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Sample records for claw harpagophytum procumbens

  1. Devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens in a Brahman's preputial sheath : a case report from Botswana : case report

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    J.F.W. Isa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Failure of penile protrusion during attempted service of a cow on heat was investigated in a 3-year-old Brahman bull at Kwakwadi cattle-post in the Kgalahadi sandveld, Kweneng District, Botswana. The investigation revealed that penile protrusion was obstructed by a devil's claw (grapple thorn, a dry fruit of the plant Harpagophytum procumbens, which had lodged in the cavum preputiale. The thorn, which was removed almost completely manually with minimal tissue dissection, had also caused minor lacerations and puncture wounds on the lamina interna pars parietalis. The wounds healed well following treatment with antiseptics and antibiotics and subsequently the bull regained full penile protrusion and served the cows well. This report describes the first case of lodgement of a devil's claw fruit in, and its extraction from, the cavum preputiale of a Brahman.

  2. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

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    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  3. Inhibitory effects of devil's claw (secondary root of Harpagophytum procumbens) extract and harpagoside on cytokine production in mouse macrophages.

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    Inaba, Kazunori; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2010-04-01

    Successive oral administration (50 mg/kg) of a 50% ethanolic extract (HP-ext) of devil's claw, the secondary root of Harpagophytum procumbens, showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the rat adjuvant-induced chronic arthritis model. HP-ext dose-dependently suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)] in mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). Harpagoside, a major iridoid glycoside present in devil's claw, was found to be one of the active agents in HP-ext and inhibited the production of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha by RAW 264.7.

  4. Effect of the major glycosides of Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's Claw) on epidermal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in vitro.

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    Abdelouahab, Nassima; Heard, Charles

    2008-05-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens, commonly known as Devil's Claw, is indigenous to southern Africa, and extracts of the tubers have been used for centuries in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory disorders. Its major active components, harpagoside (1), harpagide (2), 8-coumaroylharpagide (3), and verbascoside (4), are believed to interact either synergistically or antagonistically in modulating the enzymes responsible for inducing inflammation, although this has not been probed hitherto. In the current work, the ability of these compounds to inhibit the expression of COX-2 following administration to freshly excised porcine skin has been investigated. An ethanol-soluble extract of H. procumbens tubers and two of the pure compounds tested showed promising activity in Western blotting and immunocytochemical assays, with harpagoside (1) and 8-coumaroylharpagide (3) exhibiting greater reductions in COX-2 expression than verbascoside (4). Harpagide (2) caused a significant increase in the levels of COX-2 expression after 6 h of topical application. The data suggest that the efficacy of H. procumbens is dependent upon the ratios of compounds 1-4 present, which is inconsistent with some current official monograph specifications based solely on harpagoside (1) content.

  5. Rapid measurement and evaluation of the effect of drying conditions on harpagoside content in Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) root.

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    Joubert, Elizabeth; Manley, Marena; Gray, Brian R; Schulz, Hartwig

    2005-05-04

    The effect of drying conditions on harpagoside (HS) retention, as well as the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid quantification of the iridoids, HS, and 8-rho-coumaroyl harpagide (8rhoCHG) and moisture, in dried Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) root was investigated. HS retention was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in sun-dried samples as compared to tunnel-dried (60 degrees C, 30% relative humidity) and freeze-dried samples. The best retention of HS was obtained at 50 degrees C when evaluating tunnel drying at dry bulb temperatures of 40, 50, and 60 degrees C and 30% relative humidity. NIRS can effectively predict moisture content with a standard error of prediction (SEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of 0.24% and 0.99, respectively. The HS and 8rhoCHG NIRS calibration models established for both iridoid glucosides can be used for screening purposes to get a semiquantitative classification of devil's claw roots (for HS: SEP = 0.236%, r = 0.64; for 8rhoCHG: SEP = 0.048%, r = 0.73).

  6. Estimation of the relative antiinflammatory efficacies of six commercial preparations of Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's Claw).

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    Ouitas, Nassima Abdelouahab; Heard, Charles

    2010-03-01

    The current work compared the relative efficacies of six commercial formulations of H. procumbens. Each formulation was assayed for the content of harpagoside (1), harpagide (2), verbascoside (3) and 8-O-p-coumaroyl harpagide (4) and, based on the recommended dosages, the total daily amounts were determined and used to establish anti-/proinflammatory (A/P) factors. The formulations were compared using ex vivo porcine skin for their activities towards COX-2 by Western blotting. The results showed great variation in the amounts of compounds 1-4 within the six formulations examined. The relative proportions of 1-4 also varied widely between the products and this inconsistency was reflected in the A/P factors, which correlated with the COX-2 expression (R(2) = 0.9496). Although the data support the beneficial antiinflammatory effects from the use of some of the brands tested, others would appear potentially to exacerbate inflammation. To conclude, a ratio based upon the amount and relative proportions of anti- and proinflammatory compounds can be used to predict relative antiinflammatory properties. Also, with access to a diversity of ostensibly similar commercial products, the patient may experience varying therapeutic responses. Finally, current pharmacopoeia monographs, which are generally concerned with a minimum harpagoside content, are inadequate for ensuring the quality of products based on H. procumbens.

  7. Effect of isolated fractions of Harpagophytum procumbens D.C. (devil's claw) on COX-1, COX-2 activity and nitric oxide production on whole-blood assay.

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    Anauate, Maria Cecilia; Torres, Luce Maria; de Mello, Suzana Beatriz Veríssimo

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of isolated fractions of Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) on cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) activities and NO production using a whole blood assay. The activity of COX-1 was quantified as platelet thromboxane B(2) production in blood clotting and COX-2 as prostaglandin E(2) production in LPS-stimulated whole blood. Total NO(2) (-)/NO(3) (-) concentration was determined by Griess reaction in LPS stimulated blood. Assays were performed by incubation of isolated fractions obtained by flash chromatography monitored with HPLC, TLC and identified by (1)HNMR, containing different amounts of harpagoside with blood from healthy donors. Indomethacin and etoricoxib were the positive controls of COX-1 and COX-2 Inhibition. Data shows that fraction containing the highest concentration of harpagoside inhibited indistinctively COX-1 and COX-2 (37.2 and 29.5% respectively) activity and greatly inhibited NO production (66%). In contrast the fraction including iridoid pool increased COX-2 and did not alter NO and COX-1 activities. The fraction containing cinnamic acid was able to reduce only NO production (67%). Our results demonstrated that the harpagoside fraction is the main responsible for the effect of devils claw on these enzyme activities. However, other components from devil's claw crude extract could antagonize or increase the synthesis of inflammatory mediators.

  8. Antimutagenic potential of harpagoside and Harpagophytum procumbens against 1-nitropyrene

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    Luigi Manon; Baghdikian Béatrice; Orsière Thierry; Pompili Jocelyne; Mabrouki Fathi; Ollivier Evelyne; Botta Alain

    2015-01-01

    Background: 1-nitropyrene (1-NPy) is one of the most abundant nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons particularly in diesel exhausts. It is a mutagenic and carcinogenic pollutant very widespread in the environment. So the discovery of antimutagenic agents is essential. Harpagophytum procumbens (HP) is traditionally used as anti-inflammatory and analgesic particularly against painful osteoarthritis. Harpagoside (HS), its major iridoid glycoside, is considered as the main active component. Obje...

  9. Analgesic Effect of Harpagophytum procumbens on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

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    Dong Wook Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Harpagophytum procumbens, also known as Devil’s Claw, has historically been used to treat a wide range of conditions, including pain and arthritis. The study was designed to investigate whether H. procumbens extracts exhibit analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI rats. The whole procedure was performed on male SD rats. To evaluate pain-related behavior, we performed the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT test measured by von Frey filaments. Pain-related behavior was also determined through analysis of ultrasonic vocalization (USVs. The results of experiments showed MWT values of the group that was treated with 300 mg/kg H. procumbens extract increased significantly; on the contrary, the number of 22–27 kHz USVs of the treated group was reduced at 6 h and 24 h after plantar incision operation. After 21 days of continuous treatment with H. procumbens extracts at 300 mg/kg, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity responses by MWT, compared with the control group. These results suggest that H. procumbens extracts have potential analgesic effects in the case of acute postoperative pain and chronic neuropathic pain in rats.

  10. Efficacy of Harpagophytum procumbens Extract in Osteoarthritis, Low Back Pain and Fibromyalgia: a Review of Researches

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    A.V. Savustyanenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the results of studies on cli­nical efficacy of Harpagophytum procumbens in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. Pharmacological effects of Harpagophytum procumbens are associated with the inhibition of formation and releasing of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, ­IL-6 and TNF-α from macrophages, inhibition of expression of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2 and inducible NO-synthase (iNOS in fibroblasts and inhibition of development of lipid peroxidation, all of which lead to the suppression of the inflammatory response and, as result, development of analgesic effect and chondroprotection. Clinical Application. In case of osteoarthritis Harpagophytum procumbens extract (Sustamar reduced the severity of pain by an average of 25–50 % and increased joint mobility of about 35–50 %; in case of lumbar pain it reduced the severity of pain at 40–50 %, the pain completely disappeared in 2.5–20 % of patients; it was effective in generalized and localized forms of fibromyalgia. Usage of Harpagophytum procumbens extract in case of any musculoskeletal pain was associated with the fact that approximately 60 % of patients reduced the dose or completely stop taking non-steroidal and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is possible that the efficacy of Harpagophytum procumbens extract corresponds to that of a standard dose of rofecoxib 12.5 mg, however, these data need to be confirmed. Safety. When receiving Harpagophytum procumbens extract, mild side effects (mainly dyspeptic occurred in approximately 3 % of patients that did not exceed the appropriate frequency occurring in patients receiving placebo. Long-term use of Harpagophytum procumbens extract (up to 1 year is safe and not associated with the development of toxic effects. Patients’ adherence to the treatment was 96.4 %. The tolerability of Harpagophytum procumbens extract seems to exceed that of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Conclusions. Harpagophytum procumbens extract is

  11. Antimutagenic potential of harpagoside and Harpagophytum procumbens against 1-nitropyrene

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    Luigi Manon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: 1-nitropyrene (1-NPy is one of the most abundant nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons particularly in diesel exhausts. It is a mutagenic and carcinogenic pollutant very widespread in the environment. So the discovery of antimutagenic agents is essential. Harpagophytum procumbens (HP is traditionally used as anti-inflammatory and analgesic particularly against painful osteoarthritis. Harpagoside (HS, its major iridoid glycoside, is considered as the main active component. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimutagenic activity of HS and HP extracts against mutagenic activity of 1-NPy. Materials and Methods: The antimutagenic activity was investigated using the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in cultured human lymphocytes. Cells were exposed to HS or HP extracts before (pretreatment, during (co-treatment, and after (posttreatment treatment with 1-NPy. Results: Results showed that HS significantly reduced the mutagenicity of 1-NPy in pretreatment and particularly in co-treatment, whereas all HP extracts significantly reduced the genotoxicity in the three protocols. Conclusion: These results suggested that HS was strongly involved in antimutagenic activity of HP extracts in co-treatment, but other components in HP extracts participated in this activity in pre- and post-treatment.

  12. Formation of nitrogen-containing metabolites from the main iridoids of Harpagophytum procumbens and H. zeyheri by human intestinal bacteria.

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    Baghdikian, B; Guiraud-Dauriac, H; Ollivier, E; N'Guyen, A; Dumenil, G; Balansard, G

    1999-03-01

    The study of the metabolism of iridoid glycosides from Harpagophytum procumbens and Harpagophytum zeyheri by human intestinal bacteria, was realized in order to elucidate compounds responsible for the pharmacological activities of Harpagophytum. Harpagide, harpagoside and 8-O-p-coumaroyl-harpagide were transformed into the pyridine monoterpene alkaloid aucubinine B by human fecal flora and by bacteria isolated from this flora. Aucubinine B was also prepared from harpagide, harpagoside and 8-O-p-coumaroylharpagide, by beta-glucosidase in the presence of NH4+.

  13. Downregulation of iNOS expression in rat mesangial cells by special extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens derives from harpagoside-dependent and independent effects.

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    Kaszkin, M; Beck, K F; Koch, E; Erdelmeier, C; Kusch, S; Pfeilschifter, J; Loew, D

    2004-11-01

    Special extracts from the roots of Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's Claw) are used in the supportive treatment of inflammatory diseases, and the iridoid derivative harpagoside is thought to be the active principle. To investigate, whether Harpagophytum extracts may also be useful therapeutics in the treatment of inflammatory kidney diseases, we studied the effects of two different extracts containing 8.9% (extract 1) and 27% harpagoside (extract 2), respectively, on IL-1beta-induced nitric oxide (NO) formation as well as transcriptional regulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in rat renal mesangial cells. We observed a concentration-dependent suppression of nitrite formation by about 80%, which was due to an inhibition of iNOS expression. Moreover, a reduction of iNOS promoter activity and nuclear NF-kappaB translocation was observed, indicating that the extracts interfere with the transcriptional activation of iNOS. Three further Harpagophytum extracts containing about 2% harpagoside did not inhibit NO formation suggesting, that only extracts with a high harpagoside content elicit iNOS inhibition. However, pure harpagoside was only inhibitory at concentrations between 0.3 and 1 mg/ml, which is much higher than the harpagoside content present in an effective concentration of the total extracts. Moreover, a harpagoside-free extract 1 also markedly inhibited iNOS expression, indicating that other extract constituents are involved in this effect. Extract 1 exerted a strong antioxidative effect, whereas no such effect could be demonstrated for harpagoside. Together, these data show that special Harpagophytum extracts may represent potential antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of glomerular inflammatory diseases.

  14. Fast HPLC for quality control of Harpagophytum procumbens by using a monolithic silica column: method transfer from conventional particle-based silica column.

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    Schmidt, Alexander H

    2005-05-06

    The applicability of a monolithic C18-bonded silica column for the rapid HPLC separation of ingredients in medicinal plants and their phytopharmaceutical preparations has been evaluated in the author's laboratory. In this presentation, an existing method for the determination of the iridoid glycoside harpagoside in Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's Claw) was successfully transferred from a conventional particle-based C18 silica column to a monolithic silica column. The very high porosity of the stationary phase allows chromatography with a much lower backpressure than on conventional columns. Therefore, the flow rate could be easily increased from 0.8 mL/min (particle-based column) to 5 mL/min (monolithic column) and the run-time reduced from 30 to 5 min (that is a reduction about 85% !), without losing any chromatographic resolution of the compound of interest. The amount of harpagoside was measured with the original method on a conventional particle-based silica column and on the adapted method on a monolithic silica column. The statistical mean t-test showed no significant differences of the variances and the means indicating that the fast HPLC method is an acceptable alternative. The shorter analysis time makes the method very valuable for commercial quality control of Harpagophytum extracts and its pharmaceutical preparations.

  15. Validated HPTLC methods for the determination of salicin in Salix sp. and of harpagoside in Harpagophytum [corrected] procumbens.

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    Wagner, Steffen; Ureña, Abraham; Reich, Eike; Merfort, Irmgard

    2008-11-04

    Preparations of Harpagophytum procumbens and of Salix species are successfully used for the treatment of degenerative rheumatism and painful arthrosis. For the quality control of both drugs, rapid methods of quantification are desirable. Here we report the development of two HPTLC methods enabling the determination of harpagoside in Harpagophyti radix and of salicin in Salicis cortex. We focused on a standardized methodology and thorough validation including two laboratories. The methods allow the analyses of up to 16 samples in parallel demonstrating the proposed methods as very rapid and cost efficient.

  16. Quality control of Harpagophytum procumbens and its related phytopharmaceutical products by means of NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy.

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    Baranska, M; Schulz, H; Siuda, R; Strehle, M A; Rösch, P; Popp, J; Joubert, E; Manley, M

    2005-01-01

    NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy was used for identification and quantification of harpagoside in secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens as well as in related phytopharmaceutical products, e.g., ethanolic extracts and tablets. Applied Raman mappings reveal the spatial distribution of this valuable iridoid glycoside within the different samples. The same technique can be used for quality control purposes beginning from the plant to its final products. Based on the obtained spectral data and reference HPLC values of harpagoside, a reliable multivariate calibration model was developed.

  17. New and known iridoid- and phenylethanoid glycosides from Harpagophytum procumbens and their in vitro inhibition of human leukocyte elastase.

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    Boje, Kerstin; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2003-09-01

    Ten compounds, harpagoside (1), 8- p-coumaroylharpagide (2), 8-feruloylharpagide (3), 8-cinnamoylmyoporoside (4), pagoside (5), acteoside (6), isoacteoside (7), 6'- O-acetylacteoside (8), cinnamic acid (9) and caffeic acid (10) were isolated from the storage roots of Harpagophytum procumbens, Pedaliaceae. Compounds 1, 2, 6, 7 and 9 are known for H. procumbens; 3 and 10 were isolated the first time from H. procumbens; compounds 4, 5 and 8 are new natural products. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic data (NMR, with NOE, COSY and HMBC experiments, UV, [alpha]). The inhibitory activity of aqueous extracts of the roots of H. procumbens and H. zeyheri as well as the main compounds isolated from H. procumbens was tested on human neutrophile elastase. Although inhibition was comparatively weak a dose-dependence was observed. An IC (50) of 542 microg/mL was determined for the aqueous extract of H. procumbens, but 1012 microg/mL for that of H. zeyheri. 6'- O-Acetylacteoside (8), that is not present in H. zeyheri, inhibited the enzyme with an IC (50) of 47 microg/mL (70 microM), compound 7 with 179 microg/mL (286 microM), 2 with 179 microg/mL (331 microM), 5 with 154 microg/mL (260 microM) and 10, which was also used as reference compound, with an IC (50) of 86 microg/mL (475 microM). The IC (50) values of acteoside, harpagoside, cinnamic acid and stachyose were higher than 300 microg/mL and thus not further determined.

  18. Comparison between HPLC and HPTLC-densitometry for the determination of harpagoside from Harpagophytum procumbens CO(2)-extracts.

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    Günther, M; Schmidt, P C

    2005-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) extracts of the secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). An isocratic HPLC method was used for the quantification of the iridoid glucoside harpagoside at 278 nm. A HPTLC assay was developed for the determination of harpagoside after coloration at 509 nm. The diode array detection of both analytical assays were used to examine the purity of harpagoside peaks and compared with the standards, respectively. The assays provide good accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for the quantitative analysis of harpagoside. The harpagoside contents of 15 different CO(2)-extracts were compared by HPLC and HPTLC-densitometry. The quantitative results of both analytical methods did not show any statistical significance between each other, although a trend to slightly lower mean values could be found for the HPTLC method.

  19. Extraction by solvent using microwave and ultrasound-assisted techniques followed by HPLC analysis of Harpagoside from Harpagophytum procumbens and comparison with conventional solvent extraction methods

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    Filly, Aurore; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Mabrouki, Fathi; Chemat, Farid; Ollivier, Évelyne

    2016-01-01

    This research paper presents a quick and ecofriendly technique for the extraction of harpagoside (HS), the active marker of Harpagophytum procumbens (HP), along with a comparison with conventional methods so as to propose an efficient HPLC method. HP is widely used as an anti-inflammatory in phytotherapy. The quality control of the herbal drug and extract calls for a time consuming method of conventional extraction, which involves a high consumption of solvents. In this study, HP has been ...

  20. Anatomical study of secondary tuberized roots of Harpagophytum procumbens DC and quantification of harpagoside by high-performance liquid chromatography method

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    Fatiha El Babili; Fouraste, I; C Rougaignon; Moulis, C.; Chatelain, C.

    2012-01-01

    Aim and Background: A botanical study is conducted to provide a standard diagnostic tool. In order to improve the quality assurance of the secondary tuberized roots of Harpagophytum procumbens, derived extract and phytomedicine, a simple, rapid, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to assess the harpagoside. Material and Mehods: This HPLC assay was performed on a reversedphase C18 column with methanol and water (50/50–V/V) as the mobile phase with a ...

  1. Anatomical study of secondary tuberized roots of Harpagophytum procumbens DC and quantification of harpagoside by high-performance liquid chromatography method

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    Fatiha El Babili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: A botanical study is conducted to provide a standard diagnostic tool. In order to improve the quality assurance of the secondary tuberized roots of Harpagophytum procumbens, derived extract and phytomedicine, a simple, rapid, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed to assess the harpagoside. Material and Mehods: This HPLC assay was performed on a reversedphase C18 column with methanol and water (50/50-V/V as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min and using a monitoring wavelength at 278 nm. Results and Conclusion: This method was successfully applied to quantify these bioactive iridoid in an aqueous extract of H. procumbens and in its related phytomedicine "harpagophyton." The result demonstrated that the quantification of harpagoside, indicating that the quality control of the bioactive ingredient in H. procumbens, derived extract and phytomedicine, is critical to ensure its clinical benefits.

  2. Physicochemical properties of harpagoside and its in vitro release from Harpagophytum procumbens extract tablets.

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    Chrubasik, S; Sporer, F; Dillmann-Marschner, R; Friedmann, A; Wink, M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the active-component harpagoside of Harpagophytum extract from a physico-chemical perspective and to determine its in-vitro release from tablets according to DAB 1996. It was found that both pure harpagoside and harpagoside in Harpagophytum extract have an octanol-water distribution coefficient of approximately 4 which is neither dependent on temperature nor on pH. The mean harpagoside content in Harpagophytum tablets of Batch 9102 was 16.4 mg (S.D. 0.2; S.E. 0.03). Related to a tablet weight of 365 mg (100%), this corresponds to a haragoside content of 4.5% (S.D. 0.049; S.E. 0.006). On average the tablets disintegrate after 18 +/- 3 minutes (mean +/- SD). The tablets taken from Batch 9102 released the active component harpagoside well, with a t50 of 13.5 min, a t90 of 23 min and a t95 of 25 min in relation to 16.5 mg of harpagoside per dose. Harpagoside content decreased by about 10% in artificial gastric fluid within a period of 3 hours and remained stable in artificial intestinal fluid for a period of 6 hours.

  3. Micro-morphometrical assessment of the effect of Harpagophytum procumbens extract on articular cartilage in rabbits with experimental osteoarthritis using magnetic resonance imaging.

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    Wachsmuth, L; Lindhorst, E; Wrubel, S; Hadzhiyski, H; Hudelmaier, M; Eckstein, F; Chrubasik, S

    2011-08-01

    In vitro effects indicate a putative beneficial effect of Harpagophytum procumbens on cartilage turnover, however, in vivo protective effects on cartilage have yet to be demonstrated. A 7.1T MRI scanner was used to derive measurements of thickness, surface area and volume of the tibial condylar cartilage and to assess their precision (in the case of volume also accuracy) against the volumes of dissected cartilage measured by water displacement. Quantitative measurements were made in 16 rabbits, 6 months after unilateral medial meniscectomy and transection of the anterior cruciate ligament, after which eight of these were given a proprietary extract of Harpagophytum procumbens (HP). A semiquantitative MRI-based grading of the tibial cartilage was also compared with a 'macroscopic' grading based on direct visual inspection of dissected joints. The test-retest precision for MRI-based measurement was ≤6.4%. MRI-based measurements correlated well with volumes of surgically resected cartilage (r =  0.97, pair-wise random difference 4.2%). The medial tibial cartilage thickness and volume were about 35% smaller in the operated knees than in the non-operated contralateral knees (p volume of the medial tibial cartilage was slightly but not significantly smaller in the HP-treated group than in the non-treated group.

  4. A novel ex vivo skin model for the assessment of the potential transcutaneous anti-inflammatory effect of topically applied Harpagophytum procumbens extract.

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    Ouitas, Nassima Abdelouahab; Heard, Charles M

    2009-07-06

    Using ex vivo skin as a model, this work tested the hypothesis that the major pharmacologically active components of topically applied Harpagophytum procumbens (H. procumbens) can elicit anti-inflammatory responses in deeper tissues post-transcutaneous delivery. Using Franz-type diffusion cells, ethanol extract of powdered H. procumbens tuber was dosed onto freshly excised porcine skin. After 24 h the receptor phase was recovered, analysed for the major glycosides of DC, then used directly to dose further freshly excised skin membranes. After 6h the skin was recovered and probed for the expression of the three major enzymes involved in the inflammatory factors: cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and its product prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2), lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), using immunocytochemistry and Western blotting analyses. It was found that the receptor phase at 24 h contained (0.8, 25, 1.8, 3 x 10(-3)) micromol mL(-1) of harpagoside, harpagide, verbascoside, 8-O-p-coumaroyl-harpagide, respectively. When applied to skin, this solution effectively inhibited the expression of COX-2 and its product PGE-2. However, it did not have a significant effect on either 5-LOX or iNOS compared to control samples (PBS only). These data support the hypothesis that the transcutaneous delivery of H. procumbens can treat inflammation in deeper tissues such as in arthritis. Moreover, a novel ex vivo model has been described for assessing the potential anti-inflammatory activity of permeants delivered to deeper subcutaneous regions.

  5. High anti-inflammatory activity of harpagoside-enriched extracts obtained from solvent-modified super- and subcritical carbon dioxide extractions of the roots of Harpagophytum procumbens.

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    Günther, M; Laufer, S; Schmidt, P C

    2006-01-01

    Solvent-modified carbon dioxide extractions of the roots of Harpagophytum procumbens have been investigated with respect to extraction efficiency and content of harpagoside, and compared with a conventional extract. The effects of pressure, temperature, type and concentration of the modifier have been examined. Two extraction steps were necessary in order to achievehigh anti-inflammatory harpagoside-enriched extracts. The first extraction step was carried out in the supercritical state using carbon dioxide modified with n-propanol to remove undesired lipophilic substances. The main extraction was performed either in the supercritical or in the subcritical state with carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The supercritical fluid extraction resulted in extracts containing up to 30% harpagoside. The subcritical extracts showed a harpagoside content of ca. 20%, but the extraction yield was nearly three times greater compared with supercritical conditions. The total harpagoside recovery resulting from the sum of the extract and the crude drug residue was greater than 99% in all experiments. The conventional extract and two carbon dioxide extracts were tested for in-vitro inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase-2 biosynthesis. Both carbon dioxide extracts showed total inhibition on 5-lipoxygenase biosynthesis at a concentration of 51.8 mg/L. In contrast, the conventional extract failed to show any inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase biosynthesis.

  6. Effectiveness of Harpagophytum extracts and clinical efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik, Sigrun; Conradt, Christian; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2004-02-01

    Various preparations from Harpagophytum procumbens are used for the treatment of pain in the joints and lower back. Studies published in peer reviewed journals were examined for their clinical evidence. The studies offering preparations with 50-60 mg harpagoside in the daily dosage are of better quality and provide more reliable evidence on efficacy than a proprietary ethanol extract with half the amount of harpagoside per day. However, confirmatory studies are required for all extracts before they can gain a place in treatment guidelines.

  7. Harpgophytum procumbens for osteoarthritis and low back pain: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Chrubasik Sigrun; Gagnier Joel J; Manheimer Eric

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of Harpagophytum procumbens preparations in the treatment of various forms of musculoskeletal pain. Methods Several databases and other sources were searched to identify randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, and controlled clinical trials testing Harpagophytum preparations in adults suffering from pain due to osteoarthritis or low back pain. Results Given the clinical heterogeneity a...

  8. Harpgophytum procumbens for osteoarthritis and low back pain: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrubasik Sigrun

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of Harpagophytum procumbens preparations in the treatment of various forms of musculoskeletal pain. Methods Several databases and other sources were searched to identify randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, and controlled clinical trials testing Harpagophytum preparations in adults suffering from pain due to osteoarthritis or low back pain. Results Given the clinical heterogeneity and insufficient data for statistical pooling, trials were described in a narrative way, taking into consideration methodological quality scores. Twelve trials were included with six investigating osteoarthritis (two were identical trials, four low back pain, and three mixed-pain conditions. Conclusions There is limited evidence for an ethanolic Harpagophytum extract containing less than Harpagophytum powder at 60 mg harpagoside in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the spine, hip and knee; (2 the use of an aqueous Harpagophytum extract at a daily dose of 100 mg harpagoside in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic non-specific low back pain; and (3 the use of an aqueous extract of Harpagophytum procumbens at 60 mg harpagoside being non-inferior to 12.5 mg rofecoxib per day for chronic non-specific low-back pain (NSLBP in the short term. Strong evidence exists for the use of an aqueous Harpagophytum extract at a daily dose equivalent of 50 mg harpagoside in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic NSLBP.

  9. Développement de méthodes physico-chimiques pour le contrôle de la médication par l'Harpagophytum et l'Eleutherococcus, principes actifs utilisés en phytothérapie équine. : Etude par spectrométrie de masse des harpagosides, des éleuthérosides et du cycloarténol, principes actifs utilisés en phytothérapie équine.

    OpenAIRE

    Colas, Cyril

    2006-01-01

    This five-chaptered manuscript is devo! ted to t he development of physico-chemical methods for the equine medical treatment control of Harpagophytum and Eleutherococcus, active principles used in herbal medicine. The first chapter deals with the objects of the study and presents the botanical and pharmacological properties of the plants of interest: Harpagophytum procumbens and Eleutherococcus senticosus. The second chapter details the experimental and theoretical techniques used: sample pre...

  10. What the devil is in your phytomedicine? Exploring species substitution in Harpagophytum through chemometric modeling of 1H-NMR and UHPLC-MS datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mncwangi, Nontobeko P; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Zhao, Jianping; Vermaak, Ilze; Chen, Wei; Khan, Ikhlas

    2014-10-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens (Pedaliaceae) and its close taxonomical ally Harpagophytum zeyheri, indigenous to southern Africa, are being harvested for exportation to Europe where phytomedicines are developed to treat inflammation-related disorders. The phytochemical variation within and between natural populations of H. procumbens (n=241) and H. zeyheri (n=107) was explored using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) in combination with multivariate data analysis methods. The UHPLC-MS results revealed significant variation in the harpagoside content: H. procumbens (0.17-4.37%); H. zeyheri (0.00-3.07%). Only 41% of the H. procumbens samples and 17% of the H. zeyheri samples met the pharmacopoeial specification of ⩾1.2%. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) indicated separation based on species (UHPLC-MS data OPLS-DA model statistics: R(2)X=0.258, R(2)Y (cum)=0.957 and Q(2)(cum)=0.934; (1)H-NMR data OPLS-DA model statistics: R(2)X=0.830, R(2)Y=0.865 (cum) and Q(2)(cum)=0.829). It was concluded that two species are not chemically equivalent and should not be used interchangeably.

  11. Devil's claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for people with gallstones. Avoid using devil’s claw. Peptic ulcer disease (PUD): Since devil’s claw might increase the production of stomach acids, it might harm people with stomach ulcers. Avoid ...

  12. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Tridax procumbens Linn

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    V.Bharathi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tridax procumbens Linn belongs to the family Compositae. The extracts of Tridax procumbens have been reported to have various pharmacological effects like mosquito repellant activity, leishmanicidal, hepatoprotective effect on liver antioxidant system, immunomodulatory effect, wound healing activity and antiprotozoal effects.The methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of Tridax procumbens were used for this study. The antibacterial activity of methanolic and ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Tridax procumbens Linn (L. were examined against Escherichia coli,,Klebsiella pneumoniae,Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activity was investigated by disc and agarwell diffusion method. The ethyl acetate extracts of the Tridax procumbens showed effective inhibition against the Staphylococcus aureus thancompared to other organism. Therefore the leaves of Tridax procumbens can be considered to be the promising source of antimicrobial compounds.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Tridax procumbens leaf

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    S.Santhosh Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the antimicrobial property of Tridax procumbens’s leaf was carried out by the use of chloroform, petroleum ether, ethyl alcohol and hexaneas solvents. Leaf extract of Tridax procumbens obtained by soxhlet extractor, using the above mentioned solvents were examined against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas vulgaris. The antimicrobial activity of Tridax procumbens performed by using agarwell diffusion method showed a result showcasing an effective limit when as opposed to Pseudomonas vulgarisfor ethyl alcohol being used as solvent for extract. In conclusion Tridax procumbens leaf extract terminates most propitious source.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Tridax procumbens leaf

    OpenAIRE

    S. Santhosh Kumar; John, R.; G.Lakshmi Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the antimicrobial property of Tridax procumbens’s leaf was carried out by the use of chloroform, petroleum ether, ethyl alcohol and hexaneas solvents. Leaf extract of Tridax procumbens obtained by soxhlet extractor, using the above mentioned solvents were examined against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas vulgaris. The antimicrobial activity of Tridax procumbens performed by using agarwell diffusion method showed a result showcasing an effective limit when as ...

  15. Antiherpetic Effects of Gynura procumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarikasem, Siripen; Charuwichitratana, Somyot; Siritantikorn, Sontana; Chantratita, Wasan; Iskander, Magdy; Frahm, August Wilhelm; Jiratchariyakul, Weena

    2013-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens showed virucidal and antireplicative actions against herpes simplex virus HSV-1 and HSV-2. It was further chromatographed on MCI gel CHP20P column giving the extract fractions F1 (water), F2 (water-methanol) F3 (methanol), and F4 (ethyl acetate). All but F1 had virucidal action against both viral types. We reported here the active compounds from F2 and F3. The antiherpetic compounds of F2 was a mixture of dicaffeoylquinic acids with virucidal and antireplicative actions against HSV-2 (IC50 96.0 and 61.0 μg/mL, resp.) Virucidal compounds of F3 were a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (IC50 250.0 μg/mL against HSV-1), a mixture of β-sitosteryl and stigmasteryl glucosides (IC50 50.0 μg/mL against HSV-2) and 1, 2-bis-dodecanoyl-3-α-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (IC50 of 40.0 μg/mL against HSV-2). Herbal products containing 1 and 2% of standardized ethanol extract were prepared. Double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial of the products was performed in patients with recurrent herpes labialis. Results showed that the number of patients, whose lesions healed within 7 days and the average healing time of both groups differed insignificantly. Viral culture on D7 indicated a decrease of infected patients from 48.7% to 7.69% in treated group whereas in placebo group the infected patients decreased from 31.25% to 20.00%. The viral reduction in treated group indicated the benefit of the product. Insignificant result might arise from a low number of participated patients and insufficient concentration of plant extract in herbal product. PMID:24159345

  16. Antiherpetic Effects of Gynura procumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripen Jarikasem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens showed virucidal and antireplicative actions against herpes simplex virus HSV-1 and HSV-2. It was further chromatographed on MCI gel CHP20P column giving the extract fractions F1 (water, F2 (water-methanol F3 (methanol, and F4 (ethyl acetate. All but F1 had virucidal action against both viral types. We reported here the active compounds from F2 and F3. The antiherpetic compounds of F2 was a mixture of dicaffeoylquinic acids with virucidal and antireplicative actions against HSV-2 (IC50 96.0 and 61.0 μg/mL, resp. Virucidal compounds of F3 were a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (IC50 250.0 μg/mL against HSV-1, a mixture of β-sitosteryl and stigmasteryl glucosides (IC50 50.0 μg/mL against HSV-2 and 1, 2-bis-dodecanoyl-3-α-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (IC50 of 40.0 μg/mL against HSV-2. Herbal products containing 1 and 2% of standardized ethanol extract were prepared. Double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial of the products was performed in patients with recurrent herpes labialis. Results showed that the number of patients, whose lesions healed within 7 days and the average healing time of both groups differed insignificantly. Viral culture on D7 indicated a decrease of infected patients from 48.7% to 7.69% in treated group whereas in placebo group the infected patients decreased from 31.25% to 20.00%. The viral reduction in treated group indicated the benefit of the product. Insignificant result might arise from a low number of participated patients and insufficient concentration of plant extract in herbal product.

  17. Gynura procumbens Extract Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-In; Park, Mi Hwa; Han, Ji-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Gynura procumbens extract against carbohydrate digesting enzymes and its ability to ameliorate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. G. procumbens extract showed prominent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of G. procumbens extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase was 0.092±0.018 and 0.084±0.027 mg/mL, respectively, suggesting that the α-amylase inhibition activity of the G. procumbens extract was more effective than that of the positive control, acarbose (IC50=0.164 mg/mL). The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was more significantly alleviated in the G. procumbens extract group than in the control group of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Moreover, the area under the curve significantly decreased with G. procumbens extract administration in STZ-induced diabetic mice. These results suggest that G. procumbens extract may help alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting carbohydrate digesting enzymes. PMID:27752493

  18. New lignan glycosides from Justicia procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Yang, Shu; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2017-01-01

    Four new lignan glycosides (1-4), named procumbenosides I, K, L, and M, together with cleistanthin B (5) reported for the first time in the genus Justicia, and 5 other known arylnaphthalene lignan glycosides (6-10) were isolated from the whole plant of Justicia procumbens. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. Procumbenoside M (4) was a rare sesquilignan glycoside never previously reported in the species of Justicia. The paper also provided insight into the conformational equilibria existing in the lignan glycosides of the plant.

  19. Analysis of iridoids from Harpagophytum and eleutherosides from Eleutherococcus senticosus in horse urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, C; Popot, M-A; Garcia, P; Bonnaire, Y; Bouchonnet, S

    2008-08-01

    LC/ESI-MS n methods have been previously set up to detect the administration of (i) Harpagophytum and (ii) preparations containing a plant capable of anti-stress properties: Eleutherococcus senticosus. Harpagoside has been found to be the main indicator of Harpagophytum administration in the horse. These methods have been applied to a large number of horse urine samples of various origins. Regarding the detection of Harpagophytum administration, harpagoside, harpagide and 8-para-coumaroyl harpagide were detected together in only one sample out of 317. Eleutheroside E was found to be the main indicator of Eleutherococcus senticosus administration. It was detected in post-administration samples collected from two horses having received a feed supplement containing Eleutherococcus senticosus for several days. Out of the 382 samples tested, eleutheroside E was found in an unexpected large number of urine samples (39%) of various origins and its presence cannot be only due to the sole use of herbal dietary supplements.

  20. Chemical Relationships of Polypremum procumbens, Tetrachondra hamiltonii and Peltanthera floribunda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2000-01-01

    Polypremum procumbens (Buddlejaceae) was found to contain sorbitol, cornoside, salidroside and conandroside. One collection of Peltanthera floribunda (Buddlejaceae) contained verbascoside, two others the cornoside-derived rengyolone (= halleridone). From Tetrachondra hamiltonii (Tetrachondraceae...

  1. A bis-bithiophene from Tridax procumbens L. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Jahangir, Muhammad

    2002-08-01

    The ethyl acetate soluble part of hexane extract of Tridax procumbens yielded a new bis-bithiophene named tridbisbithiophene along with four known terpenoids: taraxasteryl acetate, beta-amyrenone, lupeol and oleanolic acid, which have never been reported so far from Tridax procumbens. The structures of all the isolated constituents were elucidated with the aid of 1D-NMR spectroscopy whereas, the structure of new constituent tridbisbithiophene was confirmed via COSY and HMBC interactions.

  2. Two New Flavones from Tridax procumbens Linn

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    Runsheng Xu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new flavones, 8,3′-dihydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxy-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl flavone (1 and 6,8,3′-trihydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (2 were isolated from Tridax procumbens Linn., together with the four known compounds puerarin (3, esculetin (4, oleanolic acid (5 and betulinic acid (6. The structures of the two new flavones were elucidated based on chemical analysis and spectral methods (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS. The antioxidant activity of the two new flavones were evaluated by two methods, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays, and the data showed that compounds 1 and 2 have certain antioxidant activity, with the antioxidant activity of compound 2 being stronger than that of compound 1.

  3. Bioactivity studies of extracts from Tridax procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

    2000-06-01

    An updated review on the biological activity of Tridax procumbens is presented. A detailed biological screening comprised of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi using crude extracts of this plant was undertaken. The n-hexane extract of the flowers showed activity against Escherichia coli. The same extract of the whole aerial parts was active against Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. The ethyl-acetate extract of the flowers was active against Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella sp. The aerial parts extract also showed activity only against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Staphylococcus aureus, while the aqueous extract showed no antimicrobial activity. None of the tested extracts was active against the yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula rubra; or the fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. and Trichophyton rubrum.

  4. Cytotoxic activity of lignans from Justicia procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Yin, Hai-Long; Liu, Shi-Jun; Chen, Li; Tian, Ying; Li, Bin; Wang, Qiong; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2014-04-01

    Three new lignans, Pronaphthalide A (1), Procumbiene (2), and Procumbenoside J (3), along with a novel natural product Juspurpudin (4), and twelve other known lignans were isolated from Justicia procumbens. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and the data of 3 provided insight into the conformational equilibria existing in it. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against Human LoVo and BGC-823 cell lines except for compound 2, and eight of them were found to possess potent cytotoxicity. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis revealed that (i) the parent structure of 2-carbonyl arylnaphthalide lactone attached with 6 and 7-OMe was the essential element; (ii) the polarity of substituents on C-4 might significantly affect the activity; (iii) a proper cyclic lipophilic group at the C-3″ and C-5″ of apiofuranose on C-4 might enhance the activity, which could optimize the application of 3 similar to VP-16.

  5. Chemical Relationships of Polypremum procumbens, Tetrachondra hamiltonii and Peltanthera floribunda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2000-01-01

    Polypremum procumbens (Buddlejaceae) was found to contain sorbitol, cornoside, salidroside and conandroside. One collection of Peltanthera floribunda (Buddlejaceae) contained verbascoside, two others the cornoside-derived rengyolone (= halleridone). From Tetrachondra hamiltonii (Tetrachondraceae......) was isolated sorbitol, cornoside and verbascoside. Iridoids were not found in any of the taxa. The taxonomic significance of the different chemical constituents is discussed, and the data demonstrate a close relationship between Polypremum and Tetrachondra. They may also suggest an inclusion of Peltanthera...

  6. Field study of hind limb claw lesions and claw measures in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Ushijima, Ruri; Sueyoshi, Masuo

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the associations of hind limb claw lesions with claw measures and reproductive performance of sows on a commercial breeding farm. We used a five-point scale (score of 0-4) for each hind limb claw region to generate a claw lesion score (CLS). Of 110 sows, 1.8% had no hind claw lesions, and the remaining 98.2% had at least one. The proportions of sows with a CLS of 2 and 3 were 49.1% and 3.6%, respectively. The junction region had the highest frequency of a CLS of ≥ 2 (P Sows with the highest CLS of ≥ 2 in the lateral claw had longer sole dimensions than did sows with the highest CLS of ≤ 1 (P sows with the highest CLS of ≥ 2 and ≤ 1. There was also no difference in reproductive performance between sows with the highest CLS of ≥ 2 and ≤ 1. In conclusion, most sows had hind claw lesions. The association between CLS and claw measures indicates that the sole length can be used as an indicator of claw lesions. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Development of claw traits and claw lesions in dairy cows kept on different floor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, J G C J; Schouten, W G P; Frankena, K; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Metz, J H M

    2005-01-01

    Several claw shape measurements, horn hardness, and horn growth and wear were recorded monthly at 12 dairy farms to investigate the effect of floor type and changes in these traits over time. Herds were either housed on a slatted floor (SL), solid concrete floor (SC), grooved floor (GR), or on a straw yard (SY). Twenty cows per farm were selected and stratified by parity. Information on claw traits was recorded on right lateral hind claws between October 2002 and May 2003. In addition, lesion development of interdigital dermatitis and heel erosion (IDHE) and digital dermatitis (DD) was studied in both rear feet. No differences in claw traits were detected among groups on different floor types, with the exception of claw angle. Claw angles were smallest in cows on SY. Claws of cows on SC were steeper than those on SL and GR. The study provided no evidence that floor-related differences in claw lesions were related to differences in horn growth, wear, and resulting claw shape. Lesions of IDHE developed gradually over time and did not differ among flooring types. Cows in SY had the smallest lesion scores for DD, whereas cows on SL had significantly less DD than cows on SC and GR. Incidence of DD fluctuated over time. Development of different stages of DD was monitored in-depth. Both early and healed stages were rather changeable and often turned into other disease stages. Classical ulcerative lesions (stage M2) persisted for a long time, with 20% of the initially unaffected claws having active lesions of DD within 5 mo. The M2 lesions generally did not cure effectively after claw trimming, and frequent use of footbaths resulted in a poor prognosis for recovery.

  8. Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J

    2013-01-01

    In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study.

  9. Marginal dietary zinc concentration affects claw conformation measurements but not histological claw characteristics in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riet, Miriam M J; Janssens, Geert P J; Cornillie, Pieter; Van Den Broeck, Wim; Nalon, Elena; Ampe, Bart; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Maes, Dominiek; Du Laing, Gijs; Millet, Sam

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore whether marginal dietary zinc (Zn) concentrations affect claw quality measurements in weaned pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs were randomly assigned to two dietary treatment groups: (1) 42 mg Zn/kg diet from ingredients only (unsupplemented, marginal dietary Zn concentration below Zn requirements of 80 mg Zn/kg feed); and (2) 106 mg Zn/kg diet, where Zn was added as ZnO (common commercial dietary Zn concentration). Claw conformation characteristics were measured at the start (day 0, 4 weeks of age) and at the end (day 36) of the study, and the histological claw characteristics of horn wall and heel horn were examined on samples collected at 9 weeks of age. Non-supplemented pigs had narrower claw widths (P= 0.028) and lower toe heights (P= 0.010) at 9 weeks. The length of the dorsal border tended to be lower for the non-supplemented piglets (P= 0.092). Claw volume and claw horn size were lower (P= 0.003 and P pigs at 9 weeks of age. Horn growth and wear were lower for the non-supplemented pigs (P= 0.044 and P dietary Zn concentration affected various claw quality measurements. Marginal dietary Zn concentrations may not be sufficient to maintain claw quality in pigs.

  10. New cyclopeptide alkaloid and lignan glycoside from Justicia procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Chen, Li; Tian, Ying; Li, Bin; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    This study reported a new cyclopeptide alkaloid, justicianene A (1), and a new lignan glycoside, procumbenoside H (2), isolated from Justicia procumbens. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis, including extensive 2D NMR studies and mass spectrometry. Cyclopeptide alkaloids were first observed from the genus Justicia. Compound 2 was cytotoxic against human LoVo colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 17.908 ± 1.949 μM.

  11. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Acidic Medium by Aqueous Extract of Tridax procumbens L.

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    G. Ilayaraja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency (IE of an aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens L. in controlling corrosion of mild steel has been investigated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor at different time interval at room temperature. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with different time interval and different acid concentration. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behavior of Tridax procumbens L. is greater in sulphuric acid than hydrochloric acid medium. So Tridax procumbens L. can be used as a good inhibitor for preventing mild steel material.

  12. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

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    David Hess

    Full Text Available Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  13. PHRMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS L.

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    Chavan Chetan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacognostical parameters for the leaves of Tridax procumbens L. (Family- Asteraceae were studied with the aim of drawing the pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Macroscopical and microscopical characters, physico-chemical constants, extractive values of dry powder and its reaction after treatment with chemical reagents were studied. However, its functional properties and the underlying mechanism of action have not been clearly defined the present study was undertaken to evaluate anthelmintic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of leaves of Tridax procumbens L. against Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (50- 150 mg/ml of ethanol & aqueous extracts were evaluated in the bioassay involving determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. Piperazine citrate was used as standard anthelmintic drug and distilled water was used as control. The results of present study indicated that the ethanol extract significantly exhibited paralysis (P<0.01 in worms in doses (50- 150 mg/ml. Further studies are in process to isolate the active principle/s responsible for the activity.

  14. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometric characterization of Harpagophytum in equine urine and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, Cyril; Garcia, Patrice; Popot, Marie-Agnès; Bonnaire, Yves; Bouchonnet, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    A method has been developed for the analysis and characterization in equine urine and plasma of iridoid glycosides: harpagide, harpagoside and 8-para-coumaroyl harpagide, which are the main active principles of Harpagophytum, a plant with antiinflammatory properties. The method involves liquid chromatography coupled with positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The addition of sodium or lithium chloride instead of formic acid in the eluting solvent has been studied in order to enhance the signal and to modify the ion's internal energy. Fragmentation pathways and associated patterns are proposed for each analyte. A comparison of three types of mass spectrometer: a 3D ion trap, a triple quadrupole and a linear ion trap, has been conducted. The 3D ion trap was selected for drug screening analysis whereas the linear ion trap was retained for identification and quantitation analysis.

  15. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON LEAVES OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kumari , Swati Jain , Rita Pal , Sumitra Nain* and Sarvesh Paliwal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at development of physicochemical parameters and to investigate the active principle present in Tridax procumbens Linn. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Asteraceae commonly known as Coat Buttons is an important plant used against various disorders in indigenous system of medicine such as Wound-Healing, Hepatoprotective, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-diabetic and Immunomodulatory activities. However its functional properties and the underlying mechanism of action have not been clearly defined, the present study was undertaken to evaluate anthelmintic activity of methanol extract of leaves of Tridax procumbens L. against Pheretima posthuma (earthworm. Various concentrations (10, 20, 30mg/ml of methanolic extract were evaluated in the bioassay involving determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. Albendazole was used as standard anthelmintic drug and distilled water was used as control. The results of present study indicated that the methanolic extract of leaves of Tridax procumbens showes significantly dose depending pharmacological activity.

  16. Anti-Corrosive Effect of Tridax Procumbens – Zn2+ System Controlling the Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, C.; Mohan, R

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract Tridax Procumbens(TP) in controlling the corrosion of carbon steel aqueous medium containing 60 ppm of chloride ions in absence and presence of Zn2+ has been studied by weight loss method. The formulation consisting of 1 ml of Tridax Procumbens extract and 150 ppm of Zn2+ offers 96% inhibition efficiency. The synergistic effect exists between Tridax Procumbens and Zn2+ system. Polarization study shows that the Trida...

  17. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON LEAVES OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Kumari , Swati Jain , Rita Pal , Sumitra Nain* and Sarvesh Paliwal

    2013-01-01

    The study is aimed at development of physicochemical parameters and to investigate the active principle present in Tridax procumbens Linn. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Asteraceae) commonly known as Coat Buttons is an important plant used against various disorders in indigenous system of medicine such as Wound-Healing, Hepatoprotective, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-diabetic and Immunomodulatory activities. However its functional properties and the underlying mechanism of action have not been clearly de...

  18. Anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Linn. in Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramesh Petchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the anti-arthritic effect of whole plant ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae in female Sprague Dawley (SD rats using the Freund′s Complete Adjuvant (FCA model. Materials and Methods: The plant was collected from different regions of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, and the phytoconstituents were identified through chemical tests. Ethanol (95% was used to obtain the whole plant extraction through Soxhlet extractor. Female SD rats were used for anti-arthritic screening. Arthritis was induced using FCA, and the anti-arthritic effect of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg. At the end of the study, the liver enzyme levels were determined and a radiological examination was carried out. Result: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. T. procumbens at 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the FCA-induced arthritis in the rats. This was manifested by as a decrease in the paw volume. The arthritic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals without arthritis. T. procumbens animals showed dose dependent reduction in decrees in body weight and arthritis. At the same time, T. procumbens significantly altered the biochemical and haematological changes induced by FCA ( P < 0.05. The anti-arthritic effect of T. procumbens was comparable with that of indomethacin. Conclusion: The whole plant extract of T. procumbens showed significant anti-arthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female SD rats.

  19. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Acidic Medium by Aqueous Extract of Tridax procumbens L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ilayaraja, G.; Sasieekhumar, A. R.; Dhanakodi, P.

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens L. in controlling corrosion of mild steel has been investigated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor at different time interval at room temperature. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with different time interval and different acid concentration. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behavior of Tridax procumbens ...

  20. Optimal antithickenings of claw-free trigraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Chudnovsky, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Chudnovsky and Seymour's structure theorem for claw-free graphs has led to a multitude of recent results that exploit two structural operations: {\\em compositions of strips} and {\\em thickenings}. In this paper we consider the latter, proving that every claw-free graph has a unique optimal {\\em antithickening}, where our definition of {\\em optimal} is chosen carefully to respect the structural foundation of the graph. Furthermore, we give an algorithm to find the optimal antithickening in $O(m^2)$ time. For the sake of both completeness and ease of proof, we prove stronger results in the more general setting of trigraphs.

  1. Histological microstructure of the claws of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (Anura: Pipidae): implications for the evolution of claws in tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddin, Hillary C; Musat-Marcu, Sorin; Reisz, Robert R

    2007-05-15

    Claws are consistent components of amniote anatomy and may thus be implicated in the success of the amniote invasion of land. However, the evolutionary origin of these structures in tetrapods is unclear. Claws are present in certain extant non-amniotes, such as Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog. The histology of the soft tissue component of the claws of X. laevis is described and compared with the amniote condition in order to gain new information on the question of homology of claws in these two groups based on patterns of keratinization. The X. laevis claw sheath is composed of a localized thickening of the corneous region of the epidermis that envelops the terminal phalanx. Noted differences between the non-cornified layers of the epidermis of the claw and non-claw region are the overall grainier appearance of the cells and an increased abundance of desmosomes in the intermediate spinosus cells. The biochemical identity of the sheath keratin(s) is inferred to be different from that of non-claw region epidermis, based on histological differences and differences in stain affinity between the two regions. The microstructure of the frog claw differs from that of amniotes in several respects, including the lack of a specified zone of growth near the base of the claw. Amphibians and amniotes, therefore, have very different patterns of claw sheath growth. Observations do not support homology of claws on a structural level in these two groups; however, further experimental work may confirm a conserved pattern of cornification in these structures in tetrapods. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Two new arylnaphthalide lignans and antiplatelet constituents from Justicia procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jing-Ru; Ko, Horng-Huey; Yeh, Ting-Li; Lin, Hsien-Cheng; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2004-04-01

    Two new arylnaphthalide lignans, procumphthalide A (1) and 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1"'-->2")-beta-D-apiofuranosyldiphyllin, named procumbenoside B (2), along with cilinaphthalide B (3) and several other known compounds were isolated from the methanolic extracts of Justicia procumbens. By using NMR and other spectral methods, the structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated. Cilinaphthalide B (3), justicidin A (4), and taiwan E methyl ether (5) were shown to have an antiplatelet effect in human plateletrich plasma. In human citrated PRP, 5 showed a strong inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by adrenaline in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC(50) value of about 27.6 microM.

  3. Concrete floor-bovine claw contact pressures related to floor roughness and deformation of the claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, A; De Belie, N

    2006-08-01

    The intention of this research was to study the impact of concrete floor surface roughness on a bovine claw model and to assess the deformation of the bovine claw model under load. The pressure distribution between the floor and the claw is the key method in this research. Monitoring foot-to-ground pressure distributions may provide insight into the relation between high local pressures and foot lesions. Concrete floor samples were made with 5 different finishing methods. Their roughness was determined by measuring the heights of the "peaks and the valleys" of the surface with a high-precision laser beam. The smoothest surface was the sample finished with a metal float (surface roughness R(a) = 0.062 mm) and the roughest surface occurred with the heavily sandblasted sample (surface roughness R(a) = 0.488 mm). The roughness of the concrete floor samples was related to the mean and peak contact pressures that can occur in a laboratory test bench between floor and bovine claw. It was found that the claw itself has approximately 2 times more effect on these contact pressures than the surface roughness. Peak pressures found were high enough (up to 111 MPa) to cause damage to the bovine claw sole horn. The strains occurring in the horn wall were measured and related to the floor-finishing method and the load. Strain gauge measurements indicated that it is difficult to predict what kind of deformation of the claw wall will occur at a certain location. Different strains will occur for different floor-finishing methods. The corresponding stresses in the horn wall did not exceed the yield stress (14 and 11 MPa for dorsal and abaxial wall horn, respectively).

  4. Association of claw disorders with claw horn colour in norwegian red cattle - a cross-sectional study of 2607 cows from 112 herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogstad Åse M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Claw disorders cause problems in dairy cattle all over the world. Nutrition, feeding, environment, claw trimming routines, hormonal changes related to calving and genetics are among the factors which influence the pathogenesis. The colour of the claw horn (pigmentation has been suggested to play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate if there were any associations between the colour of the sole horn and claw disorders detected at claw trimming. Altogether, 2607 cows on 112 farms were claw trimmed once and the colour (dark, mixed or light of the right lateral hind claw and hind claw disorders were recorded by 13 trained claw trimmers. The data were analysed using logistic regression models with logit link function, binomial distribution and herd and claw trimmer as repeated effects, with herd nested within claw trimmer. Haemorrhages of the sole (HS and white line (HWL were more frequently found in light than in dark claws (OR = 2.61 and 2.34, respectively. Both HS (OR = 1.43 and corkscrewed claws (OR = 1.84 were slightly more prevalent among cows which had claws with mixed colour versus dark claws. There were no significant associations of other claw disorders with claw horn colour.

  5. Evaluation of free radical scavenging properties and hypoglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens Linn. in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Parasuraman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to evaluate the free radical scavenging properties and hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Tridax procumbens in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The plants parts were powdered and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extract was used for screening of hypoglycemic activity. The free radical scavenging properties and hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of T. procumbens were studied using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods and oral glucose tolerance test. Result: The free radical scavenging properties of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens was comparable with ascorbic acid. The plant extract was not affecting normal animal glucose levels, whereas its affects hyperglycemia induced by glucose load. The glucose lowering effect (hypoglycemic of ethanolic extract of T. procumbens was dose dependent. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of T. procumbens did not affect the normal animal glucose levels and preventing the hyperglycemia induced by glucose load in rodents.

  6. Anti-Corrosive Effect of Tridax Procumbens – Zn2+ System Controlling the Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE of an aqueous extract Tridax Procumbens(TP in controlling the corrosion of carbon steel aqueous medium containing 60 ppm of chloride ions in absence and presence of Zn2+ has been studied by weight loss method. The formulation consisting of 1 ml of Tridax Procumbens extract and 150 ppm of Zn2+ offers 96% inhibition efficiency. The synergistic effect exists between Tridax Procumbens and Zn2+ system. Polarization study shows that the Tridax Procumbens – Zn2+ system function as a cathodic inhibitor. AC impedance spectra reveal that a protective film formed on the surface. The Adsorption equilibrium exhibited better fit to Langmuir isotherm than Freundlich isotherm. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+ -Tridax Procumbens and Zn(OH2.

  7. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamboa-Leon Rubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo assay was performed with mice infected with L. mexicana promastigotes and treated with either a mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum or each extract separately. The thickness of the mice’s footpads was measured weekly. After the 12-week period of infection, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture to determine the total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a immunoglobulins by a noncommercial indirect ELISA. We showed that the mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts was better at controlling L. mexicana infection while not being toxic when tested in the acute oral toxicity assay in mice. An increase in the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 indicated a tendency to raise a Th1-type immune response in mice treated with the mixture. The mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts is a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis and its healing effects make it a good candidate for a possible new phytomedicine.

  8. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Leon, Rubi; Vera-Ku, Marina; Peraza-Sanchez, Sergio R; Ku-Chulim, Carlos; Horta-Baas, Aurelio; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP) using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo assay was performed with mice infected with L. mexicana promastigotes and treated with either a mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum or each extract separately. The thickness of the mice's footpads was measured weekly. After the 12-week period of infection, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture to determine the total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a immunoglobulins by a noncommercial indirect ELISA. We showed that the mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts was better at controlling L. mexicana infection while not being toxic when tested in the acute oral toxicity assay in mice. An increase in the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 indicated a tendency to raise a Th1-type immune response in mice treated with the mixture. The mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts is a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis and its healing effects make it a good candidate for a possible new phytomedicine.

  9. Evaluation of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic potential of Tridax procumbens (Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Kusum

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Family-Asteraceae; common name-Dhaman grass is common herb found in India. Traditionally, the tribal inhabitants of Udaipur district in Rajasthan (India uses the leaf powder (along with other herb orally to treat diabetes. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of whole plant of T. procumbens using 50%methanol. The extract was tested for acute and sub-chronic anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats and for acute toxicity test among normal rats. Observations on body weight as well as on the oral glucose tolerance levels were also recorded. Results Oral administration of acute and sub chronic doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt. of T. procumbens extract showed a significant (p T. procumbens were compared with the reference standard drug Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.wt.. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, T. procumbens for the treatment of diabetes mellitus with corrections in body weight and oral glucose tolerance and no visible signs or symptoms of toxicity in normal rats indicating a high margin of safety. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  10. Antidiabetic Properties and Mechanism of Action of Gynura procumbens Water Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Gynura procumbens (Lour. Merr (family Compositae is cultivated in Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, for medicinal purposes. This study evaluated the in vivo hypoglycemic properties of the water extract of G. procumbens following 14 days of treatment and in vitro in RIN-5F cells. Glucose absorption from the intestines and its glucose uptake in abdominal skeletal muscle were assessed. The antidiabetic effect of water extract of G. procumbens leaves was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT was performed in diabetic rats treated with G. procumbens water extract for 14 days. In the IPGTT, blood was collected for insulin and blood glucose measurement. After the IPGTT, the pancreases were collected for immunohistochemical study of β-cells of the islets of Langerhans. The possible antidiabetic mechanisms of G. procumbens were assessed through in vitro RIN-5F cell study, intestinal glucose absorption and glucose uptake by muscle. The results showed that G. procumbens significantly decreased blood glucose levels after 14 days of treatment and improved outcome of the IPGTT. However, G. procumbens did not show a significant effect on insulin level either in the in vivo test or the in vitro RIN-5F cell culture study. G. procumbens also showed minimal effects on β-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. However, G. procumbens only significantly increased glucose uptake by muscle tissues. From the findings we can conclude that G. procumbens water extract exerted its hypoglycemic effect by promoting glucose uptake by muscles.

  11. Claw-decompositions and Tutte-orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barat, Janos; Thomassen, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    We conjecture that, for each tree T there exists a natural number k(T) such that the following holds: If G is a k(T)-edge-connected graph such that \\E(T)\\ divides \\EG)\\, then the edges of G can be divided into parts, each of which is isomorphic to T. We prove that for T=K-1,K-3 (the claw......), this holds if and only if there exists a (smallest) natural number k(t) such that every k(t)-edge-connected graph has an orientation for which the indegree of each vertex equals its outdegree modulo 3. Tutte's 3-flow conjecture says that k(t)=4. We prove the weaker statement that every 4[ log n......]-edge-connected graph with n vertices has an edge-decomposition into claws provided its number of edges is divisible by 3. We also prove that every triangulation of a surface has an edge-decomposition into claws. (C) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  12. Effect of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) on bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P P; Patil, S D; Silawat, N; Deshmukh, P T

    2011-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to clarify whether methanolic extract of Tridax procumbens prevents liver fibrosis in rat. The hepatic fibrosis was induced by 28 days of bile duct ligation in rats. The 4-week treatment with Tridex procumbens reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (U L⁻¹), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (U L⁻¹), alkaline phosphatase (IU L⁻¹), lactate dehydrogenase (IU L⁻¹), total bilirubin (mg dL⁻¹), direct bilirubin (mg dL⁻¹) and hydroxyproline (mg gm⁻¹) content in liver and improved the histological appearance of liver section. The results of this study led us to conclude that T. procumbens can reduce the degree of hepatocellular damage and may become antifibrotic agent for liver fibrosis.

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of Tridax procumbens against d-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2005-10-03

    The hepatoprotective activity of aerial parts of Tridax procumbens was investigated against d-Galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide (d-GalN/LPS) induced hepatitis in rats. d-GalN/LPS (300 mg/kg body weight/30 microg/kg body weight)-induced hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in the activities of marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma glutamyl transferase) and bilirubin level in serum and lipids both in serum and liver. Pretreatment of rats with a chloroform insoluble fraction from ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens reversed these altered parameters to normal values. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Results of this study revealed that Tridax procumbens could afford a significant protection in the alleviation of d-GalN/LPS-induced hepatocellular injury.

  14. -Sitosterol-3-O--D-xylopyranoside from the flowers of Tridax procumbens Linn.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Saxena; Sosanna Albert

    2005-05-01

    Tridax procumbens Linn belongs to the natural order Compositae and is locally known as `Ghamra’. It has been found to possess significant medicinal properties. Its leaves are used in bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhoea and to prevent falling of hair. Its flowers and leaves possess antiseptic, insecticidal and parasiticidal properties, and are also used to check haemorrhage from cuts, bruises and wounds. The present work deals with the isolation and identification of steroidal saponin, characterized as -sitosterol 3-O--D-xylopyranoside, which has been isolated from the flowers of Tridax procumbens Linn.

