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Sample records for claviceps

  1. A new species complex including Claviceps fusiformis and Claviceps hirtella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Kolařík, Miroslav; Odvody, G.; Frederickson, D. E.; Olšovská, Jana; Man, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, - (2008), s. 95-110. ISSN 1560-2745 Grant ostatní: US(US) Intsormil Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : alkaloids * cenchrus * claviceps Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.279, year: 2008

  2. Determination of chitin in Claviceps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations rich in chitin obtained from the cell walls of ergot fungi were studied by X-ray diffraction and IR-techniques. During the course of fermentation the yield of chitin was determined using a modified procedure according to Ride and Drysdale (1972). A saprophytically ergotoxine producing Claviceps purpurea strain (Pepty 695) was found to contain 7-9 μg glucosamine/mg dry weight of the mycelium in contrast to 3-5 μg glucosamine/mg dry weight of a non-alkaloid producing C. purpurea strain (PUR 212). There was no remarkable fluctuation of the glucosamine content in strain Pepty 695 during the course of fermentation. (author)

  3. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Elna J; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    Results of a survey and study of the Claviceps purpurea group of species in South Africa are being presented and five new species are described. Morphological descriptions are based on the anamorphs and four nuclear genetic loci. Claviceps fimbristylidis sp. nov. on Fimbristylis complanata was discovered wide-spread across five provinces of the country associated with water and represents the fourth Claviceps species recorded from the Cyperaceae. Claviceps monticola sp. nov. is described from Brachypodium flexum growing in mountain forests in Mpumalanga Province, as well as the northern Drakensberg southwards into the Eastern Cape Province. Claviceps pazoutovae sp. nov. is recorded from Stipa dregeana var. dregeana and Ehrharta erecta var. erecta, also associated with these mountain ranges. Claviceps macroura sp. nov. is recorded from Cenchrus macrourus from the Eastern Cape and Claviceps capensis sp. nov. from Ehrharta villosa var. villosa is recorded from the Western Cape Province. Claviceps cyperi, only recorded from South Africa is included in the study. Ergot alkaloid profiles of all species are provided and showed similarity to C. purpurea. Only C. cyperi and in lesser degree C. capensis, C. macroura, and C. pazoutovae produced ergot alkaloids in clinically significant amounts. Several reported species infect invasive grass species, native to South Africa, and thus represent potentially invasive species. PMID:27521625

  4. Genetic diversity of Claviceps africana on sorghum and Hyparrhenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Frederickson, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, - (2005), s. 749-763. ISSN 0032-0862 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cerebella andropogonis * claviceps spp. * clonality Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.718, year: 2005

  5. Ergot fungus Claviceps cynodontis found on Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) in the Americas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Odvody, G.; Frederickson, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2005), s. 1-6. ISSN 0706-0661 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : claviceps cynodontis * ergot * bermuda grass Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.066, year: 2005

  6. Effect of biotin on alkaloid production during submerged cultivation of Claviceps sp. strain SD-58.

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, J. D.; Desai, A J; Patel, H C

    1983-01-01

    Addition of biotin to culture medium NL-406 significantly increased alkaloid yield during submerged cultivation of Claviceps sp. strain SD-58. Alkaloid yield was further enhanced by incorporating leucine in biotin-supplemented culture medium. Increased alkaloid production was associated with an increase in the lipid content of cells and in the number of chlamydospores. Biotin deficiency caused a reduction in alkaloid yield and a parallel decrease in lipid content and chlamydospore numbers.

  7. Die enzymatische Cyclolisierung der D-Lysergsäurealkaloidpeptide aus dem Mutterkornpilz Claviceps purpurea

    OpenAIRE

    Havemann, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Untersuchungen der Bildung der Alkaloidpeptide vom Cyclol-Typ (Ergopeptine) in Claviceps purpurea zeigten, dass deren Peptidgrundgerüst von den nichtribosomalen Peptidsynthetasen (NPRS), LPS1 und LPS2, aufgebaut wird. Diese verknüpfen die D Lysergsäure mit drei Aminosäuren zu einem thioestergebundenen D-Lysergyltripepid, welches in in-vitro-Bedingungen als D-Lysergyltripeptidlactam (z.B. im Falle des Ergotamins als N-(D-Lysergyl-Alanyl)-Phenylalanyl-Prolin-Lactam) von der LPS1 freigesetzt wir...

  8. Biology, Genetics, and Management of Ergot (Claviceps spp. in Rye, Sorghum, and Pearl Millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Miedaner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ergot is a disease of cereals and grasses caused by fungi in the genus Claviceps. Of particular concern are Claviceps purpurea in temperate regions, C. africana in sorghum (worldwide, and C. fusiformis in pearl millet (Africa, Asia. The fungi infect young, usually unfertilized ovaries, replacing the seeds by dark mycelial masses known as sclerotia. The percentage of sclerotia in marketable grain is strictly regulated in many countries. In winter rye, ergot has been known in Europe since the early Middle Ages. The alkaloids produced by the fungus severely affect the health of humans and warm-blooded animals. In sorghum and pearl millet, ergot became a problem when growers adopted hybrid technology, which increased host susceptibility. Plant traits reducing ergot infection include immediate pollination of receptive stigmas, closed flowering (cleistogamy, and physiological resistance. Genetic, nonpollen-mediated variation in ergot susceptibility could be demonstrated in all three affected cereals. Fungicides have limited efficacy and application is weather dependent. Sorting out the sclerotia from the harvest by photocells is expensive and time consuming. In conclusion, molecular-based hybrid rye breeding could improve pollen fertility by introgressing effective restorer genes thus bringing down the ergot infection level to that of conventional population cultivars. A further reduction might be feasible in the future by selecting more resistant germplasm.

  9. Purpurolic acid: A new natural alkaloid from Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew; Beaumont, Claire; Manzarpour, Azita; Mantle, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A novel secondary metabolite from the sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. is described; the structure is based on (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry. It has an elemental composition C10H16N2O7 and is comprised mainly of proline and alanine moieties, although without peptide linkage. Notably, these amino-acids are also components of the cyclic tripeptide side chain of several classic ergoline alkaloids. Designated as purpurolic acid, the new compound is the principal free amino-acid in ergot and its natural abundance exceeds that of the ergoline alkaloids with which it accumulates in parallel during parasitic development. In contrast, it does not accumulate in the fungus in axenic culture, even when ergotamine is synthesised. The extent to which the compound is a metabolite of other ergot fungi worldwide is unknown. Biological activity and metabolic significance also remain unknown, but purpurolic acid could become a biomarker for detection of ergot contamination in agricultural products of temperate latitudes. PMID:26693687

  10. Quantitative and qualitative transcriptome analysis of four industrial strains of Claviceps purpurea with respect to ergot alkaloid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeská Čudejková, Mária; Vojta, Petr; Valík, Josef; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    The fungus Claviceps purpurea is a biotrophic phytopathogen widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for its ability to produce ergot alkaloids (EAs). The fungus attacks unfertilized ovaries of grasses and forms sclerotia, which represent the only type of tissue where the synthesis of EAs occurs. The biosynthetic pathway of EAs has been extensively studied; however, little is known concerning its regulation. Here, we present the quantitative transcriptome analysis of the sclerotial and mycelial tissues providing a comprehensive view of transcriptional differences between the tissues that produce EAs and those that do not produce EAs and the pathogenic and non-pathogenic lifestyle. The results indicate metabolic changes coupled with sclerotial differentiation, which are likely needed as initiation factors for EA biosynthesis. One of the promising factors seems to be oxidative stress. Here, we focus on the identification of putative transcription factors and regulators involved in sclerotial differentiation, which might be involved in EA biosynthesis. To shed more light on the regulation of EA composition, whole transcriptome analysis of four industrial strains differing in their alkaloid spectra was performed. The results support the hypothesis proposing the composition of the amino acid pool in sclerotia to be an important factor regulating the final structure of the ergopeptines produced by Claviceps purpurea. PMID:26827914

  11. Diversidad genetica de aislamientos de cornezuelo (Claviceps africana fredrickson, mantle, y de milliano) de sorgo [Sorghum bicolor (l.) moench.] en Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted in Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, and Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico, in which pathogenicity of two isolates of ergot (Claviceps africana) obtained from the same two locations, were evaluated on six hybrids and three male sterile sorghum lines. Also, a genetic variance indicated signif...

  12. Síndrome distérmica (hipertermia) em bovinos associada à intoxicação por Claviceps purpurea Dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) in cattle associated with poisoning by Claviceps purpurea

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia R. S. Ilha; Franklin Riet-Correa; Claudio S.L. Barros

    2001-01-01

    Descrevem-se três surtos de síndrome distérmica (hipertermia) associada à intoxicação por Claviceps purpurea, em bovinos de leite durante o verão de 1999-2000, em três estabelecimentos do Rio Grande do Sul. De um total de 66 bovinos que ingeriram a ração contaminada com o fungo, 37 (56%) adoeceram até 3 meses após a introdução da ração contaminada. Os principais sinais clínicos foram temperatura retal elevada, pêlos compridos, longos e sem brilho, salivação intensa, respiração ofegante, com a...

  13. Síndrome distérmica (hipertermia) em bovinos associada à intoxicação por Claviceps purpurea

    OpenAIRE

    Ilha Marcia R. S.; Riet-Correa Franklin; Barros Claudio S. L.

    2001-01-01

    Descrevem-se três surtos de síndrome distérmica (hipertermia) associada à intoxicação por Claviceps purpurea, em bovinos de leite durante o verão de 1999-2000, em três estabelecimentos do Rio Grande do Sul. De um total de 66 bovinos que ingeriram a ração contaminada com o fungo, 37 (56%) adoeceram até 3 meses após a introdução da ração contaminada. Os principais sinais clínicos foram temperatura retal elevada, pêlos compridos, longos e sem brilho, salivação intensa, respiração ofegante, com a...

  14. Combinatorial Assembly of Simple and Complex d-Lysergic Acid Alkaloid Peptide Classes in the Ergot Fungus Claviceps purpurea*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Ortel, Ingo; Keller, Ullrich

    2009-01-01

    The ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea produces both ergopeptines and simple d-lysergic acid alkylamides. In the ergopeptines, such as ergotamine, d-lysergic acid is linked to a bicyclic tripeptide in amide-like fashion, whereas in the d-lysergylalkanolamides it is linked to an amino alcohol derived from alanine. We show here that these compound classes are synthesized by a set of three non-ribosomal lysergyl peptide synthetases (LPSs), which interact in a combinatorial f...

