. First, the bionics detection theory by imitating frog vision is established, it is an parallel processing mechanism which including pick-up and pretreatment of object's information, parallel separating of digital image, parallel processing, and information synthesis. The computer vision detection system is described to detect moving objects which has special color, special shape, the experiment indicates that it can scheme out the detecting result in the certain interfered background can be detected. A moving objects detection electro-model by imitating biologic vision based on frog's eyes is established, the video simulative signal is digital firstly in this system, then the digital signal is parallel separated by FPGA. IN the parallel processing, the video information can be caught, processed and displayed in the same time, the information fusion is taken by DSP HPI ports, in order to transmit the data which processed by DSP. This system can watch the bigger visual field and get higher image resolution than ordinary monitor systems. In summary, simulative experiments for edge detection of moving object with canny algorithm based on this system indicate that this system can detect the edge of moving objects in real time, the feasibility of bionic model was fully demonstrated in the engineering system, and it laid a solid foundation for the future study of detection technology by imitating biologic vision.

  19. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Sapsford, Sarah J; Pike, David A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2015-01-01

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangered rainforest frogs (Litoria rheocola) becoming infected by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Reductions in canopy cover increased the temperatures and rates of evaporative water loss in frog microhabitats, which reduced B. dendrobatidis infection risk in frogs by an average of 11-28% in cyclone-damaged areas, relative to unaffected areas. Natural disturbances to the rainforest canopy can therefore provide an immediate benefit to frogs by altering the microclimate in ways that reduce infection risk. This could increase host survival and reduce the probability of epidemic disease outbreaks. For amphibian populations under immediate threat from this pathogen, targeted manipulation of canopy cover could increase the availability of warmer, drier microclimates and therefore tip the balance from host extinction to coexistence. PMID:26294048

  20. Antimicrobial peptides from frog skin: biodiversity and therapeutic promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladram, Ali; Nicolas, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    More than a thousand antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been reported in the last decades arising from the skin secretion of amphibian species. Generally, each frog species can express its own repertoire of AMPs (typically, 10-20 peptides) with differing sequences, sizes, and spectrum of action, which implies very rapid divergence, even between closely related species. Frog skin AMPs are highly potent against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, protozoa, yeasts, and fungi by permeating and destroying their plasma membrane and/or inactivating intracellular targets. These peptides have attracted considerable interest as a therapeutic alternative to conventional anti-infective agents. However, efforts to obtain a new generation of drugs using these peptides are still challenging because of high associated R&D costs due to their large size (up to 46 residues) and cytotoxicity. This review deals with the biodiversity of frog skin AMPs and assesses the therapeutic possibilities of temporins, the shortest AMPs found in the frog skin, with 8-17 residues. Such short sequences are easily amenable to optimization of the structure and to solution-phase synthesis that offer reduced costs over solid-phase chemistry. PMID:27100511

  1. AIRBORNE PESTICIDES AND POPULATION DECLINES OF A CALIFORNIA ALPINE FROG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distribution and temporal variation of ...

  2. Tetrodotoxin: Occurrence in atelopid frogs of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y H; Brown, G B; Mosher, F A

    1975-07-11

    The potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin, which has previously been found in puffer fish of the order Tetraordontiformes, a goby (Gobius criniger), and the California newt (Taricha torosa), has now been identified in the skins of frogs of the genus Atelopus from Costa Rica. PMID:1138374

  3. Occurrence of tetrodotoxin in the frog Atelopus oxyrhynchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, D; Schmidt, K

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol extracts from the frog Atelopus oxyrhynchus were toxic to mice when injected intraperitoneally. The toxin was purified by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-15 column, and was identified as tetrodotoxin by thin-layer chromatography and GC-MS analysis of the alkali-hydrolyzed and trimethylsilylated derivative giving the same pattern as the C9-base of tetrodotoxin. PMID:2781581

  4. Measurement and Evaluation of Wear Frogs Switches ŽSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urda Ján

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the measurement and evaluation of wear frogs switches ZSR. One of the main problems is the oversize wear. The possibilities analysis of this problem is offered through a set of switches and monitoring of selected parameters. One of these parameters is also monitoring the vertical wear

  5. Habitat use and spatial structure of a barking frog (Eleutherodactylus augusti) population in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, C.S.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking Frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are the northernmost ranging member of the large tropical family Leptodactylidae. We investigated the ecology of this saxicolous species at the northern edge of its range in a canyon in southern Arizona. We captured 54 frogs on discontinuous rock outcrops; eight of nine females and 39 of 45 males were on limestone outcrops. The remaining frogs were closer to limestone outcrops by more than 200 m than would be expected if they were distributed randomly with respect to limestone formations. Seven of 10 frogs radio-tracked had core home ranges (50% fixed kernel) from 94 to 100% on limestone; the other three frogs did not have any part of their home range on limestone outcrops. During five years of mark-recapture efforts, no frogs were found on a different outcrop from the one where they were originally captured; no radio-tracked frogs moved between outcrops during the breeding season. We estimated that four to 20 Barking Frogs occupied each outcrop; these groups probably are connected primarily by juvenile dispersal. As an organism living at the edge of its range, Barking Frogs in Arizona may rely heavily on extensive underground areas such as those found in limestone to protect them from a physiologically challenging environment. To manage for the persistence of Barking Frogs in southern Arizona, we must identify and protect habitat patches and movement pathways among them.

  6. Dissection, culture, and analysis of Xenopus laevis embryonic retinal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Molly J; Allen, Chelsea E; Ng-Sui-Hing, Ng-Kwet-Leok A; Rabe, Brian A; Lewis, Brittany B; Saha, Margaret S

    2012-01-01

    The process by which the anterior region of the neural plate gives rise to the vertebrate retina continues to be a major focus of both clinical and basic research. In addition to the obvious medical relevance for understanding and treating retinal disease, the development of the vertebrate retina continues to serve as an important and elegant model system for understanding neuronal cell type determination and differentiation(1-16). The neural retina consists of six discrete cell types (ganglion, amacrine, horizontal, photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and Müller glial cells) arranged in stereotypical layers, a pattern that is largely conserved among all vertebrates (12,14-18). While studying the retina in the intact developing embryo is clearly required for understanding how this complex organ develops from a protrusion of the forebrain into a layered structure, there are many questions that benefit from employing approaches using primary cell culture of presumptive retinal cells (7,19-23). For example, analyzing cells from tissues removed and dissociated at different stages allows one to discern the state of specification of individual cells at different developmental stages, that is, the fate of the cells in the absence of interactions with neighboring tissues (8,19-22,24-33). Primary cell culture also allows the investigator to treat the culture with specific reagents and analyze the results on a single cell level (5,8,21,24,27-30,33-39). Xenopus laevis, a classic model system for the study of early neural development (19,27,29,31-32,40-42), serves as a particularly suitable system for retinal primary cell culture (10,38,43-45). Presumptive retinal tissue is accessible from the earliest stages of development, immediately following neural induction (25,38,43). In addition, given that each cell in the embryo contains a supply of yolk, retinal cells can be cultured in a very simple defined media consisting of a buffered salt solution, thus removing the confounding

  7. The first record of translocated white-clawed crayfish from the Austropotamobius pallipes complex in Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Amouret

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex is native to Europe, being present in 18 European countries, Italy included. However, the number and abundance of its populations are today restricted and it has been recently classified as “endangered” by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature. Here, we report the first record of this freshwater crayfish in Sardinia Island (Italy. Using a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA gene, we identified three haplotypes that correspond to the A. italicus meridionalis subclade. We provide information about the sampling area, population density and finally discuss hypotheses about the occurrence of this population in Sardinia, comparing it with other Mediterranean populations. Our results improve the existing knowledge about the phylogeography of the taxon across Italy, confirming its complex pattern of distribution. In addition to the non-native status of the Sardinian A. i. meridionalis crayfish, we showed that the most proximal Mediterranean population of white-clawed crayfish existing in Corsica belongs to A. pallipes from Southern France.

  8. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations (134Cs and 137Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels.

  9. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels. PMID:25857262

  10. Adaptive response in frogs chronically exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the micronucleus assay, decreased levels of DNA damage were found after high dose ionizing radiation exposure of liver cells taken from frogs inhabiting a natural environment with above-background levels of ionizing radiation, compared to cells taken from frogs inhabiting background areas. The data obtained from a small number of animals suggest that stress present in the above-background environment could induce an adaptive response to ionizing radiation. This study did not reveal harmful effects of exposure to low levels of radioactivity. On the contrary, stress present in the above-background area may serve to enhance cellular defense mechanisms. - Highlights: → Frogs were collected from background and higher tritium level habitats. → The micronucleus assay was conducted on liver cells obtained from the frogs. → No detrimental effects were noted in frogs exposed to elevated tritium. → Adaptive responses were observed in frogs exposed to elevated tritium.

  11. Primitive roles for inhibitory interneurons in developing frog spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W-C; Higashijima, S-I; Parry, DM; Roberts, A.; Soffe, SR

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the neuronal networks in the mammal spinal cord is hampered by the diversity of neurons and their connections. The simpler networks in developing lower vertebrates may offer insights into basic organization. To investigate the function of spinal inhibitory interneurons in Xenopus tadpoles, paired whole-cell recordings were used.We show directly that one class of interneuron, with distinctive anatomy, produces lycinergic, negative feedback inhibition that can limit firing in moto...

  12. Retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno; Neto, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report visual outcomes, complication rate, and safety of retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens (ICIOL) in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome (MFS). Design Retrospective study. Methods Six eyes of three MFS patients with ectopia lentis underwent surgery for subluxation lens and retropupillary ICIOL implantation from October 2014 to October 2015 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Santa Maria Hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. Demographics, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intraocular pressure were evaluated. Endothelium cell count was assessed using specular microscopy; anterior chamber depth was measured using Pentacam postoperatively; and intraocular lens position was viewed by ultrasound biomicroscopy. All patients were female; mean age was 20±14.264 years (range: 7–38 years). Results The average follow-up period was 6.66 months (range: 4–16 months). Preoperative BCVA was 0.568±0.149 logMAR units, and postoperative BCVA was 0.066±0.121 logMAR units. The mean BCVA gain was −0.502±0.221 on the logMAR scale. Postoperative average astigmatism and intraocular pressure were 1.292±0.697 mmHg (range: 0.5–2.25 mmHg) and 16 mmHg (range: 12–18 mmHg), respectively. The average endothelial cell density decreased from 3,121±178 cells/mm2 before surgery to 2,835±533 cells/mm2 after surgery (measured at last follow-up visit) and in the last follow-up, representing an average endothelial cell loss of 9.16%. Mean anterior chamber depth was 4.01 mm (±0.77 mm), as measured by Pentacam. No complications were found intra- or postoperatively in any of the six studied eyes. Conclusion Retropupillary ICIOL implantation is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of aphakia in MFS eyes, without capsular support after surgery for ectopia lens. The six eyes that underwent lensectomy and retropupillary ICIOL implantation have had excellent visual outcomes with no complications so far. PMID:27382335

  13. Protocadherin-9 involvement in retinal development in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuta, Yusuke; Taira, Tetsuro; Asayama, Ayako; Machigashira, Mika; Kinoshita, Tsutomu; Fujiwara, Miwako; Suzuki, Shintaro T