  15. Phytochemicals and Cytotoxicity of Launaea procumbens on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Preeti; Saroj, Lokesh M.; Kumar, Anil; Singh, Tryambak D.; Tewari, SK.; Pal, Mahesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The plant Launaea procumbens belongs to the family Asteraceae and traditionally used in the treatment rheumatism, kidney, liver dysfunctions and eye diseases. In the present study Phytochemical analysis and fractions of methanolic extract of L. procumbens leaves were tested in vitro for their cytotoxicity. Objectives: Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract and fractions of Launaea procumbens against four cancer cell lines K562, HeLa, MIA-Pa-Ca-2 and MCF-2 by SRB assay. Materials and Methods: Powdered leaves of Launaea procumbens were extracted sequentially with hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water by cold extraction. Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxicity assay were carried out for these fractions using SRB assay against four human cancer cell lines, namely leukemia (K562), cervix (HeLa), pancreatic (MIA-Pa-Ca-2) and breast (MCF-7). Results: Ethyl acetate extract exerts potent cytotoxicity against human leukemia (K562), cervix (HeLa) and breast (MCF-7) cell lines IC50 value of 25.30±0.50, 19.80±0.10 and 36.90±4.90 μg/ml respectively. Moderately cytotoxic effect found in hexane extract IC50 value of 41±8 and 48.20±0.50 μg/ml against leukemia (K562), and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell line respectively. The Chemical composition analyzed by GC-MS showed considerable differences in solvent fractions of Launaea procumbens. Conclusion: This study revealed the cytotoxic potential of ethyl acetate and hexane fractions of L. procumbens leaves on different cancer cell lines. SUMMARY Ethyl acetate and Hexane fractions of Launaea procumbens plant exhibit cytotoxicity. Among the different fractions Ethyl acetate showed relatively higher cytotoxicity.Ethyl acetate found more cytotoxic against leukemia (K 562), cervix (HeLa) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines. Moderete cytotoxicity found in hexane fraction against leukemia (K 562) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell line.GC-MS results showed L. procumbens is a rich source of 1-H

  16. Claw asymmetry in lobsters: case study in developmental neuroethology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, C K

    1992-12-01

    An enduring debate in the study of development is the relative contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors in the genesis of an organism, that is, the nature vs. nurture debate. The behavior of the paired claws in the lobster offers promising material for pursuing this debate because of the way they develop. The paired claws and their closer muscles are initially symmetrical; both are slender in appearance and have a mixture of fast and slow fibers in their closer muscles. During a critical period of development, they become determined into a major (crusher) and minor (cutter) claw and during subsequent development acquire their final form and behavior: The crusher becomes a stout, molar-toothed claw capable of closing only slowly because its closer muscle has 100% slow fibers while the cutter becomes a slender, incisor-toothed claw capable of closing rapidly because its closer muscle has 90% fast fibers. Our initial hypothesis was that the more active claw became the crusher and its less active counterpart the cutter. Presumably, nerve activity would influence muscle transformation, which in turn would influence the exoskeleton to which they attach and hence claw morphology. Curtailing nerve activity to the claw prevented crusher development, while reflex activation of a claw promoted its development; both results support the notion that nerve activity directly regulates claw form and function. This is not, however, the case, for when both claws were reflexly exercised neither formed a crusher, signifying rather that bilateral differences in predominantly mechanoreceptive input to the paired claws somehow lateralized the claw ganglion [central nervous system (CNS)] into a crusher and cutter side. The side experiencing the greater activity becomes the crusher side while the contralateral side becomes the cutter and is also inhibited from ever becoming a crusher. This initial lateralization in the CNS is expressed, via as yet unknown pathways, at the periphery in

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens (Merr.) on egg yolk cholesterol, excreta microflora and laying hen performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, A; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Sen, S; Khong, C; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1. The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens on egg yolk and serum cholesterol and triglycerides, excreta microflora, laying performance and egg quality. 2. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (45 weeks old) were randomly assigned into 4 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. 3. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet G. procumbens during 56-d feeding period. 4. Serum (d 21, 42 and 56) and egg yolk (d 28, 42 and 56) cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were linearly reduced with increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens. 5. Increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens linearly reduced the excreta total anaerobic bacteria (d 28), Clostridium sp. and Escherichia coli (d 28 and 56) populations. 6. Overall egg production and egg mass were linearly increased, and overall feed efficiency was linearly improved with increase in dietary G. procumbens. 7. Dietary increasing concentrations of G. procumbens linearly improved egg yolk colour (d 28 and 56) and breaking strength of eggs (d 56). 8. The results obtained in the present experiment indicate that dietary supplementation with G. procumbens could reduce the egg yolk cholesterol, suppresses harmful excreta microflora and improves layers performance.

  18. Development of Claw Traits and Claw Lesions in Dairy Cows kept on different floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several claw shape measurements, horn hardness, and horn growth and wear were recorded monthly at 12 dairy farms to investigate the effect of floor type and changes in these traits over time. Herds were either housed on a slatted floor (SL), solid concrete floor (SC), grooved floor (GR), or on a str

  19. Harpagoside: from Kalahari Desert to pharmacy shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Milen I; Ivanovska, Nina; Alipieva, Kalina; Dimitrova, Petya; Verpoorte, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Harpagoside is an iridoid glycoside that was first isolated from Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw, Pedaliaceae), a medicinal plant in which it is the major constituent of the iridoid pool. Both the pure compound and devil's claw extracts have potent anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. According to the European Pharmacopoeia commercial devil's claw products should contain at least 1.2% harpagoside. However, the compound has also been isolated from several other plant species and in vitro plant culture systems. Recent advances in knowledge of harpagoside distribution, biosynthesis/accumulation and pharmacology are summarized in this review. We also discuss the possible synergism and/or antagonism between major constituents in harpagoside-containing phytopharmaceutical products. Finally, future perspectives for its potential application are highlighted.

  20. Curvature facilitates prey fixation in predatory insect claws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petie, R.; Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Insects show a large variety in prey capture strategies, with a correspondingly large diversity in predatory adaptations. We studied a specific type of predatory claws, these can for example be found in praying mantis species. The claw is closeable over its entire length and the prey is fixed betwee

  1. [Biomechanical aspects of the claw-floor interaction in dairy cattle: implications for locomotion and claw disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tol, P P J

    2004-07-01

    The prevalence of claw disorders is still high among cows housed on concrete floors. Concrete floors affect the locomotion of cattle, their natural behavior. Although many factors affect the development of claw disorders and locomotor problems, biomechanical aspects have hardly been analysed. In this thesis, mechanical (over)loading of the claw and its significance for claw disorders and lameness are discussed. The mechanical characteristics a floor needs to provide in order to enable unrestrained locomotory behavior. This biomechanical approach, which is a relatively new approach in cattle locomotion, has provided new insights. Despite preventive trimming, the weakest parts of the claw capsule are loaded relatively the most. Concrete floors provide too little friction to enable unrestricted cattle locomotion.

  2. Hamiltonian Cycles in Regular 2-Connected Claw-Free Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明楚

    2003-01-01

    A known result by Jackson Bill is that every 2-connected k-regular graph on at most 3k vertices is Hamiltonian. In this paper,it is proved that every 2-connected k-regular claw-free graph on at most 5k(k≥10)vertices is Hamiltonian. Moreover, the bound 5k is best possible. A counterexample of a 2-connected k-regular claw-free non-Hamiltonian graph on 5k+1 vertices is given, and it is conjectured that every 3-connected k-regular claw-free graph on at most 12k-7 vertices is Hamiltonian.

  3. Effectiveness of Harpagophytum extract WS 1531 in the treatment of exacerbation of low back pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik, S; Junck, H; Breitschwerdt, H; Conradt, C; Zappe, H

    1999-02-01

    Two daily doses of oral Harpagophytum extract WS 1531 (600 and 1200, respectively, containing 50 and 100 mg of the marker harpagoside) were compared with placebo over 4 weeks in a randomized, double-blind study in 197 patients with chronic susceptibility to back pain and current exacerbations that were producing pain worse than 5 on a 0-10 visual analogue scale. The principal outcome measure, based on pilot studies, was the number of patients who were pain free without the permitted rescue medication (tramadol) for 5 days out of the last week. The treatment and placebo groups were well matched in physical characteristics, in the severity of pain, duration, nature and accompaniments of their pain, the Arhus low back pain index and in laboratory indices of organ system function. A total of 183 patients completed the study. The numbers of pain-free patients were three, six and 10 in the placebo group (P), the Harpagophytum 600 group (H600) and the Harpagophytum 1200 group (H1200) respectively (P = 0.027, one-tailed Cochrane-Armitage test). The majority of responders' were patients who had suffered less than 42 days of pain, and subgroup analyses suggested that the effect was confined to patients with more severe and radiating pain accompanied by neurological deficit. However, subsidiary analyses, concentrating on the current pain component of the Arhus index, painted a slightly different picture, with the benefits seeming, if anything, to be greatest in the H600 group and in patients without more severe pain, radiation or neurological deficit. Patients with more pain tended to use more tramadol, but even severe and unbearable pain would not guarantee that tramadol would be used at all, and certainly not to the maximum permitted dose. There was no evidence for Harpagophytum-related side-effects, except possibly for mild and infrequent gastrointestinal symptoms.

  4. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic study of Gynura procumbens leaf extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Algariri; Kuong Y Meng; Item J Atangwho; Mohd Z Asmawi; Amirin Sadikun; Vikneswaran Murugaiyah; Norhyati Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic activity of Gynura procumbens (G. procumbens) used in the traditional management of diabetes in Southern Asia. Methods: G. procumbens leaves were extracted sequentially with graded percentage of ethanol in water (95%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0%), and the extracts were tested for antidiabetic activity using acute (7 h), subcutaneous glucose tolerance test and sub-chronic (14 d) test in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The extracts were further subjected to phytochemical studies. Results: In acute dose (1 g/kg), the extracts significantly lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (P<0.05). However, the FBG-lowering effect of the 25% extract compared to the other extracts, was rapid (47% after 2 h) and the highest: 53%, 53% and 60% in the 3rd, 5th, and 7th h, respectively (P<0.05), comparable only to the effect of metformin. Furthermore, the extracts suppressed peak FBG in subcutaneous glucose tolerance test, but only the 0% and 25% extracts, and metformin sustained the decrease until the 90th min (P<0.05). Moreover, in the 14 days study, the 25% extract exerted the highest FBG-lowering effect, namely 49.38% and 65.43% on days 7 and 14, respectively (P<0.05), similar to the effect of metformin (46.26% and 65.42%). Total flavanoid and phenolic contents in the extracts were found to decrease with increase in polarity of extraction solvents. The composition of reference compounds (chlorogenic acid, rutin, astragalin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside) followed a similar trend. Conclusions: G. procumbens contains antidiabetic principles, most extracted in 25% ethanol. Interaction among active components appears to determine the antidiabetic efficacy, achieved likely by a metformin-like mechanism.

  5. New Species - Lilium procumbens and its Allies in the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. Averyanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lilium procumbens – a new species discovered at a limestone ridge in northern Vietnam is unique in having a slender procumbent stem. This paper presents a detailed taxonomic account of the species including a description, illustrations, information on the type, ecology, phenology and distribution, affinity with other congeners, and expected conservation status. A key to all the known Lilium species from Vietnam and an annotated list of them are also provided.

  6. Bacterial Endo-Symbiont Inhabiting Tridax procumbens L. and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Baker; Kumara Shanthamma Kavitha; Huvinakola Chinnappa Yashavantha Rao; Devaraju Rakshith; Ballagere Puttaraju Harini; Komal Kumar; Sreedharamurthy Satish

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts inhabiting Tridax procumbens L. were screened for antimicrobial potential with the aim to isolate potent bacteria bearing significant activity against test pathogens. The selected isolate was subjected to large scale fermentation to extract antimicrobial metabolite. The organic phase was reduced under vacuum pressure and crude ethyl acetate extract (10 mg/mL) was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against panel of test pathogens. The antibacterial activity was measured a...

  7. Bioactivity guided isolation and characterization of the phytoconstituents from the Tridax procumbens

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    Surendra S. Agrawal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tridax procumbens L., Asteraceae, has been extensively used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for various ailments. Previous studies on the extracts of T. procumbens revealed remarkable immunomodulatory activity of TPEIF (T. procumbens ethanol insoluble fraction extract. The dried methanol extract of T. procumbens was dissolved in distilled water, and then fractioned by re-extracting with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol subsequently. Immunomodulatory activities of these fractions were determined in vivo. The amounts of total phenolic compounds were also determined. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed the significant immunomodulary activity. However, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest total phenolic content. Therefore, ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to further separation by chromatographic methods. Two phytochemicals SA-3 and SA-4 were obtained by repeated purification in sufficient amount to screen them for the immunomodulatory activity by the in vivo models i.e. neutrophil adhesion and delayed type hypersensitivity. In addition, the n-butanol fraction was subjected to silica gel column chromatography (CC; SA-6 was isolated from it. Mice were treated with two doses of SA-3, SA-4 and SA-6 (2 and 4 mg/kg for fifteen days. Immune responses to T-dependent antigen SRBCs were observed using parameters like DTH and Neutrophil adhesion. Overall, SA-4 and SA-6 showed dose relative immunostimulatory effect on in vivo immune functions in mice. From these results, it can be suggested that these compounds may be used as potential immunostimulators. The structures of isolated phytochemicals were determined by UV, IR, NMR, and MS spectroscopic methods.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Tridax procumbens with Special Reference to Nosocomial Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Pai Chitra; Kulkarni Ujjwala; Borde Manjusha; Murali Sowmya; Mrudula P.; Deshmukh Yashwant

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the aqueous as well as ethanolic extracts of Tridax procumbens L., (Asteraceae) against various bacterial pathogens including strains obtained from community acquired and nosocomial infections. Study design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology and Department of Pharmacology, M.G.M. Medical College and M.G.M. New Bombay Hospital, Navi Mumbai, India, between July 2010 and December 2010. Methodology: After authenticat...

  9. Anticarcinogenesis effect of Gynura procumbens (Lour Merr on tongue carcinogenesis in 4NQO-induced rat

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    D. Agustina

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia Gynura procumbens (Lour Merr leaves have been long used as various cancers medication. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated anticarcinogenesis of ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens leaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticarcinogenesis of the ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens leaves on 4 nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis. Fifty six 4 week old male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study and divided into 7 groups. Group 1, 2 and 3 were lingually induced by 4NQO for 8 weeks. In groups 2 and 3 the extract was given simultaneously with or after 4NQO induction finished, each for 10 weeks and 26 weeks, respectively. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were induced by 4NQO for 16 weeks. However, in groups 5 and 6 the extract was given as well simultaneously with or after the 4NQO induction, each for 18 weeks, respectively. Group 7 served as the as untreated control group. The results from microscopical assessment showed that tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCC developed in 100% (3/3 of group 1. However, only 33.3% (2/6 and 25% (2/8 of rats in groups 2 and 3, respectively demonstrated tongue SCC. Among groups 4, 5 and 6, no significant difference of tongue SCC incidence was observed. From these results it is apparent that the ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens leaves could inhibit the progression of 4NQOinduced rat tongue carcinogenesis in the initiation phase.

  10. Antihypertensive effect of Gynura Procumbens Water Extract in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    N Kaur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Present study was designed to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of Gynura procumbens water extract (GPWE in spontaneously hypertensive (SH rats. Short term fall of mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR occur in Sprague Dawley (SD and SH rats treated with GPWE 1 g kg-1 (single dose. Treatment of SH rats with repeated dose of 300 and 600 mg kg-1 of GPWE and water (control through gastric gavage for 4 weeks shows long lasting effects on MAP and HR along with increased urine flow rate (UFR. Pressor responses induced by different agonist’s acetylcholine (ACh, phenylephrine (PE, methoxamine (Mtx, angiotensin II (AngII, and isoprenaline (IsoP were significantly inhibited, with more stability to chronotropic effects of agonists, in GPWE repeatedly treated anaesthetized SH rats compared to control rats. These data indicate, GPWE lower blood pressure through non selective pathway mediated via stimulation of vasodilation, heart stabilization and diuretic effect.Industrial relevance. Healing powers of plants are known since ancient times, in this respect herbs have been used for medical treatment since the beginning of human civilization. The present study provides sound pharmacological basis for use of flavonoid rich Gynura procumbens in hypertension and palpitation.Keywords. Diuretic; Gynura procumbens Merr.; heart rate; mean arterial pressure; spontaneously hypertensive rats

  11. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, S C; Newsome, R; Dibble, H; Sturrock, C J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C S; Huxley, J N

    2015-09-05

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm.

  12. Effect of different flooring systems on claw conformation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Bergsten, C; Magnusson, M; Nilsson, C

    2009-06-01

    The effect of different flooring surfaces in walking and standing areas on claw conformation, claw horn growth, and wear was studied in 2 experiments during 2 consecutive housing seasons in a research dairy herd of 170 cows. In experiment 1, the flooring systems tested were solid rubber mats, mastic asphalt with and without rubber-matted feed-stalls, and aged concrete slats. In experiment 2, slatted concrete flooring was compared with slatted rubber flooring. The cows were introduced to the respective flooring systems in early lactation and their claws were trimmed before the exposure period. Toe length, toe angle, sole concavity, and claw width, as well as claw growth and wear rates were recorded for lateral and medial claws of the left hind limb. Claw asymmetry calculations were based on these claw measurements and on differences in sole protrusion between lateral and medial soles. Asphalt floors caused shorter toe length and steeper toe angle. They also increased wear on rear claws (5.30 +/- 0.31 and 5.95 +/- 0.33 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively; LSM +/- SE) and horn growth rate (5.12 +/- 0.36 and 5.83 +/- 0.31 mm/mo of lateral and medial claws, respectively). Rubber mats instead of asphalt in walking areas reduced wear (1.36 +/- 0.19 and 2.02 +/- 0.20 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively) and claw growth (3.83 +/- 0.23 and 3.94 +/- 0.17 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). Rubber-matted feed-stalls together with asphalt walkways decreased claw wear (3.29 +/- 0.31 and 4.10 +/- 0.32 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). The concavity of claw soles was reduced on asphalt, especially in the lateral rear claws. Rubber matting in feed-stalls prevented loss of sole concavity compared with asphalt. Claw asymmetry did not differ between flooring systems. While different access to abrasive flooring affected claw conformation, there was no evidence that flooring system influenced the disproportion between lateral and

  13. Extraction and Pharmacological Evaluation of Some Extracts of Tridax procumbens and Capparis decidua

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    B Sharma

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Free and bound flavonoids of different parts of Tridax procumbens L. (Asteraceae and Capparis decidua Forsk (Edgew (Capparaceae have been studied for their antimicrobial activities using disc diffusion assay, against two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 46 and Proteus mirabilis MTCC 425, one Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 87, and a fungi (Candida albicans MTCC 183. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts was evaluated by micro broth dilution method, while minimum bactericidal/ fungicidal concentration determined by subculturing the relevant samples.  Both plants exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Free and bound flavonoids of T. procumbens flowers and C. decidua stem were found to be more potent. C. albicans was found to be most susceptible organism followed by S. aureus, P. mirabilis, and E. coli. Among 14 extracts tested, 12 were found to be active, while 2 extracts showed no activity at tested concentration. Total activity (TA was calculated for the extracts, to relate MIC of the extracts with its amount isolated from 1 g dried plant part. Results of the present study indicate that T. procumbens and C. decidua can be exploited for future antimicrobial drugs.   Industrial relevance: Adverse effects of popular antibiotics and multidrug resistant strains of pathogens have lead rapid search for new antimicrobials. Because of the long history of plants in the treatment of different human ailments, most of the herbal drugs are believed to be safer than the synthetic drugs with no side effects; therefore medicinal plants have gained more importance as possible source of alternative and effective drugs. Plants and natural products remain as an untapped reservoir of potentially useful chemical compounds not only as drugs but also as unique templates that could serve as a starting point for synthetic analogues. Over 50% of all modern clinical drugs are of natural product origin and

  14. Phytochemical screening and in-vitro antioxidant activity isolated bioactive compounds from Tridax procumbens Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Manjusha; Mir, Abrar Hussain; Sharma, Manik; Malla, Mohd Yousu; Qureshi, Sumeerah; Mir, Mohd Iqbal; Chaturvedi, Yogesh

    2013-12-15

    Tridax procumbens L., Asteraceae, has been extensively used for various ailments in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Previous studies have revealed remarkable phytoconstituents from Tridax procumbens L. with significant antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study is to measure the anti-DPPH activity of the purified isolated compounds from n butanol soluble part and ethyl acetate soluble part of successive methanolic extract of Tridax procumbens L. We thus quantified the total phenolic and total flavonoids in different purified isolated compounds, the whole of the tests were evaluated with a sample cone. of 100 microg mL(-1) and were determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-ciocaltue and AlCl3 reagents, respectively. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl) assay was used to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of different isolated compounds. Isolated compounds, one from ethyl acetate soluble part (EF-I) and one from n butanol soluble part (BF-II) were reported to possess a significant anti DPPH activity with lowest IC50 values 67.26 and 80.90 microg mL(-1), respectively while comparable to standard ascorbic acid with IC50 value of 59.62 microg mL(-1), due to the high concentration of phenols 146.4 microg mL(-1) from EF-I and 142.2 microg mL(-1) from BF-II and flavonoids 48 and 42.5 microg mL(-1) found in EF-I and BF-II isolated compounds, respectively.

  15. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using fresh extracts of Tridax procumbens linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati-Kushwaha, Himakshi

    2014-04-01

    A simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of biogenic nanoparticles (NP's) using an aqueous solution of T. procumbens fresh plant extract (leaf and stem) as a bioreductant is reported. The prepared biogenic nanoparticles were well characterized using U.V. visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The particles were confirmed to be elemental crystal by X-ray diffraction. The potential applications of biosynthesized nanoparticles as antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) against pathogens Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillusflavus were demonstrated.

  16. Milking performance evaluation and factors affecting milking claw vacuum levels with flow simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokidani, Masafumi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Yasunori; Watanabe, Aiko

    2017-08-01

    Milking performance of milking machines that matches the production capability of dairy cows is important in reducing the risk of mastitis, particularly in high-producing cows. This study used a simulated milking device to examine the milking performance of the milking system of 73 dairy farms and to analyze the factors affecting claw vacuum. Mean claw vacuum and range of fluctuation of claw vacuum (claw vacuum range) were measured at three different flow rates: 5.7, 7.6 and 8.7 kg/min. At the highest flow rate, only 16 farms (21.9%) met both standards of mean claw vacuum ≥35 kPa and claw vacuum range ≤ 7 kPa, showing that milking systems currently have poor milking performance. The factors affecting mean claw vacuum were claw type, milk-meter and vacuum shut-off device; the factor affecting claw vacuum range was claw type. Examination of the milking performance of the milking system using a simulated milking device allows an examination of the performance that can cope with high producing cows, indicating the possibility of reducing the risk of mastitis caused by inappropriate claw vacuum. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Vasorelaxant effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens on aortic smooth muscle isolated from the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahdeen, Hussein M; Murtala, Babatunde A

    2012-01-01

    Tridax procumbens is commonly used in traditional medicine in southern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension. However, the mechanism of its antihypertensive properties remains unclear. Attempts were made to investigate the properties of direct actions of aqueous extract of the leaves of T. procumbens on mechanical responses of smooth muscles in aortic ring preparations isolated from the rat. Endothelium-intact aortic rings, isolated from the normotensive rats, had been pre-contracted with noradrenaline, and cumulative addition of the aqueous extract (0.15-1.05 mg/mL) to the bathing fluid induced a concentration-dependent relaxation. Aqueous extract of T. procumbens also attenuated the contractile responses to KCl and shifted the concentration-response curve to the right. The contractile responses to serotonin were also attenuated and the concentration-response curve was shifted to the right in the presence of the extract. The results of this study indicated that aqueous leaf extract of T. procumbens possesses vasodilatory effects on the aortic smooth muscles isolated from the rat. Based on these results, a possible mechanism involved in the relaxing actions of the extract on vascular smooth muscle was discussed. The results of this study may provide a scientific basis for the use of this extract to the treatment of hypertension in Nigerian traditional medicine.

  18. Effects of Launaea procumbens on brain antioxidant enzymes and cognitive performance of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rahmat Ali

    2012-11-14

    Launaea procumbens is used in the treatment of oxidative stress and mental disorders. The effects of Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPMEs), i.e., 100 and 200 LPME mg/kg body weight (b.w.), on cognitive performance as well as on the activity of acetylcholinesterase, and antioxidant enzymes in rat brain tissue homogenates were evaluated. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into three groups. Rats in group I (control) were given saline (vehicle), group II received LPME (100 mg/kg b.w., p.o.), and group III were treated with LPME (200 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 7 days. Antioxidant potential was assessed by measuring the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione reductase (GSR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) contents in brain tissue homogenates. Activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cognitive performance were also assessed. LPME administration reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation products (TBARS contents), increased GSH levels and enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT, GSHpx, GSR and GST. AChE activity was reduced by LPME treatment compared with untreated controls. These findings suggested the significant impact of LPMEs on brain function. These effects could be through the antioxidant effects of the bioactive constituents present in LPME.

  19. The Influence of Seed Rate and Fertilizer Type on Growth of Tridax procumbens in Subhumid Nigeria

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    Onifade, OS.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Forage production of Tridax procumbens was examined from three seed rates (20, 40 and 60 kg/ha, four types of fertilizer [(unfertilized control, single superphosphate (SSP, 18 % P, NPK (20 : 10 : 10, and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN, 25 % N] and four harvest stages (6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks post sowing, WPS. Fertilizer rates used were 20 kg/ha P for (SSP and 50 kg/ha N for each of NPK and CAN. Plant height (cm, density (plants/m2 and spread (cm were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Sampling for yield estimation in each plot was done at 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Mean plant height with respect to seed rate, fertilizer type and growth stage significantly (P 2000 kg DM/ha. Application of SSP, NPK and CAN gave more total DM yields than the unfertilized control plot respectively by about 69, 75 and 75 %. Total DM yield varied from 1024 kg DM/ha when T. procumbens was harvested at an earlier stage (6 WPS to 2130 kg DM/ha at a later harvest (12 WPS. The main CP of leaf was significantly (P <0.05 affected by ail the treatments imposed.

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ALKALOIDS OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS L. AGAINST HUMAN PATHOGENS

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    A. Jindal et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tridax procumbens L. is a well known medicinal plant. In the present study alkaloids from pedicle and buds of the plant were extracted and evaluated for antimicrobial activity by ‘Disc Diffusion Assay’ against selected bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration and total activity of each active extract were also evaluated. Significant antibacterial activity was recorded by alkaloids of pedicle against P. mirabilis (IZ 20mm, AI 0.83 and same MIC, MBC 0.039 mg/ml and antifungal activity was recorded by buds against C. albicans (IZ 9.2mm, AI 0.92, MIC 0.625 mg/ml and MFC 1.25 mg/ml. MIC ranged from 0.039 mg/ml-0.625 mg/ml and MBC/MFC ranged from 0.039 mg/ml-1.25 mg/ml against susceptible pathogens. It is noteworthy that MIC values of active extracts was found very low (0.039 mg/ml-0.625 mg/ml and was recorded below 1 mg/ml against inhibited pathogens, thus ascertain their strong antimicrobial potential against selected microbes. Thus, the result of the present study advocates the exploitation of alkaloid extracts of T. procumbens for future antimicrobial drugs.

  1. Anti-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of standardized extracts of Tridax procumbens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachak, Sanjay M; Gautam, Raju; Selvam, C; Madhan, Himanshu; Srivastava, Amit; Khan, Taj

    2011-03-01

    The standardized EtOAc, MeOH and 70% EtOH extracts of Tridax procumbens aerial parts showed significant inhibition of rat paw edema at a medium dose of 200mg/kg and the EtOAC extract was the most active. These extracts were standardized by HPLC with the help of chemical markers. Further, the extracts were evaluated for COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity and EtOAc extract exhibited the highest inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 at 50 μg/mL. Cent aurein, centaureidin and bergenin were isolated as COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory principles from the EtOAc extract. The extracts also exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH and ABTS free radicals. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. procumbens aerial parts could be at least in part due to COX-1, COX-2 enzyme inhibition and free radical-scavenging activities which may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids and other polyphenols in the extracts.

  2. Anti-hepatotoxic and anti-oxidant defense potential of Tridax procumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Reddipalli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tridax procumbens is a widely occurring medicinal herb used by ethnomedical practitioners. With increased use of chemicals and alcohol besides growing incidence of viruses and autoimmune diseases, the incidence of liver injury is growing for which conventional drugs used for treatment are often inadequate. Various models are adopted in pharmological studies for inducing hepatitis/ liver injury similar to those observed in human viral hepatitis, diabetes and oxidative stress. D-galactosamine with lipopolysacchride (LPS, carbontetrachloride (CCl 4 and paracetamol intoxication, diabetes induced with alloxan are widely used on rodents for this purpose. In vitro studies on Tridax procumbens (TP revealed the anti-oxidant potential of the herb with chloroform fraction of the ethanolic extract showing maximum activity. It is also reported to possess anti-oxidant minerals such as iron, magnesium, copper and zinc. In vivo studies on rodents on the anti-oxidant potential of TP induced through LPS, CCl 4, alloxan and paracetamol intoxication induced hepatitis confirmed the results from in vitro studies as a potential anti-hepatotoxic herb.

  3. Foliar treatments with Gaultheria procumbens essential oil induce defence responses and resistance against a fungal pathogen in Arabidopsis

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    Sophie eVergnes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from Gaultheria procumbens is mainly composed of methylsalicylate (>96%, a compound which can be metabolized in plant tissues to salicylic acid, a phytohormone inducing plant immunity against microbial pathogens. The potential use of G. procumbens essential oil as a biocontrol agent was evaluated on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of a selection of defence genes was detected 1, 6 and 24 hours after essential oil treatment (0.1 ml/L using a high-throughput qPCR-based microfluidic technology. Control treatments included methyl jasmonate and a commercialized salicylic acid analog, benzo(1,2,3-thiadiazole-7carbothiolic acid (BTH. Strong induction of defence markers known to be regulated by the salicylic acid pathway was observed after the treatment with G. procumbens essential oil. Treatment induced the accumulation of total salicylic acid in the wild -type Arabidopsis line Col-0 and analysis of the Arabidopsis line sid2, mutated in a salicylic acid biosynthetic gene, revealed that approximately 30% of methylsalicylate sprayed on the leaves penetrated inside plant tissues and was demethylated by endogenous esterases. Induction of plant resistance by G. procumbens essential oil was tested following inoculation with a GFP-expressing strain of the Arabidopsis fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. Flurorescence measurement of infected tissues revealed that treatments led to a strong reduction (60% of pathogen development and that the efficacy of the G. procumbens essential oil was similar to the commercial product BION®. Together, these results show that the G. procubens essential oil is a natural source of methylsalicylate which can be formulated to develop new biocontrol products.

  4. Harpagoside suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression through inhibition of NF-kappa B activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Tran, Van H; Duke, Rujee K; Tan, Sharon; Chrubasik, Sigrun; Roufogalis, Basil D; Duke, Colin C

    2006-03-08

    Preparations of Harpagophytum procumbens, known as devil's claw, are used as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of pain and osteoarthritis. Pharmacological evaluations have proven the effectiveness of this herbal drug as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent. The present study has investigated the mechanism of action of harpagoside, one of the major components of Harpagophytum procumbens, using human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines. Harpagoside inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA levels and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide in HepG2 cells. These inhibitions appeared to correlate with the suppression of NF-kappaB activation by harpagoside, as pre-treating cells with harpagoside blocked the translocation of NF-kappaB into the nuclear compartments and degradation of the inhibitory subunit IkappaB-alpha. Furthermore, harpagoside dose-dependently inhibited LPS-stimulated NF-kappaB promoter activity in a gene reporter assay in RAW 264.7 cells, indicating that harpagoside interfered with the activation of gene transcription. These results suggest that the inhibition of the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide by harpagoside involves suppression of NF-kappaB activation, thereby inhibiting downstream inflammation and subsequent pain events.

  5. Sexual conflict and the function of genitalic claws in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Lucia; Cheng, Yun Yun; Rodd, F Helen; Rowe, Locke

    2013-10-23

    Poeciliid fish, freshwater fish with internal fertilization, are known for the diversity of structures on the male intromittent organ, the gonopodium. Prominent among these, in some species, is a pair of claws at its tip. We conducted a manipulative study of these claws in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, to determine if these aid in transferring sperm to resistant females. We compared the sperm transfer rates of clawed versus surgically declawed males attempting to mate with either receptive or unreceptive (i.e. resistant) females. Our analyses demonstrate that the gonopodial claws function to increase sperm transfer to unreceptive females during uncooperative matings but not during receptive matings. Up to threefold more sperm were transferred to unreceptive females by clawed than declawed males. These data suggest that the claw is a sexually antagonistic trait, functioning to aid in transferring sperm to resistant females, and implicate sexual conflict as a selective force in the diversification of the gonopodium in the Poeciliidae.

  6. Claw-pole Synchronous Generator for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVEL Valentina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a claw-poles generator for compressed air energy storage systems. It is presented the structure of such a system used for compensating of the intermittency of a small wind energy system. For equipping of this system it is chosen the permanent magnet claw pole synchronous generator obtained by using ring NdFeB permanentmagnets instead of excitation coil. In such a way the complexity of the scheme is reduced and the generator become maintenance free. The new magnetic flux density in the air-gap is calculated by magneticreluctance method and by FEM method and the results are compared with measured values in the old and new generator.

  7. The Genome of the Western Clawed Frog Xenopus tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M.; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Shu, Shengqiang; Taher, Leila; Blitz, Ira L.; Blumberg, Bruce; Dichmann, Darwin S.; Dubchak, Inna; Amaya, Enrique; Detter, John C.; Fletcher, Russell; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Goodstein, David; Graves, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Grimwood, Jane; Kawashima, Takeshi; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan M.; Mead, Paul E.; Mitros, Therese; Ogino, Hajime; Ohta, Yuko; Poliakov, Alexander V.; Pollet, Nicolas; Robert, Jacques; Salamov, Asaf; Sater, Amy K.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Terry, Astrid; Vize, Peter D.; Warren, Wesley C.; Wells, Dan; Wills, Andrea; Wilson, Richard K.; Zimmerman, Lyle B.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Grainger, Robert; Grammer, Timothy; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Richardson, Paul M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2009-10-01

    The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes over 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1,700 human disease genes. Over a million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like other tetrapods, the genome contains gene deserts enriched for conserved non-coding elements. The genome exhibits remarkable shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.

  8. The genome of the Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M; Gilchrist, Michael J; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Putnam, Nicholas H; Shu, Shengqiang; Taher, Leila; Blitz, Ira L; Blumberg, Bruce; Dichmann, Darwin S; Dubchak, Inna; Amaya, Enrique; Detter, John C; Fletcher, Russell; Gerhard, Daniela S; Goodstein, David; Graves, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V; Grimwood, Jane; Kawashima, Takeshi; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan M; Mead, Paul E; Mitros, Therese; Ogino, Hajime; Ohta, Yuko; Poliakov, Alexander V; Pollet, Nicolas; Robert, Jacques; Salamov, Asaf; Sater, Amy K; Schmutz, Jeremy; Terry, Astrid; Vize, Peter D; Warren, Wesley C; Wells, Dan; Wills, Andrea; Wilson, Richard K; Zimmerman, Lyle B; Zorn, Aaron M; Grainger, Robert; Grammer, Timothy; Khokha, Mustafa K; Richardson, Paul M; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2010-04-30

    The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes more than 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1700 human disease genes. Over 1 million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like that of other tetrapods, the genome of X. tropicalis contains gene deserts enriched for conserved noncoding elements. The genome exhibits substantial shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.

  9. Hepatoprotection with a chloroform extract of Launaea procumbens against CCl4-induced injuries in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rahmat A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Launaea procumbens (Asteraceae is used as a folk medicine to treat hepatic disorders in Pakistan. The effect of a chloroform extract of Launaea procumbens (LPCE was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Methods To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of LPCE, 36 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into six groups. Animals of group 1 (control had free access to food and water. Group II received 3 ml/kg of CCl4 (30% in olive oil v/v via the intraperitoneal route twice a week for 4 weeks. Group III received 1 ml of silymarin via gavage (100 mg/kg b.w. after 48 h of CCl4 treatment whereas groups IV and V were given 1 ml of LPCE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w., respectively after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Group VI received 1 ml of LPCE (200 mg/kg b.w. twice a week for 4 weeks. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione reductase (GSR, glutathione (GSH and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were measured in liver homogenates. DNA damage, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs counts and histopathology were studied in liver samples. Serum was analyzed for various biochemical parameters. Phytochemical composition in LPCE was determined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results LPCE inhibited lipid peroxidation, and reduced the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum induced by CCl4. GSH contents were increased as were the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, SOD, GST, GSR, GSH-Px when altered due to CCl4 hepatotoxicity. Similarly, absolute liver weight, relative liver weight and the number of hepatic lesions were reduced with co-administration of LPCE. Phyochemical analyses of LPCE indicated that it contained catechin

  10. Anterior iris-claw lens implantation with single paracentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Özer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the technique and results of iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL implantation with corneal incision and single paracentesis were presented. Eighteen eyes of 18 patients who underwent iris-claw implantation surgery with a single paracentesis were included in this prospective study. Iris-claw lens was grasped by its forceps and placed into the anterior chamber through superior corneal opening. While IOL was held by forceps, a blunt enclavation spatula was introduced through inferior paracentesis. Then the spatula was directed toward underneath of iris through pupil and toward sides where iris was entrapped into the claw by gentle push of iris through the slotted center of the lens haptics. Mean age of patients was 54.28±25.21 years (7-76 years. Mean anterior chamber depth was 4.07±0.32 mm and mean keratometric power was 43.01±2.73 D. Preoperative BCVA was 20/63 or better in 8 (44.4% patients. At the first postoperative month BCVA was 20/63 or better in 14 (77.8% patients. Preoperative mean spherical refraction was +11.05±2.62 D, preoperative astigmatism was 2.15±0.85. Postoperative mean spherical refraction was - 0.58±0.25 D and mean astigmatism was - 1.92±0.67 D. The most frequent postoperative complication was mild corneal edema seen in three patients that resolved completely during the first week with medical treatment. Irisclaw IOL implantation can be performed easily with corneal incision and single paracentesis. Single paracentesis does not increase surgical time or cause inconvenience during the procedure.

  11. Quantum Algorithms for Finding Claws, Collisions and Triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, H; Hoyer, P; Magniez, F; Santha, M; De Wolf, R; Buhrman, Harry; Durr, Christoph; Hoyer, Peter; Magniez, Frederic; Santha, Miklos; Wolf, Ronald de

    2000-01-01

    We present several applications of quantum amplitude amplification to finding claws and collisions in ordered or unordered functions. Our algorithms generalize those of Brassard, Hoyer, and Tapp, and imply an N^{3/4} log(N) quantum upper bound for the element distinctness problem (contrasting with N\\log(N) classical complexity). We also give an algorithm to finding a triangle in a graph more efficiently than classically.

  12. Use of Stable Isotopes to Investigate Keratin Deposition in the Claw Tips of Ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Cutting, Kyle A.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotopes derived from the claws of birds could be used to determine the migratory origins of birds if the time periods represented in excised sections of claws were known. We investigated new keratin growth in the claws of adult female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) by estimating the equilibration rates of stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, and δ2H) from the breeding grounds into 1 mm claw tips. We sampled birds on their breeding ground through time and found that it took approximately 3–3.5 months for isotope values in most claw tips to equilibrate to isotope values that reflected those present in the environment on their breeding grounds. Results from this study suggest that isotopes equilibrate slowly into claw tips of Lesser Scaup, suggesting isotopes could potentially be used to determine the wintering grounds of birds. We suggest using controlled feeding experiments or longitudinal field investigations to understand claw growth and isotopic equilibration in claw tips. Such information would be valuable in ascertaining whether claw tips can be used in future studies to identify the migratory origins of birds. PMID:24282563

  13. Axially aligned organic fibers and amorphous calcium phosphate form the claws of a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittori, Miloš; Srot, Vesna; Žagar, Kristina; Bussmann, Birgit; van Aken, Peter A; Čeh, Miran; Štrus, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal elements that are exposed to heavy mechanical loads may provide important insights into the evolutionary solutions to mechanical challenges. We analyzed the microscopic architecture of dactylus claws in the woodlice Porcellio scaber and correlated these observations with analyses of the claws' mineral composition with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Extraordinarily, amorphous calcium phosphate is the predominant mineral in the claw endocuticle. Unlike the strongly calcified exocuticle of the dactylus base, the claw exocuticle is devoid of mineral and is highly brominated. The architecture of the dactylus claw cuticle is drastically different from that of other parts of the exoskeleton. In contrast to the quasi-isotropic structure with chitin-protein fibers oriented in multiple directions, characteristic of the arthropod exoskeleton, the chitin-protein fibers and mineral components in the endocuticle of P. scaber claws are exclusively axially oriented. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that the claw cuticle is highly structurally anisotropic and fracture resistant and can be explained as adaptations to predominant axial loading of the thin, elongated claws. The nanoscale architecture of the isopod claw may inspire technological solutions in the design of durable machine elements subjected to heavy loading and wear.

  14. Structure of a new saponin: chrysantellin A from Chrysanthellum procumbens Rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchi, M; Bruneteau, M; Trouilloud, M; Combier, H; Sartre, J; Michel, G

    1979-12-01

    A new saponin has been isolated from a tropical plant Chrysantellum procumbens Rich. which is thought to be useful in the therapy of digestive troubles. The structure of this saponin was determined by chemical methods, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The aglycone moiety is a triterpene, echinocystic acid; D-glucose, D-xylose and L-rhamnose are carbohydrate components. The structure of saponin was established as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl [L-rhamnopyranosyl-(alpha 1 leads to 3)-D-xylopyranosyl-)beta 1 leads to 4)-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(alpha 1 leads to 2)-D-xylopyranosyl]-(alpha 1 leads to 28)-echinocystyl. The name, chrysantellin A, is proposed for this new saponin.

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Umesh; Rastogi, Bhawna; Singh, Paramjit; Saraf, Dinesh K; Vyas, Suresh P

    2004-05-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of ethanol insoluble fraction of aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens Linn. (TPEIF) have been investigated. After intraperitoneal administration of TPEIF in doses of 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg body weight (BW) a significant increase in phagocytic index, leukocyte count and spleenic antibody secreting cells was noticed. Stimulation of humoral immune response was further observed with elevation in heamagglutination antibody titer. Heightened delayed type hypersensitivity reaction suggested convincing evidence for activation of cellular immune system. Protective action of herbal medicine in case of anaphylactic shock was also studied. In addition, elicitation of specific antibody titer against tetanus toxoid (TT) challenge was measured in order to explore the possible use as adjuvant along with clinical vaccination program to reduce number of non-responders. The results suggest that TPEIF influences both humoral as well as cell mediated immune system vis-a-vis assists in genesis of improved antibody response against specific clinical antigen.

  16. Luz e Kno3 na germinação de sementes de Tridax procumbens sob temperatura constante e alternada

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda,F.S; Carmona,R; MITJA, D.; GUIMARÃES, R. M.

    2008-01-01

    Poucos são os estudos relacionados à germinação de espécies de plantas daninhas tropicais, incluindo-se a de Tridax procumbens, apesar de sua importância como infestante em áreas de lavoura. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de luz e KNO3 sobre a germinação de sementes de T. procumbens em temperatura constante e alternada. Quatro subamostras de 75 sementes foram submetidas ao teste de germinação utilizando-se uma combinação fatorial de luz (escuro; fotoperíodo de 12 horas diár...

  17. Endothelium-dependent and independent vasorelaxant effects of aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens Lin. leaf in rat aortic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahdeen, Hussein M; Idowu, Gbolahan O; Murtala, Babatunde A

    2012-12-01

    Tridax procumbens leaf extract induced aortic relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner, for both phenylephrine (PE) and KCl- induced contractions in isolated rat aortic rings. The relaxation effect of the extract on PE-induced contraction was 57% greater than that on KCl- induced contraction. The extract caused dose-dependent relaxations in precontracted isolated rat aorta with phenylephrine; the relaxation was attenuated by the removal of endothelium. However, the relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside were not significantly abolished by the removal of endothelium. The vasorelaxatory effect of the extract was completely abolished in presence of L-NAME. The results indicate that the vasorelaxant effect of T. procumbens extract is probably mediated by both endothelium-dependent and-independent mechanisms.

  18. Blood Glucose-lowering Effect of T. procumbens L.: A Pilot Clinical Study in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Gauri S; Desai, Shirish V; Gavaskar, Rajendra S; Mulabagal, Vanisree; Wu, Yonnie; Mathews, Suresh T

    2015-06-22

    Traditional knowledge, in vitro studies, and studies using animal models suggest that Tridax procumbens L. exhibits blood glucose-lowering properties and antiinflammatory effects. In this study, we evaluated the blood glucose-lowering effect of T. procumbens supplementation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. An extract (asava) of T. procumbens L. was prepared following Ayurveda guidelines. Chemical and microbial analyses indicated presence of phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids, and absence of microbial contamination, aflatoxins, heavy metals, and pesticide residues. A chemical fingerprint of T. procumbens L. asava, developed using Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography/electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS) in negative mode, suggest the presence of several compounds including polyphenols. T. procumbens asava demonstrated strong total antioxidant capacity, Fe(3+) reducing potential, Fe(2+) chelation, H2 O2 scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. We recruited 20 type 2 diabetic individuals from Kolhapur, India. Participants received 15 mL of T. procumbens asava, twice daily, for 4 weeks, while continuing their prescribed antidiabetic medications. Fasting blood glucose decreased by 11% in men (p < 0.01) and 20% in women (p < 0.05), and post-prandial blood glucose concentrations were lowered by 26% in men (p < 0.001) and 29% in women (p < 0.001) following 4 weeks of asava supplementation. No adverse events or side effects were reported. This is the first clinical study demonstrating a significant blood glucose-lowering effect of T. procumbens asava in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extracts of Ficus religiosa L, Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Rabinson, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Tridax procumbens L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melinda Krishanti P; Xavier Rathinam; Marimuthu Kasi; Diwakar Ayyalu; Ramanathan Surash; Kathiresan Sadasivam; Sreeramanan Subramaniam

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the antioxidative effects of the methanolic leaf extracts of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa), Chromolaena odorata (C. odorata), Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) and Tridax procumbens (T. procumbens) as well as the contents of antioxidants in the extracts. Methods:Total phenol and total flavanoid contents were measured according to the standard procedures. The total antioxidant capacity was determined using the phosphomolybdenum method. Reducing power was determined by the potassium ferricyanide reducing method. The free radical scavenging activity was measured by 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results:Quantitative phytochemical analysis of total phenol content showed that C. odorata had the highest content of phenolic compounds significantly followed by F. religiosa, T. procumbens and C .dactylon. As for the total flavanoids content, F. religiosa had the highest content, followed by C. odorata, T. procumbens and C. dactylon. Study on the total antioxidant capacity revealed that F. religiosa, C. dactylon and C. odorata showed higher total antioxidant capacity. T. procumbens showed the lowest capacity. Meanwhile, T. procumbens and C. odorata have the highest reducing power activity followed by F. religiosa and C. dactylon. The results of DPPH radical scavenging activity indicated that T. procumbens induced the largest elevation as the concentration of its extract increased, followed by C. odorata and F. religiosa and C. dactylon. Conclusions:The present study demonstrates the antioxidative capacity of all the four plant species. Of all the plants, C. odorata, a perennial weed plant showed potentially a high antioxidant activity, with higher phenolic and flavonoids contents. The data suggest that C. odorata can be best utilized in developing bioantioxidants.

  20. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF WEED (Tridax procumbens L.) EXTRACT ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF SOME LEGUMINOUS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    D Femina; P. Lakshmipriya; Subha, S; R. Manonmani

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous leaves extract of different concentrations of weed (Tridax procumbens L.) was used to investigate their allelopathic effects on seed germination, root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight of some leguminous plants viz. Vigna radiata L. (Green gram), Dolichos biflorus L. (Horse gram) and Vigna unguiculata L. (Cow pea). Mature fresh leaves of weed were crushed and soaked for 24h; the filtrates were diluted to make different concentrations and used to investigate their effect on the...

  1. Complete assignments of 1H and 13C NMR data for three new arylnaphthalene lignan from Justicia procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Wu, Jun; Si, Jianyong; Wang, Junmei; Yang, Meihua

    2008-03-01

    Three new arylnaphthalene lignans, named neojusticin C (1), procumbenoside C (2) and procumbenoside D (3), have been isolated from the whole plant of Justicia procumbens, together with three known ones, justicidinoside B (4), justicidinoside C (5), and diphyllin-1-O-beta-D-apiofuranoside (6). The complete assignments of 1H and 13C NMR data for three new lignans were first obtained by means of 2D NMR techniques, including HSQC and HMBC.

  2. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of eight lignans in Justicia procumbens and its compound preparation by HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linan; Pan, Jianyu; Yang, Meihua; Wu, Jun; Yang, Junshan

    2011-03-01

    HPLC fingerprints were developed for the quality evaluation of Justicia procumbens and its compound preparation, Jian-er syrup, together with the simultaneous quantification of eight arylnaphthalide lignans (6'-hydroxy justicidin B, 6'-hydroxy justicidin A, 6'-hydroxy justicidin C, justicidin B, chinensinaphthol methyl ether, justicidin C, taiwanin C, and neojusticin A). Samples were separated with a Shiseido Capcell Pak C(18) reversed-phase column (250×4.6 mm id, 5 μm) using acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase. The column temperature was maintained at 35°C and the wavelength of detector was set at 256 nm. For fingerprint analysis, 17 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks for the evaluation of the similarities among different J. procumbens samples collected in different places. The structures of lignans were confirmed by diagnostic fragments in the positive ESI-MS(n) . The new method was successfully applied for the chromatographic fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of eight lignans in its compound preparation, Jian-er syrup. All the results indicated that HPLC fingerprint assay in combination with multi-marker determination afforded a useful method for the quality control of J. procumbens and its compound preparation, Jian-er syrup.

  3. The pressure distribution under the bovine claw during square standing on a flat substrate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der P.P.J.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Back, W.; Braam, C.R.; Weijs, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    The distribution pattern of pressure over the bovine claw was investigated to test the hypothesis that the ground reaction force is unevenly distributed and makes some regions of the claw more prone to overloading and injury than others. In eight recently trimmed Holstein Friesian cows, the

  4. Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M. V.; Boelling, D.; Mark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic correlations among claw and leg health and potential indicator traits. Claw health was defined as absence of heel horn erosion, interdigital dermatitis, interdigital phlegmon, interdigital hyperplasia, laminitis, and sole ulcer. Leg health...

  5. Claw disorders and disturbed locomotion in dairy cows: the effect of floor systems and implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, Joan Gerardus Cornelius Johanna

    2004-01-01

    In modern dairy housing, flooring conditions lead to restricted locomotion and claw disorders. Epidemiological studies showed that housing on concrete floors was positively correlated with the incidence of lameness and claw disorders. Lameness and claw disorders constitute a significant health and w

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Western clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Xenopus_tropicalis_L.png Xenopus..._tropicalis_NL.png Xenopus_tropicalis_S.png Xenopus_tropicalis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+...tropicalis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropical...is&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=137 ...

  7. Cat's claw oxindole alkaloid isomerization induced by common extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat's claw oxindole alkaloids are prone to isomerization in aqueous solution. However, studies on their behavior in extraction processes are scarce. This paper addressed the issue by considering five commonly used extraction processes. Unlike dynamic maceration (DM and ultrasound-assisted extraction, substantial isomerization was induced by static maceration, turbo-extraction and reflux extraction. After heating under reflux in DM, the kinetic order of isomerization was established and equations were fitted successfully using a four-parameter Weibull model (R² > 0.999. Different isomerization rates and equilibrium constants were verified, revealing a possible matrix effect on alkaloid isomerization.

  8. Gynura procumbens Merr. decreases blood pressure in rats by vasodilatation via inhibition of calcium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See-Ziau Hoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gynura procumbens has been shown to decrease blood pressure via inhibition of the angiotensinconverting enzyme. However, other mechanisms that may contribute to the hypotensive effect have not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cardiovascular effects of a butanolic fraction of Gynura procumbens in rats. METHODS: Anaesthetized rats were given intravenous bolus injections of butanolic fraction at doses of 2.5-20 mg/kg in vivo. The effect of butanolic fraction on vascular reactivity was recorded in isolated rat aortic rings in vitro. RESULTS: Intravenous administrations of butanolic fraction elicited significant (p<0.001 and dose-dependent decreases in the mean arterial pressure. However, a significant (p<0.05 decrease in the heart rate was observed only at the higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg. In isolated preparations of rat aortic rings, phenylephrine (1×10-6 M- or potassium chloride (8×10-2 M-precontracted endothelium-intact and -denuded tissue; butanolic fraction (1×10-6-1×10-1 g/ml induced similar concentration-dependent relaxation of the vessels. In the presence of 2.5×10-3 and 5.0×10-3 g/ml butanolic fraction, the contractions induced by phenylephrine (1×10-9-3×10-5 M and potassium chloride (1×10-2-8×10-2 M were significantly antagonized. The calcium-induced vasocontractions (1×10-4-1×10-2 M were antagonized by butanolic fraction concentration-dependently in calcium-free and high potassium (6×10-2 M medium, as well as in calcium- and potassium-free medium containing 1×10-6 M phenylephrine. However, the contractions induced by noradrenaline (1×10-6 M and caffeine (4.5×10-2 M were not affected by butanolic fraction. CONCLUSION: Butanolic fraction contains putative hypotensive compounds that appear to inhibit calcium influx via receptor-operated and/or voltage-dependent calcium channels to cause vasodilation and a consequent fall in blood pressure.

  9. Isoflurane anesthesia in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Stump, K C

    2000-11-01

    Isoflurane is one of the safest and most accepted anesthetic agents for reptiles, birds, and mammals. It has also been used in terrestrial amphibians. The use of inhalation agents in an entirely aquatic frog presents a new dilemma for delivery in contrast to terrestrial species. The African Clawed Frog respires by using both transcutaneous gas exchange and air breathing. These frogs remain submerged for long periods of time, thus making standard inhalation techniques impractical. We tested five methods for delivering isoflurane: 1) bubbling isoflurane and oxygen in the water, 2) intracoelomic injection, 3) subcutaneous injection, 4) intramuscular injection, and 5) topical application. For the topical application, we developed a simple technique by using an absorptive pad with a vapor-barrier backing, saturating the pad with the liquid isoflurane, and placing the pad on the back of the frog while it was confined in a plastic bowl. Although two of the three injectable routes induced anesthesia, only the topical route produced rapid induction with consistent, safe recovery. Bubbling isoflurane with oxygen into water was unsuccessful. Topical application of isoflurane was most successful and appears to be a safe and practical method that can be used as an alternative to tricaine methylsulphonate, hypothermia, or other methods for anesthetizing African Clawed Frogs.

  10. Outcomes of Sutureless Iris-Claw Lens Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Jünemann, Anselm G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the indications, refraction, and visual and safety outcomes of iris-claw intraocular lens implanted retropupillary with sutureless technique during primary or secondary operation. Methods. Retrospective study of case series. The Haigis formula was used to calculate intraocular lens power. In all cases the wound was closed without suturing. Results. The study comprised 47 eyes. The mean follow-up time was 15.9 months (SD 12.2). The mean preoperative CDVA was 0.25 (SD 0.21). The final mean CDVA was 0.46 (SD 0.27). No hypotony or need for wound suturing was observed postoperatively. Mean postoperative refractive error was −0.27 Dsph (−3.87 Dsph to +2.85 Dsph; median 0.0, SD 1.28). The mean postoperative astigmatism was −1.82 Dcyl (min −0.25, max −5.5; median −1.25, SD 1.07). Postoperative complications were observed in 10 eyes. The most common complication was ovalization of the iris, which was observed in 8 eyes. The mean operation time was 35.9 min (min 11 min, max 79 min; median 34, SD 15.4). Conclusion. Retropupilary iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with sutureless wound closing is an easy and fast method, ensuring good refractive outcome and a low risk of complication. The Haigis formula proved to be predictable in postoperative refraction. PMID:27642519

  11. Bionic Design for Mars Sampling Scoop Inspired by Himalayan Marmot Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cave animals are often adapted to digging and life underground, with claw toes similar in structure and function to a sampling scoop. In this paper, the clawed toes of the Himalayan marmot were selected as a biological prototype for bionic research. Based on geometric parameter optimization of the clawed toes, a bionic sampling scoop for use on Mars was designed. Using a 3D laser scanner, the point cloud data of the second front claw toe was acquired. Parametric equations and contour curves for the claw were then built with cubic polynomial fitting. We obtained 18 characteristic curve equations for the internal and external contours of the claw. A bionic sampling scoop was designed according to the structural parameters of Curiosity's sampling shovel and the contours of the Himalayan marmot's claw. Verifying test results showed that when the penetration angle was 45° and the sampling speed was 0.33 r/min, the bionic sampling scoops' resistance torque was 49.6% less than that of the prototype sampling scoop. When the penetration angle was 60° and the sampling speed was 0.22 r/min, the resistance torque of the bionic sampling scoop was 28.8% lower than that of the prototype sampling scoop. PMID:28127229

  12. Unique fatality due to claw injuries in a tiger attack: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Hrishikesh; Dixit, Pradeep; Dhawane, Shailendra; Meshram, Satin; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Dingre, Niraj

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a unique case of a fatal tiger attack in the wild. In the present case, a tiger fatally mauled a 34-year-old female with its claws, instead of the usual mechanism of killing by the bite injury to the neck. The autopsy revealed multiple fatal and non-fatal injuries caused by the tiger claws. The characteristic injuries due to the tooth impacts were absent as the teeth of the offending tiger were either fallen or non-functional. To the best of our knowledge, probably this rare case would be the first reported human fatality due to the tiger claw injuries in the world. The purpose of the present article is to highlight the fatal injuries due to the tiger claws, as the claw-induced fatal injuries in a tiger attack are not reported in the medico-legal literature. Moreover, this report would be an illustrative one for differentiation between the fatal injuries due to the claws and tooth impacts in a tiger attack. Furthermore, the present report establishes the importance of the tiger claws as a source of fatal injuries in a tiger attack.

  13. Bionic Design for Mars Sampling Scoop Inspired by Himalayan Marmot Claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Long; Zhang, Rong Rong; Zong, Wei; Song, Jia Feng; Zou, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Cave animals are often adapted to digging and life underground, with claw toes similar in structure and function to a sampling scoop. In this paper, the clawed toes of the Himalayan marmot were selected as a biological prototype for bionic research. Based on geometric parameter optimization of the clawed toes, a bionic sampling scoop for use on Mars was designed. Using a 3D laser scanner, the point cloud data of the second front claw toe was acquired. Parametric equations and contour curves for the claw were then built with cubic polynomial fitting. We obtained 18 characteristic curve equations for the internal and external contours of the claw. A bionic sampling scoop was designed according to the structural parameters of Curiosity's sampling shovel and the contours of the Himalayan marmot's claw. Verifying test results showed that when the penetration angle was 45° and the sampling speed was 0.33 r/min, the bionic sampling scoops' resistance torque was 49.6% less than that of the prototype sampling scoop. When the penetration angle was 60° and the sampling speed was 0.22 r/min, the resistance torque of the bionic sampling scoop was 28.8% lower than that of the prototype sampling scoop.

  14. Bionic Design for Mars Sampling Scoop Inspired by Himalayan Marmot Claw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cave animals are often adapted to digging and life underground, with claw toes similar in structure and function to a sampling scoop. In this paper, the clawed toes of the Himalayan marmot were selected as a biological prototype for bionic research. Based on geometric parameter optimization of the clawed toes, a bionic sampling scoop for use on Mars was designed. Using a 3D laser scanner, the point cloud data of the second front claw toe was acquired. Parametric equations and contour curves for the claw were then built with cubic polynomial fitting. We obtained 18 characteristic curve equations for the internal and external contours of the claw. A bionic sampling scoop was designed according to the structural parameters of Curiosity’s sampling shovel and the contours of the Himalayan marmot’s claw. Verifying test results showed that when the penetration angle was 45° and the sampling speed was 0.33 r/min, the bionic sampling scoops’ resistance torque was 49.6% less than that of the prototype sampling scoop. When the penetration angle was 60° and the sampling speed was 0.22 r/min, the resistance torque of the bionic sampling scoop was 28.8% lower than that of the prototype sampling scoop.

  15. Diallel analysis for seed yield and its component traits in Cuphea procumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cuphea procumbens Orteg. is an important annual plant source of medium chain fatty acids. The present study was conducted to estimate different gene systems involved in the inheritance of important quantitative traits viz. plant height, branches/plant, fruits/plant, seeds/fruit and seed yield/plant in F1 and F2 generations following 6 parents half diallel. Diallel assumptions were fulfilled for all the characters. Wr - Vr graph and component analysis revealed the major influence of over dominance for all the traits except branches/plant in F1. The arrays scattered all along the regression line below limiting parabola in two groups, Dominance and recessive and was confirmed by standardized deviation graph. The ranking on the basis of breeding value (Yr of the parents and per se performance was closely associated (r=0.83**. On the basis of ranking, parents 'NBC-01', 'NBC-25' and 'NBC-30' were found most promising and possessed more dominant alleles for most of the characters. Considering the gene action involved, the breeding plan was discussed.

  16. Influence of ball milling on the particle size and antimicrobial properties of Tridax procumbens leaf nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Subramani; Suriyaprabha, Rangaraj; Balu, Kolathupalayam Shanmugam; Manivasakan, Palanisamy; Rajendran, Venkatachalam

    2017-02-01

    The herbal nanoparticles were prepared from shade dried Tridax procumbens plant leaves employing ball milling technique using different process parameters, like ball ratio/size and milling time. The obtained nanoparticles were comprehensively characterised using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and antimicrobial analysis techniques. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles was retained without altering even though the particle size changes due to milling periods. The antibacterial activities of the prepared herbal nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were explored to understand the influence of particle size on antimicrobial activities and their functional properties. The increase in ball ratio and milling time periods leads to a decrease in nanoparticle size from 114 to 45 nm which in turn increases the antimicrobial activities. The above study confirms that antimicrobial activity relies on nanoparticle size. The observed knowledge on influence of particle size on antimicrobial activities will help to optimise the production of potential herbal nanoparticles for different biomedical applications.

  17. Profertility and antidiabetic properties of Gynura procumbens on streptozotocin induced male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaidatul Akmar, K.; Mahanem, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Gynura procumbens (GP) is an herbal plant that is used for treating diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and also fertility. The objective of this study was to determine the anti-diabetic and pro-fertility effect of GP on streptozotocin induced male rats within 14 days. A total of 42 male rats were randomly assigned into six groups; normal, negative, and positive control, and three treated groups of different dosages of GP; 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 450 mg/kg. The treated groups were given aqueous extract GP via oral gavage for 14 consecutive days. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) level in all treated groups showed significant decreased compared to negative and positive group after 14 days treatment. Sperm quality parameters in GP treated group (450 mg/kg) showed significant increase when compared to negative and positive group. It was observed that the histology of testes in the treated group (450 mg/kg) produced a significant result whereby the germinal cell layer shown an arranged order of cells compared to the negative and positive control groups. It appeared that aqueous extract of GP have a pro-fertility effect and possess anti-hyperglycemic activity within 14 days of treatment.