  15. Síndrome distérmica (hipertermia em bovinos associada à intoxicação por Claviceps purpurea Dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia in cattle associated with poisoning by Claviceps purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia R. S. Ilha

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se três surtos de síndrome distérmica (hipertermia associada à intoxicação por Claviceps purpurea, em bovinos de leite durante o verão de 1999-2000, em três estabelecimentos do Rio Grande do Sul. De um total de 66 bovinos que ingeriram a ração contaminada com o fungo, 37 (56% adoeceram até 3 meses após a introdução da ração contaminada. Os principais sinais clínicos foram temperatura retal elevada, pêlos compridos, longos e sem brilho, salivação intensa, respiração ofegante, com a boca aberta e, em alguns casos, com a língua para fora da cavidade oral. Os animais acometidos procuravam sombra ou permaneciam dentro d'água. Houve diminuição de 10 a 30% no consumo de alimentos e perda de peso. A redução na produção de leite foi de 30 a 50%. Os sinais clínicos se intensificavam durante o dia e eram diretamente proporcionais à elevação da temperatura ambiental. Os achados de necropsia em um bovino que foi eutanasiado, incluíram leve enfisema pulmonar, principalmente na região dorsal dos lobos pulmonares diafragmáticos. Histologicamente havia moderada hipertrofia da musculatura lisa dos bronquíolos e ruptura de septos alveolares formando cotos alveolares em clava. Nos três estabelecimentos onde ocorreram os surtos, escleródios de C. purpurea foram observados nas amostras de ração fornecida aos bovinos. Os animais afetados recuperaram-se após aproximadamente 60 dias da retirada da ração contaminada. O diagnóstico baseou-se em dados epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos, na presença de escleródios de C. purpurea na ração fornecida aos animais, nos achados de necropsia e na histopatologia. A patogenia e o quadro clínico-patológico observados são discutidos e comparados com outros relatos dessa enfermidade.Three outbreaks of dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia associated with poisoning by Claviceps purpurea are described in dairy cattle in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. During the summer of

  16. Combinatorial assembly of simple and complex D-lysergic acid alkaloid peptide classes in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortel, Ingo; Keller, Ullrich

    2009-03-13

    The ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea produces both ergopeptines and simple d-lysergic acid alkylamides. In the ergopeptines, such as ergotamine, d-lysergic acid is linked to a bicyclic tripeptide in amide-like fashion, whereas in the d-lysergylalkanolamides it is linked to an amino alcohol derived from alanine. We show here that these compound classes are synthesized by a set of three non-ribosomal lysergyl peptide synthetases (LPSs), which interact in a combinatorial fashion for synthesis of the relevant product. The trimodular LPS1 assembles with LPS2, the d-lysergic acid recruiting module, to synthesize the d-lysergyltripeptide precursors of ergopeptines from d-lysergic acid and the three amino acids of the peptide chain. Alternatively, LPS2 can assemble with a distinct monomodular non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) subunit (ergometrine synthetase) to synthesize the d-lysergic acid alkanolamide ergometrine from d-lysergic acid and alanine. The synthesis proceeds via covalently bound d-lysergyl alanine and release of dipeptide as alcohol with consumption of NADPH. Enzymatic and immunochemical analyses showed that ergometrine synthetase is most probably the enzyme LPS3 whose gene had been identified previously as part of the ergot alkaloid biosynthesis gene cluster in C. purpurea. Inspections of all LPS sequences showed no recognizable peptide linkers for their protein-protein interactions as in NRPS subunits of bacteria. Instead, they all carry conserved N-terminal domains (C0-domains) with similarity to the C-terminal halves of NRPS condensation domains pointing to an alternative mechanism of subunit-subunit interactions in fungal NRPS systems. Phylogenetic analysis of LPS modules and the C0-domains suggests that these enzyme systems most probably evolved by module duplications and rearrangements from a bimodular ancestor. PMID:19139103

  17. Pleomorphic conidiation in Claviceps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Kolařík, Miroslav; Kolínská, Renáta

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 2 (2004), s. 126-135. ISSN 0953-7562 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 835.30; GA ČR GA522/02/1206; GA ČR GA206/97/0611 Keywords : c.purpurea * c.zizaniae * rdna Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2004

  18. Claviceps cyperi, a new cause of severe ergotism in dairy cattle consuming maize silage and teff hay contaminated with ergotised Cyperus esculentus (nut sedge on the Highveld of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Naude

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available During December/January 1996/97 typical summer syndrome (hyperthermia and a 30 % drop in milk yield occurred in succession in two Holstein dairy herds (n = 240 and n = 150 milking cows, respectively on the South African Highveld. These farms are situated in the midst of the prime maize and dairy farming areas of South Africa where this condition had never been diagnosed before. The individual components of the concentrate on both farms were negative for ergot alkaloids. Endophytic fungi and/or ergot infestation of teff and other grasses fed to the cows were then suspected of being involved, but neither endophytes nor ergot alkaloids could be implicated from these sources. By measuring the serum prolactin levels of groups of sheep (n = 5 fed the first farm's total mixed ration (TMR or its three individual fibre components for a period of 11 days, the source of the ergot alkaloids was identified. A statistically significant decrease in the level of this hormone occurred only in the group on maize silage (which constituted 28 % on dry matter base of the TMR. The involvement of the maize silage was further chemically confirmed by the high levels of total ergot alkaloids, predominantly ergocryptine, found by LC-MS in the silage as well as in the TMR (115-975 ppb and 65-300 ppb, respectively. The ergot alkaloid content (mainly ergocryptine of the maize silage on the second affected farm was 875 ppb. Withdrawal of contaminated silage resulted in gradual recovery of stock on both farms. Nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus and Cyperus rotundus of the family Cyperaceae has a world-wide distribution and is a common weed in annual crops, and can be parasitized by Claviceps cyperi. Careful examination of the maize silage from both farms revealed that it was heavily contaminated with nut sedge and that it contained minute sclerotia, identified as those of Claviceps cyperi, originating from the latter. Nut sedge was abundant on both farms and it is believed that

  19. Claviceps cyperi, a new cause of severe ergotism in dairy cattle consuming maize silage and teff hay contaminated with ergotised Cyperus esculentus (nut sedge) on the Highveld of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudè, T W; Botha, C J; Vorster, J H; Roux, C; Van der Linde, E J; Van der Walt, S I; Rottinghaus, G E; Van Jaarsveld, L; Lawrence, A N

    2005-03-01

    During December/January 1996/97 typical summer syndrome (hyperthermia and a 30% drop in milk yield) occurred in succession in two Holstein dairy herds (n=240 and n=150 milking cows, respectively) on the South African Highveld. These farms are situated in the midst of the prime maize and dairy farming areas of South Africa where this condition had never been diagnosed before. The individual components of the concentrate on both farms were negative for ergot alkaloids. Endophytic fungi and/or ergot infestation of teff and other grasses fed to the cows were then suspected of being involved, but neither endophytes nor ergot alkaloids could be implicated from these sources. By measuring the serum prolactin levels of groups of sheep (n=5) fed the first farm's total mixed ration (TMR) or its three individual fibre components for a period of 11 days, the source of the ergot alkaloids was identified. A statistically significant decrease in the level of this hormone occurred only in the group on maize silage (which constituted 28% on dry matter base of the TMR). The involvement of the maize silage was further chemically confirmed by the high levels of total ergot alkaloids, predominantly ergocryptine, found by LC-MS in the silage as well as in the TMR (115-975 ppb and 65-300 ppb, respectively). The ergot alkaloid content (mainly ergocryptine) of the maize silage on the second affected farm was 875 ppb. Withdrawal of contaminated silage resulted in gradual recovery of stock on both farms. Nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus and Cyperus rotundus of the family Cyperaceae) has a world-wide distribution and is a common weed in annual crops, and can be parasitized by Claviceps cyperi. Careful examination of the maize silage from both farms revealed that it was heavily contaminated with nut sedge and that it contained minute sclerotia, identified as those of Claviceps cyperi, originating from the latter. Nut sedge was abundant on both farms and it is believed that late seasonal rain had

  20. Claviceps nigricans and Claviceps grohii: their alkaloids and phylogenetic placement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Olšovská, Jana; Šulc, Miroslav; Chudíčková, Milada; Flieger, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 6 (2008), s. 1085-1088. ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Grant ostatní: US(US) Sorghum, Millet and Other Grains CRSP (USAID) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ergot fungi * alkaloid * uplc Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.187, year: 2008

  1. Screening of sweet sorghum accessions for inhibition of secondary sporulation and saccharide measurements in honeydew of Claviceps africana Avaliação de genótipos de sorgo sacarino quanto à capacidade de inibir a esporulação secundária e avaliação da concentração de oligossacarídeos na secreção açucarada de Claviceps africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Bogo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain sweet sorghums (Sorghum bicolor inhibit the secondary sporulation of Claviceps africana, which occurs on exuded ergot honeydew when the parasite is supplied with excess sucrose, which is then transformed to unique free oligosaccharides fructosyl - mannitol and difructosyl - mannitol with spore germination inhibiting properties. Five accessions (BRA-035726-SUGAR DRIP, BRA-035696-THEIS, BRA-036013-MN-4578, BRA-035947-MN-4418 and CMSXS-633 of sweet sorghum were selected among 50 evaluated. These five accessions failed to support secondary sporulation on the "honeydew" exuded from infected florets. There was a higher concentration (%w/v of the free oligosaccharides on the honeydew of these accessions when compared to a hybrid male-sterile grain sorghum. Therefore, a possible strategy would be seek to incorporate a sweet character into "A" lines for hybrid seed production in order to restrict secondary disease spread.Alguns genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor sacarino inibem a esporulação secundária sobre a exudação de Claviceps africana. Estes genótipos fornecem ao parasita uma quantidade excessiva de sacarose, via floema, o qual é transformada em fructosil-manitol e difructosil-manitol que apresentam a propriedade de inibir a esporulação secundária do fungo. Dos 50 genótipos de sorgo sacarino avaliados, cinco (BRA-035726-SUGAR DRIP, BRA-035696-THEIS, BRA-036013-MN-4578, BRA-035947-MN-4418 e CMSXS-633 não apresentaram esporulação secundária sobre a secreção exudada dos floretes infectados. A quantidade de oligossacarídeos nestes cinco genótipos se apresentava em alta concentração (%w/v quando comparado com o híbrido macho-estéril de sorgo granífero. Portanto, uma estratégia de restringir a disseminação do patógeno, pela inibição da esporulação secundária, seria a incorporação da característica doce destes genótipos de sorgo sacarino nas linhas A de híbridos produtores de sementes.