    2015-04-01

    Biological roles of most protocadherins (Pcdhs) are a largely unsolved problem. Therefore, we cloned cDNA for Xenopus laevis protocadherin-9 and characterized its properties to elucidate the role. The deduced amino acid sequence was highly homologous to those of mammalian protocadherin-9 s. X. laevis protocadherin-9 expressed from the cDNA in L cells showed basic properties similar to those of mammalian Pcdhs. Expression of X. laevis protocadherin-9 was first detected in stage-31 embryos and increased as the development proceeded. In the later stage embryos and the adults, the retina strongly expressed protocadherin-9, which was mainly localized at the plexiform layers. Injection of morpholino anti-sense oligonucleotide against protocadherin-9 into the fertilized eggs inhibited eye development; and eye growth and formation of the retinal laminar structure were hindered. Moreover, affected retina showed abnormal extension of neurites into the ganglion cell layer. Co-injection of protocadherin-9 mRNA with the morpholino anti-sense oligonucleotide rescued the embryos from the defects. These results suggest that X. laevis protocadherin-9 was involved in the development of retina structure possibly through survival of neurons, formation of the lamina structure and neurite localization. PMID:25414271

  14. Regeneration of neural crest derivatives in the Xenopus tadpole tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slack Jonathan MW

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After amputation of the Xenopus tadpole tail, a functionally competent new tail is regenerated. It contains spinal cord, notochord and muscle, each of which has previously been shown to derive from the corresponding tissue in the stump. The regeneration of the neural crest derivatives has not previously been examined and is described in this paper. Results Labelling of the spinal cord by electroporation, or by orthotopic grafting of transgenic tissue expressing GFP, shows that no cells emigrate from the spinal cord in the course of regeneration. There is very limited regeneration of the spinal ganglia, but new neurons as well as fibre tracts do appear in the regenerated spinal cord and the regenerated tail also contains abundant peripheral innervation. The regenerated tail contains a normal density of melanophores. Cell labelling experiments show that melanophores do not arise from the spinal cord during regeneration, nor from the mesenchymal tissues of the skin, but they do arise by activation and proliferation of pre-existing melanophore precursors. If tails are prepared lacking melanophores, then the regenerates also lack them. Conclusion On regeneration there is no induction of a new neural crest similar to that seen in embryonic development. However there is some regeneration of neural crest derivatives. Abundant melanophores are regenerated from unpigmented precursors, and, although spinal ganglia are not regenerated, sufficient sensory systems are produced to enable essential functions to continue.

  15. Rearrangement of chromatin domains during development in Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassetzky, Y; Hair, A; Méchali, M

    2000-06-15

    A dynamic change in the organization of different gene domains transcribed by RNA polymerase I, II, or III occurs during the progression from quiescent [pre-midblastula transition (pre-MBT)] to active (post-MBT) embryos during Xenopus development. In the rDNA, c-myc, and somatic 5S gene domains, a transition from random to specific anchorage to the nuclear matrix occurs when chromatin domains become active. The keratin gene domain was also randomly associated to the nuclear matrix before MBT, whereas a defined attachment site was found in keratinocytes. In agreement with this specification, ligation-mediated (LM)-PCR genomic footprinting carried out on the subpopulation of 5S domains specifically attached to the matrix reveals the hallmarks of determined chromatin after the midblastula transition. In contrast, the same analysis performed on the total 5S gene population does not reveal specific chromatin organization, validating the use of nuclear matrix fractionation to unveil active chromatin domains. These data provide a means for the determination of active chromosomal territories in the embryo and emphasize the role of nuclear architecture in regulated gene expression during development. PMID:10859171

  16. XGef Mediates Early CPEB Phosphorylation during Xenopus Oocyte Meiotic Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Susana E.; Yuan, Lei; Lacza, Charlemagne; Ransom, Heather; Mahon, Gwendolyn M.; Whitehead, Ian P.; Hake, Laura E.

    2005-01-01

    Polyadenylation-induced translation is an important regulatory mechanism during metazoan development. During Xenopus oocyte meiotic progression, polyadenylation-induced translation is regulated by CPEB, which is activated by phosphorylation. XGef, a guanine exchange factor, is a CPEB-interacting protein involved in the early steps of progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. We find that XGef influences early oocyte maturation by directly influencing CPEB function. XGef and CPEB interact during oogenesis and oocyte maturation and are present in a c-mos messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP). Both proteins also interact directly in vitro. XGef overexpression increases the level of CPEB phosphorylated early during oocyte maturation, and this directly correlates with increased Mos protein accumulation and acceleration of meiotic resumption. To exert this effect, XGef must retain guanine exchange activity and the interaction with CPEB. Overexpression of a guanine exchange deficient version of XGef, which interacts with CPEB, does not enhance early CPEB phosphorylation. Overexpression of a version of XGef that has significantly reduced interaction with CPEB, but retains guanine exchange activity, decreases early CPEB phosphorylation and delays oocyte maturation. Injection of XGef antibodies into oocytes blocks progesterone-induced oocyte maturation and early CPEB phosphorylation. These findings indicate that XGef is involved in early CPEB activation and implicate GTPase signaling in this process. PMID:15635100

  17. Characterization of nuclear protein kinases of Xenopus laevis oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenopus laevis oocytes contain large nuclei (germinal vesicles) that can be isolated in very pure form and which permit the study of enzymatic activities present in these organelles. Incubation of pure oocyte nuclear homogenates with 32P in a buffered solution containing 5 mM MgCl2 results in the phosphorylation of a large number of proteins by endogenous protein kinases. This phosphorylation is not affected by the addition of cyclic nucleotides or calcium ion and calmodulin. On the other hand the nuclear kinases are considerably stimulated by spermine and spermidine and strongly inhibited by heparin (10 μg/ml). Addition of exogenous protein substrates shows that the major oocyte kinases are very active with casein and phosvitin as substrates but do not phosphorylate histones or protamines. DEAE-Sephadex chromatography of the nuclear extract fractionates the casein phosphorylating activity in two main peaks. The first peak is not retained on the column equilibrated with 0.1 M NH2SO4 and uses exclusively ATP as phosphate donor and is insensitive to polyamines or heparin. The second peak which corresponds to 70% of the casein phosphorylation elutes at 0.27 M NH2SO4 and uses both ATP and GTP as phosphate donors and is greatly stimulated by polyamines and completely inhibited by 10 μg/ml heparin. On this evidence the authors conclude that the major protein kinase peak corresponds to casein kinase type II which has been found in mammalian nuclei

  18. A specific box switches the cell fate determining activity of XOTX2 and XOTX5b in the Xenopus retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Rong-Qiao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otx genes, orthologues of the Drosophila orthodenticle gene (otd, play crucial roles in vertebrate brain development. In the Xenopus eye, Xotx2 and Xotx5b promote bipolar and photoreceptor cell fates, respectively. The molecular basis of their differential action is not completely understood, though the carboxyl termini of the two proteins seem to be crucial. To define the molecular domains that make the action of these proteins so different, and to determine whether their retinal abilities are shared by Drosophila OTD, we performed an in vivo molecular dissection of their activity by transfecting retinal progenitors with several wild-type, deletion and chimeric constructs of Xotx2, Xotx5b and otd. Results We identified a small 8–10 amino acid divergent region, directly downstream of the homeodomain, that is crucial for the respective activities of XOTX2 and XOTX5b. In lipofection experiments, the exchange of this 'specificity box' completely switches the retinal activity of XOTX5b into that of XOTX2 and vice versa. Moreover, the insertion of this box into Drosophila OTD, which has no effect on retinal cell fate, endows it with the specific activity of either XOTX protein. Significantly, in cell transfection experiments, the diverse ability of XOTX2 and XOTX5b to synergize with NRL, a cofactor essential for vertebrate rod development, to transactivate the rhodopsin promoter is also switched depending on the box. We also show by GST-pull down that XOTX2 and XOTX5b differentially interact with NRL, though this property is not strictly dependent on the box. Conclusion Our data provide molecular evidence on how closely related homeodomain gene products can differentiate their functions to regulate distinct cell fates. A small 'specificity box' is both necessary and sufficient to confer on XOTX2 and XOTX5b their distinct activities in the developing frog retina and to convert the neutral orthologous OTD protein of Drosophila

  19. Itraconazole treatment reduces Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and increases overwinter field survival in juvenile Cascades frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bennett M; Pope, Karen L; Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-01-15

    The global spread of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has led to widespread extirpation of amphibian populations. During an intervention aimed at stabilizing at-risk populations, we treated wild-caught Cascades frogs Rana cascadae with the antifungal drug itraconazole. In fall 2012, we collected 60 recently metamorphosed R. cascadae from 1 of the 11 remnant populations in the Cascades Mountains (CA, USA). Of these, 30 randomly selected frogs were treated with itraconazole and the other 30 frogs served as experimental controls; all were released at the capture site. Bd prevalence was low at the time of treatment and did not differ between treated frogs and controls immediately following treatment. Following release, Bd prevalence gradually increased in controls but not in treated frogs, with noticeable (but still non-significant) differences 3 wk after treatment (27% [4/15] vs. 0% [0/13]) and strong differences 5 wk after treatment (67% [8/12] vs. 13% [1/8]). We did not detect any differences in Bd prevalence and load between experimental controls and untreated wild frogs during this time period. In spring 2013, we recaptured 7 treated frogs but none of the experimental control frogs, suggesting that over-winter survival was higher for treated frogs. The itraconazole treatment did appear to reduce growth rates: treated frogs weighed 22% less than control frogs 3 wk after treatment (0.7 vs. 0.9 g) and were 9% shorter than control frogs 5 wk after treatment (18.4 vs. 20.2 mm). However, for critically small populations, increased survival of the most at-risk life stage could prevent or delay extinction. Our results show that itraconazole treatment can be effective against Bd infection in wild amphibians, and therefore the beneficial effects on survivorship may outweigh the detrimental effects on growth. PMID:25590775

  20. Food Composition of the Marsh Frog, Rana ridibunda Pallas, 1771, in Thrace

    OpenAIRE

    Kerim ÇİÇEK; Ahmet MERMER

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the feeding habits of the marsh frog, Rana ridibunda, populations inhabiting Turkish Thrace. Analysis of the stomach contents of 53 (19 males, 34 females) adult individuals was performed. The frog diet consisted of a wide variety of arthropods; Diptera (42.62%) and Coleoptera (21.84%) were especially prominent. Aquatic forms did not contribute much to the frog diet. The prey items identified indicate that individuals of this species, like oth...