  18. Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in human cancerous HeLa cells by Maytenus procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, S; Hussein, A A; Ostad, S N; Abdollahi, M; Lall, N

    2013-01-01

    The possible biochemical activities of the acetonic/ethanolic extract of the leaves of Maytenus procumbens (L.M.P), and its isolated compounds were investigated in the present study. In cytotoxicity assay, L.M.P showed IC(50) of 68.79, 51.22, 78.49, 76.59, and 76.64μg/ml on Caco-2, HeLa, HT29, NIH3T3, and T47D cells, respectively. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of a new triterpene: '30-hydroxy-11α-methoxy-18β-olean-12-en-3-one' (HMO) in addition to a known terpenoid: 'asiatic acid' (AA). HMO exhibited the most cytotoxicity against HeLa cells and was further investigated for its ability to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. HMO induced apoptosis up to 20.41% in HeLa cells versus control group (0.40%). Antioxidant/oxidative properties of L.M.P and HMO were investigated using extracellular (DPPH), and intracellular (ROS) assays. Experimental samples represented a time and concentration-dependent formation of ROS in Hela cells. Generation of ROS seems one of the mechanisms by which HMO induces apoptosis in Hela cells. Conclusion is that the active components in L.M.P might serve as a mediator of the ROS scavenging system and have the potential to act as prooxidant or antioxidant depending on the biological environment of the cells.

  19. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Tridax Procumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti V. Vastrad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An ecofriendly approach for green synthesis of nanoparticles using natural plant extracts is gaining a notable importance nowadays. In the present study, Tridax procumbens leaf has been used to produce the silver nanoparticles (AgNps from two solvent systems (distilled water and 50% alcohol. Biosynthesis of AgNps from the leaf extracts was carried out and the characterization of the synthesized AgNps was done using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Particle Size Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Both the extracts exhibited significant results for the biosynthesis of AgNps by using silver nitrate as a reducing agent, the synthesis of AgNps was assertained by colour change from yellowish green to dark brown. The UV-Visible spectroscopy revealed the absorption maxima at 230nm and 235nm for distilled water and 50% alcohol AgNps respectively. The nanoparticle sizes were in the range from 20-154nm which was ascertained from Particle Size Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The use of nanotechnology in the textile industry has increased rapidly due to its unique and valuable properties. Also, there is an considerable potential for profitable applications of nanotechnology in cotton and other textile industries.

  20. Bacterial Endo-Symbiont Inhabiting Tridax procumbens L. and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Baker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial symbionts inhabiting Tridax procumbens L. were screened for antimicrobial potential with the aim to isolate potent bacteria bearing significant activity against test pathogens. The selected isolate was subjected to large scale fermentation to extract antimicrobial metabolite. The organic phase was reduced under vacuum pressure and crude ethyl acetate extract (10 mg/mL was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against panel of test pathogens. The antibacterial activity was measured as a zone of inhibition and compared with standard antibiotics, gentamicin and tetracycline. Similarly, antifungal activity was compared with miconazole and bavistin. Significant activity was conferred against Shigella flexneri (MTCC 731 with 27±1.5 mm zone across the disc. Partially, purification of antimicrobial metabolite with TLC-bioautography and HPLC resulted in active fraction bearing activity at Rf 0.65 and eluting between 4 and 5 retention times. The obtained results are promising enough for future purification and characterization of antimicrobial metabolite. Thus, the study attributes to the growing knowledge on endophytes as one of the rich sources of antimicrobial potentials.

  1. Effect of Launaea procumbens extract on oxidative marker, p53, and CYP 2E1: a randomized control study

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    Rahmat Ali Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethyl acetate extracts of Launaea procumbens is used for the treatment of liver dysfunction as an herbal medicine in Pakistan. In this study, the protective effects of ethyl acetate extracts were evaluated against CCl4-induced liver injuries in rat. Methods: To examine the protective effects against oxidative stress of carbon tetrachloride in rats, 30 male rats were equally divided into 5 groups (6 rats. Among five groups, one was treated with CCl4 (3 ml/kg i.p. in olive oil b.w. twice a week for 4 weeks. Others were orally fed with extracts (100, 200 mg/kg b.w., with CCl4 twice a week for 4 weeks. Results: Administration of CCl4 altered the serum marker enzymes, lipid profile, CYP 2E1, p53 expression, antioxidant enzymes, nuclear organizer regions (AgNORs, and DNA. Supplement of L. procumbens ameliorated the effects of CCl4, improved CYP 2E1, p53, and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes while activity of liver marker enzymes (ALP, ALT, AST, g-GT and contents of lipid per oxidation contents (TBARS, AgNORs, and DNA fragmentation were decreased. Similarly body weight was increased while liver and relative liver weight was decreased with co-administration of various extracts, suggesting that L. procumbens effectively protect liver against the CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats. Conclusion: The hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects might be due to the presence of bioactive constituents in the extract.

  2. Bioremediation of heavy metals using an endophytic bacterium Paenibacillus sp. RM isolated from the roots of Tridax procumbens

    OpenAIRE

    Govarthanan, M.; R. Mythili; Selvankumar, T.; Kamala-Kannan, S.; Rajasekar, A.; CHANG, Young-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the bioremediation potential of endophytic bacteria isolated from roots of Tridax procumbens plant. Five bacterial endophytes were isolated and subsequently tested for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against different heavy metals. Amongst the five isolates, strain RM exhibited the highest resistance to copper (750 mg/l), followed by zinc (500 mg/l), lead (450 mg/l), and arsenic (400 mg/l). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence sugges...

  3. Complete assignments of 1H and 13C NMR data for seven arylnaphthalide lignans from Justicia procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meihua; Wu, Jun; Cheng, Fan; Zhou, Yuan

    2006-07-01

    Three new arylnaphthalide lignans named 6'-hydroxy justicidin A (1), 6'-hydroxy justicidin B (2) and 6'-hydroxy justicidin C (3) have been isolated from the whole plant of Justicia procumbens, together with four known ones, neojusticin A (4), chinensinaphthol methyl ester (5), isodiphyllin (6) and taiwanin C (7). The complete assignments of 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts for the new lignans and the 13C NMR chemical shifts for the known lignans were obtained for the first time by means of 2D NMR techniques, including HSQC and HMBC.

  4. The evolution of armament strength: evidence for a constraint on the biting performance of claws of durophagous decapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G M

    2001-03-01

    Performance data for the claws of six sympatric species of Cancer crabs confirmed a puzzling pattern reported previously for two other decapod crustaceans (stone crabs, Menippe mercenaria, and lobsters, Homarus americanus): Although biting forces increased, maximum muscle stresses (force per unit area) declined with increasing claw size. The negative allometry of muscle stress and the stress at a given claw size were fairly consistent within and among Cancer species despite significant differences in adult body size and relative claw size, but were not consistent among decapod genera. Therefore, claw height can be used as a reliable predictor of maximum biting force for the genus Cancer, but must be used with caution as a predictor of maximum biting force in wider evolutionary and biogeographical comparisons of decapods. The decline in maximum muscle stress with increasing claw size in Cancer crabs contrasts with the pattern in several other claw traits. Significantly, three traits that affect maximal biting force increased intraspecifically with increasing claw size: relative claw size, mechanical advantage, and sarcomere length of the closer muscle. Closer apodeme area and angle of pinnation of the closer muscle fibers varied isometrically with claw size. The concordant behavior of these traits suggests selection for higher biting forces in larger crabs. The contrast between the size dependence of muscle stress (negative allometry) and the remaining claw traits (isometry or positive allometry) strongly suggests that an as yet unidentified constraint impairs muscle performance in larger claws. The negative allometry of muscle stress in two distantly related taxa (stone crabs and lobsters) further suggests this constraint may be widespread in decapod crustaceans. The implications of this performance constraint for the evolution of claw size and the "arms-race" between decapod predators and their hard-shelled prey is discussed.

  5. PetClaw: A scalable parallel nonlinear wave propagation solver for Python

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Amal

    2011-01-01

    We present PetClaw, a scalable distributed-memory solver for time-dependent nonlinear wave propagation. PetClaw unifies two well-known scientific computing packages, Clawpack and PETSc, using Python interfaces into both. We rely on Clawpack to provide the infrastructure and kernels for time-dependent nonlinear wave propagation. Similarly, we rely on PETSc to manage distributed data arrays and the communication between them.We describe both the implementation and performance of PetClaw as well as our challenges and accomplishments in scaling a Python-based code to tens of thousands of cores on the BlueGene/P architecture. The capabilities of PetClaw are demonstrated through application to a novel problem involving elastic waves in a heterogeneous medium. Very finely resolved simulations are used to demonstrate the suppression of shock formation in this system.

  6. PHENOBARBITAL AFFECTS THYROID HISTOLOGY AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AFRICAN CLAWED FROG XENOPUS LAEVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abstract highlights our recent study to explore endocrine disrupting effects of phenobarbital in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. In mammals, this chemical is known to induce the biotransforming enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) resulting in increased thyroid...

  7. Extraction of Glycosaminoglycans Containing Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate from Chicken Claw Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken cartilage (claw is a waste of chicken cuts which are widely available in Indonesia. Cartilage part of chicken claw becomes a potential source of chondroitin sulfate (CS and glucosamine (GS. This study aims to determine the most optimal extraction methods of CS and GS from cartilage of chicken claw. Various types of extraction methods used in this study are taken from the extraction by using boiling water (2 and 2.5 hours, acetic acid (7 and 17 hours, as well as proteolysis by papain (24 and 48 hours. Parameters observed include chemical characteristics of powdered cartilage of chicken claw as well as CS and GS levels in powdered cartilage of chicken claw extract. The results of this research show that the levels of CS and GS of chicken claw cartilage powder were 2.17% and 13%. Meanwhile, the highest GS level was obtained from the extraction with water treatment for 2.5 hours which was 8.1%. The treatment and duration of extraction will significantly affect the number of GS which was produced. The highest content of CS was obtained from the extraction with the enzyme treatment for 48 hours which was 2.47%. The best treatment is the extraction with water treatment for 2.5 hours which were the extracts with GS levels of 8.1% and 2.03% CS was selected through the analysis of multiple attribute.

  8. Isolasi mikroba endofitik dari tanaman obat sambung nyawa (Gynura procumbens dan analisis potensinya sebagai antimikroba

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    Rumella Simarmata

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sambung nyawa (Gynura procumbens has many beneficial effects to human health, such as decreasing blood pressure, maintaining blood sugar level (hypoglycaemic, decreasing cholesterol, a remedy for kidney trouble, antibacterial and lessen the inflamation (antiinflamation. This research was undertaken to discover the potency of endophytic microbes from sambung nyawa as antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this research was to screen the endophytic bacteria and the endophytic fungi having antimicrobial activity, which were isolated from stems, leaves, roots and fruits of medical plants, sambung nyawa. The antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the growth inhibition of pathogenic microbes i.e Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus subtilis. A total of 38 isolates of bacteria and 15 isolates of fungi were obtained from sambung nyawa. Analysis demonstrated that, 45% isolates of bacteria and 20% isolates of fungi exhibited inhibitory activity. Antimicrobial activity was found in 21% of the isolates that inhibited the growth of C. albicans, E. coli, Pseudomonas sp., and B. subtilis, whereas 24% of isolates had activity only against B. subtilis. Isolate of endophytic bacteria USN 1.1 and USN 2.3 showed the most significant of inhibition zone. The Inhibition zone of the isolate USN 1.1 to C. albicans, E. coli, Pseudomonas sp, and B. subtilis were 2.318 cm2, 0.969 cm2, 0.796 cm2, and 0.381 cm2, respectively. The Inhibition zone of the isolate USN 2.3 to C. albicans, E. coli, Pseudomonas sp., and B. subtilis were 3.01 cm2, 0.519 cm2, 0.588 cm2 and 0.83 cm2, respectively. These results indicated that endophytic bacteria and endophytic fungi could be a promising source for antimicrobial agents.

  9. Polyphenolic Profile, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Eastern Teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens L. Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Michel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dry leaf extracts of eastern teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens L. were evaluated as a source of bioactive phytocompounds through systematic activity testing and phytochemical profiling. The antioxidant efficiency was tested using five complementary in vitro models (DPPH; FRAP; linoleic acid (LA peroxidation assay; O2•− and H2O2 scavenging tests in parallel with standard antioxidants. The 75% methanol extract and its diethyl ether, ethyl acetate (EAF, n-butanol and water fractions exhibited the dose-dependent responses in all assays, with the highest capacities found for EAF (DPPH EC50 = 2.9 μg/mL; FRAP = 12.8 mmol Fe2+/g; IC50 for LA-peroxidation = 123.9 μg/mL; O2•− SC50 = 3.9 μg/mL; H2O2 SC50 = 7.2 μg/mL. The EAF had also the highest anti-inflammatory activity in the inhibition tests of lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase (60.14% and 21.83% effects, respectively, at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. Activity parameters of the extracts correlated strongly with the levels of total phenolics (72.4–270.7 mg GAE/g, procyanidins, and phenolic acids, whereas for flavonoids only moderate effects were observed. Comprehensive UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3 and HPLC-PDA studies led to the identification of 35 polyphenols with a procyanidin A-type trimer, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, isomers of caffeoylquinic acids, and (‒-epicatechin being the dominant components. Significant activity levels, high phenolic contents and high extraction yields (39.4%–42.5% DW for defatted and crude methanol extracts, respectively indicate the value of eastern teaberry leaves as bioactive products.

  10. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF WEED (Tridax procumbens L. EXTRACT ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF SOME LEGUMINOUS PLANTS

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    D Femina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous leaves extract of different concentrations of weed (Tridax procumbens L. was used to investigate their allelopathic effects on seed germination, root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight of some leguminous plants viz. Vigna radiata L. (Green gram, Dolichos biflorus L. (Horse gram and Vigna unguiculata L. (Cow pea. Mature fresh leaves of weed were crushed and soaked for 24h; the filtrates were diluted to make different concentrations and used to investigate their effect on the test crops. The experiment was carried out in sterilized petriplates with sterilized absorbent cotton kept under natural light dark cycle and was replicated 3 times. The aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens was found to have inhibitory effect on germination, root, shoot elongation and fresh and dry weight of receptor plants. The bioassays indicated that the inhibitory effect was much more pronounced at higher concentrations. The most affected crop was green gram among the test crops. The inhibitory effect was much pronounced in root length as compared to shoot and germination of the receptor crops.

  11. The effect of concrete floor roughness on bovine claws using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, A; Verhegghe, B; De Belie, N

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between bovine claws and a concrete floor with defined roughness and friction coefficients is described using a finite element model. The model was built by using x-ray tomography scanner images of an unloaded fore and hind bovine claw. These images were used to reproduce the geometry of the claw horn capsule, which was used to create a finite element model. Young's moduli of 382, 261, and 13.6 MPa were attributed to the dorsal wall horn, abaxial and axial wall horn, and bulb horn, respectively. Poisson's ratio was set at 0.38. The horn was considered an isotropic elastic material. The model was completed by introducing a rigid support that simulated a concrete floor. The floor was moved to establish contact with the claw and was loaded with a force of 2 or 6 kN. The top border area of the horn capsule was fixed, but angular rotations were allowed. With this model, the effect of varying floor roughness and claw-floor friction on contact pressures and von Mises stresses in the claw horn could be evaluated. This was demonstrated by simulating the contact between the claw models and a smooth and rough floor with a center-line roughness value R(a) of 0 or 0.175 mm, respectively, either without friction or with a static coefficient of friction of 0.75 and a dynamic coefficient of friction of 0.65. Contact pressures ranged from 2.14 to 27.55 MPa. The roughness of the floor was the main determinant in subsequent contact pressures. Maximum von Mises stresses were registered in the claw sole and were mostly between 5.04 and 16.44 MPa, but could be higher in specific situations. The variables claw (fore or hind) and floor (smooth or rough) had significant effects on the contact pressures; in addition, the floor resulted in significantly different von Mises stresses in the claw horn. The variable friction (frictionless or with friction) had a significant effect on the von Mises stresses. The load did not result in significantly different contact pressures and

  12. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

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    Walid Refaai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow was considered to have subclinical IMI if it had at least one subclinically infected quarter (=3. Cows were inspected carefully for claw disorders that recorded based on type and site. Locomotion and body condition scores were also recorded for each cow in addition to the limb affected. The association between the CMT and other explanatory variables was tested by Fisher's exact test. Results: The prevalence of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders was 81.4% (35/43 and 32.6% (14/43, respectively. Digital dermatitis (DD and heel horn erosion were the most prevalent infectious type with 79% (34/43 and 58% (25/43, respectively, while wall fissure was the most identified non-infectious one 11.6% (5/43. The prevalence of claw disorders in hind limbs was 88.4% (38/43 and 11.6% (5/43 in the forelimbs. Infectious claw disorders were significantly associated with the subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT (p<0.05. Non-infectious claw affections, locomotion score, body condition score, and the affected limb had no association with the occurrence of subclinical IMI. Conclusion: DD is the highest prevalent claw disorder observed in dairy cows in Egypt. The hind limbs are more susceptible to claw disorders than the forelimbs. Infectious type of claw disorders is significantly associated with subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions indicating

  13. Pioneer identification of fake tiger claws using morphometric and DNA-based analysis in wildlife forensics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipin; Sharma, Vinita; Sharma, Chandra Prakash; Kumar, Ved Prakash; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2016-09-01

    The illegal trade in wildlife is a serious threat to the existence of wild animals throughout the world. The short supply and high demand for wildlife articles have caused an influx of many different forms of fake wildlife articles into this trade. The task of identifying the materials used in making such articles poses challenges in wildlife forensics as different approaches are required for species identification. Claws constitute 3.8% of the illegal animal parts (n=2899) received at the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) for species identification. We describe the identification of seized suspected tiger claws (n=18) using a combined approach of morphometric and DNA-based analysis. The differential keratin density, determined using X-ray radiographs, indicated that none of the 18 claws were of any large cat but were fake. We determined three claw measurements, viz. ac (from the external coronary dermo-epidermal interface to the epidermis of the skin fold connecting the palmar flanges of the coronary horn), bc (from the claw tip to the epidermis of the skin fold connecting the palmar flanges of the coronary horn) and the ratio bc/ac, for all the seized (n=18), tiger (n=23) and leopard (n=49) claws. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. A scatter plot generated using canonical discriminant function analysis revealed that of the 18 seized claws, 14 claws formed a cluster separate from the clusters of the tiger and leopard claws, whereas the remaining four claws were within the leopard cluster. Because a discrepancy was observed between the X-ray images and the measurements of these four claws, one of the claw that clustered with the leopard claws was chosen randomly and DNA analysis carried out using the cyt b (137bp) and 16S rRNA (410bp) genes. A BLAST search and comparison with the reference database at WII indicated that the keratin material of the claw was derived from Bos taurus (cattle). This is a pioneering discovery, and

  14. [Influence of floor surface and access to pasture on claw characteristics in dairy cows kept in cubicle housing systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, H C; Friedli, K; Gygax, L; Wechsler, B

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the floor type used in the walking area of cubicle housing systems and of access to pasture on claw dimensions and claw shape in dairy cows. Data were collected on 36 farms, 12 farms each fitted with mastic asphalt, slatted concrete or solid rubber flooring. With each floor type, cows on half of the farms had access to pasture in summer. The farms were visited three times at intervals of about 6 months and data were collected from 10 cows during each visit. Net growth of the claw horn was highest on rubber flooring and lowest on mastic asphalt. On all floor types, claw angles were larger after the winter period and smaller after the summer period. With regard to claw shape, floor type had an effect on the occurrence of flat, concave and overgrown claw soles. In conclusion, none of the investigated floor types was clearly superior to the others with regard to claw dimensions and claw shape, and access to pasture during summer (median 4 h per day) had only little influence on the investigated claw characteristics.

  15. Results of Iris-Claw Intraocular Lens Implantation in Aphakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tahir Şam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the visual outcomes and complications of iris-claw intraocular lenses (ICIOL implanted in cases of aphakia or in cataract surgery with insufficient capsule support. Material and Method: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of 34 eyes of 34 patients who had undergone ICIOL implantation with a minimum follow-up of 12 months in Bucak State Hospital and in a private hospital between November 2007 and November 2012. Results: Twenty-one eyes with complicated cataract accompanied by zonular deficiency, 8 eyes with aphakia, and 5 eyes with dislocated IOL were operated and ICIOL implanted. Mean preoperative BCVA was 1.46±1.05 LogMAR and postoperative BCVA was 0.20±0.21 LogMAR. There was an improvement in visual acuity in 31 eyes of the 34 patients, and 29 of them had a visual acuity better than 6/12 postoperatively. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent (SE was -0.76±0.94 D, and deviation from estimated SE was -0.26±0.94 D. Mean preoperative astigmatism was -1.36±0.77 Cyl D and mean postoperative astigmatism was -0.98±0.82 Cyl D. In second postoperative month, one case had a pupillary block glaucoma due to the closure of peripheral iridotomy, and after ND-YAG laser treatment, intraocular pressure return to normal value. One eye had iris pigment precipitates on the ICIOL in early postoperative period, and in one case, there was a pupillary ovalization. Three months after a cataract surgery, retinal detachment developed in one eye of a patient who had a history of severe ocular trauma; anterior vitrectomy and ICIOL implantation were performed. Visual acuity remained unchanged after a successful pars plana vitrectomy operation. Conclusion: Iris-claw lenses provide fairly good visual outcomes in aphakic eyes without capsular support and in challenging cataract cases with zonular deficiency. They are safe regarding complications when compared to other alternative intraocular lens implantation methods

  16. Measuring Claw Conformation in Cattle: Assessing the Agreement between Manual and Digital Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. Laven

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Five measurements of claw conformation (toe angle, claw height, claw width, toe length and abaxial groove length taken directly from the hoof were compared with the measurements taken from digital images of the same claws. Concordance correlation coefficients and limits-of-agreement analysis showed that, for four of the five measures (claw height, claw width, toe length and abaxial groove length, agreement was too poor for digital and manual measures to be used interchangeably. For all four of these measures, Liao’s modified concordance correlation coefficient (mCCC was ≤0.4, indicating poor concordance despite Pearson’s correlation being >0.6 in all cases. The worst concordance was seen for toe length (mCCC = 0.13. Limits-of-agreement analysis showed that, for all four measures, there was a large variation in the difference between the manual and digital methods, even when the effect of mean on difference was accounted for, with the 95% limits-of-agreement for the four measures being further away from the mean difference than 10% of the mean in all four cases. The only one of the five measures with an acceptable concordance between digital and manual measurement was toe angle (mCCC = 0.81. Nevertheless, the limits-of-agreement analysis showed that there was a systematic bias with, on average, the manual measure of toe angle, being 2.1° smaller than the digital. The 95% limits-of-agreement for toe angle were ±3.4°, probably at the upper limit of what is acceptable. However, the lack of data on the variability of individual measurements of claw conformation means that it is unclear how this variability compares to measurement of toe angle in the same animal using the same or a different manual technique.

  17. Pedal claw curvature in birds, lizards and mesozoic dinosaurs--complicated categories and compensating for mass-specific and phylogenetic control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra V Birn-Jeffery

    Full Text Available Pedal claw geometry can be used to predict behaviour in extant tetrapods and has frequently been used as an indicator of lifestyle and ecology in Mesozoic birds and other fossil reptiles, sometimes without acknowledgement of the caveat that data from other aspects of morphology and proportions also need to be considered. Variation in styles of measurement (both inner and outer claw curvature angles has made it difficult to compare results across studies, as have over-simplified ecological categories. We sought to increase sample size in a new analysis devised to test claw geometry against ecological niche. We found that taxa from different behavioural categories overlapped extensively in claw geometry. Whilst most taxa plotted as predicted, some fossil taxa were recovered in unexpected positions. Inner and outer claw curvatures were statistically correlated, and both correlated with relative claw robusticity (mid-point claw height. We corrected for mass and phylogeny, as both likely influence claw morphology. We conclude that there is no strong mass-specific effect on claw curvature; furthermore, correlations between claw geometry and behaviour are consistent across disparate clades. By using independent contrasts to correct for phylogeny, we found little significant relationship between claw geometry and behaviour. 'Ground-dweller' claws are less curved and relatively dorsoventrally deep relative to those of other behavioural categories; beyond this it is difficult to assign an explicit category to a claw based purely on geometry.

  18. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Martha L.; Evans, Ben J.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types — click, burst and trill — that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  19. Chronic exposures to monomethyl phthalate in Western clawed frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu-Denoncourt, Justine; de Solla, Shane R; Langlois, Valerie S

    2015-08-01

    Polymer flexibility and elasticity is enhanced by plasticizers. However, plasticizers are often not covalently bound to plastics and thus can leach from products into the environment. Much research effort has focused on their effects in mammalian species, but data on aquatic species are scarce. In this study, Western clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis) embryos were exposed to 1.3, 12.3, and 128.7mg/L monomethyl phthalate (MMP) until the juvenile stage (11weeks) and to 1.3mg/L MMP until the adult stage (51weeks). MMP decreased survival, hastened metamorphosis, and biased the sex ratio toward males (2M:1F) at the juvenile stage without altering the expression of a subset of thyroid hormone-, sex steroid-, cellular stress- or transcription regulation-related genes in the juvenile frog livers. At the adult stage, exposure to MMP did not have significant adverse health effects, except that females had larger interocular distance and the expression of the heat shock protein 70 was decreased by 60% in the adult liver. In conclusion, this study shows that MMP is unlikely to threaten amphibian populations as only concentrations four orders of magnitude higher than the reported environmental concentrations altered the animal physiology. This is the first complete investigation of the effects of phthalates in a frog species, encompassing the entire life cycle of the organisms. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Martha L; Evans, Ben J; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types - click, burst and trill - that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure.

  1. Heterometallic aluminates: alkali metals trapped by an aluminium aryloxide claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M Teresa; Cuenca, Tomás; Mosquera, Marta E G

    2014-10-14

    A series of heterometallic aluminium-alkali metal species [AlMMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}2]n have been isolated for lithium, sodium and potassium. These compounds can be generated by the reaction of [AlMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}]2 with the metallated phenol [M{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}]n or through the reaction of the mixture of AlMe3 and the appropriate alkali metal alkyl base with two equivalents of 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. In the heterometallic species obtained, the {AlMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}2}(-) moiety is observed and could be described as a claw which fixes the alkali ion by the phenoxide oxygen atoms while the methoxy groups help to stabilize their coordination sphere. All compounds have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Catalytic studies reveal that these compounds are active in ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide.

  2. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy of Iris-claw Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayong Yu; Zhende Lin; Xiaoyu Cai; Xiuqi Chen; Shuke Luo; Yonghua Li

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To study in situ the intraocular position of iris-claw phakic intraocular lens (ICPIOL) in myopic eyes using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).Methods: UBM echograms of the anterior segment were taken preoperatively and 62to 115 days postoperatively in 6 eyes implanted with the Verisys ICPIOL (AMO). The echograms were assessed for the effect of the ICPIOL on iris tissue.Results: The preoperative distance between the corneal endothelium and the lens ranged from 2.96 to 3.09 mm, and the postoperative distance between the ICPIOL and the corneal endothelium, from 1.86 to 2.03 mm. The distance between the lens and the posterior surface of the ICPIOL ranged from 0.61 to 0.76 mm. The distance between the superior, inferior optic edge and the iris ranged from 0.49 to 1.00 mm,0.21 to 0.51 mm respectively. The shortest distance between the ICPIOL haptics and the angle of anterior chamber ranged from 1.25 to 1.65 mm. The indentation of iris tissue by the ICPIOL haptics without pigmentary dispersion and distortion of posterior curvature of iris was observed.Conclusion: Adequate space is maintained between the Verisyse myopic ICPIOL and the corneal endothelium, angle, and crystalline lens. Haptic indentation of the iris without pigment erosion and distortion of iris curvature is noted. The ICPIOL implanted in phakic eyes is a safe alternative for treatment of high myopia.

  3. Chemical constituents in Tridax procumbens%羽芒菊化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐润生; 袁珂; 殷明文; 方磊杰; 毛浓浓

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents in Tridax procumbens from Hainan Province. Methods The constituents were separated and purified by column chromatography with macroporous ad-sorption resin Diaion HP-20, MCI Gel CHP-20, Sephadex LH-20, and normal phase silica gel. Their structures were identified on the basis of physiochemical properties and spectral methods (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, ESI-MS, and IR). Results Five compounds were iso-lated and identified as: 8, 3'-dihydroxy-3, 7, 4'-trimethoxy-6-O-β-D-flavone glycoside-6"-acetate (Ⅰ), stigmasterol (Ⅱ), β-sitosterol (Ⅲ), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (Ⅳ), apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (Ⅴ).Conclusion Compound Ⅰ is a new compound, named tridprocumoside A, the other compounds are isola-ted from this plant for the first time.%目的 研究羽芒菊Tridax procumbens的化学成分.方法 利用Diaion HP-20、MCI-Gel CHP-20、Sepha-dex LH-20及硅胶等柱色谱法对羽芒菊中的化学成分进行分离纯化,根据理化性质和波谱技术(1H-NMR、13C-NMR、DEPT、1H-1H COSY、HSQC、HMBC、ESI-MS、IR)鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从中分离鉴定了5个化合物:8,3'-二羟基-3,7,4'-三甲氧基-6-O-β-D-葡萄糖黄酮苷-6"-乙酸酯(Ⅰ)、豆甾醇(Ⅱ)、β-谷甾醇(Ⅲ)、邻苯二甲酸二-(2-乙基)己酯(Ⅳ)、芹菜素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(Ⅴ).结论 化合物Ⅰ为新化合物,命名为羽芒菊苷A(trid-proeumoside A).化合物Ⅱ~Ⅴ为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  4. GeoClaw-STRICHE: A coupled model for Sediment TRansport In Coastal Hazard Events

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    GeoClaw-STRICHE is designed for simulating the physical impacts of tsunami as it relates to erosion, transport and deposition. GeoClaw-STRICHE comprises of three components: (1) nonlinear shallow water equations; (2) advection-diffusion equation; (3) an equation for morphology updating. Multiple grain sizes and sediment layers are added into GeoClaw-STRICHE to simulate grain-size distribution and add the capability to develop grain-size trends from bottom to the top of a simulated deposit as well as along the inundation. Unlike previous models based on empirical equations or sediment concentration gradient, the standard Van Leer method is applied to calculate sediment flux. We tested and verified GeoClaw-STRICHE with flume experiment by \\citet{johnson2016experimental} and data from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Kuala Meurisi as published in \\citet{JGRF:JGRF786}. The comparison with experimental data shows GeoClaw-STRICHE's capability to simulate sediment thickness and grain-size distribution in experimenta...

  5. Effect of Tridax procumbens on liver antioxidant defense system during lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis in D-galactosamine sensitised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the effect of chloroform insoluble fraction of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (TP) against D-Galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS)-induced hepatitis in rats. Induction of rats with D-GalN/LPS (300 mg/kg body weight/30 microg/kg body weight) led to a marked increase in lipid peroxidation as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver. Further there was a decline in the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione s-transferase and the levels of non-enzymic antioxidants namely reduced glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E. These biochemical alterations were normalised upon pretreatment with TP extract. Thus, the above results suggest that TP (300 mg/kg body weight orally for 10 days) is very effective in allievating the D-GalN/LPS-induced oxidative stress suggesting its antioxidant property.

  6. Corrosion inhibition and adsorption characteristics of Tridax Procumbens L leaves extract on mild steel immersed in 1M HCl solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kanayo ALANEME

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition and adsorption mechanism of Tridax procumbens Linn leaves extract on mild steel immersed in 1M HCl solution was investigated. Mass loss, corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency from gravimetric and potentiodynamic polarization measurements, atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy; were used for the analysis. The results show that within the selected range of concentration of the extract and corrosion test temperatures, the inhibition efficiency obtained was within the range of 81 and 96 %. The efficiency values were observed to increase with increase in the extract concentration but decreased slightly with increase in temperature. The inhibitor molecules were noted to be physically adsorbed on the mild steel surface with OH, NH, and CO groups confirmed as the active phytochemical constituents in the extract responsible for the adsorption. The adsorption process fitted perfectly with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicating that the extract was strongly adsorbed on the mild steel surface.

  7. HJC, a new arylnaphthalene lignan isolated from Justicia procumbens, causes apoptosis and caspase activation in K562 leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaoyang; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Meihua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether HJC, isolated from Justicia procumbens for the first time, can suppress the proliferation and induce apoptosis of human leukemia K562 cells and finally clarify its related mechanism. The chemical structure of HJC was validated by LC-ESI-MS/MS, cytotoxicity was assayed using MTT, and apoptosis was investigated by flow cytometry. These assays indicated that HJC remarkably inhibited the growth in K562 cells by decreasing cell proliferation, reducing the SOD activity, enhancing ROS levels and inducing apoptosis. Activation of caspase-3 indicated that HJC may be inducing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways and that HJC-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent. This study suggests that HJC is a high-potency anti-tumor agent, and it induces apoptosis through a caspase-dependent pathway in human leukemia K562 cells. It also presents a potential alternative to leukemia therapy.

  8. Morphological correlates of the grooming claw in distal phalanges of platyrrhines and other primates: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Stephanie; Boyer, Doug M; Rosenberger, Alfred

    2011-12-01

    Grooming claws are present on the second pedal digits of strepsirhines and on the second and third pedal digits of tarsiers. However, their presence in New World monkeys is often overlooked. As such, the absence of a grooming claw is generally considered an anthropoid synapomorphy. This study utilizes a quantitative multivariate analysis to define grooming claw morphology and document its presence in platyrrhine monkeys. Our results show that owl monkeys possess grooming claws similar to those of strepsirhines, while titi monkeys possess grooming claw-like morphology. Therefore, we conclude that anthropoids are not clearly united by the absence of a grooming claw. Furthermore, due to their presence in three major primate clades, we infer that it is likely that a grooming claw was present on the second pedal digit of the ancestor of living primates. Therefore, we advise the reassessment of fossil adapids in light of the anatomical correlates described here. This should increase resolution on the homology and polarity of grooming claw morphology, and, therefore, will help provide a sharper picture of primate evolution.

  9. PERTUMBUHAN KALUS DAUN DEWA [Gynura procumbens (Lour Merr.] DENGAN KOMBINASI 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID DAN KINETIN SECARA INVITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samkhatin Khaniyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman daun dewa [Gynura procumbens (Lour Merr.] berguna untuk menurunkan kadar kolesterol darah, mengobati diabetes, tumor, dan sebagai obat anti kanker. Daun dewa mengandung senyawa metabolit sekunder yaitu flavonoid, saponin, dan minyak atsiri. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya kultur in vitro yang diharapkan mampu meningkatkan jumlah metabolit sekunder, maka perlu dilakukan penelitian tentang induksi kalusdengan penambahan kombinasi 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid dan kinetin yang tepat dapat digunakan untuk menginduksi kalus daun dewa. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengkaji pengaruh konsentrasi 2,4-D dan Kinetin serta interaksi keduanya terhadap induksi kalus daun dewa. Analisis menggunakan anava dua arah dan uji lanjut Duncan. Parameter yang diamati adalah parameter persentase eksplan yang hidup, persentase berkalus, berat basah, kering kalus, serta tekstur dan warna kalus . Dari Uji Jarak Berganda Duncan diperoleh hasil tertinggi pada konsentrasi 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 0.5 ppm dan konsentrasi kinetin 1 ppm sebesar 33.33% pada parameter persentase berkalus.Daun dewa [Gynura procumbens (Lour. Merr.] plant can be used to lower the blood cholesterol levels, to treat diabetes and tumors, and may be used as an anti-cancer drug. Daun dewa plant produces of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and essential oils. An in vitro culture is a necessity to increase the quantity of secondary metabolites using callus induction with the addition of a combination of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and kinetin to induce daun dewa callus. The research will ecamine the influence of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and Kinetin in various concentrations and their interaction on callus induction of daun dewa. Data were analyzed using advanced two-way anova and Duncan test. The test showed that the highest yeield was obtained from the combination of 0.5 ppm 2,4-D and 1 ppm kinetin, where 33.33% of plants had callus.

  10. Mechanism Design of Crab Claw Gathering Arm Loader%蟹爪装载机构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽颖; 孙大勇

    2011-01-01

    The crab claw loading mechanism is comprised of a pair of crab claw shape structures, that is why we call it "crab claw".It works alternately with left and right crab claw, it can continuously load with high efficiency.This paper describes briefly parameters confirmation method of crab claw loading mechanism.%蟹爪装载机构由一对形似蟹爪的结构组成,因此得名.工作时,左右两个蟹爪交替工作,能连续装载,工作效率高.本文简述蟹爪装载机构各参数确定的方法.

  11. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Stephanie; Boyer, Doug M; Bloch, Jonathan I; Gilbert, Christopher C; Groenke, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans). Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21), tegulae (n = 4), and grooming claws (n = 10), and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7). Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae) and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  12. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaai, Walid; Gad, Medhat; Mahmmod, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs) diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT) in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow was considered to have subclinical IMI if it had at least one subclinically infected quarter (≥3). Cows were inspected carefully for claw disorders that recorded based on type and site. Locomotion and body condition scores were also recorded for each cow in addition to the limb affected. The association between the CMT and other explanatory variables was tested by Fisher’s exact test. Results: The prevalence of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders was 81.4% (35/43) and 32.6% (14/43), respectively. Digital dermatitis (DD) and heel horn erosion were the most prevalent infectious type with 79% (34/43) and 58% (25/43), respectively, while wall fissure was the most identified non-infectious one 11.6% (5/43). The prevalence of claw disorders in hind limbs was 88.4% (38/43) and 11.6% (5/43) in the forelimbs. Infectious claw disorders were significantly associated with the subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT (pCMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions indicating that the infectious types of claw affections may influence the udder health. PMID:28435201

  13. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Maiolino

    Full Text Available Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans. Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21, tegulae (n = 4, and grooming claws (n = 10, and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  14. Prevalence of claw disorders in Dutch dairy cows exposed to several floor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, J G C J; Frankena, K; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Metz, J H M

    2003-06-01

    Claw health was examined in an observational study on Dutch dairy farms with either a slatted floor (SL), slatted floor with manure scraper (SL-SCR), solid concrete floor (SCF), a straw yard (SY), or a zero-grazing feeding system (ZG). Hooves of cows' hind legs were examined for the presence and severity of claw disorders during hoof trimming events at the end of the pasture (P-study) and housing period (H-study). The number of cows in each study was 3078 (49 herds) and 3190 (47 herds), respectively. Due to a different hoof trimming strategy, data collected during both observation periods in SY herds (638 cows; 16 herds) were combined. Cows in straw yards (SY) had by far the lowest numbers of claw disorders. Over 80% of cows exposed to concrete flooring had at least one claw disorder at the time of observation, whereas on SY surfaces, this percentage was between 55 and 60. Cows on SL-SCR were less frequently affected by interdigital dermatitis/heel erosion (IDHE) and digital dermatitis (DD) than cows on SL (reference floor system). Little difference in claw health was found between SF and SL. The ZG cows were at higher risk (OR > 2) for most claw disorders in the P-study, whereas in the H-study, ZG cows showed less IDHE, sole hemorrhage, and sole ulcer. All herds on concrete flooring (SL, SL-SCR, SCF, ZG) were infected by DD, resulting in an average cow level prevalence of 30%. This indicates that the level of DD infection has increased considerably over the last 10 yr in The Netherlands.

  15. Comparison of claw health and milk yield in dairy cows on elastic or concrete flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, P V; Nueske, S; Scholz, A M; Foerster, M

    2007-10-01

    This article reports on the effects of elastic (rubber) flooring compared with concrete flooring on claw health and milk yield in dairy cows. Milk yield and activity data of 53 complete lactations from 49 cows were recorded by an automatic milking system in the University of Munich Livestock Center dairy herd. Cows were kept in a loose housing system on concrete-slatted or rubber-matted slatted flooring. Claws were trimmed and measured linearly in combination with claw lesion diagnosis 3 times during one lactation period (including the transition phase). An automatic milking system recorded milk yield and activity. The net horn growth of the claws increased on elastic flooring. Therefore, correct and frequent claw trimming is at least as important for claw health in dairy herds kept on rubber flooring as for those on concrete-slatted flooring. Cows housed on rubber had an increased incidence of sole ulcers. Sole hemorrhages (except for hemorrhages associated with sole ulcers) occurred less frequently on rubber than on concrete. Results concerning digital dermatitis were difficult to assess, because manual manure scraping on rubber required sprinkling the flooring twice daily, which additionally moistened the digital skin of the cows. This might explain the greater incidence of digital dermatitis on elastic flooring. The incidence of clinically lame cows did not differ between flooring types. Cows showed greater activity on rubber, most likely caused by the more comfortable walking surface compared with the concrete-slatted flooring. The greater activity may indicate better overall health of high-yielding dairy cows on rubber flooring. Milk yield, however, did not differ between flooring types.

  16. Anterior Chamber Iris Claw Lens for the Treatment of Aphakia in a Patient with Megalocornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffra, Norman; Rakhamimov, Aleksandr; Masini, Robert; Rosenthal, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Megalocornea in isolation is a rare congenital enlargement of the cornea greater than 13 mm in diameter. Patients with megalocornea are prone to cataract formation, crystalline lens subluxation, zonular deficiencies and dislocation of the posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) within the capsular bag. A 55-year-old male with megalocornea in isolation developed subluxation of the capsular bag and PCIOL. The PCIOL and capsular bag were explanted, and the patient was subsequently implanted with an anterior chamber iris claw lens. An anterior chamber iris claw lens is an effective option for the correction of aphakia in patients with megalocornea. PMID:26120314

  17. A Green Approach to Synthesize Silver Nanoparticles in Starch-co-Poly(acrylamide) Hydrogels by Tridax procumbens Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Siraj Shaik; Madhusudana Rao Kummara; Sudhakar Poluru; Chandrababu Allu; Jaffer Mohiddin Gooty; Chowdoji Rao Kashayi; Marata Chinna Subbarao Subha

    2013-01-01

    A series of starch-co-poly(acrylamide) (starch-co-PAAm) hydrogels were synthesized by employing free radical redox polymerization. A novel green approach, Tridax procumbens (TD) leaf extract, was used for reduction of silver ions (Ag+) into silver nanoparticles in the starch-co-PAAm hydrogel network. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TE...

  18. Preparative isolation and purification of lignans from Justicia procumbens using high-speed counter-current chromatography in stepwise elution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peijuan; Luo, Qijun; Ding, Lijian; Fang, Fang; Yuan, Ye; Chen, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinrong; Jin, Haixiao; He, Shan

    2015-04-20

    Lignans, which are recognized as main constituents in Justicia procumbens, have attracted considerable attention due to their pharmacological activities, including antitumor, anti-hepatitic, cytotoxic, anti-microbial, and anti-virus properties. Preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of four lignans (justicidin B (1), justicidin A (2), 6'-hydroxyjusticidin C (3) and lignan J1 (4)) from J. procumbens using stepwise elution with a pair of two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1.3:1:1.3:1, v/v) and (2.5:1:2.5:1, v/v). The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 300 mg of crude sample yielding compounds 1 (19.7 mg), 2 (9.86 mg), 3 (11.26 mg), and 4 (2.54 mg) in a one-step separation, with purities over 95% as determined by HPLC. The structures of these compounds were identified by MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. This is the first report on the application of HSCCC to the efficient separation of lignans from J. procumbens.

  19. 爵床中一个新的木脂体苷——爵床苷E%A New Lignan Glycoside Procumbenoside E from Justicia Procumbens L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴威巍; 缪刘萍; 王鑫杰; 吴彤

    2012-01-01

    用硅胶柱色谱和Sephadex LH-20柱色谱对安徽产爵床(Justicia procumbens L.)全草乙醇提取物的乙酸乙酯和正丁醇部位进行分离纯化,得到6个单体化合物,通过IR、NMR等波谱技术以及一些化学方法推测化合物结构,分别为爵床脂素A(1)、新爵床脂素B(2)、爵床脂素B(3)、爵床苷B(4)、尿嘧啶(5)和爵床苷E(6),其中6为新的木脂体苷类化合物.%The chemical constituents from the overground portion of Justicia procumbens L. were studied. Silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographic techniques were used for the isolation and purification of the chemical constituents of the ethyl acetate and w-butanol portion of the plant. Six compounds, identified as justicidin A (1), neojusticin B (2), justicidin B (3), procumbenoside B (4), uracil (5) and procumbenoside E (6), were isolated and their structures were elucidated by the means of IR, MS and NMR spectroscopy and some chemical methods. Among them, compound 6 was a new compound isolated from Justicia procumbens L.

  20. Effect of different flooring systems on weight and pressure distribution on claws of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Bergsten, C; Magnusson, M; Ventorp, M; Nilsson, C

    2008-05-01

    Weight and pressure distribution on the claw were studied in Swedish Holsteins housed in different flooring systems. A total of 127 cows housed in different sections of the experimental barn were used. Each section had different flooring in the walking and standing areas. There were rubber mats or abrasive mastic asphalt flooring on the alleys or a low-abrasive slatted concrete floor. Some sections had feed-stalls equipped with rubber mats; other sections did not. The vertical ground reaction force, contact area, and average contact pressure were determined on the left hind foot using the I-Scan system and analyzed with the F-scan system. These determinations were made in each of the following 3 zones of the claw: bulb, wall, and sole. Most of the weight on claws exposed to concrete floors was carried by the bulb (37.4 +/- 3.5 and 18.3 +/- 2.9% of weight exerted on the foot in the lateral and medial claw, respectively) and the wall zone (20.0 +/- 2.6 and 13.4 +/- 2.4% on lateral and medial claw, respectively). The weight and pressure distribution in cows kept on sections with rubber covered alleys but passing daily over the asphalt floor on their way to the milking parlor did not differ in any zones, except for lateral bulbs, compared with those exposed to slatted concrete alone. Still, the weight bearing of the sole zone in cows kept on rubber mats without access to asphalt was less than that of cows kept on concrete slatted floors (5.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 12.7 +/- 1.1% and 1.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.7 +/- 0.7% in lateral and medial claws, respectively). In cows kept on asphalt flooring without feed-stalls, most weight was exerted to the sole zone (36.2 +/- 2.9 and 22.2 +/- 1.8% in lateral and medial claws, respectively). Feed-stalls in combination with asphalt flooring yielded a decreased total contact area (30.1 +/- 1.2 cm(2)) compared with asphalt floors without feed-stalls (35.7 +/- 1.2 cm(2)). The largest total contact area was obtained on the asphalt floor without feed

  1. Opaque iris claw lens in a phakic eye to correct acquired diplopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landesz, M; Worst, JGF; Rij, GV; Houtman, WA

    1997-01-01

    A 25-year-old man had diplopia caused by abducens nerve paresis on both sides after cranial injury. Because of the patient's reports of persistent diplopia after surgical correction, a specially manufactured, tinted iris claw lens was implanted in the left eye, with the crystalline lens in situ. Fou

  2. Sow and piglet skin, claw and nipple lesions on two concrete flooring materials during lactation period

    OpenAIRE

    Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna; Munksgaard, Lene; Saloniemi, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the skin, claw and nipple lesions of sows and their piglets while they were kept on two different flooring materials: concrete cement and concrete covered with polyurethane and graveled with sand (particles 0.5-1.2 mm).

  3. Prevalence of claw disorders in Dutch dairy cows exposed to several floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Claw health was examined in an observational study on Dutch dairy farms with either a slatted floor (SL), slatted floor with manure scraper (SL-SCR), solid concrete floor (SCF), a straw yard (SY), or a zero-grazing feeding system (ZG). Hooves of cows' hind legs were examined for the presence and sev

  4. Operation EAGLE CLAW: Pioneer of Modern Aviation Tactics, Techniques and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    The Iran Hostage Rescue Mission," Air & Space Power Journal- Espanol , Fall 2006. Kyle, James H., and John Robert Edison. The Guts to Try: The Untold...Kamps, "Operation EAGLE CLAW: The Iran Hostage Rescue Mission," Air & Space Power Journal- Espanol , (Fall 2006), 1. 5 Rapid Ground Refueling is the

  5. PyClaw: Accessible, Extensible, Scalable Tools for Wave Propagation Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2012-08-15

    Development of scientific software involves tradeoffs between ease of use, generality, and performance. We describe the design of a general hyperbolic PDE solver that can be operated with the convenience of MATLAB yet achieves efficiency near that of hand-coded Fortran and scales to the largest supercomputers. This is achieved by using Python for most of the code while employing automatically wrapped Fortran kernels for computationally intensive routines, and using Python bindings to interface with a parallel computing library and other numerical packages. The software described here is PyClaw, a Python-based structured grid solver for general systems of hyperbolic PDEs [K. T. Mandli et al., PyClaw Software, Version 1.0, http://numerics.kaust.edu.sa/pyclaw/ (2011)]. PyClaw provides a powerful and intuitive interface to the algorithms of the existing Fortran codes Clawpack and SharpClaw, simplifying code development and use while providing massive parallelism and scalable solvers via the PETSc library. The package is further augmented by use of PyWENO for generation of efficient high-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstruction code. The simplicity, capability, and performance of this approach are demonstrated through application to example problems in shallow water flow, compressible flow, and elasticity.

  6. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION VARIABILITY IN THE Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw WILD POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Maribel Condori Peñaloza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw is a vine widely distributed throughout the South-American rainforest. Many studies investigating the chemical composition of cat's claw have focused on the pentacyclic (POA and tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (TOA, quinovic acid glycosides (QAG, and polyphenols (PPH. Nevertheless, it is still uncertain how environmental factors affect chemical groups. The aim of this work was to better understand the influence of environmental factors (geographic origin, altitude, and season on cat's claw chemical composition. Stem bark, branches and leaf samples were extracted and analyzed by HPLC-PDA. The data obtained were explored by multivariate analysis (HCA and PCA. Higher amounts of oxindole alkaloids and PPH were found in leaves, followed by stem bark and branches. No clear relationship was verified among geographic origin or altitude and chemical composition, which remained unchanged regardless of season (dry or rainy. However, three oxindole alkaloid chemotypes were clearly recognized: chemotype I (POA with cis D/E ring junction; chemotype II (POA with trans D/E ring junction; and chemotype III (TOA. Thus, environmental factors appear to have only a minor influence on the chemical heterogeneity of the cat's claw wild population. Nevertheless, the occurrence of different chemotypes based on alkaloid profiles seems to be clear.

  7. Monitoring of noble, signal and narrow-clawed crayfish using environmental DNA from freshwater samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersnap, Sune; Larsen, William Brenner; Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    human assisted expansion of non-indigenous signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus that carry and transmit the crayfish plague pathogen. In Denmark, also the non-indigenous narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus has expanded due to anthropogenic activities. Knowledge about crayfish distribution...

  8. CORRECTION OF HIGH MYOPIA WITH THE WORST MYOPIA CLAW INTRAOCULAR-LENS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANDESZ, M; WORST, JGF; SIERTSEMA, JV; VANRIJ, G

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phakic anterior chamber lenses is one of the modalities used to correct high myopia, We report the initial results of our prospective study on the Worst myopia claw intraocular lens (IOL) that is fixated to the anterior iris, METHODS: We studied 35 eyes in 18 patients with a preoperative

  9. NEIGHBORHOOD UNION OF INDEPENDENT SETS AND HAMILTONICITY OF CLAW-FREE GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuXinping

    2005-01-01

    Let G be a graph,for any u∈V(G),let N(u) denote the neighborhood of u and d(u)=|N(u)| be the degree of u. For any U V(G) ,let N(U)=Uu,∈UN(u), and d(U)=|N(U)|.A graph G is called claw-free if it has no induced subgraph isomorphic to K1.3. One of the fundamental results concerning cycles in claw-free graphs is due to Tian Feng,et al. : Let G be a 2-connected claw-free graph of order n,and d(u)+d(v)+d(w)≥n-2 for every independent vertex set {u,v,w} of G, then G is Hamiltonian. It is proved that, for any three positive integers s ,t and w,such that if G is a (s+t+w-1)connected claw-free graph of order n,and d(S)+d(T)+d(W)>n-(s+t+w) for every three disjoint independent vertex sets S,T,W with |S |=s, |T|=t, |W|=w,and S∪T∪W is also independent ,then G is Hamiltonian. Other related results are obtained too.

  10. Claw disorders in dairy cattle - an unexpected association between energy metabolism and sole haemorrhages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Katrin; Wilhelm, Jürgen; Fürll, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated whether changes of energy metabolism post-partum (pp) are associated with claw health. For this purpose, back-fat-thickness (BFT) was measured and blood samples were taken from 146 cows at four examination times. The serum levels of free fatty acids (FFA), ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose were measured. Furthermore, in the first week postpartum (pp) and at 8 weeks pp, a claw trimming was done and the presence and extent of sole haemorrhages (SH) was recorded. Animals with high BFT at calving and therefore high fat mobilisation and whose FFA and BHB levels in the first week pp exceeded the reference values had fewer pathological changes of the claws than thinner animals whose FFA and BHB levels stayed within reference ranges. The body condition before calving, represented in this study by BFT, plays an important role in non-infectious claw disorders. Poorer body condition was found to be associated with the SH that develop in the first 2 months of lactation.

  11. Do culverts impact the movements of the endangered white-clawed crayfish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Culverts can impact the migration and dispersal of aquatic animals and result in population fragmentation, increasing the risk of local extinction for endangered species such as the white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. This study used radio telemetry and passive integrated transponder (PIT telemetry to determine whether existing and experimental covered culverts affect the upstream and downstream movements of adult white-clawed crayfish. Daily crayfish movement rates did not differ significantly between an unlit 363-m long culvert and open stream channel sections. Crayfish moved into dark, covered sections volitionally. However, limited upstream movement occurred at sudden transitions of bed height or smooth-concrete box culvert sections with fast flow, suggesting partial barrier effects. In the 20-m long experimental in-stream culvert, also dark, but with natural stream bed, 70% of radio-tagged crayfish released downstream entered the culvert, as did 60% of those released upstream. Overall 35% passed through, with similar numbers in each direction. We conclude that dark culverts up to several hundred metres do not inhibit dispersal of white-clawed crayfish, provided stream slope, bed type and water velocity are amenable for movement and refuge. Care is required to ensure that culverts are bioengineered to ensure that average water velocity is sufficiently low and local hydraulic variation high, the bed and/or sidewalls contain refuge structures, and there are no cross-channel steps in bed level. Smooth-bedded box culverts are unlikely to be suitable for white-clawed crayfish.

  12. Effects of flooring and restricted freestall access on behavior and claw health of dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Frankena, K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Claw health, locomotion, feed intake, milk yield, body weight, activity, and lying and standing behavior of dairy heifers were monitored in a single dairy herd during the first 3 mo after calving. During the first 8 wk after calving, 2 treatments were applied: restricted freestall access by closing

  13. Effect of rubber flooring on claw health in lactating dairy cows housed in free-stall barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, J; Overton, M; Berry, S L; Sischo, W M

    2006-11-01

    Multiparous dairy cows between 10 to 30 d in milk (DIM) were enrolled in a clinical trial to evaluate the effects of rubber flooring on the development of claw lesions, locomotion scores, clinical lameness, and rates of hoof growth and wear. Two groups of cows were housed in identical free-stall facilities, except that 1 pen (rubber, n = 84) had rubber alley mats covering the entire concrete floor of the pen, whereas cows in the second pen were exposed to concrete flooring (concrete, n = 82) without rubber alley mats. All cows were evaluated 3 times between 10 and 30, 74 and 94, and 110 and 130 DIM for 1) the presence of claw lesions on their rear feet, 2) the occurrence of clinical lameness based on a locomotion score, and 3) rates of claw growth and wear as observed on the dorsal wall of the right lateral claw. No differences between flooring groups at the time of enrollment were detected for lactation number, mean DIM at first examination, body condition score, and proportion of cows with claw lesions at the first examination. Odds of developing claw lesions between examinations were not different for cows exposed to the rubber surface compared with those exposed to concrete. Cows on concrete, however, had greater odds of developing or exacerbating existing heel erosion than cows on rubber flooring. Regardless of the flooring surface, the lateral claw was more likely to develop lesions than the medial claw. Odds of becoming lame by the third examination and the proportion of cows requiring therapeutic hoof trimming because of lameness were greater for concrete-exposed cows than those on rubber. Cows on rubber flooring had decreased claw growth and wear between the first and last examination compared with cows on concrete. Regardless of flooring surface, second-lactation cows had greater wear rates than those in third or greater parities. Results of our study suggest that a soft flooring surface, such as interlocking rubber, is beneficial for hoof health.

  14. Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, A S

    2009-12-01

    The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar/plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates.

  15. Effect of rubber flooring on group-housed sows' gait and claw and skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, E-J; van Riet, M M J; Maes, D; Millet, S; Ampe, B; Janssens, G P J; Tuyttens, F A M

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the influence of floor type on sow welfare in terms of lameness, claw lesions, and skin lesions. In a 2 × 3 factorial design, we have investigated the effect of rubber coverings on concrete floors and the effect of 3 levels of dietary zinc supplementation on locomotion and claw and skin lesions in group-housed sows. Six groups of 21 ± 4 hybrid sows were monitored during 3 successive reproductive cycles. The sows were group housed from d 28 after insemination (d 0) until 1 wk before expected farrowing date (d 108) in pens with either exposed concrete floors or concrete floors covered with rubber in part of the lying area and the fully slatted area. During each reproductive cycle, locomotion and skin lesions were assessed 4 times (d 28, 50, 108, and 140) and claw lesions were assessed twice (d 50 and 140). Results are given as least squares means ± SE. Locomotion and claw scores were given in millimeters, on analog scales of 150 and 160 mm, respectively. Here, we report on the effect of floor type, which did not interact with dietary zinc concentration ( > 0.10 for all variables). At move to group (d 28) and mid gestation (d 50), no differences between floor treatments were seen in locomotion ( > 0.10). At the end of gestation (d 108), sows housed on rubber flooring scored 9.9 ± 4.1 mm better on gait ( sows on rubber flooring at mid gestation (d 50). However, sows on rubber flooring scored worse for "vertical cracks in the wall horn" (difference of 3.4 ± 1.7 mm; = 0.04). At the end of lactation (d 140), both "white line" (difference of 2.9 ± 1 mm; = 0.02) and "claw length" (difference of 4.7 ± 1.4 mm; sows. The documented increase in vertical cracks in the wall horn at d 50 requires further investigation.

  16. Locomotion Disorders and Skin and Claw Lesions in Gestating Sows Housed in Dynamic versus Static Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Emilie-Julie; Maes, Dominiek; van Riet, Miriam M. J.; Millet, Sam; Ampe, Bart; Janssens, Geert P. J.; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Lameness and lesions to the skin and claws of sows in group housing are commonly occurring indicators of reduced welfare. Typically, these problems are more common in group housing than in individual housing systems. Group management type (dynamic versus static) and stage of gestation influence the behavior of the animals, which in turn influences the occurrence of these problems. The present study compared prevalence, incidence and mean scores of lameness and skin and claw lesions in static versus dynamic group housed sows at different stages of gestation during three consecutive reproductive cycles. A total of 10 Belgian sow herds were monitored; 5 in which dynamic groups and 5 in which static groups were utilized. All sows were visually assessed for lameness and skin lesions three times per cycle and the claws of the hind limbs were assessed once per cycle. Lameness and claw lesions were assessed using visual analogue scales. Static groups, in comparison with dynamic groups, demonstrated lower lameness scores (Psows demonstrating claw lesions regardless of group management. Prevalences of lameness (22.4 vs. 8.9%, P<0.05) and skin lesions (46.6 vs. 4.4%, P<0.05) were highest during the group-housed phase compared to the individually housed phases. Although the prevalence of lameness and skin lesions did not differ three days after grouping versus at the end of the group-housing phase, their incidence peaked during the first three days after moving from the insemination stalls to the group. In conclusion, the first three days after grouping was the most risky period for lameness incidence, but there was no significant difference between static or dynamic group management. PMID:27680675

  17. Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants : clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar / plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the 'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates.

  18. Use of the modified Stainsby procedure in correcting severe claw toe deformity in the rheumatoid foot: a retrospective review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Queally, Joseph M

    2009-06-01

    In claw toe deformity, the plantar plate of the metarsophalangeal joint becomes displaced onto the dorsal aspect of the metatarsal head. The Stainsby procedure replaces the displaced plantar plate to its correct position beneath the metatarsal head.

  19. Biomechanics and histology of bovine claw suspensory tissue in early acute laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, A M; Toelboell, T H; Wattle, O

    2010-01-01

    Weakening of the suspensory tissue supporting the pedal bone is the central issue in the theory of acute bovine laminitis, but this aspect has never been tested. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of laminitis on the suspensory tissue. The hypothesis was that clinical and histological signs of acute laminitis are associated with decreased strength of the suspensory tissue of the bovine claw. Nonpregnant dairy heifers (n=10) received oral oligofructose overload (17 g/kg of body weight) and were killed 24 (n=4) and 72h (n=6) after overload. Control heifers (n=6) received tap water and were killed at 72 or 96h. Clinical, orthopedic, and histological examinations were carried out to confirm the occurrence of laminitis. After euthanasia, 2 adjacent tissue samples including the horn wall, lamellar layer, dermis, and pedal bone were cut from the dorso-abaxial aspect of each claw. Tissue samples were kept on ice until mounted on a mechanical testing frame, fixed by horn and bone, and loaded to failure. A stress displacement curve was generated and measurements of physiological support (force needed to displace 1mm beyond first resistance) and maximal support (force needed to break the tissue) were recorded. Heifers treated with oligofructose developed clinical signs consistent with ruminal and systemic acidosis after treatment as well as acute laminitis, characterized by weight shifting (35% of observations vs. 6% in controls), moderate lameness (100 vs. 17%, score of 3 out of 5 at 72h), and reaction to hoof testing (30 and 50% at 48 and 72h, respectively, vs. 0% in controls). Histological examination of claws from heifers killed 72h after overload showed changes consistent with acute laminitis, including stretched lamellae, wider basal cells with low chromatin density, and a thick, wavy, and blurry appearance of the basement membrane. Biomechanical results showed no effect of oligofructose overload on physiological support of the suspensory tissue

  20. On the Erdős-Gyárfás Conjecture in Claw-Free Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowbandegani Pouria Salehi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Erdős-Gyárfás conjecture states that every graph with minimum degree at least three has a cycle whose length is a power of 2. Since this conjecture has proven to be far from reach, Hobbs asked if the Erdős-Gyárfás conjecture holds in claw-free graphs. In this paper, we obtain some results on this question, in particular for cubic claw-free graphs

  1. Developmental Toxicity of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products to Embryos of the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-10

    developmental toxicity tests with embryos of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis used to evaluate four individual DWDB; bromodichloromethane...SUBJECT TERMS Developmental toxicity; FETAX; water disinfection by-products; frogs ; Xenopus laevis; embryo malformations; embryo mortality...Disinfection By-Products to Embryos of the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) L. M. Brennan,1 M. W. Toussaint,1 D. M. Kumsher,1 W. E. Dennis,’ A. B

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Emilia sonchifolia DC., Tridax procumbens L. and Vernonia cinerea L. of Asteracea Family: Potential as Food Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoga Latha, L; Darah, I; Sasidharan, S; Jain, K

    2009-09-01

    Chemical preservatives have been used in the food industry for many years. However, with increased health concerns, consumers prefer additive-free products or food preservatives based on natural products. This study evaluated antimicrobial activities of extracts from Emilia sonchifolia L. (Common name: lilac tassel flower), Tridax procumbens L. (Common name: tridax daisy) and Vernonia cinerea L. (Common name: Sahadevi), belonging to the Asteracea family, to explore their potential for use against general food spoilage and human pathogens so that new food preservatives may be developed. Three methanol extracts of these plants were tested in vitro against 20 bacterial species, 3 yeast species, and 12 filamentous fungi by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods. The V. cinerea extract was found to be most effective against all of the tested organisms and the methanol fraction showed the most significant (p extracts determined by the broth dilution method ranged from 1.56 to 100.00mg/mL. The MIC of methanol fraction was the lowest in comparison to the other four extracts. The study findings indicate that bioactive natural products from these plants may be isolated for further testing as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals in food preservation as well as natural plant-based medicine.