  2. Delimitation of cryptic species inside Claviceps purpurea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Pešicová, Kamila; Chudíčková, Milada; Šrůtka, P.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2015), s. 7-26. ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00788S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : C. arundinis * C. humidiphila * C. microcephala Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.342, year: 2014

  3. Real-time PCR detection of sorghum ergot pathogens Claviceps africana, C. sorghi, and C. sorghicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum ergot is a serious disease that has caused major losses in sorghum growing regions worldwide. C. africana is now the most widely distributed species causing ergot in many countries including the U.S., whereas both C. africana and C. sorghi exist in India. A third species (C. sorghicola) ha...

  4. Preparation of Nanoparticles by Electroagulation From Soluble Exopolysaccharide Produced by Claviceps viridis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flieger, Miroslav; Kantorová, Michaela; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Sobotka, Miroslav; Cvak, Jan; Votruba, Jaroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2004), s. 234-236. ISSN 0006-3592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/00/1283 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : electroagulation * exopolysaccharides * nanoparticles Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.216, year: 2004

  5. De novo biosynthesis of cytokinins in the biotrophic fungus Claviceps purpurea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hinsch, J.; Vrabka, Josef; Oeser, B.; Novák, Ondřej; Galuszka, Petr; Tudzynski, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 8 (2015), s. 2935-2951. ISSN 1462-2912 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ENDOGENOUS GROWTH-REGULATORS * TOBACCO PLANTS * TRANSFER-RNA Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 6.201, year: 2014

  6. Analysis of Claviceps africana and C. sorghi from India using AFLPs, EF-1alfa gene intron 4, and Beta-tubulin gene intron 3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tooley, P. W.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Carras, M. M.; Pažoutová, Sylvie

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 4 (2006), s. 441-451. ISSN 0953-7562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : clavicipitaceae * coevolution * ergot Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.860, year: 2006

  7. First report of Alopecurus arundinaceus, A. myosuroides, Hordeum violaceum and Phleum pratense as hosts of Claviceps purpurea population G2 in Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eken, C.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Honzátko, Aleš; Yildiz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2006), s. 121-125. ISSN 1125-4653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ergot * c. purpurea * erzurum Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.783, year: 2006

  8. Alkaloid Cluster Gene ccsA of the Ergot Fungus Claviceps purpurea Encodes Chanoclavine I Synthase, a Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide-Containing Oxidoreductase Mediating the Transformation of N-Methyl-Dimethylallyltryptophan to Chanoclavine I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorenz, N.; Olšovská, Jana; Šulc, Miroslav; Tudzynski, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 5 (2010), s. 1822-1830. ISSN 0099-2240 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : BERBERINE BRIDGE ENZYME * BIOSYNTHESIS * IDENTIFICATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2010

  9. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B. K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  10. Scientific Opinion on Ergot alkaloids in food and feed

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

    2012-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on ergot alkaloids (EAs) in food and feed. EAs are produced by several members within the fungal orders of Hypocreales and Eurotiales. In Europe, Claviceps purpurea is the most widespread Claviceps species within the Hypocreales. A total of 20 558 analytical results for EAs in 1 716 food, 496 feed and 67 unprocessed grain samples wer...

  11. A review of mycotoxins in food and feed products in Portugal and estimation of probable daily intakes

    OpenAIRE

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Morales-Valle, H.; Soares, Célia Maria Gonçalves; Calado, Thalita; Vila-Chã, Ana; Pereira, Martinha; Venâncio, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that occur naturally in agricultural commodities worldwide. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes and ergot alkaloids are presently the most important for food and feed safety. These compounds are produced by several species that belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Claviceps genera and can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, es...

  12. New combinations for ergot species described under their anamorphic names by S. Pažoutová and colleagues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolařík, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2015), s. 135-136. ISSN 1211-0981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00788S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Claviceps * Sphacelia * nomenclature Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. Doppler ultrasonography for evaluating vascular responses to ergopeptine alkaloids in livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids are produced by non-spore producing fungal endophytes that infect certain species of grasses, most notably tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and the spore producing Claviceps spp. that infect seed heads of certain grasses...

  14. Evaluation of a triplex real-time PCR system to detect the plant-pathogenic molds Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and C. purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Sabrina; Schönling, Jutta; Prange, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development of a triplex real-time PCR system for the simultaneous detection of three major plant-pathogenic mold genera (Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and the species Claviceps purpurea). The designed genus-specific primer-probe systems were validated for sensitivity, specificity and amplification in the presence of background DNA. PMID:26545945

  15. The ergot alkaloid gene cluster: Functional analyses and evolutionary aspects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorenz, N.; Haarmann, T.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Jung, M.; Tudzynski, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 70, 15-16 (2009), s. 1822-1832. ISSN 0031-9422 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Claviceps purpurea * Ergot fungus * Ergot alkaloid gene cluster Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2009

  16. Scientific Opinion on Ergot alkaloids in food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuerle, T.; Benford, D.; Brimer, L.; Cottrill, B.; Doerge, D.; Dusemund, B.; Farmer, P.; Fürst, P.; Humpf, H.; Mulder, P.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on ergot alkaloids (EAs) in food and feed. EAs are produced by several members within the fungal orders of Hypocreales and Eurotiales. In Europe, Claviceps purpurea is the most widespread C

  17. Ergotism in Thailand caused by increased access to antiretroviral drugs: a global warning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avihingsanon, A.; Ramautarsing, R.A.; Suwanpimolkul, G.; Chetchotisakd, P.; Bowonwatanuwong, C.; Jirajariyavej, S.; Kantipong, P.; Tantipong, H.; Ohata, J.P.; Suankratay, C.; Ruxrungtham, K.; Burger, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Ergotism is a toxic condition resulting from overexposure to the ergot compounds produced by various fungi of the genus Claviceps. Traditionally, such exposure was due to ingestion of infected grains, but long-term or excessive use of medications containing ergot derivatives or drug-drug interaction

  18. Scientific Opinion on Tropane alkaloids in food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuerle, T.; Benford, D.; Brimer, L.; Cottrill, B.; Doerge, D.; Dusemund, B.; Farmer, P.; Fürst, P.; Humpf, H.; Mulder, P.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on ergot alkaloids (EAs) in food and feed. EAs are produced by several members within the fungal orders of Hypocreales and Eurotiales. In Europe, Claviceps purpurea is the most widespread C

  19. Scientific Opinion on Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuerle, T.; Benford, D.; Brimer, L.; Cottrill, B.; Doerge, D.; Dusemund, B.; Farmer, P.; Fürst, P.; Humpf, H.; Mulder, P.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on ergot alkaloids (EAs) in food and feed. EAs are produced by several members within the fungal orders of Hypocreales and Eurotiales. In Europe, Claviceps purpurea is the most widespread C

  20. Occurrence and trends of weed seed and ergot contaminants in Oregon grown Poa pratensis and Poa trivialis seed lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to assess the diversity and frequency of occurrence of weed seeds and sclerotia of the fungus Claviceps purpurea (ergot) in certified seed lots of P. pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass) and P. trivialis (rough bluegrass) based on purity analysis at the Oregon State University See...

  1. Studies on Colombian cryptogams XVIII. The genus Stereocaulon (Schreber) Hoffmann (Lichenès)

    OpenAIRE

    Boekhout, T.

    1982-01-01

    Nineteen species of Stereocaulon are treated from the northern Andes, mainly from Colombia. Descriptions and keys are given, with notes on the north-Andean distribution and ecology. Seven species are new for the Colombian flora, viz. St. atlanticum, St. claviceps, St. corticatulum (chem. strain with atranorin and perlatolic acid), St. delisei, St. microcarpum, St. pachycephalum and St. pomiferum. St. crambidiocephalum is reported for the first time from Costa Rica, as is St. didymicum from Ve...

  2. Solid substrate mediated changes in ergot alkaloid spectra in solid state fermentation system

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Lonsane, B.K.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos

    1993-01-01

    Use of different solid substrates resulted in minor alterations in total alkaloid production by #Claviceps purpurea$ 1029c in solid state fermentation system but the changes in the spectra of ergot alkaloids were of significantly higher magnitudes. Ergonovine accounted for 93% of the total alkaloid production in wheat grain medium while lysergic acid derivatives and ergonovine comprised of 66% and 32% of total alkaloids in rye grain medium. In contrast, ergonovine, ergotamine, and lysergic ac...

  3. Rhodococcus erythropolis MTHt3 biotransforms ergopeptines to lysergic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Thamhesl, Michaela; Apfelthaler, Elisabeth; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Kunz-Vekiru, Elisavet; Krska, Rudolf; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Moll, Wulf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Background Ergopeptines are a predominant class of ergot alkaloids produced by tall fescue grass endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum or cereal pathogen Claviceps purpurea. The vasoconstrictive activity of ergopeptines makes them toxic for mammals, and they can be a problem in animal husbandry. Results We isolated an ergopeptine degrading bacterial strain, MTHt3, and classified it, based on its 16S rDNA sequence, as a strain of Rhodococcus erythropolis (Nocardiaceae, Actinobacteria). For strai...

  4. Methods for Mutation and Selection of the Ergot Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Srikrai, Suthinee; Robbers, James E.

    1983-01-01

    A new method is described in which the Salkowski reaction is used for the rapid selection of alkaloid-producing mutants of the ergot fungus. This method was used to investigate the influence of a second mutation with N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) on various mutants selected by a preliminary NTG mutation of Claviceps sp. strain SD 58. Three groups of mutants were used: high alkaloid producers, low alkaloid producers, and auxotrophs. Results indicated that a second mutation of all ...

  5. Ergotism in Norway, part I: The symptoms and their interpretation from the late Iron Age to the seventeenth century.

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, Torbjørn; Elvevåg, Brita

    2013-01-01

    Ergotism is a horrendous disease with grotesque symptoms caused by ingesting specific ergot alkaloids. Mass poisoning episodes are attributable to consumption of grain – usually rye – infected with the fungus Claviceps purpurea. By focusing on possible cases of ergotism, we re-examine Norwegian history from the sagas through to the end of the seventeenth century. Our review – not intended to be exhaustive, or ex post facto to assign medical or psychiatric labels – draws attention to the very ...