  1. The B-subdomain of the Xenopus laevis XFIN KRAB-AB domain is responsible for its weaker transcriptional repressor activity compared to human ZNF10/Kox1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Born

    Full Text Available The Krüppel-associated box (KRAB domain interacts with the nuclear hub protein TRIM28 to initiate or mediate chromatin-dependent processes like transcriptional repression, imprinting or suppression of endogenous retroviruses. The prototype KRAB domain initially identified in ZNF10/KOX1 encompasses two subdomains A and B that are found in hundreds of zinc finger transcription factors studied in human and murine genomes. Here we demonstrate for the first time transcriptional repressor activity of an amphibian KRAB domain. After sequence correction, the updated KRAB-AB domain of zinc finger protein XFIN from the frog Xenopus laevis was found to confer transcriptional repression in reporter assays in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney cells as well as in human HeLa, but not in the minnow Pimephales promelas fish cell line EPC. Binding of the XFIN KRAB-AB domain to human TRIM28 was demonstrated in a classical co-immunoprecipitation approach and visualized in a single-cell compartmentalization assay. XFIN-AB displayed reduced potency in repression as well as lower strength of interaction with TRIM28 compared to ZNF10 KRAB-AB. KRAB-B subdomain swapping between the two KRAB domains indicated that it was mainly the KRAB-B subdomain of XFIN that was responsible for its lower capacity in repression and binding to human TRIM28. In EPC fish cells, ZNF10 and XFIN KRAB repressor activity could be partially restored to low levels by adding exogenous human TRIM28. In contrast to XFIN, we did not find any transcriptional repression activity for the KRAB-like domain of human PRDM9 in HeLa cells. PRDM9 is thought to harbor an evolutionary older domain related to KRAB whose homologs even occur in invertebrates. Our results support the notion that functional bona fide KRAB domains which confer transcriptional repression and interact with TRIM28 most likely co-evolved together with TRIM28 at the beginning of tetrapode evolution.

  2. A zero-one law for recurrence and transience of frog processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kosygina, Elena; Zerner, Martin P. W.

    2015-01-01

    We provide sufficient conditions for the validity of a dichotomy, i.e. zero-one law, between recurrence and transience of general frog models. In particular, the results cover frog models with i.i.d. numbers of frogs per site where the frog dynamics are given by quasi-transitive Markov chains or by random walks in a common random environment including super-critical percolation clusters on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$. We also give a sufficient and almost sharp condition for recurrence of uniformly ellipti...

  3. Food habits and ontogenetic diet shifts of the litter dwelling frog proceratophrys boiei (wied)

    OpenAIRE

    Ariovaldo A. Giaretta; Márcio S. Araújo; Hermes F. de Medeiros; Katia G. Facure

    1998-01-01

    Here is described the diet of Proceratophrys boiei (Wied, 1825), a leaf litter frog of the Atlantic Forest, and test for relationships between frog size and prey size and type. The diet was determined by stomach content analysis. In 38 frogs, was found 76 prey items belonging to 23 taxa. Insects predominate in the diet and the most frequent categories were coleopterans (39.4% of total volume) and orthopterans (25.0%). There was a positive correlation between frog size and volume of prey taken...

  4. Abundance of Green Tree Frogs and Insects in Artificial Canopy Gaps in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT - We found more green tree frogs ( Hyla cinerea) n canopv gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopv gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat Flies were the most commonlv collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  5. First isolation and identification of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from cultured tiger frog, Rana tigerina rugulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhen-Yu; Zhou, Yong-Can; Wang, Shi-Feng; Mei, Bing; Xu, Xian-Dong; Wen, Wan-Yao; Feng, Yong-Qin

    2009-07-01

    Elizabethkingia meningoseptica has been recognised as an occasional but serious opportunistic bacterial pathogen to human beings. Recently, it was frequently isolated from tiger frog, Rana tigerina rugulosa, with cataract disease, which is the most common disease of unknown aetiology of frogs in Hainan, China. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the bacterial strains isolated from the recent outbreaks of cataract disease in farmed tiger frog in Hainan, China, and to evaluate their pathogenicity to the frog and their sensitivity to 20 chemotherapeutic agents. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains W0701 (1478bp), W0702 (1477bp) and W0703 (1478bp) showed 98.6-98.7% similarity with the sequence of E. meningoseptica type strain (ATCC 13253) and 99.9-100% similarity with that of E. meningoseptica NTU 870424-IL. Six strains (W0701-W0706) were selected to represent 24 isolates retrieved from six moribund frogs. The morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the six representative isolates were consistent with those of E. meningoseptica strains. The organisms were only susceptible to vancomycin and moderately susceptible to cefoperazone among the 20 investigated chemotherapeutic agents. Virulence test with strain W0702 was conducted and pathogenicity (by intramuscular injection) was demonstrated in the tiger frog. In conclusion, 24 isolates obtained from frogs with cataract disease were the E. meningoseptica strains highly pathogenic to tiger frog, and this is the first report of E. meningoseptica as a pathogen for tiger frog. PMID:19327918

  6. Insight from Frogs: Sonic Hedgehog Gene Expression and a Re-evaluation of the Vertebrate Odontogenic Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Theresa M; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2016-08-01

    While the identification of conserved processes across multiple taxa leads to an understanding of fundamental developmental mechanisms, the ways in which different animals fail to conform to common developmental processes can elucidate how evolution modifies development to result in the vast array of morphologies seen today-the developmental mechanisms that lead to anatomical variation. Odontogenesis-how teeth are initiated and formed-is well suited to the examination of both developmental conservation and phenotypic diversity. We suggest here that the study of early tooth development, the period of odontogenic band development, reveals departures from conserved mechanisms that question the role of players in the developmental process. In the earliest stages of odontogenesis, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene expression is interpreted as critical evidence of tooth initiation prior to any histological indication. However, a detailed examination of studies of tooth development across a wide range of taxa reveals that several vertebrate species fail to conform to the expectations of the Shh Consensus Model, calling for a reconsideration of the assumed causality of epithelial Shh in tooth initiation. We present new Shh gene expression data for an amphibian, the frog Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis. In these animals, craniofacial and odontogenic developmental processes are more disjunct, and thereby provide a natural test of the hypothesis that Shh is immediately required for subsequent tooth development. Our results suggest that Shh expression may actually be related to the formation of the mouth rather than a required precursor to subsequent tooth formation. Anat Rec, 299:1099-1109, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27262165

  7. Contractile reaction of isolated frog aorta after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of X-rays (50 kV, filtered by 0.3 mm Al) on helical strip of frog aorta (rana esculenta) has been investigated. The isolated preparations have a stable basal tone and are radio-sensitive to X-rays which induce reversible, dose-dependent, contractile responses. After repeated irradiational tachyphylaxis appears. The threshold doses are about 250 R at 3 to 6 kR/min, antiadrenergic (phentolamine, propranolol), anticholinergic (atropin), antihistaminic (Neo-Bridal) and serotoninergic (Deseril) drugs have no visible influence on the X-ray induced reaction, i.e. these action mechanisms of the irradiation-induced contraction do not seem probable. Theophylline and cAMP inhibit the X-ray contraction probably non-specifically. Indometacin also inhibits the X-ray contraction: this suggests participation of prostaglandin-mechanism on the contraction of frog aorta after irradiation. (orig.)

  8. Nanoscale friction and adhesion of tree frog toe pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappl, Michael; Kaveh, Farzaneh; Barnes, W Jon P

    2016-01-01

    Tree frogs have become an object of interest in biomimetics due to their ability to cling to wet and slippery surfaces. In this study, we have investigated the adhesion and friction behavior of toe pads of White's tree frog (Litoria caerulea) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in an aqueous medium. Facilitating special types of AFM probes with radii of ∼400 nm and ∼13 μm, we were able to sense the frictional response without damaging the delicate nanopillar structures of the epithelial cells. While we observed no significant adhesion between both types of probes and toe pads in wet conditions, frictional forces under such conditions were very pronounced and friction coefficients amounted between 0.3 and 1.1 for the sliding friction between probes and the epithelial cell surfaces. PMID:27165465

  9. Sperm competitiveness in frogs: slow and steady wins the race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziminski, Martin A; Roberts, J Dale; Beveridge, Maxine; Simmons, Leigh W

    2009-11-22

    When sperm compete to fertilize available ova, selection is expected to favour ejaculate traits that contribute to a male's fertilization success. While there is much evidence to show that selection favours increased numbers of sperm, only a handful of empirical studies have examined how variation in sperm form and function contributes to competitive fertilization success. Here, we examine selection acting on sperm form and function in the externally fertilizing myobatrachid frog, Crinia georgiana. Using in vitro fertilization techniques and controlling for variation in the number of sperm contributed by males in competitive situations, we show that males with a greater proportion of motile sperm, and motile sperm with slower swimming velocities, have an advantage when competing for fertilizations. Sperm morphology and the degree of genetic similarity between putative sires and the female had no influence on competitive fertilization success. These unusual patterns of selection might explain why frog sperm typically exhibit relatively slow swimming speeds and sustained longevity. PMID:19710059

  10. Ten microsatellite loci for the strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio)

    OpenAIRE

    Hauswaldt, J.; Ludewig, A.; Hagemann, S.; Pröhl, H.; Vences, M

    2009-01-01

    We describe primers and PCR conditions to amplify nine new tetranucleotide loci and one new dinucleotide locus isolated from the strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio). In 21 individuals from Costa Rica, the number of alleles ranged from 4 to 16, observed heterozygosities from 40 to 100%, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.60 to 0.90 per locus. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found only between two loci, but this pattern was not found in other populations tested. All ...

  11. Population genetics of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Jess A T; Vance T Vredenburg; Rachowicz, Lara J.; Knapp, Roland A; Stice, Mary J.; Tunstall, Tate; Bingham, Rob E.; Parker, John M.; Longcore, Joyce E.; Moritz, Craig; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Taylor, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Global amphibian decline by chytridiomycosis is a major environmental disaster that has been attributed to either recent fungal spread or environmental change that promotes disease. Here, we present a population genetic comparison of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis isolates from an intensively studied region of frog decline, the Sierra Nevada of California. In support of a novel pathogen, we find low diversity, no amphibian-host specificity, little correlation between fungal genotype and geogr...

  12. Intercultural education: the project frog and the stranger

    OpenAIRE

    Bernik, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis was written based on a project of intercultural education Frog and the Stranger in kindergarten, which is based on the eponymous book by Max Velthuijs. The purpose of this project is to provide children with positive experiences associated with the identification of similarities and differences between them. Namely, children were put into situations where they experienced diversity as an advantage and this way the bases of cultural tolerance can be formed. The project of i...

  13. ESR analysis of irradiated frogs' legs and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral analysis of different parts (bones, scales, jaw, etc.) from ionized (irradiated) frozen frogs' legs and fishes (brown trout and sardine) were recorded. There is always present, after treatment, a signal due to the irradiation. ESR and ENDOR experiments lead us to assign it to h1 centers from hydroxyapatite, as in the case of other irradiated meat bones. The use of ESR to prove whether one of these foods has been irradiated or not is discussed. (author)

  14. Two Types of Assays for Detecting Frog Sperm Chemoattraction

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Lindsey A.; Tholl, Nathan; Chandler, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Sperm chemoattraction in invertebrates can be sufficiently robust that one can place a pipette containing the attractive peptide into a sperm suspension and microscopically visualize sperm accumulation around the pipette1. Sperm chemoattraction in vertebrates such as frogs, rodents and humans is more difficult to detect and requires quantitative assays. Such assays are of two major types - assays that quantitate sperm movement to a source of chemoattractant, so-called sperm accumulation assay...

  15. Sperm competitiveness in frogs: slow and steady wins the race

    OpenAIRE

    Dziminski, Martin A.; Roberts, J. Dale; Beveridge, Maxine; Leigh W. Simmons

    2009-01-01

    When sperm compete to fertilize available ova, selection is expected to favour ejaculate traits that contribute to a male's fertilization success. While there is much evidence to show that selection favours increased numbers of sperm, only a handful of empirical studies have examined how variation in sperm form and function contributes to competitive fertilization success. Here, we examine selection acting on sperm form and function in the externally fertilizing myobatrachid frog, Crinia geor...