  3. ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE Jaltomata procumbens (Cav. J. L. GENTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sald\\u00EDvar-Iglesias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la aplicación de ácido giberélico (AG 3 en la germinación de semillas provenie ntes de frutos silvestres de Jaltomata procumbens (Cav. J. L. Ge ntry. El ensayo se realizó durante los meses de julio-agosto de 2006. Los tratamie ntos utilizados fueron 0; 50; 100; 150; 200 y 250 mg/l de AG 3 con 12 y 24 h de remojo, mismos que fueron analizados bajo un diseño completamente aleatorio en arreglo bifactorial (tiempo de remojo y concentración de ácido giberélico. Las variables fueron: porcentaje, velocidad y periodo de germinación. Se gún los resultados, el tratamie nto 250 mg/l presentó un 87,0% de germinación con 1,7 plantas/ germinadas/día en un periodo de 25,5 días; superior a los valores presentados por los demás tratamie ntos. Se observó que el tiempo de remojo influye menos que la aplicación de ácido giberélico.

  4. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the flowers of Tridax procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K; Badakar, Vijaylaxmi

    2012-07-01

    The essential oil of the flowers of Tridax procumbens L. was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-six compounds were identified, which comprised 90.6% of the total constituents. The most abundant compound was (Z)-falcarinol (25.9%), followed by alpha-selinene (15.3%), limonene (8.3%) and zerumbone (4.3%). Antimicrobial activity was tested against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi. The oil was active against the tested Gram-positive bacteria at a concentration range of 0.14 +/- 0.03 - 0.57 +/- 0.05 mg/mL, while 0.67 +/- 0.12 - 4.58 +/- 0.41 mg/mL was effective against the studied Gram-negative bacteria. Remarkable antifungal activity was found against the tested fungi at a concentration range of 0.06 +/- 0.008 - 0.10 +/- 0.01 mg/mL.

  5. Storage of cut Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Claw flowers at low temperatures Armazenamento de hastes florais de Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Claw em baixa temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza S. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest conservation of cut Heliconia flowers is an important factor to the success of commercialization, especially with regard to exportation. In the present study, the maximal storage time of cut inflorescences of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw at two different temperatures (12 and 19 °C was evaluated and compared to laboratory conditions (25 °C, control treatment. Changes in visual quality, fresh weight and bract color (L*, a* and b* were determined. The visual quality of the inflorescences and fresh weight decreased with time in all treatments. Symptoms of chilling injury were observed on the inflorescences stored at 12 °C for six and eight days. Bract color was not affected by temperature, storage time or the senescence process. The results indicate that a temperature of 12 °C is not recommended for a storage time longer than four days, whereas 19 °C can be used for a storage time of up to eight days for cut inflorescences of H. bihai cv. Lobster Claw.A conservação pós-colheita de flores de corte de Heliconia é fator relevante para o sucesso da comercialização, principalmente para a exportação. Neste estudo, o período máximo de armazenamento de hastes florais de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw, foi avaliado em duas diferentes temperaturas (12 e 19 °C e comparado com as condições de laboratório (25 °C, tratamento controle. As variáveis avaliadas foram: qualidade visual, massa de matéria fresca e a coloração das inflorescências (L*, a* e b*. A qualidade visual das inflorescências e a massa de matéria fresca de todos os tratamentos reduziram ao longo do tempo. Sintomas de injúria por frio foram observados nas inflorescências armazenadas a 12 °C, durante seis e oito dias. A coloração das brácteas não foi afetada pela temperatura, período de armazenamento nem pelo processo de senescência. Os resultados indicam que a temperatura de 12 °C não é recomendada para armazenar hastes florais de

  6. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs) diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT) in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow......Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders...... the CMT and other explanatory variables was tested by Fisher’s exact test. Results: The prevalence of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders was 81.4% (35/43) and 32.6% (14/43), respectively. Digital dermatitis (DD) and heel horn erosion were the most prevalent infectious type with 79% (34...

  7. [Devil's claw extract as an example of the effectiveness of herbal analgesics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik, S

    2004-07-01

    Preparations from devil's claw differ in their content of active ingredients as assessed by the quantity of harpagoside present. The harpagoside content in the daily dose of Doloteffin (extraction solvent water) is double that of preparations extracted with 60% ethanol. Only preparations with proven effectiveness for painful lower back or arthrotic pain are an attractive alternative to synthetic analgesics, and are of substantial benefit in the treatment of chronic pain. From an evidence based view, extract with at least 50 mg harpagoside in the daily dose should be recommended for the treatment of pain. Treatment with devil's claw extract is associated with a lower risk of adverse events than treatment with synthetic analgesics, and may contribute in the majority of patients to the relief of pain.

  8. Pars plana vitrectomy with posterior iris claw implantation for posteriorly dislocated nucleus and intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor B Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the safety and efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with primary posterior iris claw intraocular lens (IOL implantation in cases of posterior dislocation of nucleus and IOL without capsular support. This was a retrospective interventional case series. Fifteen eyes underwent PPV with primary posterior iris claw IOL implantation performed by a single vitreoretinal surgeon. The main outcome measures were changes in best corrected visual acuity and anterior and posterior segment complications. A total of 15 eyes were included in this study. Eight had nucleus drop, three had IOL drop during cataract surgery and four had traumatic posterior dislocation of lens. The final postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 20/60 or better in 11 patients. This procedure is a viable option in achieving good functional visual acuity in eyes without capsular support.

  9. CLAWS. Beam background monitoring in the commissioning of SuperKEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Miroslav; Windel, Hendrik; Kolk, Naomi van der; Simon, Frank [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The background levels, in particular those originating from the continuous injection to maximize luminosity, are a concern for the inner vertex detector of Belle-II at the SuperKEKB accelerator. To better understand this background, and in particular its time dependence, dedicated measurements will be made during the commissioning phase of the accelerator, scheduled to begin in February 2016. One of the detectors for these measurements, CLAWS, is based on scintillators coupled to SiPMs which were originally developed for timing measurements of hadronic showers in the CALICE calorimeters. The data acquisition is based on digitizers with very deep buffers allowing the continuous recording of more than 1000 revolutions of the accelerator to provide a detailed analysis of the evolution of the background levels after injection. In this contribution, we present the overall CLAWS setup, the technical solutions adopted for the data acquisition and analysis, and discuss the performance of the detector elements.

  10. Anti-osteoporotic activity of harpagide by regulation of bone formation in osteoblast cell culture and ovariectomy-induced bone loss mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwa-Jin; Kyung Kim, Won; Joo Park, Hyen; Cho, Lan; Kim, Me-Riong; Kim, Min Jeong; Shin, Joon-Shik; Ho Lee, Jin; Ha, In-Hyuk; Kook Lee, Sang

    2016-02-17

    Harpagide, an iridoid glucoside, is a constituent of the root of Harpagophytum procumbens var. sublobatum (Engl.) Stapf, Devil's claw which has been used in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). In the present study, we investigated the anti-osteoporotic potential of harpagide and its underlying mechanism of action in in vitro cell culture and in vivo bone loss animal models. Harpagide was obtained from the alkalic hydrolysis of harpagoside, a major constituent of H. procumbens var. sublobatum Analysis of biomarkers for bone formation in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone resorption in osteoclast cells derived from mouse bone marrow cells was performed to evaluate the mechanism of action. The protective activity of harpagide against bone loss was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model. Harpagide improved bone properties by stimulating the process of differentiation and maturation of osteoblast cells and suppressing the process of RANKL-induced differentiation of osteoclast cells. In OVX-induced bone loss mouse model, oral administration of harpagide significantly improved recovery of bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular number in the femur. Harpagide also prevented increase of trabecular separation and structure model index induced by OVX. Harpagide effectively inhibited the serum levels of biochemical markers of bone loss, including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that harpagide has a potential for prevention of bone loss in OVX mice by regulating the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and the suppression of osteoclast formation. Therefore, these findings suggest that harpagide might serve as a bioactive compound derived from H. procumbens var. sublobatum for improvement of age-dependent bone destruction disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reversible worsening of Parkinson disease motor symptoms after oral intake of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Carlos; Torres, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (UT), also known as cat's claw, isa Peruvian Rubiaceae species widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a wide range of health problems. There is no report about the use, safety, and efficacy of UT in neurological disorders. We describe reversible worsening of motor signs in a patient with Parkinson disease after oral intake of UT, and some possible explanations are discussed.

  12. Treatment of patella fracture by claw-like shape memory alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei; Zhou, Lugang; Sun, Yujie; Shi, Peng; Liu, Hongzhi; Wang, Xin

    2015-07-01

    Titanium-nickel shape memory alloy (Ti-Ni SMA) is characterized by shape-memory effect, super-elasticity, excellent fatigue behavior, corrosion resistance, acceptable biocompatibility and high damping capacity. Claw-like Ti-Ni SMA fixator (SMA-claw) has been used to treat transverse fracture of patella. 29 patients (19 males, 10 females) aged from 21 to 71 years old (averaged 43.0 years old) have been received open reduction and internal fixation with SMA-claw from January 2011 to December 2011. After operation, patients have been received gradual knee function exercises, followed by radiographic analysis and Lysholm Knee Score at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postoperation. The mean follow-up time was 11.48 months (25 patients finished, 1 lost after 6 months and 3 lost after 9 months). Radiographic bone union occurred at 2 months (7 patients) or 3 months (22 patients). Satisfied range of motion for the knee joint has been observed with 1.90/141.72° (hyperextension/flexion) at 3 months, 4.83/143.97° at 6 months, 4.82/144.82° at 9 months and 5.2/145° at 12 months postsurgery. The Ti-Ni SMA-claw fixator produced good osteosynthesis effect by continuous recovery stress with relatively simple and minimally invasive handling process, which can be introduced as an alternative to traditional tension band technique for treatment of patellar transverse fracture.

  13. Characterization of a Crabs Claw Gene in Basal Eudicot Species Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Sun; Wenjun Huang; Zhineng Li; Haiyan Lv; Hongwen Huang; Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    The Crabs Claw (CRC) YABBY gene is required for regulating carpel development in angiosperms and has played an important role in nectary evolution during core eudicot speciation. The function or expression of CRC-like genes has been explored in two basal eudicots, Eschscholzia californica and Aquilegia formosa. To further investigate the function of CRC orthologous genes related to evolution of carpel and nectary development in basal eudicots, a CRC ortholog, EsCRC, was isolated and character...

  14. Retropupillary fixation of iris-claw lens in visual rehabilitation of aphakic eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Jayamadhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Surgical outcome of retropupillary fixation of iris claw lens. Aims: To evaluate the various indications, intra and post-operative complications, and visual outcome of retropupillary fixation of iris claw lens in aphakic eyes. Settings and Design: The study design is a retrospective study at a tertiary eye care center. Methods: Review of medical records of 61 aphakic eyes of 61 patients, who were rehabilitated with retropupillary fixation of an iris claw lens, with a follow-up duration of at least 1 year. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was performed using paired t-test and Chi-square test. Results: Mean preoperative uncorrected visual acuity was 1.66 ± 0.3 LogMAR and postoperative acuity at 1 year was 0.53 ± 0.5 LogMAR (P = 0.00001. Preoperative distant best-corrected visual acuity was 0.30 ± 0.48 LogMAR and postoperative acuity at 1 year was 0.27 ± 0.46 LogMAR (P = 0.07. Mean preoperative astigmatism was 1.43 ± 1.94 D and postoperatively was 1.85 ± 2.16 D (P = 0.0127. Mean endothelial cell count was 2353.52 ± 614 cells/mm2 preoperatively which decreased to 2200 ± 728 cells/mm2 at 1 year follow-up (P = 0.006. There was no significant difference in central macular thickness and intraocular pressure pre and post-surgery. Complications included ovalization of pupil in 9.83%, hypotony in 1.63%, toxic anterior segment syndrome in 1.63%, cystoid macular edema in 11.47%, epiretinal membrane in 3.27%, and iris atrophy in 6.55%. Conclusion: Iris claw is a safe and an effective method of rehabilitating aphakic eyes.

  15. Alteration of plasma biochemical, haematological and ocular oxidative indices of alloxan induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens Linn (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ikewuchi, Jude Chigozie

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Tridax procumbens on the haematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress was investigated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of alloxan (80 mg/kg body weight), via the tail vein. The extract was administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (both to normal and diabetic rats), and metformin at 50 mg/kg. On gas chromatographic analysis of the alkaloid fraction of t...

  16. A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus) Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata) in a West Sumatra Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jabang; Wilson Novarino; Aadrean

    2011-01-01

    A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell) in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characterist...

  17. Retropupillary Fixation of Iris-Claw Intraocular Lens for Aphakic Eyes in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Brandner

    Full Text Available To report outcome, complications and safety of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses in a pediatric population.Retrospective study.Ten consecutive pediatric patients (15 eyes underwent placement of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses between October 2007 and July 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Graz and General Hospital Klagenfurt, Austria. Postoperative visual acuity and complications were analyzed.Median final best-corrected visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR from preoperative baseline. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent was -0.05 ± 1.76 D. No serious complications were observed intra- or postoperatively during the entire follow-up period of up to 40 months. One patient experienced a haptic disenclavation with IOL subluxation immediately after a car accident.Our study demonstrates that iris-claw intraocular lens implantation behind the iris is safe in children with lack of capsular support and yields excellent visual outcome with low complication rate.

  18. Prenatal Diagnosis of EEC Syndrome with "Lobster Claw" Anomaly by 3D Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Livia T; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Caetano, Ana C R; Nardozza, Luciano M; Moron, Antonio F; Martins, Marília G

    2012-01-01

    THE EEC SYNDROME IS A GENETIC ANOMALY CHARACTERIZED BY THE TRIAD: ectodermal dysplasia (development of anomalies of the structures derived from the embryonic ectodermal layer), ectrodactyly (extremities, hands and feet malformations) and cleft lip and/or palate; these malformations can be seen together or in isolation. The prenatal diagnosis can be made by two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS) that identifies the facial and/or limb anomalies, most characteristic being the "lobster-claw" hands. The three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS) provides a better analysis of the malformations than the 2DUS. A 25-year-old primigravida, had her first transvaginal ultrasonography that showed an unique fetus with crow-rump length of 47 mm with poorly defined hands and feet,. She was suspected of having sporadic form of EEC syndrome. The 2DUS performed at 19 weeks confirmed the EEC syndrome, showing a fetus with lobster-claw hands (absence of the 2(nd) and 3(rd) fingers), left foot with the absence of the 3rd toe and the right foot with syndactyly, and presence of cleft lip/palate. The 3DUS defined the anomalies much better than 2DUS including the lobster-claw hands.

  19. Optimization Design and Performance Analysis of a PM Brushless Rotor Claw Pole Motor with FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of permanent magnet (PM brushless claw pole motor (CPM with soft magnetic composite (SMC core is designed and analyzed in this paper. The PMs are mounted on the claw pole surface, and the three-phase stator windings are fed by variable-frequency three-phase AC currents. The advantages of the proposed CPM are that the slip rings on the rotor are cast off and it can achieve the efficiency improvement and higher power density. The effects of the claw-pole structure parameters, the air-gap length, and the PM thinner parameter of the proposed CPM on the output torque are investigated by using three-dimensional time-stepping finite element method (3D TS-FEM. The optimal rotor structure of the proposed CPM is obtained by using the response surface methodology (RSM and the particle swarm optimization (PSO method and the comparison of full-load performances of the proposed CPM with different material cores (SMC and silicon steel is analyzed.

  20. Seasonal Patterns in Hydrogen Isotopes of Claws from Breeding Wood-Warblers (Parulidae: Utility for Estimating Migratory Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Fraser

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in many species of migratory birds has focused attention on the extent of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering populations. Stable-hydrogen isotope (δD analysis of feathers is a useful technique for measuring connectivity, but is constrained by features of molt location and timing. Claws are metabolically inert, keratinous tissues that grow continuously and can be sampled at any point in the annual cycle, thus providing potentially useful clues about an individual's previous movements. However, variation in the rate at which claws incorporate local δD values is not well described. We measured δD values in claws of two species of Neotropical-Nearctic migrant wood-warblers (Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler breeding in eastern Ontario, Canada to investigate the rate of δD change through the breeding season and the utility of claw δD values for estimating migratory origins. δD values of claw tips from 66 different individuals, each sampled once during the breeding season, showed an average change of -0.3‰ to -0.4‰ per day in the direction of the expected local Ontario value. There were no significant sex or species differences in the rate of change. These results suggest δD values of claw tips in Parulids may reflect those of the non-breeding area for 3-7 weeks after arrival on the breeding grounds, and are useful estimators of non-breeding migratory origin. Our results also suggest that these species may leave the breeding ground before claw tips fully incorporate a local δD signature, as claws sampled at the end of the breeding season did not match locally grown feather and claw δD values. This is the first study to examine the seasonal rate of the change in δD values of claws in long-distance, insectivorous, migratory birds.

  1. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw): Chemotype relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Samuel; Carvalho, Ânderson Ramos; Pittol, Vanessa; Dietrich, Fabrícia; Manica, Fabiana; Machado, Michel Mansur; de Oliveira, Luis Flávio Souza; Oliveira Battastini, Ana Maria; Ortega, George González

    2016-08-02

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willdenow ex Roemer & Schultes) DC. (Rubiaceae) or cat's claw is a climber vine from the South American rainforest used in folk medicine for cancer treatment. Its antitumor activity has been mostly ascribed to pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA) from stem bark and leaves while the activity of tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (TOA) remains unknown. In recent times, the occurrence of three chemotypes based on its oxindole alkaloid profile was noticed in U. tomentosa, namely, chemotype I (POA cis D/E ring junction); chemotype II (POA trans D/E ring junction) or chemotype III (TOA). Consequently, the relationship between the chemotype and cytotoxic and genotoxic activities deserves attention. To evaluate the influence of cat's claw chemotypes on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity against non malignant and malignant human cell line models. Four authentic stem bark cat's claw samples (SI-SIV) and two leaf samples (LII and LIII) were analyzed by HPLC-PDA, properly extracted and fractioned by ion-exchange to obtain oxindole alkaloid purified fractions (OAPFs). The freeze-dried fractions were assayed for genotoxicity and cytotoxicity against human leukocytes (non malignant cell line) by the micronuclei frequency method and the alkaline comet DNA assay, and the trypan blue method, respectively. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of each OAPF was evaluated against a human bladder cancer cell line (T24) and human glioblastoma cell line (U-251-MG) by MTT method (malignant cell lines). Additionally, the isomerization of oxindole alkaloids throughout the course of cell incubation was monitored by HPLC-PDA. Based on HPLC-PDA analyses, sample SI was characterized as chemotype I, while samples SII and LII were characterized as chemotype II, and samples SIII, SIV and LIII as chemotype III. The chemotypes showed comparable cytotoxic activity toward malignant cell lines (T24 and U-251-MG) unlike human leukocytes (non malignant cell line), where this activity was clearly distinct

  2. Genetic evaluation of claw health traits accounting for potential preselection of cows to be trimmed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croué, Iola; Fikse, Freddy; Johansson, Kjell; Carlén, Emma; Thomas, Gilles; Leclerc, Hélène; Ducrocq, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Claw lesions are one of the most important health issues in dairy cattle. Although the frequency of claw lesions depends greatly on herd management, the frequency can be lowered through genetic selection. A genetic evaluation could be developed based on trimming records collected by claw trimmers; however, not all cows present in a herd are usually selected by the breeder to be trimmed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the importance of the preselection of cows for trimming, to account for this preselection, and to estimate genetic parameters of claw health traits. The final data set contained 25,511 trimming records of French Holstein cows. Analyzed claw lesion traits were digital dermatitis, heel horn erosion, interdigital hyperplasia, sole hemorrhage circumscribed, sole hemorrhage diffused, sole ulcer, and white line fissure. All traits were analyzed as binary traits in a multitrait linear animal model. Three scenarios were considered: including only trimmed cows in a 7-trait model (scenario 1); or trimmed cows and contemporary cows not trimmed but present at the time of a visit (considering that nontrimmed cows were healthy) in a 7-trait model (scenario 2); or trimmed cows and contemporary cows not trimmed but present at the time of a visit (considering lesion records for trimmed cows only), in an 8-trait model, including a 0/1 trimming status trait (scenario 3). For scenario 3, heritability estimates ranged from 0.02 to 0.09 on the observed scale. Genetic correlations clearly revealed 2 groups of traits (digital dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and interdigital hyperplasia on the one hand, and sole hemorrhage circumscribed, sole hemorrhage diffused, sole ulcer, and white line fissure on the other hand). Heritabilities on the underlying scale did not vary much depending on the scenario: the effect of the preselection of cows for trimming on the estimation of heritabilities appeared to be negligible. However, including untrimmed cows as healthy

  3. Computer Analysis and Simulation of Claw Wear Mechanism of Claw Crusher Based on ANSYS%基于ANSYS粉碎机齿爪磨损的计算机分析及仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房泽鑫; 张宗超; 张进凯; 贾振超; 慈文亮; 陈宁

    2015-01-01

    针对不锈钢齿爪粉碎机的齿爪磨损过快、影响设备使用寿命和物料粉碎效果的问题,研究了齿爪磨损机理;并基于ANSYS Workbench仿真分析了齿爪的应力-应变及疲劳寿命。分析结果表明,齿爪失效的主要原因是周期性载荷作用导致的塑性变形和疲劳剥落。%The present study probed into existing problems of the stainless steel claw crusher, including equipment service life and material crushing efficiency influenced by too fast claw abrasion, investigated the mechanism of claw abrasion, and analyzed the stress-strain behavior and fatigue life of claw. The analysis results demonstrated that the main reasons for claw losing efficacy were periodic loading-induced plastic deformation and fatigue spalling.

  4. Justicia procumbens Extract (DW2008) Selectively Suppresses Th2 Cytokines in Splenocytes and Ameliorates Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Jihyun; Lee, Hyunyong; Chang, Hwan Bong; Jeon, Jihyun; Yoon, Mi Hee; Woo, Ji Young; Choi, Min-Soo; Hwang, Yunha; Seong, Seungkyoo; Na, Kyuheum; Yoon, Joobyoung

    2017-01-01

    DW2008 is an anhydrous ethanol extract of Justicia procumbens produced by Dong-Wha Pharmaceutical, Inc., Co. as a candidate anti-asthmatic drug. In this study, DW2008 selectively reduced T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines in mouse splenocytes and ameliorated ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation by downregulating pulmonary infiltration of differential inflammatory cells and Th2 cytokines more than a decoction or ethanol extract of J. procumbens did in a mouse asthma model. DW2008 also significantly inhibited airway hyperresponsiveness and reduced the thickness of the airway epithelium. HPLC analysis showed that the major peaks (justicidin A and B) of DW2008 were higher than those of the other extracts. Justicidin A and B significantly suppressed Th2 cytokine levels in mouse spleen cells and exhibited a protective effect in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Our findings indicate that DW2008 effectively inhibits allergic airway inflammatory reactions and airway hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of asthma, suggesting its potential as an anti-asthmatic agent.

  5. Coagulation And Hemagglutination Properties Of The Crude Extract Derived From The Leaves Of Euphorbia Hirta L. Tridax Procumbens L. And Vernonia Cinerea L Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo C. Ongpoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the potential of selected wild grasses from the Philippines as coagulant and typing sera. To do this Euphorbia hirta L. Tridax procumbens L. and Vernonia cinerea L Less aqueous infusions were each subjected to blood components from healthy individuals. The plasma part of the blood was used to test for coagulation where Plasma Clotting Time PCT and Factor VIII screening test were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts. On the other hand the Packed Red Blood Cell part of the blood was used to test for hemagglutination where microscopic and macroscopic evaluations were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts against the blood groups from the ABO system. About this study it was found out that all the wild grasses did not give a comparable coagulation to the commercially available positive control which is Calcium Chloride while Euphorbia hirta L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A and Type B cells Tridax procumbens L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A cell and Vernonia cinerea L Less gave a positive hemagglutination to Type B cells both in macroscopic and microscopic evaluations. The results show that all the wild grasses tested may not be used as a coagulant but all of them may have a potential as a typing sera.

  6. Alteration of plasma biochemical, haematological and ocular oxidative indices of alloxan induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens Linn (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikewuchi, Jude Chigozie

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Tridax procumbens on the haematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress was investigated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of alloxan (80 mg/kg body weight), via the tail vein. The extract was administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (both to normal and diabetic rats), and metformin at 50 mg/kg. On gas chromatographic analysis of the alkaloid fraction of the aqueous extract, thirty nine known alkaloids were detected, consisting mainly of 73.91 % akuamidine, 22.33 % voacangine, 1.27 % echitamine, 0.55 % echitamidine, 0.36 % lupanine, 0.27 % crinamidine, 0.23 % augustamine and 0.10 % 6-hydroxypowelline. Tannic acid and β-sitosterol were detected in high quantities. Compared to Test control, the treatment dose-dependently, significantly lowered (Pextract was hypoglycemic, positively affected the haemopoietic system and integrity and function (dose dependently) of the liver and kidney of the diabetic rats; improved the lipid profile and had no deleterious effect on red cell morphology and protected against oxidative stress in ocular tissues. This study also revealed the presence of pharmacologically active compounds in the leaf extract. All of these, highlight the cardioprotective potential of the leaves of Tridax procumbens, and support its use in traditional health care practices for the management of diabetes mellitus.

  7. Simultaneous determination of seven lignans in Justicia procumbens by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection using relative response factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zuliang; Kong, Weijun; Qiu, Feng; Yang, Meihua; Li, Qian; Wei, Riwei; Yang, Xiaoli; Qin, Jieping

    2013-02-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC coupled with photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) method was developed for simultaneous determination of seven lignans in Justicia procumbens using relative response factors (RRFs). The chromatographic separation was performed on a Shiseido Capcell Pak C(18) column (250 × 4.6 mm id, 5 μm), a gradient elution of acetonitrile/water, and a photodiode array detector. The column temperature was maintained at 35°C and the detection wavelength was set at 256 nm. Chinensinaphthol methyl ether was selected as the reference compound for calculating the relative response factors of the lignans. It has shown that the RRFs for lignans are quite similar at 256 nm of detection under different analytical conditions (different columns and HPLC instruments). Using RRFs, not every lignan is needed as a reference standard, making the method ideal for rapid, routine analysis, especially for those laboratories where lignans standards are not readily available. An economic and practicable HPLC method using RRFs was established for the determination of seven lignans in J. procumbens. This method not only can determine multiple indexes in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) simultaneously, but also resolve the problem of lacking of chemical standards. It will be a good quality evaluation method and pattern for TCMs.

  8. PetClaw: Parallelization and Performance Optimization of a Python-Based Nonlinear Wave Propagation Solver Using PETSc

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Amal Mohammed

    2012-04-01

    Clawpack, a conservation laws package implemented in Fortran, and its Python-based version, PyClaw, are existing tools providing nonlinear wave propagation solvers that use state of the art finite volume methods. Simulations using those tools can have extensive computational requirements to provide accurate results. Therefore, a number of tools, such as BearClaw and MPIClaw, have been developed based on Clawpack to achieve significant speedup by exploiting parallel architectures. However, none of them has been shown to scale on a large number of cores. Furthermore, these tools, implemented in Fortran, achieve parallelization by inserting parallelization logic and MPI standard routines throughout the serial code in a non modular manner. Our contribution in this thesis research is three-fold. First, we demonstrate an advantageous use case of Python in implementing easy-to-use modular extensible scalable scientific software tools by developing an implementation of a parallelization framework, PetClaw, for PyClaw using the well-known Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation, PETSc, through its Python wrapper petsc4py. Second, we demonstrate the possibility of getting acceptable Python code performance when compared to Fortran performance after introducing a number of serial optimizations to the Python code including integrating Clawpack Fortran kernels into PyClaw for low-level computationally intensive parts of the code. As a result of those optimizations, the Python overhead in PetClaw for a shallow water application is only 12 percent when compared to the corresponding Fortran Clawpack application. Third, we provide a demonstration of PetClaw scalability on up to the entirety of Shaheen; a 16-rack Blue Gene/P IBM supercomputer that comprises 65,536 cores and located at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). The PetClaw solver achieved above 0.98 weak scaling efficiency for an Euler application on the whole machine excluding the

  9. Detailed spectroscopic study of the role of Br and Sr in coloured parts of the Callinectes sapidus crab claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikini, M

    2016-07-01

    The exoskeleton of crustaceans consists mainly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals and in many cases exhibits vivid colouration due to the presence of proteins rich in carotenoid chromophores. The exposure of aquatic animals in sea water results often in the incorporation of trace elements in their exoskeleton. The bonding configuration of Br and Sr trace elements in regions with different staining (white, orange and blue) of the exoskeleton of the Callinectes sapidus in crab claw are systematically investigated by a number of complementary spectroscopic techniques, including X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), X-ray fluorescence, Raman and visible light reflectivity spectroscopies. It is found that Sr substitutes for Ca and the Sr/Ca ratio is constant along the claw. In the orange region that includes the claw fingers, CaCO3 adopts a calcite-like structure, whereas in the blue and white regions, located in the palm of the claw, an aragonite-like structure dominates. On the other hand, Br, present only in the blue and orange stained parts of the claw, is bound to phenyl and/or phenol rings of amino acid residues, most probably to phenylalanine and/or tyrosine, of the chromophore protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Parallelization of GeoClaw code for modeling geophysical flows with adaptive mesh refinement on many-core systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Yuen, D.A.; Zhu, A.; Song, S.; George, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We parallelized the GeoClaw code on one-level grid using OpenMP in March, 2011 to meet the urgent need of simulating tsunami waves at near-shore from Tohoku 2011 and achieved over 75% of the potential speed-up on an eight core Dell Precision T7500 workstation [1]. After submitting that work to SC11 - the International Conference for High Performance Computing, we obtained an unreleased OpenMP version of GeoClaw from David George, who developed the GeoClaw code as part of his PH.D thesis. In this paper, we will show the complementary characteristics of the two approaches used in parallelizing GeoClaw and the speed-up obtained by combining the advantage of each of the two individual approaches with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), demonstrating the capabilities of running GeoClaw efficiently on many-core systems. We will also show a novel simulation of the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami waves inundating the Sendai airport and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants, over which the finest grid distance of 20 meters is achieved through a 4-level AMR. This simulation yields quite good predictions about the wave-heights and travel time of the tsunami waves. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  11. The vertical ground reaction force and the pressure distribution on the claws of dairy cows while walking on a flat substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der P.P.J.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Back, W.; Braam, C.R.; Weijs, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The pressure distribution under the bovine claw while walking was measured to test the hypotheses that the vertical ground reaction force is unevenly distributed and makes some (regions of the) claws more prone to injuries due to overloading than others. Each limb of nine recently trimmed Holstein F

  12. Effects of flooring and restricted freestall access on behavior and claw health of dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouweltjes, W; van der Werf, J T N; Frankena, K; van Leeuwen, J L

    2011-02-01

    Claw health, locomotion, feed intake, milk yield, body weight, activity, and lying and standing behavior of dairy heifers were monitored in a single dairy herd during the first 3 mo after calving. During the first 8 wk after calving, 2 treatments were applied: restricted freestall access by closing the stalls between 2300 h and 0500 h (yes or no) and alley flooring (concrete or rubber topped slatted floors). Apart from treatments, housing was identical. The animals were kept in small groups (n=4 to 6) in adjacent barn pens. Thereafter, the animals were kept in 1 group in a freestall section with concrete slatted floor and unrestricted access to the stalls for 5 wk. All animals were fed the same partial mixed ration. We hypothesized that (1) hard flooring causes high mechanical load of the claws and (2) restricted freestall access causes prolonged standing bouts and reinforced effects of hard flooring on claws. The heifers had only minor claw lesions before first calving, and the prevalence and severity of sole hemorrhages increased during the first 3 mo after calving (from 0.24 ± 0.08 to 1.18 ± 0.14 and from 0.04 ± 0.01 to 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively), particularly in the outer hind claws. Animals kept on rubber alley flooring had lower average hemorrhage scores in wk 9 (0.13 ± 0.03 vs. 0.21 ± 0.03) and wk 14 (0.20 ± 0.03 vs. 0.27 ± 0.03) after calving, had a slower feed intake (3.05 ± 0.14 vs. 3.46 ± 0.14 g/s) and spent more time feeding (7.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.6 ± 0.3 min/h) than animals kept on hard concrete alley floors. Restricted freestall access resulted in fewer standing bouts per day (14.4 ± 1.0 vs. 17.9 ± 1.0) and more strides per hour (99.8 ± 5.4 vs. 87.2 ± 5.4) without changing overall standing time (15.0 ± 0.3 vs. 14.7 ± 0.3 h/d) and did not affect the occurrence of sole hemorrhages. The animals with no overnight freestall access spent more time standing (55.9 ± 0.9 vs. 35.8 ± 0.9 min/h) and feeding (7.8 ± 0.3 vs. 4.3 ± 0.3 min/h) between

  13. Devil's-claw (Proboscidea louisianica), essential oil and its components : Potential allelochemical agents on cotton and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffle, M S; Waller, G R; Murray, D S; Sgaramello, R P

    1990-06-01

    The potential allelopathic activity of devil's-claw [Proboscidea louisianica (Mill.) Thellung] essential oil and a few of the compounds it contains on the elongation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) radicles was studied using a Petri dish bioassay. Essential oil was collected by steam distillation using an all-glass-Teflon assembly. Ether extracts of the steam distillates from fresh devil's-claw were inhibitory to cotton and wheat radicle elongation. The following six components of devil's-claw essential oil identified by CGC-MS-DS were inhibitory to cotton and/or wheat at a concentration of 1 mM: vanillin, piperitenone, δ-cadinene,p-cymen-9-ol, α-bisabolol, and phenethyl alcohol.

  14. Development of a superconducting claw-pole linear test-rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radyjowski, Patryk; Keysan, Ozan; Burchell, Joseph; Mueller, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Superconducting generators can help to reduce the cost of energy for large offshore wind turbines, where the size and mass of the generator have a direct effect on the installation cost. However, existing superconducting generators are not as reliable as the alternative technologies. In this paper, a linear test prototype for a novel superconducting claw-pole topology, which has a stationary superconducting coil that eliminates the cryocooler coupler will be presented. The issues related to mechanical, electromagnetic and thermal aspects of the prototype will be presented.

  15. Clique-Transversal Sets in 4-Regular Claw-Free Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er Fang SHAN; Li Ying KANG

    2011-01-01

    A clique-transversal set D of a graph G is a set of vertices of G such that D meets all cliques of G. The clique-transversal number, denoted by T(G), is the minimum cardinality of a clique- transversal set in G. In this paper we give the exact value of the clique-transversal number for the line graph of a complete graph. Also, we give a lower bound on the clique-transversal number for 4-regular claw-free graphs and characterize the extremal graphs achieving the lower bound.

  16. Parasites of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in southern California, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Boris I.; Matey, Victoria E.; Fisher, Richard N.; Ervin, Edward L.; Warburton, Manna L.; Bakhireva, Ludmila; Lehman, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 230 feral African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, from 3 localities in southern California were examined for parasites. The following species were found: 3 species of Protozoa, Nyctotherussp., Balantidium xenopodis, Protoopalina xenopodus; 2 species of Monogenea, Protopolystoma xenopodis, Gyrdicotylus gallieni; 1 species of Digenea, Clinostomum sp. (as metacercariae); 1 species of Cestoda, Cephalochlamys namaquensis; 2 species of Nematoda, Contracaecum sp. (as larvae), Eustrongylides sp. (as larvae); and 1 species of Acanthocephala, Acanthocephalus sp. (as cystacanth). Of these, the protozoans P. xenopodus and B. xenopodis, both monogeneans, and the cestode have an African origin. Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., and Acanthocephalus sp. have not been previously reported from X. laevis.

  17. Assessing the repeatability and reproducibility of the Leg Score: a Dutch Claw Health Scoring System for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, M; Middelesch, H; Bartels, C J M; Frankena, K; Verhoeff, J; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    The optimal moment for trimming the claws of all dairy cows in a herd was investigated by assessing the external rotation of the hind claws of individual cows relative to the spinal column. This leg score consisted of three independent descriptors: 1 (good/normal), 2 (moderately deviant), and 3 (severely deviant). This study assessed the repeatability and the reproducibility of the leg score system, and the consistency of the advice given subsequently about trimming of the hind claws of all cows in the herd. Repeatability was assessed for 52 cows that were scored twice on the same day by 11 observers; the kappa value ranged from 0.17 to 0.66 (mean: 0.36). The probability of the same result for both assessments ranged from 0.49 to 0.80 (mean: 0.61). Claw trimming was advised if at least 20% of the cows had a leg score of 3. On the basis of the scores, 3 observers consistently advised trimming of the hind claws of all the cows in the herd, and 6 observers consistently advised against the need for trimming in the short term; 2 observers had an inconsistent advice. The reproducibility of the scoring system was assessed in two dairy herds (62 and 50 cows). Eight observers evaluated the leg score of the cows of both herds on the same day. The mean kappa value of the leg score for all pairs of different observers (A-B, A-C etcetera) was 0.24 [-0.08-0.49]. In conclusion, the leg score is not a reliable method for determining the optimal moment for claw trimming in dairy cattle. The reasons for the inconsistent observations require further investigation.

  18. Lameness and Claw Lesions of the Norwegian Red Dairy Cattle Housed in Free Stalls in Relation to Environment, Parity and Stage of Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.

  19. Lameness and Claw Lesions of the Norwegian Red Dairy Cattle Housed in Free Stalls in Relation to Environment, Parity and Stage of Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogstad ÅM

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.

  20. Antimutagenic and antiherpetic activities of different preparations from Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, Thiago; Kaiser, Samuel; Feltrin, Clarissa; de Carvalho, Annelise; Sincero, Thaís Cristine Marques; Ortega, George González; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Uncaria tomentosa have been used to treat viral diseases such as herpes due to multiple pharmacological effects, but its therapeutic efficacy against this virus have not been reported yet. Thus, in vitro antiherpetic activity of hydroethanolic extract from barks, purified fractions of quinovic acid glycosides and oxindole alkaloids was evaluated by plaque reduction assay, including mechanistic studies (virucidal, attachment and penetration action). Once exposure to physical agents might lead to reactivation of the herpetic infection, antimutagenic effect (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment protocols) was also evaluated by Comet assay. The antiherpetic activity from the samples under investigation seemed to be associated with the presence of polyphenols or their synergistic effect with oxindole alkaloids or quinovic acid glycosides, once both purified fractions did not present activity when evaluated alone. Inhibition of viral attachment in the host cells was the main mechanism of antiviral activity. Although both purified fractions displayed the lowest antimutagenic activity in pre and simultaneous treatment, they provided a similar effect to that of cat's claw hydroethanolic extract in post-treatment. Given that purified fractions may result in a reduced antiherpetic activity, the use of cat's claw hydroethanolic extract from barks should be prioritized in order to obtain a synergistic effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of the environment on dairy cow behavior, claw health and herd lameness dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nigel B; Nordlund, Kenneth V

    2009-03-01

    Free stall housing increases the exposure of dairy cows' claws to concrete walk-ways and to manure between periods of rest, and generally shows the highest rate of lameness compared with other dairy management systems. However, there is great variation within a system, and the rate of new cases of lameness can be reduced to very low levels provided time spent resting per day is maximized through good stall design, access to stalls through stocking density control and comfortable transition cow facilities, limiting the time spent milking, provision of adequate heat abatement, and good leg hygiene. Sand bedded stalls are useful as they also permit lame cows to maintain adequate daily rest. Rubberized alley flooring surfaces benefit the cow by reducing claw wear and trauma compared to concrete, making them ideal for parlor holding areas and long transfer lanes and walk ways. However, caution is required when using rubber floors in pens with uncomfortable stalls due to apparent adverse effects on cow time budgets, which may in turn have a detrimental effect on lameness.

  2. Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Nazir Zahid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3 and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle.

  3. Iris-claw intraocular lens implantation: Anterior chamber versus retropupillary implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacı, Sezer; Demirdüzen, Selahaddin; Öksüz, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the outcomes of anterior chamber and retropupillary implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lenses (IOL). Design: Prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. Patients and Methods: Forty eyes of forty aphakic patients were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups. Each group includes twenty patients. Group 1 received anterior chamber Artisan IOL implantation. Group 2 received retropupillary Artisan IOL implantation. Preoperative and postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and all complications were noted and compared at 6 months follow-up. Results: Each two groups obtained a significant improvement in CDVA (P < 0.05). Four patients in Group 1 and five patients in Group 2 had significant but nonpermanent increase at IOP values. There were one and two pupillary irregularity in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. In one patient, a shallow and inferior located retinal detachment were encountered in anterior chamber group. Conclusions: The results were not significantly different between the two fixation techniques for iris-claw lens. The surgery procedure is dependent to surgeon experience and eye's conditions. PMID:26953023

  4. Analysis of Torque Ripple Caused by Three-Phase Unbalance in Claw Teeth Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takayuki; Nakatsugawa, Junnosuke; Enomoto, Yuji

    A soft magnetic composite (SMC) has some advantages, namely, three-dimensional magnetic isotropy and low eddy current loss. Thus, it can be used to build a new type of motor with a three-dimensional structure, improved space factor of winding improved the power density. A claw teeth motor is one of the motors that have three-dimensional structure, and it is made of an SMC. Due to its structure, the claw teeth motor has an unbalanced three-phase magnetic circuit, which leads to low-order harmonic components in the torque waveform. For reducing the torque ripple, it is important to estimate the magnetic torque and the cogging torque because the total torque is the sum of these torques. In this study a method for decomposing the total torque under the load condition into the magnetic torque and cogging torque is presented. The proposed method can quantitatively estimate low-order harmonic components of the magnetic torque and cogging torque caused by an unbalanced three-phase magnetic circuit for each phase.

  5. Modelling habitat requirements of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes using support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favaro L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish’s habitat has been profoundly modified in Piedmont (NW Italy due to environmental changes caused by human impact. Consequently, native populations have decreased markedly. In this research project, support vector machines were tested as possible tools for evaluating the ecological factors that determine the presence of white-clawed crayfish. A system of 175 sites was investigated, 98 of which recorded the presence of Austropotamobius pallipes. At each site 27 physical-chemical, environmental and climatic variables were measured according to their importance to A. pallipes. Various feature selection methods were employed. These yielded three subsets of variables that helped build three different types of models: (1 models with no variable selection; (2 models built by applying Goldberg’s genetic algorithm after variable selection; (3 models built by using a combination of four supervised-filter evaluators after variable selection. These different model types helped us realise how important it was to select the right features if we wanted to build support vector machines that perform as well as possible. In addition, support vector machines have a high potential for predicting indigenous crayfish occurrence, according to our findings. Therefore, they are valuable tools for freshwater management, tools that may prove to be much more promising than traditional and other machine-learning techniques.

  6. Phylogeography of the white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius italicus) in Spain: inferences from microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matallanas, B; Ochando, M D; Alonso, F; Callejas, C

    2013-09-01

    The white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius italicus), a cornerstone of Spain's aquatic ecosystems, was once widely distributed throughout much of the country. Unfortunately, its populations have suffered very strong declines over the last 40 years due to the spread of introduced species (red swamp and signal crayfishes), diseases, habitat loss and other anthropogenic impacts. The present work examines the genetic variation in 23 Spanish and four Italian populations of white-clawed crayfish via the analysis of microsatellite loci. The data show genetic variation in the Spanish populations to be affected by drastic and successive bottlenecks. Notwithstanding, the diversity of these Spanish populations in terms of observed heterozygosity is similar to or even higher than that recorded for other European populations studied using these same markers. North-central Spanish populations are clearly differentiated from the country's remaining populations; they should be considered distinct management units. Processes occurred in historical and recent times, such as genetic drift and translocations, contribute greatly to this genetic structure. These data provide useful information for conservation of this species, since the preservation of its population structure and genetic variability should be goals for management decisions.

  7. JR6, a new compound isolated from Justicia procumbens, induces apoptosis in human bladder cancer EJ cells through caspase-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Peng; Dong, Xian-Zhe; Yang, Mei-Hua; Chen, Shi-Lin; Bi, Ming-Gang

    2012-11-21

    Numerous efforts have been conducted in searching for effective agents against cancer, in particular from herbal medicines. Justicia procumbens is a traditional herbal remedy which was produced in the south-western and southern provinces of China and Taiwan province used to treat fever, pain, and cancer. Here, we identified a new compound 6'-hydroxy justicidin A (JR6) from Justicia procumbens, which showed obvious anti-cancer effects. The cytotoxicity activity was assayed using MTT and SRB. Intracellular ROS visualization and quantification were acquired by using a laser scanning confocal microscopy. Apoptosis was measured using a propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis detection kit by flow cytometry. Activation of caspases (caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9) was evaluated respectively using GloMax luminescence detector and Caspase-Glo 3,8,9 assay kits. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed by microscopy using JC-1 dye. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to detect the expression of protein associated with cell death. JR6 remarkably inhibited growth in human bladder cancer EJ cells by decreasing cell proliferation, reduced the SOD activity, increased the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and induced apoptosis. Activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and the subsequent activation of caspase-3 indicated that JR6 may be inducing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. Caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 inhibition rendered this extract ineffective, thus JR6-induced apoptosis is caspase-dependent. JR6 also disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and unregulated the Bax and p53 expressions in EJ cells. These observations suggest that JR6 induce apoptosis through caspase-dependent pathway in human bladder cancer EJ cells, emphasizing the importance of this traditional medicine and thus presents a potential novel alternative to bladder cancer therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Soft or Hard Floors before and after First Calving on Dairy Heifer Locomotion, Claw and Leg Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Bergsten

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Claw health, an important dairy cow welfare parameter, may be affected by early-life foot/leg stresses. To investigate this, groups of pregnant heifers were allocated to deep straw bedding (Soft or cubicles (Hard, both with scraped concrete feeding alleys. After the grazing season, they were re-housed in cubicle systems, half on slatted concrete (Hard and half on slatted rubber (Soft alleys. Claw measurements, contact area and pressure distribution claw/flooring, claw disorders and leg lesions were recorded at the start and end of each housing season. Locomotion and leg lesions were also scored monthly after calving. Prevalence of sole haemorrhages was higher among pregnant heifers in cubicles than in deep straw. After calving, first-calvers on Hard floors had higher odds for lameness (OR = 3.6; P < 0.01, sole haemorrhages/ulcers (OR = 2.2; P < 0.05, white-line haemorrhages (OR = 2.8; P < 0.01 and leg lesions (OR = 2.6; P < 0.02 than those on Soft floors. Lowest prevalence and severity of sole and white-line haemorrhages (non-significant in first-calvers was found in those on Soft floors and reared on Hard floors and the highest prevalence and severity on those on Hard floors reared on Soft floors. Soft flooring after calving is of most importance for healthy feet and legs.

  9. Influence of Soft or Hard Floors before and after First Calving on Dairy Heifer Locomotion, Claw and Leg Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, Christer; Telezhenko, Evgenij; Ventorp, Michael

    2015-08-06

    Claw health, an important dairy cow welfare parameter, may be affected by early-life foot/leg stresses. To investigate this, groups of pregnant heifers were allocated to deep straw bedding (Soft) or cubicles (Hard), both with scraped concrete feeding alleys. After the grazing season, they were re-housed in cubicle systems, half on slatted concrete (Hard) and half on slatted rubber (Soft) alleys. Claw measurements, contact area and pressure distribution claw/flooring, claw disorders and leg lesions were recorded at the start and end of each housing season. Locomotion and leg lesions were also scored monthly after calving. Prevalence of sole haemorrhages was higher among pregnant heifers in cubicles than in deep straw. After calving, first-calvers on Hard floors had higher odds for lameness (OR = 3.6; P floors. Lowest prevalence and severity of sole and white-line haemorrhages (non-significant) in first-calvers was found in those on Soft floors and reared on Hard floors and the highest prevalence and severity on those on Hard floors reared on Soft floors. Soft flooring after calving is of most importance for healthy feet and legs.

  10. Inverse Effects on Growth and Development Rates by Means of Endocrine Disruptors in African Clawed Frog Tadpoles ("Xenopus Laevis")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Zachary Carl

    2007-01-01

    Previous work on fish, frogs, and salamanders, showed the ability for estrogen (EE2) and anthropogenic endocrine disruptors to skew sex ratios and cause hermaphrodism. This study addressed the effects of estrogens on growth and development rates of African clawed frog tadpoles ("Xenopus laevis") during their gender determination stages. The…

  11. Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens implantation for the management of iris-lens injured patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shufang; Wang, Mingling; Xiao, Tianlin; Zhao, Zhenquan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the efficiency and safety of iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the patients with iris-lens injuries. Settings and Design: Retrospective, noncomparable consecutive case series study. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients (11 eyes) following iris-lens injuries underwent iris reconstructions combined with iris-claw IOL implantations. Clinical data, such as cause and time of injury, visual acuity (VA), iris and lens injuries, surgical intervention, follow-up period, corneal endothelial cell count, and optical coherence tomography, were collected. Results: Uncorrected VA (UCVA) in all injured eyes before combined surgery was equal to or <20/1000. Within a 1.1–4.2-year follow-up period, a significant increase, equal to or better than 20/66, in UCVA was observed in six (55%) cases, and in best-corrected VA (BCVA) was observed in nine (82%) cases. Postoperative BCVA was 20/40 or better in seven cases (64%). After combined surgery, the iris returned to its natural round shape or smaller pupil, and the iris-claw IOLs in the 11 eyes were well-positioned on the anterior surface of reconstructed iris. No complications occurred in those patients. Conclusions: Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw IOL implantation is a safe and efficient procedure for an eye with iris-lens injury in the absence of capsular support. PMID:27146932

  12. Conservation Aspects of the Ecology of Asian Small-Clawed and Smooth Otters on the Malay Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster-Turley P.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Between April 1989 and June 1990 I made four six-week study visits to Tanjong Piandang, Perak, Malaysia where I studied otters in collaboration with Mr Burhannudin ("Bond" Mohd of the Department of National parks and Wildlife of Peninsular Malaysia. We mostly studied field signs and collected scats of both smooth (Lutra perspicillata and small clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea inhabiting the rice fields and fringing mangroves of the study site. With experience, smooth and small-clawed otters signs can be easily discriminated in the field. Although previous natural historians have considered mangroves important to smooth otters, the results of this study indicate their importance to small-clawed otters as well. More than 25 % of the remaining mangroves in Malaysia are under threat of conversion to aquaculture projects: a particular problem for the survival of otters, as this brings them into even closer contact with humans who view them as pests. The Kerian rice fields of Perak, Malaysia are also an important habitat for small-clawed and smooth otters. Asian rivers seem to contain fewer otter signs and probably fewer otters than wetlands, marshes and mangroves, so preserving pristine Asian river habitats like Hauy Kha Khaeng and Sungai Tembeling may not be enough to ensure the survival of good populations of otters. I suggest that to be most effective in our Asian otter conservation efforts we need to increasingly link up with our colleagues who are working to protect these fragile habitats.

  13. Modulus of elasticity and dry-matter content of bovine claw horn affected by the changes of chronic laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterhofer, Christine; Apprich, Veronika; Ferguson, James C; Stanek, Christian

    2007-11-01

    The mechanical properties of horn samples from 22 hind claws with chronic laminitis were determined in adult Austrian Fleckvieh cows. The resistance to deformation was quantified as the modulus of elasticity (E). Tension tests revealed mean E values of 520MPa for the dorsal wall, 243MPa for the abaxial wall, 339MPa for the axial wall and 97MPa for the sole. E tended to be lower in laminitic horn than in sound horn in all segments tested, with the difference being largest in the abaxial wall. The mean dry-matter content (DMC) of the laminitic claws was 75.8% in the dorsal wall, 75.86% in the abaxial wall, 71.15% in the axial wall and 69.28% in the sole. These values are generally comparable to those for sound claws except in the axial wall. Further, E and DMC were only correlated in the axial wall. Chronic laminitis leads to a low resistance of claw horn to mechanical insults in the dorsal wall, abaxial wall and sole, and to the loss of a correlation between the E and DMC in these segments. The reason for these alterations is therefore not increased ingress of moisture, but must be due to changes in the microstructure, biochemical components and/or horn formation by the diseased dermis.

  14. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult

    OpenAIRE

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H.; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera ...

  15. Aphakia correction with retropupillary fixated iris-claw lens (Artisan – long-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schallenberg M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maurice Schallenberg,1,2 Dirk Dekowski,1 Angela Hahn,1 Thomas Laube,1,3 Klaus-Peter Steuhl,1 Daniel Meller11Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 2HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany; 3Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, GermanyPurpose: To evaluate the technique, safety, and efficacy of the retropupillary implantation of iris-claw intraocular lenses in a long-term follow-up study.Patients and methods: This retrospective study included 31 eyes of 31 patients who underwent an Artisan aphakic intraocular lens implantation between January 2006 and February 2011 at the University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany and at the Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, Germany. Preoperative data collected included demographics, etiology of aphakia, previous surgeries, preoperative eye pathology, intraocular pressure, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and best corrected visual acuity. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included the best corrected visual acuity, lens position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, development of macular edema, and other complications.Results: Thirty-one patients were included. The mean follow-up was 25.2 months (range: 4–48 months. The mean best corrected visual acuity postoperatively was 0.64 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR and varied from 0 logMAR to 3 logMAR. Some patients had a low visual acuity preoperatively because of preoperative eye pathologies. In 22 patients the visual acuity improved, in two patients the visual acuity remained unchanged, and seven patients showed a decreased visual acuity. Complications were peaked pupils (n=10 and retinal detachment in one case. Four patients showed an iris atrophy and high intraocular pressure was observed only in one patient. Subluxation of the intraocular lens, endothelial cell loss, and

  16. Cat's Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    63054 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/catclaw ... us ... 63054 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/catclaw ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 63054 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/ ...

  17. Claws Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In its November 2007 issue,U.S.magazine Science published a photo named"flat cat?"and a column titled"Rare-Tiger Photo Flap Makes Fur Fly in China."The article dealt with the claimed discovery of the South China tiger,which had been believed extinct in the wild.The photo as well as the article stirred up the already heated controversy in China as to whether the photo was a fake or not.

  18. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera (Wild.), Leucas aspera ethanolic extract (LAEE), Plumbago zeylanica L., Plumbago zeylanica ethanolic extract (PZEE), and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Tridax procumbens ethanolic extract (TPEE) were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by CFU assay and the effect on the bacterial membrane by fluorescence activated cell sorting and scanning electron microscopy. LAEE, PZEE, and HIEE displayed potent bacterial killing activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. TPEE did not display appreciable antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization, blebbing and leakage of cellular contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of alcoholic extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study.

  19. The GeoClaw software for depth-averaged flows with adaptive refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marsha J; LeVeque, Randall J; Mandli, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Many geophysical flow or wave propagation problems can be modeled with two-dimensional depth-averaged equations, of which the shallow water equations are the simplest example. We describe the GeoClaw software that has been designed to solve problems of this nature, consisting of open source Fortran programs together with Python tools for the user interface and flow visualization. This software uses high-resolution shock-capturing finite volume methods on logically rectangular grids, including latitude--longitude grids on the sphere. Dry states are handled automatically to model inundation. The code incorporates adaptive mesh refinement to allow the efficient solution of large-scale geophysical problems. Examples are given illustrating its use for modeling tsunamis, dam break problems, and storm surge. Documentation and download information is available at www.clawpack.org/geoclaw

  20. A Study on High Thermal Conductive Insulation for Claw Teeth Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Yuichiro; Obata, Koji; Enomoto, Yuji; Okabe, Yoshiaki

    To increase the power density of motors in a wide range of fields from home appliance to power industry, we proposed two new high thermal conductive insulation systems for the motors. They were a glass cross insulation system and a resin coated insulation system without forced cooling devices such as a cooling fan. Their thermal and insulation characteristics were measured and analyzed, and optimum thermal conductive structures for claw teeth motors were discussed through robust design and thermal network analysis. Experiment on prototype motors with the highest thermal conductive epoxy resin (5 W/mK) and the proposed systems, revealed that the temperature rise of motor coils was decreased; their temperature reached 73 % of that of the motor coils with standard insulation and normal resin (0.6 W/mK). Furthermore, partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV) and breakdown voltage (BDV) were measured, and we verified that resin coated insulation motors could withstand as high a voltage as normal insulation motors.

  1. Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens for aphakia in Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kheirkhah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens (IOL is a surgical option for correction of aphakia; however, these IOLs have not been used in eyes with uveitis including Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI due to possible risk of severe postoperative intraocular inflammation. In the case reported here, we secondarily implanted an Artisan IOL in a 28-year-old man with FHI who had aphakia with no capsular support due to a previous complicated cataract surgery. Enclavation was easily performed and no intraoperative complication was noted. Postoperative course was uneventful with no significant anterior chamber inflammation during 12 months of follow-up. Although there were few deposits on the IOL surface, the patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 without developing glaucoma or other complications. Therefore, Artisan IOL may be considered for correction of aphakia in patients with FHI. However, studies on large number of patients are required to evaluate safety of the procedure.

  2. Social partner discrimination based on sounds and scents in Asian small-clawed otters ( Aonyx cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, A.; Mikus, M.-A.; Blois-Heulin, C.; Lodé, T.

    2013-03-01

    Ability to discriminate familiar conspecifics is an essential competence in any group-living species, ensuring socio-spatial cohesion, but in many animals, such as mustelids, the relative importance of the different communicative modalities for discrimination is poorly understood. In otters, there is evidence of intra-specific variation in physical appearance and in feces chemical profile, but the potential for acoustic identity coding as well as for identity decoding in visual, acoustic and olfactive domains remains unexplored. We investigated the acoustic structure of contact calls in five captive groups of small-clawed otters and found that it is possible to reliably assign one particular call to a given adult male caller. Females discriminated between familiar and unfamiliar adult males based on their sound (playback) and smell (feces) but not based on their picture, suggesting abilities to memorize and use acoustic and olfactive signatures in their daily social life.

  3. The GeoClaw software for depth-averaged flows with adaptive refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M.J.; George, D.L.; LeVeque, R.J.; Mandli, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    Many geophysical flow or wave propagation problems can be modeled with two-dimensional depth-averaged equations, of which the shallow water equations are the simplest example. We describe the GeoClaw software that has been designed to solve problems of this nature, consisting of open source Fortran programs together with Python tools for the user interface and flow visualization. This software uses high-resolution shock-capturing finite volume methods on logically rectangular grids, including latitude-longitude grids on the sphere. Dry states are handled automatically to model inundation. The code incorporates adaptive mesh refinement to allow the efficient solution of large-scale geophysical problems. Examples are given illustrating its use for modeling tsunamis and dam-break flooding problems. Documentation and download information is available at www.clawpack.org/geoclaw. ?? 2011.

  4. Performance Measurements of a Low Specific Speed TurboClaw® Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, J.; Cattell, R.; Etemad, S.; Pullen, K. R.

    2015-08-01

    Low specific speed compressors have been historically based on positive displacement machines. Attempts to bring advantages of turbomachinery such as oil free, low parts counts, low cost of manufacture, and reliability to low flow rate applications have not been sparse, but the principle difficulty has always been that the conventional turbomachine design operates at ultra-high speed to deliver low volume flow rates. This is synonymous with low efficiency due to higher losses (windage, surface finish, and tip clearances). The innovative TurboClaw® design is a low specific speed turbomachinery with forward swept impeller geometry. It owes its high efficiency and operational stability to careful design of its nearly tangential forward swept blading and diffuser geometry.

  5. Social partner discrimination based on sounds and scents in Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, A; Mikus, M-A; Blois-Heulin, C; Lodé, T

    2013-03-01

    Ability to discriminate familiar conspecifics is an essential competence in any group-living species, ensuring socio-spatial cohesion, but in many animals, such as mustelids, the relative importance of the different communicative modalities for discrimination is poorly understood. In otters, there is evidence of intra-specific variation in physical appearance and in feces chemical profile, but the potential for acoustic identity coding as well as for identity decoding in visual, acoustic and olfactive domains remains unexplored. We investigated the acoustic structure of contact calls in five captive groups of small-clawed otters and found that it is possible to reliably assign one particular call to a given adult male caller. Females discriminated between familiar and unfamiliar adult males based on their sound (playback) and smell (feces) but not based on their picture, suggesting abilities to memorize and use acoustic and olfactive signatures in their daily social life.

  6. Evaluation of inorganic elements in cat's claw teas using ICP OES and GF AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, João B; Dantas, Kelly G F

    2016-04-01

    The determination of Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), and Se by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS), has been carried out in dry matter and teas from 11 samples of the cat's claw plant. The accuracy and precision values were verified against GBW 07604 (Poplar leaves) certified reference material and by the recovery test. Results showed a high content of Ca in the medicinal plant studied, followed by Mg and P. The values obtained showed that the elements studied have different concentrations depending on the method of tea preparation. The highest levels were observed in Ca and Mg, and the lowest for Se and Pb, by both infusion and decoction. Teas prepared from this plant were found to be at safe levels for human consumption, and may be suitable as sources of these elements in the human diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) improves quality of life in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Larissa Carvalho Lopes; Fonseca, Fernando; Perazzo, Fabio; Cruz, Felipe Melo; Cubero, Daniel; Trufelli, Damila Cristina; Martins, Suelen Patrícia Dos Santos; Santi, Patrícia Xavier; da Silva, Eliana Araújo; Del Giglio, Auro

    2015-01-01

    Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) is a native Amazon plant that exhibits anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. We wanted to assess its activity for symptom management of terminal cancer patients. This prospective phase II study assessed the effects of a 100-mg dose of a dry extract of U. tomentosa three times per day in patients with advanced solid tumors who had no further therapeutic options and a life expectancy of at least 2 months. The European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ C30) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue questionnaires were used to assess the participants' quality of life, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire was used to assess anxiety and depression, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess sleep quality. In addition, several biochemical and inflammatory parameters were analyzed. Fifty-one volunteers were recruited. Their median age was 64 (range, 33-85) years, and 47% of patients were female. More than 65% of patients had scores on the Karnofsky Performance Scale of 80% or less. Treatment improved the patients' overall quality of life (p=0.0411) and social functioning (p=0.0341), as assessed by the EORTC QLQ C-30, and reduced fatigue (p=0.0496) according to the Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire. None of the biochemical or inflammatory parameters assessed (interleukin-1 and -6, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and α-1-acid glycoprotein) changed significantly. No tumor response was detected according to the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors; however, the disease stabilized for more than 8 months in four participants. The medication was well tolerated by most patients. Use of cat's claw might be beneficial in patients with advanced cancer by improving their quality of life and reducing fatigue. The mechanism of action does not seem to be related to the anti

  8. WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH IN MUDDY HABITATS: MONITORING THE POPULATION IN THE RIVER IVEL, BEDFORDSHIRE, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEAY S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available White-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes are usually associated with stony substrates, tree roots, or refuges in submerged banks. The River Ivel has the last known population of white-clawed crayfish in Bedfordshire. Prior to 2005, much of the bed comprised uniform silt, plus leaf-litter. Stands of reedmace Typha latifolia and other emergent vegetation were localised in less shaded areas. Initial survey results suggested a population at low abundance. A low-cost monitoring strategy was started in 2001 and continued three times a year to 2005, using engineering bricks, which offer artificial refuges. Crayfish are counted when bricks are lifted periodically. De-silting of c. 430 m river was carried out in February 2005, to improve habitat and to maintain the flood capacity in the channel upstream of a mill weir. Additional bricks were deployed a few weeks in advance of de-silting, then bricks and crayfish were lifted prior to dredging and were returned the next day. Starting upstream, soft, wet mud was dredged out, placed on the bank and searched manually for crayfish. Banks, tree roots and shallow margins were left undisturbed. In all, 4,142 crayfish were found in dredgings from a 430 m length of the mid channel. Crayfish were strongly associated with emergent vegetation, but many were present below the surface of the silt. Crayfish released in the dredged channel immediately burrowed into the silt retained on the channel margins. Monitoring after dredging showed no change in abundance in the main area with in-bank refuges and lots of bricks, but there was an increase in occupancy of bricks in an area where most crayfish had been in emergent vegetation.