  6. Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-11-01

    In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

  7. Drug: D07906 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a04970(146+147+148) Salivary secretion Enzyme: CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] map07048 Antimigraine...INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antimigraine Agents Ergot Alkaloids Ergotamine D07906 Ergotamine (...D07906 Drug Ergotamine (INN) C33H35N5O5 581.2638 581.6615 D07906.gif Claviceps purpurea [TAX:5111] Antimigra...ine; Vasoconstrictor Same as: C07544 ATC code: G02AB02 N02CA02 Ergot alkaloids 5-HT

  8. Ergotamina

    OpenAIRE

    ZERMEÑO,FERNANDO

    2004-01-01

    La ergotamina ha sido aceptada universalmente como tratamiento primario de la migraña. Esta sustancia derivada del hongo claviceps purpurea es conocida desde la antigüedad y usada como tratamiento de la migraña desde 1883 seguido por numerosas publicaciones; sin embargo, otros autores no están de acuerdo y piensan que actúa como placebo. La ergoytamina se absorbe en el tracto gastrointestinal y se excreta en la bilis. Los distintos estudios son contradictorios y recomendamos el uso de medicam...

  9. Permeability of ergot alkaloids across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and influence on the barrier integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Mulac, Dennis; Hüwel, Sabine; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Scope Ergot alkaloids are secondary metabolites of Claviceps spp. and they have been in the focus of research for many years. Experiments focusing on ergotamine as a former migraine drug referring to the ability to reach the brain revealed controversial results. The question to which extent ergot alkaloids are able to cross the blood-brain barrier is still not answered. Methods and results In order to answer this question we have studied the ability of ergot alkaloids to penetrate the blood-b...

  10. Enfermidades do sistema nervoso dos ruminantes no sul do Rio Grande do Sul Neurological diseases in ruminants in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin Riet-Correa; Ana Lucia Schild; Cristina Gevehr Fernandes

    1998-01-01

    Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos das enfermidades do sistema nervoso central dos ruminantes, diagnosticadas na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, incluindo: abiotrofia cerebelar; hipoplasia cerebelar; hipermetria hereditária; artrogripose; hipomielinogênese congênita; abscesso cerebral; listeriose; tétano; botulismo; necrose simétrica focal; raiva; leucose; encefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5; febre catarral maligna; intoxicações por Solanum fastigiatum, Clavicep...

  11. Biogenesis of natural substances - chemistry, metabolism, genetics. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the following main topics is reported: applied genetics in antibiotic drug production (tetracycline); formation of ergot alkaloids by saprophytic cultures of Claviceps paspali and C. purpurea; genetic studies of bacidiomycetes (Oudemansiella mucida). In the antibiotic drug production, the effect of mutagenic factors on biosynthetic activity of S. aureofaciens was studied. UV-light and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NMG) were the most effective mutagens. The genetic and metabolic regulation of biosynthesis of tetracycline was studied by using 14C and 32P labelled compounds. The formation of ergot alkaloids was found to take place only at a certain stage of development of cultures of Claviceps paspali and C. purpurea. It was found that the ergot alkaloids influence the primary metabolism of the producing cell. Experiments with spores of Oudemansiella mucida showed that the spores are very resistant to UV light (lethal dose 43.000 erg/mm2). The effect of gamma rays and NMG was also studied and the biosynthesis of mucidin was followed using 14C labelled compounds

  12. Enfermidades do sistema nervoso dos ruminantes no sul do Rio Grande do Sul Neurological diseases in ruminants in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Riet-Correa

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos das enfermidades do sistema nervoso central dos ruminantes, diagnosticadas na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, incluindo: abiotrofia cerebelar; hipoplasia cerebelar; hipermetria hereditária; artrogripose; hipomielinogênese congênita; abscesso cerebral; listeriose; tétano; botulismo; necrose simétrica focal; raiva; leucose; encefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5; febre catarral maligna; intoxicações por Solanum fastigiatum, Claviceps paspali, Ramaria flavo-brunnescens, Halimium brasiliense e Diplodia maydis; encefalopatia hepática causada por Senecio spp. e Echium plantagineum; cetose; coenurose; e síndrome espinhal.The main epidemiological, clinical and pathologic aspects of the diseases of the nervous system in cattle in Southern Rio Grande do Sul are described, including, the following conditions: cerebellar abiotrophy; cerebellar hypoplasia; congenital hypermetria; arthrogryposis; congenital hypomyelinogenesis; brain abscess; listeriose; tetanus; botulism; focal symmetrical encephalomalacia; rabies; leucosis; encephalitis by Herpesvirus Bovine-5; bovino malignant catarrh; intoxications by Solanum fastigiatum, Claviceps paspali, Halimium brasiliense, Diplodia maydis, and Ramaria flavo-brunnescens; hepatoencephalopaty caused by Senecio spp. and Echium plantagineum; ketosis; coenurosis; and spinal syndrome.

  13. Isolation, characterization, and insecticidal activity of an endophyte of drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  14. Intoxicações por plantas e micotoxinas associadas a plantas em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul: 461 casos Plant and plant-associated mycotoxins poisoning in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 461 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Rissi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento nos arquivos do Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM e revisados os laudos de necropsias de bovinos realizadas entre 1990 e 2005. Foram revisados 2.912 casos referentes a necropsias realizadas por membros do LPV ou a materiais de necropsias realizadas por veterinários de campo que enviaram amostras para avaliação histológica no LPV. Em 461 (15,83% das necropsias, a causa da morte foi atribuída à ingestão de plantas tóxicas. Em ordem decrescente de freqüência, intoxicações pelas seguintes plantas foram diagnosticadas: Senecio spp (56,14%, Pteridium aquilinum (12,06%, Ateleia glazioviana (10,31%, Solanum fastigiatum (5,04%, Baccharis coridifolia (3,29%, Xanthium cavanillesii (3,07%, Senna occidentalis (2,63%, Ramaria flavo-brunnescens (2,41%, Amaranthus spp (2,19%, Vicia villosa (1,54%, Ipomoea batatas, Prunus sellowii e polpa cítrica (0,44% cada, Cestrum parqui, Claviceps paspali, Claviceps purpurea, Brachiaria spp e Lantana sp (0.22% cada. Em um determinado surto o número de bovinos afetados era substancialmente maior que o número de necropsias realizadas. São discutidos os aspectos relacionados à distribuição geográfica, fatores que induziram a ingestão, índices de morbidade, mortalidade e letalidade, sinais clínicos, achados de necropsia e histopatológicos para cada intoxicação. Quando conhecidos, foram incluídos na discussão aspectos relacionados ao princípio ativo e a patogenia da intoxicação.From 1990 to 2005, tissues from 2,912 cattle necropsies were examined at the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology (LPV of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM, Brazil. These tissues came from necropsies performed by faculty members of the LPV or were mailed-in samples from necropsy performed by veterinarian practitioners. In 461 (15.83% of these necropsies the cause of death was attributed to the ingestion of poisonous plants. In

  15. Structural studies of naturally occurring toxicogenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, J. P.

    1977-10-01

    The paralytic shellfish poison (PSP), saxitoxin, is a neurotoxin isolated from Alaska butter clams (Saxidomus giganteus), mussels (Mytilus californianus) and axenic cultures of the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax catenella. The structure of saxitoxin has been determined through the use of single crystal X-ray diffraction. It possesses a unique tricyclic arrangement of atoms containing two guanidinium moieties and also a hydrated ketone. The relative stereochemistry is presented as well as the absolute configuration. The chemical constitution of a tremorgenic metabolite, paxilline, isolated from extracts of the fungus Penicillium paxilli Bainier has been determined. Paxilline represents a previously unreported class of natural compounds formed by the combination of tryptophan and mevalonate subunits. The complete stereostructure of two other fungal metabolites, paspaline and paspalicine, closely related to paxilline but isolated from Claviceps paspali Stammes have also been determined and are presented. The stereochemistries of paxilline, paspaline and paspalicine are identical at corresponding chiral centers.

  16. The role of the Oregon State University Endophyte Service Laboratory in diagnosing clinical cases of endophyte toxicoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A Morrie; Blythe, Linda L; Duringer, Jennifer M

    2014-07-30

    The Oregon State University Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences instituted the Endophyte Service Laboratory to aid in diagnosing toxicity problems associated with cool-season grasses in livestock. The endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophalum) present in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) produces ergopeptine alkaloids, of which ergovaline is the molecule used to determine exposure and toxicity thresholds for the vasoconstrictive conditions "fescue foot" and "summer slump". Another vasoconstrictive syndrome, "ergotism," is caused by a parasitic fungus, Claviceps purpurea, and its primary toxin, ergotamine. "Ryegrass staggers" is a neurological condition that affects livestock consuming endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii)-infected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with high levels of lolitrem B. HPLC-fluorescent analytical methods for these mycotoxins are described and were used to determine threshold levels of toxicity for ergovaline and lolitrem B in cattle, sheep, horses, and camels. In addition, six clinical cases in cattle are presented to illustrate diagnosis of these three diseases. PMID:25017309

  17. Ergotism in Thailand caused by increased access to antiretroviral drugs: a global warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ramautarsing, Reshmie A; Suwanpimolkul, Gompol; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Bowonwatanuwong, Chureeratana; Jirajariyavej, Supunnee; Kantipong, Patcharee; Tantipong, Hutsaya; Ohata, June Pirapon; Suankratay, Chusana; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Burger, David M

    2014-01-01

    Ergotism is a toxic condition resulting from overexposure to the ergot compounds produced by various fungi of the genus Claviceps. Traditionally, such exposure was due to ingestion of infected grains, but long-term or excessive use of medications containing ergot derivatives or drug-drug interactions between these medications can result in ergotism. Ergotamine, typically used to treat migraine, has less than 5% bioavailability due to extensive first-pass metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Concurrent intake of ergotamine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as the HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), can lead to clinical ergotism. A total of 13 cases of clinical ergotism in HIV-infected patients has been published since 1997 (most recently reviewed by Frohlich et al). PMID:24531557

  18. Ergotism in Norway. Part 1: The symptoms and their interpretation from the late Iron Age to the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Torbjørn; Elvevåg, Brita