  16. Coat and claws as new matrices for noninvasive long-term cortisol assessment in dogs from birth up to 30 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Comin, A; Meloni, T; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Prandi, A

    2015-09-15

    The last stage of fetal development and the neonatal period represent the most critical phases for the mammals' offspring. In the dog, the knowledge about the final intrauterine fetal development and biology, as well as about the neonatal physiology, remains scarce. Hormonal changes occurring in the last intrauterine fetal phase and during the early neonatal age are still not completely clear, probably because of the invasiveness related to the collection of the more common biological matrix, represented by circulating blood. Toward term of pregnancy, during parturition, and after birth, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a key system regulating several physiological processes, and its activity was previously investigated by blood analysis, considered an invasive procedure providing a single-point measurement. In respect to animal welfare, and for a more correct long-term retrospective investigation, noninvasive hormonal studies were performed firstly on the hair of humans and coat of animals and, more recently, in the nails of human beings. This study was aimed to assess cortisol (COR) in coat and claws of newborn puppies and to evaluate the possible influence of the newborn gender, breed body size, and age on coat and claws COR concentrations. The results obtained from 165 newborn puppies evidenced that coat and claws COR levels were highly correlated each other (P < 0.0001), although the COR accumulation in the two matrices was different in relation to the class of age. Moreover, the puppies age influenced both coat and claws COR concentrations (P < 0.05), with premature puppies showing higher values when compared to term born-dead puppies or puppies dead between 1 and 30 days of age. The present study reported that COR is quantifiable in coat and claws of newborn dogs. Moreover, both matrices appear as useful tools for new, noninvasive, long-term perinatal and neonatal researches also in canine species. PMID:26081135

  17. Frog meat microbiota (Lithobates catesbeianus used in infant food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rodrigues

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Captive breeding of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus is of great economic potential, mainly for its thighs and leather. The nutritional quality of frog meat includes properly balanced amino acids with a protein profile of high biological value, low fat and low cholesterol, and high digestibility due to its short chain molecule structure. It is recommended by doctors and nutritionists, especially for protein restricted children or malnourished children. Aiming to aggregate value to the segment and offer a product with nutritional properties that meet the need of children aged six months and above, a meat product based on the composition of frog meat was developed experimentally. To ensure raw material quality after bleaching and deboning, the microbiota present in the frog meat was determined. The analyses were performed according to Brazilian laws. It was observed that the resident and transient microbiota met the standards set by regulations. The results found were: mesophyll 4.5 x 10(4 CFU/g; Staphylococcus coagulase positive 2.0 x 10² CFU/g; negative for Salmonella sp. and Aeromonas spp. The findings indicate that the raw material showed satisfactory sanitation even in terms of family industry.

  18. Polyandry, Predation, and the Evolution of Frog Reproductive Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Kelly R; Bell, Rayna C; Nali, Renato C; Haddad, Célio F B; Prado, Cynthia P A

    2016-09-01

    Frog reproductive modes are complex phenotypes that include egg/clutch characteristics, oviposition site, larval development, and sometimes, parental care. Two evident patterns in the evolution of these traits are the higher diversity of reproductive modes in the tropics and the apparent progression from aquatic to terrestrial reproduction, often attributed to higher fitness resulting from decreased predation on terrestrial eggs and tadpoles. Here, we propose that sexual selection-and not only natural selection due to predation-favors terrestrial breeding by reducing the loss of fitness due to polyandry. To examine this novel selective mechanism, we reconstructed the evolution of reproductive diversity in two frog families (Hylidae and Leptodactylidae) and tested for concerted evolution of egg and tadpole development sites with specific mating behaviors. We found that oviposition and tadpole development sites are evolving independently, do not show the same diversity and/or directionality in terms of terrestriality, and thus may be diversifying due to different selective mechanisms. In both families, terrestrial egg deposition is correlated with amplexus that is hidden from competing males, and in hylids, testes mass was significantly larger and more variable in males with exposed amplexus that are vulnerable to polyandry. Our results indicate that intrasexual selection has been an underappreciated mechanism promoting diversification of frog reproductive modes. PMID:27513910

  19. Reflex Marine celebrates 10. anniversary of FROG crew transfer device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-15

    Reflex Marine developed the initial 3-person FROG crew transfer device in response to the main risks identified from incidents involving traditional rope baskets for personnel transfer: falling, collisions, hard landings, and immersion. To address these issues, the FROG was developed with 4-point harnesses, a protective shell, shock-absorbing landing feet, and self-righting capability. As a result of industry demand for a higher capacity transfer device, the company introduced 6- and 9-man versions of the FROG. The perceptions and reality of marine transfers have changed greatly over the past decade, from the design of the device to vessel specifications and increased focus on crane operations. Marine transfers offer a low-risk alternative to helicopter transfers. The TORO, a low-cost crew transfer capsule launched in February 2009, fits into a standard shipping container, providing significant logistical advantages. The TORO can carry 4 passengers, offer protection from side impacts and hard landings, and is buoyant and self-righting. Most of the units are being used by major oil and gas companies, but offshore wind turbines are an emerging source of demand for the crew transfer system. 3 figs.

  20. Radioimmunoassay for plasma corticotropin in frogs (Rana esculenta L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay technique has been developed for measuring frog plasma corticotropin (ACTH) without prior extraction. Using synthetic porcine ACTH as a reference standard, 131I-labeled synthetic human ACTH (sp act greater than 500 mCi/mg) as tracer and rabbit anti-porcine ACTH serum, the lower measurable value was estimated at about 4 pg ACTH. Only human and porcine ACTH, ACTH, and frog pituitary ACTH reacted with the rabbit anti-porcine ACTH serum. No cross-reactivity has been found with synthetic ACTH, αMSH, and bovine βMSH. Appearance of damaged 131I-h ACTH components after storage in plasma solutions was followed for 7 days. The conditions making it possible to reduce ACTH damage have been ascertained. The average plasma corticotropin level (+- CI) was found to be 38.8 +- 7.8 pg/ml without any significant difference between males and females. These results suggest that frog ACTH secretion has much in common with mammalian secretions

  1. Develop Inventory Protocols for frogs within the Region 1 Great Northern and Great Basin LCC, Protocol Development & Remote Audial Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Many refuges lack basic information on distribution of frogs, but conducting inventory surveys for frogs can be problematic. Different species breed at different...

  2. Electrophysiological evidence for an ATP-gated ion channel in the principal cells of the frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+......P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+...

  3. Correlation between chloride flux via the mitochondria-rich cells and transepithelial water movement in isolated frog skin (Rana esculenta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert

    Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells.......Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells....

  4. A homologue of the human MSS1 gene, a positive modulator of HIV-1 gene expression, is massively expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacken, W; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M; Sablitzky, F; Sorg, C

    1995-04-01

    Here the nucleotide sequence of a Xenopus homologue of the human MSS1 gene, a positive modulator of the HIV-1 Tat mediated transactivation in mammalian cells, is presented. This gene is highly conserved and almost exclusively expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We speculate about a possible role of this gene in the HIV-1 Tat/TAR mediated transactivation in Xenopus oocytes. PMID:7711076

  5. Differential gene expression profile from haematopoietic tissue stem cells of red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, in response to WSSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Zhang, Qiu-xia; Peng, Hui; Wang, Ke-jian

    2011-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in crustaceans. During WSSV infection, multiple cell signaling cascades are activated, leading to the generation of antiviral molecules and initiation of programmed cell death of the virus infected cells. To gain novel insight into cell signaling mechanisms employed in WSSV infection, we have used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to elucidate the cellular response to WSSV challenge at the gene level in red claw crayfish haematopoietic tissue (Hpt) stem cell cultures. Red claw crayfish Hpt cells were infected with WSSV for 1h (L1 library) and 12h (L12 library), respectively, after which the cell RNA was prepared for SSH using uninfected cells as drivers. By screening the L1 and L12 forward libraries, we have isolated the differentially expressed genes of crayfish Hpt cells upon WSSV infection. Among these genes, the level of many key molecules showed clearly up-regulated expression, including the genes involved in immune responses, cytoskeletal system, signal transduction molecules, stress, metabolism and homestasis related genes, and unknown genes in both L1 and L12 libraries. Importantly, of the 2123 clones screened, 176 novel genes were found the first time to be up-regulated in WSSV infection in crustaceans. To further confirm the up-regulation of differentially expressed genes, the semi-quantitative RT-PCR were performed to test twenty randomly selected genes, in which eight of the selected genes exhibited clear up-regulation upon WSSV infection in red claw crayfish Hpt cells, including DNA helicase B-like, multiprotein bridging factor 1, apoptosis-linked gene 2 and an unknown gene-L1635 from L1 library; coatomer gamma subunit, gabarap protein gene, tripartite motif-containing 32 and an unknown gene-L12-254 from L2 library, respectively. Taken together, as well as in immune and stress responses are regulated during WSSV infection of crayfish Hpt cells, our results also

  6. Somaclonal variation in micropropagated Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I plantlets (Heliconiaceae Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Helicônia, Heliconia Bihai cv. Lobster Claw I (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of somaclonal variation is described in various cultures of agronomic interest. Such variation can be of benefit in the development of new flower varieties. In this study, the occurrence of somaclonal variation in micropropagated changes of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I was investigated. Stem apexes were introduced in MS culture media with the addition of 2.5 mg L-1 of benzylaminopure (BAP and 500 mg L-1 of sodium cefotaxime. After selecting the apex stem, it was sub-cultivated in MS media and supplemented with 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP to induce side buds. To conduct the trial, 2,000 plants were selected and compared with plants originated from rhizomes. To calculate the percentage of the variants, the plant stature, the form and color of leaves and pseudostem were evaluated. The plants with buds presenting the same type of variation were considered as variants. The occurrence of three types of somaclonal variants was observed: Variation of the Chlorophyll in the Leaf, Low Stature Variant and Pseudostem and Petiole Color Variant, the latter with ornamental potential. The somaclonal variation rate for Heliconia bihai cv Lobster Claw I, under the proposed conditions, was 61.40%.A ocorrência de variação somaclonal é descrita em diversas culturas de interesse agronômico. A floricultura pode beneficiar-se dessa variabilidade, com a obtenção de novas variedades. Nesse trabalho, estudou-se a ocorrência de variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I. Ápices caulinares foram introduzidos em meio de cultivo MS com adição de 2,5 mg L-1 de benzilaminopurina (BAP e 500 mg L-1 de cefotaxima sódica. Após a seleção do ápice caulinar, o explante foi subcultivado em meio MS suplementado com 4,0 mg L-1 de BAP para indução de brotações. Foram selecionadas, ao acaso, 2.000 mudas e comparadas com mudas originadas de rizomas, para compor o ensaio. No cálculo da porcentagem dos variantes

  7. Regulation of cyclin E stability in Xenopus laevis embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-(Webb), Yekaterina