  9. [Disease monitoring in European mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon) populations by clinical blood tests--aspects of epidemiology and treatment control of claw diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Klaus; Hecht, Werner

    2006-01-01

    European mouflon are in the focus of research since they were brought from the Tyrrhenic islands to the European mainland a hundred years ago. From the beginning many populations on European mainland suffer from different claw diseases which are unknown in their original habitats. Foot rot, the ovine purulent laminitis, whose existence im wild ruminants was negotiated some years before, furthermore claw alterations caused by primary or secondary lack of trace elements similar to the copper deficiency syndrome of the boreal deer species moose and reindeer and finally horn hyperplasia with a genetic background are found as main claw diseases in Central Europe. Object of this study was the acquiring of clinical parameters from blood for the installation of a mouflon-specific diagnostic profile "claw diseases". Count of leucocytes (WBC), activity of Alkaline phosphatase, serum contents of phosphorus, iron, copper and zinc were found to be parameters for successful differential diagnosis and control of progress in cure programs.

  10. Locomotion and claw disorders in Norwegian dairy cows housed in freestalls with slatted concrete, solid concrete, or solid rubber flooring in the alleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldaas, T; Sogstad, A M; Osterås, O

    2011-03-01

    This study was part of a cross-sectional project on freestall housing, and the aim was to compare locomotion and claw disorders in freestall dairy cattle herds with slatted concrete, solid concrete, or solid rubber flooring in the alleys. The final population for studying claw disorders consisted of 66 dairy herds with 2,709 dry or lactating cows, whereas the population for studying locomotion consisted of 54 herds with 2,216 cows. All herds used Norwegian Red as the main breed. The herds were visited by 15 trained claw trimmers one time during the period from the beginning of February to summer let-out onto pasture in 2008. The trimmers assessed locomotion scores (LocS) of all cows before trimming. At trimming, claw disorders were diagnosed and recorded in the Norwegian Claw Health Card. Estimates describing locomotion and claw disorders in the hind feet were identified by use of multivariable models fit with LocS and each claw disorder as dependent variables, respectively. Herd nested within claw trimmer was included in the model as random effects. The odds ratio (OR) of having LocS >2 and LocS >3 was 1.9 and 2.1, respectively, on slatted concrete compared with solid concrete. Fewer cases of dermatitis were found on slatted than solid concrete (OR=0.70) and a tendency was observed for fewer heel horn erosions on slatted concrete than solid rubber (OR=0.47). Hemorrhages of the white line and sole were more prevalent in herds housed on slatted and solid concrete than in those housed on solid rubber (OR=2.6 and OR=2.1, respectively). White line fissures were also more prevalent in herds housed on slatted and solid concrete than in those housed on solid rubber (OR=2.1 and OR=2.0, respectively). Double soles were more prevalent on solid concrete than solid rubber (OR=4.4). However, sole ulcers were less prevalent in herds with slatted and solid concrete than solid rubber (OR=0.39 and OR=0.53, respectively). Fewer corkscrewed claws were found on slatted concrete than

  11. Influence of floor surface and access to pasture on claw health in dairy cows kept in cubicle housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Helge Christiane; Gygax, Lorenz; Wechsler, Beat; Stauffacher, Markus; Friedli, Katharina

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the effects on the claw health of dairy cows of three different floor types and access to pasture were investigated on 35 farms. The farms were fitted with a given floor type in the indoor walking area of a cubicle housing system: a solid rubber, mastic asphalt or slatted concrete floor. Because we chose farms on which the given floor type was in good condition, the data presented show what can be achieved on these types of floors under ideal circumstances. Cows on half of the farms per floor type had access to pasture during the grazing period. Each farm was visited three times at approx. 6-month intervals at the end of the winter indoor-housing period and at the end of the summer period, i.e. after the period with access to pasture on half of the farms. During each visit, the claw health of the same 10 cows per farm was assessed on the occasion of routine claw trimming. The proportion of cows with haemorrhages increased from mastic asphalt to rubber and slatted concrete floors. A lower proportion of cows kept on mastic asphalt was affected by white-line fissures and needed intermittent claw-trimming, an indicator for lameness. Cows housed in cubicle systems with slatted concrete floors were at the lowest risk of having heel-horn erosions. Access to pasture was associated with a lower incidence of slight white-line fissures and dermatitis digitalis. A higher proportion of cows with sole haemorrhages and sole ulcers were found on all floor types at the end of the summer period than at the end of the winter indoor-housing period. Floor type did not influence the presence of sole ulcers and deep white-line fissures. In conclusion, the effect of floor type on claw health was slight, and none of the investigated floor types was clearly superior to the others. Access to pasture was not effective in reducing the presence of most types of claw lesions associated with the floor type used in the indoor walking area.

  12. Harpagoside Inhibits RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis via Syk-Btk-PLCγ2-Ca(2+) Signaling Pathway and Prevents Inflammation-Mediated Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Sun-Hyang; Baek, Jong Min; Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Kim, Min Seuk; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su

    2015-09-25

    Harpagoside (HAR) is a natural compound isolated from Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) that is reported to have anti-inflammatory effects; however, these effects have not been investigated in the context of bone development. The current study describes for the first time that HAR inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and suppresses inflammation-induced bone loss in a mouse model. HAR also inhibited the formation of osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner as well as the activity of mature osteoclasts, including filamentous actin (F-actin) ring formation and bone matrix breakdown. This involved a HAR-induced decrease in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, leading to the inhibition of Syk-Btk-PLCγ2-Ca(2+) in RANKL-dependent early signaling, as well as the activation of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which resulted in the down-regulation of various target genes. Consistent with these in vitro results, HAR blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss in an inflammatory osteoporosis model. However, HAR did not prevent ovariectomy-mediated bone erosion in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model. These results suggest that HAR is a valuable agent against inflammation-related bone disorders but not osteoporosis induced by hormonal abnormalities.

  13. Plant materials used in supporting the treatment of gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Jurczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gout (arthritis, is a disease belonging to the group of rheumatoid disorders. As a result of some disorders in the uric acid metabolism, deposition of its crystals takes place in tissues and organs. It causes pain of joints and forming of tophi and tophi in kidney. The limit of uric acid in the blood is 6.5 mg%. Worldwide, especially in well-developed countries, the frequency of gout incidence is still increasing – more in men than women. The incidence among women is increasing only in the postmenopausal period. Methods of gout treatment are based on a comprehensive approach to patients and include primarily lifestyle changes (introduction of special diets and increased physical activity and introduction of drugs that act as analgesic and anti-inflammatory, as well as are able to remove an excess of uric acid. For ages, in gout treatment also plant raw materials have been applied. They show a potency comparable to medicines, but usually exhibit weaker side effects. Medicine pays special attention, while curing gout, to such plants as: Aegopodium podagraria L., Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s Claw, willow bark, birch leaves, mud meadowsweet flower, sour cherries, but also common goldenrod, nettle, horsetail and wild rose.

  14. A longitudinal study into the effect of grazing on claw disorders in female calves and young dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, M; Brummelman, B; Frankena, K; Lam, T J G M

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of claw disorders in youngstock and first parity heifers and to evaluate the effect of grazing on claw disorders, 10 Dutch dairy herds participated in a 2-year longitudinal study. Five herds were zero-grazed, while in the other five herds cows and youngstock had access to pasture during the summer. Twenty female calves 15%. The prevalence of DD increased considerably around first calving on both the grazing and the zero-grazing farms. The prevalence of IDHE increased with age while SH prevalence showed a more fluctuating pattern. Digital dermatitis was less frequently observed in pastured animals than in permanently housed animals (OR=0.12-0.64 depending on month of observation; P<0.05), with the strongest effect being seen during the period when the herds which grazed cattle actually had animals at pasture (May to August). Grazing was also associated with lower levels of IDHE and SH, again particularly during the grazing season.

  15. The rapid propagation of tissue culture on Gynura Procumbens%平卧菊三七茎段组织培养快速繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋锡全; 吴晓英; 朱书晟; 任茜; 吴堂凤

    2011-01-01

    Under the condition of the low propagation rate of gynura procumbens. Naturally, this paper discusses how to solve the cultural problems by using the tissue culture. The author cultures the test tube seeding which is living successfully by transformation mainly through the method of inducing unstable bushing buds, and the seeding can be grown in larger space, at the same time, the author also tests the effect of three kinds of culture mediums on the living condition of the root of stem section liquid with bacteria. The results are as following: Firstly, the comparing numbers of the roots of gynura procumbens. With culturing the stem section of terminal bud grown by the three kinds of mineral water with bacteria are shown : Formula 3 〉 Formula 1 〉 Formula 2, and the width comparison of the induced beard root are shown: Formula 2 〉 Formula 1 〉 Formula 3. Secondly, the statistic result of successful transforming growth by observation is that Formula 2 is the first one to live in seven days after transformation, and is growing quickly and flourishingly.%在平卧菊三七自然繁殖率偏低的情况下,探讨利用组织培养方法解决繁殖问题。主要利用诱导丛生不定芽培养基培育形成试管苗,移栽成活,能进行大田栽培;同时还试验了3种培养基对茎段带菌液体培养生根生长的影响,研究结果:3种自来水带菌液体培养基对平卧菊三七带顶芽茎段培养长出须根系的条数为:配方3〉配方1〉配方2,诱导培养长出须根的长度和根直径的粗度依次为:配方2〉配方1〉配方3。从观察移栽成活率得出统计结果:配方2移栽7d后,最先成活,长势快且茂盛。

  16. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis) are independent of their alkaloid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, M; Okuhama, N N; Zhang, X J; Condezo, L A; Lao, J; Angeles', F M; Musah, R A; Bobrowski, P; Miller, M J S

    2002-05-01

    Cat's claw is an herbal medicine from the Amazon that is used widely to treat inflammatory disorders. The purpose of this study was to characterize the antioxidative and antiinflammatory properties of cat's claw, Uncaria tomentosa (UT) and Uncaria guianensis (UG). Alkaloids and flavanols were determined using reversed-phase HPLC; scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radicals, and lipid peroxidation by spectrophotometry; and TNFalpha production by ELISA. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro by inhibition of TNFalpha and nitrite production from RAW 264.7 cells exposed to LPS (50 ng/ml) and in vivo using the indomethacin-induced gastritis model. Apoptosis was assessed using the TUNEL technique and TNFalpha mRNA by in situ RT-PCR. In each of the antioxidant assays tested, UG was more potent than UT (P UG. The IC50 value for inhibition of TNFalpha production was significantly (P < 0.01) higher for UT (14.1 ng/ml) vs UG (9.5 ng/ml), yet at concentrations that were considerable lower than that required for antioxidant activity. Non-alkaloid HPLC fractions from UT decreased LPS-induced TNFalpha and nitrite production in RAW 264.7 cells (P < 0.01) at a concentration range comparable to the parent botanical. Oral pretreatment for 3 d with UT protected against indomethacin-induced gastritis, and prevented TNFalpha mRNA expression and apoptosis. These results indicate that while both species of cat's claw provide effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, U. guianensis is more potent. In conclusion, the presence of oxindole or pentacyclic alkaloids did not influence the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cat's claw.

  17. Evolution of vertebrate transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 channels: opposite temperature sensitivity between mammals and western clawed frogs.

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    Shigeru Saito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential (TRP channels serve as temperature receptors in a wide variety of animals and must have played crucial roles in thermal adaptation. The TRP vanilloid (TRPV subfamily contains several temperature receptors with different temperature sensitivities. The TRPV3 channel is known to be highly expressed in skin, where it is activated by warm temperatures and serves as a sensor to detect ambient temperatures near the body temperature of homeothermic animals such as mammals. Here we performed comprehensive comparative analyses of the TRPV subfamily in order to understand the evolutionary process; we identified novel TRPV genes and also characterized the evolutionary flexibility of TRPV3 during vertebrate evolution. We cloned the TRPV3 channel from the western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis to understand the functional evolution of the TRPV3 channel. The amino acid sequences of the N- and C-terminal regions of the TRPV3 channel were highly diversified from those of other terrestrial vertebrate TRPV3 channels, although central portions were well conserved. In a heterologous expression system, several mammalian TRPV3 agonists did not activate the TRPV3 channel of the western clawed frog. Moreover, the frog TRPV3 channel did not respond to heat stimuli, instead it was activated by cold temperatures. Temperature thresholds for activation were about 16 °C, slightly below the lower temperature limit for the western clawed frog. Given that the TRPV3 channel is expressed in skin, its likely role is to detect noxious cold temperatures. Thus, the western clawed frog and mammals acquired opposite temperature sensitivity of the TRPV3 channel in order to detect environmental temperatures suitable for their respective species, indicating that temperature receptors can dynamically change properties to adapt to different thermal environments during evolution.

  18. Suzaku X-ray Observations of the Fermi Bubbles: Northernmost Cap and Southeast Claw Discovered with MAXI-SSC

    CERN Document Server

    Tahara, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    We report on Suzaku observations of large-scale X-ray structures possibly related with the Fermi Bubbles obtained in 2013 with a total duration of ~ 80 ks. The observed regions were the: (i) northern cap (N-cap; l ~ 0 deg, 45 deg < b < 55 deg) seen in the Mid-band (1.7-4.0 keV) map recently provided by MAXI-SSC and (ii) southeast claw (SE-claw; l ~ 10 deg, -20 deg < b < -10 deg) seen in the ROSAT all-sky map and MAXI-SSC Low-band (0.7-1.7 keV) map. In each region, we detected diffuse X-ray emissions which are represented by a three component plasma model consisting of an unabsorbed thermal component (kT ~ 0.1 keV) from the Local Bubble, absorbed kT = 0.30+/-0.05 keV emission representing the Galactic Halo, and a power-law component due to the isotropic cosmic X-ray background radiation. The emission measure of the GH component in the SE-claw shows an excess by a factor of ~ 2.5 over the surrounding emission at 2 deg away. We also found a broad excess in the 1.7-4.0 keV count rates across the N-cap...

  19. Retropupillary iris claw intraocular lens implantation in aphakia for dislocated intraocular lens

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    Faria MY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mun Yueh Faria,1–3 Nuno Pinto Ferreira,1–3 Joana Medeiros Pinto,1–3 David Cordeiro Sousa,1–3 Ines Leal,1–3 Eliana Neto,1–3 Carlos Marques-Neves1–3 1Centro de Estudos da Visão, Universidade de Lisboa, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital de Santa Maria, 3Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal Background: Nowadays, dislocated intraocular lenses (IOLs and inadequate capsular support are becoming a challenge for every ophthalmic surgeon. Explantation of dislocated IOL and iris claw IOL (ICIOL are the techniques that have been used in our ophthalmic department. The aim of this study is to report our technique for retropupillar ICIOL.Methods: This study is a retrospective case series. A total of 105 eyes with dislocated IOL from the patients at the Department of Ophthalmology in Santa Maria Hospital, a tertiary reference hospital in Lisbon, Portugal, from January 2012 until January 2016, had been analyzed. Of these 105 eyes, 66 eyes had dislocated one-piece IOL and 39 eyes had dislocated three-piece IOL. The latter underwent iris suture of the same IOL and were excluded from this study. The remaining 66 eyes with dislocated one-piece IOL underwent pars plana vitrectomy, that is, explantation of dislocated IOL through corneal incision and an implantation of retropupillary ICIOL. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included best corrected visual acuity, IOL position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and anterior chamber depth.Results: The mean follow-up was 23 months (range: 6–48 months. The mean preoperative best corrected visual acuity was 1.260±0.771 logMAR, and postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 0.352±0.400 logMAR units. Mean vision gain was 0.909 logMar units. The patients had the following complications: 1 retinal detachment was found in one patient, 2 corneal edema was found in three patients, 3 high intraocular pressure was observed in

  20. A Green Approach to Synthesize Silver Nanoparticles in Starch-co-Poly(acrylamide Hydrogels by Tridax procumbens Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial Activity

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    Siraj Shaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of starch-co-poly(acrylamide (starch-co-PAAm hydrogels were synthesized by employing free radical redox polymerization. A novel green approach, Tridax procumbens (TD leaf extract, was used for reduction of silver ions (Ag+ into silver nanoparticles in the starch-co-PAAm hydrogel network. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (X-RD studies. 22% of weight loss difference between hydrogel and silver nanocomposite hydrogel (SNCH clearly indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles by TGA. TEM images indicate the successful incorporation of silver nanoparticles ranging from 5 to 10 nm in size and spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution. These developed SNCHs were used to study the antibacterial activity by inhibition zone method against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria such as Bacillus and Escherichia coli. The results indicated that these SNCHs can be used potentially for biomedical applications.

  1. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and pharmacokinetics of 6'-hydroxy justicidin A, a potential antitumor active component isolated from Justicia procumbens, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Feng; Zhou, Shujun; Fu, Shujun; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2012-11-01

    A sensitive and accurate LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated of for the determination of 6'-hydroxy justicidin A (HJA), a potential antitumor active component isolated from Justicia procumbens in rat plasma using a simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method for sample preparation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax-C(18) column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 3.5 μm) using a step gradient program with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid. HJA and IS (buspirone) were detected using electrospray positive ionization mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. This method demonstrated good linearity and did not show any endogenous interference with the active compound and IS peaks. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of HJA was 0.50 ng/ml in 50 μl rat plasma. The developed and validated method has been successfully applied to the quantification and pharmacokinetic study of HJA in rats after intravenous and oral administration of 0.25 mg/kg HJA. The oral bioavailability (F) of HJA was estimated to be 36.0±13.4% with an elimination half-life (t(1/2)) value of 1.04±0.20 h.

  2. Characterization of a Crabs Claw Gene in Basal Eudicot Species Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae

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    Wei Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Crabs Claw (CRC YABBY gene is required for regulating carpel development in angiosperms and has played an important role in nectary evolution during core eudicot speciation. The function or expression of CRC-like genes has been explored in two basal eudicots, Eschscholzia californica and Aquilegia formosa. To further investigate the function of CRC orthologous genes related to evolution of carpel and nectary development in basal eudicots, a CRC ortholog, EsCRC, was isolated and characterized from Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. and Zucc. Maxim. A phylogenetic analysis of EsCRC and previously identified CRC-like genes placed EsCRC within the basal eudicot lineage. Gene expression results suggest that EsCRC is involved in the development of sepals and carpels, but not nectaries. Phenotypic complementation of the Arabidopsis mutant crc-1 was achieved by constitutive expression of EsCRC. In addition, over-expression of EsCRC in Arabidopsis and tobacco gave rise to abaxially curled leaves. Transgenic results together with the gene expression analysis suggest that EsCRC may maintain a conserved function in carpel development and also play a novel role related to sepal formation. Absence of EsCRC and ElCRC expression in nectaries further indicates that nectary development in non-core eudicots is unrelated to expression of CRC-like genes.

  3. ADVANTAGES OF ARTIFICIAL REPRODUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH (AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES LEREBOULLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARRAL J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of preserving and increasing endangered stocks of white-clawed crayfish, research on juvenile production has been carried out. Advantages in application of newly developed techniques of egg storage, transport and artificial incubation techniques are discussed. Eggs can be removed from maternal pleopods during the early stages of embryonic development and placed in artificial incubation devices. This practice avoids egg losses caused by aggressive contacts, female disease or death and the production of stage-2 juveniles in different batches by means of temperature manipulation. Furthermore transmission of pathogens from broodstocks to offspring can be minimised. Egg storage and transport have some advantages in the artificial reproduction of crayfish. Firstly, embryonic development continues under storage conditions and thus water and human effort can be saved during this period. Temperature plays an important role on both efficiency rates and duration of embryogenesis. Secondly, egg transport could facilitate restocking programs, as there is no need to move berried females to other habitats. To sum up, the combined use of artificial incubation and storage/transport techniques could have important applications to the development of astacid crayfish culture.

  4. Biology and Ecology of Asian Small-Clawed Otter Aonyx cinereus (Illiger, 1815: A Review

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    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Asian small-clawed otter is the smallest among the 13 extant species of otters. It has a large distribution range extending from India in South Asia through Southeast Asia up to Taiwan and Philippines in the east and Southern China in the north. It is considered ‘Vulnerable’ due to habitat loss and degradation, depletion of prey species and exploitation. Being adapted to live in shallow streams and water bodies, they are more vulnerable to modification of these habitats by anthropogenic as well as climate change impacts. This paper summarizes the state of knowledge on the biology and ecology of this little known species. Over the years, the IUCN SSC Otter Specialist Group has developed a cadre of biologist across Asia to conduct field surveys and has popularized otter conservation by promoting otter as the ambassador of wetlands. However, concerted effort is needed for its long-term survival. Policy based action, research on factors affecting survival, habitat-based actions on creation and where required expansion of protected areas and communication and awareness building among local communities are suggested.

  5. Population structure and genetic analysis of narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) populations in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhan, Suleyman; Bektas, Yusuf; Berber, Selcuk; Kalayci, Gokhan

    2014-10-01

    The genetic differentiation among Turkish populations of the narrow-clawed crayfish was investigated using a partial sequence of cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (585 bp) of 183 specimens from 17 different crayfish populations. Median joining network and all phylogenetic analyses disclosed a strong haplotype structure with three prominent clades diverged by a range between 20 and 50 mutations and substantial inter-group pairwise sequence divergence (5.19-6.95 %), suggesting the presence of three distinct clades within the Anatolian populations of Astacus leptodactylus. The divergence times among the three clades of Turkish A. leptodactylus are estimated to be 4.96-3.70 Mya using a molecular clock of 1.4 % sequence divergence per million years, pointing to a lower Pliocene separation. The high level of genetic variability (H d = 95.8 %, π = 4.17 %) and numerous private haplotypes suggest the presence of refugial populations in Anatolia unaffected by Pleistocene habitat restrictions. The pattern of genetic variation among Turkish A. leptodactylus populations, therefore, suggests that the unrevealed intraspecific genetic structure is independent of geographic tendency and congruent with the previously reported geographic distribution and number of subspecies (A. l. leptodactylus and A. l. salinus) of A. leptodactylus.

  6. Histological analysis of thelohaniasis in white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaglio F.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available From 2004 to 2006, a parasitological survey aimed at the detection of the microsporidian parasite Thelohania contejeani Henneguy was carried out on 177 wild white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes complex captured in six streams and rivers of the province of Belluno in north-eastern Italy. Microscopical examination of the skeletal muscles, and histological analysis applying different histochemical stains to full transverse and sagittal sections of the cephalothorax and abdomen were carried out. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was also conducted on the parasites recovered during the survey. Out of 177 crayfish examined, Thelohania contejeani (Microsporidia, Thelohaniidae was present in only one crayfish from the Vena d’oro creek. The parasite was detected in the skeletal muscles in several developmental stages, including mature spores, which represented the most common stage recovered. Sporophorous vesicles were also present. Histological examination revealed that the fibres of the skeletal, cardiac and intestinal muscles were filled with spores. Melanin infiltrations were focally present in the infected striated muscles. The gill phagocytic nephrocytes were engulfed by small masses of spores. Among the staining techniques applied, Crossman’s trichrome stain represented the most effective method of detecting T. contejeani.

  7. Inbreeding Ratio and Genetic Relationships among Strains of the Western Clawed Frog, Xenopus tropicalis.

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    Takeshi Igawa

    Full Text Available The Western clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis, is a highly promising model amphibian, especially in developmental and physiological research, and as a tool for understanding disease. It was originally found in the West African rainforest belt, and was introduced to the research community in the 1990s. The major strains thus far known include the Nigerian and Ivory Coast strains. However, due to its short history as an experimental animal, the genetic relationship among the various strains has not yet been clarified, and establishment of inbred strains has not yet been achieved. Since 2003 the Institute for Amphibian Biology (IAB, Hiroshima University has maintained stocks of multiple X. tropicalis strains and conducted consecutive breeding as part of the National BioResource Project. In the present study we investigated the inbreeding ratio and genetic relationship of four inbred strains at IAB, as well as stocks from other institutions, using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and mitochondrial haplotypes. Our results show successive reduction of heterozygosity in the genome of the IAB inbred strains. The Ivory Coast strains clearly differed from the Nigerian strains genetically, and three subgroups were identified within both the Nigerian and Ivory Coast strains. It is noteworthy that the Ivory Coast strains have an evolutionary divergent genetic background. Our results serve as a guide for the most effective use of X. tropicalis strains, and the long-term maintenance of multiple strains will contribute to further research efforts.

  8. Temperature dependence of locomotor performance in the tropical clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrel, Anthony; Bonneaud, Camille

    2012-07-15

    Amphibians are ideal taxa with which to investigate the effects of climate change on physiology, dispersal capacity and distributional ranges as their physiological performance and fitness is highly dependent on temperature. Moreover, amphibians are among the most endangered vertebrate taxa. Here we use the tropical clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis, as a model system to explore effects of temperature on locomotor performance. Our analyses show that locomotion is thermally sensitive, as illustrated by significant effects of temperature on terrestrial exertion capacity (time until exhaustion) and aquatic burst speed (maximal burst swimming velocity and maximal burst swimming acceleration capacity). Exertion performance measures had relatively lower temperature optima and narrower performance breadth ranges than measures of burst speed. The narrow 80% performance breadths confirm predictions that animals from stable environments should display high thermal sensitivity and, combined with the divergent temperature optima for exertion capacity and burst speed, underscore the vulnerability of tropical species such as X. tropicalis to even relatively small temperature changes. The temperature sensitivity of locomotor performance traits in X. tropicalis suggests that tropical ectotherms may be impacted by predicted changes in climate.

  9. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole-1. This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range.

  10. Effects of diltiazem on skinned skeletal muscle fibers of the African clawed toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, T; Endo, M

    1983-02-01

    To examine the effects of diltiazem and its l-cis isomer (which possesses only a weak Ca++-antagonistic action) on the contractile system and the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle, we used skinned fibers isolated from iliofibularis muscle of the African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis. Diltiazem showed the following effects: an increase in the Ca++ sensitivity of the contractile system, a decrease in the maximal tension developed in a saturating concentration of Ca++, an inhibition of Ca++ uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, an inhibition of Ca++ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum by caffeine, and an increase in the Ca++ permeability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. The effects of the l-cis isomer were similar to those of diltiazem, and the potencies of the two substances were nearly equal, except with respect to the effect on the Ca++ release induced by caffeine: the l-cis isomer potentiated this type of Ca++ release. Diltiazem's effects on amphibian skinned skeletal muscle fibers may not be related qualitatively or quantitatively to the Ca++-antagonistic actions of the drug on mammalian cardiac and smooth muscles. The pharmacological spectrum of diltiazem on skinned skeletal muscle fibers is similar to that of some local anesthetics.

  11. Recovery of chronically lame dairy cows following treatment for claw horn lesions: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H J; Remnant, J G; Bollard, N J; Burrows, A; Whay, H R; Bell, N J; Mason, C; Huxley, J N

    2016-01-30

    A positively controlled, randomised controlled trial (RCT) was undertaken to test recovery of cows with claw horn lesions resulting in lameness of greater than two weeks duration. Cows on seven commercial farms were mobility scored fortnightly and selected by lameness severity and chronicity. Study cows all received a therapeutic trim then random allocation of: no further treatment (trim only (TRM)), plastic shoe (TS) or plastic shoe and NSAID (TSN). Recovery was assessed by mobility score at 42 (±4) days post treatment by an observer blind to treatment group. Multivariable analysis showed no significant effect of treatment with an almost identical, low response rate to treatment across all groups (Percentage non-lame at outcome: TRM--15 per cent, TS--15 per cent, TSN--16 per cent). When compared with results of a similar RCT on acutely lame cows, where response rates to treatment were substantially higher, it can be concluded that any delay in treatment is likely to reduce the rate of recovery, suggesting early identification and treatment is key. Thirty-eight per cent of animals treated in this study were lame on the contralateral limb at outcome suggesting that both hindlimbs should be examined and a preventive or if necessary a therapeutic foot trim performed when lameness is identified particularly if the duration of lameness is unknown.

  12. Extracellular Ca2+ Is Required for Fertilization in the African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Katherine L; Mayfield, Brianna L; Duray, Alexis M; Tembo, Maiwase; Beleny, David O; Napolitano, Marc A; Sauer, Monica L; Wisner, Bennett W; Carlson, Anne E

    2017-01-01

    The necessity of extracellular Ca2+ for fertilization and early embryonic development in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is controversial. Ca2+ entry into X. laevis sperm is reportedly required for the acrosome reaction, yet fertilization and embryonic development have been documented to occur in high concentrations of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Here we sought to resolve this controversy. Using the appearance of cleavage furrows as an indicator of embryonic development, we found that X. laevis eggs inseminated in a solution lacking added divalent cations developed normally. By contrast, eggs inseminated in millimolar concentrations of BAPTA or EGTA failed to develop. Transferring embryos to varying solutions after sperm addition, we found that extracellular Ca2+ is specifically required for events occurring within the first 30 minutes after sperm addition, but not after. We found that the fluorescently stained sperm were not able to penetrate the envelope of eggs inseminated in high BAPTA, whereas several had penetrated the vitelline envelope of eggs inseminated without a Ca2+ chelator, or with BAPTA and saturating CaCl2. Together these results indicate that fertilization does not occur in high concentrations of Ca2+ chelators. Finally, we found that the jelly coat includes >5 mM of readily diffusible Ca2+. Taken together, these data are consistent with requirement of extracellular Ca2+ for fertilization. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the jelly coat surrounding the egg acts as a reserve of readily available Ca2+ ions to foster fertilization in changing extracellular milieu.

  13. Toxicological aspects of the South American herbs cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) and Maca (Lepidium meyenii) : a critical synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Luis G; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    Recent exceptional growth in human exposure to natural products known to originate from traditional medicine has lead to a resurgence of scientific interest in their biological effects. As a strategy for improvement of the assessment of their pharmacological and toxicological profile, scientific evidence-based approaches are being employed to appropriately evaluate composition, quality, potential medicinal activity and safety of these natural products. Using this approach, we comprehensively reviewed existing scientific evidence for known composition, medicinal uses (past and present), and documented biological effects with emphasis on clinical pharmacology and toxicology of two commonly used medicinal plants from South America with substantial human exposure from historical and current global use: Uncaria tomentosa (common name: cat's claw, and Spanish: uña de gato), and Lepidium meyenii (common name: maca). Despite the geographic sourcing from remote regions of the tropical Amazon and high altitude Andean mountains, cat's claw and maca are widely available commercially in industrialised countries. Analytical characterisations of their active constituents have identified a variety of classes of compounds of toxicological, pharmacological and even nutritional interest including oxindole and indole alkaloids, flavonoids, glucosinolates, sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbolines and other compounds. The oxindole alkaloids from the root bark of cat's claw are thought to invoke its most widely sought-after medicinal effects as a herbal remedy against inflammation. We find the scientific evidence supporting this claim is not conclusive and although there exists a base of information addressing this medicinal use, it is limited in scope with some evidence accumulated from in vitro studies towards understanding possible mechanisms of action by specific oxindole alkaloids through inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. Although controlled clinical

  14. Emergência de Tridax procumbens em função da profundidade de semeadura, do conteúdo de argila no substrato e da incidência de luz na semente Tridax procumbens emergence as a function of sowing depth, substrate clay content and light incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Guimarães

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os solos agrícolas possuem banco de sementes de plantas daninhas cuja quantidade varia de dezenas a centenas de milhões de sementes por hectare, as quais são dotadas de mecanismos para detectar o tempo e o local apropriado para a germinação. A profundidade no solo em que uma semente é capaz de germinar e produzir plântula é variável entre as espécies e apresenta importância ecológica e agronômica. Com o objetivo de estudar a emergência de plântulas de erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens, em função da profundidade de semeadura, do conteúdo de argila no substrato e do tratamento de sementes com luz, foram realizados dois experimentos no Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras. No experimento 1, a emergência das plântulas foi avaliada em vasos contendo substrato com 60% de argila, com semeadura realizada nas profundidades de 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 e 6 cm, e também com aquênios parcialmente enterrados (APE. No experimento 2, foram utilizadas sementes com e sem tratamento para superação da necessidade de luz (embebição por 48 horas em GA3 1 mmol L-1 + KNO3 25 mmol L-1 + luz, semeadas em substratos com 30 e 60% de argila, a 1 cm, 2 cm e APE, e também em areia a 3 cm. A emergência das plântulas de erva-de-touro foi máxima quando os aquênios foram parcialmente enterrados no substrato, independentemente do conteúdo de argila deste. Em profundidades maiores ou iguais a 1 cm houve drástica redução na emergência, que foi nula (experimento 2 ou quase nula (experimento 1 a 3 cm. O tratamento para superação da necessidade de luz aumentou a emergência nas semeaduras a 1 e a 2 cm, mas não teve efeito a 3 cm.Agricultural soils may contain weed seedbanks of hundreds of millions of weed seeds per hectare, which have mechanisms to detect the appropriate time and place for germination. The soil depth in which a seed is capable of germinating varies among species, presenting ecological and agronomic importance. With

  15. Experimental endometriosis reduction in rats treated with Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Neto, João; Coelho, Tarcísio Mota; Aguiar, Guilherme Carneiro; Carvalho, Laura Rosa; de Araújo, Ana Gisélia Portela; Girão, Manuel João B C; Schor, Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the macroscopic and histological changes that occur in experimental endometriosis after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa. Experimental endometriosis was induced in twenty-five female Wistar rats. After three weeks, 24 animals developed grade III experimental endometriosis and were divided into two groups. Group "U" received U. tomentosa extract orally (32 mg/day), and group "C" (control group) received a 0.9% sodium chloride solution orally (1 ml/100g of body weight/day). Both groups were treated with gavage for 14 days. At the surgical intervention and after the animal was euthanized, the implant volume was calculated with the following formula: [4π (length/2)×(width/2)×(height/2)/3]. The autotransplants were removed, dyed with hematoxylin-eosin, and analyzed by light microscopy. The Mann-Whitney test was used for the independent samples, and the Wilcoxon test analyzed the related samples, with a significance level of 5%. The difference between the initial average volumes of the autotransplants was not significant between the groups (p = 0.18). However, the final average volumes were significantly different between the groups (p = 0.001). There was a significant increase (p = 0.01) between the initial and final average volumes in the control group, and treatment with the U. tomentosa caused a marked reduction in the growth over time (p = 0.009). Histologically, in the experimental group (n = 10) six rats had a well-preserved epithelial layer, three had mildly preserved epithelium, and one had poorly preserved epithelium. The epithelial layer occasionally presented sporadic epithelial cells. The control group (n = 12) presented seven cases (58.3%) of well-preserved epithelial cells and five cases (41.7%) of mildly preserved epithelial cells. Cat's claw extract appears to be a promising alternative for treating endometriosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extracellular Ca2+ Is Required for Fertilization in the African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duray, Alexis M.; Tembo, Maiwase; Beleny, David O.; Napolitano, Marc A.; Sauer, Monica L.; Wisner, Bennett W.

    2017-01-01

    Background The necessity of extracellular Ca2+ for fertilization and early embryonic development in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is controversial. Ca2+ entry into X. laevis sperm is reportedly required for the acrosome reaction, yet fertilization and embryonic development have been documented to occur in high concentrations of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Here we sought to resolve this controversy. Methodology/principal finding Using the appearance of cleavage furrows as an indicator of embryonic development, we found that X. laevis eggs inseminated in a solution lacking added divalent cations developed normally. By contrast, eggs inseminated in millimolar concentrations of BAPTA or EGTA failed to develop. Transferring embryos to varying solutions after sperm addition, we found that extracellular Ca2+ is specifically required for events occurring within the first 30 minutes after sperm addition, but not after. We found that the fluorescently stained sperm were not able to penetrate the envelope of eggs inseminated in high BAPTA, whereas several had penetrated the vitelline envelope of eggs inseminated without a Ca2+ chelator, or with BAPTA and saturating CaCl2. Together these results indicate that fertilization does not occur in high concentrations of Ca2+ chelators. Finally, we found that the jelly coat includes >5 mM of readily diffusible Ca2+. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these data are consistent with requirement of extracellular Ca2+ for fertilization. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the jelly coat surrounding the egg acts as a reserve of readily available Ca2+ ions to foster fertilization in changing extracellular milieu. PMID:28114360

  17. Impacts of Climate Change on the Global Invasion Potential of the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlow, Flora; Courant, Julien; Secondi, Jean; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Measey, G John; Lillo, Francesco; De Villiers, F André; Vogt, Solveig; De Busschere, Charlotte; Backeljau, Thierry; Rödder, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    By altering or eliminating delicate ecological relationships, non-indigenous species are considered a major threat to biodiversity, as well as a driver of environmental change. Global climate change affects ecosystems and ecological communities, leading to changes in the phenology, geographic ranges, or population abundance of several species. Thus, predicting the impacts of global climate change on the current and future distribution of invasive species is an important subject in macroecological studies. The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), native to South Africa, possesses a strong invasion potential and populations have become established in numerous countries across four continents. The global invasion potential of X. laevis was assessed using correlative species distribution models (SDMs). SDMs were computed based on a comprehensive set of occurrence records covering South Africa, North America, South America and Europe and a set of nine environmental predictors. Models were built using both a maximum entropy model and an ensemble approach integrating eight algorithms. The future occurrence probabilities for X. laevis were subsequently computed using bioclimatic variables for 2070 following four different IPCC scenarios. Despite minor differences between the statistical approaches, both SDMs predict the future potential distribution of X. laevis, on a global scale, to decrease across all climate change scenarios. On a continental scale, both SDMs predict decreasing potential distributions in the species' native range in South Africa, as well as in the invaded areas in North and South America, and in Australia where the species has not been introduced. In contrast, both SDMs predict the potential range size to expand in Europe. Our results suggest that all probability classes will be equally affected by climate change. New regional conditions may promote new invasions or the spread of established invasive populations, especially in France and Great Britain.

  18. Impacts of Climate Change on the Global Invasion Potential of the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Ihlow

    Full Text Available By altering or eliminating delicate ecological relationships, non-indigenous species are considered a major threat to biodiversity, as well as a driver of environmental change. Global climate change affects ecosystems and ecological communities, leading to changes in the phenology, geographic ranges, or population abundance of several species. Thus, predicting the impacts of global climate change on the current and future distribution of invasive species is an important subject in macroecological studies. The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, native to South Africa, possesses a strong invasion potential and populations have become established in numerous countries across four continents. The global invasion potential of X. laevis was assessed using correlative species distribution models (SDMs. SDMs were computed based on a comprehensive set of occurrence records covering South Africa, North America, South America and Europe and a set of nine environmental predictors. Models were built using both a maximum entropy model and an ensemble approach integrating eight algorithms. The future occurrence probabilities for X. laevis were subsequently computed using bioclimatic variables for 2070 following four different IPCC scenarios. Despite minor differences between the statistical approaches, both SDMs predict the future potential distribution of X. laevis, on a global scale, to decrease across all climate change scenarios. On a continental scale, both SDMs predict decreasing potential distributions in the species' native range in South Africa, as well as in the invaded areas in North and South America, and in Australia where the species has not been introduced. In contrast, both SDMs predict the potential range size to expand in Europe. Our results suggest that all probability classes will be equally affected by climate change. New regional conditions may promote new invasions or the spread of established invasive populations, especially in France

  19. Flexible Toric Iris Claw Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation for Myopia and Astigmatism

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    Mohammad Ghoreishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the visual and refractive outcomes of flexible toric iris claw phakic intraocular lens implantation for correction of moderate to high myopia with astigmatism. Methods: In this non-randomized prospective study, 31 eyes of 18 patients including 8 male and 10 female subjects with mean age of 27.62±5.53 (range 19 to 38 years with moderate to high myopia and astigmatism underwent toric Artiflex (Ophtec BV, Groningen, Netherlands phakic intraocular lens (PIOL implantation. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA were measured in logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (logMAR notations. Manifest refraction, safety, efficacy, predictability and complications were measured 6 months after surgery. Results: Pre-operatively, mean spherical equivalent (SE refractive error was -9.68±1.92 (range -14.00 to -6.00 diopter (D and mean cylinder was -2.79±1.06 (range -4.75 to -1.00 D. After a minimum of 6 months, mean SE was -0.38±0.27 (range -0.87 to 0.00 D and mean cylinder was -0.66±0.43 (range -1.50 to 0.00 D. SE was within 0.50 D of emmetropia in 63.8% and within 1.0 D of target refraction in 100% of eyes. UDVA was equal or better than 20/20 in 45.1% of eyes while CDVA was equal or better than 20/20 in 67.7%; 83.8% of eyes gained 1 or more Snellen lines of CDVA after surgery. No serious complications occurred in this series of cases. Conclusions: Implantation of the toric Artiflex PIOL is a safe and effective procedure for correction of moderate to high myopia with astigmatism.

  20. Iris Claw versus Scleral Fixation Intraocular Lens Implantation during Pars Plana Vitrectomy

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    Fereydoun Farrahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the outcomes of iris claw anterior chamber intraocular lens (ICACIOL with that of scleral fixation posterior chamber intraocular lens (SF-PCIOL implantation during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV as initial surgery to correct aphakia. Methods: Twelve patients with complicated cataract surgery or trauma who had suffered nucleus, whole crystalline lens or intraocular lens (IOL drop into the vitreous cavity, and undergone PPV with IC-ACIOL implantation over a period of one year were evaluated for the purpose of this study. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, central corneal thickness (CCT, spherical equivalent (SE refractive error, astigmatism and complications were recorded. The results were compared to outcomes of another group of 13 patients who had previously undergone PPV with SF-PCIOL implantation. Results: Mean improvement of UCVA was greater in IC-ACIOL eyes as compared to the SF-PCIOL group (-1.17±0.28 versus -0.89±0.21 logMAR, P=0.01, corresponding values for postoperative BCVA were 0.24±0.17 and 0.44±0.22 logMAR (P=0.041, respectively. Average postoperative SE was comparable in the IC-ACIOL and SFPCIOL groups at 0.6±1.03 and 0.56±1.23 diopters, respectively (P=0.290. However, 10 (83.3% IC-ACIOL eyes versus 6 (46.1% SF-PCIOL eyes had SE within 1 diopter of emmetropia (P=0.048. Mean postoperative increase in CCT was comaparble between the study groups (P=0.126. Conclusion: In the absence of sufficient capsular support, the use of an IC-ACIOL for correction of aphakia during PPV can be a good alternative and seems to entail better visual outcomes as compared to SF-PCIOL.

  1. Aromatic claw: A new fold with high aromatic content that evades structural prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachleben, Joseph R; Adhikari, Aashish N; Gawlak, Grzegorz; Hoey, Robert J; Liu, Gaohua; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Montelione, Gaetano T; Sosnick, Tobin R; Koide, Shohei

    2017-02-01

    We determined the NMR structure of a highly aromatic (13%) protein of unknown function, Aq1974 from Aquifex aeolicus (PDB ID: 5SYQ). The unusual sequence of this protein has a tryptophan content five times the normal (six tryptophan residues of 114 or 5.2% while the average tryptophan content is 1.0%) with the tryptophans occurring in a WXW motif. It has no detectable sequence homology with known protein structures. Although its NMR spectrum suggested that the protein was rich in β-sheet, upon resonance assignment and solution structure determination, the protein was found to be primarily α-helical with a small two-stranded β-sheet with a novel fold that we have termed an Aromatic Claw. As this fold was previously unknown and the sequence unique, we submitted the sequence to CASP10 as a target for blind structural prediction. At the end of the competition, the sequence was classified a hard template based model; the structural relationship between the template and the experimental structure was small and the predictions all failed to predict the structure. CSRosetta was found to predict the secondary structure and its packing; however, it was found that there was little correlation between CSRosetta score and the RMSD between the CSRosetta structure and the NMR determined one. This work demonstrates that even in relatively small proteins, we do not yet have the capacity to accurately predict the fold for all primary sequences. The experimental discovery of new folds helps guide the improvement of structural prediction methods.

  2. A Description of a Design Method of a Claw Teeth Motor on the Basis of Three-Dimensional Reluctance Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kenji; Koyama, Takayuki; Ichinokura, Osamu

    Soft magnetic composites (SMCs) have the following advantages: three-dimensional magnetic isotropy, high resistivity, and recyclability. By using SMC, therefore, a new concept motor with a three-dimensional structure can be developed. Its power-to-space ratio and efficiency can be improved since the space factor of winding and the space utilization factor of the motor is increased. This paper describes a design method of a claw teeth motor made of SMC by reluctance network analysis (RNA)-based experimental design. First, a three-dimensional RNA model of the claw teeth motor is presented. Next, the RNA-based experimental design of the claw teeth motor is presented. As a result, the average torque is improved by approximately 50%. In addition, the calculation time required for the design is significantly reduced by the proposed design method.

  3. 爵床提取物的抑菌杀虫活性研究%Fungicide and insecticide activity of Justicia procumbens extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明程; 李保同; 汤丽梅; 平新亮; 李晓花; 梁同军

    2013-01-01

    爵床(Justicia procumbens var.procumbens L.)是一种传统中药.为探明爵床提取物的抑菌杀虫活性,采用冷浸和超声波提取相结合的方法,分别获得了爵床甲醇、氯仿、丙酮、乙酸乙酯和正己烷等溶剂提取物;并应用抑菌圈法研究了5种提取物对柑橘炭疽病菌(Colletotrichum gloeosprioides)、芦笋茎枯病菌(Phomopsis asparagi)、稻瘟病菌(Pyricularia grisea)、棉花红腐病菌(Fusarium graminearum)和草莓灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)等5种植物病原真菌的抑制效果,测定了甲醇提取物对柑橘炭疽病、芦笋茎枯病、草莓灰霉病和柑橘溃疡病(Xanthomonas campestris)等4种植物病菌及白蚊伊蚊(Aedes albopictus)、家蝇(Musca domestica)和菜青虫(Pieris rapae)等3种害虫的毒力.结果表明,不同极性溶剂提取物8 mg·mL-1对5种植物病原真菌均有一定的抑制作用,其中甲醇提取物对柑橘炭疽病菌、芦笋茎枯病菌、草莓灰霉病菌的抑制率均达50%以上.爵床甲醇提取物具有较强的抑菌杀虫活性,对柑橘炭疽病菌、芦笋茎枯病菌和草莓灰霉病菌菌丝生长的抑制中浓度(EC50)分别为5.94 mg·mL-1、4.61 mg·mL-1和5.27 mg·mL-1,EC90分别为63.69 mg·mL-1、58.01 mg.mL-1和54.57 mg·mL-1; 0.25~1.00 mg·mL-1爵床甲醇提取物对柑橘溃疡病病菌显示强抑菌作用,0.125 mg·mL-1显示中度抑菌作用,最小抑制浓度(MIC)为0.062 5 mg·mL-1;爵床甲醇提取物对白蚊伊蚊、家蝇和菜青虫的致死中浓度(LC50)分别为0.195 8 mg·mL-1、0.351 4 mg·mL-1和0.287 7 mg·mL-1,LC95分别为0.988 4 mg·mL-1、3.053 2mg.mL-1和2.584 4 mg·mL-1.因此,爵床提取物作为生物农药,在农业生产中具有较好的应用前景.

  4. A Progress Report on the Species Survival Plan for Asian Small-Clawed Otters in United States Zoos

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    Foster-Turley P.

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available When the Asian otter SSP /committee was initiated, these otters were maintained in more than ten zoos, but were successfully reproducing in none of them. Various explanations were offered to explain this breeding .failure. New animals were imported from zoos outside the United States to supplement the United States' captive population of ageing, previous pets. In the past two years two facilities have had repeated successful births, and two others have recorded first births that were stillborn. Research initiated by members of the SSP committee is now in progress to understand more of the reproductive, genetic and behavioural make-up of the Asian small-clawed otter.

  5. Reconciling Geomorphic Observations with Simulations of a Modern Landslide-dam Outburst Flood Using GeoClaw Software, Eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzewski, M. D.; Huntington, K. W.; LeVeque, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    High-magnitude (>105 m3/s) outburst floods have the potential to dramatically alter landscapes and greatly impact human lives and infrastructure. Numerical modeling can help us understand the hydraulics of these infrequent and difficult to observe floods, but their scale makes simulation challenging and computationally expensive, particularly where rugged mountain topography produces complex flow hydraulics. Here we simulate the second largest historical outburst flood on record using GeoClaw open source software for modeling geophysical flows, and ground-truth the results of these simulations using observations and geomorphic evidence of the event. This landslide-dam outburst flood was sourced in Tibet on the Yigong River in June 2000, scouring vegetation, triggering landslides and depositing flood sands in hydraulically sheltered areas downstream. We mapped these features in the field and remotely using Google Earth and Landsat-7 imagery, and simulated the flood with a reconstructed 2 Gm3 impounded lake using instantaneous dam failure. Simulated inundation and the arrival-time of the flood wave downstream are relatively insensitive to the Manning bed-roughness parameter implemented in GeoClaw, but are very sensitive to grid-resolution and the chosen Adaptive Mesh Refinement scheme. High-resolution simulations produce estimates of discharge and the arrival-time for the initial flood wave that compare favorably to observations of the event recorded at locations up to 450 km downstream, and inundation maps that match the mapped distribution of high water marks. GeoClaw simulations (1) show inundation and decreasing bed shear stresses during the waning stage of the flood in the areas that contain observed slackwater deposits and (2) produce sustained deep flows in regions where landslides were observed directly after the event, showing a clear link between flood hydraulics and geomorphic change due to erosion/deposition. Results suggest that GeoClaw can accurately

  6. Chemical solution route to synthesize claw-like ZnO nanorod array and its optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ling-wei; Hu, Chun-hong; Tian, Hua; Zhang, Yu-xia; Jing, Ai-hua

    2014-03-01

    By using a low-cost and facile hydrothermal method, a peculiar claw-like ZnO nanorod array is successfully synthesized. The hydrothermal growth is done in an aqueous solution with equimolar zinc acetate (ZAc, Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA, C6H12N4). The obtained ZnO nanorod array is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the nanorods are high-quality monocrystals. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum is performed to investigate the optical properties of this product.

  7. Effects of solvents and extraction methods on the content and antiradical activity of polyphenols from fruits Actinidia arguta, Crataegus monogyna, Gaultheria procumbens and Schisandra chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliszka, Barbara; Huszcza-Ciołkowska, Grażyna; Wierzbicka, Elwira

    2016-01-01

    In line with the current tendency towards the production of the so-called safe foods, the use of environmentally-friendly methods for the extraction of polyphenols from fruits has been sought. Citric acid is a good solvent in the preparation of phenolic compounds for the food and pharmaceutical industries because it is a natural antioxidant and is non-toxic for the environment. Furthermore, new sources of polyphenols from fruit of orchard plants that are less known in Poland have been looked for. The aim of this study was  to assess the content and antiradical activity of polyphenolic compounds in fruit extracts, depending on the extraction method employed. In addition, the yield of extraction processes was assessed. The experimental materials were fruits of the following plants: Actinidia arguta, Crataegus monogyna, Gaultheria procumbens, Schisandra chinensis. For the extraction, aqueous solutions of citric acid (CAE) and methanol (ME) were used. The following were determined in fruit extracts: the content of total phenols (TP) and anthocyanins (A), and antiradical activity (DPPH and ABTS). In general, the C. monogyna fruit extracts were distinguished by the highest TP and A content. The TP and A content was significantly higher in fruit extracts obtained with the CAE method than in the ones produced with the ME method. The highest mean A/TP ratio was determined for S. chinensis fruit extracts. The antiradical activity (DPPH and ABTS) in fruit extracts did not depend on an extraction method, but on fruit species. Overall, a higher yield of extraction processes was achieved for the CAE method than for the ME method. The present study indicates that the selected extraction methods are able to obtain polyphenolic extracts from fruits with a high antiradical activity and high yield. The use of citric acid in order to extract polyphenols from fruits may be an alternative to the conventional extraction method, while being eco-friendly and more effective than the latter.

  8. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild., Plumbago zeylanica L and Tridax procumbens (L. R. Br. ex Schult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongari eSaritha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild., Plumbago zeylanica L and Tridax procumbens (L. R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine.Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. ex Schult (HIEE, Leucas aspera (Wild.(Wild.(LAEE, Plumbago zeylanica L (PZEE and Tridax procumbens (L. R. Br. ex Schult. (TPEE were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by CFU assay and the effect on the bacterial membrane by fluorescence activated cell sorting and scanning electron microscopy. LAEE, PZEE and HIEE displayed potent bacterial killing activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. TPEE did not display appreciable antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization , blebbing and leakage of cellular contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of alcoholic extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study.

  9. Microanatomy of Passerine hard-cornified tissues: beak and claw structure of the Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; Blake, J.; Swor, Rhonda; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    The microanatomy of healthy beaks and claws in passerine birds has not been well described in the literature, despite the importance of these structures in avian life. Histological processing of hard-cornified tissues is notoriously challenging and only a few reports on effective techniques have been published. An emerging epizootic of beak deformities among wild birds in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest region of North America recently highlighted the need for additional baseline information about avian hard-cornified structures. In this study, we examine the beak and claw of the Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), a common North American passerine that is affected by what has been described as “avian keratin disorder.” We use light and scanning electron microscopy and high-magnification radiography to document the healthy microanatomy of these tissues and identify features of functional importance. We also describe detailed methods for histological processing of avian hard-cornified structures and discuss the utility of special stains. Results from this study will assist in future research on the functional anatomy and pathology of hard-cornified structures and will provide a necessary reference for ongoing investigations of avian keratin disorder in Black-capped Chickadees and other wild passerine species.

  10. The effect of surface roughness on claw and adhesive hair performance in the dock beetle Gastrophysa viridula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James M. R. Bullock; Walter Federle

    2011-01-01

    Natural adhesive systems are adapted to attach to rough surfaces, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully clarified. Attachment forces for the beetle Gastrophysa viridula were recorded on epoxy casts of surfaces with different roughness using a centrifuge device. Replicas were made of standardized polishing paper with asperity sizes ranging from 0.05 to 30 μm and of dock leaves (Rumex obtusifolius). Beetles adhered with a safety factor of up to 36 times body weight on smooth substrates or on casts of leaves of their host plant. On the rough substrates, forces were much lower and a minimum at small scale roughness (0.05 μm asperity size, with a mean safety factor of 5) was observed. Removal of the claws led to a significant reduction in force for rough substrates with asperity sizes ≥ 12 μm. Attachment forces of the hairy adhesive system itself (without the claws) slightly increased from small-scale to large-scale surface roughness, but remained below the level seen on the smooth substrate. This is explained by the inability of setal tips to make full contact to the surface.

  11. Association between floor type and behaviour, skin lesions, and claw dimensions in group-housed fattening bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Siegfried; Ahrens, Frank; Bahrs, Elisabeth; Nüske, Stefan; Erhard, Michael H

    2007-07-16

    Rubber mats covering concrete slatted flooring are a developing market in dairy barns but remain rare in beef cattle facilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of covering slatted concrete floor with perforated rubber mats on behaviour and occurrence of skin and claw lesions in fattening bulls. The groups of six bulls each with a total average age of 9.8 months were kept over 1 year on either slatted concrete (CONCRETE PEN) or on slatted concrete covered completely (RUBBER PEN) or partially (CHOICE PEN) with perforated rubber mats. Every quarter-year, behaviour (preference of flooring, lying, aggression, mounting) was recorded. In two-weekly intervals the incidence of skin lesions was examined. At 12 and 18 months of age the rising time of the bulls was measured. At the beginning of the study and after slaughter claw dimensions were recorded. Bulls in the CHOICE PEN preferred (Prubber coated area throughout the experiment. Animals in the RUBBER and the CHOICE PENS showed more lying periods (PCONCRETE PEN. Bulls in the CHOICE PEN needed less time for rising (2.7+/-0.3s) than bulls in the CONCRETE PEN (4.4+/-0.5s, PRUBBER>CHOICE>CONCRETE; Prubber coated slatted flooring has a positive influence on the housing conditions of beef cattle.

  12. Retropupillary iris claw intraocular lens implantation in aphakia for dislocated intraocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno Pinto; Pinto, Joana Medeiros; Sousa, David Cordeiro; Leal, Ines; Neto, Eliana; Marques-Neves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Nowadays, dislocated intraocular lenses (IOLs) and inadequate capsular support are becoming a challenge for every ophthalmic surgeon. Explantation of dislocated IOL and iris claw IOL (ICIOL) are the techniques that have been used in our ophthalmic department. The aim of this study is to report our technique for retropupillar ICIOL. Methods This study is a retrospective case series. A total of 105 eyes with dislocated IOL from the patients at the Department of Ophthalmology in Santa Maria Hospital, a tertiary reference hospital in Lisbon, Portugal, from January 2012 until January 2016, had been analyzed. Of these 105 eyes, 66 eyes had dislocated one-piece IOL and 39 eyes had dislocated three-piece IOL. The latter underwent iris suture of the same IOL and were excluded from this study. The remaining 66 eyes with dislocated one-piece IOL underwent pars plana vitrectomy, that is, explantation of dislocated IOL through corneal incision and an implantation of retropupillary ICIOL. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included best corrected visual acuity, IOL position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and anterior chamber depth. Results The mean follow-up was 23 months (range: 6–48 months). The mean preoperative best corrected visual acuity was 1.260±0.771 logMAR, and postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 0.352±0.400 logMAR units. Mean vision gain was 0.909 logMar units. The patients had the following complications: 1) retinal detachment was found in one patient, 2) corneal edema was found in three patients, 3) high intraocular pressure was observed in twelve patients, 4) subluxation of the IOL was observed in one patient, and 5) macular edema was found in three eyes. Conclusion The results demonstrate that retropupillary ICIOL is an easy and effective method for the correction of aphakia in patients not receiving capsule support. The safety of this procedure must be interpreted in the context

  13. Retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno; Neto, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report visual outcomes, complication rate, and safety of retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens (ICIOL) in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome (MFS). Design Retrospective study. Methods Six eyes of three MFS patients with ectopia lentis underwent surgery for subluxation lens and retropupillary ICIOL implantation from October 2014 to October 2015 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Santa Maria Hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. Demographics, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intraocular pressure were evaluated. Endothelium cell count was assessed using specular microscopy; anterior chamber depth was measured using Pentacam postoperatively; and intraocular lens position was viewed by ultrasound biomicroscopy. All patients were female; mean age was 20±14.264 years (range: 7–38 years). Results The average follow-up period was 6.66 months (range: 4–16 months). Preoperative BCVA was 0.568±0.149 logMAR units, and postoperative BCVA was 0.066±0.121 logMAR units. The mean BCVA gain was −0.502±0.221 on the logMAR scale. Postoperative average astigmatism and intraocular pressure were 1.292±0.697 mmHg (range: 0.5–2.25 mmHg) and 16 mmHg (range: 12–18 mmHg), respectively. The average endothelial cell density decreased from 3,121±178 cells/mm2 before surgery to 2,835±533 cells/mm2 after surgery (measured at last follow-up visit) and in the last follow-up, representing an average endothelial cell loss of 9.16%. Mean anterior chamber depth was 4.01 mm (±0.77 mm), as measured by Pentacam. No complications were found intra- or postoperatively in any of the six studied eyes. Conclusion Retropupillary ICIOL implantation is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of aphakia in MFS eyes, without capsular support after surgery for ectopia lens. The six eyes that underwent lensectomy and retropupillary ICIOL implantation have had excellent visual outcomes with no complications so far. PMID:27382335

  14. Structure-related effects of pyrethroid insecticides on the lateral-line sense organ and on peripheral nerves of the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, H.P.M.; Ruigt, GeS. F.; Bercken, J. van den

    1982-01-01

    The effects of seven different pyrethroid insecticides on the lateral-line sense organ and on peripheral nerves of the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, were investigated by means of electrophysiological methods. The results show that two classes of pyrethroid can be clearly distinguished. (i) Pyrethroid

  15. Study on Gel Strength of Collagen of Chicken Claw%凤爪胶原蛋白凝胶强度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范春梅; 刘学文

    2012-01-01

    Use fresh chicken claw as the main raw material, factors affecting the gel strength of collagen of chicken claw were studied through the quality and structure analysis. The results showed that the gel strength of collagen of chicken claw increased with the increasing concentration of collagen, gel strength first increased and then decreased with the increasing of temperature, pH, concentration of NaC1 and CaC12 and various kinds of phosphate had different effect on gel strength of collagen of chicken claw.%以新鲜凤爪为主要原料,采用酸法提取胶原蛋白,通过质构分析,对影响凤爪胶原蛋白凝胶强度的因素进行研究,结果表明,凤爪胶原蛋白凝胶强度随着胶原蛋白液浓度的增大而逐渐增大;随着温度、pH、NaCl和CaCl2浓度的增大,凝胶强度呈先增大后减小的趋势;不同的磷酸盐对凤爪胶原蛋白凝胶强度的影响不同。

  16. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIURON ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PACIFIC TREEFROG, BULLFROG, RED-LEGGED FROG, AND AFRICAN CLAWED FROG EMBRYOS AND TADPOLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla),bullfrog(Rana catesbeiana), red-legged frog(Rana aurora),and African clawed frog(Xenopus laevis)embryos and tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. P.regilla and X.laevis...

  17. Effects of solvents and extraction methods on the content and antiradical activity of polyphenols from fruits Actinidia arguta, Crataegus monogyna, Gaultheria procumbens and Schisandra chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pliszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. In line with the current tendency towards the production of the so-called safe foods, the use of environmentally-friendly methods for the extraction of polyphenols from fruits has been sought. Citric acid is a good solvent in the preparation of phenolic compounds for the food and pharmaceutical industries because it is a natural antioxidant and is non-toxic for the environment. Furthermore, new sources of polyphenols from fruit of orchard plants that are less known in Poland have been looked for. The aim of this study was  to assess the content and antiradical activity of polyphenolic compounds in fruit extracts, depending on the extraction method employed. In addition, the yield of extraction processes was assessed. Material and methods. The experimental materials were fruits of the following plants: Actinidia arguta, Crataegus monogyna, Gaultheria procumbens, Schisandra chinensis. For the extraction, aqueous solutions of citric acid (CAE and methanol (ME were used. The following were determined in fruit extracts: the con- tent of total phenols (TP and anthocyanins (A, and antiradical activity (DPPH and ABTS. Results. In general, the C. monogyna fruit extracts were distinguished by the highest TP and A content. The TP and A content was significantly higher in fruit extracts obtained with the CAE method than in the ones produced with the ME method. The highest mean A/TP ratio was determined for S. chinensis fruit extracts. The antiradi- cal activity (DPPH and ABTS in fruit extracts did not depend on an extraction method, but on fruit species. Overall, a higher yield of extraction processes was achieved for the CAE method than for the ME method. Conclusions. The present study indicates that the selected extraction methods are able to obtain polyphenolic extracts from fruits with a high antiradical activity and high yield. The use of citric acid in order to extract polyphenols from fruits may be an alternative to the conventional

  18. Somaclonal variation in micropropagated Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I plantlets (Heliconiaceae Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Helicônia, Heliconia Bihai cv. Lobster Claw I (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of somaclonal variation is described in various cultures of agronomic interest. Such variation can be of benefit in the development of new flower varieties. In this study, the occurrence of somaclonal variation in micropropagated changes of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I was investigated. Stem apexes were introduced in MS culture media with the addition of 2.5 mg L-1 of benzylaminopure (BAP and 500 mg L-1 of sodium cefotaxime. After selecting the apex stem, it was sub-cultivated in MS media and supplemented with 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP to induce side buds. To conduct the trial, 2,000 plants were selected and compared with plants originated from rhizomes. To calculate the percentage of the variants, the plant stature, the form and color of leaves and pseudostem were evaluated. The plants with buds presenting the same type of variation were considered as variants. The occurrence of three types of somaclonal variants was observed: Variation of the Chlorophyll in the Leaf, Low Stature Variant and Pseudostem and Petiole Color Variant, the latter with ornamental potential. The somaclonal variation rate for Heliconia bihai cv Lobster Claw I, under the proposed conditions, was 61.40%.A ocorrência de variação somaclonal é descrita em diversas culturas de interesse agronômico. A floricultura pode beneficiar-se dessa variabilidade, com a obtenção de novas variedades. Nesse trabalho, estudou-se a ocorrência de variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I. Ápices caulinares foram introduzidos em meio de cultivo MS com adição de 2,5 mg L-1 de benzilaminopurina (BAP e 500 mg L-1 de cefotaxima sódica. Após a seleção do ápice caulinar, o explante foi subcultivado em meio MS suplementado com 4,0 mg L-1 de BAP para indução de brotações. Foram selecionadas, ao acaso, 2.000 mudas e comparadas com mudas originadas de rizomas, para compor o ensaio. No cálculo da porcentagem dos variantes

  19. Inhibition of the extracts from Justicia procumbens against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its efficacy at the seedling stage%爵床提取物对辣椒炭疽病菌的抑制作用及其苗期防效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明程; 李保同; 汤丽梅; 李晓花; 梁同军

    2013-01-01

    爵床(J usticia procumbens L.)是一种传统的中药材.为探明爵床提取物对辣椒炭疽病菌的抑制作用,采用生长速率法和孢子萌发法分别测定了爵床提取物对辣椒炭疽病菌菌丝生长、孢子产生和孢子萌发的抑制作用,采用苗期盆栽试验观察爵床提取物对辣椒炭疽病的防治效果.结果表明,爵床甲醇提取物可抑制辣椒炭疽病菌菌丝生长、孢子产生和孢子萌发,其活性随着浓度的提高而增强,抑制中浓度分别为4.23、2.16和2.98 mg/mL.通过对爵床提取物处理后病菌孢子萌发形态显微观察,发现病菌孢子芽管长度受到明显抑制甚至不能萌发.当提取物浓度为16mg/mL时对苗期辣椒炭疽病的防效达73.08%.%Justicia procumbens is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine.In order to ascertain the fungicidal activity of the extracts from J.procumbens,the inhibitory effects of the extracts from J.procumbens against mycelial growth,conidial production and conidial germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were assayed by the methods of mycelial growth rate and conidial germination,and the efficacy of the extracts from J.procumbens was tested against C.gloeosporioides by pot culture experiments at pepper seedling stage.The results showed that methanol extracts from J.procumbens had inhibitory effects against mycelial growth,conidial production and conidial germination of C.gloeosporioides,and its values of effective concentration (EC50) were 4.23,2.16 mg/mL and 2.98 mg/mL,respectively.The germ tube length of C.gloeosporioides conidia was obviously inhibited,and even conidia could not germinate by the observation of microscope after treated with the extracts.Its efficacy was 73.08% after sprayed against C.gloeosporioides at the concentration of 16 mg/mL at pepper seedling stage.

