Sample records for claviceps purpurea cloning

  1. A new strain of Claviceps purpurea accumulating tetracyclic clavine alkaloids. (United States)

    Schumann, B; Erge, D; Maier, W; Gröger, D


    A new strain of Claviceps was isolated from a blokked mutant of Claviceps purpurea. This strain accumulates substantial amounts of clavine alkaloids (2 g/l). The alkaloid fraction is composed of chanoclavine-I ( approximately 10%) and a mixture of agroclavine/elymoclavine (90%). Most suitable for alkaloid production in submerged culture is an ammoncitrate/sucrose medium. The genealogy of the new strain, designated Pepty 695/ch-I is the following one: Pepty 695/S (ergotoxine producer) --> Pepty 695/ch (secoergoline producer) --> Pepty 695/ch-I (tetracyclic clavine producer).

  2. Influence of tryptophan and related compounds on ergot alkaloid formation in Claviceps purpurea (FR.) Tul. (United States)

    Erge, D; Schumann, B; Gröger, D


    L-Tryptophan did not exert any influence on peptide alkaloid formation in an ergotamine and in an ergosine-accumulating C. purpurea strain. A different picture was observed in a series of related C. purpurea strains. Tryptophan showed a slight stimulatory effect on the ergotoxine producer Pepty 695/S. A blocked mutant of it, designated as Pepty 695/ch which was able to accumulate secoclavines gave similar results. In a high-yielding elymoclavine strain Pepty 695/e, the progeny of the former one, tryptophan up to a concentration of 25 mM stimulated remarkably clavine biosynthesis. Furthermore, tryptophan could overcome the block of synthesis by inorganic phosphate. Increased specific activities of chanoclavine cyclase but not DMAT synthetase were observed in cultures of strain Pepty 695/e supplemented with tryptophan. 5-Methyltryptophan and bioisosteres of tryptophan were ineffective in alkaloid stimulation. These results are compared with those obtained with the grass ergot strain SD 58 and discussed with the relation to other induction phenomena.

  3. The invasive ergot Claviceps purpurea var. spartinae recently established in the European Wadden Sea on common cord grass is genetically homogeneous and the sclerotia contain high amounts of ergot alkaloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boestfleisch, Ch.; Drotleff, A.M.; Ternes, W.; Nehring, S.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Papenbrock, J.


    Roč. 141, č. 3 (2015), s. 445-461 ISSN 0929-1873 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) * Claviceps purpurea var. spartinae * Epimers Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.494, year: 2015

  4. Claviceps purpurea expressing polygalacturonases escaping PGIP inhibition fully infects PvPGIP2 wheat transgenic plants but its infection is delayed in wheat transgenic plants with increased level of pectin methyl esterification. (United States)

    Volpi, Chiara; Raiola, Alessandro; Janni, Michela; Gordon, Anna; O'Sullivan, Donal M; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato


    Claviceps purpurea is a biotrophic fungal pathogen of grasses causing the ergot disease. The infection process of C. purpurea on rye flowers is accompanied by pectin degradation and polygalacturonase (PG) activity represents a pathogenicity factor. Wheat is also infected by C. purpurea and we tested whether the presence of polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) can affect pathogen infection and ergot disease development. Wheat transgenic plants expressing the bean PvPGIP2 did not show a clear reduction of disease symptoms when infected with C. purpurea. To ascertain the possible cause underlying this lack of improved resistance of PvPGIP2 plants, we expressed both polygalacturonases present in the C. purpurea genome, cppg1 and cppg2 in Pichia pastoris. In vitro assays using the heterologous expressed PGs and PvPGIP2 showed that neither PG is inhibited by this inhibitor. To further investigate the role of PG in the C. purpurea/wheat system, we demonstrated that the activity of both PGs of C. purpurea is reduced on highly methyl esterified pectin. Finally, we showed that this reduction in PG activity is relevant in planta, by inoculating with C. purpurea transgenic wheat plants overexpressing a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor (PMEI) and showing a high degree of pectin methyl esterification. We observed reduced disease symptoms in the transgenic line compared with null controls. Together, these results highlight the importance of pectin degradation for ergot disease development in wheat and sustain the notion that inhibition of pectin degradation may represent a possible route to control of ergot in cereals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of chitin in Claviceps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmauder, H P; Groeger, D [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen


    Preparations rich in chitin obtained from the cell walls of ergot fungi were studied by X-ray diffraction and IR-techniques. During the course of fermentation, the yield of chitin was determined using a modified procedure according to Ride and Drysdale (1972). A saprophytic ergotoxine-producing Claviceps purpurea strain (Pepty 695) was found to contain 7-9 glucosamine/mg dry weight of the mycelium in contrast to 3-5 glucosamine/mg dry weight of a non-alkaloid producing C. purpurea strain (PUR 212). There was no remarkable fluctuation of the glucosamine content in strain Pepty 695 during the course of fermentation.

  6. Delimitation of cryptic species inside Claviceps purpurea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Pešicová, Kamila; Chudíčková, Milada; Šrůtka, P.; Kolařík, Miroslav


    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2015), s. 7-26 ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00788S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : C. arundinis * C. humidiphila * C. microcephala Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.244, year: 2015

  7. Pollen mother cells of Tradescantia clone 4430 and Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea are equally sensitive to the clastogenic effects of X-rays

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    Suyama F.


    Full Text Available The Tradescantia micronucleus test is a sensitive bioassay for mutagenesis that may be employed both under field and laboratory conditions. This test has been standardized mostly on the basis of the results obtained with clone 4430. However, this clone is not well adapted to tropical weather, frequently showing problems with growth and flowering. In addition, it is attacked by parasites and insects, a fact that limits its use in field studies aiming at the biomonitoring of air pollution. In the city of São Paulo, Tradescantia pallida (Rose Hunt. var. purpurea Boom is widely distributed as an ornamental plant in gardens and along roadsides and streets, mostly because of its natural resistance and its easy propagation. In this report, we present dose-response curves indicating that the sensitivity of T. pallida and clone 4430 to X-radiation (1, 10, 25 and 50 cGy is similar. The results confirm our previous suggestion that T. pallida represents a good alternative for in situ mutagenesis testing in tropical regions, especially biomonitoring studies in which the exposure conditions may not be fully controllable.

  8. Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (United States)


    1105 Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Luiz H...fungal community and micropropagated clones of E. purpurea was re-established after acclimatization to soil and the endophytic fungi produced compounds...Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench 5a. CONTRACT

  9. Host Specialization of Different Populations of Ergot Fungus (Claviceps purpurea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Cagaš, B.; Kolínská, Renáta; Honzátko, Aleš


    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2002), s. 75-81 ISSN 1212-1975 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/99/0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : ergot * host specificity * alkaloids Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  10. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van Der Linde, E.J.; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav


    Roč. 120, č. 8 (2016), s. 917-930 ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00788S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Alkaloids * Cyperaceae * Phylogeny Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.184, year: 2016

  11. A new species complex including Claviceps fusiformis and Claviceps hirtella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Kolařík, Miroslav; Odvody, G.; Frederickson, D. E.; Olšovská, Jana; Man, Petr


    Roč. 31, - (2008), s. 95-110 ISSN 1560-2745 Grant - others:US(US) Intsormil Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : alkaloids * cenchrus * claviceps Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.279, year: 2008

  12. Evaluation of a triplex real-time PCR system to detect the plant-pathogenic molds Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and C. purpurea. (United States)

    Grube, Sabrina; Schönling, Jutta; Prange, Alexander


    This article describes the development of a triplex real-time PCR system for the simultaneous detection of three major plant-pathogenic mold genera (Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and the species Claviceps purpurea). The designed genus-specific primer-probe systems were validated for sensitivity, specificity and amplification in the presence of background DNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cloning (United States)

    Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. ... named Dolly. There are three different types of cloning: Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or ...

  14. De novo biosynthesis of cytokinins in the biotrophic fungus Claviceps purpurea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hinsch, J.; Vrabka, Josef; Oeser, B.; Novák, Ondřej; Galuszka, Petr; Tudzynski, P.


    Roč. 17, č. 8 (2015), s. 2935-2951 ISSN 1462-2912 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ENDOGENOUS GROWTH-REGULATORS * TOBACCO PLANTS * TRANSFER-RNA Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 5.932, year: 2015

  15. Genetic diversity of Claviceps africana on sorghum and Hyparrhenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Frederickson, D.E.


    Roč. 54, - (2005), s. 749-763 ISSN 0032-0862 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cerebella andropogonis * claviceps spp. * clonality Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.718, year: 2005

  16. Furanolabdane diterpenes from Hypoestes purpurea. (United States)

    Shen, Chien-Chang; Ni, Ching-Li; Huang, Yu-Ling; Huang, Ray-Ling; Chen, Chien-Chih


    Four new furanolabdane diterpenes, hypopurin A (1), hypopurin B (2), hypopurin C (3), and hypopurin D (4), together with eight lignans, alpha-O-methylcubebin, beta-O-methylcubebin, hinoquinin, helioxanthin, 7-hydroxyhinokinin, dehydroxycubebin, justicidine E, and (-)-hibalactone, as well as two triterpenes, lupeol and betulin, were isolated from the dried aerial part of Hypoestes purpurea. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated mainly on the basis of NMR and MS. Compound 1 was found to be moderately cytotoxic toward the KB cell line with an IC(50) value of 9.4 microM.


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    G. Dobrjanska


    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.

  18. Two bromotyrosine alkaloids from the sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.

    , antimicrobial properties etc. Herein is reported isolation and structure determination of two such alkaloids: 16-debromo aplysamine-4 1 and purpuramine 1 2 from the sponge @iP. purpurea@@ collected from Mandapam, Tamil Nadu, India. The structures...

  19. New bromotyrosine alkaloids from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Rodrigues, C; Naik, C; Parameswaran, P.S.; Wahidullah, S.

    Seven new bromotyrosine alkaloids Purpurealidin A, B, C, D, F, G, H and the known compounds Purealidin Q, Purpurealidin E, 16-Debromoaplysamine-4 and Purpuramine I have been isolated from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea. Their structure...