    2013-03-01

    Ergotism is a horrendous disease with grotesque symptoms caused by ingesting specific ergot alkaloids. Mass poisoning episodes are attributable to consumption of grain - usually rye - infected with the fungus Claviceps purpurea. By focusing on possible cases of ergotism, we re-examine Norwegian history from the sagas through to the end of the seventeenth century. Our review - not intended to be exhaustive, or ex post facto to assign medical or psychiatric labels - draws attention to the very real possibility that many remarkable medical cases may have been the result of the ingestion of highly poisonous and psychoactive food substances. Where possible we highlight explanations given at the time - often rooted in religion or demonology - to explain the disease. PMID:24572795

  19. Perla-101: nueva variedad de sorgo para el estado de Sinaloa Perla-101: new sorghum cultivar for the state of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Hernández Espinal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La nueva variedad de sorgo Perla-101 fue desarrollado en el Campo Experimental Valle de Culiacán (CEVACU, del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP y registrado con el número: 1355-SOG-466-121200/C en el Catálogo de Variedades Factibles de Certificación (CVC de México; esta variedad se adapta a las áreas productoras de sorgo para el estado de Sinaloa. Perla-101, es una variedad de grano crema y se recomienda para condiciones de riego y temporal; el rendimiento promedio de la variedad es de 3 470 kg ha-1 de grano y 22 500 kg ha-1 de forraje verde, supera en promedio 14% y 10% respectivamente, el rendimiento de híbridos comerciales de compañías privadas, que se cultivan en la región bajo las mismas condiciones. Perla-101 tiene mejor calidad bromatológica que los híbridos comerciales en el forraje, con 9.7% de proteína y 66% de digestibilidad, supera en promedio 3.2% y 8% respectivamente, a los híbridos comerciales. Es tolerante a enfermedades que se presentan en la región, como son: ergot (Claviceps african, antracnosis (Colletotrichum graminícola, tizón de la panoja (Fusarium moniliforme y pudrición carbonosa del tallo (Macrophomina phaseolina.The new variety of sorghum Perla-101 was developed in the Valle de Culiacan Experimental Field (CEVACU, of the National Research Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock (INIFAP and registered with the number: 1355-SOG-466-121200/C in the Catalogue of Varieties Feasible of Certification (CVC of Mexico; this variety is adapted to the sorghum-producing areas of the State of Sinaloa. Perla-101, is a creamy-grain variety and is recommended for irrigated and rainfed conditions; its average yield is 3 470 kg ha-1 of grain and 22 500 kg ha-1 of green fodder, it exceeds on average in 14% and 10% respectively, the yield of commercial hybrids from private companies that are grown in the region under the same conditions. Perla-101, has better

  20. Sinaloense-202, nueva variedad de sorgo para el estado de Sinaloa Sinaloense-202, new sorghum cultivar for the State of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Hernández Espinal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La nueva variedad de sorgo Sinaloense-202 fue desarrollado en el Campo Experimental Valle de Culiacán del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias y registrado con el número 2204-SOG-528-090209/C en el Catálogo de Variedades Factibles de Certificación de México. Esta variedad se adapta a las áreas productoras de sorgo para el estado de Sinaloa. Sinaloense-202 es una variedad de grano crema y se recomienda para condiciones de riego y temporal. El rendimiento promedio de la variedad es de 3 210 kg ha-1 de grano y 28 608 kg ha-1 de forraje verde, supera en promedio 8% y 18.1% respectivamente; el rendimiento de híbridos comerciales de compañías privadas, que se cultivan en la región bajo las mismas condiciones. Sinaloense-202 tiene mejor calidad bromatológica que los híbridos comerciales en el forraje, con un 8.3% de proteína y 59% de digestibilidad, supera en promedio 1.1% y 10% respectivamente, a los híbridos comerciales. Es tolerante a enfermedades que se presentan en la región, como son: ergot (Claviceps african, antracnosis (Colletotrichum graminícola, tizón de la panoja (Fusarium moniliforme y pudrición carbonosa del tallo (Macrophomina phaseolina.The new sorghum variety Sinaloense-202 was developed in the Culiacán Valley Experiment Station of the National Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research Institute and was registered with the number 2204-SOG-528-090209/C in the Catalogue of Feasible Varieties of Certification in México. This variety is adapted to sorghum-producing areas in State of Sinaloa, Mexico. The variety Sinaloense-202 has cream grain and is recommended either for irrigation and rainfall areas. The average yield of the variety is 3 210 kg ha-1 of grain and 28 608 kg ha-1 of green forage, which is 8% and 18.1%respectively; higher than the grain and fresh forage yield of commercial hybrids from private companies cultivated in the region. Sinaloense-202 has better bromatologic

  1. Scientific Opinion on Ergot alkaloids in food and feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on ergot alkaloids (EAs in food and feed. EAs are produced by several members within the fungal orders of Hypocreales and Eurotiales. In Europe, Claviceps purpurea is the most widespread Claviceps species within the Hypocreales. A total of 20 558 analytical results for EAs in 1 716 food, 496 feed and 67 unprocessed grain samples were considered in this opinion. Based on the EAs identified in sclerotia of C. purpurea, and recent literature data, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel based its risk assessment on the main C. purpurea EAs, namely ergometrine, ergotamine, ergosine, ergocristine, ergocryptine (which is a mixture of α- and β- isomers, ergocornine, and the corresponding –inine epimers. The CONTAM Panel performed estimates of both chronic and acute exposure for various age groups across European countries. A BMDL10 of 0.33 mg/kg b.w. per day was calculated for the incidence of tail muscular atrophy in a 13-week rat feeding study of ergotamine. This effect was considered representative of the vasoconstrictive effects of EAs and provided a suitable reference point for establishment of a group acute reference dose of 1 μg/kg body weight (b.w. and a group tolerable daily intake of 0.6 μg/kg b.w. per day. The Panel concluded that whilst the available data do not indicate a concern for any population subgroup, the dietary exposure estimates relate to a limited number of food groups and a possible unknown contribution from other foods cannot be discounted. Estimates of exposure for livestock based on example diets and levels of EAs in cereal grains reported suggest that under normal conditions the risk of toxicosis is low.

  2. Species biodiversity of microscopic fungi of common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud. in the rush communities of Lake Glinno

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    Kinga Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were carried out on common reed (Phragmites australis growing on the shores of Lake Glinno and forming rush communities of the alliance Phragmition. 10 plants with disease symptoms were gathered from each of five sites. The isolation and marking of pathogens were performed twice from fragments of leaf and blade tissues with disease symptoms. First, directly after collecting the plants incubated in sterile humid chambers and microorganism cultures on CDA and PDA medium, and then phytopathogen and saprotroph species occurring on dried green material were identified for 2-4 months. The occurrence of 31 species of microscopic fungi overall was observed on the leaves, blades and inflorescences of P. australis, including 2 mycelia of Mycelia sterilia. The most frequently occurring species, present at all sites of Phragmites australis are: Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Doratomyces stemonitis and Puccinia phragmitis, P. magnussiana and two mycelia of Mycelia sterilia. The most common species occurring on blades and inside them are: Acremoniella atra, Acremonium alternatum and Fusarium sambucinum. Sporadically, Ustilago grandis was also observed inside blades. Tiny necrotic stains on leaves and blades were caused by the presence of three species of the genus Leptoshaeria: L. culmifraga, L. eustoma and L. fuckelli. The occurrence of the sclerote of Claviceps microcephala was found in inflorescences.

  3. Improving field production of ergot alkaloids by application of gametocide on rye host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanosová, Helena; Koprna, Radoslav; Valík, Josef; Knoppová, Lucie; Frébort, Ivo; Dzurová, Lenka; Galuszka, Petr

    2015-12-25

    Ergot alkaloids are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry in drug preparations for treating migraines and Parkinson's disease, inducing uterine contraction, and other purposes. Phytopathogenic fungi of the genus Claviceps (e.g. C. purpurea) comprise a major biological source of ergot alkaloids. Worldwide industrial production of these alkaloids derives almost equally from two biotechnological procedures: submerged culture of the fungus in fermenters and field parasitic production in dormant fungal organs known as sclerotia (also termed ergot). Ergot yields from field cultivation are greatly affected by weather and also can be much reduced by pollen contamination from imperfectly male-sterile rye, as only unfertilized ovaries can be infected by C. purpurea spores. Two substances with gametocidal effect - maleic hydrazide and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid - were tested during three consecutive seasons in small field experiments for the ability to induce or amplify the male sterility of rye as well as the impacts on germination of C. purpurea spores and general vitality of rye host plants. Maleic hydrazide was proven to be a highly effective gametocide on both a fertile rye variety and a variety with imperfectly induced cytoplasmic male sterility. It showed negligible effect on germination of C. purpurea spores. Both accurate dosaging of the active gametocidal compound and timing of the application just 2-3 weeks before onset of anthesis proved crucial to achieving high ergot yield with minimum grain impurities. PMID:25639197

  4. Identification of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that bridges the clavine and ergoline alkaloid pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmann, Thomas; Ortel, Ingo; Tudzynski, Paul; Keller, Ullrich

    2006-04-01

    Clavines and D-lysergic acid-derived alkaloid amides and alkaloid peptides are two different families of compounds that have the indole-derived tetracyclic metergoline ring system in common. Previous work has shown that D-lysergic acid is biosynthetically derived from clavine alkaloids. Recent cloning and analysis of the ergot alkaloid biosynthesis gene cluster from the D-lysergic acid peptide (ergopeptines)-producing Claviceps purpurea, has shown that it most probably contains all genes necessary for D-lysergic acid synthesis as well as those that encode the assembly of D-lysergic acid peptides, such as ergotamine. To address the role of the oxygenase genes of alkaloid-gene clusters, the only cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene of this cluster was inactivated by disruption. The resultant mutant accumulated agroclavine, elymoclavine, and chanoclavine in substantial amounts but not ergopeptines. Feeding the mutant with D-lysergic acid restored ergopeptine synthesis; this suggests a block in the conversion of elymoclavine to D-lysergic acid. The gene was designated cloA (for encoding a clavine oxidase, CLOA). Retransformation of the mutant with the intact cloA gene also restored ergopeptine synthesis. These data show that CLOA catalyses the conversion of clavines to D-lysergic acid, it acts as a critical enzyme in the ergot alkaloid gene cluster, and bridges the biosynthesis of the two different families of alkaloids. PMID:16538694

  5. The influence of low temperatures on the incidence of sugary disease on sorghum

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    Bogo Amauri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between pre-flowering climatic conditions and sugary disease incidence was quantified in grain and forage sorghum genotypes at two sowing periods (mid November and mid December. The trials were carried out over the 2001/02 and 2002/03 growing seasons, in Lages, Santa Catarina State. Four commercial male-fertile sorghum hybrids (BR 600-forrage, BR 700-grain, BR 701-forage/silage and BR 800-forage and one male-sterile inbred line (BR 001-A were evaluated. When each genotype reached the flowering stage, 50 panicles were marked and sprayed with a suspension of Claviceps africana (1,000 spores mL-1. Air temperature, humidity and rainfall were recorded through out the growing cycle. Low temperatures three to four weeks prior to flowering, increased susceptibility. At both sowing periods, average night temperatures lower than 15degreesC during the critical period of pre-flowering turned the fertile hybrids as susceptible as the male-sterile inbred to ergot infection. The tested hybrids differed in their ability to tolerate pre-flowering cold stress. Seed set in uninoculated heads under pollination bags was also reduced, suggesting that increased susceptibility to sugary disease was the result of low temperature induced sterility.