  20. Status of the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858, in Spain : distribution and legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALONSO F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, is the only native species of freshwater crayfish in Spain. This species sustained a first-magnitude inland fishery up to the end of 1970's, when the crayfish plague struck the Spanish waters. It is detected an overall loss of distribution area of populations inhabiting the medium and lower reaches of the main river catchments, especially in Southern and Central Spain. The number of surviving populations can be estimated in ca. 700. Remaining native crayfish populations currently inhabit marginal areas. The populations are very fragmented, occupy short stretches, and are frequently isolated from the main river system. The current distribution is the result of a sum of different factors, i.e. crayfish plague, habitat alterations, extreme climatic drought, etc. The incidence and relative importance of each one varied during the last 15 years, with crayfish plague being a predominant negative factor in the seventies and eighties, and climatic drought in the nineties. The current trend of disappearance is a sufficient reason to consider the native crayfish as at risk of extinction. However neither the national legislation nor most of the regional government legislations have listed this species as endangered. An analysis of the legislation dealing with freshwater crayfish in Spain shows : (a an uneven and generally low level of protection given to the native species and (b a very complex fishing and commercialization regulations for crayfish that show significant changes from one region to another. This complex legislation, complemented with a general lack of data on crayfish populations, low levels of management and public involvement, and different strategies in regional governments regarding restocking programs with exotic species, makes a confusing situation. In order to decrease the general tendency of regression of A. pallipes a conservation program for this species needs to be implemented

  1. Validating Velocities in the GeoClaw Tsunami Model using Observations Near Hawaii from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    CERN Document Server

    Arcos, M E M

    2014-01-01

    The ability to measure, predict, and compute tsunami flow velocities is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation. Substantial damage can be done by high velocity flows, particularly in harbors and bays, even when the wave height is small. Moreover, advancing the study of sediment transport and tsunami deposits depends on the accurate interpretation and modeling of tsunami flow velocities and accelerations. Until recently, few direct measurements of tsunami velocities existed to compare with model results. During the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Tsunami 328 current meters were in place around the Hawaiian Islands, USA, that captured time series of water velocity in 18 locations, in both harbors and deep channels, at a series of depths. We compare several of these velocity records against numerical simulations performed using the GeoClaw numerical tsunami model, based on solving the depth-averaged shallow water equations with adaptive mesh refinement, to confirm that this model can accurately predict velo...

  2. Integration of FULLSWOF2D and PeanoClaw: Adaptivity and Local Time-Stepping for Complex Overland Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Unterweger, K.

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. We propose to couple our adaptive mesh refinement software PeanoClaw with existing solvers for complex overland flows that are tailored to regular Cartesian meshes. This allows us to augment them with spatial adaptivity and local time-stepping without altering the computational kernels. FullSWOF2D—Full Shallow Water Overland Flows—here is our software of choice though all paradigms hold for other solvers as well.We validate our hybrid simulation software in an artificial test scenario before we provide results for a large-scale flooding scenario of the Mecca region. The latter demonstrates that our coupling approach enables the simulation of complex “real-world” scenarios.

  3. Sexual Dimorphism of the Jilin Clawed Salamander, Onychodactylus zhangyapingi, (Urodela:Hynobiidae:Onychodactylinae) from Jilin Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianli XIONG; Xiuying LIU; Xiaomei ZHANG; Mengyun LI; Yao MIN

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in size and shape is common in many organisms, and is a key evolutionary feature. In this study, we analyzed morphometric data of the Jilin clawed salamanderOnychodactylus zhangyapingi, an endemic Chinese salamander, to examine sexual size and shape dimorphism. The morphometric data included 14 characteristics of 13 females and 11 males and was analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. Our results showed that sexual dimorphism occurs not only in body size, but also in body shape. Males have a longer snout-vent length than females, a rarely reported pattern of male-biased sexual size dimorphism. Females have a larger space between the axilla and groin than males, while males have longer and larger tails compared to females. The sexual dimorphism in body size and shape can be explained by existing theories, but there is little data for the mating system, behavior, reproduction, or ecology ofO. zhangyapingi, so further studies are required.

  4. Sequential Turnovers of Sex Chromosomes in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus Suggest Some Genomic Regions Are Good at Sex Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. S. Furman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual differentiation is fundamentally important for reproduction, yet the genetic triggers of this developmental process can vary, even between closely related species. Recent studies have uncovered, for example, variation in the genetic triggers for sexual differentiation within and between species of African clawed frogs (genus Xenopus. Here, we extend these discoveries by demonstrating that yet another sex determination system exists in Xenopus, specifically in the species Xenopus borealis. This system evolved recently in an ancestor of X. borealis that had the same sex determination system as X. laevis, a system which itself is newly evolved. Strikingly, the genomic region carrying the sex determination factor in X. borealis is homologous to that of therian mammals, including humans. Our results offer insights into how the genetic underpinnings of conserved phenotypes evolve, and suggest an important role for cooption of genetic building blocks with conserved developmental roles.

  5. Efeito dos extratos de Harpagohytum procumbens (garra-do-diabo) e suas frações na atividade da COX-1 e COX-2 e na produção de NO em sangue total

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cecilia Cattai Anauate

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O presente estudo avaliou o efeito dos extratos de H. procumbens e suas frações na atividade da COX-1 e COX-2 e produção de NO em ensaio de sangue total de voluntários sadios e pacientes com OA. MÉTODOS: A atividade da COX-1 foi determinada através da produção de TxB2 por plaquetas e da COX-2 pela produção de PGE2 por monócitos estimulados por LPS. A produção de NO2 -/NO3 - foi determinada por reação de Griess. Os ensaios in vitro foram realizados por incubação do extrato do extrato...

  6. Monitoring of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes population during a crayfish plague outbreak followed by rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collas M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass mortality was detected in the downstream section of one of the most extensive French populations of the endangered white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, on June 26, 2013. This population occupied a 12 km stretch of the La Lucelle brook, with an estimated size of around 150 000 individuals. The presence of the crayfish plague pathogen was quickly diagnosed as the cause of the mortality, and monitoring was carried out to follow the spread of the disease from 15 July 2013 for one year. Results showed that after a fast spread between 15 and 25 July 2013 (upstream progression of mortality for about 4 km, the mortality front was limited to a stretch of a few hundred meters from August until December 2013. During winter, mortality was always observed, confirming that disease remained active. In April 2014, the mortality front was halted by a large dam in the brook (2 m high, 0.56 km from brook source. Two months later, 30 live crayfish were observed above the dam. On the 30 August 2014, no crayfish were found above the dam. Infected individuals analysed for microsatellite markers confirmed the Pacifastacus leniusculus strain of Aphanomyces astaci at the origin of this outbreak. Before the crayfish plague spread upstream of the large dam, a sample of 576 individuals was collected from upstream of the dam and translocated to another stream in the same French department. In July 2014, observations by night confirmed the presence of translocated white-clawed crayfish in the receiving brook.

  7. Wavefront aberration and contrast sensitivity after implantation of foldable and rigid iris claw phakic intraocular lenses: Artiflex versus artisan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faroogh Parsipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study is to assess wavefront aberration and contrast sensitivity (CS after implantation of foldable iris claw - artiflex- and rigid iris claw - artisan- phakic intraocular lenses (pIOLs. Materials and Methods: A nonrandomized prospective comparative case study was performed on 57 eyes; of which, 54 were myopia and 3 were hyperopia. Twenty-four patients had artisan pIOL implantation and 33 had artiflex pIOL implantation. Higher-order aberration (HOA and CS were obtained 1 year after surgery. Results: Total HOA in artisan group was greater than artiflex group (P = 0.044 with a mean HOA of 0.44 ± 0.15 root mean square (RMS for artisan and 0.35 ± 0.15 RMS for artiflex. Although, there were no significant differences in the vertical trefoil, vertical coma, horizontal trefoil, horizontal coma, secondary astigmatism, quatrefoil, and fourth order spherical aberration in two groups. CS in mesopic conditions was better in artiflex-treated eyes at three spatial frequencies of 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree (cpd (P = 0.003, P = 0.007, and P = 0.00, respectively, and no significant difference was seen between two lenses at 3 cpd. Conclusion: Although the components of HOA were not significantly different between two groups, total HOA was higher in artisan group, which may be due to the slight differences in each component, increasing the HOA as a total. CS was significantly better in artiflex group.

  8. Effect of an hydro-alcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) over dendritic cell subsets and HLA-DR/CD86 molecules by lipopolysacarides stimulus

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada-Requena, Ivan; Sección Inmunología. Departamento de Microbiología, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Núñez, César; Sección Inmunología. Departamento de Microbiología, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico Cirujano.; Álvarez, Yubell; Sección Inmunología. Departamento de Microbiología, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Estudiante de Biología.; Aguilar, José Luis; Sección Inmunología. Departamento de Microbiología, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico Inmuno-reumatólogo.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of an hydro-alcoholic extract of cat´s claw Uncaria tomentosa (uG) over lipopolysaccharides – treated dendritic cells (DC) and HLA-DR and CD86 molecules expression of peripheral blood samples obtained from healthy individuals. Materials and methods. Peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy individuals. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were isolated by centrifugation over density gradient, pre-treated with and without the addition of ...

  9. Coat and claws as new matrices for noninvasive long-term cortisol assessment in dogs from birth up to 30 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Comin, A; Meloni, T; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Prandi, A

    2015-09-15

    The last stage of fetal development and the neonatal period represent the most critical phases for the mammals' offspring. In the dog, the knowledge about the final intrauterine fetal development and biology, as well as about the neonatal physiology, remains scarce. Hormonal changes occurring in the last intrauterine fetal phase and during the early neonatal age are still not completely clear, probably because of the invasiveness related to the collection of the more common biological matrix, represented by circulating blood. Toward term of pregnancy, during parturition, and after birth, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a key system regulating several physiological processes, and its activity was previously investigated by blood analysis, considered an invasive procedure providing a single-point measurement. In respect to animal welfare, and for a more correct long-term retrospective investigation, noninvasive hormonal studies were performed firstly on the hair of humans and coat of animals and, more recently, in the nails of human beings. This study was aimed to assess cortisol (COR) in coat and claws of newborn puppies and to evaluate the possible influence of the newborn gender, breed body size, and age on coat and claws COR concentrations. The results obtained from 165 newborn puppies evidenced that coat and claws COR levels were highly correlated each other (P new, noninvasive, long-term perinatal and neonatal researches also in canine species.

  10. EFFECTS OF SOYBEAN MEAL BASED DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HEMOLYMPH BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF NARROW-CLAWED CRAYFISH (ASTACUS LEPTODACYLUS ESCHSCHOLTZ, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other crustaceans, narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodacylus Eschscholtz, 1823 can change its diet to the available food during varied life cycles. Diet alteration can affect different biological indices of this species, therefore this study aims at studying changes in growth indices, hemolymph biochemical parameters and biochemical quality of its carcasses, which might occur during diet change of crayfish. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of fish meal with soybean meal on growth performance, carcass quality and hemolymph biochemical parameters of narrow-clawed crayfish. 90 healthy adult narrow-clawed crayfish (W=35.50±4.05 g; TL=16.96±1.92 cm were randomly distributed into 9 fiberglass tanks (200 L and were fed for 45 days with three varied diets including: commercial shrimp diet, fishmeal-based diet (A and soybean meal-based diet (B. The results show that changing the diet from animal protein to plant protein caused a significant decrease in the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in hemolymph, as well as carcass fat of the crayfish nourished with B diet when compared with the crayfish fed with A diet. No significant changes of hemolymph levels of glucose, AST and ALT were found between different treatments during this experimental period. In conclusion, it was found that though growth performance reduced, the increased rate of soybean meal in diet from 0.0% to 76% had no adverse effects on biochemical parameters.

  11. Research on Working Process Characteristic of Claw Type Fluid Machinery%爪式流体机械工作过程特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君; 刘凯; 姜希彤; 由兆举

    2012-01-01

    A special working process of claw type fluid machinery suction was defined as mixture process, and its working processes, including suction, compression, discharge and mixed process, were analyzed. The changing relation of volume, pressure and temperature varied with shaft rotation angle were investigated, and the rule of resistance moment of claw type rotor in working process was obtained. The study content will help to improve the design and the performance of the claw type fluid machinery.%将爪式流体机械所特有的一个工作过程定义为混合过程,分析了爪式流体机械工作全过程包括吸气、压缩、排气和混合过程的工作特性,讨论了工作过程中容积、压力和温度等状态参数随主轴转角间的变化关系;并得到了爪式转子在工作过程中的所受的阻力矩的变化规律.研究内容有助于爪式转子的型线设计和性能提高.

  12. Isolation of Sporothrix schenckii from the claws of domestic cats (indoor and outdoor) and in captivity in São Paulo (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Tatiana Saleme; Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; Fedullo, José Daniel Luzes; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Taborda, João Pelleschi; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis and is also a zoonosis (sapro- and anthropozoonosis). The objective of the present study was to determine the occurrence of sporotrichosis in domestic cats and in wild or exotic felines in captivity through the isolation of Sporothrix spp. from claw impressions in a culture medium. The samples included 132 felines, of which 120 (91.0 %) were domestic cats, 11 (8.3 %) were wild felines, and one (0.7 %) was an exotic felid. Twenty-one (17.5 %) were outdoor cats. Of the total, 89 (67.4 %) had contact with other animals of the same species. It was possible to isolate Sporothrix schenckii from the claws of one (0.7 %) of the felids probed; this animal exhibited generalised sporotrichosis and had infected a female veterinarian. The potential pathogenic agents Microsporum canis and Malassezia pachydermatis were isolated in 12.1 and 5.3 % of the animals, respectively. The following anemophilous fungi, which were considered to be contaminants, were also isolated: Penicillium sp. (28 or 21.2 %), Aspergillus sp. (13 or 9.8 %), Rhodotorula sp. (5 or 3.8 %), Candida sp. (5 or 3.8 %), Trichoderma sp. (1 or 0.7 %), and Acremonium sp. (1 or 0.7 %). Due to the low magnitude of occurrence (0.7 %) of Sporothrix in feline claws, the potential of the cats evaluated in this study to be sources of infection in the city of São Paulo is considerably low.

  13. Age, segment, and horn disease affect expression of cytokines, growth factors, and receptors in the epidermis and dermis of the bovine claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A; Zarlenga, D S; Habecker, P L; Dyer, R M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in RNA expression for growth factors, cytokines, and receptors in epidermal-dermal tissues of the bovine claw relative to host age, claw segment, and disease state of the horn. Epidermal-dermal tissues were collected from the coronary, wall, sole, and bulb segments of 8- to 9-mo-old Holstein fetuses, normal adult cows, and adult cows with sole ulceration. Anatomic and pathologic characteristics were determined in tissues stained with eosin and hematoxylin, and RNA expression levels were evaluated using real-time, quantitative PCR. In normal tissues, certain RNA expression levels were clearly affected by host age: 290.0-, 610.0-, 53.4-, and 8.1-fold greater expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor was observed in fetal coronary, wall, sole, and bulb segment relative to adult tissues, respectively. A claw segment effect was also observed in that IL-1alpha expression was greater (1.59-fold) in the normal adult wall relative to the coronary segment, and IL-18 expression was greater (16.2-fold) in the normal adult sole compared with the coronary segment and 2.88 greater in the fetal sole relative to the bulb segment. Sole ulceration was associated with hemorrhage, thrombosis, inflammation, and striking increases in IL-1beta, IL-18, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and with less dramatic, albeit measurable, changes in IL-1 type I receptor, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Amidst striking increases in keratinocyte growth factor receptor (i.e., 21.0-fold, 10.4-fold, 0, and 21.6-fold in the coronary, wall, sole, and bulb segments, respectively), a concomitant decrease occurred in keratinocyte growth factor (i.e., 0.80-, 0.54-, 0.56-, and 0.72-fold, respectively). The results demonstrated changes in disease state and, to a lesser extent, claw segment and were accompanied by alterations in the RNA expression of several cytokines, growth factors, and receptors present in the normal

  14. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and 4-epi-oxytetracycline (4-epi-OTC) in broiler chicken's claws by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J; Pokrant, E; Araya, D; Briceño, C; Hidalgo, H; Maddaleno, A; Araya-Jordán, C; San Martin, B

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in poultry production for the treatment of bacterial diseases. However, residues may remain in products and by-products destined for human consumption or animal feeding. The claws of chickens, which are a by-product of the poultry industry, can directly or indirectly enter the food chain as meals destined to feed other productive animals. Thus, it becomes necessary to determine and quantify antimicrobial residues present in this matrix. The objective of the study was to assess the depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its metabolite 4-epi-OTC in broiler chicken's claws. Claws of 32 broilers treated with a therapeutic dosage of 10% OTC during 7 days were analysed. Samples were taken at days 3, 9, 15 and 19 post-treatment. As for the control group, eight broiler chickens were raised under the same conditions. Extraction was carried out through EDTA-McIlvaine buffer, and clean-up employed a SPE C-18 Sep-Pak®. Instrumental analysis was performed through LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of both analytes were determined in claw samples until day 19 post-treatment. Average concentrations were within the LOD (20 μg kg(-)(1)) and LOQ (22 µg kg(-)(1)) for OTC and 84 μg kg(-)(1) for 4-epi-OTC. Withdrawal times (WDTs) of 39 days for OTC and 54 days for 4-epi-OTC were established in claws based on 95% confidence. These findings demonstrate that claws can be a source of antimicrobial residue entry into the food chain, since the results showed that OTC and its metabolite can be found in chicken's claws for long periods, even exceeding the average lifespan of a broiler chicken.

  15. Unequal contribution of native South African phylogeographic lineages to the invasion of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte De Busschere

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to both deliberate and accidental introductions, invasive African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis populations have become established worldwide. In this study, we investigate the geographic origins of invasive X. laevis populations in France and Portugal using the phylogeographic structure of X. laevis in its native South African range. In total, 80 individuals from the whole area known to be invaded in France and Portugal were analysed for two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, allowing a comparison with 185 specimens from the native range. Our results show that native phylogeographic lineages have contributed differently to invasive European X. laevis populations. In Portugal, genetic and historical data suggest a single colonization event involving a small number of individuals from the south-western Cape region in South Africa. In contrast, French invasive X. laevis encompass two distinct native phylogeographic lineages, i.e., one from the south-western Cape region and one from the northern regions of South Africa. The French X. laevis population is the first example of a X. laevis invasion involving multiple lineages. Moreover, the lack of population structure based on nuclear DNA suggests a potential role for admixture within the invasive French population.

  16. Effects of 17α-ethynylestradiol on sexual differentiation and development of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Amber R; Wiseman, Steve; Higley, Eric; Pryce, Sara; Chang, Hong; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2012-11-01

    Several studies have shown that exposure of amphibians, including the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), to potent estrogens at critical times during development results in feminization and/or demasculinization. However, genotyping of X. laevis has only recently become possible, so studies performed in the past were rarely able to make explicit linkages between genetic and phenotypic sex. Therefore, to further characterize this relationship, X. laevis tadpoles were exposed during development to 0.09, 0.84, or 8.81 μg/L 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), which is the estrogen analog commonly used in oral contraceptives. Exposure to all concentrations of EE2 tested resulted in significant delays in time to metamorphosis. Genotyping showed that genetic sex ratios were similar among treatments. However, morphological evaluation revealed that a significant number of individuals with a male genotype displayed mixed sex and abnormal phenotypes. Additionally, both genetic males and females exposed to EE2 exhibited greater presence of vitellogenin protein relative to the respective controls. Since estrogens function downstream of the initial molecular signals of sexual differentiation, it is likely that genetic male animals received mixed endogenous male and exogenous female signals that caused disordered sexual development. The production of vitellogenin was probably temporally separated and independent from primary effects on sexual differentiation, and might have contributed to delays in metamorphosis observed in individuals exposed to EE2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analgesic effects of meloxicam, morphine sulfate, flunixin meglumine, and xylazine hydrochloride in African-clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Dondrae J; Taylor, Douglas K; Mook, Deborah M

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated analgesic use and analgesiometry in aquatic African-clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). We used the acetic acid test (AAT) to assess the analgesic potential of systemic xylazine hydrochloride, meloxicam, flunixin meglumine, and morphine sulfate after injection into the dorsal lymph sac. Flunixin meglumine provided better analgesia than did the other drugs, most evident at 5 and 9 h after administration. Because the AAT was associated with the development of dermal lesions, we discontinued use of this assay and chose the Hargreaves test as an alternative method of measuring nociception in Xenopus. This assay is commonly performed in rodents, but its efficacy in an aquatic species such as Xenopus was unknown prior to this study. We found that the Hargreaves test was an effective measure of nociception in Xenopus, and we used it to evaluate the effectiveness of the nonopiod agents xylazine hydrochloride, meloxicam, and flunixin meglumine both in the absence of surgery and after surgical oocyte harvest. Similar to findings from the AAT, flunixin meglumine provided better analgesia in the Hargreaves test than did the other agents when analyzed in the absence of surgical intervention. Results were equivocal after oocyte harvest. Although surgical oocyte harvest is a common procedure in Xenopus, and currently there are no published recommendations for analgesia after this invasive surgery. Future studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for that purpose.

  18. The impact of the goitrogen 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) on West-African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) exposed during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Gunnar; Norrgren, Leif

    2007-04-20

    This study investigated the suitability of using tadpoles of the West-African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) for studying adverse effects on the thyroid hormone system after chemical exposure. Tadpoles were exposed to the thyroxine synthesis inhibitor 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) at concentrations between 2-75mg/L during 14 days. After 5 and 14 days of exposure the developmental stage, hind limb length, body length and weight were measured. Moreover, histological measurements of the thyroid glands were performed after 14 days of exposure. These measurements included maximum thyroid cross-section area, follicular area and epithelial cell height. Tadpoles in the 75mg/L treatment were less developed and had shorter hind limb length than the control group after 14 days of exposure. No effects were recorded on these parameters at lower PTU concentrations. The histological measurements revealed clear dose-response relationships in both follicular cross-section area and epithelial cell height, with lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) recorded at 2 and 5mg/L, respectively. This study shows that X. tropicalis is a suitable species for detection of thyroid disrupting chemicals. Further, histopathological measurements of thyroid glands are more sensitive parameters compared with apical endpoints when studying adverse effects on thyroid hormone system caused by PTU exposure in X. tropicalis.

  19. Species-specific loss of sexual dimorphism in vocal effectors accompanies vocal simplification in African clawed frogs (Xenopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Elizabeth C; Kitayama, Ken; Kelley, Darcy B

    2015-03-01

    Phylogenetic studies can reveal patterns of evolutionary change, including the gain or loss of elaborate courtship traits in males. Male African clawed frogs generally produce complex and rapid courtship vocalizations, whereas female calls are simple and slow. In a few species, however, male vocalizations are also simple and slow, suggesting loss of male-typical traits. Here, we explore features of the male vocal organ that could contribute to loss in two species with simple, slow male calls. In Xenopus boumbaensis, laryngeal morphology is more robust in males than in females. Larynges are larger, have a more complex cartilaginous morphology and contain more muscle fibers. Laryngeal muscle fibers are exclusively fast-twitch in males but are both fast- and slow-twitch in females. The laryngeal electromyogram, a measure of neuromuscular synaptic strength, shows greater potentiation in males than in females. Male-specific physiological features are shared with X. laevis, as well as with a species of the sister clade, Silurana tropicalis, and thus are likely ancestral. In X. borealis, certain aspects of laryngeal morphology and physiology are sexually monomorphic rather than dimorphic. In both sexes, laryngeal muscle fibers are of mixed-twitch type, which limits the production of muscle contractions at rapid intervals. Muscle activity potentiation and discrete tension transients resemble female rather than male X. boumbaensis. The de-masculinization of these laryngeal features suggests an alteration in sensitivity to the gonadal hormones that are known to control the sexual differentiation of the larynx in other Xenopus and Silurana species.

  20. Unequal contribution of native South African phylogeographic lineages to the invasion of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Busschere, Charlotte; Courant, Julien; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Rödder, Dennis; Measey, G John; Backeljau, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Due to both deliberate and accidental introductions, invasive African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) populations have become established worldwide. In this study, we investigate the geographic origins of invasive X. laevis populations in France and Portugal using the phylogeographic structure of X. laevis in its native South African range. In total, 80 individuals from the whole area known to be invaded in France and Portugal were analysed for two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, allowing a comparison with 185 specimens from the native range. Our results show that native phylogeographic lineages have contributed differently to invasive European X. laevis populations. In Portugal, genetic and historical data suggest a single colonization event involving a small number of individuals from the south-western Cape region in South Africa. In contrast, French invasive X. laevis encompass two distinct native phylogeographic lineages, i.e., one from the south-western Cape region and one from the northern regions of South Africa. The French X. laevis population is the first example of a X. laevis invasion involving multiple lineages. Moreover, the lack of population structure based on nuclear DNA suggests a potential role for admixture within the invasive French population.

  1. Immune defenses against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a fungus linked to global amphibian declines, in the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jeremy P; Reinert, Laura K; Harper, Laura K; Woodhams, Douglas C; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2010-09-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a chytrid fungus that causes the lethal skin disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians. It is regarded as an emerging infectious disease affecting diverse amphibian populations in many parts of the world. Because there are few model amphibian species for immunological studies, little is known about immune defenses against B. dendrobatidis. We show here that the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is a suitable model for investigating immunity to this pathogen. After an experimental exposure, a mild infection developed over 20 to 30 days and declined by 45 days postexposure. Either purified antimicrobial peptides or mixtures of peptides in the skin mucus inhibited B. dendrobatidis growth in vitro. Skin peptide secretion was maximally induced by injection of norepinephrine, and this treatment resulted in sustained skin peptide depletion and increased susceptibility to infection. Sublethal X-irradiation of frogs decreased leukocyte numbers in the spleen and resulted in greater susceptibility to infection. Immunization against B. dendrobatidis induced elevated pathogen-specific IgM and IgY serum antibodies. Mucus secretions from X. laevis previously exposed to B. dendrobatidis contained significant amounts of IgM, IgY, and IgX antibodies that bind to B. dendrobatidis. These data strongly suggest that both innate and adaptive immune defenses are involved in the resistance of X. laevis to lethal B. dendrobatidis infections.

  2. Effect of water hardness on oocyte quality and embryo development in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Earl W; Sanders, George E

    2004-04-01

    Husbandry and health of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, greatly influences the quality of oocytes produced. One factor affecting oocyte quality is the water conditions in which females are maintained. Dechlorination and adequate salt concentration are known to affect oocytes, but water hardness has not been considered an important factor in Xenopus husbandry by the research community. We found that, when females were kept in soft water or water with marine salts alone, even when it was cooled to 17 to 18 degrees C, the quality of oocytes decreased; only 20 to 25% of resulting embryos developed to tailbud stages. Survival and normal development of embryos increased significantly within one month of addition to the laboratory housing water of salts that mimic conditions in African Rift Valley lakes. These salts greatly increased water hardness; development of embryos to tailbud stages remained high (50 to 70% on average) for more than a year after their addition to the water housing females. Water from South African ponds where X. laevis are collected, and from wells used by the major suppliers of X. laevis, also was moderately to very hard. Our results suggest that X. laevis is naturally adapted to hard water, and indicate that increasing general hardness during laboratory housing is more important for oocyte quality and embryo development than is increasing carbonate hardness (alkalinity) in the water used to house females.

  3. Genetic Basis of Spectral Tuning in the Violet-Sensitive Visual Pigment of African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Shozo

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) and violet vision in vertebrates is mediated by UV and violet visual pigments that absorb light maximally (λmax) at ∼360 and 390–440 nm, respectively. So far, a total of 11 amino acid sites only in transmembrane (TM) helices I–III are known to be involved in the functional differentiation of these short wavelength-sensitive type 1 (SWS1) pigments. Here, we have constructed chimeric pigments between the violet pigment of African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and its ancestral UV pigment. The results show that not only are the absorption spectra of these pigments modulated strongly by amino acids in TM I–VII, but also, for unknown reasons, the overall effect of amino acid changes in TM IV–VII on the λmax-shift is abolished. The spectral tuning of the contemporary frog pigment is explained by amino acid replacements F86M, V91I, T93P, V109A, E113D, L116V, and S118T, in which V91I and V109A are previously unknown, increasing the total number of critical amino acid sites that are involved in the spectral tuning of SWS1 pigments in vertebrates to 13. PMID:16079229

  4. MANAGEMENT OF THE WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH (AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES IN WESTERN FRANCE: ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TROUILHE M. C.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In France, the distribution of the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858, is restricted, fragmented and mainly located in headwaters. To preserve this indigenous species, it is necessary to characterize its ecological requirements (water and habitat quality. With this aim in view, a two-year study is being conducted in the Deux-Sèvres department (Western France since November 2002. Nine brooks from four different catchments are monitored regularly; eight of the nine brooks harbour whiteclawed crayfish populations. Two sampling sites are surveyed per brook, the first being where the crayfish population is located and the second 2 to 3 km downstream. Physicochemical parameters (18 are measured twice monthly and biotic factors are estimated twice yearly. In this study, the I.B.G.N. (Indice Biologique Global Normalisé protocol based on the determination of macroinvertebrates was used as a biotic index of biological water quality. Results of this preliminary study on two brooks (Thouet and Verdonnière show that physico-chemical and biological data considered separately do not provide reliable information about A. pallipes ecological requirements. However, the use of multivariate analyses (Principal Component Analysis to combine abiotic and biotic factors highlights a good correlation between these parameters. Organic matter appears to be a better discriminating factor than mineral matter affecting presence or absence of the whiteclawed crayfish.

  5. Effects of low dose endosulfan exposure on brain neurotransmitter levels in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preud'homme, Valérie; Milla, Sylvain; Gillardin, Virginie; De Pauw, Edwin; Denoël, Mathieu; Kestemont, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the impact of pesticides in amphibians is of growing concern to assess the causes of their decline. Among pesticides, endosulfan belongs to one of the potential sources of danger because of its wide use and known effects, particularly neurotoxic, on a variety of organisms. However, the effect of endosulfan was not yet evaluated on amphibians at levels encompassing simultaneously brain neurotransmitters and behavioural endpoints. In this context, tadpoles of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis were submitted to four treatments during 27 d: one control, one ethanol control, and two low environmental concentrations of endosulfan (0.1 and 1 μg L(-1)). Endosulfan induced a significant increase of brain serotonin level at both concentrations and a significant increase of brain dopamine and GABA levels at the lower exposure but acetylcholinesterase activity was not modified by the treatment. The gene coding for the GABA transporter 1 was up-regulated in endosulfan contaminated tadpoles while the expression of other genes coding for the neurotransmitter receptors or for the enzymes involved in their metabolic pathways was not significantly modified by endosulfan exposure. Endosulfan also affected foraging, and locomotion in links with the results of the physiological assays, but no effects were seen on growth. These results show that low environmental concentrations of endosulfan can induce adverse responses in X. laevis tadpoles. At a broader perspective, this suggests that more research using and linking multiple markers should be used to understand the complex mode of action of pollutants.

  6. Low structural variation in the host-defense peptide repertoire of the dwarf clawed frog Hymenochirus boettgeri (Pipidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severine Matthijs

    Full Text Available THE skin secretion of many amphibians contains peptides that are able to kill a broad range of microorganisms (antimicrobial peptides: AMPs and potentially play a role in innate immune defense. Similar to the toxin arsenals of various animals, amphibian AMP repertoires typically show major structural variation, and previous studies have suggested that this may be the result of diversifying selection in adaptation to a diverse spectrum of pathogens. Here we report on transcriptome analyses that indicate a very different pattern in the dwarf clawed frog H. boettgeri. Our analyses reveal a diverse set of transcripts containing two to six tandem repeats, together encoding 14 distinct peptides. Five of these have recently been identified as AMPs, while three more are shown here to potently inhibit the growth of gram-negative bacteria, including multi-drug resistant strains of the medically important Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although the number of predicted peptides is similar to the numbers of related AMPs in Xenopus and Silurana frog species, they show significantly lower structural variation. Selection analyses confirm that, in contrast to the AMPs of other amphibians, the H. boettgeri peptides did not evolve under diversifying selection. Instead, the low sequence variation among tandem repeats resulted from purifying selection, recent duplication and/or concerted gene evolution. Our study demonstrates that defense peptide repertoires of closely related taxa, after diverging from each other, may evolve under differential selective regimes, leading to contrasting patterns of structural diversity.

  7. Immune Defenses against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a Fungus Linked to Global Amphibian Declines, in the South African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jeremy P.; Reinert, Laura K.; Harper, Laura K.; Woodhams, Douglas C.; Rollins-Smith, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a chytrid fungus that causes the lethal skin disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians. It is regarded as an emerging infectious disease affecting diverse amphibian populations in many parts of the world. Because there are few model amphibian species for immunological studies, little is known about immune defenses against B. dendrobatidis. We show here that the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is a suitable model for investigating immunity to this pathogen. After an experimental exposure, a mild infection developed over 20 to 30 days and declined by 45 days postexposure. Either purified antimicrobial peptides or mixtures of peptides in the skin mucus inhibited B. dendrobatidis growth in vitro. Skin peptide secretion was maximally induced by injection of norepinephrine, and this treatment resulted in sustained skin peptide depletion and increased susceptibility to infection. Sublethal X-irradiation of frogs decreased leukocyte numbers in the spleen and resulted in greater susceptibility to infection. Immunization against B. dendrobatidis induced elevated pathogen-specific IgM and IgY serum antibodies. Mucus secretions from X. laevis previously exposed to B. dendrobatidis contained significant amounts of IgM, IgY, and IgX antibodies that bind to B. dendrobatidis. These data strongly suggest that both innate and adaptive immune defenses are involved in the resistance of X. laevis to lethal B. dendrobatidis infections. PMID:20584973

  8. Analgesic Effects of Meloxicam, Morphine Sulfate, Flunixin Meglumine, and Xylazine Hydrochloride in African-Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Dondrae J; Taylor, Douglas K; Mook, Deborah M

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated analgesic use and analgesiometry in aquatic African-clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). We used the acetic acid test (AAT) to assess the analgesic potential of systemic xylazine hydrochloride, meloxicam, flunixin meglumine, and morphine sulfate after injection into the dorsal lymph sac. Flunixin meglumine provided better analgesia than did the other drugs, most evident at 5 and 9 h after administration. Because the AAT was associated with the development of dermal lesions, we discontinued use of this assay and chose the Hargreaves test as an alternative method of measuring nociception in Xenopus. This assay is commonly performed in rodents, but its efficacy in an aquatic species such as Xenopus was unknown prior to this study. We found that the Hargreaves test was an effective measure of nociception in Xenopus, and we used it to evaluate the effectiveness of the nonopiod agents xylazine hydrochloride, meloxicam, and flunixin meglumine both in the absence of surgery and after surgical oocyte harvest. Similar to findings from the AAT, flunixin meglumine provided better analgesia in the Hargreaves test than did the other agents when analyzed in the absence of surgical intervention. Results were equivocal after oocyte harvest. Although surgical oocyte harvest is a common procedure in Xenopus, and currently there are no published recommendations for analgesia after this invasive surgery. Future studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for that purpose. PMID:21640031

  9. Mixed mesh/nodal magnetic equivalent circuit modeling of a six-phase claw-pole automotive alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Daniel C.

    must eliminate these elements and establish new KVL loops with the remaining non-infinite components. Researchers have developed algorithms to automate the loop construction process [4]. However, the algorithms require one to categorize all potential overlap positions, which is a challenge for claw-pole machines. One does not experience this issue in nodal-based solution techniques. However, since machines tend to operate in saturation, issues of convergence are often encountered. In this research, an alternative solution technique is provided in which mesh analysis is used in all magnetically nonlinear flux tubes while nodal analysis is used to solve for quantities in the airgap. This has the potential to use the advantage of each solution technique. This research builds upon that presented in [5], in which permeance expressions for all flux tubes were developed for a nodal MEC model of a three-phase claw-pole alternator with a delta-connected stator. In addition to the mixed mesh/nodal system a second focus is to explore new model configurations including six-phase machines with wye-connected stator and permanent magnets on the rotor. Validation of the models that are proposed is performed using both FEA models and experimental data from commercially-available alternators.

  10. Species-specific loss of sexual dimorphism in vocal effectors accompanies vocal simplification in African clawed frogs (Xenopus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Elizabeth C.; Kitayama, Ken; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phylogenetic studies can reveal patterns of evolutionary change, including the gain or loss of elaborate courtship traits in males. Male African clawed frogs generally produce complex and rapid courtship vocalizations, whereas female calls are simple and slow. In a few species, however, male vocalizations are also simple and slow, suggesting loss of male-typical traits. Here, we explore features of the male vocal organ that could contribute to loss in two species with simple, slow male calls. In Xenopus boumbaensis, laryngeal morphology is more robust in males than in females. Larynges are larger, have a more complex cartilaginous morphology and contain more muscle fibers. Laryngeal muscle fibers are exclusively fast-twitch in males but are both fast- and slow-twitch in females. The laryngeal electromyogram, a measure of neuromuscular synaptic strength, shows greater potentiation in males than in females. Male-specific physiological features are shared with X. laevis, as well as with a species of the sister clade, Silurana tropicalis, and thus are likely ancestral. In X. borealis, certain aspects of laryngeal morphology and physiology are sexually monomorphic rather than dimorphic. In both sexes, laryngeal muscle fibers are of mixed-twitch type, which limits the production of muscle contractions at rapid intervals. Muscle activity potentiation and discrete tension transients resemble female rather than male X. boumbaensis. The de-masculinization of these laryngeal features suggests an alteration in sensitivity to the gonadal hormones that are known to control the sexual differentiation of the larynx in other Xenopus and Silurana species. PMID:25788725

  11. Screening pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of turmeric rhizome, artichoke leaf, devil's claw root and garlic or salmon oil for antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor-Fernández, Alejandro; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Sies, Helmut; Stahl, Wilhelm

    2003-07-01

    Pharmaceutical preparations derived from natural sources such as vegetables often contain compounds that contribute to the antioxidant defence system and apparently play a role in the protection against degenerative diseases. In the present study, commercial preparations containing extracts of turmeric, artichoke, devil's claw and garlic or salmon oil were investigated. The products were divided into fractions of different polarity, and their antioxidant activity was determined using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. This test is based on the efficacy of the test material to scavenge 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) derived radicals. Total phenols were determined in all fractions as well as specific carotenoids in the most lipophilic fraction to assess their contribution to the antioxidant activity. For comparison, the radical scavenging effect of selected constituents of the extracts such as curcumin, luteolin, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, harpagoside, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol was investigated and compared with that of Trolox. Curcumin, luteolin, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid and beta-carotene showed an antioxidant activity superior to Trolox in the TEAC assay; harpagoside was barely active. All fractions of the turmeric extract preparation exhibited pronounced antioxidant activity, which was assigned to the presence of curcumin and other polyphenols. The antioxidant activity corresponding to the artichoke leaf extract was higher in the aqueous fractions than in the lipophilic fractions. Similarly, devil's claw extract was particularly rich in water-soluble antioxidants. Harpagoside, a major compound in devil's claw, did not contribute significantly to its antioxidant activity. The antioxidant capacity of the garlic preparation was poor in the TEAC assay. That of salmon oil was mainly attributed to vitamin E, which is added to the product for stabilization. In all test preparations, the antioxidant

  12. Observation ultrastructure of glandularia and leg claws from unionicolid mites%蚌螨腺毛和足爪的亚显微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文春根; 吴浩彬; 胡宝庆

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the leg clawe and glandularia of six unionicolid mites were observed under a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the glandularia of unionicolid mites are complex and composed of a gland, glandular sclerite and setae in the glandularia area. Vertical serial sections of Vnionicola arcuata revealed that the glands of the glandularium are a multicellular organ extending almost to the digestive system. This indicates that the gland might have evolved from epidermal cells. Except for the claws, dorsal or ventral integumental projection(s) and setae were observed on the end of the tarsus of the leg. Therefore, the ambulatory structure of the leg in some unionicolid mites is not a simple but complex, including claws, dorsal or ventral projection (s) and tarsal setae.%利用扫描电镜分别对6种蚌螨的腺毛和足爪结构进行了观察,结果表明蚌螨的腺毛是由腺体、围腺片、刚毛和腺毛板共同构成的复合结构;对弯弓蚌螨的连续切片的观察表明,腺体是从体表延伸至体腔的消化道附近,由此认为蚌螨的腺体是由体壁皮层细胞演化而来.蚌螨足末除了爪外,还观察到跗节端部背面或腹面有体壁突及刚毛,因此,蚌螨足的步行结构不是仅由爪形成的简单结构,而是由爪、跗节末端背突或腹垫和刚毛组成的复合体.

  13. Partial substitution, with their chelated complexes, of the inorganic zinc, copper and manganese in sow diets reduced the laminitic lesions in the claws and improved the morphometric characteristics of the hoof horn of sows from three Greek herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varagka, Nikoleta; Lisgara, Marina; Skampardonis, Vassilis; Psychas, Vassilis; Leontides, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    Hoof lesions in sows have been associated with lameness and poor hoof horn quality. The mechanical strength and quality of hoof horn is determined by the density and diameter of horn tubules, which were recently associated with the severity of lesions on the hoof wall of sows. Histologic changes that have previously been described in cases of bovine laminitis, have also been observed in the dermis and epidermis of the sows' claws. Trace elements, particularly zinc, copper and manganese, occupy important roles as enzyme catalysts in the process of keratin synthesis which determines the quality and the integrity of the hoof epidermis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with chelated zinc, copper and manganese, partially substituting their inorganic form, on sow claw health and hoof horn quality assessed by macroscopic, histologic and morphometric examination. Clinically, the total claw lesion score was significantly lower in claws of sows which received the "organic" diet compared to those of sows on the "inorganic" diet. Histologically, lamellar hyperplasia was the most frequently recorded change in the epidermis of the sows' claws regardless of the diet's mineral source. The claws of the sows which received the organic diet were more likely to have none or less histologic changes than at least one or more, respectively, compared to those of the sows on the "inorganic" diet. Morphometrically, the density and vertical and horizontal diameters of the horn tubules was significantly higher and smaller, respectively, in the hoof horn of sows which received the "organic" compared to those which received the "inorganic" source diet. Partial substitution of the inorganic zinc, copper and manganese in sows' diet with their chelated complexes, provided a comparative advantage against a conventional, inorganic mineral source diet, at least under the conditions examined in the current study, in terms of macroscopic

  14. A water soluble extract from Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw) is a potent enhancer of DNA repair in primary organ cultures of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammone, Thomas; Akesson, Christina; Gan, David; Giampapa, Vincent; Pero, Ronald W

    2006-03-01

    Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa) water extracts, essentially free of oxindole alkaloids, have been shown to possess a broad spectrum of biological activity including DNA repair enhancement and antiinflammatory properties. These two biological mechanisms are key molecular targets to develop treatments that protect skin exposed to ultraviolet light from the sun. Because C-Med-100, a Cat's Claw water extract, is the only documented natural source of components that can up-regulate simultaneously both DNA repair and antiinflammation, its ability to modulate DNA repair in human skin organ cultures was undertaken. For this purpose skin cultures were treated with or without 5 mg/mL C-Med-100, irradiated with 0-100 mJ/cm2 UVB, and microscopically analysed for necrosis as well as the level of pyrimidine dimers using immunofluorescent TT-dimer antibody staining. The data clearly demonstrated that co-incubation with C-Med-100 reduced skin cell death from UV exposure, and this protection was accounted for by a concomitant increase in DNA repair. Based on these results, it was concluded that C-Med-100 was a natural plant extract worthy of further consideration as a sunscreen product. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Prevalence of lameness and claw lesions during different stages in the reproductive cycle of sows and the impact on reproduction results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluym, L M; Van Nuffel, A; Van Weyenberg, S; Maes, D

    2013-07-01

    Lameness in sows is an emerging disease condition with major effects on animal welfare and economics. Yet the direct impact on reproduction results remains unclear. The present field study investigated the impact of lameness and claw lesions throughout the reproductive cycle on (re)production results of sows. In five farms, a total of 491 group-housed sows were followed up for a period of one reproductive cycle. Sows were assessed for lameness every time they were moved to another area in the farm. Claw lesions were scored at the beginning and at the end of the cycle. Reproduction results included the number of live-born piglets, stillborn piglets, mummified fetuses and crushed piglets, weaning-to-oestrus interval and the presence of sows not showing oestrus post weaning, returning to service and aborting. Sows that left the group were recorded and the reason was noted. A mean prevalence of lameness of 5.9% was found, although it depended on the time in the productive cycle. The highest percentage of lame sows (8.1%) was found when sows were moved from the post-weaning to the gestation stable. No significant associations were found between lameness and reproduction parameters with the exception of the effect on mummified foetuses. Wall cracks, white line lesions, heel lesions and skin lesions did have an effect on farrowing performance. Of all sows, 22% left the group throughout the study, and almost half of these sows were removed from the farm. Lameness was the second most important reason for culling. Sows culled because of lameness were significantly younger compared with sows culled for other reasons (parity: 2.6 ± 1.3 v. 4.0 ± 1.8). In conclusion, the present results indicate that lameness mainly affects farm productivity indirectly through its effect on sow longevity, whereas claw lesions directly affect some reproductive parameters. The high percentage of lame sows in the insemination stable indicate that risk factor studies should not only focus on the

  16. claw intraocular lens

    OpenAIRE

    Gonnermann, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide range of alternative fixation techniques of intraocular lenses in the absence of adequate capsular support, such as angle- or iris-supported anterior chamber lenses and intra- / transsclerally-fixated (suture, fibrin glue, etc.) and iris-supported posterior chamber lenses. All procedures have different advantages and disadvantages depending on the anatomical situation and integrity of the capsular bag complex and the neighboring structures such as the iris, sclera and corneal ...

  17. Estimation of probability for the presence of claw and digital skin diseases by combining cow- and herd-level information using a Bayesian network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Østergaard, Søren; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2009-01-01

    Cross sectional data on the prevalence of claw and (inter) digital skin diseases on 4854 Holstein Friesian cows in 50 Danish dairy herds was used in a Bayesian network to create herd specific probability distributions for the presence of lameness causing diseases. Parity and lactation stage...... probabilities and random herd effects are used to formulate cow-level probability distributions of disease presence in a specific Danish dairy herd. By step-wise inclusion of information on cow- and herd-level risk factors, lameness prevalence and clinical diagnosis of diseases on cows in the herd, the Bayesian...... network systematically adjusts the probability distributions for disease presence in the specific herd. Information on population-, herd- and cow-level is combined and the uncertainty in inference on disease probability is quantified....

  18. DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT REQUIREMENTS OF THE WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH, AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES, IN A STREAM FROM THE PAYS DE LOIRE REGION, FRANCE: AN EXPERIMENTAL AND DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BROQUET T.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A population of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes was studied from January to October 2000 in a stream from the Pays de Loire region (Western France. An experimental modification of habitat was performed in four stream sections by providing refuges for crayfish, followed by a regular survey of population dynamics in these areas. The crayfish distribution along the brook was studied in relation to several parameters, including water quality, current speed, brook depth and presence of refuges for crayfish. Presence of hiding places was the only habitat parameter correlated with crayfish distribution along the stream whereas colonization process in modified sections was determined by sun exposure and current speed conditions. Despite a presumably high growth rate and its ability to reach locally important densities, the population appeared to be fragmented.

  19. Longitudinal study of the effect of rubber slat mats on locomotory ability, body, limb and claw lesions, and dirtiness of group housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Díaz, J A; Fahey, A G; Kilbride, A L; Green, L E; Boyle, L A

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the influence of floor type on sow welfare with particular focus on lameness, claw lesions (CL), and injuries. The study used 164 gilts housed in groups of 8 from AI to 110 d of pregnancy in pens with concrete (n = 84) slatted floor left uncovered or covered by 10-mm rubber slat mats (n = 80) through 2 parities. Lameness (0 = normal to 5 = severe), limb (0 = normal to 6 = severe) and body (0 = normal to 5 = severe) lesions, and manure on the body (MOB; score 0 to 2) were recorded at AI, 24 to 72 h postmixing, between 50 and 70 d of pregnancy, and 2 wk before farrowing. Claw lesions (score 0 = normal to 3 = severe) were recorded at AI and between 50 and 70 d of pregnancy. The dirtiness and wetness of the floors was scored weekly (score 0 = clean to 4 = >75% of the pen soiled/wet). Data from the first and second parities were analyzed separately. Sows were categorized as nonlame (score ≤ 1) or lame (score ≥ 2). Median (M(e)) scores were calculated for CL and body and limb lesions and were classified as less than or equal to the median or greater than the median lesion scores. Sows on rubber slat mats had a reduced risk of lameness during both parities (P concrete. They also had an increased risk of scores greater than the median for toe overgrowth (M(e) = 2 and M(e) = 3 in the first and second parity, respectively) and heel sole crack (HSC; M(e) = 3) during both parities (P flooring type. There was also no association between body lesion score and flooring type. In this study, CL were not associated with an increased risk of lameness. Therefore, even though rubber slat mats were associated with an increased risk of CL, they improved the welfare of group housed sows by reducing the risk of lameness and limb lesions.

  20. Presence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of cats in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, Michael R; Hawley, Jennifer

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of feral cats without evidence of skin disease that were housed in Alabama (n = 24), Florida (n = 27) and Colorado (n = 32). Samples were assessed by use of polymerase chain reaction assays. The Bartonella species IgG prevalence was also determined. While Bartonella species DNA was not amplified from any sample from Colorado cats, it was commonly amplified from blood (56.9%), skin (31.4%), claws (17.6%) and gingiva (17.6%) of the 51 cats housed in Alabama and Florida. All 10 flea groups assessed in this study were infected with a Bartonella species or R. felis. Bartonella species IgG titres did not accurately predict bacteraemia (positive predictive value = 57.1%; negative predictive value = 82.1%). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from blood of cats with and without C. felis. Rickettsia felis DNA was only detected in or on the skin of one cat and the gingiva of an additional cat. It was concluded that cats can be an occupational health risk for veterinarians, particularly in areas with high prevalence of Ctenocephalides felis. Further study is required to determine whether Bartonella species or Rickettsia species infections of cats are associated with dermatological disease. The combination of Bartonella species serological test results with Bartonella species PCR or culture is likely to give the most accurate information concerning the current infection status of individual cats.

  1. Biological responses of Brachythecium procumbens to lead pollution based on synchrotron radiation X ray fluorescence%基于同步辐射光源的X射线荧光分析技术研究匐枝青藓对铅污染的生物响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄玉霞; 张元勋; 俞鹰浩; 曹阳; A.Iida; 曹同

    2011-01-01

    To explore the accumulation characteristics and biological responses to lead in mosses, one widely distributed moss species, named Brachythecium procumbents was chosen. After culturing in special prepared mediums containing 0 ~ 3.0 mmol· L - 1 of Pb2+ for 7 - 28 days, the concentrations of chemical elements including Pb, K, P, S, Fe, Zn were analyzed in the whole moss tissues using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF). When grown for 7 days, the content of Pb in the moss tissues under the low Pb2 + dosage (0.2 retool. L - 1 ) was more than 29 times higher than the control. This showed that B. procumbens had a strong absorption and enrichment capacity for Pb. Correlation analysis indicated that the Pb accumulation in the moss tissues had a significant positive correlation with both the Pb2 + dosage and the stress periods. Under Pb2+ stress, B.procumbens grew much more slowly and the cell ultra-structure was obviously affected. Fe、Ni and Pb were absorbed and accumulated excessively in the moss tissues. However, the essential nutritional elements K, P and Zn were much lower than in the control. This suggested that excessively accumulated Pb in the damaged plants has an antagonistic effect on the absorption of these nutritional elements. Our results in this work showed the biological response of B. procumbens was very sensitive to the Pb stress, and it could be used as a bio-indicator for Pb contamination in the environment.%为了研究苔藓植物对铅元素的富集特征和对铅污染的生物响应特性,选用多年生、植株体较大、分布广泛且易于采集的匐枝青藓(Brachythecium procumbens)为试验材料,在试验区使用不同浓度(0-3.0 mmol·L-1的Pb2+污染液对人工栽植的匐枝青藓进行了动态胁迫试验(7-28d).使用同步辐射光源的x射线荧光分析技术(SRXRF)测定了植株体内Pb、K、P、S、Fe、Zn等多种元素含量.结果表明,0.2mmol·L-1的低Pb2+胁迫剂量下胁迫生长7d时,植株

  2. HPLC-PDA method for quinovic acid glycosides assay in Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) associated with UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavei, Cabral; Kaiser, Samuel; Verza, Simone Gasparin; Borre, Gustavo Luis; Ortega, George Gonzalez

    2012-03-25

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) is a medicinal plant largely used in folk medicine due to its wide range of biological activities, many of which are usually ascribed to the two main classes of secondary metabolites, namely, alkaloids and quinovic acid glycosides. In this work, a reversed phase HPLC-PDA method was developed and validated for the assay of quinovic acid glycosides in crude and dried extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's claw) bark. The validation comprised tests of specificity, accuracy, linearity, intermediate precision, repeatability and limits of detection and of quantification. Alpha-hederin was used as the external standard. High coefficients of determination with lower R.S.D. were achieved for both external standard and crude extract. The structural characterization of the main quinovic acid glycosides presented in the crude extract was carried out through UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. The identities of the compounds were obtained through the comparison of their fragmentation patterns with those reported in the literature. The analytical method was successfully applied for quantifying quinovic acid glycosides in two different dried extracts from U. tomentosa and in one quinovic acid glycosides purified fraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The hook claw Components holes cobalt based alloy technology developed%钩爪组件小孔钴基合金堆焊技术研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗斌; 郑继雷

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the hook component in nuclear reactor control rod drive system as the research object, built on the basis of holes cobalt-based alloy surfacing technology, first for the the hook claw assemblies holes cobalt-based alloy surfacing the main content of the technology involved in the development process to the detailed analysis of the the entire surfacing technology involved in the development process of technological innovation point basis, aimed at for future research and practical work carried out reference and help.%  本文以核反应堆控制棒驱动系统中钩爪组件为研究对象,提出了一种建立在小孔钴基合金基础之上的堆焊技术,首先针对钩爪组件小孔钴基合金堆焊技术在研制过程中所涉及到的主要内容进行了详细分析,在此基础之上提出了整个堆焊技术在研制过程中所涉及到的技术创新点,旨在于为今后相关研究与实践工作的开展提供一定的参考与帮助。

  4. 无爪图上团横贯数的界%The bound of clique-transversal numbers in claw-free graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁作松; 单而芳; 管梅

    2013-01-01

    设G=(V,E)为简单图,图G的每个至少有两个顶点的极大完全子图称为G的一个团.一个顶点子集S(C)V称为图G的团横贯集,如果S与G的所有团都相交,即对于G的任意的团C有S ∩ V(C)≠(0).图G的团横贯数是图G的最小团横贯集所含顶点的数目,记为rG(G).证明了棱柱图的补图(除5-圈外)、非奇圈的圆弧区间图和Hex-连接图这三类无爪图的团横贯数不超过其阶数的一半.%A clique-transversal set S of a graph G =(V,E) is a subset of vertices of G such that S meets all cliques of G,where a clique is defined as a complete subgraph maximal under inclusion and having at least two vertices.The clique-transversal number,of G denoted by (τ)C(G),is the minimum cardinality of a clique-transversal set in G.In this paper we discuss the bound of clique-transversal numbers in several subclasses of claw-free graphs.

  5. Genetics, Morphology, Advertisement Calls, and Historical Records Distinguish Six New Polyploid Species of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben J; Carter, Timothy F; Greenbaum, Eli; Gvoždík, Václav; Kelley, Darcy B; McLaughlin, Patrick J; Pauwels, Olivier S G; Portik, Daniel M; Stanley, Edward L; Tinsley, Richard C; Tobias, Martha L; Blackburn, David C

    2015-01-01

    African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness of these new species. We resurrect Xenopus calcaratus from synonymy of Xenopus tropicalis and refer populations from Bioko Island and coastal Cameroon (near Mt. Cameroon) to this species. To facilitate comparisons to the new species, we also provide comments on the type specimens, morphology, and distributions of X. epitropicalis, X. tropicalis, and X. fraseri. This includes significantly restricted application of the names X. fraseri and X. epitropicalis, the first of which we argue is known definitively only from type specimens and possibly one other specimen. Inferring the evolutionary histories of these new species allows refinement of species groups within Xenopus and leads to our recognition of two subgenera (Xenopus and Silurana) and three species groups within the subgenus Xenopus (amieti, laevis, and muelleri species groups).

  6. Short communication: Markers of oxidant status and inflammation relative to the development of claw lesions associated with lameness in early lactation cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Gandy, J C; Neuder, L; Brester, J; Sordillo, L M

    2016-07-01

    Lameness is a major health disorder of dairy cattle and evidence suggests that it may be associated with oxidative stress (OS) during the transition period. Some debate exists, however, as to whether OS precedes the development of lameness or if OS occurs as a consequence of lameness. The purpose of this study was to test whether cows showing claw lesions during early lactation had a greater pro-oxidant and inflammatory status throughout the dry period or at the start of the lactation. Blood samples were taken from 30 cows from the same herd at dry off, movement to the close-up pen, and between 3 and 7 d in milk. Sera were analyzed for concentrations of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antioxidant potential. Blood samples also were subjected to total and differential white blood cell counts. Animals were monitored through 120 d in milk and grouped ex post into the following health categories: (1) exclusively hoof lesions; (2) other production diseases; or (3) nondiseased. Changes in oxidant status and inflammatory markers were significantly different with respect to metabolic and physiologic adaptations to calving and lactation. No differences in oxidant status, acute phase protein concentrations, or leukocyte populations were observed between the hoof lesions and the nondiseased categories. Thus, any associations between OS and lameness likely occurs closer to the onset of clinical signs or as a consequence of inflammatory responses due to localized tissue injury.

  7. Genetics, Morphology, Advertisement Calls, and Historical Records Distinguish Six New Polyploid Species of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus, Pipidae from West and Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Evans

    Full Text Available African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness of these new species. We resurrect Xenopus calcaratus from synonymy of Xenopus tropicalis and refer populations from Bioko Island and coastal Cameroon (near Mt. Cameroon to this species. To facilitate comparisons to the new species, we also provide comments on the type specimens, morphology, and distributions of X. epitropicalis, X. tropicalis, and X. fraseri. This includes significantly restricted application of the names X. fraseri and X. epitropicalis, the first of which we argue is known definitively only from type specimens and possibly one other specimen. Inferring the evolutionary histories of these new species allows refinement of species groups within Xenopus and leads to our recognition of two subgenera (Xenopus and Silurana and three species groups within the subgenus Xenopus (amieti, laevis, and muelleri species groups.

  8. A New Subspecies Identification and Population Study of the Asian Small-Clawed Otter (Aonyx cinereus in Malay Peninsula and Southern Thailand Based on Fecal DNA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. A. Rosli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  9. Proteomic analysis by iTRAQ in red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, hematopoietic tissue cells post white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswin, Joseph; Xie, Xiao-lu; Ji, Qiao-lin; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2016-03-01

    To elucidate proteomic changes of Hpt cells from red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, we have carried out isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) of cellular proteins at both early (1 hpi) and late stage (12 hpi) post white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Protein database search revealed 594 protein hits by Mascot, in which 17 and 30 proteins were present as differentially expressed proteins at early and late viral infection, respectively. Generally, these differentially expressed proteins include: 1) the metabolic process related proteins in glycolysis and glucogenesis, DNA replication, nucleotide/amino acid/fatty acid metabolism and protein biosynthesis; 2) the signal transduction related proteins like small GTPases, G-protein-alpha stimulatory subunit, proteins bearing PDZ- or 14-3-3-domains that help holding together and organize signaling complexes, casein kinase I and proteins of the MAP-kinase signal transduction pathway; 3) the immune defense related proteins such as α-2 macroglobulin, transglutaminase and trans-activation response RNA-binding protein 1. Taken together, these protein information shed new light on the host cellular response against WSSV infection in a crustacean cell culture.

  10. Cloning of interleukin-10 from African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis), with the Finding of IL-19/20 homologue in the IL-10 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhitao; Zhang, Qihuan; Wang, Zisheng; Zhao, Weihong; Gao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in immune system. In the present study, the IL-10 gene of African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) was first cloned, and its expression pattern and 3D structure were also analyzed. The frog IL-10 mRNA encoded 172 amino acids which possessed several conserved features found in IL-10s from other species, including five-exon/four-intron genomic structure, conserved four cysteine residues, IL-10 family motif, and six α-helices. Real-time PCR showed that frog IL-10 mRNA was ubiquitous expressed in all examined tissues, highly in some immune related tissues including kidney, spleen, and intestine and lowly in heart, stomach, and liver. The frog IL-10 mRNA was upregulated at 24 h after LPS stimulation, indicating that it plays a part in the host immune response to bacterial infection. Another IL, termed as IL-20, was identified from the frog IL-10 locus, which might be the homologue of mammalian IL-19/20 according to the analysis results of the phylogenetic tree and the sequence identities.

  11. 中药爵床甲醇提取物对亚洲玉米螟的生物活性%Bioactivity of Methanol Extracts from Justicia procumbens L.of Chinese Medicine against Ostrinia furnacalis Guenee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明程; 李保同; 汤丽梅; 李晓花; 梁同军

    2013-01-01

    为评价爵床(Justicia procumbens L.)甲醇提取物对亚洲玉米螟取食、存活、生长发育的影响和产卵忌避效果,采用室内生测法测定了爵床提取物对亚洲玉米螟的触杀、胃毒、拒食、生长发育抑制和产卵忌避作用.结果表明,爵床甲醇提取物对亚洲玉米螟具有一定的触杀活性和较强的胃毒、拒食、生长发育抑制及产卵忌避活性.在触杀试验中,药后24h和72 h爵床甲醇提取物32 mg/mL处理亚洲玉米螟3龄幼虫死亡率分别为28.33%和43.33%.在选择性拒食试验中,药后24h和48 h提取物对3龄幼虫的AFC50分别为3.10 mg/mL和3.90mg/mL;在非选择性拒食试验中,药后24h和48 h提取物对3龄幼虫的AFC50分别为4.44 mg/mL和5.77 mg/mL.在胃毒试验中,药后6d和7d提取物对3龄幼虫的LC50分别为5.09 mg/mL和2.73 mg/mL.爵床提取物对亚洲玉米螟幼虫的生长发育有明显抑制作用,表现在体质量、体质量增加量和相对生长率均显著降低,药后24h和48 h IC50分别为0.84 mg/mL和0.53 mg/mL.爵床提取物对亚洲玉米螟成虫产卵具有较强的忌避作用,药后24,48,72 h提取物对亚洲玉米螟成虫的AOC50分别为6.73,9.71,12.29 mg/mL.