    Cyclin-Cdk complexes positively regulate cell cycle progression. Cyclins are regulatory subunits that bind to and activate cyclin-dependent kinases or Cdks. Cyclin E associates with Cdk2 to mediate G1/S phase transition of the cell cycle. Cyclin E is overexpressed in breast, lung, skin, gastrointestinal, cervical, and ovarian cancers. Its overexpression correlates with poor patient prognosis and is involved in the etiology of breast cancer. We have been studying how this protein is downregulated during development in order to determine if these mechanisms are disrupted during tumorigenesis, leading to its overexpression. Using Xenopus laevis embryos as a model, we have shown previously that during the first 12 embryonic cell cycles Cyclin E levels remain constant yet Cdk2 activity oscillates twice per cell cycle. Cyclin E is abruptly destabilized by an undefined mechanism after the 12th cell cycle, which corresponds to the midblastula transition (MBT). Based on work our work and work by others, we have hypothesized that differential phosphorylation and a change in localization result in Cyclin E degradation by the 26S proteasome at the MBT. To test this, we generated a series of point mutations in conserved threonine/serine residues implicated in degradation of human Cyclin E. Using Western blot analysis, we show that similarly to human Cyclin E, mutation of these residues to unphosphorylatable alanine stabilizes Cyclin E past the MBT when they are expressed in vivo. Cyclin E localization was studied by immunofluorescence analysis of endogenous and exogenous protein in pre-MBT, MBT, and post-MBT embryos. In addition, we developed a novel method of conjugating recombinant His6-tagged Cyclin E to fluorescent (CdSe)ZnS nanoparticles (quantum dots) capped with dihydrolipoic acid. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize His6Cyclin E-quantum dot complexes inside embryo cells in real time. We found that re-localization at the MBT from the cytoplasm to the nucleus

  8. Cdc42 and PI(4,5)P2-induced actin assembly in Xenopus egg extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensohn, Andres M; Ma, Le; Ho, Hsin-Yi Henry; Kirschner, Marc W

    2006-01-01

    Xenopus egg cytoplasmic extracts have been used to study a variety of complex cellular processes. Given their amenability to biochemical manipulation and physiological balance of regulatory proteins, these extracts are an ideal system to dissect signal transduction pathways leading to actin assembly. We have developed methods to study Cdc42 and PI(4,5)P2-induced actin assembly in Xenopus egg extracts. In this chapter, we describe detailed procedures to prepare Xenopus egg extracts, Cdc42, and PI(4,5)P2 for use in actin assembly experiments. We also describe a fluorometric pyrene actin assay for quantitative kinetic analysis of actin polymerization and a microscopic rhodamine actin assay for quick measurement of actin rearrangements in extracts. Finally we provide a protocol for immunodepletion of proteins and discuss the use of immunodepletion and rescue experiments for functional analysis of components in the extracts. PMID:16472657

  9. Nicotiana ovule extracts in duce nuclear reconstitution of demembranated Xenopus sperm in cell-free system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    s Nicotiana tabaccum ovule extracts induced nuclear reconstitution of demembranated Xenopus leavis sperm in a ceil-free system. Demembranated Xenopus sperm began to swell after 15 rmin of incubation with Nicotiana ovulde extracts. Accompanying the process of incubation,Xenopus sperm decondensed and their shapes changed gradually from long and ellipse to round. The completely decondensed chromatin was surrounded with membrane structure, which was a mixture envelope of a double membrane and a single membrane. Nucleosome assembly was verified by means of micrococcal nuclease digestion to reconstituted nuclei and DNA electrophoresis. Nicotiana ovule extracts supplied one more experimental model and system.The new system could promote powerfully the research on mechanisms of cell division and cell cycle regulation.

  10. The structure of zetekitoxin AB, a saxitoxin analog from the Panamanian golden frog Atelopus zeteki: a potent sodium-channel blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Kim, Yong H; Dudley, Samuel C; Choudhary, Gaurav; Pfahnl, Arnold; Oshima, Yasukatsu; Daly, John W

    2004-03-30

    Bufonid anurans of the genus Atelopus contain both steroidal bufadienolides and various guanidinium alkaloids of the tetrodotoxin class. The former inhibit sodium-potassium ATPases, whereas the latter block voltage-dependent sodium channels. The structure of one guanidinium alkaloid, zetekitoxin AB, has remained a mystery for over 30 years. The structure of this alkaloid now has been investigated with a sample of approximately 0.3 mg, purified from extracts obtained decades ago from the Panamanian golden frog Atelopus zeteki. Detailed NMR and mass spectral analyses have provided the structure and relative stereochemistry of zetekitoxin AB and have revealed that it is an analog of saxitoxin. The proposed structure is characterized by richness of heteroatoms (C16H25N8O12S) and contains a unique 1,2-oxazolidine ring-fused lactam, a sulfate ester, and an N-hydroxycarbamate moiety. Zetekitoxin AB proved to be an extremely potent blocker of voltage-dependent sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The IC50 values were 280 pM for human heart channels, 6.1 pM for rat brain IIa channels, and 65 pM for rat skeletal muscle channels, thus being roughly 580-, 160-, and 63-fold more potent at these channels than saxitoxin. PMID:15070720

  11. Spatial and temporal regulation of collagenases—3,—4,and stromelysin —3 implicates distinct functions in apoptosis and tissue remodeling during frog metamorphosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAMJANOVSKISASHKO; ATSUKOISHIZUYAOKA; 等

    1999-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular proteases capable of degrading various proteinaceous components of the extracellular matrix(ECM).They have been implicated to play important roles in a number of developmental and pathological processes,such as tumor metastasis and inflammation.Relatively few studies have been carried out to investigate the function of MMPs during postembryonic organ-development.Using Xenopus laevis development as a model system,we demonstrate here that three MMPs,stromelysin-3(ST3),collagenases-3(Col3),and Col4,have distinct spatial and temporal expression profiles during metamorphosis as the tadpole transforms into a frog.In situ hybridizations reveal a tight,but distinct,association of individual MMPs with tissue remodeling in the tail and intestine during metamorphosis.In particular,ST3 expression is strongly correlated with apoptosis in both organs as demonstrated by analyses of serial sections with in situ hybridization for ST3 mRNA and TUNEL (terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling)for apoptosis,respectively.On the other hand,Col3 and Col4 are present in regions where extensive connective tissue remodeling take place.These results indicate that ST3 is likely to play a role in ECM-remodeling that facilitate apoptotic tissue remodeling or resorption while Col3 and Col4 appear to participate in connective tissue degradation during development.

  12. Snow cover and late fall movement influence wood frog survival during an unusually cold winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jason H; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how organisms will respond to altered winter conditions is hampered by a paucity of information on the winter ecology for many species. Amphibians are sensitive to environmental temperature and moisture conditions and may be vulnerable to changes in winter climate. We used a combination of radio telemetry and field enclosures to monitor survival of the freeze-tolerant wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) during the unusually cold winter of 2013-2014. We experimentally manipulated snow cover to determine the effect of snow removal on winter survival. In addition, we placed a group of untracked frogs at locations used by tracked frogs prior to long-distance late fall movement to investigate whether late fall movement entailed survival consequences. Winter survival was highest (75.3 %) among frogs at post-movement locations that received natural snow cover. The odds of surviving the winter for frogs in the snow removal treatment was only 21.6 % that of frogs in the natural snow treatment. Likewise, paired frogs placed at pre-fall movement locations had only 35.1 % the odds of surviving as tracked frogs at post-fall movement locations. A comparison of a priori models that included microhabitat conditions measured at wood frog overwintering locations revealed that the minimum temperature experienced and the depth of the frog in the substrate explained additional variation in winter survival. Our results suggest that acute exposure to lethal temperature conditions is the most likely cause of mortality during this study, rather than energy exhaustion or desiccation. They also demonstrate the importance of snow cover to the winter survival of wood frogs. PMID:26497126

  13. An Effective Hybrid Cuckoo Search Algorithm with Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for 0-1 Knapsack Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhong Feng; Gai-Ge Wang; Qingjiang Feng; Xiang-Jun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    An effective hybrid cuckoo search algorithm (CS) with improved shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (ISFLA) is put forward for solving 0-1 knapsack problem. First of all, with the framework of SFLA, an improved frog-leap operator is designed with the effect of the global optimal information on the frog leaping and information exchange between frog individuals combined with genetic mutation with a small probability. Subsequently, in order to improve the convergence speed and enhance the exploitatio...

  14. Evaluating Group Housing Strategies for the Ex-Situ Conservation of Harlequin Frogs (Atelopus spp.) Using Behavioral and Physiological Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Cikanek, Shawna J.; Simon Nockold; Brown, Janine L.; James W Carpenter; Angie Estrada; Jorge Guerrel; Katharine Hope; Roberto Ibáñez; Sarah B Putman; Brian Gratwicke

    2014-01-01

    We have established ex situ assurance colonies of two endangered Panamanian harlequin frogs, Atelopus certus and Atelopus glyphus, but observed that males fought with each other when housed as a group. Housing frogs individually eliminated this problem, but created space constraints. To evaluate the potential stress effects from aggressive interactions when grouping frogs, we housed male frogs in replicated groups of one, two, and eight. We measured aggressive behavioral interactions and feca...

  15. Differentiation of frog fats from vegetable and marine oils by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Ali; Nina Naquiah, A. N.; Mustafa, S; S. B. A. Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The agro-based production and consumption of frogs coupled with world-wide trading have been increased in the recent years giving rise to the risk of frog fat adulteration in expensive vegetable and marine oils. For the first time, we profiled here frog fats using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy coupled with multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). The comparison of the FTIR spectral absorbance intensities demonstrated linkage of frog fats to other edible fats and oils....

  16. An Effective Hybrid Cuckoo Search Algorithm with Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for 0-1 Knapsack Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhong Feng; Gai-Ge Wang; Qingjiang Feng; Xiang-Jun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    An effective hybrid cuckoo search algorithm (CS) with improved shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (ISFLA) is put forward for solving 0-1 knapsack problem. First of all, with the framework of SFLA, an improved frog-leap operator is designed with the effect of the global optimal information on the frog leaping and information exchange between frog individuals combined with genetic mutation with a small probability. Subsequently, in order to improve the ...

  17. An addition to the diversity of dendrobatid frogs in Venezuela: description of three new collared frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae: Mannophryne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of collared frogs of the genus Mannophryne are described from Venezuela. Two are newly discovered taxa from the Venezuelan Andes, whereas the third species, previously confused with M. trinitatis, is from the Caracas area in the Cordillera de la Costa. The call of the three new species and that of Mannophryne collaris are described. Taxonomic, zoogeographic, and conservation issues are discussed.

  18. L-cysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and glutathione protect xenopus laevis embryos against acrylamide-induced malformations and mortality in the frog embryo teratogenesis assay (FETAX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary acrylamide is largely derived from heat-induced reactions between the amino group of the free amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose during heat processing (baking, frying) of plant-derived foods such as potato fries and cereals. After consumption, acrylamide is a...

  19. Sublethal toxic effects and induction of glutathione S-transferase by short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and C-12 alkane (dodecane) in Xenopus laevis frog embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buryšková, B.; Bláha, Luděk; Vršková, D.; Šimková, K.; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 1 (2006), s. 115-122. ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/03/0367 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : developmental toxicity * FETAX * SCCPs Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2006

  20. Distinct roles for two purified factors in transcription of Xenopus mitochondrial DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Antoshechkin, I; Bogenhagen, D F

    1995-01-01

    Transcription of Xenopus laevis mitochondrial DNA (xl-mtDNA) by the mitochondrial RNA polymerase requires a dissociable factor. This factor was purified to near homogeneity and identified as a 40-kDa protein. A second protein implicated in the transcription of mtDNA, the Xenopus homolog of the HMG box protein mtTFA, was also purified to homogeneity and partially sequenced. The sequence of a cDNA clone encoding xl-mtTFA revealed a high degree of sequence similarity to human and Saccharomyces c...