  6. [Trehala, a meeting point between zoology, botany, chemistry, and biochemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillequin, François

    2009-07-01

    Trehala is a crude drug consisting of the pupal chambers formed by insects belonging to the genus Larinus that live on several Echinops species of the Middle-East. This sweet cocoon is locally used as human food and also for the treatment of cough and various pulmonary diseases. It first appeared in Western Europe in the collection of drugs from the Ottoman Empire displayed by François Della Sudda during the International Exhibition held in Paris in 1855. On the basis of this sample Nicolas Guibourt (1790-1867) gave, in 1858, the first full scientific description of the drug, its origin, and Larinus nidificans as the main insect species responsible for its formation. Marcellin Berthelot (1827-1907) isolated in the same year the sugar trehalose from the drug and gave a full account of its physical and chemical properties. In 1876, Müntz established that trehalose was identical with mycose isolated from Claviceps purpurea by Mitscherlich. PMID:20027793

  7. Rapid Screening of Ergot Alkaloids in Sclerotia by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Kumaran; Komatsu, Emy; Patrick, Susan; Rampitsch, Christoph; Perreault, Hélène; Gräfenhan, Tom

    2016-07-01

    Ergot is a common disease of wheat and other cereal grains that is predominantly caused by Claviceps purpurea in the field, often affecting crop yield in addition to the environment. Infected grain can be contaminated with dark sclerotia, which contain fungal metabolites such as ergot alkaloids. The occurrence of ergot alkaloids in cereal grain is a major health concern for humans and livestock. Effective and rapid screening of these mycotoxins is crucial for producers, processors, and consumers of cereal-based food and feed grain. Established methods of ergot alkaloid screening based on LC-MS or GC-MS require laborious processes. A novel method using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF) MS was developed to identify four ergot alkaloids. Using dihydroxybenzoic acid as the matrix, ergosine, ergocornine, ergocryptine, and ergocristine were readily detected in individual sclerotia of C. purpurea. The accuracy of the identified ergot alkaloids was further confirmed by tandem MS analysis. MALDI-TOF MS is suitable for high-throughput screening of ergot alkaloids because it permits rapid and accurate identification, simple sample preparation, and no derivatization or chromatographic separation. PMID:27455930

  8. Morphological structure of propagules and electrophoretic karyotype analysis of false smut Villosiclava virens in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rongtao; Ding, Lei; Zhu, Jun; Li, Ping; Zheng, Ai-Ping

    2012-04-01

    The target pathogen Villosiclava virens (teleomorph: claviceps oryzae-sativae) was isolated from the infected rice, where it caused false smut. In our study, the forming processes of the chlamydospores, chlamydospore balls, conidiospores, and secondary conidiospores during the asexual reproduction were observed more precisely and in greater detail than previous descriptions. The microstructure of the infected rice kernel showed that the outer dense chlamydospores piled around the false smut balls grown on XBZ medium; moreover the sclerotia consisting of dense mycelium were found. The different morphology was observed across the different growing conditions. In addition, we observed the nuclear numbers of both the conidiospores and hyphae using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Because the fungus has small chromosomes and the numbers were not previously known, we analyzed the electrophoretic karyotype using a pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) technique. The results showed that V. virens has at least 10 chromosomes ranging in size from 0.6 kb to 6 Mb. The V. virens genome size is estimated to be 23 Mb. Here, we report the morphological characteristics of the fungus and the process of asexual spores forming asexual propagules, along with the first analyze the molecular karyotype of V. virens. These results supply a foundation for further study of the pathogenicity and biology of this devastating pathogen. PMID:22538655

  9. Aptamer-Based Molecular Recognition of Lysergamine, Metergoline and Small Ergot Alkaloids

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    Johan Robbens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Claviceps, which infect cereal crops and grasses. The uptake of ergot alkaloid contaminated cereal products can be lethal to humans and animals. For food safety assessment, analytical techniques are currently used to determine the presence of ergot alkaloids in food and feed samples. However, the number of samples which can be analyzed is limited, due to the cost of the equipment and the need for skilled personnel. In order to compensate for the lack of rapid tests for the detection of ergot alkaloids, the aim of this study was to develop a specific recognition element for ergot alkaloids, which could be further applied to produce a colorimetric reaction in the presence of these toxins. As recognition elements, single-stranded DNA ligands were selected by using an iterative selection procedure named SELEX, i.e., Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment. After several selection cycles, the resulting aptamers were cloned and sequenced. A surface plasmon resonance analysis enabled determination of the dissociation constants of the complexes of aptamers and lysergamine. Dissociation constants in the nanomolar range were obtained with three selected aptamers. One of the selected aptamers, having a dissociation constant of 44 nM, was linked to gold nanoparticles and it was possible to produce a colorimetric reaction in the presence of lysergamine. This system could also be applied to small ergot alkaloids in an ergot contaminated flour sample.

  10. Ergot Alkaloids in Feed for Pekin Ducks: Toxic Effects, Metabolism and Carry Over into Edible Tissues

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    Sven Dänicke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hardened sclerotia (ergots of Claviceps purpurea contaminate cereal grains and contain toxic ergot alkaloids (EA. Information on EA toxicity in ducks is scarce. Therefore, the aim of the growth experiment (Day 0–49, n = 54/group was to titrate the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL for total ergot alkaloids (TEA. A control diet was prepared without ergots, and the diets designated Ergot 1 to 4 contained 1, 10, 15 and 20 g ergot per kg diet, respectively, corresponding to TEA contents of 0.0, 0.6, 7.0, 11.4 and 16.4 mg/kg. Sensitivity of ducks to EA was most pronounced at the beginning of the experiment when feed intake decreased significantly by 9%, 28%, 41% and 47% in groups Ergot 1 to 4, respectively, compared to the control group. The experiment was terminated after two weeks for ducks exposed to Ergot 3 and 4 due to significant growth retardation. Ergot alkaloid residues in edible tissues were lower than 5 ng/g. Bile was tested positive for ergonovine (=ergometrine = ergobasine with a mean concentration of 40 ng/g. Overall, the LOAEL amounted to 0.6 mg TA/kg diet suggesting that ducks are not protected by current European Union legislation (1 g ergot/kg unground cereal grains.

  11. Isopentenyldiphosphate:dimethylallyldiphosphate isomerase: Construction of a high-level heterologous expression system for the gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of an active-site nucleophile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isopentenyldiphosphate:dimethylallyldiphosphate isomerase (IPP isomerase) is an enzyme in isoprene metabolism which catalyzes the interconversion of the fundamental five-carbon homoallylic and allylic diphosphate building blocks for the pathway. The gene encoding IPP isomerase has recently been isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A heterologous expression system was constructed for the gene and used to overexpress IPP isomerase in Escherichia coli. In transformants carrying the expression vector, IPP isomerase activity was increased by over 100,000-fold relative to that of the untransformed host strain. The overexpressed enzyme constitutes 30-35% of the total soluble cell protein and can be purified to homogeneity in two steps. Recombinant IPP isomerase was indistinguishable from that purified from yeast. 3-(Fluoromethyl)-3-butenyl diphosphate (FIPP) is a specific active-site-directed inhibitor of IPP isomerase from Claviceps purpurea. Inactivation of yeast IPP isomerase by FIPP was active-site-directed, and inhibition resulted in formation of a stoichiometric enzyme-inhibitor complex. The site of covalent attachment in the enzyme-inhibitor complex was determined by inactivating IPP isomerase with [4-3H]FIPP, followed by digestion of the labeled enzyme with trypsin and purification of the resulting radioactive peptides by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The primary site of attachment was Cys-139

  12. Ergot alkaloids in feed for Pekin ducks: toxic effects, metabolism and carry over into edible tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven

    2015-06-01

    Hardened sclerotia (ergots) of Claviceps purpurea contaminate cereal grains and contain toxic ergot alkaloids (EA). Information on EA toxicity in ducks is scarce. Therefore, the aim of the growth experiment (Day 0-49, n = 54/group) was to titrate the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for total ergot alkaloids (TEA). A control diet was prepared without ergots, and the diets designated Ergot 1 to 4 contained 1, 10, 15 and 20 g ergot per kg diet, respectively, corresponding to TEA contents of 0.0, 0.6, 7.0, 11.4 and 16.4 mg/kg. Sensitivity of ducks to EA was most pronounced at the beginning of the experiment when feed intake decreased significantly by 9%, 28%, 41% and 47% in groups Ergot 1 to 4, respectively, compared to the control group. The experiment was terminated after two weeks for ducks exposed to Ergot 3 and 4 due to significant growth retardation. Ergot alkaloid residues in edible tissues were lower than 5 ng/g. Bile was tested positive for ergonovine (=ergometrine = ergobasine) with a mean concentration of 40 ng/g. Overall, the LOAEL amounted to 0.6 mg TA/kg diet suggesting that ducks are not protected by current European Union legislation (1 g ergot/kg unground cereal grains). PMID:26043275

  13. Costeño-201: nueva variedad de sorgo de temporal de doble propósito para Sinaloa Costeño-201: a new variety of rianfed sorghum of dual purpose in Sinaloa