  12. Bioactivity of methanol extracts from Justicia procumbens against Plutella xylostella%爵床的甲醇提取物对小菜蛾的生物活性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明程; 李保同; 汤丽梅; 李晓花; 梁同军

    2015-01-01

    为探明爵床(Justicia procumbens)甲醇提取物对小菜蛾的生物活性,采用室内生测法测定了爵床甲醇提取物对小菜蛾的触杀、拒食、胃毒、生长发育抑制和产卵忌避作用.结果表明,爵床甲醇提取物对小菜蛾幼虫具有较强的触杀、拒食、胃毒和生长发育抑制活性,对小菜蛾成虫具有较强的产卵忌避活性.在触杀试验中,药后1、2d和3d爵床甲醇提取物对小菜蛾3龄幼虫的致死中浓度(LC50)分别为5.17、4.05和3.06 mg/mL;在拒食试验中,药后1d和2d提取物对3龄幼虫的选择性拒食中浓度(AFC50)分别为2.64和3.13 mg/mL,药后1d和2d提取物对3龄幼虫的非选择性拒食中浓度(AFC50)分别为3.70、4.54 mg/mL;在胃毒试验中,药后4、5、6d和7d提取物对3龄幼虫的致死中浓度(LC50)分别为8.13、3.65、2.88、2.23 mg/mL;在生长发育抑制试验中,药后1d和2d提取物对3龄幼虫的抑制中浓度(IC50)分别为2.02、1.40 mg/mL;在产卵忌避试验中,药后1、2d和3d提取物对小菜蛾成虫的选择性产卵忌避中浓度(AOC50)分别为2.61、3.66、4.58 mg/mL,药后1、2和3d提取物对小菜蛾成虫的非选择性产卵忌避中浓度(AOC50)分别为3.19、4.52、5.65 mg/mL.由此证实,爵床提取物对小菜蛾具有显著的毒杀活性,具有开发为新型高效、低毒植物源农药的潜在价值.

  13. The use of xylazine hydrochloride in an analgesic protocol for claw treatment of lame dairy cows in lateral recumbency on a surgical tipping table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Awad; Herdtweck, Sarah; Offinger, Jennifer; Meyer, Henning; Zaghloul, Adel; Rehage, Juergen

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of xylazine on the stress and pain response of lame cows undergoing claw treatment in lateral recumbency (LR). Twenty-four lame, German Holstein-Friesian cows were included in a prospective, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical case study. Cows were randomly allocated to two groups (n=12) and either treated with xylazine (0.05 mg/kg BW, i.m.) or an equal volume of saline (controls) 15 min before placing them in LR. Before surgical treatment, each cow received retrograde intravenous local anaesthesia (LA). Over a period of 6h, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), plasma concentrations of cortisol, glucose, lactate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were determined at preset time intervals and the animals' behaviour was recorded via video recording and pedometer. All xylazine-treated cows showed signs of mild sedation, a reduced pain response on insertion of the needle for LA, reduced ear flicking during surgery, reduced lameness score and longer standing periods as well as improved appetite in the first hour postoperatively. Mean HR and RR, as well as plasma concentrations of NEFA were significantly reduced after xylazine treatment. Cortisol concentrations were significantly lower in xylazine-treated cows after being placed in LR but were similar to controls during surgery. The use of a low dose of xylazine in the analgesic protocol for the treatment of lame cows in LR alleviates stress and potentiates the analgesic effects of LA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Urotensin II receptor (UTR) exists in hyaline chondrocytes: a study of peripheral distribution of UTR in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Norifumi; Fujii, Yuya; Imae, Haruka; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Mukuda, Takao; Miyazato, Mikiya; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2013-05-01

    Urotensin II (UII) and UII-related peptide (URP) exhibit diverse physiological actions including vasoconstriction, locomotor activity, osmoregulation, and immune response through UII receptor (UTR), which is expressed in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues of fish and mammals. In amphibians, only UII has been identified. As the first step toward elucidating the actions of UII and URP in amphibians, we cloned and characterized URP and UTR from the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. Functional analysis showed that treatment of UII or URP with Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the cloned receptor increased the intracellular calcium concentration in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the administration of the UTR antagonist urantide inhibited UII- or URP-induced Ca(2+) mobilization. An immunohistochemical study showed that UTR was expressed in the splenocytes and leukocytes isolated from peripheral blood, suggesting that UII and URP are involved in the regulation of the immune system. UTR was also localized in the apical membrane of the distal tubule of the kidney and in the transitional epithelial cells of the urinary bladder. This result supports the view that the UII/URP-UTR system plays an important role in osmoregulation of amphibians. Interestingly, immunopositive labeling for UTR was first detected in the chondrocytes of various hyaline cartilages (the lung septa, interphalangeal joint and sternum). The expression of UTR was also observed in the costal cartilage, tracheal cartilages, and xiphoid process of the rat. These novel findings probably suggest that UII and URP mediate the formation of the cartilaginous matrix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A new solar thermal power generation system applying claw generator%采用爪式发动机的新型太阳能热发电系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋永兴; 姜希彤; 王君; 曲燕

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种采用爪式发动机的新型反射塔底式太阳能集热式发电系统,设计了该发电系统的结构和流程。分析了该发电系统在不同压缩比和集热温度下有回热和无回热两种情况下的循环效率。结果表明:发动机包括2级爪式压缩机和两级爪式膨胀机,将其同轴串联,具有干式无油、结构紧凑、自动平衡轴向力等优点;有回热的爪式发动机发电循环适用于压缩比较低、集热温度较高的应用场合,而无回热的发电循环适应于压缩比较高、集热温度较低的应用场合。%A novel solar thermal power generation system was presented,which was the new central receiver system with beam-down reflectors.The structure and process of the new system were designed.The new claw engine includ-ed two-stage claw compressor and two-stage claw expander,which were coaxial series connection.So the claw engine had many advantages,such as dry oil free,compact structure,automatic balance axial force,and so on.The electrici-ty generation cycle system realized employing displacement compressor and displacement expander,isobaric heat ab-sorbent process,to complete power generation process,so that it had the high electricity generation efficiency.The change regulation of circle efficiency with and without extra heat-exchange,influenced by different compression rati-os and heat collecting temperature were obtained.

  16. Calculation of Air-Gap Magnetic Fields and Armature Reaction Reactances of Claw-Pole Alternator%爪极发电机气隙磁场与电枢反应电抗的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡秀洪; 庄圣贤; 熊冬情

    2012-01-01

    采用三维有限元方法对一台爪极发电机的电枢反应进行了研究.基于ANSOFT软件对电机气隙磁场和电感矩阵进行了计算仿真,通过对电感矩阵进行派克变换,进而得到交、直轴的电枢反应电抗.所得结果与用相量图方法计算的结果进行了比较,证明了解的正确性与可行性,为爪极发电机的优化设计奠定了理论基础.%The armature reaction of a claw-pole alternator using three dimensional finite element method was analyzed. Air-gap magnetic fields and inductance matrix were calculated by Ansoft. The quadrature-axis and direct-axis armature reaction reactance were obtained through the Park transformation. The results between this method and phasor diagram method were compared and verified. Its validity and feasibility were indicated, which was the theoretic foundation for the optimum design of claw-pole alternators.

  17. HYBRID EXCITATION CLAW-POLE SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR WITH MAGNETIC CIRCUIT SERIES CONNECTION%串联磁路混合励磁爪极发电机的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵朝会; 秦海鸿; 严仰光

    2009-01-01

    针对电励磁爪极发电机效率低、永磁爪极发电机磁场调节困难的问题,提出了一种串联磁路混合励磁爪极同步发电机,利用磁路计算方法和三维有限元的分析研究了这种新型电机各部分的磁密大小,确定了合适的极对数和合理的磁钢厚度,探讨了这种新型电机的空载特性、外特性和调节特性.研究表明:串联磁路混合励磁爪极发电机合适的极对数为2,且磁钢厚度存在一个较为合理的优化值.相对于电励磁爪极发电机,它实现了励磁电流的双向控制;相对于永磁爪极发电机它使得输出电压可调,在更宽的负载范围内实现了输出电压的恒定.在参数相同的情况下,与电励磁爪极发电机相比,该电机具有更高的气隙磁密和功率密度.%To solve the low efficiency of electric excitation claw-pole synchronous generator(EECPSG) and regulate the magnetic field of permanent magnet (PM) claw-pole synchronous generator(PMCPSG), a novel hybrid excitation claw-pole synchronous generator(HECPSG) with magnetic circuit series connection is proposed. Through the simulation study on the generator using the calculation method for magnetic circuit and 3-D finite element method(FEA), the appropriate magnet thickness and the number of pole-pairs for the proposed generator are determined. Its off-loading characteristics, load characteristics, and regulation behaviors are investigated. The study shows that the appropriate number of pole-pairs in HECPSG with series magnetic circuits is two, and there exists an optimum magnet thickness.Compared to EECPSG, HECPSG realizes dual-directional control to the excitation current. Moreover, the generator can adjust the output voltage and keep the output voltage stable in a broad load range. Under the condition of same parametes, the motor has higer air-gap flux density and power density.

  18. Caught in the Crab's claws

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    'The crab', a new cryo magnet transport vehicle, starts work at CERN. Produced by the ESI group of EST division and built in Finland, it has the job of transporting LHC magnets in buildings SM18 and SMA18. If you see a huge crab scuttling around building SMA18 don't be afraid! It is the new Cryo Magnet Transport Vehicle produced by the ESI group (Engineering Support for Infrastructure, EST Division) for CERN's LHC project and built by Finnish Company ROCLA. This orange vehicle, nicknamed 'The Crab', is perhaps the strangest piece of equipment used for the construction of LHC magnets. It will start work at the end of this month. The crab will be used to transport LHC cryo-magnets and their components in the assembly and preparation building, SMA18, and test building, SM18. It has many capabilities that will allow CERN staff and contractors transport magnets between the two buildings and to locate them in the right position on the test beds. The crab in action during its first tests on 8 February. How does th...

  19. Polymer Claw: Instant Underwater Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    tubes filled with a moisture-cured polyurethane -urea (MCPU). When scratched, the foaming action of a propellant ejects the resin from the broken tubes...and completely fills the crack. No catalysts or curing agents are needed since the polymerization is driven by ambient humidity. 15. SUBJECT TERMS...OBIECTIVES 2 KEY ACCOMPLISHMENTS 3.1 AMINE MICROENCAPSULATION 3 3.2 ALTERNATIVE CAUSTIC INGREDIENTS 4 3.3 LOAD-DISPLACEMENT TESTING OF METAL BRUSH 5 4

  20. Polymer Claw: Instant Underwater Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    surface. The amine reacts with the sticky, isocyanate putty to form a tough polyurea. The catalyzed isocyanates likewise bond with alcohols, amines, acids...the metal bristles and displaces the gel to make way for the adhesive. The entire system will be sealed in disposable packaging for safe storage and

  1. Numerical Study on Claw-pole Electric Motors for Electronic Expansion Valves%电子膨胀阀用爪极步进电机数值优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊云; 方亮; 裘慧祥

    2012-01-01

    电子膨胀阀在变频空调系统中能精确调节制冷剂流量,有助于提高空调系统的能效和改善空调环境的热舒适性.研究电子膨胀阀用爪极永磁步进电机有助于提高电子膨胀阀稳定性和可靠性.对电子膨胀阀的电机力矩特性进行数值分析,在保持转子尺寸、通电电流和定转子之间气隙不变的前提下,通过改变爪极形状尺寸,分析了爪极形状参数对电子膨胀阀用爪极式步进电机自定位力矩和保持力矩的影响,认为在满足一定自定位力矩的前提下,保持力矩越大越好,并以此为基础对电机的爪极尺寸进行了优化,认为合理设计爪极尺寸参数,能够使电机的保持力矩和自定位力矩达到最佳,对电子膨胀阀步进电机的研究和设计有借鉴价值.%An electronic expansion valve (EEV), as a precise throttling valve for air-conditioning systems, is conducive to the increase of the energy efficiency ratio (EER) and the improvement of the thermal comfort of the air-conditioned room. Research on the claw-pole permanent-magnet (PM) stepping motor, which is the key part of the EEV, can improve the stability and reliability. The torque characteristics of the PM stepping motors for EEV were analyzed with the finite element method. When the rotor, the electric current and the air-gap between the rotor and the stator of the PM motor are constant, the holding torque and the static torque of PM motors were computed with the changes of the trapezoidal claw-pole parameters. It is better to keep the holding torque of the PM stepping motor bigger, provided that the demand of static torque is met, and the PM motor's claw-pole is optimally analyzed on this basis. The reasonable claw frame and its dimension can optimize the holding torque and the detent torque of PM motors. This study may have some reference value to the research and design of the electronic expansion valve stepper motor.

  2. [Do the variations in water carbon dioxide pressure and PH have an effect on the nature of end products of protein catabolism, ammonia and urea, in the clawed frog Xenopus laevis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejours, P; Armand, J; Beekenkamp, H

    1991-01-01

    The effects of PCO2 and pH changes in the ambient water on the nitrogen catabolism and the proportions of the excreted nitrogenous end products, ammonia and urea, were studied in the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, at 24 degrees C. In animals living in artificial fresh water, the exposure to a hypocapnic alkalosis (PCO2 = 0.7 Torr instead of 10 Torr) did not entail any change in the nitrogen catabolism. In animals who lived in a water loaded with NaCl and had therefore a higher oxygen consumption, an intense nitrogen catabolism and a marked ureotelism, the hypocapnic alkalosis seems to have increased the intensity of the nitrogen catabolism. In neither group were there signs of ammonia toxicity.

  3. 红螯螯虾酚氧化酶原及其特性研究%THE CHARACTERIZATION OF PROPHENOLOXIDASE AND PHENOLOXIDASE FROM RED CLAW CRAYFISH, CHERAX QUADRICARINATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾伟; 陈静; 黄艳青; 靳明建; 孟庆国; 王文

    2015-01-01

    采用同源克隆策略和RACE技术,从红螯螯虾Cherax quadricarinatus血细胞中克隆得到酚氧化酶原基因的全长cDNA序列,共2951 bp,开放读码框为1995 bp,编码665个氨基酸。预测的分子量和等电点分别为75.7 kD和6.23。酚氧化酶原含有两个推测的tyrosinase copper-binding motifs (带有六个组氨酸残基)和一个thiol-ester-like motif,这些特征和其他甲壳动物的酚氧化酶原特征相同。红螯螯虾酚氧化酶原氨基酸序列与通讯螯虾Pacifastacus leniusculus、欧洲龙虾Homarus gammarus、美洲龙虾Homarus americanus 和克氏原螯虾Procambarus clarkii 酚氧化酶原的相似率分别为68%、63%、63%和59%。酚氧化酶原基因双酶切后连接入pET-28a原核表达载体,转化到大肠杆菌BL21后重组表达酚氧化酶原蛋白。在重组蛋白纯化后,免疫新西兰大耳兔制备得到的酚氧化酶原多克隆抗体,其效价大于1︰12800。红螯螯虾血淋巴、肝和鳃组织中的酚氧化酶原 mRNA 表达和酚氧化酶活性较高,而神经、心、肠和肌肉中较低。中华绒螯蟹螺原体和嗜水气单胞菌免疫红螯螯虾后,血淋巴细胞、肝和鳃组织中的酚氧化酶原和酚氧化酶活性在免疫后的不同时间均出现了显著性的增加,此结果表明酚氧化酶原和酚氧化酶在红螯螯虾对抗细菌感染的过程中起到重要的免疫作用。此结果为进一步深入研究酚氧化酶原基因和酚氧化酶的功能及其调控机理奠定基础。%In this study, a prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene was cloned from hemocytes of red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. The open reading frame (ORF) of proPO gene is 1995 bp and encodes a 665 amino acids (aa) protein. The predicted molecular mass of the protein was 75.7 kD with an estimated pI of 6.23. It contained two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs with six histidine residues and one thiol-ester-like motif, which showed similar structural features of pro

  4. Structure of claws and toes of two tropidurid lizard species of Restinga from Southeastern Brazil: adaptations to the vertical use of the habitat Estructura de garras y dedos en dos lagartos tropidúridos de Restinga, sureste de Brasil: adaptaciones al uso vertical del hábitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Carvalho Ribas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropidurus torquatus and Liolaemus lutzae, found in a restinga habitat, show some morphological differences associated with differential microhabitats use. There were made measurements of the snout-vent length, length and width of the largest toe of hand and foot, and length, width, height and curvature of the claws. We counted the number of adhesive lamellae of the largest toe of each member. T. torquatus has larger toes, greater number of adhesive lamellae and higher and more curve claws than L. lutzae. No significant differences in toe and claw widths were found. These results suggest that the differences found in the morphology of toes and claws of these two species would be associated with the differential microhabitat use. T. torquatus has morphological adaptations that allow it to use the microhabitat both vertically or horizontally, while L. lutzae use it only horizontallyTropidurus torquatus y Liolaemus lutzae hallados en un hábitat de restinga, muestran algunas diferencias morfológicas asociadas a el uso diferencial de microhábitats. Se realizaron mediciones de la longitud "snout-vent", longitud y ancho del dedo mayor de la mano y el pie y, longitud, ancho, altura y curvatura de las garras. Se contó el número de lamelas adhesivas del dedo mayor de cada miembro. T. torquatus posee dedos más grandes, mayor número de lamelas adhesivas y garras más altas y curvadas que L. lutzae. No se hallaron diferencias significativas en los anchos de dedos y garras. Estos resultados sugieren que las diferencias encontradas en la morfología de dedos y garras de estas dos especies estarían asociadas con el uso diferencial del microhábitat. T. torquatus posee adaptaciones que le permiten utilizar el microhábitat tanto vertical como horizontalmente, mientras que L. lutzae solamente lo utiliza en forma horizontal

  5. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI LARUTAN ASAM ASETAT DAN LAMA WAKTU PERENDAMAN TERHADAP SIFAT-SIFAT GELATIN CEKER AYAM The Effect Concentration of Acetic Acid Solution and Soaking Time on Chiken Claw Gelatin Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine influence of acetic acid solution concentration and soaking time on chemical and physical properties of chiken claw gelatin. The experiment used Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with two factors of treatment. The first factor was concentration of acetic acid solution consisting of 3 levels (0,5; 2,0 and 3,5 % w/v. The second factor was soaking time in acetic acid solution also consisting of 3 levels (2, 4 and 6 hours. The gelatin product was analyzed for yield, protein, moisture, ash, viscosity, gel strength, and pH of gelatin. The results showed that concentration of acetic acid solution had significant effect (P<0,01 on the yields, protein, pH and also had significant effect (P<0,05 on moisture, but no significant effect on ash content, viscosity, and gel strength. The soaking time had significant effect (P<0,01 on protein and had significant effect (P<0,05 on moisture, but no significant effect on the yields, ash content, viscosity, gel strength, and pH of gelatin.   Keywords: Gelatin, chiken claw, concentration of acetic acid solution, soaking time.   ABSTRAK   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi larutan asam asetat dan lama perendaman terhadap sifat kimia dan fisik gelatin ceker ayam potong yang dihasilkan. Penelitian dilaksanakan menggunakan Rancangan Blok Lengkap Teracak (RBL dua faktor. Faktor pertama yaitu konsentrasi larutan asam asetat terdiri dari 3 taraf (0,5 ; 2,0 dan 3,5 % v/v, sedangkan faktor kedua adalah lama perendaman juga dengan 3 taraf (2 ; 4 dan 6 jam. Gelatin yang dihasilkan dianalisis rendemen, kadar protein, air, abu, viskositas, kekuatan gel dan pH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi larutan asam asetat berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01 terhadap rendemen, kadar protein, pH dan juga berpengaruh nyata (P<0,05 terhadap kadar air, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap kadar abu, viskositas dan kekuatan gel. Waktu perendaman berpengaruh

  6. Effects of Heating and Frozen Storage on Ultrastructure of Collagen Fibers from Chicken Claw%加热和冻藏对鸡爪胶原纤维超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高伟伟; 霍香如; 李桂霞; 韦永可; 朱杰

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to explore the effects of different temperatures and treatment times on ultrastructure of collagen fibers from chicken claw. In the heated group, fresh samples were heated in water of 50, 60 and 70℃ for 10, 20 and 30 minutes respectively; in the frozen group, samples were frozen in−20 and−80℃ for 5, 10 and 15 days respectively. By scanning the samples via atomic force microscopes, the experiment was intended to examine the changes inD-spacing length and roughness of collagen fiber under different treatments. The results show that with the heating temperature rising and processing time becoming longer, theD-spacing length of collagen fiber grew shorter, and it grew longer when the frozen temperature decreased and storage time was extended. Samples at 60 and−20℃ showed the most significant changes. At 60℃,D-spacing length reduced from (72.20±2.58) to (71.00±1.78) nm (n =10) with processing time increasing from 10 to 30 min; at−20℃, it increased from (69.70±2.60) to (73.00±2.90) nm (n =10) as storage time increased from 5 to 15 days.With the frozen time increasing, the surface roughness of collagen fibers from chicken claw increased. At 50℃, with the heating time increasing, the roughness increase firstly and then decrease. The contrary changes in roughness change were observed for heating at 60℃.%研究不同温度和时间条件处理对鸡爪筋胶原纤维超微结构的影响。加热组将新鲜鸡爪筋剪碎匀浆后分别在50、60、70℃条件下水浴加热10、20、30 min;冻藏组将新鲜鸡爪筋分别在-20、-80℃条件下冻藏5、10、15 d,通过对处理后的样品采用原子力显微镜扫描成像的方法研究鸡爪筋在不同温度及时间处理后的胶原纤维周期长度和粗糙度的变化。结果表明:胶原纤维周期长度随加热温度升高、加热时间增长而变短,随冻藏温度降低,冻藏时间的延长而变长,其中60、-20

  7. O utco mes of the Treatment of Severe Patellar Fractures with claw-shape Paet llar Concentrator%爪形髌骨接骨板治疗髌骨粉碎性骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钰

    2013-01-01

    objective:To explore the outcomes of the treatment of severe patellar fractures with claw -shape patellar concentrator ( CSPC) .Methods:Thirty five patients with severe patellar fractures had been treated with claw -shape patellar concentrator between Jan-uary 2005 and January 2012.The outcomes were graded into the excellent ,the good,the fair and the poor basing on the Wang Yi -cong's criteria of the knee function post -operatively.Results:A11 the patients had been followed up averag 12.2 ±4.2 months(ranged from 6 to 21).The healing time was 6~12 weeks with an average of 8.4 ±1.2 weeks.Out of the 35 cases, The knee function were excellent in 20 cases, good in 10 cases, fair in 3 cases and poor in 2 cases.The rate of the excellent and the good was 85.71%basing on the Wang Yi-cong's criteria of the knee function post -operatively .Conclusion:The CSPC can antagonize the tensile stress of patellofemoral joint and sustain the normal extent of center rotation in knee joint and force arm of quadriceps femoris and has good therapeutic effect in treating pa -tellar fracture in severe patellar fractures .%目的:探讨爪形髌骨接骨板治疗髌骨粉碎性骨折的临床效果。方法:35例髌骨粉碎性骨折采用爪形髌骨接骨板治疗,结果使用王亦璁膝关节功能评定标准,分为优、良、可、差4级。结果:本组35例均获得随访,时间6~21个月,平均122.±4.2个月,骨折全部愈合,愈合时间6~12周,平均8.4±1.2周。依王亦璁膝关节功能评定标准,优20例,良10例,可3例,差2例,优良率为85.71%。结论:爪形髌骨接骨板能有效对抗髌股关节的张应力、维持膝关节正常的旋转中心范围和股四头肌的力臂,应用于髌骨粉碎性骨折疗效良好。

  8. Connexins in the early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis (Amphibia: The role of the connexin43 carboxyl terminal tail in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Cofre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Connexins are a family of related proteins identified in vertebrate forming gap junctions, which mediate cell-to-cell communication in early embryos, with an important role in establishing embryonic asymmetry and ‘communication compartments’. By in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and western blotting we show that a Cx43-like molecule is present in oocytes and embryos of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, with specific localization in the animal-vegetal axis. This specific distribution is suggestive for an important role for this protein in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis. Antisense RNA and antibodies directed against rat carboxyl terminal tail of the Cx43 (CT-Cx43 and injected in 1-cell stage Xenopus embryos, induced pronounced alterations in nervous system development, with a severe ventralization phenotype. Coherently, the overexpression of CT-Cx43 produced a dorsalization of the embryos. In antisense treated embryos, the expression of the beta-catenin gene is eliminated from the Nieuwkoop center, the pattern expression of the Chordin, Xnot and Xbra is modified, with no effect in expression of the Goosecoid gene. In CT-Cx43 mRNA treated embryos the pattern of expression of the beta-catenin, Chordin, Goosecoid, Xnot and engrailed-2 genes is modified. The expression of beta-catenin is increased in the Nieuwkoop center, the expression pattern of Chordin and Goosecoid is expanded to the posterior neural plate and engrailed-2 presents ectopic expression in the ventral region. Taken together our data suggest a role for CT-Cx43 as a maternal determinant with a critical function in the formation of the dorso-ventral axis in Xenopus laevis. The Cx43 may be one of the earliest markers of the dorso-ventral axis in these embryos and could possibly be acting through regionalization of factors responsible for the establishment of this axis.

  9. Indução de embriões somáticos a partir de embriões zigóticos de Heliconia bihai (L. L. cv. Lobster Claw Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ulisses

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As flores tropicais têm contribuído para o aumento do mercado florístico no Brasil; dentre elas destacam-se as do gênero Heliconia. A propagação de helicônias que atinge maior número de mudas ocorre por via vegetativa, por meio da divisão de rizomas, aumentando a probabilidade de disseminação de doenças, podendo, num futuro próximo, comprometer a produção de flores. O cultivo in vitro surge como importante alternativa para proporcionar a produção de mudas de helicônia com elevado padrão de qualidade. Entretanto, a micropropagação de helicônias via ápices caulinares depara-se com problemas de contaminação endofítica, dificultando a multiplicação do explante. Diante disso, fez-se necessário avaliar alternativas que promovam a produção de mudas in vitro, por meio da utilização de outros explantes. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento, utilizando embriões zigóticos, provenientes de frutos imaturos e maduros de H. bihai (L. L. cv. Lobster Claw Two, em combinações de AIA (0; 5,70 e 11,41 µm L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 22,62; 45,24; 67,86 e 90,48 µm L-1, para induzir a formação de embriões somáticos durante 90 dias. Por meio de análise histológica, observou-se a formação de embriões somáticos apenas nos embriões zigóticos, provenientes de frutos maduros, cultivados na ausência de reguladores de crescimento.

  10. Red in Tooth, Claw, and Trigger Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, David P.

    2005-01-01

    Quoting literary and scientific works, the duality of good and evil in human nature is analyzed. Article discusses mankind's detrimental behavior towards the environment and extreme acts of violence among human beings while examining similar violent behavior in animals. It is concluded that humanity's deeds stem from shared cultural traits,…

  11. 可调式髌骨爪结合可吸收线与克氏针钢丝张力带修复粉碎性髌骨骨折的比较%Adjustable patella claws and absorbable sutureversus Kirschner wire tension band in the repair of comminuted patellar fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海峰

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:High-energy patelar comminuted fracture significantly increased. Single fixation cannot meet the requirement of anatomical repositioning of the patela, multiple-point strong fixation, and early functional exercise. OBJECTIVE:To compare the clinical effect of adjustable patela claws + absorbable suture and Kirschner wire tension band in the repair of comminuted patelar fractures. METHODS: A total of 57 patients with comminuted patela fracture were randomly selected and randomly assigned to two groups. 29 cases received open reduction and adjustable patela claws + absorbable suture fixation. 28 cases received open reduction and Kirschner wire tension band fixation. Operative time, incision length, fracture healing time, postoperative complications and Hospital for Special Surgery knee function scores were compared between the two groups, and then statistical analysis was conducted. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:No significant difference in incision length and operative time was detected between the adjustable patela claws + absorbable suture group and Kirschner wire tension band group. Significant differences in healing time, incidence of complications and knee function after treatment were observed between the two groups, and above indications were better in the adjustable patela claws + absorbable suture group than in the Kirschner wire tension band group (P < 0.05). These results confirm that compared with the Kirschner wire tension band, adjustable patela claws + absorbable suture in repair of patelar comminuted fracture has some advantages such as short healing time, less postoperative complications, as wel as good functional recovery of knee joint. The fixation is accorded with biomechanical principle of internal fixation, simple to operate, firmly fixed, and has good prospects.%背景:高能量下髌骨粉碎性骨折明显增多,单一的内固定已无法满足髌骨解剖复位、多点坚强固定及早期功能锻炼的要求。目的:比较

  12. Simulation and experiment of badger claw toe bionic excavator bucket tooth for improving performance of digging and cutting%挖掘机獾爪趾仿生斗齿提高其入土性能仿真与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马云海; 裴高院; 王虎彪; 吕雪漫; 宋国风; 佟金

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of high resistance and fracture in excavator bucket tooth, a bionic excavator bucket tooth was designed. Bucket tooth is assembled in the bucket tip, which is an important component of excavator, and its performance directly impacts the performance of bucket and even excavator. The bucket tooth is prone to abrasive wear during the operation, which could result in the reduction of cutting capacity. Improvement of bucket tooth configuration is one of the methods to improve the performance of bucket tooth. In this paper the badger was selected as the research object. Badger is a mammal, which is distributed in most parts of Europe and Asia. Badger is good at digging and it is a kind of burrowing animal. Badger owns slender and bending front claws, which are a powerful tool for digging. Therefore, by inspiration of that, the claws could provide a good bionic prototype for the design of bucket tooth. All of the following experiments were finished in the Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University. Handheld three-dimensional (3D) scanner (Handyscan700, Canada, Creaform company) was used to obtain the 3D point cloud of badger claw toe. This experiment was carried out in April 15, 2015. Due to the darker surface of badger claw toe, the toe had been sprayed with a layer of white power to enhance the results before scanning. The scanning results were imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic), and the contour curve of the longitudinal section of the badger claw toe was obtained through a series of processing. Then, the curve equation of the inner surface and the outer surface of the badger claw was obtained by curve fitting. Taking 80 type bucket tooth as a reference, the curve equations were applied to the design of bionic bucket tooth, and the bucket tooth model was established by utilizing the curves. Finite element analysis software (Abaqus) was implemented to analyze the mechanical

  13. Kynurenic acid content in anti-rheumatic herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgrajka, Wojciech; Turska, Monika; Rajtar, Grażyna; Majdan, Maria; Parada-Turska, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines is common among people living in rural areas and increasingly popular in urbanized countries. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a metabolite of kynurenine possessing anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and pain reliving properties. Previous data indicated that the content of KYNA in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is lower than in patients with osteoarthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder affecting about 1% of the world's population. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the content of KYNA in 11 herbal preparations used in rheumatic diseases. The following herbs were studied: bean pericarp, birch leaf, dandelion root, elder flower, horsetail herb, nettle leaf, peppermint leaf and willow bark. An anti-rheumatic mixture of the herbs Reumatefix and Reumaflos tea were also investigated. The herbs were prepared according to producers' directions. In addition, the herbal supplement Devil's Claw containing root of Harpagophytum was used. KYNA content was measured using the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and KYNA was detected fluorometrically. KYNA was found in all studied herbal preparations. The highest content of KYNA was found in peppermint, nettle, birch leaf and the horsetail herb. The lowest content of KYNA was found in willow bark, dandelion root and in the extract from the root of Harpagophytum. These findings indicate that the use of herbal preparations containing a high level of KYNA can be considered as a supplementary measure in rheumatoid arthritis therapy, as well as in rheumatic diseases prevention.

  14. STABILITY ANALYSIS AND REINFORCEMENT TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH OF CHICKEN CLAW TRENCH HIGH ROCKFILL EMBANKMENT IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS%山区鸡爪形地基高填石路堤稳定性分析和加固技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平

    2015-01-01

    鸡爪沟地形容易造成上部路基变形失稳、不均匀沉降,尤其在其上部修筑高填石路堤,其稳定性问题更加突出,目前尚无这方面研究成果。依托某山区高速公路建设项目,开展有限元计算,重点分析鸡爪沟高填石路堤的稳定性与不同加固技术应用效果。研究发现:此类路基位移变形大于一般路堤,应加强设计验算并采取相应的施工措施;鸡爪沟地基坡度、路堤宽度、路堤高度等指标改变,将引起路肩、坡脚位移明显变化,并显著改变路堤内部应力分布,而边坡坡率在要求以内变化,对路堤变形与应力影响不大。分析挖台阶法、加筋、注浆、强夯等工程措施的适用性与经济性,考虑经济性选取挖台阶法对高填路堤进行加固处理,计算结果表明此方法确保路堤边坡安全系数满足稳定性要求,建议采用此种方法对路堤进行加固。%It is easy for a chicken claw ditch topography to cause the upper subgrade deformation instability and differential settlement, especially when a high rockfill embankment is built in its upper parts, the stability problem would be more prominent.At present there is no research result in the subject.For this reason, based on a mountain area highway construction project, the numerical calculation was carried out with an emphasis on the stability and different strengthening technical effect of the chicken claw ditch high rockfill embankment.The study found that such subgrade displacement deformation was greater than the general embankment, and the design check should be enhanced and the corresponding construction measures should also be taken.The changes in slope, width and height etc of the embankment would cause obvious change in road shoulder and slope toe, as well the internal stress distribution.Step method, the reinforcement, grouting and dynamic compaction were analyzed, and the step method was selected for high

  15. 有晶状体眼虹膜夹型和后房型人工晶状体植入矫正高度近视术后的视觉质量对比%Evaluation of visual quality after phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens and iris-claw phakic intraocular lens Implantation for high myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红亮; 郑广瑛; 王松田; 王洁; 王瑞娜; 赵建国; 赵丽君

    2011-01-01

    背景 矫正近视的手术可分为激光矫治术和人工晶状体(IOL)植入术.高度近视患者角膜比正常人薄,不适合激光矫治手术,宜考虑IOL植入术.目的 对比观察两种有晶状体眼IOL植入术治疗高度近视的视觉质量.方法选取在郑州大学第一附属医院和解放军第91中心医院行前房虹膜夹型人工晶状体(Verisyse PIOL)植入术的高度近视患者19例34眼随机分为两种手术组,其中10例17眼为PIOL组,行后房型人工晶状体(ICL)植入术者9例17眼为ICL组.两种手术均由同一高年资医师完成.随访期为6个月,观察患者术后的裸眼视力、最佳矫正视力、对比敏感度(CS)和波前像差,对2组的检测指标进行比较.结果术后6个月2组间患者裸眼视力和最佳矫正视力的差异均无统计学意义(t=0.489,P>0.05;t=0.853,P>0.05);2组患者间无眩光时在3、6、12、18 c/d空间频率下CS的差异均无统计学意义(t=0.906,P>0.05;t=0.103,P>0.05;t=0.694,P>0.05;t=1.583,P>0.05);3、6、12、18 c/d空间频率下2组间患者的眩光敏感度比较差异均无统计学意义(t=0.323,P>0.05;t=0.041,P>0.05;t=0.024,P>0.05;t=0.363,P>0.05).PIOL组三阶彗差(RMS3)、四阶球差(RMS4)、总高阶像差(RMSh)均高于ICL组.其中RMS3、RMSh明显高于ICL组,差异均有统计学意义(t=11.400,P0.05).结论虹膜夹型IOL与ICL植入矫正高度近视均能达到预期的效果,术后视力相当,但虹膜夹型IOL的视觉质量稍逊于ICL,远期效果还需进一步随访观察.%Background High myopia can be corrected using laser therapy and intraocular lens(IOL)implantation.IOL implantation is more suitable than laser therapy for high myopia if the patients suffer from thinner cornea.Objective This clinical trail was to assess and compare the visual quality following phakic iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) and implantable contact lens(ICL) implantation for high myopia.MethodsIris-claw phakic intraocular lens was implanted in 17 eyes of

  16. Artisan虹膜固定型人工晶状体植入治疗玻璃体切除术后无晶状体眼%Artisan iris claw intraocular lens implantation for the correction of aphakia after pars plana vitrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕贺; 张红; 田芳; 孙靖; 王铁成

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and complications of Artisan iris claw intraocular lens implantation with those of posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation with ciliary sulcus suture fixation for correction of aphakia in vitrectomized eyes without capsular support.Methods This was a prospective interventional case series.From Jan 2009 to Feb 2012,53 aphakicvitrectomizedeyes without sufficient capsular support were divided into two groups according to the condition of residual capsule.Group one:28 eyes received Artisan iris claw intraocular lens implantation.Group two:25 eyes received posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation with ciliary sulcus suture fixation.The best corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure,corneal endothelial cell loss rate,duration of surgery and complications were compared between two groups.Two-independent t-test,Mann-Whitney test and x2 test were used to analyze measurement data of normal distribution,non-normal distribution and count data respectively.Results The mean duration of surgery in group one [(11.23 ± 1.54) min] was much shorter (t =-26.60,P < 0.05)than that in group two [(31.68-3.15)min].The endothelial cell loss rate of group one were (4.39 ±1.85)%,(4.76-±2.06)% and (6.30 ±2.71)% at 3 months,6 months and 1 year after surgery,and the data of group two were (3.92 ± 1.85)%,(4.33 ± 1.80)% and(5.73 ±2.12)%.No statistically significant difference was noted between two groups at any time point(t =0.77,0.66,0.69;P > 0.05).The best corrected visual acuity of group one (0.40,0.12-0.80) was better than that of group two (0.30,0.08-0.60) at 1 day after surgery (t =-2.16,P < 0.05).However,there was no statistically significant difference at 1 month and 3 months after surgery (P > 0.05).The intraocular pressure of group two [(11.63±2.29)mmHg,1 mmHg=0.133 kPa] was much lower (t=2.34,P<0.05) than that of group one[(13.61 ± 3.37) mmHg] at 1 day after surgery.There was no statistical

  17. Bone Disease in Myeloma: The Claws of CRAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Rafael; Jain, Tania

    2016-03-15

    A dynamic approach to use bisphosphonates according to biomarkers of bone metabolism is presented in the Z-MARK study by Raje and colleagues. This is a major step forward toward a rational approach to bisphosphonate usage.

  18. Cutaneous acariasis in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Timothy R; Dillehay, Dirck L; Mook, Deborah M

    2004-12-01

    Increased mortality was observed in a single colony of 50 Xenopus laevis. The frogs were used as oocyte donors in developmental biology studies. Necropsy findings included dermal erythema and petechiation consistent with red leg syndrome; dermal ulcerations and white, filamentous growths on the skin were consistent with Saprolegnia sp. Microscopic evaluation of the skin and fungus revealed an astigmatid mite similar to those of the genus Rhizoglyphus. The mite was also found in the water and the biological filter of the tanks housing the frogs. This mite is considered not to be a parasite of X. laevis; instead, it feeds off moss, fungi, and detritus. Subsequent evaluation of the sphagnum moss used for shipping the frogs from the supplier revealed the same mite in the moss. Our hypothesis is that the mite was introduced into the tank with the shipment of new frogs in sphagnum moss. The mites lived within the biological filter, and were only found after the growth of Saprolegnia sp. attracted the mites to the frogs. Laboratory animal care and veterinary personnel should consider non-pathogenic species of mites in the differential diagnosis of acariasis in Xenopus frogs.

  19. Hamiltonian properties of almost locally connected claw-free graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Li, MingChu; Liao, Wei; Broersma, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    A vertex v of a graph G is locally connected if the set of neighbors N(v) of v induces a connected subgraph in G. Let B(G) denote the set of vertices of G that are not locally connected. Then G is almost locally connected if B(G) is an independent set and for any vertex x in B(G), there is a ver

  20. Eugenol for anesthesia of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénette, Sarah A; Hélie, Pierre; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2007-05-01

    To determine the level of anesthesia attained in Xenopus laevis frogs with eugenol at different doses and by different routes of administration. Prospective experimental trial. Sixty X. laevis nonbreeding female frogs weighing between 90 and 140 g. Three different routes of administration were tested - subcutaneous injections into the dorsal lymph sacs, topical administration using a gauze patch, and immersion in a bath containing eugenol. Following the determination of the best route of administration, the acetic acid test, the withdrawal reflex, righting reflex, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were used to evaluate central nervous system depression following eugenol bath administration. In an additional group, the response to a surgical incision of the abdominal wall was evaluated. The pharmacokinetics of eugenol were determined following bath immersion administration, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated following blood concentration determination by tandem liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. It was not possible to induce anethesia with subcutaneous and patch administration, independent of the eugenol dose administered. The immersion bath was the only efficacious route for anesthesia inducing surgical anesthesia for at least 30 minutes with postoperative analgesia. Histopathology of selected tissues (heart, lung, liver, kidneys, eyes) showed no evidence of lesions 24 hours following bath immersion. The elimination half-life (T(1/2)) was 4 hours. When administered as a single-bath immersion (dose 350 mg L(-1)) for 15 minutes, eugenol may serve as an effective anesthetic in X. laevis frogs for short surgical procedures.

  1. Origin of Life: Protocells Red in Tooth and Claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ranajay; Chen, Irene A

    2015-12-21

    To study the origin of life, synthetic biologists construct simple 'protocells', but previous models were not able to reproduce both genome and membrane sustainably. A recent advance feeds the protocells by vesicle fusion, suggesting a practical pathway for indefinite self-reproduction.

  2. Reproductive Maturation of the Tropical Clawed Frog, Xenopus tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model species Xenopus tropicalis is being widely used in developmental biology and amphibian toxicology studies. In order to increase our understanding of the role of steroid hormones in maturation in this species, we collected baseline reproductive data from metamorphosis t...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: African clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Xenopus_laevis_NL.png Xenopus_laevis_S.png Xenopus_laevis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=11 ...

  4. The influence of harpagoside and harpagide on TNFα-secretion and cell adhesion molecule mRNA-expression in IFNγ/LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopohl, P; Grüneberg, P; Melzig, M F

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation does not only lead to pain and functio laesa in the affected tissue but is also implicated in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Many medicinal plants show anti-inflammatory properties yet plant-constituents and their effect on molecular pathways involved in the attenuation of inflammation as well as cell migration are only poorly understood. Harpagophytum procumbens DC. ex MEISN. is a potent plant used as an immune modulator in traditional herbal medicine. Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of harpagoside and harpagide on TNFα-secretion in undifferentiated and differentiated THP-1 cells under inflammatory conditions as well as their implication in cellular migration into inflamed tissue. We found that both iridoids decrease TNFα-secretion in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells whereas undifferentiated cells were poorly affected. Yet, in undifferentiated cells harpagoside and harpagide induced mRNA-expression of certain proteins involved in leukocyte transmigration. Especially TNFα and ICAM-1 mRNA-expression was positively affected after 3h and expression could be maintained on high levels even after 48h. L-selectin and PSGL-1 were strongly induced after 48h of stimulation. This ambiguous effect of harpagoside and harpagide highlights their immune modulatory function by facilitating cell migration into the inflamed tissue, whereby in consequence the anti-inflammatory activity of the resident macrophages was also found to be promoted.

  5. Phytomedicine in Joint Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragos, Dorin; Gilca, Marilena; Gaman, Laura; Vlad, Adelina; Iosif, Liviu; Stoian, Irina; Lupescu, Olivera

    2017-01-01

    Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from pain-killers to biological agents) is potent, but frequently associated with serious, even life-threatening side effects. Used for millennia in traditional herbalism, medicinal plants are a promising alternative, with lower rate of adverse events and efficiency frequently comparable with that of conventional drugs. Nevertheless, their mechanism of action is in many cases elusive and/or uncertain. Even though many of them have been proven effective in studies done in vitro or on animal models, there is a scarcity of human clinical evidence. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available scientific information on the following joint-friendly medicinal plants, which have been tested in human studies: Arnica montana, Boswellia spp., Curcuma spp., Equisetum arvense, Harpagophytum procumbens, Salix spp., Sesamum indicum, Symphytum officinalis, Zingiber officinalis, Panax notoginseng, and Whitania somnifera.

  6. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects.

  7. Phytomedicine in Joint Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Dragos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from pain-killers to biological agents is potent, but frequently associated with serious, even life-threatening side effects. Used for millennia in traditional herbalism, medicinal plants are a promising alternative, with lower rate of adverse events and efficiency frequently comparable with that of conventional drugs. Nevertheless, their mechanism of action is in many cases elusive and/or uncertain. Even though many of them have been proven effective in studies done in vitro or on animal models, there is a scarcity of human clinical evidence. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available scientific information on the following joint-friendly medicinal plants, which have been tested in human studies: Arnica montana, Boswellia spp., Curcuma spp., Equisetum arvense, Harpagophytum procumbens, Salix spp., Sesamum indicum, Symphytum officinalis, Zingiber officinalis, Panax notoginseng, and Whitania somnifera.

  8. Implementación de un protocolo para la producción de raíces pilosas (hairy roots de uña de gato (Uncaria tomentosa mediante transformación con Agrobacterium rhizogenes Implementation of a protocol for the production of hairy roots of cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa by Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Garro Monge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los beneficios para la salud registrados a partir del uso de metabolitos secundarios de la planta llamada uña de gato (Uncaria tomentosa han generado una fuerte demanda comercial, así como la extracción intensiva de esta especie en los países en los cuales se distribuye, con el consecuente deterioro de este recurso genético en su hábitat natural. Es por eso que resulta necesario implementar protocolos de cultivo de células y tejidos de esta especie, con el fin de lograr la síntesis de los compuestos en forma controlada. La corteza de las raíces es uno de los tejidos en los que se concentra la producción de estos compuestos, razón por la cual la producción de raíces de cabellera (hairy roots resulta ser una técnica alternativa para la producción a escala de los metabolitos de interés. En este proyecto se implementó un protocolo de agroinfección de microestacas de U. tomentosa utilizando cepas silvestres de Agrobacterium rizhogenes (AR1500 y A4RS, así como el mantenimiento en medio líquido de las raíces pilosas obtenidas. En colaboración con el Laboratorio de Biología Molecular del programa PIPRA (UC Davis, se determinó la eficacia del protocolo de agroinfección, así como el uso de otras herramientas moleculares para la detección de expresión génica, las cuales mostraron resultados satisfactorios en los ensayos de agroinfección, bajo las metodologías establecidas en el proyecto.The beneficial health proper ties registered of secondary metabolites produced by the plant cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa had generated a strong market demand and intensive extraction of this species in the countries where distributed, with the deterioration of this genetic resource in its natural habitat. Because of this, is necessary to implement protocols for cell and tissue culture of this species in order to achieve the synthesis of compounds in a controlled manner.The root bark is one of the tissues where the production of these

  9. Cytotoxic and Growth Inhibitory Effects of the Methanol Extract of Tridax procumbens Linn (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olowojoba J

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research into medicinal plants used in treating tumor-related ailments has become imperative due to the emergence of various forms of cancer diseases. Tridax procubens is one of such medicinal plants indicated in traditional herbal medicine as one of the plants used in treating tumor-related ailments. This claim was examined using bench-top assay methods involving the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the plant to tadpoles of Raniceps ranninus for a period of 24 hr at concentrations between 10-400 µg/ml and the growth inhibitory assay between 1-30 µg/ml. After 24 h, the crude methanol extract and the chloroform fraction produced the highest cytotoxicity of 63.33 ± 1.33 and 100 % respectively at 400 μg/ml. On the growth inhibitory assay, after 96 h, the controls had an average length of 58.12 ± 5.68 mm, whereas the seeds treated with 30mg/ml of the crude extract had an average length of 1.63 ± 0.32 mm, indicating 97.19 % reduction in length. At the same concentration, the chloroform and the aqueous fractions showed 86.58 and 100 % inhibitions. The plant material was observed to contain tannins, saponins and flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinone. The result of this work supports the ethno-medicinal use of the plant in preparing recipes for tumor-related ailments.

  10. 爵床化学成分研究%Chemical constituents from Justicia procumbens L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴威巍; 缪刘萍; 王鑫杰

    2013-01-01

    目的 分离鉴定爵床的化学成分.方法 运用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱对安徽产爵床全草乙醇提取物的正丁醇部位进行分离、纯化,通过理化数据测定、1 H-NMR和13C-NMR等谱学技术进行结构鉴定.结果 从爵床中分离得到8个化合物,分别是陆地棉苷(1)、异鼠李素-3-云香糖苷(2)、tachioside (3)、香草酸(4)、阿魏酸(5)、尿苷(6)、腺嘌呤(7)和爵床苷F(8).结论 爵床苷F为新的木脂体苷类化合物.

  11. Türkiye'deki eczanelerde bulunan bitkisel ilaçlar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Süzgeç-Selçuk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available u çalışmada, 2012 yılında Türkiye'deki eczanelerde bulunan, Sağlık Bakanlığı ruhsatlı bitkisel ilaçlar incelenerek; formülasyonunda aktif bileşik olarak standardize edilmiş bitkisel drog ekstresi veya drog preparatları bulunan müstahzarlar ele alınmıştır. Bitkilerden kimyasal işlemler sonucu elde edilen, bitkisel kaynaklı saf bileşikler (atropin, morfin, efedrin vb. bitkisel ilaç olarak değerlendirilmediklerinden, bu çalışma kapsamına dahil edilmemiştir. Bu kapsamda, bitkisel ilaçların içeriğindeki; bitkilerinin kullanılan kısımları (drog, etken maddeleri, etki ve kullanılışları incelenmiştir. İncelenen bu bitkiler: Aesculus hippocastanum L., Amygdalus communis L., Allium sativum L., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (Thea sinensis L., Capsicum annuum L., Cassia acutifolia Del. (C. angustifolia Vahl., Centella asiatica L., Cimicifuga racemosa L., Cola nitida (Vent. Schott & Endl., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Ginkgo biloba L., Hamamelis virginiana L., Harpagophytum procumbens DC, Hedera helix L., Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Mentha piperita L., Passiflora incarnata L., Pelargonium sidoides DC., Pinus brutia Tenn., Populus sp., Rheum officinale Baill., Ricinus communis L., Serenoa repens (W. Bart. Small, Silybum marianum L., Thymus vulgaris L., Triticum aestivum L., Valeriana officinalis L, Vitex agnus-castus L., Vitis vinifera L., Zingiber officinale (Roscoe' dir. Sonuç olarak, 2012 yılında Türkiye eczanelerinde Sağlık Bakanlığı ruhsatlı 44 tane bitkisel ilaç tespit edilmiştir.

  12. Study advances of Medicinal Plant Justicia procumbens L%药用植物爵床的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国瑞; 吴军; 杨美华; 张森; 陈晓光

    2008-01-01

    目的 介绍药用植物爵床的化学成分、药理作用和临床应用研究进展.方法 通过查阅文献资料,对爵床的化学成分、药理作用、临床应用的研究进展进行分析总结.结果 爵床的主要化学成分为木脂素及其苷类.药理活性研究表明,爵床具有显著的抗肿瘤、抗病毒、抗血小板聚集等作用,在临床上应用于小儿厌食症、女性急性尿路感染、顽固性久泻等.结论 为爵床的进一步开发利用拓展思路并提供了理论依据.

  13. Proanthocyanidin Characterization and Bioactivity of Extracts from Different Parts of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat's Claw).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Hoyos, Mirtha; Lebrón-Aguilar, Rosa; Quintanilla-López, Jesús E; Cueva, Carolina; Hevia, David; Quesada, Silvia; Azofeifa, Gabriela; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Monagas, María; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2017-02-04

    Apart from alkaloids, bioactive properties of Uncaria tomentosa L. have been attributed to its phenolic constituents. Although there are some reports concerning low-molecular-weight polyphenols in U. tomentosa, its polymeric phenolic composition has been scarcely studied. In this study, phenolic-rich extracts from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 14) of Uncaria tomentosa plants from several regions of Costa Rica were obtained and analysed in respect to their proanthocyanidin profile determined by a quadrupole-time-of-flight analyser (ESI-QTOF MS). Main structural characteristics found for U. tomentosa proanthocyanidins were: (a) monomer composition, including pure procyanidins (only composed of (epi)catechin units) and propelargonidins (only composed of (epi)afzelechin units) as well as mixed proanthocyanidins; and (b) degree of polymerization, from 3 up to 11 units. In addition, U. tomentosa phenolic extracts were found to exhibit reasonable antioxidant capacity (ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) values between 1.5 and 18.8 mmol TE/g) and antimicrobial activity against potential respiratory pathogens (minimum IC50 of 133 µg/mL). There were also found to be particularly cytotoxic to gastric adenocarcinoma AGS and colon adenocarcinoma SW620 cell lines. The results state the particularities of U. tomentosa proanthocyanidins and suggest the potential value of these extracts with prospective use as functional ingredients.

  14. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat’s Claw: Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Navarro Hoyos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and 13C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22 were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225–494 gallic acid equivalents/g than for wood extracts (40–167 gallic acid equivalents/g. A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers [(+-catechin and (−-epicatechin], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure, flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa. Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  15. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat's Claw): Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Hoyos, Mirtha; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Murillo Masis, Renato; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Zamora Ramirez, William; Monagas, Maria J; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-12-18

    The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and (13)C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22) were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225-494 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for wood extracts (40-167 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids), flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin)], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure) and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure), flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family) and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa). Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  16. Contraceptive effect of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) in rats with experimental endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Neto, João; Cavalcante, Frederico Lucas Lima Paiva; Carvalho, Rafael Antonio Freire; Rodrigues, Taciana Gabrielle Pinheiro de Moura; Xavier, Mariana Santana; Furtado, Pablo Gustavo Ribeiro; Schor, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Evaluate the histological changes in parenchyma's epithelial layer of the uterus and ovarian of rats with induced endometriosis, treated with Uncaria tomentosa extract. 29 rats with experimental endometriosis, were selected and divided in three groups: The uncaria group received 32 mg/ml of Uncaria tomentosa extract, 1 ml administered daily and the placebo group received 1 ml of saline 0.9% per day, during for 14 days (both groups); the leuprolide group received leuprolide acetate 1mg/kg body weight applied single subcutaneous dose. In the 15th day of treatment the uterine horn and ovaries were removed for histopathological analysis. The uncaria group presented nine samples (90%) with immature ovarian follicles, whereas the placebo group did not present any case and in the leuprolide group there were eight rats (88%) with the same change. The placebo group showed mature corpus luteum in all animals, occurring less frequent in uncaria (10%) and leuprolide (22%) groups. The uterine epithelium showed weak proliferative in nine (90%) samples of the uncaria group, in two (20%) animals in the placebo group and seven (77.8%) rats in the leuprolide group. The findings suggest that Uncaria tomentosa has contraceptive effect.

  17. An Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) extract protects mice against ozone-induced lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Francisco J; Jayo, Manuel; Niedziela, Linda

    2005-01-15

    Ozone (O(3)) inhalation has been associated with respiratory tract inflammation and lung functional alterations. To characterize the O(3)-induced lung inflammation in mice, the effective dose and exposure time were determined. Total protein levels of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), cytological smears, and lung histopathology and morphometry were used to assess and measure the degree of pulmonary inflammation in the mouse model. Ozone inhalation caused acute pneumonitis that was characterized by a high number of infiltrating neutrophils (PMNs) immediately after exposure and increased levels of protein in BALF in mice killed 8h after O(3) exposure. The anti-inflammatory properties of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) have been documented previously. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of UT, male mice were given an UT extract for 8 days, exposed to O(3), and killed 0 or 8 h after O(3) exposure. When compared to untreated controls, UT-treated mice had significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of protein in BALF, lower degree of epithelial necrosis, higher number of intact epithelial cell nuclei in bronchial wall, and decreased number of PMNs in the bronchiolar lumen. Therefore, UT extract appeared to prevent O(3)-induced respiratory inflammation in male mice.

  18. Red in Tooth and Claw? Images of Nature in Modern Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    Questions whether the mediated experience provided by picture books contributes toward or hinders a realistic and appropriate appreciation of the natural world. Argues that picture books present highly misleading images of animals and their habitats. Examines a few exceptional books that give an accurate and sensitive account of the animal kingdom…

  19. Biophysics of underwater hearing in the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Elepfandt, A

    1995-01-01

    the larynx with metal or tissue glue. This shows that the sound-induced vibrations of the lungs are probably coupled to the middle ear cavities via the larynx. Also, anatomical observations show that the two middle ear cavities and the larynx are connected in an air-filled recess in submerged animals...... of the air bubble in the middle ear cavity. Filling the middle ear cavity with water lowered the disk vibrations by 10-30 dB in the frequency range of 0.5-3 kHz. Inflating the lungs shifted the low-frequency peak downwards, but did not change the high-frequency peak. Thus, the disk vibrations...... in the frequency range of the mating call (main energy at 1.7-1.9 kHz) were mainly caused by pulsations of the air in the middle ear cavity; sound transmission via the lungs was more important at low frequencies (below 1 kHz). Furthermore, the low-frequency peak could be reversibly reduced in amplitude by loading...

  20. A revolution without tooth and claw-redefining the physical base units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    A case study is presented of a recent proposal by the major metrology institutes to redefine four of the physical base units, namely kilogram, ampere, mole, and kelvin. The episode shows a number of features that are unusual for progress in an objective science: for example, the progress is not triggered by experimental discoveries or theoretical innovations; also, the new definitions are eventually implemented by means of a voting process. In the philosophical analysis, I will first argue that the episode provides considerable evidence for confirmation holism, i.e. the claim that central statements in fundamental science cannot be tested in isolation; second, that the episode satisfies many of the criteria which Kuhn requires for scientific revolutions even though one would naturally classify it as normal science. These two observations are interrelated since holism can provide within normal science a possible source of future revolutionary periods.

  1. Dragon’s Claws: The Improvised Explosive Device (IED) as a Weapon of Strategic Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    George Orwell , “You and the Atomic Bomb,” (1945), http://www.george- orwell.org/You_and_the_Atomic_Bomb/index.html (accessed January 15, 2009). 7...Brassey’s, 1990. Orwell , George . “You and the Atomic Bomb,” 1945. http://orwell.ru/library/articles/ABomb/english/e_abomb (accessed January 26...McCormick Second Reader: George Lober THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting

  2. Mortality and morbidity in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) associated with construction noise and vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Stephen A; Cowan, Andrea M; Luong, Richard; Green, Sherril L

    2012-03-01

    In Spring 2008, 175 adult female Xenopus laevis were exposed to construction-related vibrations that caused overt water rippling in the frog tanks. The 3 affected tanks were custom-built static, 300-gal 'pond-style' tanks that sat on the floor of the housing room. The water in the tank developed visible ripples as a result of the vibrations transmitted through the floor during jack-hammering in an adjacent room that was approximately 10 ftaway. All frogs in the tanks displayed buoyancy problems, excessive air gulping, and skin sloughing; ultimately 7 frogs died. In addition, these 7 animals were bloated, and 5 of these 7 had regurgitated and everted their stomach and distal esophagus into the oral cavity, resulting in airway obstruction and death. Gross pathologic findings included regurgitation and eversion of the stomach of the distal portion of the esophagus into the oral cavity, obstruction of the airway, and lung overinflation. No significant histologic lesions were observed. Construction vibrations transmitted through the water appeared to have disrupted the mechanoreceptive function of the lateral line system, resulting in overstimulation of the noxious feeding response, regurgitation, and eversion of the stomach and distal esophagus into the oral cavity and subsequent suffocation due to airway obstruction. After immediate cessation of the jack-hammering and relocation of the remaining frogs, no additional morbidities or mortalities occurred.

  3. Evidence for Neandertal jewelry: modified white-tailed eagle claws at Krapina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorka Radovčić

    Full Text Available We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian.

  4. Evidence for Neandertal jewelry: modified white-tailed eagle claws at Krapina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovčić, Davorka; Sršen, Ankica Oros; Radovčić, Jakov; Frayer, David W

    2015-01-01

    We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla) talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian.

  5. SWFSC/MMTD: Collaborative Large Whale Survey (CLaWS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Collaborative Large Whale Survey is a joint field effort by Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) and Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC). The 4-month...

  6. A Claw Is like My Hand: Comparison Supports Goal Analysis in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the intentional relations in others' actions is critical to human social life. Origins of this knowledge exist in the first year and are a function of both acting as an intentional agent and observing movement cues in actions. We explore a new mechanism we believe plays an important role in infants' understanding of new actions:…

  7. The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in adult African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Antwain M; Papich, Mark G; Felt, Stephen A; Long, Charles T; McKeon, Gabriel P; Bond, Emmitt S; Torreilles, Stéphanie L; Luong, Richard H; Green, Sherril L

    2010-11-01

    Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was determined in adult female Xenopus laevis after single-dose administration (10 mg/kg) by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. Frogs were evaluated at various time points until 8 h after injection. Plasma was analyzed for antibiotic concentration levels by HPLC. We computed pharmacokinetic parameters by using noncompartmental analysis of the pooled concentrations (naive pooled samples). After intramuscular administration of enrofloxacin, the half-life was 5.32 h, concentration maximum was 10.85 μg/mL, distribution volume was 841.96 mL/kg, and area under the time-concentration curve was 57.59 μg×h/mL; after subcutaneous administration these parameters were 4.08 h, 9.76 μg/mL, 915.85 mL/kg, and 47.42 μg×h/mL, respectively. According to plasma pharmacokinetics, Xenopus seem to metabolize enrofloxacin in a manner similar to mammals: low levels of the enrofloxacin metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were detected in the frogs' habitat water and plasma. At necropsy, there were no gross or histologic signs of toxicity after single-dose administration; toxicity was not evaluated for repeated dosing. The plasma concentrations reached levels considered effective against common aquatic pathogens and suggest that a single, once-daily dose would be a reasonable regimen to consider when treating sick frogs. The treatment of sick frogs should be based on specific microbiologic identification of the pathogen and on antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  8. A claw is like my hand: Comparison supports goal analysis in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerson, S.A.; Woodward, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the intentional relations in others' actions is critical to human social life. Origins of this knowledge exist in the first year and are a function of both acting as an intentional agent and observing movement cues in actions. We explore a new mechanism we believe plays an important ro

  9. Endocrine Toxicity of Trenbolone in the Western Clawed Frog, Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbolone is a veterinarian pharmaceutical that acts as an androgen agonist and is used extensively in the beef industry. It is excreted from cattle is an active form and has been measured in aquatic systems associated with or near concentrated animal feeding operations. In an...

  10. Electroencephalographic and physiologic changes after tricaine methanesulfonate immersion of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde-Robert, Vanessa; Desgent, Sébastien; Duss, Sandra; Vachon, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine electroencephalographic and complementary physiologic changes in Xenopus leavis frogs after bath immersion in MS222. We also evaluated the addition of sodium pentobarbital injected intracoelomi- cally 2 h after MS222 immersion to achieve euthanasia. Frogs (n = 9) weighing 105.5 ± 8.4 g (mean ± 1 SD) were immersed in MS222 at either 1 or 3 g/L until anesthesia was achieved; a conductive stainless steel screw then was implanted in the skull on top of the outer pial surface of the brain. Frogs were immersed again in MS222 at the same concentration as previously, and electroencephalograms, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory movements were recorded. Amplitude and mean frequency of the electroencephalographic signal were evaluated at 15-min intervals until a flat-line signal was achieved. At 2 h after induction, frogs were injected intracoelomically with sodium pentobarbital (0.5 mL; 240 mg/mL) to accelerate euthanasia. Immersion of frogs in 1 or 3 g/L of MS222 depressed cerebral activity within 30 min without a significant effect on cardiac function. Intracoelomic injection of sodium pentobarbital at 2 h after MS222 administration rapidly (3.2 ± 1.7 min) induced cardiac arrest. In conclusion, immersion in MS222 can be used for the collection of organs from X. laevis frogs, but the addition of pentobarbital is required to achieve euthanasia.