  20. Ergot fungus Claviceps cynodontis found on Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) in the Americas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Odvody, G.; Frederickson, D.E.


    Roč. 27, - (2005), s. 1-6 ISSN 0706-0661 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : claviceps cynodon tis * ergot * bermuda grass Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.066, year: 2005

  1. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea. (United States)

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara


    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG-trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG-trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea.

  2. Evaluation by microarray of the potential safety of Sarracenia purpurea L. (Sarraceniaceae) a traditional medicine used by the Cree of Eeyou Istchee. (United States)

    Cieniak, Carolina; McDonald, Charlotte; Nash, John; Muhammad, Asim; Badawi, Alaa; Haddad, Pierre S; Cuerrier, Alain; Bennett, Steffany A L; Foster, Brian C; Arnason, John T


    The purpose of this study was to assess safety of the traditional antidiabetic extracts of either S. purpurea or its lead active principle, morroniside at the transcriptional level. The overarching objective was to profile and validate transcriptional changes in the cytochrome P450 family of genes, in response to treatment with S. purpurea ethanolic extract or its lead active, morroniside. Transcriptional activity was profiled using a 19K human cDNA microarray in C2BBe1 cells, clone of Caco-2 intestinal cells, which are a model of first-pass metabolism (1, 2). Cells were treated with S. purpurea extract for 4 and 24 hrs, as well as the pure compound morroniside for 4 hrs, to determine their effects. No evidence of cytochrome P450 transcriptome regulation or of transcriptional activation of other diabetes relevant mRNA was detected after rigorous quantitative-PCR validation of microarray results. Our data do not support a transcriptional mechanism of action for either S. purpurea extract or its lead active, morroniside. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajat


    Full Text Available Recently, to meet the needs of botanicals medicinal plants the cultivation directed, require good quality and uniform seeds on form and time.    Tissue culture research to from root of Echinacea purpurea L by the provision of IBA and NAA will be conducted.This recearched aimed to develop an and cultivate qualified Echinacea purpurea L as the raw material for drug foemulation. Tissue culture techniques has  more advantage because it is not affected by the climate, relatively fast production, free contamination of microbial and do not require large tracts of land. The research was carried out considering the need to be developed and cultivated plant Echinacea purpurea L qualified as raw material for the drug tissue culture techniques has advantages because it is not affected by the climate with relatively fast production time, free of microbial contamination and do not require large tracts of land. Shoots multipication done on MS medium using growth regulators GA3with concentration of 3 mg / l. Research foor rof induction on Echinacea purpurea L shoot made by adding growth regulators of IBA and NAA with concentrations with 0, 2, 4 and 6 mg / l respectively. The 2 months incubation periods produced tehe best root induction on the additon of IBA 4 mg / l. It producted 16 roots with a length of 4 cm and relatively lagre in size.Keywords: Echinacea purpurea L., tissue culture, IBA, NAA, plant growth regulators

  4. Digitali purpureae-Epilobietum in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neuhäuslová, Zdenka; Härtel, Handrij


    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2001), s. 211-218 ISSN 1641-8190 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/96/0592 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Digitali purpureae-Epilobietum * phytocenology * ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  5. Study on antioxidant activity of Echinacea purpurea L. extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 5, 2009 ... capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle. (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 5689-5696. Kaiser MG, Cheeseman JH, Kaiser P, Lamont SJ (2006). Cytokine.

  6. What is Cloning? (United States)

    Donate Home Cloning What is Cloning What is Cloning Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. ... clones made through modern cloning technologies. How Is Cloning Done? Many people first heard of cloning when ...

  7. Antiulcer activity of the chloroform extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf. (United States)

    Hisam, Elly Ezlinda Abdul; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Mohtaruddin, Norhafizah; Rofiee, Mohd Salleh; Hamid, Hasiah Ab; Othman, Fezah


    Bauhinia purpurea L. (Fabaceae) is a native plant species of many Asian countries, including Malaysia and India. In India, the root, stem, bark, and leaf of B. purpurea are used to treat various ailments, including ulcers and stomach cancer. In an attempt to establish its pharmacological potential, we studied the antiulcer activity of lipid-soluble extract of B. purpurea obtained via extraction of air-dried leaves using chloroform. The rats were administered the chloroform extract (dose range of 100-1000 mg/kg) orally after 24 h fasting. They were subjected to the absolute ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer, and pyloric ligation assays after 30 min. The acute toxicity study was conducted using a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg extract and the rats were observed for the period of 14 days. omeprazole (30 mg/kg) was used as the standard control. At 5000 mg/kg, the extract produced no sign of toxicity in rats. The extract exhibited significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent antiulcer activity for the ethanol-induced model. The extract also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the gastric wall mucus production and pH of gastric content, while significantly (p < 0.05) reducing the total volume and total acidity of the gastric content in the pylorus ligation assay. The extract possesses antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective activities, which could be attributed to its flavonoid and tannin content. These findings provide new information regarding the potential of lipid-soluble compounds of B. purpurea for the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcers.


    Murthy, V. N.; Reddy, B. Praveen; Venkateshwarlu, V.; Kokate, C. K.


    Alcoholic and chloroform extracts of E. alba T. purpurea and B. diffusa were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. The extracts were given after the liver was damaged with CCl4. Liver function was assessed based on liver to boy weight ratio, pentobarbitone sleep time, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and bilirubin. Alcoholic extract of E. alba was found to have good antihepatotoxic activity. PMID:22556585

  9. Controle químico da "ERGOT" (Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle & de Milliano ou doença-açucarada e das principais doenças foliares do sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Chemical control of "ERGOT"(Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle & de Milliano or sugary disease and the main foliar diseases of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

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    Nicésio Filadelfo Janssen de Almeida Pinto


    Full Text Available O controle químico da "ergot" (Claviceps africana foi realizado em campo de produção de sementes do híbrido de sorgo granífero BR 304 (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench., utilizando-se os fungicidas (g i.a./ha: captan (1250,0, fenarimol (80,0, trifenil hidróxido de estanho (166,7, prochloraz (450,0, chlorothalonil (1500,0, iprodione (750,0, azoxystrobin (150,0, thiabendazole (360,0, procimidone (750,0, ziram (1500,0 e tebuconazole (200,0. Parcelas sem aplicação de fungicida constituíram a testemunha. As pulverizações foram realizadas com pulverizador costal manual, com o jato dirigido para as panículas. O intervalo das aplicações dos fungicidas foi de 4 dias, a partir da antese. Aos 7 dias após o término das pulverizações, a porcentagem de panículas doentes variou 5,4 para o fungicida tebuconazole e 100,0% para a maioria dos demais tratamentos. Para a porcentagem de flores doentes por panícula, os valores variaram de 0,3% a 65,0% para o fungicida tebuconazole e testemunha, respectivamente. Não ocorreu diferença significativa entre as porcentagens de flores doentes por panículas nos tratamentos tebuconazole (0,3%, chlorothalonil (2,5% e prochloraz (3,0%, sendo esses os mais eficientes no controle da ergot. Adicionalmente, o fungicida mais eficiente no controle da antracnose foliar (Colletotrichum graminicola foi o prochloraz, ao passo que para a ferrugem (Puccinia purpurea e a cercosporiose (Cercospora fusimaculans, o maior controle foi obtido com o fungicida tebuconazole. Não houve aumento da germinação das sementes em nenhum dos tratamentos; entretanto, o aumento do peso de mil sementes foi significativo para os tratamentos com os fungicidas prochloraz, chlorotalonil e tebuconazole.The efficiency of fungicides in the control of sugar disease of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. was evaluated in a seed production field of the sorghum hybrid BR 304. The following fungicides and doses (g a.i./ha were evaluated : captan (1250

  10. Protective Effect of Bauhinia purpurea on Gentamicin-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats (United States)

    Lakshmi, B. V. S.; Neelima, N.; Kasthuri, N.; Umarani, V.; Sudhakar, M.


    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ethanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia purpurea and unripe pods of Bauhinia purpurea for its protective effects on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of gentamicin 100 mg/kg/d for eight days. Effect of concurrent administration of ethanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia purpurea and unripe pods of Bauhinia purpurea at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d given by oral route was determined using serum creatinine, serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen and serum urea as indicators of kidney damage. The study groups contained six rats in each group. It was observed that the ethanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia purpurea and unripe pods of Bauhinia purpurea significantly protect rat kidneys from gentamicin-induced histopathological changes. Gentamicin-induced glomerular congestion, blood vessel congestion, epithelial desquamation, accumulation of inflammatory cells and necrosis of the kidney cells were found to be reduced in the groups receiving the leaf and unripe pods extract of Bauhinia purpurea along with gentamicin. The extracts also normalized the gentamicin-induced increase in serum creatinine, serum uric acid and blood urea nitrogen levels. This is also evidenced by the histopathological studies. PMID:20502576

  11. Academic Cloning. (United States)

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.


    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  12. In vivo antiulcer activity of the aqueous extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf. (United States)

    Zakaria, Z A; Abdul Hisam, E E; Rofiee, M S; Norhafizah, M; Somchit, M N; Teh, L K; Salleh, M Z


    Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various ailments, including ulcers. In order to establish pharmacological properties of the leaf of Bauhinia purpurea, studies were performed on antiulcer activity of the plant's aqueous extract. The Bauhinia purpurea aqueous extract (BPAE) was prepared in the doses of 100, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg. Antiulcer activity of BPAE was evaluated by absolute ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer, and pyloric ligation models. Acute toxicity was also carried out. BPAE, at the dose of 5,000 mg/kg, did not cause any signs of toxicity to rats when given orally. Oral administration of BPAE exhibited antiulcer activity (pBauhinia purpurea in the treatment of ulcers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of high pressure pasteurization on bacterial load and bioactivity of Echinacea purpurea. (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Min; Hu, Chun; Raghubeer, Errol; Kitts, David D


    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology was applied to organic Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea) roots and flowers to determine the feasibility of using this technology for cold herb pasteurization, to produce microbiologically safe and shelf-stable products for the natural health products (NHPs) industry. HHP significantly (P pasteurization process treatment to reduce microbial-contamination load while not adversely altering chemical and bioactive function of active constituents present in organic E. purpurea. Our study reports for the first time, the effectiveness of using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology pressure to pasteurize E. purpurea root and flower, and the comparative retention of bioactive phytochemicals. Therefore, this technique can be used in food and natural health product industries to produce high-quality, microbiologically safe, and shelf-stable products.