  1. The use of Xenopus oocytes and embryos as a route towards cell replacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J B Gurdon

    2005-02-01

    When nuclei of somatic cells are transplanted to enucleated eggs of Xenopus, a complete reprogramming of nuclear function can take place. To identify mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming, somatic nuclei can be transplanted to growing meiotic oocytes of Xenopus, and stem cell genes activated without DNA replication. The combination of somatic cell nuclear transfer with morphogen signalling and the community effect may lead towards the possibility of cell replacement therapy. When mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming are understood, it may eventually be possible to directly reprogramme human somatic cell nuclei without the use of eggs.

  2. Integration of FULLSWOF2D and PeanoClaw: Adaptivity and Local Time-Stepping for Complex Overland Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Unterweger, K.

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. We propose to couple our adaptive mesh refinement software PeanoClaw with existing solvers for complex overland flows that are tailored to regular Cartesian meshes. This allows us to augment them with spatial adaptivity and local time-stepping without altering the computational kernels. FullSWOF2D—Full Shallow Water Overland Flows—here is our software of choice though all paradigms hold for other solvers as well.We validate our hybrid simulation software in an artificial test scenario before we provide results for a large-scale flooding scenario of the Mecca region. The latter demonstrates that our coupling approach enables the simulation of complex “real-world” scenarios.

  3. Characteristics of Cyclin B and its potential role in regulating oogenesis in the red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L M; Lv, W W; Zuo, D; Dong, Z J; Zhao, Y L

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin B is a regulatory subunit of maturation-promoting factor (MPF), which has a key role in the induction of meiotic maturation of oocytes. MPF has been studied in a wide variety of animal species; however, its expression in crustaceans is poorly characterized. In this study, the complete cDNA sequence of Cyclin B was cloned from the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, and its spatiotemporal expression profiles were analyzed. Cyclin B cDNA (1779 bp) encoded a 401 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 45.1 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that Cyclin B mRNA was expressed mainly in the ovarian tissue and that the expression decreased as the ovaries developed. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the Cyclin B protein relocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during oogenesis. These findings suggest that Cyclin B plays an important role in gametogenesis and gonad development in C. quadricarinatus. PMID:26400307

  4. Ca2+-dependent proteolytic activity in crab claw muscle: effects of inhibitors and specificity for myofibrillar proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The claw closer muscle of the Bermuda land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, undergoes a sequential atrophy and restoration during each molting cycle. The role of Ca2+-dependent proteinases in the turn-over of myofibrillar protein in normal anecdysial (intermolt) claw muscle is described. Crab Ca2+-dependent proteinase degrades the myofibrillar proteins actin, myosin heavy and light chains, paramyosin, tropomyosin, and troponin-T and -I. Ca2+-dependent proteinase activity in whole homogenates and 90,000 x g supernatant fractions from muscle homogenates has been characterized with respect to Ca2+ requirement, substrate specificity, and effects of proteinase inhibitors. The enzyme is inhibited by antipain, leupeptin, E-64, and iodoacetamide; it is insensitive to pepstatin A. The specificity of crab Ca2+-dependent proteinase was examined with native myosin with normal ATPase activity as well as with radioiodinated myosin and radioiodinated hemolymph proteins. Hydrolysis of 125I-myosin occurs in two phases, both Ca2+-dependent: (1) heavy chain (M/sub r/ = 200,000) is cleaved into four large fragments (M/sub r/ = 160,000, 110,000, 73,000, 60,000) and numerous smaller fragments; light chain (M/sub r/ = 18,000) is cleaved to a 15,000-Da fragment; (2) the fragments produced in the first phase are hydrolyzed to acid-soluble material. Although radioiodinated native hemolymph proteins are not susceptible to the Ca2+-dependent proteinase, those denatured by carboxymethylation are degraded. These data suggest that crab Ca2+-dependent proteinase is involved in turnover of myofibrillar protein in normal muscle and muscle undergoing proecdysial atrophy

  5. Monitoring of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes population during a crayfish plague outbreak followed by rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collas M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass mortality was detected in the downstream section of one of the most extensive French populations of the endangered white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, on June 26, 2013. This population occupied a 12 km stretch of the La Lucelle brook, with an estimated size of around 150 000 individuals. The presence of the crayfish plague pathogen was quickly diagnosed as the cause of the mortality, and monitoring was carried out to follow the spread of the disease from 15 July 2013 for one year. Results showed that after a fast spread between 15 and 25 July 2013 (upstream progression of mortality for about 4 km, the mortality front was limited to a stretch of a few hundred meters from August until December 2013. During winter, mortality was always observed, confirming that disease remained active. In April 2014, the mortality front was halted by a large dam in the brook (2 m high, 0.56 km from brook source. Two months later, 30 live crayfish were observed above the dam. On the 30 August 2014, no crayfish were found above the dam. Infected individuals analysed for microsatellite markers confirmed the Pacifastacus leniusculus strain of Aphanomyces astaci at the origin of this outbreak. Before the crayfish plague spread upstream of the large dam, a sample of 576 individuals was collected from upstream of the dam and translocated to another stream in the same French department. In July 2014, observations by night confirmed the presence of translocated white-clawed crayfish in the receiving brook.

  6. The toxicity of Poison Dart Frog alkaloids against the Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of alkaloids, representing over 20 structural classes, have been identified from the skin of neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae). These alkaloids are derived from arthropod prey of the frogs, and are generally are believed to deter vertebrate predators. We developed a method to put ind...

  7. Sexual differences in prevalence of a new species of trypanosome infecting túngara frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Ximena E; Pinto, C Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Trypanosomes are a diverse group of protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by a variety of hematophagous invertebrate vectors. Anuran trypanosomes and their vectors have received relatively little attention even though these parasites have been reported from frog and toad species worldwide. Blood samples collected from túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus), a Neotropical anuran species heavily preyed upon by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.), were examined for trypanosomes. Our results revealed sexual differences in trypanosome prevalence with female frogs being rarely infected (frog-biting midges that find their host using the mating calls produced by male frogs. Following previous anuran trypanosome studies, we examined 18S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize and establish the phylogenetic relationship of the trypanosome species found in túngara frogs. A new species of giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma tungarae n. sp., is described in this study. Overall the morphometric data revealed that the trypomastigotes of T. tungarae n. sp. are similar to other giant trypanosomes such as Trypanosoma rotatorium and Trypanosoma ranarum. Despite its slender and long cell shape, however, 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that T. tungarae n. sp. is sister to the rounded-bodied giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma chattoni. Therefore, morphological convergence explains similar morphology among members of two non-closely related groups of trypanosomes infecting frogs. The results from this study underscore the value of coupling morphological identification with molecular characterization of anuran trypanosomes. PMID:26977404

  8. Cues used in host-seeking behavior by frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp. Coquillet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Ximena E; de Silva, Priyanka

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the role of carbon dioxide and host temperature in host attraction in frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp). In these midges, females are known to use frog calls to localize their host, but the role of other host-emitted cues has yet not been investigated. We hypothesized that carbon dioxide acts as a supplemental cue to frog calls. To test this hypothesis, we determined the responses of the midges to carbon dioxide, frog calls, and both cues. A significantly lower number of midges are attracted to carbon dioxide and silent traps than to traps broadcasting frog calls. Adding carbon dioxide to the calls does not increase the attractiveness to the midges. Instead, carbon dioxide can have deterrent effects on frog-biting midges. Temperature of calling frogs is not a cue potentially available to the midges. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no supplemental effect of carbon dioxide when presented in conjunction to calls. Midge host-seeking behavior strongly depends on the mating calls emitted by their anuran host. Overall, non-acoustic cues such as host body temperature and carbon dioxide are not important in long-distance host location by frog-biting midges. PMID:26047192

  9. Condition-dependent reproductive effort in frogs infected by a widespread pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Sapsford, Sarah J; Pike, David A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2015-07-01

    To minimize the negative effects of an infection on fitness, hosts can respond adaptively by altering their reproductive effort or by adjusting their timing of reproduction. We studied effects of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on the probability of calling in a stream-breeding rainforest frog (Litoria rheocola). In uninfected frogs, calling probability was relatively constant across seasons and body conditions, but in infected frogs, calling probability differed among seasons (lowest in winter, highest in summer) and was strongly and positively related to body condition. Infected frogs in poor condition were up to 40% less likely to call than uninfected frogs, whereas infected frogs in good condition were up to 30% more likely to call than uninfected frogs. Our results suggest that frogs employed a pre-existing, plastic, life-history strategy in response to infection, which may have complex evolutionary implications. If infected males in good condition reproduce at rates equal to or greater than those of uninfected males, selection on factors affecting disease susceptibility may be minimal. However, because reproductive effort in infected males is positively related to body condition, there may be selection on mechanisms that limit the negative effects of infections on hosts. PMID:26063847

  10. Recurrence for the frog model with drift on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$

    OpenAIRE

    Döbler, Christian; Pfeifroth, Lorenz

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a recurrence criterion for the frog model on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$ with an i.i.d. initial configuration of sleeping frogs and such that the underlying random walk has a drift to the right.

  11. The critical probability for the frog model is not a monotonic function of the graph

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, L. R.; Machado, F. P.; Sarkar, A.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the critical probability for the frog model on a graph is not a monotonic function of the graph. This answers a question of Alves, Machado and Popov. The nonmonotonicity is unexpected as the frog model is a percolation model.

  12. Comparison of RABITT and FROG measurements in the temporal characterization of attosecond pulse trains

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyung Taec; Park, Mi Na; Imran, Tayyab; Umesh, G; Nam, Chang Hee

    2007-01-01

    The attosecond high harmonic pulses obtained from a long Ar-filled gas cell were characterized by two techniques - the reconstruction of attosecond beating by interference of two-photon transition (RABITT) and frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) methods. The pulse durations obtained by RABITT and FROG methods agreed within 10 %.

  13. Flesh fly myiasis (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Hagman

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this note we review records of myiasis in poison frogs collected in various locations in Peru during 1982-2005 and present evidence that larger and medium-sized poison frogs (Epipedobates are infected with sarcophagid fly larvae.

  14. Absence of tetrodotoxins in a captive-raised riparian frog, Atelopus varius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J W; Padgett, W L; Saunders, R L; Cover, J F

    1997-05-01

    Bufonid frogs of the genus Atelopus contain two classes of skin toxins, namely the steroidal bufadienolides and the water-soluble tetrodotoxins. Frogs of the Panamanian species Atelopus varius have now been raised in captivity and levels in skin extracts of bufadienolides and of tetrodotoxin-like compounds assessed, using inhibition of [3H]ouabain binding and inhibition of [3H]saxitoxin binding, respectively. Levels of ouabain equivalents, corresponding to bufadienolides, were comparable to those found in wild-caught frogs from the same population in Panama, while tetrodotoxin-like activity was undetectable. The results strongly implicate environmental factors, perhaps symbiotic microorganisms, in the genesis of tetrodotoxins in the skin of frogs of the genus Atelopus, while indicating that the frog itself produces the skin bufadienolides. PMID:9203295

  15. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  16. Response of the Italian agile frog (Rana latastei) to a Ranavirus, frog virus 3: a model for viral emergence in naïve populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearman, P. B.; Garner, T. W. J.; Straub, M.; Greber, U F

    2004-01-01

    Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) is a genus of pathogens of poikilotherms, and some ranaviruses may play a role in widespread mortality of amphibians. Ecology of viral transmission in amphibians is poorly known but can be addressed through experimentation in the laboratory. In this study, we use the Ranavirus frog virus 3 (FV3) as an experimental model for pathogen emergence in naive populations of tadpoles. We simulated emerging disease by exposing tadpoles of the Italian agile frog (Rana lat...