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    Luis Alberto Hernández Espinal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La nueva variedad de sorgo Costeño-201, fue desarrollado en el Campo Experimental Valle de Culiacán (CEVACU del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP, con número de registro SOG-200389-182 en el Catálogo de Variedades Factibles de Certificación (CVC de México. Esta variedad se adapta a las áreas productoras de sorgo para el estado de Sinaloa. Costeño-201 es una variedad de grano crema y se recomienda para condiciones de riego y temporal. El rendimiento promedio de la variedad es de 3 292 kg ha-1 de grano y 25 517 kg ha-1 de forraje verde, supera en rendimiento promedio de 8.8% y 12.4% respectivamente a híbridos comerciales de compañías privadas, que se cultivan en la región bajo las mismas condiciones. Costeño-201 tiene mejor calidad bromatológica que los híbridos comerciales en el forraje, con 9.5% de proteína y 64% de digestibilidad, supera en promedio 2.7% y 5% respectivamente a híbridos comerciales. Es tolerante a enfermedades que se presentan en la región, como son: ergot (Claviceps african, antracnosis (Colletotrichum graminícola, tizón de la panoja (Fusarium moniliforme y pudrición carbonosa del tallo (Macrophomina phaseolina. El forraje de sorgo Costeño-201, se recomienda como un material de doble propósito en prácticas de conservación del forraje como henificado y ensilaje.The new sorghum variety Costeño-201 was developed in the Experimental Field Culiacan (CEVACU of the National Research Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock (INIFAP, with the registration number SOG-200389-182 in the Catalog of Feasible Certification Varieties (CVC of Mexico. This variety is adapted to the sorghum-producing areas of Sinaloa State. Costeño-201, is a cream-grain variety and is recommended for irrigated and rainfed conditions. The average yield of the variety is 3 292 kg ha-1 grain and 25 517 kg ha-1 of green fodder, it outperforms on average of 8.8% and 12.4% respectively

  14. Gavatero-203, nueva variedad de sorgo forrajero para el estado de Sinaloa Gavatero-203, new sorghum forage cultivar for the State of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Hernández Espinal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La nueva variedad de sorgo Gavatero-203, fue desarrollado en el Campo Experimental Valle de Culiacán del INIFAP y registrado con el número 2205-SOG-529-090209/C en el catálogo de variedades factibles de certificación de México. Esta variedad se adapta a las áreas productoras de sorgo para el estado de Sinaloa. Gavatero-203 es una variedad de grano rojo y se recomienda para condiciones de riego y temporal. El rendimiento promedio de la variedad es de 2 849 kg ha-1 de grano y 35 367 kg ha-1 de forraje verde, supera en promedio 18.5% y 15.4% respectivamente al rendimiento de híbridos comerciales de compañías privadas, que se cultivan en la región bajo las mismas condiciones. Gavatero-203 tiene mejor calidad bromatológica que los híbridos comerciales en el forraje, con un 7.3% de proteína y 66.4% de digestibilidad, supera en promedio 1% y 6% respectivamente, a los híbridos comerciales. Es tolerante a enfermedades que se presentan en la región, como son: ergot (Claviceps african, antracnosis (Colletotrichum graminícola, tizón de la panoja (Fusarium moniliforme y pudrición carbonosa del tallo (Macrophomina phaseolina. El forraje de sorgo Gavatero-203, se recomienda como un material de doble propósito en prácticas de conservación de forraje como henificado y ensilaje.The new sorghum variety Gavatero-203 was developed at Culiacán Valley Experiment Station of the National Research Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Institute (INIFAP and was registered with the number 2205-SOG-529-090209/C in the Catalogue of Feasible Varieties of Certification in Mexico. This variety is adapted to sorghum-producing areas in State of Sinaloa, Mexico.The variety Gavatero-203 has red grain and is recommended either for irrigation and rainfall areas. The average yield of the variety is 2 849 kg ha-1 of grain and 35 367 kg ha-1 of green forage, which is 18.5% and 15.4% higher than the grain and fresh forage yield of commercial hybrids from private

  15. Caracterização morfofisiológica e agronômica de Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biótipo Virasoro e Festuca arundinacea Schreb: 2. Disponibilidade de forragem e valor nutritivo Morphophysiological and agronomic characterization of Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biotype Virasoro and Festuca arundinacea Schreb: 2. Forage availability and nutritive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Isabel da Costa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial forrageiro de Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biótipo Virasoro e Festuca arundinacea Schreb., exótica e hibernal na região sul do Brasil. Foi colhida mensalmente a parte aérea de plantas individuais, cultivadas no campo durante 12 meses e avaliadas quanto à disponibilidade de massa seca (DMS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra detergente neutro (FDN e fibra detergente ácido (FDA. O virasoro apresentou ciclo estacional, com a maior DMS na primavera/verão (98 g MS/planta, enquanto a festuca teve a maior DMS no inverno/primavera (100 g MS/planta. O virasoro mostrou teores mais elevados de PB nas folhas (19,09% em relação à festuca (17,8%, mas essa apresentou menor conteúdo de FDA (29% em relação ao virasoro (43%; para FDN nas folhas não houve diferença entre as espécies, com médias de 62%. No colmo, as diferenças foram apenas no outono (festuca=19,9%; virasoro=73,9%. O biótipo Virasoro não foi infectado por Claviceps paspali, que comumente ocorre em P. dilatatum, indicando resistência ao fungo. O biótipo Virasoro detém características desejáveis como planta forrageira, sendo uma boa opção para a estação quente.This work had the objective to evaluate the forage potential of Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biotype Virasoro and Festuca arundinacea Schreb., an exotic species in the southern regions of Brazil. The individual plant shoots were harvested for twelve months, cultivated in the field, and evaluated as for the dry matter availability (DMA, crude protein (CP and neutral and acid detergent fiber (NDF and ADF. The virasoro showed seasonal cicle, with the maximum DMA in the spring/summer period (98 g DM/plant, while tall fescue had the top DMD in the winter/spring period (100 g DM/plant. The virasoro showed higher CP in the leaves (19,09% in relation to tall fescue (17.8%, but the latter had the smallest values of ADF (29% in relation to the former (43%; the ADF in the leaves

  16. Gene expression differences among three Neurospora species reveal genes required for sexual reproduction in Neurospora crassa.

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    Nina A Lehr

    Full Text Available Many fungi form complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies, within which the meiotic machinery for sexual spore production has been considered to be largely conserved over evolutionary time. Indeed, much of what we know about meiosis in plant and animal taxa has been deeply informed by studies of meiosis in Saccharomyces and Neurospora. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of fruiting body development and its regulation in relation to meiosis in fungi is barely known, even within the best studied multicellular fungal model Neurospora crassa. We characterized morphological development and genome-wide transcriptomics in the closely related species Neurospora crassa, Neurospora tetrasperma, and Neurospora discreta, across eight stages of sexual development. Despite diverse life histories within the genus, all three species produce vase-shaped perithecia. Transcriptome sequencing provided gene expression levels of orthologous genes among all three species. Expression of key meiosis genes and sporulation genes corresponded to known phenotypic and developmental differences among these Neurospora species during sexual development. We assembled a list of genes putatively relevant to the recent evolution of fruiting body development by sorting genes whose relative expression across developmental stages increased more in N. crassa relative to the other species. Then, in N. crassa, we characterized the phenotypes of fruiting bodies arising from crosses of homozygous knockout strains of the top genes. Eight N. crassa genes were found to be critical for the successful formation of perithecia. The absence of these genes in these crosses resulted in either no perithecium formation or in arrested development at an early stage. Our results provide insight into the genetic basis of Neurospora sexual reproduction, which is also of great importance with regard to other multicellular ascomycetes, including perithecium-forming pathogens, such as Claviceps purpurea

  17. Influence of site, season, silvering stage, and length on the parasites of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France using indicator species method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Jean-José; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The parasites of 425 European eels, Anguilla anguilla, were studied between 2009 and 2012 in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France. An indicator value (IndVal) method was used for analysis, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity. Because of its resilience to detect changes in abundance, IndVal is an effective ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method demonstrated that site, season, silvering stage, and length could influence the occurrence of parasite species in European eel. A randomization test identified ten parasite species as having a significant indicator value for site (lagoons differed principally in salinity: oligohaline to polyhaline for the Biguglia lagoon and polyhaline to euhaline for the Urbino lagoon; the digeneans Bucephalus anguillae and Lecithochirium musculus, the cestodes Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, and larvae of Myzophyllobothrium sp., the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, and encysted larvae of Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan Acanthocephaloides incrassatus, the monogenean Pseudodactyogyrus anguillae, and the copepod Ergasilus gibbus); one parasite species for the spring season (the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus); six parasite species for silvering stage (yellow, pre-silver, silver; the trematodes B. anguillae and Deropristis inflata, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus, the monogenean P. anguillae, and the copepod E. gibbus); and three parasite species for some of the five length classes (the cestode P. macrocephalus, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., and the monogenean P. anguillae). Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the management of parasitism in the populations of European eels. PMID:23739809

  18. Identification of cellular and molecular factors determining the response of cancer cells to six ergot alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrusek, Marco; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Greten, Henry Johannes; Simon, Michael; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Ergot alkaloids are psychoactive and vasoconstricting agents of the fungus Claviceps purpurea causing poisoning such as ergotism in medieval times (St. Anthony's Fire). This class of substances also inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, though the underlying mechanisms are unclear as yet. We investigated six ergot alkaloids (agroclavine, ergosterol, ergocornin E, ergotamine, dihydroergocristine, and 1-propylagroclavine tartrate) for their cytotoxicity towards tumor cell lines of the National Cancer Institute, USA. 1-Propylagroclavine tartrate (1-PAT) revealed the strongest cytotoxicity. Out of 76 clinically established anticancer drugs, cross-resistance was found between the ergot alkaloids and 6/7 anti-hormonal drugs (=85.7 %) and 5/15 DNA-alkylating drugs (=33.3 %). The IC50 values for the six alkaloids were not correlated to well-known determinants of drug resistance, such as proliferative activity (as measured by cell doubling times, PCNA expression, and cell cycle distribution), the multidrug resistance-mediating P-glycoprotein/MDR1 and expression or mutations of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (EGFR, RAS, TP53). While resistance of control drugs (daunorubicin, cisplatin, erlotinib) correlated with these classical resistance mechanisms, ergot alkaloids did not. Furthermore, COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses were performed of mRNA microarray data to identify genes correlating with sensitivity or resistance to 1-PAT. Twenty-three genes were found with different biological functions (signal transducers, RNA metabolism, ribosome constituents, cell cycle and apoptosis regulators etc.). The expression of only 3/66 neuroreceptor genes correlated with the IC50 values for 1-PAT, suggesting that the psychoactive effects of ergot alkaloids may not play a major role for the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of ergot alkaloids is not involved in classical mechanisms of drug resistance opening the possibility to