  14. Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea extract in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Hussain


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of 50% ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea in rodents. Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extract of T. purpurea was administrated in single doses of 50, 300 and 2000 mg/ kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In subacute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administered two doses of T. purpurea i.e., 200 and 400 mg/kg (One-tenth and one-fifth of the maximum tolerated dose, p.o. for 4 weeks. During 28 days of treatment, rats were observed weekly for any change in their body weight, food and water intake. At the end of 28 days, rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology study. Results: In the acute toxicity study, T. purpurea was found to be well tolerated upto 2 000 mg/kg, produced neither mortality nor changes in behavior in mice. In subacute toxicity study, T. purpurea at dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg did not produce any significant difference in their body weight, food and water intake when compared to vehicle treated rats. It also showed no significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental groups of rats apart from a decrease in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate content at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Histopathological study revealed normal architecture of kidney and liver of T. purpurea treated rats. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of T. purpurea and further corroborated the traditional use of this extract as an anti hepatocarcinogenic agent

  15. Comparative evaluation of the polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of propolis and Echinacea purpurea


    Silviya S. Georgieva; Valentina L. Christova-Bagdassarian; Maria S. Atanassova


    Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare total phenolics and total flavonoides, and antioxidant capacity of propolis and Echinacea purpurea ethanol extracts. Methods: Propolis and dried Echinacea purpurea extracts were obtained by extraction methods. The extracts were tested for total phenol and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: The content of total phenolics and total flavon...

  16. The effect of coloured light on Ipomoea purpurea growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surducan, Vasile; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil


    Ipomoea purpurea is a climbing ornamental plant native to Mexico. The paper is describing the experimental setup and results for indoor growing plants exposed to white LED light (inside a reference chamber) and four different wavelength LED lights (inside a measure chamber). Four growing experiments of 12-15 days, took place in identical environmental conditions (identical temperature and relative humidity inside the reference and measure chambers, similar lighting conditions and soil moisture). At the end of the experiments, the plant chlorophyll and xanthophylls content have been measured and the plant aspect (vegetal mass, leaves colour and robustness) has been observed. The smallest content in chlorophyll (a and b) was developed by the plants growth in blue light (480 nm), however those plants where 10% taller than plants growth in white light, but less robust. The higher content in carotenoids and xanthophylls was observed in plants which growth in white and red light.

  17. The effect of coloured light on Ipomoea purpurea growth (United States)

    Surducan, Vasile; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil


    Ipomoea purpurea is a climbing ornamental plant native to Mexico. The paper is describing the experimental setup and results for indoor growing plants exposed to white LED light (inside a reference chamber) and four different wavelength LED lights (inside a measure chamber). Four growing experiments of 12-15 days, took place in identical environmental conditions (identical temperature and relative humidity inside the reference and measure chambers, similar lighting conditions and soil moisture). At the end of the experiments, the plant chlorophyll and xanthophylls content have been measured and the plant aspect (vegetal mass, leaves colour and robustness) has been observed. The smallest content in chlorophyll (a and b) was developed by the plants growth in blue light (480 nm), however those plants where 10% taller than plants growth in white light, but less robust. The higher content in carotenoids and xanthophylls was observed in plants which growth in white and red light.

  18. Why Clone? (United States)

    ... than expected. Could we really clone dinosaurs? In theory? Yes. You would need: A well-preserved source ... it raises a number of ethical, legal, and social challenges that need to be considered. The vast ...

  19. Human Cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Judith A; Williams, Erin D


    .... Scientists in other labs, including Harvard University and the University of California at San Francisco, intend to produce cloned human embryos in order to derive stem cells for medical research...

  20. The bumblebee Bombus hortorum is the main pollinating visitor to Digitalis purpurea (Common Foxglove in a U.K. population

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    Arthur Broadbent


    Full Text Available Specialization in plant-pollinator systems represents an important issue for both the ecological understanding and conservation of these systems. We investigated the extent to which the bumblebee Bombus hortorum (Linnaeus is the main potential pollinator of Common Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea L. Twenty D. purpurea patches were selected in North Yorkshire, U.K., ten each in woodland and garden or park habitat. All insects visiting D. purpurea within the patches were recorded over seventy 30-min bouts. The relative frequency of insect visitors to other flowering plant species within 15 m of each patch was also determined. B. hortorum and B. pascuorum were the two most frequent visitors to D. purpurea, accounting for 82 - 92% and 3 -17%, respectively, of all insect visits (n = 1682, depending on habitat. B. hortorum showed a significant preference for visiting D. purpurea relative to its frequency of visits to other available plant species. The relationship of D. purpurea with B. hortorum, which pollinates several plant species with long corollas, therefore represents a potential case of asymmetric specialization, albeit one that may vary spatially. Because D. purpurea reproduction appears dependent on insect pollination, B. hortorum and B. pascuorum may help underpin the viability of D. purpurea populations.

  1. Plant-endophytes interaction influences the secondary metabolism in Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench: an in vitro model. (United States)

    Maggini, Valentina; De Leo, Marinella; Mengoni, Alessio; Gallo, Eugenia Rosaria; Miceli, Elisangela; Reidel, Rose Vanessa Bandeira; Biffi, Sauro; Pistelli, Luisa; Fani, Renato; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Bogani, Patrizia


    The influence of the interaction(s) between the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and its endophytic communities on the production of alkamides is investigated. To mimic the in vivo conditions, we have set up an infection model of axenic in vitro E. purpurea plants inoculated with a pool of bacterial strains isolated from the E. purpurea stems and leaves. Here we show different alkamide levels between control (not-inoculated) and inoculated plants, suggesting that the alkamide biosynthesis may be modulated by the bacterial infection. Then, we have analysed the branched-chain amino acids (BCCA) decarboxylase gene (GenBank Accession #LT593930; the enzymatic source for the amine moiety formation of the alkamides) expression patterns. The expression profile shows a higher expression level in the inoculated E. purpurea tissues than in the control ones. These results suggest that the plant-endophyte interaction can influence plant secondary metabolism affecting the therapeutic properties of E. purpurea.

  2. Screening of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities (United States)

    Shreedhara, C.S.; Vaidya, V.P.; Vagdevi, H.M.; Latha, K.P.; Muralikrishna, K.S.; Krupanidhi, A.M.


    Objectives: Ethanol extract of the stem of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. was subjected to analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats and mice were the experimental animals respectively. Different CNS depressant paradigms like analgesic activity (determined by Eddy's hot plate method and acetic acid writhing method) and anti-inflammatory activity determined by carrageenan induced paw edema using plethysmometer in albino rats) were carried out, following the intra-peritoneal administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (BP) at the dose level of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Results: The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of BP were significant (P Bauhinia purpurea has shown significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at the dose of 100 mg/kg and was comparable with corresponding standard drugs. The activity was attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents in the tested extract. PMID:20336222

  3. Phytochemical Studies on Bauhinia racemosa Lam. Bauhinia purpurea Linn. and Hardwickia binata Roxb

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    G. K. Sharanabasappa


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the phytochemical studies on Bauhinia racemosa Lam., Bauhinia purpurea Linn. and Hardwickia binata Roxb. The phytochemical study of three plants involve preliminary phytochemical studies, physico-chemical studies, quantitative estimation of primary and secondary metabolites, TLC study and HPLC fingerprint study of ethanolic extract of leaves of three plants. In HPLC fingerprint study, the three peaks at a retention time of 15 min, 17 min and 19 min were identical in B. racemosa and B. purpurea which was confirmed by overlaid spectra. The generated data may be useful in suggesting chemotaxonomical interrelation between three plants.

  4. De novo assembly of Phlomis purpurea after challenging with Phytophthora cinnamomi. (United States)

    Baldé, Aladje; Neves, Dina; García-Breijo, Francisco J; Pais, Maria Salomé; Cravador, Alfredo


    Phlomis plants are a source of biological active substances with potential applications in the control of phytopathogens. Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae) is autochthonous of southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco and was found to be resistant to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phlomis purpurea has revealed antagonistic effect in the rhizosphere of Quercus suber and Q. ilex against P. cinnamomi. Phlomis purpurea roots produce bioactive compounds exhibiting antitumor and anti-Phytophthora activities with potential to protect susceptible plants. Although these important capacities of P. purpurea have been demonstrated, there is no transcriptomic or genomic information available in public databases that could bring insights on the genes underlying this anti-oomycete activity. Using Illumina technology we obtained a de novo assembly of P. purpurea transcriptome and differential transcript abundance to identify putative defence related genes in challenged versus non-challenged plants. A total of 1,272,600,000 reads from 18 cDNA libraries were merged and assembled into 215,739 transcript contigs. BLASTX alignment to Nr NCBI database identified 124,386 unique annotated transcripts (57.7%) with significant hits. Functional annotation identified 83,550 out of 124,386 unique transcripts, which were mapped to 141 pathways. 39% of unigenes were assigned GO terms. Their functions cover biological processes, cellular component and molecular functions. Genes associated with response to stimuli, cellular and primary metabolic processes, catalytic and transporter functions were among those identified. Differential transcript abundance analysis using DESeq revealed significant differences among libraries depending on post-challenge times. Comparative cyto-histological studies of P. purpurea roots challenged with P. cinnamomi zoospores and controls revealed specific morphological features (exodermal strips and epi-cuticular layer), that may provide a constitutive efficient barrier against

  5. Human Cloning (United States)


    Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA). A team of scientists headed by Alison Murdoch at the University of Newcastle received permission...not yet reported success in isolating stem cells from a cloned human embryo. A research team headed by Ian Wilmut at the University of Edinburgh...research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public

  6. Cloning Mice. (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo


    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Transcriptomic Response of Purple Willow (Salix purpurea to Arsenic Stress

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    Aymeric Yanitch


    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation, including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. ‘Fish Creek’ for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism. Four weeks of hydroponic exposure to 0, 5, 30 and 100 mg/L revealed that plants were able to tolerate up to 5 mg/L arsenic. Concentrations of 0 and 5 mg/L of arsenic treatment were then used to compare alterations in gene expression of roots, stems and leaves using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression revealed transcripts encoding proteins putatively involved in entry of arsenic into the roots, storage in vacuoles and potential transport through the plant as well as primary and secondary (indirect toxicity tolerance mechanisms. A major role for tannin as a compound used to relieve cellular toxicity is implicated as well as unexpected expression of the cadmium transporter CAX2, providing a potential means for internal arsenic mobility. These insights into the underpinning genetics of a successful phytoremediating species present novel opportunities for selection of dedicated arsenic tolerant crops as well as the potential to integrate such tolerances into a wider Salix ideotype alongside traits including biomass yield, biomass quality, low agricultural inputs and phytochemical production.