  11. Cryptochrome genes are highly expressed in the ovary of the African clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kubo

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes (CRYs are flavoproteins sharing high homology with photolyases. Some of them have function(s including transcription regulation in the circadian clock oscillation, blue-light photoreception for resetting the clock phase, and light-dependent magnetoreception. Vertebrates retain multiple sets of CRY or CRY-related genes, but their functions are yet unclear especially in the lower vertebrates. Although CRYs and the other circadian clock components have been extensively studied in the higher vertebrates such as mice, only a few model species have been studied in the lower vertebrates. In this study, we identified two CRYs, XtCRY1 and XtCRY2 in Xenopus tropicalis, an excellent experimental model species. Examination of tissue specificity of their mRNA expression by real-time PCR analysis revealed that both the XtCRYs showed extremely high mRNA expression levels in the ovary. The mRNA levels in the ovary were about 28-fold (XtCry1 and 48-fold (XtCry2 higher than levels in the next abundant tissues, the retina and kidney, respectively. For the functional analysis of the XtCRYs, we cloned circadian positive regulator XtCLOCK and XtBMAL1, and found circadian enhancer E-box in the upstream of XtPer1 gene. XtCLOCK and XtBMAL1 exhibited strong transactivation from the XtPer1 E-box element, and both the XtCRYs inhibited the XtCLOCK:XtBMAL1-mediated transactivation, thereby suggesting this element to drive the circadian transcription. These results revealed a conserved main feedback loop in the X. tropicalis circadian clockwork and imply a possible physiological importance of CRYs in the ovarian functions such as synthesis of steroid hormones and/or control of estrus cycles via the transcription regulation.

  12. Atrazine induces complete feminization and chemical castration in male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tyrone B.; Khoury, Vicky; Narayan, Anne; Nazir, Mariam; Park, Andrew; Brown, Travis; Adame, Lillian; Chan, Elton; Buchholz, Daniel; Stueve, Theresa; Gallipeau, Sherrie

    2010-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine is one of the most commonly applied pesticides in the world. As a result, atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground, surface, and drinking water. Atrazine is also a potent endocrine disruptor that is active at low, ecologically relevant concentrations. Previous studies showed that atrazine adversely affects amphibian larval development. The present study demonstrates the reproductive consequences of atrazine exposure in adult amphibians. Atrazine-exposed males were both demasculinized (chemically castrated) and completely feminized as adults. Ten percent of the exposed genetic males developed into functional females that copulated with unexposed males and produced viable eggs. Atrazine-exposed males suffered from depressed testosterone, decreased breeding gland size, demasculinized/feminized laryngeal development, suppressed mating behavior, reduced spermatogenesis, and decreased fertility. These data are consistent with effects of atrazine observed in other vertebrate classes. The present findings exemplify the role that atrazine and other endocrine-disrupting pesticides likely play in global amphibian declines. PMID:20194757

  13. Policing Toward a De-Clawed Jihad: Antiterrorism Intelligence Techniques for Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    by military forces and journalists includes training materials and videotapes of gas testing on dogs.85 Ironically , al-Qa’eda’s efforts to develop...have no causative relationship between themselves. In a medical example, doctors used to believe inflamed tonsils caused severely sore throats, and...removed the tonsils as the presumed cure. The tonsils , in fact, swell as a result of the infection which simultaneously causes a sore throat

  14. Cell differentiation and tissue formation in the unique fruits of devil's claws (Martyniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbens, Melanie; Gao, Jie; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Martyniaceae are characterized by capsules with two upwardly curved, horn-shaped extensions representing morphologically specialized epizoochorous fruits. Because the capsules are assumed to cling to hooves and ankles of large mammals, fiber arrangement and tissue combinations within the endocarp ensuring proper attachment to the vector's feet during transport are of particular interest. In this first detailed anatomical investigation, the functional adaptation of the fruits and their implications for the specific dispersal mode are provided. The peculiar fiber arrangement may also be of interest for future biomimetic composite materials.• Methods: Endocarp anatomy and details of tissue differentiation were examined in fruits of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisianica subsp. fragrans combining light microscopy, SEM, and x-ray microtomography analysis.• Key results: While tips of the extensions are predominantly reinforced by longitudinally oriented fibers, in the middle segment these fibers are densely packed in individual bundles entwined and separated by transversely elongated cells. Within the capsule wall, the fiber bundles are embedded in a dense mesh of transversely oriented fibers that circularly reinforce and protect the loculus. This fibrous pericarp tissue develops within few days by localized cell divisions and intrusive growth of primarily isodiametric parenchyma cells in the pistil.• Conclusions: The study allows insight into a unique and complex example of functionally driven cell growth and tissue formation. Long-horned fruits of Martyniaceae obviously are highly specialized to epizoochorous dispersal, pointing to primary vector-related seed dispersal. The highly ordered arrangement of fibers results in a great mechanical firmness.

  15. Paws without claws? Ecological effects of large carnivores in anthropogenic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlén, E.; Elmhagen, B.; Chamaillé-Jammes, S.; Sand, H.; Lone, K.; Cromsigt, J. P. G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivores are frequently presented as saviours of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning through their creation of trophic cascades, an idea largely based on studies coming primarily out of relatively natural landscapes. However, in large parts of the world, particularly in Europe, large carnivores live in and are returning to strongly human-modified ecosystems. At present, we lack a coherent framework to predict the effects of large carnivores in these anthropogenic landscapes. We review how human actions influence the ecological roles of large carnivores by affecting their density or behaviour or those of mesopredators or prey species. We argue that the potential for density-mediated trophic cascades in anthropogenic landscapes is limited to unproductive areas where even low carnivore numbers may impact prey densities or to the limited parts of the landscape where carnivores are allowed to reach ecologically functional densities. The potential for behaviourally mediated trophic cascades may be larger and more widespread, because even low carnivore densities affect prey behaviour. We conclude that predator–prey interactions in anthropogenic landscapes will be highly context-dependent and human actions will often attenuate the ecological effects of large carnivores. We highlight the knowledge gaps and outline a new research avenue to study the role of carnivores in anthropogenic landscapes. PMID:27798302

  16. Environ: E00736 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00736 Wintergreen oil Essential oil Gaultheria procumbens [TAX:157519] Ericaceae (...heath family) Gaultheria procumbens leaf Obtained by steam distillation Major component: Methyl salicylate [CPD:C12305] Essential

  17. (13)C, (15)N CPMAS NMR and GIAO DFT calculations of stereoisomeric oxindole alkaloids from Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska, Katarzyna; Wolniak, Michał; Pisklak, Maciej; Gliński, Jan A; Davey, Matthew H; Wawer, Iwona

    2008-11-01

    Oxindole alkaloids, isolated from the bark of Uncaria tomentosa [Willd. ex Schult.] Rubiaceae, are considered to be responsible for the biological activity of this herb. Five pentacyclic and two tetracyclic alkaloids were studied by solid-state NMR and theoretical GIAO DFT methods. The (13)C and (15)N CPMAS NMR spectra were recorded for mitraphylline, isomitraphylline, pteropodine (uncarine C), isopteropodine (uncarine E), speciophylline (uncarine D), rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline. Theoretical GIAO DFT calculations of shielding constants provide arguments for identification of asymmetric centers and proper assignment of NMR spectra. These alkaloids are 7R/7S and 20R/20S stereoisomeric pairs. Based on the (13)C CP MAS chemical shifts the 7S alkaloids (delta C3 70-71ppm) can be easily and conveniently distinguished from 7R (deltaC3 74.5-74.9ppm), also 20R (deltaC20 41.3-41.7ppm) from the 20S (deltaC20 36.3-38.3ppm). The epiallo-type isomer (3R, 20S) of speciophylline is characterized by a larger (15)N MAS chemical shift of N4 (64.6ppm) than the allo-type (3S, 20S) of isopteropodine (deltaN4 53.3ppm). (15)N MAS chemical shifts of N1-H in pentacyclic alkaloids are within 131.9-140.4ppm.

  18. Size-dependent impacts of the endangered white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet on the littoral community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosewarne P.J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The demise of Britain’s only native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet has prompted conservation-led translocations to safe isolated stillwaters (Ark sites. Many translocations represent introductions rather than re-stocking; hence it is important to ensure that there will not be a detrimental impact on communities already present. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict likely effects, although gut contents analyses suggest that A. pallipes is omnivorous and exhibits ontogenic diet shifts. A mesocosm study was conducted with the aim to first, determine community impacts of introducing A. pallipes on the benthic invertebrate community, and second investigate if impacts vary with crayfish life-stage. All crayfish life-stages strongly reduced shredder and grazer abundance, particularly thin-shelled Lymnaea snails. The small snail Physa fontinalis was preferentially consumed by juveniles, perhaps reflecting different prey-handling ability. Adults showed greater reliance on terrestrially derived detritus compared to juveniles. There were limited effects on other trophic levels, although by reducing shredders that process basal resources, crayfish impacts may be felt through the community in the long-term.

  19. First fossil small-clawed otter, Amblonyx, with a note on some specimens of Lutra, from the Upper Siwaliks, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri, P.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Otter-like mammals have been reported from the Indian sub-continent for more than a century and a half. Enhydriodontini are far more common and have a longer fossil record than either Lutrini or Aonychini. This paper describes and interprets two fossils from the Pleistocene of Panchkula and Pipalwala, India. The Panchkula specimen represents a large species of Amblomyx (Aonychini whereas the Pipalwala specimen is likely to represent a large individual of Lutra paleoindica (Lutrini.Mamíferos de tipo nutria han sido señalados en el subcontinente Indio desde hace más de un siglo y medio. Los Enhydriodontini son de lejos los más comunes y tienen un mayor registro fósil que los Lutrini o los Aonychini. En este trabajo describimos e interpretamos dos fósiles procedentes del Pleistoceno de Panchkula y Pipalwala, India. El ejemplar de Panchkula representa una especie de talla grande de Amblomyx (Aonychini, mientras que el ejemplar de Pipalwala representa a un individuo de talla grade de Lutra paleoindica (Lutrini.

  20. Proanthocyanidin Characterization and Bioactivity of Extracts from Different Parts of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat’s Claw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Apart from alkaloids, bioactive properties of Uncaria tomentosa L. have been attributed to its phenolic constituents. Although there are some reports concerning low-molecular-weight polyphenols in U. tomentosa, its polymeric phenolic composition has been scarcely studied. In this study, phenolic-rich extracts from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 14 of Uncaria tomentosa plants from several regions of Costa Rica were obtained and analysed in respect to their proanthocyanidin profile determined by a quadrupole-time-of-flight analyser (ESI-QTOF MS. Main structural characteristics found for U. tomentosa proanthocyanidins were: (a monomer composition, including pure procyanidins (only composed of (epicatechin units and propelargonidins (only composed of (epiafzelechin units as well as mixed proanthocyanidins; and (b degree of polymerization, from 3 up to 11 units. In addition, U. tomentosa phenolic extracts were found to exhibit reasonable antioxidant capacity (ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity values between 1.5 and 18.8 mmol TE/g and antimicrobial activity against potential respiratory pathogens (minimum IC50 of 133 µg/mL. There were also found to be particularly cytotoxic to gastric adenocarcinoma AGS and colon adenocarcinoma SW620 cell lines. The results state the particularities of U. tomentosa proanthocyanidins and suggest the potential value of these extracts with prospective use as functional ingredients.

  1. The Slothful Claw: Osteology and Taphonomy of Nothronychus mckinleyi and N. graffami (Dinosauria: Theropoda) and Anatomical Considerations for Derived Therizinosaurids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Brandon P; Zanno, Lindsay E; Wolfe, Douglas G; Dodson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Nothronychus was the first definitive therizinosaurian discovered in North America and currently represents the most specialized North American therizinosaurian genus. It is known from two species, No. mckinleyi from the Moreno Hill Formation (middle Turonian) in west-central New Mexico, and No. graffami from the Tropic Shale (early Turonian) in south-central Utah. Both species are represented by partial to nearly complete skeletons that have helped elucidate evolutionary trends in Therizinosauria. In spite of the biogeographical and evolutionary importance of these two taxa, neither has received a detailed description. Here, we present comprehensive descriptions of No. mckinleyi and No. graffami, the latter of which represents the most complete therizinosaurid skeleton known to date. We amend previous preliminary descriptions of No. mckinleyi and No. graffami based on these new data and modify previous character states based on an in-depth morphological analysis. Additionally, we review the depositional history of both specimens of Nothronychus and compare their taphonomic modes. We demonstrate that the species were not only separated geographically, but also temporally. Based on ammonoid biozones, the species appear to have been separated by at least 1.5 million years and up to 3 million years. We then discuss the impacts of diagenetic deformation on morphology and reevaluate potentially diagnostic characters in light of these new data. For example, the ulna of No. mckinleyi is curved whereas the ulna of No. graffami was considered straight, a character originally separating the two species. However, here we present the difference as much more likely related to diagenetic compression in No. graffami rather than as a true biologic difference. Finally, we include copies of three-dimensional surface scans of all major bones for both taxa for reference.

  2. Toxicity of the azo dyes Acid Red 97 and Bismarck Brown Y to Western clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Jeriel J; Mathieu-Denoncourt, Justine; Norman, Grant; de Solla, Shane R; Langlois, Valérie S

    2014-03-01

    Azo compounds are used in a variety of industrial applications, such as textile colorant. Azo dyes have been found to contaminate aquatic environments and it has been shown that these compounds could potentially be toxic or induce endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. However, there are few data available on the toxicity of these dyes, specifically Acid Red 97 (AR97) and Bismarck Brown Y (BBY). The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity and the endocrine-disrupting properties of AR97 and BBY in frogs. As fugacity modeling predicted that both compounds would sorb to sediment, sediment exposures were performed using a geometric range of concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm). Both AR97 and BBY dyes were not lethal to Silurana tropicalis embryos; however, BBY significantly induced malformations. Gene expression analysis of oxidative stress and mutagen-related genes was performed in BBY-treated larvae. There were significant two-fold increases of the tumor-suppressing protein p53 and heat shock protein 70 mRNA at 1,000 ppm suggesting that BBY induces cellular stress in early S. tropicalis development. Transcripts of the heat shock protein 90 did not change. Furthermore, reproductive-related genes were assessed and a 2.1-fold change was observed in the mRNA of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein while steroid 5 alpha-reductase type 2 and androgen receptor transcript levels did not vary among treatments. In conclusion, high concentrations of BBY lead to increased developmental defects in frog embryogenesis and early larval development.

  3. Proanthocyanidin Characterization and Bioactivity of Extracts from Different Parts of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat’s Claw)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Hoyos, Mirtha; Lebrón-Aguilar, Rosa; Quintanilla-López, Jesús E.; Cueva, Carolina; Hevia, David; Quesada, Silvia; Azofeifa, Gabriela; Moreno-Arribas, M. Victoria; Monagas, María; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2017-01-01

    Apart from alkaloids, bioactive properties of Uncaria tomentosa L. have been attributed to its phenolic constituents. Although there are some reports concerning low-molecular-weight polyphenols in U. tomentosa, its polymeric phenolic composition has been scarcely studied. In this study, phenolic-rich extracts from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 14) of Uncaria tomentosa plants from several regions of Costa Rica were obtained and analysed in respect to their proanthocyanidin profile determined by a quadrupole-time-of-flight analyser (ESI-QTOF MS). Main structural characteristics found for U. tomentosa proanthocyanidins were: (a) monomer composition, including pure procyanidins (only composed of (epi)catechin units) and propelargonidins (only composed of (epi)afzelechin units) as well as mixed proanthocyanidins; and (b) degree of polymerization, from 3 up to 11 units. In addition, U. tomentosa phenolic extracts were found to exhibit reasonable antioxidant capacity (ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) values between 1.5 and 18.8 mmol TE/g) and antimicrobial activity against potential respiratory pathogens (minimum IC50 of 133 µg/mL). There were also found to be particularly cytotoxic to gastric adenocarcinoma AGS and colon adenocarcinoma SW620 cell lines. The results state the particularities of U. tomentosa proanthocyanidins and suggest the potential value of these extracts with prospective use as functional ingredients. PMID:28165396

  4. Treatment of skin-invading capillarid nematode in a colony of South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, G.E.; Jared, D.W.

    1977-08-01

    Pathological effects of a capillarid nematode on the skin of Xenopus are described. Eight frogs infested with the parasite were treated with thiabendazole in the aquarium water. Histological examinations of the skin of these frogs showed that the parasites had been eliminated. No toxicity was observed as a result of the drug therapy. (HLW)

  5. Group-colouring, group-connectivity, claw-decompositions, and orientations in 5-edge-connected planar graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, R. Bruce; Thomassen, Carsten; Younger, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Let G be a graph, let Γ be an Abelian group with identity 0Γ, and, for each vertex v of G, let p(v) be a prescription such that ∑v∈V(G)p(v)=0Γ. A (Γ,p)-flow consists of an orientation D of G and, for each edge e of G, a label f(e) in Γ∖{0Γ} such that, for each vertex v of G, ∑e points in to v f(e...

  6. Acute and Chronic Outcomes of Gas-Bubble Disease in a Colony of African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Julia Y; Felt, Stephen A; Bouley, Donna M; Green, Sherril L

    2017-02-01

    Gas-bubble disease occurs in aquatic species that are exposed to water that is supersaturated with gases. In February 2007, municipal water supersaturated with gas was inadvertently pumped into the vivarium's aquatic housing systems and affected approximately 450 adult female Xenopus laevis. The inflow of supersaturated water was stopped immediately, the holding tanks aggressively aerated, and all experimental manipulations and feeding ceased. Within the first 6 h after the event, morbidity approached 90%, and mortality reached 3.5%. Acutely affected frogs showed clinical signs of gas-bubble disease: buoyancy problems, micro- and macroscopic bubbles in the foot webbing, hyperemia in foot webbing and leg skin, and loss of the mucous slime coat. All of the frogs that died or were euthanized had areas of mesenteric infarction, which resulted in intestinal epithelial necrosis and degeneration of the muscular tunic. Over the subsequent 2 wk, as gas saturation levels returned to normal, the clinical symptoms resolved completely in the remaining frogs. However, 3 mo later, 85% of them failed to lay eggs or produce oocytes, and the remaining 15% produced oocytes of low number and poor quality, yielding cytosolic extracts with poor to no enzymatic activity. Histology of the egg mass from a single 2- to 3-y-old frog at 3 mo after disease resolution revealed irregularly shaped oocytes, few large mature oocytes, and numerous small, degenerating oocytes. At 6 mo after the incident, the remaining frogs continued to fail to produce eggs of sufficient quantity or quality after hormonal priming. The researchers consequently opted to cull the remainder of the colony and repopulate with new frogs.

  7. Activity of the body wall musculature of the African Clawed Toad, Xenopus laevis (Daudin), during diving and respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, de H.J.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Mechanisms for regulating the specific weight of the body are well known in fishes. In other aquatic vertebrates the lungs might have a function similar to that of the swimbladder or the lungs in fishes. In anuran tadpoles the lungs may serve as hydrostatic balancers, but this has not

  8. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) D.C.: cat's claw, uña de gato, or savéntaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, K H

    1999-04-01

    Recently, Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) D.C. has become known as a healing plant with an ethnomedicinal background. There have been several reports on its constituents, in particular, oxindole alkaloids. It was found that 2 chemotypes of Uncaria tomentosa with different alkaloid patterns occur in nature. The roots of one type contain pentacyclic oxindoles and the other contains tetracyclic oxindoles. This difference should be considered when the plant is to be used for medicinal applications. Tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids act on the central nervous system, whereas pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids affect the cellular immune system. Recent studies have shown that the tetracyclic alkaloids exert antagonistic effects on the action of the pentacyclic alkaloids. Mixtures of these 2 types of drugs are therefore unsuitable for medicinal uses.

  9. The association of hoof lesions at claw trimming with test-day milk yield in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Capion, Nynne; Hill, Ashley E.

    2007-01-01

    . For the purpose of including hoof lesions in a decision support model an attempt was made to aggregate the lesions into digital dermatitis (DD), other interdigital diseases (OID, infectious diseases other than DD) and hoof horn diseases (HHD, related to metabolic disorders and trauma). A division was made based...

  10. Activity of the body wall musculature of the African Clawed Toad, Xenopus laevis (Daudin), during diving and respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, de H.J.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Mechanisms for regulating the specific weight of the body are well known in fishes. In other aquatic vertebrates the lungs might have a function similar to that of the swimbladder or the lungs in fishes. In anuran tadpoles the lungs may serve as hydrostatic balancers, but this has not b

  11. Effects of supplementing pregnant heifers with methionine or melatonin on the anatomy and other characteristics of their lateral hind claws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbraith, H; Rae, M; Omand, T

    2006-01-01

    Three groups of four primiparous Holstein-Friesian heifers were fed throughout pregnancy either a control diet or that diet supplemented with either 5 to 6 g per day of rumen-protected intestinally available methionine or 25 mg melatonin. They were euthanased three days after calving. The dietary...

  12. Antitumoral and antioxidant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) (Willd. Ex Roem. & Schult) in an in vivo carcinosarcoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreifuss, Arturo Alejandro; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda Leite; Avila, Thiago Vinicius; Soley, Bruna da Silva; Rivero, Armando J; Aguilar, José Luis; Acco, Alexandra

    2010-07-06

    The present work intended to study the antitumoral and antioxidant effects of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) hydroalcoholic extract in the Walker-256 cancer model. Walker-256 cells were subcutaneously inoculated in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rats. Daily gavage with UT extract (10, 50 or 100 mg kg(-1), Groups UT) or saline solution (Control, Group C) was subsequently initiated, until 14 days afterwards. For some parameters, a group of healthy rats (Baseline, Group B) was added. At the end of treatment the following parameters were evaluated: (a) tumor volume and mass; (b) plasmatic concentration of urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); (c) hepatic and tumoral activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the rate of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and gluthatione (GSH); and (d) hepatic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. The reactivity of UT extract with the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was assessed in parallel. UT hydroalcoholic extract successfully reduced the tumor growth. In addition, treatment with UT reduced the activity of AST, which had been increased as a result of tumor inoculation, thus attempting to return it to normal levels. UT did not reverse the increase of LDH and GGT plasma levels, although all doses were remarkably effective in reducing urea plasma levels. An important in vitro free radical-scavenging activity was detected at various concentrations of UT extract (1-300 microg mL(-1)). Treatment also resulted in increased CAT activity in liver, while decreasing it in tumor tissue. SOD activity was reduced in liver as well as in tumor, compared to Group C. No statistical significance concerning ALT, GST, LPO or GSH were observed. This data represent an in vivo demonstration of both antitumoral and antioxidant effects of UT hydroalcoholic extract. The antineoplastic activity may result, partially at least, from the ability of UT to regulate redox and metabolism homeostasis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contraceptive effect of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw in rats with experimental endometriosis Efeito anticoncepcional da Uncaria tomentosa (unha-de-gato em ratas com endometriose experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Nogueira Neto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the histological changes in parenchyma´s epithelial layer of the uterus and ovarian of rats with induced endometriosis, treated with Uncaria tomentosa extract. METHODS: 29 rats with experimental endometriosis, were selected and divided in three groups: The uncaria group received 32mg/ml of Uncaria tomentosa extract, 1ml administered daily and the placebo group received 1ml of saline 0.9% per day, during for 14 days (both groups; the leuprolide group received leuprolide acetate 1mg/kg body weight applied single subcutaneous dose. In the 15th day of treatment the uterine horn and ovaries were removed for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: The uncaria group presented nine samples (90% with immature ovarian follicles, whereas the placebo group did not present any case and in the leuprolide group there were eight rats (88% with the same change. The placebo group showed mature corpus luteum in all animals, occurring less frequent in uncaria (10% and leuprolide (22% groups. The uterine epithelium showed weak proliferative in nine (90% samples of the uncaria group, in two (20% animals in the placebo group and seven (77.8% rats in the leuprolide group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that Uncaria tomentosa has contraceptive effect.OBJETIVO: Avaliação histológica do útero e parênquima ovariano de ratas com endometriose induzida tratadas com extrato de Uncaria tomentosa. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 29 ratas com endometriose experimental e formados três grupos: O grupo uncaria recebeu extrato de Uncaria tomentosa com 32mg/ml, administrado 1ml ao dia e o grupo placebo recebeu 1ml de solução salina a 0,9%, ambos por 14 dias; o grupo leuprolida recebeu acetato de leuprolida 1mg/kg de peso corporal aplicado via subcutânea dose única. No 15° dia de tratamento realizou-se retirada de corno uterino e ovários para análise histopatológica. RESULTADOS: O grupo uncaria apresentou nove amostras (90% com maturação incompleta dos folículos ovarianos, já o grupo placebo não apresentou nenhum caso e no grupo leuprolida houve oito ratas (88% com a mesma alteração. O grupo placebo apresentou corpo lúteo maduro em todos os animais, acontecendo de forma menos freqüente nos grupos uncaria (10% e leuprolida (22%. O epitélio uterino se mostrou fracamente proliferativo em nove (90% das amostras do grupo unacaria, em dois (20% casos do grupo placebo e sete (77.8% casos no grupo leuprolida. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem que a Uncaria tomentosa tem efeito anticoncepcional.

  14. Analysis of gene expression changes, caused by exposure to nitrite, in metabolic and antioxidant enzymes in the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qichen; Zhang, Wenyi; Tan, Hongyue; Pan, Dongmei; Yang, Yuanhao; Ren, Qian; Yang, Jiaxin

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of acute exposure to nitrite on expression of antioxidant and metabolic enzyme genes in gill tissue of advanced juvenile Cherax quadricarinatus. A 48h nitrite exposure was conducted, using four test concentrations (NO2-N=0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2mg L(-1)) plus a control group. The relative mRNA expression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mMnSOD), cytosolic MnSOD (cMnSOD), extracellular copper/zinc SOD (exCu/ZnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), arginine kinase (AK), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in gill tissue was measured. Significantly increased mRNA expression was observed for all the antioxidant enzymes after 12 and 24h. After 48h, they all decreased at high nitrite concentrations. The gene expression levels of AK, GDH, mMDH and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit showed similar trends as the antioxidant enzymes. Significant depression of gene expression levels of PEPCK occurred throughout the experimental time at high nitrite concentrations. The results indicated that nitrite could induce oxidative and metabolic stress in C. quadricarinatus, in a time dependent manner, which suggests they could be helpful in predicting sublethal nitrite toxicity and useful in environmental monitoring studies.

  15. Longitudinal study of the effect of rubber slat mats on locomotory ability, body, limb and claw lesions, and dirtiness of group housed sows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calderón Díaz, J A; Fahey, A G; Kilbride, A L; Green, L E; Boyle, L A

    2013-01-01

    ...) slatted floor left uncovered or covered by 10-mm rubber slat mats (n = 80) through 2 parities. Lameness (0 = normal to 5 = severe), limb (0 = normal to 6 = severe) and body (0 = normal to 5 = severe) lesions, and manure on the body...

  16. Avulsion of malleoincudal complex with dislocation: A rare ossicular chain injury by using an indigenous claw-like ear hook with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Produl Hazarika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct ear trauma through external auditory canal causing an avulsion injury of malleoincudal complex is a grievous injury that can happen during ear cleaning with indigenous ear hook. One such case of avulsion injury is presented here with its symptomatology, investigation, and management with the review of available literature because of its rarity. Various locally designed indigenous ear hooks are available in street side markets and even online for purchase and used by many without knowing its ill effects on health. Injury caused by these types of hooks may lead to a severe hearing disability, if not properly treated. This presentation is to highlight the fact that indigenous ear hooks; rampantly available online for purchase can cause a potentially major injury leading to hearing disability and thereafter poor quality of life. Reporting and highlighting of such incidents among the ENT community can help increase the public awareness; thereby, eliminating such disastrous consequences. Wikipedia, PubMed, and Google search engine has been used for our data collection and analysis.

  17. Experimental taxonomy exposes ontogenetic variability and elucidates the taxonomic value of claw configuration in Milnesium Doyère, 1840 (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada: Apochela)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witold Morek, W.; Gąsiorek, P.; Stec, D.; Blagden, B.; Michalczyk, Ł

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new apochelan species, Milnesium variefidum sp. nov. from Scotland and provide novel morphological and molecular data for Milnesium berladnicorum Ciobanu et al., 2014. The new species differs from the most similar M. berladnicorum by the presence of developmental dimorphi

  18. Using cognitive dissonance to induce adolescents' escaping from the claw of online gaming: the roles of personal responsibility and justification of cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Wan, Chin-Sheng

    2007-10-01

    The negative impact of the Internet on adolescents has received much attention. How to reduce their pathological use of online gaming is also a critical issue. Based on cognitive dissonance theory, two experiments were conducted to examine whether personal responsibility and justification of cost may play crucial factors in impacting adolescent players' attitude change and their willingness to engage in attitude-discrepant behavior. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that adolescent players who felt a strong sense of responsibility appeared to exhibit greater attitude change. In Experiment 2, the findings indicated that players tended to employ justification of cost in order to reduce or eliminate the dissonance between their attitude toward online gaming and invested cost. Adolescent players who perceived a higher cost in online gaming were less willing to engage in attitude-discrepant behavior. Reducing adolescents ' overuse of online gaming can be appreciated through the perspective of cognitive dissonance.

  19. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera da Colômbia. V. Lamiinae com unhas tarsais divergentes Cerambycidae (Coleoptera of Colombia. V. Lamiinae with divergent tarsal claws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available New species described from Colombia: Amphicnaeia interrupta sp. nov., from Cauca; Adetus tayronus sp. nov., from Magdalena; A. aberrans sp. nov., from Santander; Parmenonta albosticta sp. nov., from Cundinamarca; Jamesia bella sp. nov., from Cauca. New records for nine species of Colombian Lamiinae (Apomecynini, Agapanthiini, Onciderini are given.

  20. Molecular footprinting of skeletal tissues in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula and the clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis identifies conserved and derived features of vertebrate calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eEnault

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolutionary emergence and subsequent diversification of the vertebrate skeleton requires a comprehensive view of the diverse skeletal cell types found in distinct developmental contexts, tissues and species. To date, our knowledge of the molecular nature of the shark calcified extracellular matrix, and its relationships with osteichthyan skeletal tissues, remain scarce. Here, based on specific combinations of expression patterns of the Col1a1, Col1a2 and Col2a1 fibrillar collagen genes, we compare the molecular footprint of endoskeletal elements from the chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula and the tetrapod Xenopus tropicalis. We find that, depending on the anatomical location, Scyliorhinus skeletal calcification is associated to cell types expressing different subsets of fibrillar collagen genes, such as high levels of Col1a1 and Col1a2 in the neural arches, high levels of Col2a1 in the tesserae, or associated to a drastic Col2a1 downregulation in the centrum. We detect low Col2a1 levels in Xenopus osteoblasts, thereby revealing that the osteoblastic expression of this gene was significantly reduced in the tetrapod lineage. Finally, we uncover a striking parallel, from a molecular and histological perspective, between the vertebral cartilage calcification of both species and discuss the evolutionary origin of endochondral ossification.

  1. 95 Alteration of Plasma Lipid Profile and Atherogenic Indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2009-07-15

    Jul 15, 2009 ... procumbens on the packed cell volume (PCV), daily weight gain, plasma lipid profiles and ... conditions, whether primary or secondary to diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity .... (1999) Abnormalities of membrane.

  2. Phytotoxic characterization of various fractions of Launaea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Abbreviations: DMSO, Dimethyl sulfoxide; LPME, Launaea procumbens ... 1, non treated control; 2, n-hexane fraction; 3, ethyl acetate fraction; ... fractionated using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and distilled ...

  3. Stapelieae from South Tropical Africa, V*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Leach

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available The generic position of Huernia verekeri Stent and some related species is discussed.  H. verekeri Stent var. pauciflora Leach is described, also several putative hybrids of H. verekeri. Three new combinations are made, viz. H. tanganyikensis (Bruce & Bally Leach  (Duvalia tanganyikensis Bruce & Bally,H. procumbens (R. A. Dyer Leach  {Duvalia procumbens R. A. Dyer and H. andreaeana (Rauh Leach {Duvalia andreaeana Rauh.

  4. How snapping shrimp snap: through cavitating bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Andreas Michel; Schmitz, Barbara; von der Heydt, A.; Lohse, Detlef

    2000-01-01

    The snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis) produces a loud snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of its snapper claw. One of the effects of the snapping is to stun or kill prey animals. During the rapid snapper claw closure, a high-velocity water jet is emitted from the claw with a speed

  5. Conservation in the Teaching Laboratory--Substitution of Xenopus for Rana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhart, David M; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports on experimental comparisons between the leopard frog, currently captured for laboratory use, and the African clawed frog, raised specifically for research. Except for the increased longevity of isolated nerve axons in the clawed frog, no other significant differences were established. Recommends laboratory use of clawed frogs as…

  6. The enigmatic Otway odd-clawed spider (Progradungula otwayensis Milledge, 1997, Gradungulidae, Araneae: Natural history, first description of the female and micro-computed tomography of the male palpal organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michalik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The recently described cribellate gradungulid Progradungula otwayensis Milledge, 1997 is endemic to the Great Otway National Park (Victoria, Australia and known from only one male and a few juvenile specimens. In a recent survey we recorded 47 specimens at several localities across the western part of the Great Otway National park. Our field data suggest that this species is dependant on the microclimate in the hollows of old myrtle beech trees since other hollow trees were very much less inhabited. Furthermore, we describe the female for the first time and study the male palpal organ by using X-ray microtomography. The female genitalia are characterized by eight spermathecae which are grouped in two quartets. The spermophor resembles the general organization of gradungulids, but is similar to Kaiya Gray, 1987 by a convoluted appearance within the embolus. The muscle 30 is located in the cymbium and resembles the organization of other non-entelegyne Araneomorphae.

  7. Avaliação clínica e laboratorial do gel da Uncaria tomentosa (Unha de Gato sobre candidose oral Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw gel on oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Costa de Almeida Paiva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Na odontologia, a fitoterapia já vem sendo utilizada com sucesso há vários anos. Trata-se de um meio terapêutico que apresenta como vantagem sobre as medicações alopáticas o fato de apresentar reações adversas mínimas. A Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta indígena da floresta Amazônica e de outras áreas tropicais da América do Sul e Central. Tem aplicação no tratamento de diversas patologias, entre elas a candidose. Este trabalho avalia clínico e laboratorialmente a ação do gel da Uncaria tomentosa em pacientes portadores de candidose na cavidade oral. Foram selecionados 20 pacientes que apresentaram clínico e laboratorialmente infecção pelo Candida. Os mesmos foram divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo-teste (Uncaria tomentosa/Imuno-Max Gel, composto por 10 pacientes, foi orientado a utilizar o gel da Uncaria tomentosa, sobre as lesões na cavidade oral, 3x ao dia por um período de 14 dias. O grupo-controle (Miconazol/Daktarin Gel utilizou a medicação da mesma forma prescrita para o grupo-teste. Após o período de tratamento, os pacientes retornaram para nova avaliação clínica e laboratorial. A Uncaria tomentosa mostrou ser um fitofármaco promissor na odontologia, apresentando vantagem sobre o miconazol de não ter provocado reações adversas nos pacientes, uma vez que, 40% dos pacientes do grupo-controle, apresentaram reações indesejáveis.In dentistry, the phytotherapy is already being used successfully for some years now. It is about a promising therapeutical way in the pharmaceutical field, having as advantage on pharmacotherapy medications the fact to present minimum adverse reactions. The Uncaria tomentosa is an aboriginal plant of the Amazonian forest and other tropical areas of the South and Central America. It has application in the treatment of several pathologies, including candidiasis. This work evaluates, clinical and laboratorial, the action of the Uncaria tomentosa gel in the oral cavity candidiasis patients. Twenty patients which presented clinical and laboratorial signs of Candida infection were selected. They were divided in 2 groups. The test-group (Uncaria tomentosa/IMUNO-MAX Gel, with 10 patients, was told to use the Uncaria tomentosa gel, on the oral cavity injuries, 3 times a day for a period of 14 days. The control-group (Miconazol/DAKTARIN Gel used the prescribed medication in the same way of the test-group. After the treatment period, the patients returned for a new clinical and laboratorial evaluation. The Uncaria tomentosa showed to be a promising phytotherapeutical medication in dentistry, in the field of the anti-fungi treatment, presenting as advantage on the Miconazol not causing adverse reactions in the patients, once 40% of the control-group patients showed undesirable reactions.

  8. Hambatan Ekspresi Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor oleh Ekstrak Daun Sambung Nyawa pada Endotel Membran Korioalantois (EFFECTIVITY OF SAMBUNG NYAWA LEAF EXTRACT TO INHIBIT VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR EXPRESSION ON ENDOTHELIALS OF CHORIOALLANTOIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Sahrial Hamid

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is the new blood vessels formation normality and important on growth and developmentof individu. Angiogenesis also have contribution to carcinogenesis or uncontrolled and malignant cancercell development, become pathologic condition like inflammatory and infection. The purpose of this researchfor knew the effectivities of Gynura procumbens extract on various dose for inhibition Vascular EndothelialGrowth Factor (VEGF expression. This research was done to effort cancer progress inhibition. However,angiogenesis is part of carcinogenesis causes. The Chorio Allantoic Membrane (CAM methods was usedfor this aim. Eggs at the age of nine days were divided into 6 groups. Group I were negative control ofvehicle, group II were zero treatment: 60 ng bFGF which aplicated into paper dish. The next four groupswere extract of Gynura procumbens that divided in four dose: 60, 75, 90 and 110 µg + bFGF 60 ng whichapplicated into  paper dish.  At the twelve days old, VEGF expression analysis was done whichimunohystochemical method with anti VEGF’s antibody. The result of this research showed that therewas significant different (p<0.05 on give of Gynura procumbens extract to VEGF expression. The mostsignificant VEGF inhibition by Gynura procumbens extract with dose 110 µg. The conclusion on this studywas Gynura procumbens extract effective to inhibit the VEGF expression on CAM embrio chick.

  9. Walking on smooth or rough ground: passive control of pretarsal attachment in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlein, Thomas; Federle, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The hymenopteran tarsus is equipped with claws and a movable adhesive pad (arolium). Even though both organs are specialised for substrates of different roughness, they are moved by the same muscle, the claw flexor. Here we show that despite this seemingly unfavourable design, the use of arolium and claws can be adjusted according to surface roughness by mechanical control. Tendon pull experiments in ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) revealed that the claw flexor elicits rotary movements around several (pre-) tarsal joints. However, maximum angular change of claws, arolium and fifth tarsomere occurred at different pulling amplitudes, with arolium extension always being the last movement. This effect indicates that arolium use is regulated non-neuronally. Arolium unfolding can be suppressed on rough surfaces, when claw tips interlock and inhibit further contraction of the claw flexor or prevent legs from sliding towards the body. To test whether this hypothesised passive control operates in walking ants, we manipulated ants by clipping claw tips. Consistent with the proposed control mechanism, claw pruning resulted in stronger arolium extension on rough but not on smooth substrates. The control of attachment by the insect claw flexor system demonstrates how mechanical systems in the body periphery can simplify centralised, neuro-muscular feedback control.

  10. Morphological characterization of mycorrhizae formed between three Terfezia species (desert truffles) and several Cistaceae and Aleppo pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitouni-Haouar, Fatima El-Houaria; Fortas, Zohra; Chevalier, Gerard

    2014-07-01

    Six Cistaceae species, Helianthemum ledifolium, Helianthemum lippii, Fumana procumbens, Cistus albidus, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, and Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) were inoculated with three mycorrhizal desert truffles, Terfezia leptoderma, Terfezia boudieri, and Terfezia claveryi under greenhouse conditions, on soil originating from desert truffle natural habitat in Algeria. The syntheses have led to the formation of typical endomycorrhizae in annual Cistaceae (H. ledifolium) and perennial ones (H. lippii and F. procumbens) and an ectomycorrhiza with a less developed sheath in Cistus species and Aleppo pine. These results demonstrate the plasticity of Terfezia species to form different mycorrhizal types. The formation of an endomycorrhiza with H. ledifolium and F. procumbens and a sheathing ectomycorrhiza with P. halepensis inoculated by T. leptoderma in in vivo culture conditions was obtained for the first time.

  11. On the sound of snapping shrimp

    CERN Document Server

    Versluis, Michel; von der Heydt, Anna; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Fluid dynamics video: Snapping shrimp produce a snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of their snapper claw. Our high speed imaging of the claw closure has revealed that the sound is generated by the collapse of a cavitation bubble formed in a fast flowing water jet forced out from the claws during claw closure. The produced sound originates from the cavitation collapse of the bubble. At collapse a short flash of light is emitted, just as in single bubble sonoluminescence. A model based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation can quantitatively account for the visual and acoustical observations.

  12. 21 CFR 874.4710 - Esophagoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the flexible foreign body claw, flexible biopsy forceps, rigid biopsy curette, flexible biopsy brush, rigid biopsy forceps and flexible biopsy curette, but excludes...

  13. Master Environmental Plan for Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    contain a variety of sedges , reeds, and aquatic plants suitable for waterfowl (McMaster et al. 1982). 2.4 SOILS AND GEOLOGY 2.4.1 Soils The U.S...Solidago sp. Goldenrod Taraxacum officinale Dandelion Cyperaceae Carex spp. Carex Ericaceae Gualtheria procumbens Checkerberry Epigaea repens Trailing

  14. Part 1: Antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of Thai plants in the family Acanthaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenchai, Panarat; Vajrodaya, Srunya; Somprasong, Winai; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2010-11-01

    Crude extracts (CH(2)Cl(2) and MeOH) of 20 plants in the family Acanthaceae were screened for their antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, and radical scavenging activities. These plants included Asystasia nemorum, Barleria cristata, B. strigosa, Dicliptera burmanni, Eranthemum tetragonum, Hygrophila ringens, Justicia balansae, J. procumbens, Lepidagathis incurva, Peristrophe lanceolaria, Phaulopsis dorsiflora, Ruellia kerrii, Strobilanthes auriculata, S. corrugata, S. cusia, S. dimorphotricha, S. karensium, S. maxwellii, S. pateriformis, and S. brandisii. CH(2)Cl(2) extracts of A. nemorum, S. corrugata, S. cusia, S. maxwellii, S. pateriformis, and S. brandisii, as well as MeOH extracts of J. balansae and J. procumbens, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values of 10-100 µg/mL. CH(2)Cl(2) extracts of nine plants including D. burmanni, H. ringens, J. balansae, J. procumbens, L. incurva, P. lanceolaria, P. dorsiflora, S. corrugata, and S. maxwellii showed cytotoxic activity with IC(50) values of 3.5-46.0 µg/mL. MeOH extracts (at 100 µg/mL) of R. kerrii and S. auriculata could effectively scavenge DPPH free radicals (82-83% inhibition) and superoxide anion radicals (79% and 88% inhibition). In the ORAC antioxidant assay, MeOH extracts of B. cristata, J. procumbens, R. kerrii, and S. auriculata exhibited activity with ORAC units of 3.1-3.9.

  15. Screening of antiviral activities in medicinal plants extracts against dengue virus using dengue NS2B-NS3 protease assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, H A; Zulqarnain, M; Ammar, Y A; Tan, E C; Rahman, N A; Yusof, R

    2014-06-01

    Dengue virus infects millions of people worldwide and there is no vaccine or anti-dengue therapeutic available. Screening large numbers of medicinal plants for anti-dengue activities is an alternative strategy in order to find the potent therapeutic compounds. Therefore, this study was designed to identify anti-dengue activities in nineteen medicinal plant extracts that are used in traditional medicine. Local medicinal plants Vernonia cinerea, Hemigraphis reptans, Hedyotis auricularia, Laurentia longiflora, Tridax procumbers and Senna angustifolia were used in this study. The highest inhibitory activates against dengue NS2B-NS3pro was observed in ethanolic extract of S. angustifolia leaves, methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves and ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems. These findings were further verified by in vitro viral inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves, ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems and at less extent ethanolic extract of S. angustifolia leaves were able to maintain the normal morphology of DENV2-infected Vero cells without causing much cytopathic effects (CPE). The percentage of viral inhibition of V. cinerea and T. procumbens extracts were significantly higher than S. angustifolia extract as measured by plaque formation assay and RT-qPCR. In conclusion, The outcome of this study showed that the methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves and ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems possessed high inhibitory activates against dengue virus that worth more investigation.

  16. Cloning and functional analyses of a gene from sugar beet up-regulated upon cyst nematode infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samuelian, S.; Kleine, M.; Spira, C.P.; Klein Lankhorst, R.M.; Jung, C.

    2004-01-01

    The cDNA-AFLP technique was used to isolate sugar beet genes up-regulated upon infection with the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Hairy root cultures were obtained from resistant plants carrying a Beta procumbens translocation as well as from a non-resistant control. mRNA was isolated from

  17. A CASE STUDY OF FEEDS IN MAKURDI, BENUE STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    el al, 1982) indicate that modern hybrid layers can lay over 300 ... humans and livestock, this proportion is higher (Fetuga ... Mean, % composition of commercial poultry diets (recommended nutrient level*;. Feed type .... Effect of different levels of Tridax procumbens on the performance of layers. Nig. J. Anim. ... Poultry Health.

  18. Larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes Aegypti L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anitha Rajasekaran; Geethapriya Duraikannan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes aegypti. Methods:Petroleum ether, Chloroform and aqueous extracts obtained from Acalypha indica, Aerva lanata,Boerhaavia diffusa, Commelina benghalensis, Gompherna sps, Datura stramonium, Euphorpia hirta, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens were used for larvicidal activity at concentration of 1000μg/ml and the mortality rate was calculated after 24 and 48hrs . The LC50 for the extracts were also estimated after 24 hrs. Results: The petroleum ether extract ofLantana camara, Tridax procumbens and Datura stramonium showed 100% mortality after 48hrs of incubation. Tridax procumbens petroleum ether extract had the least LC50 of 219 μg/ml followed by Lantana and Datura with 251and 288 μg/ml respectively. A combination of petroleum ether extracts of Aerva lanata and Cynodon dactylon, Boerhaavia diffusa and Commelina benghalensis exhibited 100% mortality of larvae. Formulation-1 inhibited the metamorphosis of the larvae by retaining 60% in its larval stage. Petroleum ether extracts of Lantana, Tridax, Datura and a combination of extracts were effective larvicide. The formulations proved to be effective in inhibiting the metamorphosis. Alkaloids and flavonoids were present in datura petroleum ether extract . Conclusions: Either the crude extracts of Datura stramonium, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens or its phytochemicals can be used as effective vector control agents individually or in combination.

  19. Characterisation of alien chromosomes in monosomic additions. of Beta.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, M.

    1997-01-01

    Wild Beta species of the section Procumbentes carry genes for several valuable agronomical traits, and are considered to be of interest for the breeding of cultivated beet (B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris). In spite of several barriers, it was shown that gene transfer from B . procumbens into sugar beet

  20. Cloning and functional analyses of a gene from sugar beet up-regulated upon cyst nematode infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samuelian, S.; Kleine, M.; Spira, C.P.; Klein Lankhorst, R.M.; Jung, C.

    2004-01-01

    The cDNA-AFLP technique was used to isolate sugar beet genes up-regulated upon infection with the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Hairy root cultures were obtained from resistant plants carrying a Beta procumbens translocation as well as from a non-resistant control. mRNA was isolated from

  1. On the Sound of Snapping Shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Andreas Michel; von der Heydt, A.; Lohse, Detlef; Schmitz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Snapping shrimp produce a snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of their snapper claw. Source levels reported for Alpheus heterochaelis are as high as 220 dB (peak-to-peak) re. 1 µPa at 1 m distance. The loud snap has been attributed to the mechanical contact made when the snapper claw

  2. Environ: E00773 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00773 Cat's claw Medicinal herb Mitraphylline [CPD:C09227], Ursolic acid [CPD:C089...Major component: Mitraphylline [CPD:C09227] Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: asterids Rubiaceae (madder family) E00773 Cat's claw ...

  3. Environ: E00792 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00792 Devil's claw Medicinal herb Harpagoside [CPD:C09783], Cinnamic acid [CPD:C10...ateral root Major component: Cynarin [CPD:C10445] Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: asterids Pedaliaceae (sesame family) E00792 Devil's claw ...

  4. Edge effect of strained bilayer nanofilms for tunable multistability and actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, N; Han, X; Huang, S; Grover, H M; Yu, X; Zhang, L N; Trase, I; Zhang, J X J; Zhang, L; Dong, L X; Chen, Z

    2017-03-02

    We employed both theoretical and computational models supported by experiments to study the multistable behavior of an edge-effect driven Si/Cr micro-claw. Our study showed that individual micro-claws demonstrate either monostability or bistability as the magnitude of the edge effect is varied.

  5. Structure and function of the elastic organ in the tibia of a tenebrionid beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Toh, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Hirofumi

    2016-06-01

    Many insects have a pair of claws on the tip of each foot (tarsus and pretarsus). The movement of the pretarsal claws is mediated by a long apodeme that originates from the claw retractor muscles in the femur. It is generally accepted that the pulling of the apodeme by the muscles flexes the claws to engage with a rough surface of a substrate, and the flexed claws return to their initial position by passive elastic forces within the tarso-pretarsal joint. We found that each tibia of the tenebrionid beetle Zophobas atratus had a chordal elastic organ that tied the apodeme to the distal end of the tibia and assisted the pulled apodeme to return smoothly. The elastic body of the elastic organ consists of a bundle of more than 1000 thin fibrils (0.3-1.5 μm in diameter) with a hairy yarn-shaped structure made by assemblies of intricately interwoven microfibers. Both ends of the fibrillar elastic body were supported by clusters of columnar cells. Ablation of the elastic organ often disturbed the rapid and smooth return of claws from a flexed position when the tarsal segments were forced to curve in order to increase the friction between the apodeme and surrounding tissues in the segments. The result suggests that rapid claw disengagement is an important step in each cycle of leg movements, and the elastic organ may have evolved to assist the reliable detachment of claws that engage tightly with the substrate when climbing or traversing inverted surfaces.

  6. Two new tardigrade species from Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilato, Giovanni; Sabella, Giorgio; Lisi, Oscar

    2014-01-14

    Two new species of tardigrades are described from Sicilian moss samples: Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) procerum sp. nov.        Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. is a species of the harmsworthi-group characterized by both posterior and anterior claws of the hind legs, which are different in shape from those of the first three leg pairs. The IV claws have extended basal tract where the branches are joined and the secondary branch breaks at near right angle to the primary branch and is clearly shorter than the main branch and the secondary branch of claws I-III. The eggs are not areolated and have conical processes with a reticular ornamentation.        Diphascon (D.) procerum sp. nov. has a delicate cuticular ornamentation of very small tubercles, almost dots; two macroplacoids and septulum are present; thin accessory points are present on the main branches of the slender claws; lunules are absent but the base of the external claws of the hind legs are enlarged and slightly indented; a cuticular bar is present near the internal claw of the first three leg pairs and two cuticular bars are present on the hind legs between the base of the claws and near the base of the anterior claw

  7. Effect of two trimming methods of dairy cattle on concrete or rubber-covered slatted floors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Holzhauer, M.; Tol, van der P.P.J.; Werf, van der J.T.N.

    2009-01-01

    This study monitored claw health, claw conformation, locomotion, activity, and step traits of cows from a single dairy herd that were trimmed according to the standard Dutch method or with an alternative "concave" trimming method. Half of the cows were kept in a stall section with concrete slatted f

  8. The male blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, uses both chromatic and achromatic cues during mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jamie; Johnsen, Sönke

    2012-04-01

    In the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, claw color varies by sex, sexual maturity and individual. Males rely in part on color cues to select appropriate mates, and these chromatic cues may be perceived through an opponent interaction between two photoreceptors with maximum wavelength sensitivities at 440 and 508 nm. The range of color discrimination of this dichromatic visual system may be limited, however, and it is unclear whether male blue crabs are capable of discriminating the natural variations in claw color that may be important in mate choice. By testing males' innate color preferences in binary choice tests between photographs of red-clawed females and six variations of orange-clawed females, we examined both the chromatic (opponent interaction) and achromatic (relative luminance) cues used in male mate choice. Males significantly preferred red-clawed females to orange-clawed females, except when the test colors were similar in both opponency and relative luminance. Our results are unusual in that they indicate that male mate choice in the blue crab is not guided solely by achromatic or chromatic mechanisms, suggesting that both color and intensity are used to evaluate female claw color.

  9. Antiproliferative activity of various Uncaria tomentosa preparations on HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Radosław; Poczekaj-Kostrzewska, Magdalena; Ciesiołka, Danuta; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    The woody Amazonian vine Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) has been recently more and more popular all over the world as an immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory and anti-cancer remedy. This study investigates anti-proliferative potency of several cat's claw preparations with different quantitative and qualitative alkaloid contents on HL-60 acute promyelocytic human cells by applying trypan blue exclusion and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay (MTT). By standardization and statistical comparison of the obtained results pteropodine and isomitraphylline are indicated to be most suitable for standardization of medical cat's claw preparations.

  10. First record of the genus Lethades Davis, 1897 from the Oriental region, with description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Reshchikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Lethades Davis, 1897 (Ctenopelmatinae: Pionini, L. orientalis Reshchikov & Xu, sp. n., collected in Heishiding Nature Reserve in Guangdong Province, China, is described. This is new record of the genus from China and for the Oriental region also. The species can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by its black metasoma, the presence of an areolet on the fore wing, distinctly pectinate claws with teeth of the hind claw as high as the claw itself, and a complete longitudinal propodeal carina. A key to the world species of the genus is provided.

  11. Inorganic elements in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas): relationships among external and internal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Derek R; Hooper, Michael J; Cobb, George P; Barnes, Melanie; Shaver, Donna; Ertolacci, Shauna; Smith, Philip N

    2014-09-01

    Inorganic elements from anthropogenic sources have entered marine environments worldwide and are detectable in marine organisms, including sea turtles. Threatened and endangered classifications of sea turtles have heretofore made assessments of contaminant concentrations difficult because of regulatory restrictions on obtaining samples using nonlethal techniques. In the present study, claw and skin biopsy samples were examined as potential indicators of internal tissue burdens in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Significant relationships were observed between claw and liver, and claw and muscle concentrations of mercury, nickel, arsenic, and selenium (p sea turtles.

  12. Biophysics. For certain shrimp, life's a snap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2000-09-22

    On page 2114 of this issue, physicists report that a collapsing bubble outside the claw of the snapping shrimp Alpheus heterochaelis causes its characteristic clack. According to this new study, A. heterochaelis clamps its claw so rapidly that a water jet gushing from the claw first loses and then gains pressure, causing an air bubble in the jet to swell and collapse with a pronounced "snap!" The imploding bubble generates shock waves that stun nearby prey and ward off other shrimp, who have learned to keep their distance.

  13. The neuroprotective effect of Batch-2, an aqueous extract from Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) on 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cell damage%钩藤水提物Batch-2对6-羟多巴胺诱导的SH-SY5Y细胞损伤的神经保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石振华; XI Zhao-Wilson; 王浩; 关鹏; 于鹏; 常彦忠; 段相林; 赵保路

    2010-01-01

    以前的药理学研究表明,钩藤水溶性提取物C-MED-100TM不仅具有抗氧化活性,而且还具有很好的DNA修复和免疫功能.Batch-2是一种新的水溶性钩藤提取物,而它的自由基清除能力及神经保护作用还未见报道.首先检测了batch-2对六羟多巴胺诱导的SH-SY5Y细胞损伤的神经保护作用机制,然后利用红外光谱、HPLC和分光光度技术对batch-2的组成成分进行了分析.结果表明,batch-2具有清除各种自由基的能力,尤其是对羟自由基的清除(25 mg/L的batch-2对羟自由基的清除率为60%),batch-2可剂量依赖性地抑制6-羟多巴胺诱导的细胞凋亡、脂质过氧化水平、线粒体膜电位的降低和细胞内活性氧和一氧化氮的增加.同时,batch-2抑制了由6-羟多巴胺诱导的SH-SY5Y细胞内iNOS和NF-κB蛋白的上调.结果表明,batch-2对六羟多巴胺诱导的SH-SY5Y细胞损伤的神经保护作用是通过清除活性氧和一氧化氮、抑制iNOS和NF-κB表达实现的.成分分析表明,batch-2中的多酚和奎宁酸含量分别为6.43%和0.095 8%.上述结果显示,batch-2的抗氧化机制部分类似于EGCG.对于帕金森病的预防,batch-2是一个潜在具有很好的神经保护作用的天然抗氧化剂.

  14. The effects of thermization on the quality of the chicken claws and the optimization of the process parameters%热杀菌对凤爪品质的影响及其工艺参数的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪蕾; 崔政伟

    2014-01-01

    以真空包装凤爪为试验材料,研究了不同水浴杀菌温度(75、85、95℃)不同杀菌时间(30、60、90 min)下凤爪的质构、感官评价及菌落总数的变化,并在这3个指标的基础上建立凤爪的模糊综合评价模型,通过试验优化和确定凤爪的最佳巴氏杀菌条件.结果表明巴氏杀菌对凤爪的质构影响不显著,能够较好地保证凤爪的口感,且在95℃、30 min的条件下,凤爪的综合评价品质最高.

  15. Teratogenic effect and genotoxicity of acetochlor on embryos and tadpoles of West-African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis)%乙草胺对热带爪蟾的早期致畸效应及遗传毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贤宾; 李少南; 袁丙强; 朱国念

    2011-01-01

    为了评价乙草胺对热带爪蟾Xenopus tropicalis早期发育阶段的影响,采用爪蟾胚胎致畸试验(FETAX)测定了乙草胺对爪蟾胚胎发育的致畸效应.结果表明,乙草胺对热带爪蟾胚胎的致畸中浓度(TC50)为有效成分1.20 mg/L,且能引起爪蟾腹部水肿、面部畸形、脊柱弯曲、尾巴弯曲、头部畸形等多种胚胎畸形.乙草胺的致畸指数(TI)为1.88,具有潜在的致畸风险.爪蟾蝌蚪在亚致死浓度的乙草胺中暴露4 d后,微核和单细胞凝胶电泳试验结果显示,乙草胺可导致蝌蚪血细胞的微核率显著升高,其尾部DNA含量和Olive尾矩两个指标也均显示细胞DNA受到损伤,且随着药剂浓度的增加,对DNA的损伤程度增强.%In order to assess the developmental toxicity and genotoxicity of acetochlor on the early development of Xenopus tropicalis, the teratogenicity on embryos exposed to acetochlor was investigated by modified frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The teratogenic median concentration (TC50) value of acetochlor was 1.20 mg (a. i)/L. Acetochlor could induce a variety of malformations on X. tropicalis embryos, such as facial abnormality, pericardial edema, notochord and tail flexures,cephalic dysplasia and gut malformation. The calculated teratogenic index (TI) value was 1.88, suggesting that acetochlor had a teratogenic potential. Furthermore, the DNA damage was observed on the erythrocytes of tadpoles 4 days after exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of acetochlor by micronucleus test and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis. Compared to the control group, the results showed that the micronucleus frequencies were increased significantly, and the tail DNA and Olive tail moment of Comet picture had significant difference after treatment of acetochlor, which indicated that the DNA of erythrocytes was damaged.

  16. EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh P. Mogle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus and Achyranthus aspera were used against the post harvest fungal mycoflora. All the plants used were found to be antifungal. In particular Eucalyptus globulus, Argemone mexicana, Tridax procumbens and Parthenium hysterophorus were highly inhibitory. These plant extracts can be used for controlling fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes during post harvest as these are eco-friendly and do not cause environmental hazard.

  17. EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FLORA OF BUNDELKHAND REGION OF JHANSI- INDIA AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazada Siddiqui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty plants namely Acacia nilotica (L. Willd.ex delil, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, Cleome viscosa L, Datura stramonium Linn, Euphorbia hirta Linn, Ficus benghalensis Linn, Hyptis suaveolens (Linn poit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn, Jatropha gossypifolia Linn, Phyllanthus niruri webster, Prosopis juliflora, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn. Pers, Tridax procumbens Linn, Zizyphus jujube Linn, Solanum nigrum Linn, were collected from different localities and screened for their antibacterial activity against phytopathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Among all the tested species, nine plant species viz Acacia nilotica, Ageratum conyzoied, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cleome viscose, Datura stramonium, Euphorbia hirta, Hyptis suaveolens, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Prosopis juliflora and Tridex procumbens showed medium to light antibacterial activity against the selected pathogens. Significant antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous extracts of Prosopsis juliflora, Hyptis suaveolens, Euphorbia hirta and Acacia nilotica

  18. Nuuk Basic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Maia; Nymand, Josephine; Raundrup, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    Results of the seventh year of the BioBasis monitoring programme at Nuuk arepresented. Reproductive phenology: In L. procumbens and S. acaulis vegetative phenology is similar to that of 2012, although there was a tendency to produce larger numbers of flowers in most plots. The timing of 50...... % flowering was within the same range as previous years. The flower bud production, the onset of flowering, and the peak flower production of L. procumbens occurred at approximately the same timeas in 2012. A second bud production was recorded 3 September Day of Year (DOY) 246. All plots produced more flowers...... in 2013 than in 2012. The first senescent flowers were recorded about the same time as in 2012. Timing of budding, flowering and senescence in S. acaulis was later thanin 2012. S. glauca buds were observed aweek later compared to the earliest year 2010. First flowering male catkins were observed 13 June...

  19. Analysis of Natural Sensitizers to Enhance the Efficiency in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Rajkumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three vegetable dyes are used for the study: anthocyanin dye from pomegranate arils extract, betalain dye from beet root extract and chlorophyll dye from tridax procumbens leaf. The anthocyanin and betalain, anthocyanin and chlorophyll, betalain and chlorophyll dyes are blended in cocktail in equal proportions, by volume. This study determines the effect of different extraction concentrations and different vegetable dyes on energy gap using dye sensitized solar cells. The experimental results show that the cocktail dye blended using extracts of pomegranate arils, beet root and tridax procumbens leaf, in the volumetric proportion 1:1, using an extraction at room temperature the greatest energy gap (eg of up to 1.87eV.

  20. Adult emergence inhibition and adulticidal activities of medicinal plant extracts againstAnopheles stephensiListon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AbdulAbduzZahir; AbdulAbdulRahuman; AsokanBa=gavan; GandhiElango; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the adult emergence inhibition (EI) and adulticidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and acetone leaves extracts of Anisomeles malabarica (A. malabarica), Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta), Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum), Ricinus communis (R. communis), Solanum trilobatum (S. trilobatum), Tridax procumbens (T. procumbens)and seeds ofGloriosa superba (G. superba) againstAnopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods: The EI and adulticidal trials were carried out according to World Health Organization (WHO) procedures with slight modifications. The extracts were diluted in dimethyl sulphoxide in order to prepare a serial dilution of test dosages (15.625, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and1 000μg/mL). Five duplicate trials were carried out for every sample concentration, and for each trial a negative control was included and the mortality was determined after24 h of exposure.Results: The highestEI activity was found in ethyl acetate extracts ofA. malabarica, chloroform extracts ofO. basilicum, S.trilobatum, acetone of extract ofR. communis, T. procumbens, and seed extract ofG. superba withEI50 values143.12, 119.82, 157.87, 139.39, 111.19, and134.85 μg/mL, and the effective adulticidal activity was observed in chloroform, acetone extracts ofG. superba, T. procumbens, R. communis, S.trilobatum and ethyl acetate extract ofO. basilicum with LD50 values120.17, 108.77, 127.22, 163.11, 118.27, and93.02μg/mL, respectively. Chi-square value was significant atP<0.05 level.Conclusions: These results should encourage further efforts to investigate the compounds that might possess good EI and adulticidal properties when isolated in pure form.