  19. A rugged high-throughput analytical approach for the determination and quantification of multiple mycotoxins in complex feed matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzuman, Zbynek; Zachariasova, Milena; Lacina, Ondrej; Veprikova, Zdenka; Slavikova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana

    2014-04-01

    We have developed and optimized high throughput method for reliable detection and quantification of 56 Fusarium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Claviceps mycotoxins in a wide range of animal feed samples represented by cereals, complex compound feeds, extracted oilcakes, fermented silages, malt sprouts or dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS). From three tested extraction approaches (acetonitrile, acetonitrile/water, and QuEChERS), the QuEChERS-based method (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) was selected as the best in terms of analytes recoveries and low matrix effects. For separation and detection of target mycotoxins, method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with sensitive tandem mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-MS/MS) was employed. With regards to a high complexity of most of investigated feed samples, optimization of extraction/purification process was needed in the first phase to keep the method as rugged as possible. A special attention was paid to the pH of extraction solvents, especially with regard to the pH-sensitive silages. Additionally, purification of the acetonitrile extract by dispersive solid phase clean-up was assessed. Significant elimination of lipidic compounds was observed when using C18 silica sorbent. Matrix co-extracts were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-HRMS). Large variability of matrix effects depending on the nature of examined feed was demonstrated in depth on a broad set of samples. Simple and unbiased strategies for their compensation were suggested. PMID:24607137

  20. ESI-Mass spectrometric and HPLC elucidation of a new ergot alkaloid from perennial ryegrass hay silage associated with bovine reproductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Andreas F; Duringer, Jennifer M; Estill, Charles T; Tobin, Thomas; Craig, A Morrie

    2011-10-01

    This case report involves four dairies in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, which experienced reproductive problems associated with the presence of a large, previously unidentified, peak eluting at 5 min in a standard ergovaline high-performance liquid chromatography assay of perennial ryegrass silage fed to those animals. Mycotoxin analysis of the silage was negative, as was serological screening of the herds for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine diarrhea virus and Leptospirosis, including culturing of urine for Leptospira hardjo hardjobovis. Prolactin concentrations were low in most cattle, consistent with ingestion of ergot alkaloids. We believe that this peak represents a novel ergot alkaloid-related compound due to its extractability with Ergosil, its detectability due to fluorescence, and its chromatographic retention between ergovaline (mw = 533) and ergotamine (mw = 581). Its molecular weight was calculated as 570 owing to the predominance of a m/z 593.5 ion in the full scan ESI(+)MS and its deduced tendency to complex with Na(+) (as m/z 593) or K(+) (as m/z 609) ions. We offer rationales for elucidation of the structure of this compound, with the closest starting point comprising an m.w. of 566-a fructofuranosyl-(2-1)-O-beta-D-fructofuranoside derivative of 6,7-secoergoline from Claviceps fusiformis. This m.w. requires modifications, such as reduction of two double bonds in the secoergoline component to give the target 570 m.w. Despite the lack of a definitive structure, the analysis herein provides a starting point for eventual elucidation of this apparently new ergot alkaloid, and to guide and encourage further investigation as to its association with endophyte toxicosis in livestock. PMID:21506724

  1. Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) from cenote fishes of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Moravec, F

    1996-10-01

    The cestode Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. is described from the intestine of the cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) from cenote (= sinkhole) Zaci near Valladolid, Yucatan, Mexico. The pimelodid catfish Rhamdia guatemalensis Günther, which also harbored conspecific cestodes, seems to represent accidental or postcyclic host of B. pearsei. The new species differs from congeners mainly by the morphology of the scolex, which is clavate, with the maximum width in its middle part, has a distinct but weakly muscular apical disc; 2 short and wide bothria distinctly demarcated in their anterior part, becoming indistinct posteriorly in the middle part of the scolex, and 2 elongate, lateral grooves. In addition to the scolex morphology, the new species can be differentiated from Bothriocephalus species parasitizing North American freshwater fishes as follows: B. claviceps (Goeze, 1782), a specific parasite of eels in the Holarctic, B. cuspidatus Cooper, 1917, occurring mostly in perciform fishes in North America, B. musculosus Baer, 1937 found in the cichlid Cichlasoma biocellata (Regan) (= C. octofasciatum (Regan)), and B. texomensis Self, 1954, described from Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque), are much larger, with strobilae consisting of relatively short and very wide proglottids versus small-sized strobila (length 26-32 mm) composed of about 70 proglottids, which are only slightly wider than they are long (ratio 1:1-3), rectangular, or even longer than wide in the last proglottids in B. pearsei. Bothriocephalus formosus Mueller and Van Cleave, 1932, described from Percopsis omiscomaycus (Walbaum) in the USA, can be distinguished from B. pearsei, besides the different shape of the scolex, by the distribution of vitelline follicles, which are not separated into 2 lateral fields and are present along the midline of proglottids in the former species. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, a widely distributed parasite of fishes of many families, in particular of cyprinids

  2. Identificação e quantificação de fungos associados a sementes de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo Loureiro da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivos, identificar e quantificar os fungos associados a sementes de azevém, comparar a incidência em diferentes meios de cultura, e determinar o número de escleródios de Claviceps purpurea presentes em amostras de sementes. Foram analisadas 37 amostras de sementes de azevém provenientes de municípios do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná. As sementes foram plaqueadas em três meios de cultura: BDA, semi-seletivo de Reis e semi-seletivo de Segalin & Reis, analisando-se a incidência dos fungos. Para detecção de C. purpurea, foram pesados 100g de sementes por amostra e, através de exame visual, foi determinado o número de escleródios. Os fungos detectados foram Alternaria alternata, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera spp., D. siccans, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp. e Penicillium sp. A incidência de A. alternata variou de 0,0% a 33,7% e freqüência de 89,2% nas amostras analisadas. Para B. sorokiniana a incidência foi de 0,0% a 2,2% e frequência de 62,2%, Drechslera spp., apresentou incidência de 0,0% a 40,3% e frequência de 78,4%. D. siccans a incidência foi de 0,1% a 20,0% e frequência de 100%.Para Fusarium spp., e F. graminearum a incidência foi de 0,0% a 31,0% e 0,0% a 11,3% e frequência de 81,1% e 64,9%, de 0,0% a 43,7% de incidência e 94,6% de frequência para Aspergillus spp. e Penicillium sp. com incidência entre 0,0% a 51,7% e frequência de 91,9%, respectivamente. O fungo C. purpurea foi encontrado em 81,1% das amostras em estudo.

  3. Toxic effects, metabolism, and carry-over of ergot alkaloids in laying hens, with a special focus on changes of the alkaloid isomeric ratio in feed caused by hydrothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Ergot alkaloids (EA) are mycotoxins formed by Claviceps purpurea. Due to the large variation in EA content, the mass proportion of ergot (hardened sclerotia) in animal diets is not suited to establish safe levels of EA. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the dose-dependent effects of dietary EA on laying hens. Ergoty rye or ergot-free rye (control diet) was included in the diets either untreated or after hydrothermal treatment ("expansion"). The total EA levels in five different diets containing 0-3% of untreated or expanded rye were 0.1-14.56 mg/kg (untreated rye) and 0.08-13.03 mg/kg (expanded rye). The average EA reduction amounted to 11% due to expanding. The proportions of the sum of all -inine isomers however were consistently higher (19.5-48.4%) compared to the sum of their -ine isomer counterparts which decreased at the same time. Most of the laying performance and reproductive traits were significantly compromised during the test period between weeks 22 and 42 of age when the diet with the highest EA content was fed. Toxic effects were less pronounced due to expanding. Relative weights of liver, proventriculus, and gizzard as well as the aspartate aminotransferase activity, the antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus, albumin, and total bilirubin concentrations were all significantly increased in hens fed at the highest dietary ergot level whereby expanding additionally modified the albumin and total bilirubin responses. No carry-over of EA into egg yolk and albumen, blood, liver, and breast muscle was found, but bile contained quantifiable levels of ergometrine and ergometrinine. Biological recovery of ingested individual alkaloids with the excreta varied from 2 to 22% and was strongly positive linearly related to the octanol to water partition coefficient (logkOW). This suggests the lipophilicity of alkaloids as a factor influencing their metabolism and elimination. Based on the overall results of this study, a lowest observed

  4. Effects of long-term radiation exposure on the higher aquatic plants in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ) and pinnacle deviations was registered in plants from the most radioactive contaminated water bodies. Also the decreasing of parasitic stability of one of aquatic plant communities' dominant species - the common reed is observed. The data of the mite Steneotarsonemus phragmitidis and the parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea hitting of the common reed, correlated with radiation dose rate. It was determined the positive correlation between absorbed dose rate and chromosome aberration rate in roots of the twelve aquatic plants' species from sampling water bodies. The highest rate of chromosome aberrations (up to 17 %) were registered in plants with high level of morphological deviations in seeds germs, but not panicles. The data obtained from the complex analysis of natural aquatic plant communities from the radioactive contaminated water bodies testify about rather high level of genetic efficiency of low doses of long-term exposure. For higher aquatic plants from ChEZ there is observed a realization of radiobiological reactions on morphological and reproductive levels on the background of genetic instability induced by low doses. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  5. Effects of long-term radiation exposure on the higher aquatic plants in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    germinated seeds) and pinnacle deviations was registered in plants from the most radioactive contaminated water bodies. Also the decreasing of parasitic stability of one of aquatic plant communities' dominant species - the common reed is observed. The data of the mite Steneotarsonemus phragmitidis and the parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea hitting of the common reed, correlated with radiation dose rate. It was determined the positive correlation between absorbed dose rate and chromosome aberration rate in roots of the twelve aquatic plants' species from sampling water bodies. The highest rate of chromosome aberrations (up to 17 %) were registered in plants with high level of morphological deviations in seeds germs, but not panicles. The data obtained from the complex analysis of natural aquatic plant communities from the radioactive contaminated water bodies testify about rather high level of genetic efficiency of low doses of long-term exposure. For higher aquatic plants from ChEZ there is observed a realization of radiobiological reactions on morphological and reproductive levels on the background of genetic instability induced by low doses. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)