  8. Transcriptomic Response of Purple Willow (Salix purpurea) to Arsenic Stress (United States)

    Yanitch, Aymeric; Brereton, Nicholas J. B.; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Labrecque, Michel; Joly, Simon; Pitre, Frederic E.


    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation), including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. ‘Fish Creek’ for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism. Four weeks of hydroponic exposure to 0, 5, 30 and 100 mg/L revealed that plants were able to tolerate up to 5 mg/L arsenic. Concentrations of 0 and 5 mg/L of arsenic treatment were then used to compare alterations in gene expression of roots, stems and leaves using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression revealed transcripts encoding proteins putatively involved in entry of arsenic into the roots, storage in vacuoles and potential transport through the plant as well as primary and secondary (indirect) toxicity tolerance mechanisms. A major role for tannin as a compound used to relieve cellular toxicity is implicated as well as unexpected expression of the cadmium transporter CAX2, providing a potential means for internal arsenic mobility. These insights into the underpinning genetics of a successful phytoremediating species present novel opportunities for selection of dedicated arsenic tolerant crops as well as the potential to integrate such tolerances into a wider Salix ideotype alongside traits including biomass yield, biomass quality, low agricultural inputs and phytochemical production. PMID:28702037

  9. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Market Available Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products (United States)

    Fresh basil leaves contain chicoric acid, the principal phenolic compound of Echinacea purpurea and purportedly the active ingredient in its dietary supplements. Our group discovered and first reported chicoric acid in basil. This following study examined the distribution of chicoric acid within the...

  10. Fractionation and evaluation of proteins in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balciunaite Gabriele


    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a plant rich in flavonoids, essential oils, phenolic compounds, saponins, polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content in dried roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench after homogenization of roots with liquid nitrogen, extraction in 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS and purification followed by fractionation of proteins using gel filtration chromatography. Total concentration of proteins was measured using the Bradford method, and evaluation of the molecular mass of proteins was accomplished by applying the SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. The Bradford assay revealed that the highest concentration of proteins in fractions collected after gel filtration chomatography was 4.66–6.07 mg mL-1. Glycoproteins, alkamides and polysaccharides in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench are chemical compounds that are responsible for their immunomodulatory properties. However, information about the difference of protein contents in fresh and dried roots of E. purpurea is insufficient.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Some Annonaceae seeds are known to exhibit dormancy mechanisms ranging from possible seed coat impermeability to physiological dormancy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellin (GA GA3 and GA4+7 + benzyladenine (GA4+7 + BA application in seeds of Annona macroprophyllata Donn. Sm (papausa and Annona purpurea Moc. & Sessé ex Dunal (chincuya. The experiment was performed by the application of GA3 and GA4+7 + BA on seeds in concentrations of 0, 200, 400, 500, 600, 800 and 1000 mg L-1. The regulators broke the dormancy of both species. However, application of the GA4+7 + BA mixture had more significant results, with greater increases in germination in A. macroprophyllata than in A. purpurea. Treatments that promoted the highest germinations were GA4+7 + BA at a concentration of 200 mg L-1 for A. macroprophyllata (77% and 200 mg L-1 of GA4+7 + BA and 500 mg L-1 of GA3 for A. purpurea (30% and 29%, respectively. Rate index, mean time and frequency of germination were distinct for both species and both treatments. Although both GA3 and GA4+7 + BA promote germination, the GA4+7 + BA mixture was more effective than GA3 to overcoming seed dormancy of both species, A. purpurea has a harder dormancy than A. macroprophyllata

  12. Effects of fire and nitrogen addition on forage quality of Aristida purpurea (United States)

    Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea Nutt.) is a native perennial bunchgrass with limited forage value that dominates sites with disturbed soils and persists with continued severe grazing. Fire and nitrogen addition have been used to reduce threeawn and may increase grazing utilization of threeawn by...

  13. Fire and nitrogen effects on Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea)abundance in northern mixed-grass prairie old fields (United States)

    Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea Nutt. varieties) is a native grass capable of increasing on rangelands, forming near monocultures, and creating a stable state. Productive rangelands throughout the Great Plains and Intermountain West have experienced increases in purple threeawn abundance, reduci...

  14. Alkaloid Cluster Gene ccsA of the Ergot Fungus Claviceps purpurea Encodes Chanoclavine I Synthase, a Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide-Containing Oxidoreductase Mediating the Transformation of N-Methyl-Dimethylallyltryptophan to Chanoclavine I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorenz, N.; Olšovská, Jana; Šulc, Miroslav; Tudzynski, P.


    Roč. 76, č. 5 (2010), s. 1822-1830 ISSN 0099-2240 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : BERBERINE BRIDGE ENZYME * BIOSYNTHESIS * IDENTIFICATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2010

  15. The Clone Factory (United States)

    Stoddard, Beryl


    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  16. Modulation of liver enzymes by an Iranian preparation of Echinacea purpurea

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    A. Manayi


    Full Text Available Hepatitis B, a common infectious disease of liver, is transmitted by blood and body fluids like semen and vaginal fluid that carry hepatitis B virus (HBV.  In chronic infection, medical care is required to decrease possibility of cirrhosis and liver cancer. In the present report, the hepatoprotective effect of an Echinacea purpurea preparation (Echiherb® has been described in a patient who suffered from HBV infection. The levels of both enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT decreased to their normal level after 6 weeks of treatment. Therefore, this report may provide a new perspective for protection of liver in patients with HBV infection along with other diseases which damage liver cells using E. purpurea preparations.

  17. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

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    Ewa Sommer


    Full Text Available The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in

  18. Cloning of observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G A


    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analysed. (letter to the editor)

  19. Cloning of observables


    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G. A.


    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analyzed.

  20. A potential human hepatocellular carcinoma inhibitor from Bauhinia purpurea L. seeds: from purification to mechanism exploration. (United States)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Wong, Jack Ho; Pan, Wen Liang; Chan, Yau Sang; Ye, Xiu Juan; Ng, Tzi Bun


    A 20-kDa Kunitz-type trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor, Bauhinia purpurea trypsin inhibitor (BPLTI), has been isolated from the seeds of B. purpurea L. by using liquid chromatography procedures that involved ion exchange chromatography on Sp-Sepharose and Mono S and gel filtration on Superdex 75. BPLTI demonstrated protease inhibitory activities of 7226 BAEE units/mg and 65 BTEE units/mg toward trypsin and α-chymotrypsin, respectively. BPLTI was relatively thermal (0-60°C) and pH (3-10) stable and its activity could be decreased by dithiothreitol treatment. BPLTI exhibited a wide spectrum of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities especially on human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells. However, it was devoid of a significant antiproliferative effect on immortal human hepatic WRL 68 cells. We show here that BPLTI stimulates apoptosis in Hep G2 cells, including (1) evoking DNA damage including the production of chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies; (2) induction of cell apoptosis/necrosis; (3) mitochondrial membrane depolarization; and (4) increasing the production of cytokines. Taken together, our findings show for the first time that purified protease inhibitor from B. purpurea L. seeds is a promising candidate for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Evaluation of Cichoric Acid of Echinacea purpurea Extract under Different Ecological Conditions in Semnan Province Iran

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    Elahe Rostami


    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea is an herbaceous perennial plant as members of the Asteraceae family. It is one the important medicinal plant in pharmacy industrial. Active substances of Echinaceae are amplifier of body's immune system and antivirus. Echinacea is not native to Iran. The phytochemical traits of medicinal plants depend on ecological conditions involving growing areas, climate conditions; various grow stages and genetic modifications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of cichoric acid of E. purpurea extract in different ecological conditions in Semnan, Iran. Dormancy in seeds was broken by treating them with strafication in 4 °C for 48 h, was grown in nursery beds for autumn and early winter and transfered to four areas with different ecological conditions in late winter. Chashm, Ahuvan, Semnan and Foladmahale were chosen for this experiment. The spacing of plantlet was about 25 × 45 cm in the field. After 2- 3 months, aerial parts of the plants collected in all areas and extract samples were prepared and characterized using high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The components of a basic HPLC system were shown significant values of the cichoric acid in plants under four habitats. The level of cichoric acid in one condition was more than standards level that reported in another references. In addition, ecological diversities have significant impacts the quantity of cichoric acid in E. purpurea.   