  17. Behavioral Responses of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens to Roads and Traffic: Implications for Population Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Fahrig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A key goal in road ecology is to determine which species are most vulnerable to the negative effects of roads on population persistence. Theory suggests that species that avoid roads are less likely to be negatively affected by roads than those that do not avoid roads. The goal of this study was to take a step toward testing this prediction by evaluating the behavioral response to roads and traffic of a species whose populations are known to be negatively affected by roads and traffic, the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens. We studied the movement patterns of northern leopard frogs during their spring migration from overwintering sites in a river to various breeding ponds that were disconnected from the river by roads. We performed short-distance translocations of migrating frogs, followed them visually, and documented their movement coordinates following each hop, both near the roads and in non-roaded areas. We found that frogs took longer to move near roads with more traffic and that their movement was quickest in areas without roads nearby. Frogs tended to deviate more from a straight-line course when they were released near roads than compared with control areas, but this response was independent of traffic volume. All frogs released near roads attempted to cross the road. On very low traffic roads (10.86 mean vehicles per hour, 94% of frogs crossed the road successfully, whereas at higher traffic roads (58.29 mean vehicles per hour 72% were successful. Our results suggest that frog's inability to avoid going onto roads and their slow movement combine to make them particularly vulnerable to road mortality, which likely explains the strong negative effects of roads on frog population abundance. Conservation efforts should focus on preventing frogs from accessing the road surface through the use of drift fencing and culverts.

  18. 论莫言小说《蛙》中的“蛙”意象%The Frog Image in the Novel Frog by Mo Yan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋卉

    2012-01-01

    从远古神话到到当代小说,从考古、民俗到文学想象,“蛙”意象的产生与发展经历了一个漫长而富有变化的过程。文章结合文学人类学的理论对莫言长篇小说《蛙》中的“蛙”意象进行深度分析,追溯到“蛙”原型中的“蛙女神”,将其与小说中突出的人物“姑姑”进行对比,揭示这一原型意象的运用对小说文化蕴涵的提升作用。%The image of frog has a long history since its creation and differs quite well in different texts like ancient mythology,contemporary novels,archeology,folklore and literary i- maginations. This paper analyzes the image of frog from the perspective of literary anthropolo- gy in the novel Frog by Mo Yan. A comparative, study of the protagonist,the aunt of the nar- rator in the novel,and the frog goddess,the prototype frog, will be conducted,which indicates that the archetypal image of frog helps to enrich cultural connotations of the novel.

  19. A quantitative adverse outcome pathway model for thyroid axis disruption in Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of Xenopus laevis tadpoles is tightly controlled by the thyroid hormones tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Toxicity testing efforts have shown that several compounds interfere with development in X. laevis tadpoles by disrupting the thyroid axis a...

  20. Manipulating heat shock factor-1 in Xenopus tadpoles: neuronal tissues are refractory to exogenous expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron P Dirks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aging related decline of heat shock factor-1 (HSF1 signaling may be causally related to protein aggregation diseases. To model such disease, we tried to cripple HSF1 signaling in the Xenopus tadpole. RESULTS: Over-expression of heat shock factor binding protein-1 did not inhibit the heat shock response in Xenopus. RNAi against HSF1 mRNA inhibited the heat shock response by 70% in Xenopus A6 cells, but failed in transgenic tadpoles. Expression of XHSF380, a dominant-negative HSF1 mutant, was embryonic lethal, which could be circumvented by delaying expression via a tetracycline inducible promoter. HSF1 signaling is thus essential for embryonic Xenopus development. Surprisingly, transgenic expression of the XHSF380 or of full length HSF1, whether driven by a ubiquitous or a neural specific promoter, was not detectable in the larval brain. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding that the majority of neurons, which have little endogenous HSF1, refused to accept transgene-driven expression of HSF1 or its mutant suggests that HSF1 levels are strictly controlled in neuronal tissue.

  1. Expression patterns of Src-family tyrosine kinases during Xenopus laevis development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferjentsik, Zoltán; Šindelka, Radek; Jonák, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2009), s. 163-168. ISSN 0214-6282 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/02/0408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Xenopus laevis * Src-tyrosine kinases * embryonic development Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.161, year: 2009

  2. Maternal Mga is required for Wnt signaling and organizer formation in the early Xenopus embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Gu; Huijuan Shi; Li Gao; Haiyan Zhang; Qinghua Tao

    2012-01-01

    Maternal Wnt11 is both necessary and sufficient for the formation of Spemann organizer in Xenopus embryo.Xnr3 and Siamois have been identified as the direct target genes of maternal Wnt11/β-catenin during organizer induction.The depletion of maternal XTcf3 resulted in the ectopic expression of Xnr3 and Siamois,suggesting the activity of β-catenin/XTcf3 is strictly regulated in the early Xenopus embryos.Here,we show that Xenopus mga (Xmga) is a maternal gene required for dorsal axis formation.Overexpression experiments indicate that mouse Mga potentiates the activity of β-catenin in the induction of organizer-specific genes.Depletion of maternal Xmga results in the dramatic decrease of the expression of organizer genes and ventralization phenotype,indicating that Xmga is required for β-catenin function and organizer formation.Depletion of XTcf3 cannot rescue organizer gene expression and axis formation in Xmga-depleted embryos,suggesting Xmga is downstream of XTcf3 during organizer induction.We conclude that maternal Xmga is critical for the function of β-catenin during organizer formation and dorsal development of Xenopus embryo.To our knowledge,this is a report for the first time to implicate Mga in regulating Wnt signaling.

  3. Maternal Mga is required for Wnt signaling and organizer formation in the early Xenopus embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fei; Shi, Huijuan; Gao, Li; Zhang, Haiyan; Tao, Qinghua

    2012-11-01

    Maternal Wnt11 is both necessary and sufficient for the formation of Spemann organizer in Xenopus embryo. Xnr3 and Siamois have been identified as the direct target genes of maternal Wnt11/β-catenin during organizer induction. The depletion of maternal XTcf3 resulted in the ectopic expression of Xnr3 and Siamois, suggesting the activity of β-catenin/XTcf3 is strictly regulated in the early Xenopus embryos. Here, we show that Xenopus mga (Xmga) is a maternal gene required for dorsal axis formation. Overexpression experiments indicate that mouse Mga potentiates the activity of β-catenin in the induction of organizer-specific genes. Depletion of maternal Xmga results in the dramatic decrease of the expression of organizer genes and ventralization phenotype, indicating that Xmga is required for β-catenin function and organizer formation. Depletion of XTcf3 cannot rescue organizer gene expression and axis formation in Xmga-depleted embryos, suggesting Xmga is downstream of XTcf3 during organizer induction. We conclude that maternal Xmga is critical for the function of β-catenin during organizer formation and dorsal development of Xenopus embryo. To our knowledge, this is a report for the first time to implicate Mga in regulating Wnt signaling. PMID:23070227

  4. Programming Pluripotent Precursor Cells Derived from Xenopus Embryos to Generate Specific Tissues and Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Borchers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Xenopus embryos provide a rich source of pluripotent cells that can be differentiated into functional organs. Since the molecular principles of vertebrate organogenesis appear to be conserved between Xenopus and mammals, this system can provide useful guidelines for the directional manipulation of human embryonic stem cells. Pluripotent Xenopus cells can be easily isolated from the animal pole of blastula stage Xenopus embryos. These so called “animal cap” cells represent prospective ectodermal cells, but give rise to endodermal, mesodermal and neuro-ectodermal derivatives if treated with the appropriate factors. These factors include evolutionary conserved modulators of the key developmental signal transduction pathways that can be supplied either by mRNA microinjection or direct application of recombinant proteins. This relatively simple system has added to our understanding of pancreas, liver, kidney, eye and heart development. In particular, recent studies have used animal cap cells to generate ectopic eyes and hearts, setting the stage for future work aimed at programming pluripotent cells for regenerative medicine.

  5. Translational control of Connexin 30 and 41 m RNAs in Xenopus laevis embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Hedda Arlinde

    2001-01-01

    During the early stages of Xenopus laevis development no transcription occurs. Many cell divisions take place in about 9 h, a process orchestrated by maternal mRNAs. When the embryo contains about thousand cells, zygotic transcription initiates during the so-called mid blastula transition or MBT. Be

  6. Purification of a Ni sup 2+ -binding protein, pNiXa, from Xenopus ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, B.L.; Makowski, G.S.; Nomoto, S.; Sunderman, F.W. (Univ. of Connecticut, Farmington (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Previous research on nickel-induced teratogenesis in Xenopus laevis identified several Ni{sup 2+}-binding proteins, including pNiXa in Xenopus ovaries, unfertilized eggs, and embryos. A major goal of this research project is elucidating the role of pNiXa in the uptake, embryotoxicity, and teratogenicity of Ni{sup 2+} in Xenopus. To purify and identify pNiXa, ovarian tissue from mature Xenopus females was homogenized in 3 vol of Tris buffer and centrifuged. The supernatant was centrifuged; the ultracentrifugal supernatant was batch-adsorbed onto DEAE-cellulose. The pNiSa remained unbound and was subsequently adsorbed on phosphocellulose and eluted by a step-wise NaCl gradient. The pNiXa was eluted in 0.25 M NaCl; this fraction was concentrated, and further purified by reverse phase chromatography on a 5 {mu}m C-8 column, with a linear trifluoroacetic acid/acetonitrile gradient. The pNiXa was eluted at {approximately}56% acetonitrile, yielding a single protein band with mol wt {approximately}47 kD,based on SDS-PAGE analysis. Comparison of the amino acid composition of pNiXa versus the results obtained by automated Edman degradation indicated that the N-terminus of pNiXa was blocked. Sequencing of peptide fragments of pNiXa is underway.

  7. ATP4 and ciliation in the neuroectoderm and endoderm of Xenopus embryos and tadpoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Walentek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During gastrulation and neurulation, foxj1 expression requires ATP4a-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling for ciliation of the gastrocoel roof plate (Walentek et al. Cell Rep. 1 (2012 516–527. and the mucociliary epidermis (Walentek et al. Dev. Biol. (2015 of Xenopus laevis embryos. These data suggested that ATP4a and Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulate foxj1 throughout Xenopus development. Here we analyzed whether foxj1 expression was also ATP4a-dependent in other ciliated tissues of the developing Xenopus embryo and tadpole. We found that in the floor plate of the neural tube ATP4a-dependent canonical Wnt signaling was required for foxj1 expression, downstream of or in parallel to Hedgehog signaling. In the developing tadpole brain, ATP4-function was a prerequisite for the establishment of cerebrospinal fluid flow. Furthermore, we describe foxj1 expression and the presence of multiciliated cells in the developing tadpole gastrointestinal tract. Our work argues for a general requirement of ATP4-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling for foxj1 expression and motile ciliogenesis throughout Xenopus development.

  8. Spatial expression profiles in the Xenopus laevis oocytes measured with qPCR tomography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindelka, R.; Šídová, Monika; Švec, David; Kubista, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2010), s. 87-91. ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500970904; GA ČR GA301/09/1752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Xenopus * Oocyte * qPCR tomography Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.527, year: 2010

  9. Periodic Solutions of a Model of Mitosis in Frog Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei-ye Feng; Zuo-huan Zheng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper,we discuss a simplified model of mitosis in frog eggs proposed by M.T. Borisuk and J.J.Tyson in [1]. By using rigorous qualitative analysis, we prove the existence of the periodic solutions on a large scale and present the space region of the periodic solutions and the parameter region coresponding to the periodic solution. We also present the space region and the parameter region where there are no periodic solutions. The results are in accordance with the numerical results in [1] up to the qualitative property.

  10. Plasma membrane electron transport in frog blood vessels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashmi P Rao; K Nalini; J Prakasa Rao

    2009-12-01

    In an attempt to see if frog blood vessels possess a plasma membrane electron transport system, the postcaval vein and aorta isolated from Rana tigrina were tested for their ability to reduce ferricyanide, methylene blue, and 2,6-dichloroindophenol. While the dyes remained unchanged, ferricyanide was reduced to ferrocyanide. This reduction was resistant to inhibition by cyanide and azide. Heptane extraction or formalin fixation of the tissues markedly reduced the capability to reduce ferricyanide. Denuded aortas retained only 30% of the activity of intact tissue. Our results indicate that the amphibian postcaval vein and aorta exhibit plasma membrane electron transport

  11. From transience to recurrence with Poisson tree frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Christopher; Johnson, Tobias; Junge, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Consider the following interacting particle system on the $d$-ary tree, known as the frog model: Initially, one particle is awake at the root and i.i.d. Poisson many particles are sleeping at every other vertex. Particles that are awake perform simple random walks, awakening any sleeping particles they encounter. We prove that there is a phase transition between transience and recurrence as the initial density of particles increases, and we give the order of the transition up to a logarithmic...

  12. Ranavirus in wild edible frogs Pelophylax kl. esculentus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Kielgast, Jos; Svart, Hans Erik;

    2009-01-01

    A survey for the amphibian pathogens ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) was conducted in Denmark during August and September 2008. The public was encouraged via the media to register unusual mortalities in a web-based survey. All members of the public that registered cases were...... interviewed by phone and 10 cases were examined on suspicion of diseaseinduced mortality. All samples were negative for Bd. Ranavirus was isolated from 2 samples of recently dead frogs collected during a mass mortality event in an artificial pond near Slagelse, Denmark. The identity of the virus was confirmed...

  13. Impact of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis on blue mussel Mytilus edulis trossulus – laboratory studies of claw strength, handling behavior, consumption rate, and size selective predation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Wójcik

    2015-07-01

    E. sinensis can also harm blue mussel shells by crushing them without further consumption. The mean daily damage, and not consumption, by a single crab was 0.9 ± 1.4 of 11–40 mm mussels. The claw strength of E. sinensis ranged from 1.50 to 20.43 N (mean 8.51 ± 5.93 N and was significantly correlated (P < 0.05 with sex and both claw size and carapace size. The study showed that E. sinensis may be able to impact the native M. edulis trossulus population abundance in the coastal Baltic waters either through direct predation or indirect mortality by damaging (crushing the shell.

  14. Identification of the Xenopus laevis Homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA2 and Its Role in DNA Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qingquan; Choe, Won-chae; Campbell, Judith L.

    2000-01-01

    The DNA2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for growth and appears to be required for a late stage of chromosomal DNA replication. S. cerevisiae Dna2p (ScDna2p) is a DNA helicase and also a nuclease. We have cloned and sequenced the homologous gene from Xenopus (Xenopus Dna2). Xenopus Dna2p (XDna2p) is 32% identical to ScDna2p, and the similarity extends over the entire length, including but not limited to the five conserved helicase motifs. XDna2p is even more closely related (60%...

  15. Water chemistry and endangered white-clawed Crayfish: a literature review and field study of water chemistry association in Austropotamobius pallipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N.R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Populations of the endangered white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes have rapidly declined in distribution and density in recent decades as a result of invasive crayfish, disease and habitat degradation. The species is thought to be particularly sensitive to water chemistry, and has been proposed as a bio-indicator of water quality. Here we detail the results of a systematic review of the literature regarding the chemistry of waterbodies inhabited by white-clawed crayfish, along with a wide-scale field study of the chemistry of crayfish-inhabited waterbodies in the UK. We use these data to examine potentially significant variables influencing crayfish distribution. Several variables appear to have thresholds that affect crayfish distribution; crayfish presence was associated with high dissolved oxygen, low conductivity, ammonium, sodium, and phosphate, and to a lesser extent low sulphate, nitrate, and total suspended solids. Some variables (magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulphate, nitrate, and total suspended solids may be tolerated at moderate to high concentrations in isolation (indicated by the presence of some populations in high levels of these variables, but suites of chemical conditions may act synergistically in situ and must be considered together. Recent efforts to conserve white-clawed crayfish have included relocations to Ark Sites; novel protected habitats with reduced risk of the introduction of disease, invasive crayfish and habitat degradation. We use our findings to propose the first detailed guidelines for common water chemistry variables of potential Ark Sites for the conservation of the species throughout its European range.

  16. [The "necktie lasso": a new technique for the simultaneous treatment of Wartenberg's sign and claw deformities in the hand due to ulnar nerve palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmahi, A M; Gharib, N E; El Mazouz, S

    2004-08-01

    The "necktie lasso" is a new technique that allows the simultaneous active treatment, of both Wartenberg's sign and claw deformity of the fifth and the fourth digits in the hand with ulnar nerve palsy. The flexor sublimis of the fourth digit is taken by a palmar approach. It is then divided into two strips up to the proximal part of the palm; The radial strip is used as a classical "direct lasso" to treat the claw deformity of the fourth digit; The ulnar strip is wound around the base of the fifth digit by a palmar and dorsal approaches at the level of the proximal phalanx, like a necktie, being medial to its radial pedicle, dorsal and superficial to its extensor apparatus, then lateral to its ulnar pedicle; It is then recovered in the palm and sutured to itself. From September 1998 to April 2003, this technique has been used in eight patients aged between 21 and 35 years old and suffering from post traumatic low ulnar nerve palsy. It was always very effective in dealing with Wartenberg's sign: the active adduction of the fifth digit appearing at the start of flexion. The claw deformity of the fourth and fifth digits was equally actively corrected. No complications are reported in this series. With a mean follow-up of 3 years there was no recurrence of any of the deformities. PMID:15484679

  17. EFFECTS OF SOYBEAN MEAL BASED DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HEMOLYMPH BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF NARROW-CLAWED CRAYFISH (ASTACUS LEPTODACYLUS ESCHSCHOLTZ, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other crustaceans, narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodacylus Eschscholtz, 1823 can change its diet to the available food during varied life cycles. Diet alteration can affect different biological indices of this species, therefore this study aims at studying changes in growth indices, hemolymph biochemical parameters and biochemical quality of its carcasses, which might occur during diet change of crayfish. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of fish meal with soybean meal on growth performance, carcass quality and hemolymph biochemical parameters of narrow-clawed crayfish. 90 healthy adult narrow-clawed crayfish (W=35.50±4.05 g; TL=16.96±1.92 cm were randomly distributed into 9 fiberglass tanks (200 L and were fed for 45 days with three varied diets including: commercial shrimp diet, fishmeal-based diet (A and soybean meal-based diet (B. The results show that changing the diet from animal protein to plant protein caused a significant decrease in the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in hemolymph, as well as carcass fat of the crayfish nourished with B diet when compared with the crayfish fed with A diet. No significant changes of hemolymph levels of glucose, AST and ALT were found between different treatments during this experimental period. In conclusion, it was found that though growth performance reduced, the increased rate of soybean meal in diet from 0.0% to 76% had no adverse effects on biochemical parameters.

  18. The first see-through frog created by breeding: description, inheritance patterns, and dermal chromatophore structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Masayuki; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Igawa, Takeshi; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Furukawa, Yukari; Sano, Naomi; Fujii, Tamotsu; Yoshizaki, Norio

    2016-01-01

    We have succeeded in creating see-through frogs from natural color mutants of the Japanese brown frog Rana japonica, which usually possesses an ochre or brown back; this coloration enables the organs, blood vessels, and eggs to be observed through the skin without performing dissection. We crossed two kinds of recessive color mutant (black-eyed and gray-eyed) frogs through artificial insemination, and F2 offspring produced frogs whose skin is translucent throughout the life cycle. Three kinds of dermal chromatophores-xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores-are observed in a layered arrangement in the skin of wild-type frogs, but few chromatophores were present in the skin of the see-through frogs. The translucent skin enables observation of organ growth and cancer formation and progression in the animal, which can be monitored over its entire life without the need for dissection. See-through frogs thus provide a useful animal model for environmental, medical, and biological research. PMID:27080918

  19. Landing in basal frogs: evidence of saltational patterns in the evolution of anuran locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essner, Richard L.; Suffian, Daniel J.; Bishop, Phillip J.; Reilly, Stephen M.

    2010-10-01

    All frogs are assumed to jump in a similar manner by rapidly extending hindlimbs during the propulsive phase and rotating the limbs forward during flight in order to land forelimbs first. However, studies of jumping behavior are lacking in the most primitive living frogs of the family Leiopelmatidae. These semi-aquatic or terrestrial anurans retain a suite of plesiomorphic morphological features and are unique in using an asynchronous (trot-like) rather than synchronous “frog-kick” swimming gait of other frogs. We compared jumping behavior in leiopelmatids to more derived frogs and found that leiopelmatids maintain extended hindlimbs throughout flight and landing phases and do not land on adducted forelimbs. These “belly-flop” landings limit the ability for repeated jumps and are consistent with a riparian origin of jumping in frogs. The unique behavior of leiopelmatids shows that frogs evolved jumping before they perfected landing. Moreover, an inability to rapidly cycle the limbs may provide a functional explanation for the absence of synchronous swimming in leiopelmatids.

  20. Data on the isolation of immunoglobulin from the serum of the green frog: Rana esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Svetlana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the green frog (Rana esculenta is often used as an experimental model for further studies of physiological laws, little is still known about its serum proteins and their role in immunity. Its serum proteins have been studied quite extensively, as when they are taken up into the organism of another animal they represent antigens themselves. In this work, an attempt was made to isolate some frog serum proteins and to investigate the electrophoretic qualities of the isolated components (electrophoresis on agar gel and immunoelectrophoresis. IgG was isolated using the same procedure applied for human sera and one of the components found in the beta globulin zone was isolated from frog serum by the same procedure. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis, carried out with the full antiserum of a rabbit, obtained by immunization of the rabbit with the frog serum, showed that the isolated component was pure. The obtained results confirm the fact that there are no slow gamma globulins in the frog serum and point out that this procedure, used for isolating human IgG class, is also suitable for isolating one protein component from the serum of the frog, which has the electrophoretic speed of beta globulin and which may represent one category of frog immunoglobulins.