  2. Spondias purpurea L. (Anacardiaceae: Antioxidant and Antiulcer Activities of the Leaf Hexane Extract

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    Cynthia Layse Ferreira de Almeida


    Full Text Available Spondias purpurea is used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea and diuresis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical profile and antioxidant and antiulcer activities of the hexane extract of the leaves of S. purpurea (SpHE. Phytochemical profile was evaluated via thin layer chromatography (TLC and HPLC. SpHE was screened for antioxidant activities using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and phosphomolybdenum assays. To determine its antiulcer properties, animals were pretreated with injured control, lansoprazole, ranitidine, carbenoxolone, or SpHE (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg and were screened; acute ulcers were induced by HCl/ethanol, absolute ethanol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID. TLC revealed the presence of flavonoids, whereas HPLC analysis showed the presence of caffeic acid and epigallocatechin. The phenolic compounds and in vitro assays showed antioxidant activity. After gastric ulcer induction by using HCl/ethanol, SpHE reduced the area of ulcerative lesions by 82, 91, and 88%, respectively. In ethanol, SpHE reduced the area of ulcerative lesions by 77, 93, and 92%, respectively. In the NSAID, the percentages of protection were 70, 76, and 78%, respectively. SpHE promoted the minimization of ulcers, increased the levels of reduced glutathione, and decreased tumor necrosis factor. S. purpurea has antioxidant and antiulcer properties.

  3. Predicting the distribution of Stipa purpurea across the Tibetan Plateau via the MaxEnt model. (United States)

    Ma, Baibing; Sun, Jian


    The ecosystems across Tibetan Plateau are changing rapidly under the influence of climate warming, which has caused substantial changes in spatial and temporal environmental patterns. Stipa purpurea, as a dominant herbsage resource in alpine steppe, has a great influence on animal husbandry in the Tibetan Plateau. Global warming has been forecasted to continue in the future (2050s, 2070s), questioning the future distribution of S. purpurea and its response to climate change. The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling, due to its multiple advantages (e.g. uses presence-only data, performs well with incomplete data, and requires small sample sizes and gaps), has been used to understand species environment relationships and predict species distributions across locations that have not been sampled. Annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, temperature seasonality, altitude, and precipitation during the driest month, significantly affected the distribution of S. purpurea. Only 0.70% of the Tibetan Plateau area included a very highly suitable habitat (habitat suitability [HS] = 0.8-1.0). Highly suitable habitat (HS = 0.6-0.8), moderately suitable habitat (HS = 0.4-0.6), and unsuitable habitat (HS = 0.2-0.4) occupied 6.20, 14.30 and 22.40% of the Tibetan Plateau area, respectively, and the majority (56.40%) of the Tibetan Plateau area constituted a highly unsuitable habitat (HS = 0-0.2). In addition, the response curves of species ecological suitability simulated by generalized additive model nearly corresponded with the response curves generated by the MaxEnt model. At a temporal scale, the habitat suitability of S. purpurea tends to increase from the 1990s to 2050s, but decline from the 2050s to 2070s. At a spatial scale, the future distribution of S. purpurea will not exhibit sweeping changes and will remain in the central and southeastern regions of the Tibetan Plateau. These results benefit the local animal husbandry and provide evidence for establishing

  4. Activities and prevalence of proteobacteria members colonizing Echinacea purpurea fully account for in vitro macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of this botanical (United States)

    Evidence supports the theory that bacterial communities colonizing Echinacea purpurea contribute to the innate immune enhancing activity of this botanical. Previously we reported that only about half of the variation in in vitro monocyte stimulating activity exhibited by E. purpurea extracts could ...

  5. Effect of UV irradiation on Echinaceae purpureae interactions with free radicals examined by an X-band (9.3 GHz) EPR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    The effect of UVA (315-400 nm) irradiation on Echinaceae purpureae interactions with free radicals was examined by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The changes of antioxidant properties of E. purpureae with time of UV irradiation from 10 to 110 min (10 min steps) were determined. DPPH as the paramagnetic reference was used in this study. Changes of EPR signals of the reference after interactions with nonirradiated and UV-irradiated E. purpureae were detected. Interactions of the tested E. purpureae samples caused decrease of the EPR signal of DPPH as the result of its antioxidant properties. The decrease of the amplitude of EPR line of DPPH was lower for interactions with UV-irradiated E. purpureae . EPR examination confirmed antioxidant properties of E. purpureae . The weaker antioxidant properties of E. purpureae after UV irradiation were pointed out. E. purpureae should be storage in the dark. The tests bring to light usefulness of electron paramagnetic resonance with microwave frequency of 9.3 GHz (an X-band) in examination of storage conditions of pharmacological herbs.

  6. [Simulation of Stipa purpurea distribution pattern on Tibetan Plateau based on MaxEnt model and GIS]. (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-jun; Zhang, Yi-li; Yu, Hai-bin


    The impact of climate change on species distribution is a hot issue in biogeography research. This study utilized the constructive species Stipa purpurea as the research object, which was widely distributed in alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau, investigated its distribution in the Tibetan Plateau through the field survey and herbarium search, and used MaxEnt model to simulate its historical, current and future distribution trends to analyze its distribution pattern in each historical period and explore the cause of species distribution changes. Research results showed that diversity of Stipa species in alpine grassland of the Tibetan Plateau was high, its main distribution area was the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau and areas along the Himalaya, and its distribution was strongly affected by precipitation of warmest quarter, precipitation of wettest quarter and annual precipitation. According to the distribution pattern of S. purpurea in the Last Glacial Maximum, and geographical and geological features of the Tibetan Plateau, this paper proposed that: North Tibet core area of South Qiangtang and Ali region of west Himalaya mountainous area were the core area of the potential distribution for S. purpurea, since these regions could provide more suitable habitats for S. purpurea than other regions and be the refugia where the current S. purpurea was migrated and differentiated from. The presence of refugia may contribute to the understanding of related issues of the alpine plants' origin and differentiation in the Tibetan Plateau.

  7. Multipartite asymmetric quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iblisdir, S.; Gisin, N.; Acin, A.; Cerf, N.J.; Filip, R.; Fiurasek, J.


    We investigate the optimal distribution of quantum information over multipartite systems in asymmetric settings. We introduce cloning transformations that take N identical replicas of a pure state in any dimension as input and yield a collection of clones with nonidentical fidelities. As an example, if the clones are partitioned into a set of M A clones with fidelity F A and another set of M B clones with fidelity F B , the trade-off between these fidelities is analyzed, and particular cases of optimal N→M A +M B cloning machines are exhibited. We also present an optimal 1→1+1+1 cloning machine, which is an example of a tripartite fully asymmetric cloner. Finally, it is shown how these cloning machines can be optically realized

  8. Quantum cloning and signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.; Weihs, G.; Zeilinger, A.


    We discuss the close connections between cloning of quantum states and superluminal signaling. We present an optimal universal cloning machine based on stimulated emission recently proposed by the authors. As an instructive example, we show how a scheme for superluminal communication based on this cloning machine fails. (Authors)

  9. Effect of Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae aqueous extract on antibody response to Bothrops asper venom and immune cell response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chaves


    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea roots on the murine antibody response to Bothrops asper snake venom in vivo was studied. Three groups were used. Group #1, baseline control, was treated with snake venom plus PBS. Group #2 was treated with snake venom plus sodium alginate as adjuvant (routine method used at Instituto Clodomiro Picado, and group #3 or experimental group, was treated with snake venom plus aqueous extract of E. purpurea root as adjuvant. In all groups, the first inoculation was done with Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA. By the time of the second bleeding, mice in group #3 showed a remarkable increment in the level of anti-venom antibodies compared with those in groups #1 or #2. In vitro immune cell proliferation as a response to aqueous extract of E. purpurea root was studied using human lymphocytes activated with different lectins (Con A, PHA and PWM. In all cases, increase in percentage of lymphoproliferation was greater when E. purpurea root extract was used in addition to individual lectins. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 113-119. Epub 2007 March. 31.Se estudió in vivo, el efecto del extracto acuoso de las raíces de Echinacea purpurea en la respuesta de los anticuerpos murinos al veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper. El grupo 1 control, fue tratado con el veneno y PBS. El grupo 2 con veneno y alginato de sodio (método utilizado en el Instituto Clodomiro Picado, y el grupo 3 o experimental, con veneno y extracto acuoso de las raíces de E. purpurea. En todos los grupos, la primera inmunización fue hecha con FCA (Freund’s Complete Adjuvant. En las muestras correspondientes a la segunda sangría, los ratones del grupo 3 mostraron un marcado incremento en el nivel de anticuerpos, en comparación con los ratones de los otros grupos. También se determinó la proliferación de células inmunes in vitro, como respuesta al extracto acuoso de la raíz de E. purpurea, utilizando linfocitos humanos activados con

  10. Sideritis romana L. subsp. purpurea (Tal. ex Benth.) Heywood, a new chemotype from Montenegro. (United States)

    Garzoli, Stefania; Božović, Mijat; Baldisserotto, Anna; Andreotti, Elisa; Pepi, Federico; Tadić, Vanja; Manfredini, Stefano; Ragno, Rino


    A study on essential oil fractions of the Western Balkan endemic Sideritis romana L. subsp. purpurea (Tal. ex Benth.) Heywood collected in Montenegro is reported. The 24-h systematic steam distillation extraction procedure was performed. The gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analysis of the fractions showed γ-elemene and spathulenol as two main constituents, revealing a new chemotype of this plant species. Although varying in the content of these two main compounds, which makes the fractions quite different between each other, evaluation of the anti-Candida activity showed the lack of any significant efficacy.

  11. Crosslinked Spondia purpurea gum: NaCl and p H effects on the gel absorption capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Joao Batista A.; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Paula, Regina C.M.; Paula, Haroldo C.B.


    Exudate gum from Spondia purpurea tree was cross linked with epichlorohydrin and its swelling behaviour as a function of Na Cl concentration and pH was investigated. Preliminary structural study was carried out by C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The gum was found to absorb 35 time its own weight in water. Swelling increased with pH, being maximal in the pH range 8-10. The equilibrium water content was found to decrease with increasing Na Cl concentration. (author)

  12. A new locality of orchid Orchis purpurea Huds. in Cieszyn Foothills (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beczała Tomasz


    Full Text Available Orchis purpurea Huds. is protected species both in the Czech Republic and Poland. In 2014 a new locality was found in Kojkovice (district Třinec in the Cieszyn Foothils near border with Poland. The only one blooming individual was observed in 2014 and 2015 but it was accompanied by other 6 orchid species, that were much more abundant, as: Orchis pallens, Orchis mascula subsp. signifera, Listera ovata, Platanthera bifolia, Cephalanthera damasonium, Neottia nidus-avis. The Kojkovice forest deserves to be protected area due to abundant occurrence of many orchids.

  13. Indole-diterpenes and ergot alkaloids in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) infected with Claviceps cynodontis from an outbreak of tremors in cattle. (United States)

    Uhlig, Silvio; Botha, Christo J; Vrålstad, Trude; Rolén, Elin; Miles, Christopher O


    Tremorgenic syndromes in mammals are commonly associated with indole-diterpenoid alkaloids of fungal origin. Cattle are sometimes affected by tremors (also called "staggers") when they graze on toxic grass pastures, and Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon , kweek) has been known to be associated with tremors for several decades. This study reports the identification of paspalitrems and paspaline-like indole-diterpenes in the seedheads of Claviceps cynodontis -infected Bermuda grass collected from a pasture that had caused a staggers syndrome in cattle in South Africa and thereby links the condition to specific mycotoxins. The highest concentration (about 150 mg/kg) was found for paspalitrem B. Ergonovine and ergine (lysergic acid amide), together with their C-8 epimers, were found to co-occur with the indole-diterpenes at concentrations of about 10 microg/kg. The indole-diterpene profile of the extract from the ergotized Bermuda grass was similar to that of Claviceps paspali sclerotia. However, the C. paspali sclerotia contained in addition agroclavine and elymoclavine. This is the first study linking tremors associated with grazing of Bermuda grass to specific tremorgenic indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins.

  14. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae) (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  15. Methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf possesses anti-ulcer activity. (United States)

    Zakaria, Z A; Abdul Hisam, E E; Norhafizah, M; Rofiee, M S; Othman, F; Hasiah, A H; Vasudevan, M


    The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-ulcer activity of a methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf (MEBP). MEBP was administered at doses of 100, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg and its effects on acute toxicity, absolute ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, and pyloric ligation tests in rats were investigated. At a dose of 5,000 mg/kg, MEBP did not cause any signs of toxicity in rats when given orally. Oral administration of MEBP exerted anti-ulcer activity (p < 0.05) in all models tested. However, a dose-dependent protection was observed only in the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration model. Histological studies supported the observed anti-ulcer activity of MEBP. In the pyloric ligation assay, MEBP significantly increased gastric wall mucus secretion (p < 0.05), but did not affect the acidity of the gastric contents. MEBP exhibited anti-ulcer activity, which could be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins or other polyphenols, thereby validating the traditional use of B. purpurea in the treatment of ulcers. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The demosponge Pseudoceratina purpurea as a new source of fibrous chitin. (United States)

    Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Sonia; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Lim, Swee-Cheng; Meissner, Heike; Tabachnick, Konstantin; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Youssef, Diaa T A; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N; Petrenko, Iaroslav; Wysokowski, Marcin; Bechmann, Nicole; Joseph, Yvonne; Jesionowski, Teofil; Ehrlich, Hermann


    Among marine demosponges (Porifera: Demospongiae), only representatives of the order Verongiida have been recognized to synthetize both biologically active substances as well as scaffolds-like fibrous skeletons made of structural aminopolysaccharide chitin. The unique 3D architecture of such scaffolds open perspectives for their applications in waste treatment, biomimetics and tissue engineering. Here, we focus special attention to the demosponge Pseudoceratina purpurea collected in the coastal waters of Singapore. For the first time the detailed description of the isolation of chitin from the skeleton of this sponge and its identification using diverse bioanalytical tools were carried out. Calcofluor white staining, FTIR analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), SEM, and fluorescence microscopy as well as a chitinase digestion assay were applied in order to confirm with strong evidence the finding of alpha-chitin in the skeleton of P. purpurea. We suggest that the discovery of chitin within representatives of Pseudoceratinidae family is a perspective step in evaluation of these verongiid sponges as novel renewable sources for both chitin and biologically active metabolites, which are of prospective use for marine oriented biomedicine and pharmacology, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Essential Oil Composition of Endemic Arabis purpurea Sm. & Arabis cypria Holmboe (Brassicaceae) from Cyprus. (United States)

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Servi, Hüseyin; Özçınar, Özge; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Gücel, Salih


    There are very few reports on the phytochemistry of the Arabis L. (Brassicaceae) species in the literature. Here we present essential oil composition of aerial parts of two endemic Arabis species from Cyprus. The essential oils of Arabis purpurea Sm. and Arabis cypria Holmboe afforded very low oil yields (essential oil of A. purpurea that represent 82.75 ± 0.21 % (n = 3) of the oil. The major components of the oil were nonacosane 16.18 ± 0.13 %, heptacosane 14.91 ± 0.17 %, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone 12.44 ± 0.10 % and phytol 7.36 ± 0.10 % (n = 3). Forty three compounds were identified in the essential oil of A. cypria which represent 81.28 ± 1.55 % (n = 3) of the oil. The major components of the oil were nonacosane 20.25 ± 0.47 %, heptacosane 9.13 ± 1.88 %, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone 9.03 ± 0.44 % and 1-tetradecanol 4.38 ± 2.60 % (n = 3). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the essential oil compositions of these species.

  18. Statement on Human Cloning (United States)

    ... as our understanding of this technology advances. Support Stem Cell Research (including Research Cloning) AAAS supports stem cell research, including the use of nuclear transplantation techniques (also ...

  19. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch


    their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...

  20. Cloning-free CRISPR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, Mandana; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Geijsen, Niels; Sherwood, Richard I.


    We present self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR), a technology that allows for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic mutation and site-specific knockin transgene creation within several hours by circumventing the need to clone a site-specific single-guide RNA (sgRNA) or knockin homology construct for each

  1. Har rød solhatt (Echinacea purpurea), råmelk fra ku (Bovine colostrum) eller c-vitamin effekt på forkjølelse?


    Vassbotn, Liv Jorunn


    This literature review examines if Echinacea purpurea, Bovine colostrum or Vitamin C has an effect on common cold infections. Effect is defined in this article as prevention, reduction of symptoms or decrease in duration of disease. The 9 clinical studies and 2 meta- analysis included in this literature review has not found statistically significant result by use of Echinacea purpurea, Bovine colostrums or Vitamin C versus placebo during common cold infection. Therefore I cannot recommend the...

  2. Cloning, killing, and identity. (United States)

    McMahan, J


    One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation. PMID:10226909

  3. Characters with multiple usages- phenotypic variability analysis at Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Radu POP


    Full Text Available Merging aesthetics with utility, some medicinal plants can benefit both of a high production and decoration potential. This calls for diversification of improvement directions of the species. Through this article we suggest one of these species, Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench. This is considered to be important at this time, acquisition of new biological forms - varieties in this species, which show multiple attributes utility based on key biological characteristics, agronomic, physiological, biochemical and agrochemical (medicinal, decorative, culinary etc.. To achieve this goal, studies were undertaken, given in this article, which is the starting point for selecting characters representative for our targets.The results presented in this study reveal a pronounced genetic polymorphism showing the selection operation can use the original material for a quantitative and qualitative differentiation of valuable genotypes that could be approved.

  4. Determination of flavonoids, polyphenols and antioxidant activity of Tephrosia purpurea: a seasonal study. (United States)

    Pandey, Madan Mohan; Khatoon, Sayyada; Rastogi, Subha; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh


    Tephrosia purpurea (Linn · ) Pers. is widely used in traditional medicine to treat liver disorders, febrile attacks, enlargement and obstruction of liver, spleen, and kidney. In the present study, investigations were carried out to determine the seasonal impact on the content of flavonoid glycosides and on antioxidant activities so as to identify the optimal time of harvesting. The plant materials were collected in different seasons during 2013-2014. Air-dried, powdered plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol and ethanol: water (1:1) by ultrasound-assisted extraction process. Their chemical composition in terms of total polyphenol and flavonoid contents (TPCs and TFCs) was determined using modified colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay respectively. To determine the in vitro antioxidant activity, diphenyl-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay and total antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdate antioxidant assay were carried out. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/photo-diode array (PDA) analysis was used to quantify the flavonoid glycosides in the samples collected in different seasons. Correlation studies were also carried out between antioxidant activities and TPCs. The highest TPC and TFC were found to be in the 95% ethanolic extract of the August sample and the lowest in the 50% hydro-alcoholic extract of the plant sample collected in winter season. It was observed that in both the assays used to determine the antioxidant activity, the 95% ethanolic extracts in all the seasons showed a higher activity than their respective 50% hydro-alcoholic extracts with an increase in activity as we go from cold to hot to rainy seasons. Based on correlation analysis, DPPH radical-scavenging activities as well as the spectrophotometrically measured phosphomolybdenum complex were also strongly correlated with TPC of the extracts. The most abundant flavonoid glycoside was quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside in all

  5. Depleted Uranium Toxicity, Accumulation, and Uptake in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda) and Aristida purpurea (Purple Threeawn). (United States)

    Butler, Afrachanna D; Wynter, Michelle; Medina, Victor F; Bednar, Anthony J


    Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) in western Arizona is a testing range where Depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been historically fired. A portion of the fired DU penetrators are being managed under controlled conditions by leaving them in place. The widespread use of DU in armor-penetrating weapons has raised environmental and human health concerns. The present study is focused on the onsite management approach and on the potential interactions with plants local to YPG. A 30 day study was conducted to assess the toxicity of DU corrosion products (e.g., schoepite and meta-schoepite) in two grass species that are native to YPG, Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon) and Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea). In addition, the ability for plants to uptake DU was studied. The results of this study show a much lower threshold for biomass toxicity and higher plant concentrations, particularly in the roots than shoots, compared to previous studies.

  6. Nutritional evaluation, antioxidant studies and quantification of poly phenolics, in Roscoea purpurea tubers. (United States)

    Misra, Ankita; Srivastava, Sharad; Verma, Shikhar; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh


    Roscoea purpurea (Zingiberaceae) is commonly known as "kakoli". Traditionally, various parts like leaves, roots and flower etc. are used for the treatment of diabetic, hypertension, diarrhea, fever, inflammation etc. In Nepal tubers are boiled for edible purpose and also used in traditional veterinary medicine. The study aims for nutritional characterization, chemical profiling of R. purpurea (tubers) methanol extract (RPE) along with evaluation of its anti-oxidant activity. Physicochemical and nutritional content were estimated as per standard protocols. Chemical profiling of markers includes method optimization, identification & quantification of bioactive poly phenolics through HPTLC. Anti oxidant potential RPE was analyzed via. Total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC), reducing power assay, DPPH and β-carotene bleaching model. Physicochemical and nutritional standards were established. Kaempferol (0.30%), vanillic acid (0.27%), protocatechuic (0.14%), syringic (0.80%) and ferulic acid (0.05%) were identified and then quantified. TPC and TFC content were found to be 7.10 ± 0.115 and 6.10 ± 0.055%, reducing power of extract also increases linearly (r(2) = 0.946) with concentration, similar to standards. IC50 value of extract in DPPH and β-carotene bleaching model was observed at 810.66 ± 1.154 and 600.66 ± 1.154 µg/ml, which is significantly different from standards (p < 0.05). Although there is a positive, significant correlation between the phenolic and flavonoid content with anti oxidant activity of extract. Thus, study will authenticates the identity, utility of herb as nutrient supplement and an important medicinal plant having promising pharmacological activities for further elaborated/extended investigation work.

  7. Automated cloning methods.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collart, F.


    Argonne has developed a series of automated protocols to generate bacterial expression clones by using a robotic system designed to be used in procedures associated with molecular biology. The system provides plate storage, temperature control from 4 to 37 C at various locations, and Biomek and Multimek pipetting stations. The automated system consists of a robot that transports sources from the active station on the automation system. Protocols for the automated generation of bacterial expression clones can be grouped into three categories (Figure 1). Fragment generation protocols are initiated on day one of the expression cloning procedure and encompass those protocols involved in generating purified coding region (PCR)

  8. Hydroponic screening for metal resistance and accumulation of cadmium and zinc in twenty clones of willows and poplars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Utmazian, Maria Noel dos; Wieshammer, Gerlinde; Vega, Rosa; Wenzel, Walter W.


    We screened 20 different clones of willow and poplar species in hydroponic experiments for their metal resistance and accumulation properties. Plants were exposed for 4 weeks either to single additions of (μM) 4.45 Cd or 76.5 Zn, or a metal cocktail containing the same amounts of Cd and Zn along with 7.87 Cu and 24.1 Pb. Plant biomass, metal tolerance and metal accumulation pattern in roots and leaves varied greatly between clones. The leaf:root ratio of metal concentrations was clearly underestimated compared to soil experiments. The largest metal concentrations in leaves were detected in Salix dasyclados (315 mg Cd kg -1 d.m.) and a Salix smithiana clone (3180 mg Zn kg -1 d.m.) but these species showed low metal tolerance. In spite of smaller Cd and Zn concentrations, the metal-tolerant clones Salix matsudana, Salix fragilis-1, and Salix purpurea-1 hold promise for phytoextraction as they produced large biomass and metal contents in leaves. - Hydroponically grown willows and poplar clones accumulate up to (mg kg -1 d.w.) 315 Cd and 3180 Zn in leaves

  9. Hydroponic screening for metal resistance and accumulation of cadmium and zinc in twenty clones of willows and poplars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Utmazian, Maria Noel dos [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wieshammer, Gerlinde [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Vega, Rosa [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wenzel, Walter W. [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail:


    We screened 20 different clones of willow and poplar species in hydroponic experiments for their metal resistance and accumulation properties. Plants were exposed for 4 weeks either to single additions of ({mu}M) 4.45 Cd or 76.5 Zn, or a metal cocktail containing the same amounts of Cd and Zn along with 7.87 Cu and 24.1 Pb. Plant biomass, metal tolerance and metal accumulation pattern in roots and leaves varied greatly between clones. The leaf:root ratio of metal concentrations was clearly underestimated compared to soil experiments. The largest metal concentrations in leaves were detected in Salix dasyclados (315 mg Cd kg{sup -1} d.m.) and a Salix smithiana clone (3180 mg Zn kg{sup -1} d.m.) but these species showed low metal tolerance. In spite of smaller Cd and Zn concentrations, the metal-tolerant clones Salix matsudana, Salix fragilis-1, and Salix purpurea-1 hold promise for phytoextraction as they produced large biomass and metal contents in leaves. - Hydroponically grown willows and poplar clones accumulate up to (mg kg{sup -1} d.w.) 315 Cd and 3180 Zn in leaves.

  10. Unified Approach to Universal Cloning and Phase-Covariant Cloning


    Hu, Jia-Zhong; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin


    We analyze the problem of approximate quantum cloning when the quantum state is between two latitudes on the Bloch's sphere. We present an analytical formula for the optimized 1-to-2 cloning. The formula unifies the universal quantum cloning (UQCM) and the phase covariant quantum cloning.

  11. Enzyme free cloning for high throughput gene cloning and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R.N.; Daniëls, M.; Kaptein, R.; Folkers, G.E.


    Structural and functional genomics initiatives significantly improved cloning methods over the past few years. Although recombinational cloning is highly efficient, its costs urged us to search for an alternative high throughput (HTP) cloning method. We implemented a modified Enzyme Free Cloning

  12. Potential of the Trad-MCN assay applied with inflorescences of Tradescantia pallida 'Purpurea' for evaluating air contamination by naphthalene. (United States)

    Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro; Pedroso, Andrea Nunes Vaz; Domingos, Marisa


    The aims of this study were to determine clastogenic responses of Tradescantia pallida cv. Purpurea to naphthalene (NAPH) by means of the bioassay Trad-MCN with inflorescences of T. pallida cv. Purpurea and to verify if this assay might be an indicator of the potential risk imposed in a workplace, where solid insecticide containing NAPH is usually applied. The clastogenic potential of NAPH was assessed by using static and dynamic experimental systems. In both systems, increased micronucleus frequencies were observed in inflorescences submitted to increasing concentrations of solid or gaseous NAPH. The evident clastogenicity verified in inflorescences exposed experimentally to 25-50 mg m(-3) of NAPH during 6h points to a narrow threshold of plant sensitivity, indicating risks under lower NAPH levels than the standards established by OSHA and therefore revealing its suitability for biomonitoring purposes. However, the clastogenic risk should be carefully investigated by other monitoring methods if human health is taken into consideration.

  13. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the T...IGR japonica Pseudomolecules kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  15. Do Managers Clone Themselves? (United States)

    Baron, Alma S.


    A recent questionnaire survey provides statistics on male managers' views of female managers. The author recommends that male managers break out of their cloning behavior and that the goal ought to be a plurality in management. (Author/WD)

  16. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea: An in vivo study in rats. (United States)

    Rana, Md Azmat; Khan, Rahat Ali; Nasiruddin, Mohammad; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed


    Our objective is to study the nephroprotective activity and antioxidant potential of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Healthy adult albino rats of either sex (150-200 g) were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each Group I (vehicle control) and Group II (negative control). Group III (BBE200) and Group IV (BBE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea bark in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively, and Group V (BPE200) and Group VI (BPE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively. All the treatments were given for nine days. Cisplatin in a single dose of 6 mg/kg i.p. was given on the 4 th day to all groups, except the vehicle control group. On the 10 th day, blood and urine were collected for biochemical tests and the rats were sacrificed. The kidney was removed for histology and lipid peroxidation-antioxidant test. Cisplatin caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by elevated blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was decreased creatinine clearance in Group II as compared with Group I. Administration of BBE and BPE at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in Group III and Group VI caused a dose-dependant reduction in the rise of blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was a dose-dependant increase in creatinine clearance compared with Group II. There was increased catalase and glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde levels in Group II, while BBE 400 (Group IV) and BPE 400 (Group VI) treatments significantly reversed the changes toward normal values. Histological examination of the kidney revealed protection in Group IV and Group VI compared with Group II. The ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark has a nephroprotective activity against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  17. Asymmetric quantum cloning machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.J.


    A family of asymmetric cloning machines for quantum bits and N-dimensional quantum states is introduced. These machines produce two approximate copies of a single quantum state that emerge from two distinct channels. In particular, an asymmetric Pauli cloning machine is defined that makes two imperfect copies of a quantum bit, while the overall input-to-output operation for each copy is a Pauli channel. A no-cloning inequality is derived, characterizing the impossibility of copying imposed by quantum mechanics. If p and p ' are the probabilities of the depolarizing channels associated with the two outputs, the domain in (√p,√p ' )-space located inside a particular ellipse representing close-to-perfect cloning is forbidden. This ellipse tends to a circle when copying an N-dimensional state with N→∞, which has a simple semi-classical interpretation. The symmetric Pauli cloning machines are then used to provide an upper bound on the quantum capacity of the Pauli channel of probabilities p x , p y and p z . The capacity is proven to be vanishing if (√p x , √p y , √p z ) lies outside an ellipsoid whose pole coincides with the depolarizing channel that underlies the universal cloning machine. Finally, the tradeoff between the quality of the two copies is shown to result from a complementarity akin to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  18. An Integrated Field and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Method for the Estimation of Pigments Content of Stipa Purpurea in Shenzha, Tibet

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    Bo Kong


    Full Text Available Stipa purpurea is the representative type of alpine grassland in Tibet and the surviving and development material for herdsmen. This paper takes Shenzha County as the research area. Based on the analysis of typical hyperspectral variables sensitive to chlorophyll content of Stipa purpurea, 10 spectral variables with significant correlation with chlorophyll were extracted. The estimation model of chlorophyll was established. The photosynthetic pigment contents in the Shenzha area were calculated by using HJ-1A remote sensing images. The results show that (1 there are significant correlations between chlorophyll content and spectral variables; in particular, the coefficient of Chlb in Stipa purpurea with RVI is the largest (0.728; (2 10 variables are correlated with chlorophyll, and the order of correlation is Chlb > Chla > Chls; (3 for the estimation of Chla, the EVI is the best variable. RVI, NDVI, and VI2 are suitable for Chlb; RVI and NDVI are also suitable for the estimation of Chls; (4 the mean estimated content of Chla in Stipa bungeana is about 4.88 times that of Chlb, while Cars is slightly more than Chlb; (5 the distribution of Chla is opposite to Chlb and Chls content in water area.

  19. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Sharma


    Full Text Available The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  20. Echinacea purpurea and osteopathic manipulative treatment in children with recurrent otitis media: a randomized controlled trial

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    Worden Katherine A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recurrent otitis media is a common problem in young children. Echinacea and osteopathic manipulative treatment have been proposed as preventive measures, but have been inadequately studied. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Echinacea purpurea and/or osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT for prevention of acute otitis media in otitis-prone children. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, two-by-two factorial trial with 6-month follow-up, conducted 1999 – 2002 in Tucson, Arizona. Patients were aged 12–60 months with recurrent otitis media, defined as three or more separate episodes of acute otitis media within six months, or at least four episodes in one year. Ninety children (44% white non-Hispanic, 39% Hispanic, 57% male were enrolled, of which 84 had follow-up for at least 3 months. Children were randomly assigned to one of four protocol groups: double placebo, echinacea plus sham OMT, true OMT (including cranial manipulation plus placebo echinacea, or true echinacea plus OMT. An alcohol extract of Echinacea purpurea roots and seeds (or placebo was administered for 10 days at the first sign of each common cold. Five OMT visits (or sham treatments were offered over 3 months. Results No interaction was found between echinacea and OMT. Echinacea was associated with a borderline increased risk of having at least one episode of acute otitis media during 6-month follow-up compared to placebo (65% versus 41%; relative risk, 1.59, 95% CI 1.04, 2.42. OMT did not significantly affect risk compared to sham (44% versus 61%; relative risk, 0.72, 95% CI 0.48, 1.10. Conclusion In otitis-prone young children, treating colds with this form of echinacea does not decrease the risk of acute otitis media, and may in fact increase risk. A regimen of up to five osteopathic manipulative treatments does not significantly decrease the risk of acute otitis media. Trial registration Identifier: NCT00010465

  1. Inverse fusion PCR cloning.

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    Markus Spiliotis

    Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.

  2. Lovely clone of coconuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branton, R.; Blake, J.


    It has taken over 10 years research and development to clone oil palms and coconut palms successfully. Unilever has recently built a tissue culture factory in England with a potential capacity for producing half a million clonal oil palms a year for export. Research on the cloning of coconut palms is reported here. Cloned palms may increase yields from oil palms by 20 to 30 percent and yields from coconut could be as high as five-fold over unselected stock. Improved yields would not only increase the yield of oil and copra but also the harvests of husk and shell which are immense potential sources of energy; the 1978 Philippine harvest of over 12 million nuts is equivalent in terms of energy to 3.8 billion litres of petrol (31 x 10/sup 12/ kcal).

  3. A Seminar on Human Cloning: Cloning in Reproductive Medicine


    Illmensee, Karl


    This review article summarizes the historical development of mammalian cloning, presents current advances and presumed risk factors in the field of reproductive cloning, discusses possible clinical applications of therapeutic and diagnostic cloning and outlines prospective commercial trends in pharmacytical cloning. Predictable progress in biotechnology and stem cell engineering should prove to be advantageous for patients' health and for novel benefits in reproductive and regenerative medicine.

  4. Isolation, purification and characterization of antimicrobial protein from seedlings of Bauhinia purpurea L. (United States)

    Sakthivel, Muthu; Palani, Perumal


    A novel antimicrobial protein was purified from the seedlings of Bauhinia purpurea by sequential procedures entailing ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation exchange chromatography, preparative native-PAGE and a yield of 2.7% was obtained from the crude extract. The purified antimicrobial protein appeared as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE with the molecular mass of 20.9 kDa. Purified antimicrobial protein exhibited a potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of the trypsin digested peptides of purified protein using the MALDI-TOF MS/MS resulted in the identification of 174 amino acids. The purified protein had an optimum of pH of 5.5 and was stable at 35 °C for exhibiting its maximal antibacterial activity. The addition of metal ions such as Mn(2+) and Ca(2+) to the purified protein enhanced the antimicrobial activity of purified protein. The MIC of purified protein against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli were 13 μg/ml and 15 μg/ml, respectively. The purified protein digested the peptidoglycan layer of bacteria which was visualized by TEM analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea leaves.

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    Taylor K Paisie

    Full Text Available The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems.

  6. Myths about Cloning (United States)

    ... aging normally. In fact, the first cattle clones ever produced are alive, healthy, and are 10 years old as of January 2008. Back to the ... until we finish assessing their safety. To the best of our knowledge, they have done so. After years of detailed study and analysis, FDA has concluded ...

  7. Clip, connect, clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujima, Jun; Lunzer, Aran; Hornbæk, Kasper


    using three mechanisms: clipping of input and result elements from existing applications to form cells on a spreadsheet; connecting these cells using formulas, thus enabling result transfer between applications; and cloning cells so that multiple requests can be handled side by side. We demonstrate...

  8. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning]. (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying


    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  9. The First Human Cloned Embryo. (United States)

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol


    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  10. Human cloning. Fact or fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abushama, Mandy D.; Ahmed, Badreldeen I.


    Cloning is the production of one or more individual plants or animals that are genetically identical to other plant, animal or human. Scientists even demonstrated that they were able to clone frog tadpoles from frog embryonic cells using nuclear transfer.Many animals have been cloned from adult cells using nuclear transfer. Somatic cell nuclear transfer which refers to the transfer of the nucleous from a somatic cell to an egg cell. Article further deals with benefits and misuses of human cloning

  11. Three concepts of cloning in human beings. (United States)

    Cui, Ke-Hui


    Human cloning, organ cloning and tissue cloning are various types of cloning that occur at different levels with different methodologies. According to three standards of terminology for an embryo (fertilization through germ cells, development in the uterus and having the potential to produce a human life), tissue cloning and type I organ cloning will not produce an embryo. In contrast, human cloning and type II organ cloning will produce an embryo. Thus, only non-germinal tissue cloning and type I organ cloning are beyond the ethical question and will not change human beings as a species. Using cloned tissues to make new tissues or organs is promising for the future of medicine.

  12. Recombinational Cloning Using Gateway and In-Fusion Cloning Schemes (United States)

    Throop, Andrea L.; LaBaer, Joshua


    The comprehensive study of protein structure and function, or proteomics, depends on the obtainability of full-length cDNAs in species-specific expression vectors and subsequent functional analysis of the expressed protein. Recombinational cloning is a universal cloning technique based on site-specific recombination that is independent of the insert DNA sequence of interest, which differentiates this method from the classical restriction enzyme-based cloning methods. Recombinational cloning enables rapid and efficient parallel transfer of DNA inserts into multiple expression systems. This unit summarizes strategies for generating expression-ready clones using the most popular recombinational cloning technologies, including the commercially available Gateway® (Life Technologies) and In-Fusion® (Clontech) cloning technologies. PMID:25827088

  13. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jyothi


    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  14. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens (United States)

    Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.


    Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

  15. Salix purpurea Stimulates the Expression of Specific Bacterial Xenobiotic Degradation Genes in a Soil Contaminated with Hydrocarbons.

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    Antoine P Pagé

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to uncover Salix purpurea-microbe xenobiotic degradation systems that could be harnessed in rhizoremediation, and to identify microorganisms that are likely involved in these partnerships. To do so, we tested S. purpurea's ability to stimulate the expression of 10 marker microbial oxygenase genes in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. In what appeared to be a detoxification rhizosphere effect, transcripts encoding for alkane 1-monooxygenases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, laccase/polyphenol oxidases, and biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase small subunits were significantly more abundant in the vicinity of the plant's roots than in bulk soil. This gene expression induction is consistent with willows' known rhizoremediation capabilities, and suggests the existence of S. purpurea-microbe systems that target many organic contaminants of interest (i.e. C4-C16 alkanes, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo(apyrene, biphenyl, polychlorinated biphenyls. An enhanced expression of the 4 genes was also observed within the bacterial orders Actinomycetales, Rhodospirillales, Burkholderiales, Alteromonadales, Solirubrobacterales, Caulobacterales, and Rhizobiales, which suggest that members of these taxa are active participants in the exposed partnerships. Although the expression of the other 6 marker genes did not appear to be stimulated by the plant at the community level, signs of additional systems that rest on their expression by members of the orders Solirubrobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Actinomycetales, and Sphingobacteriales were observed. Our study presents the first transcriptomics-based identification of microbes whose xenobiotic degradation activity in soil appears stimulated by a plant. It paints a portrait that contrasts with the current views on these consortia's composition, and opens the door for the development of laboratory test models geared towards the identification of root exudate characteristics that limit the

  16. Structure, anti-Phytophthora and anti-tumor activities of a nortriterpenoid from the rhizome of Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae). (United States)

    Mateus, Maria C; Neves, Dina; Dacunha, Bruno; Laczko, Endre; Maia, Cristiana; Teixeira, Rúben; Cravador, Alfredo


    To investigate bioactive compounds potentially involved in the biotic interactions exhibited by Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae) in rhizospheres infested with Phytophthora cinnamomi, the plant rhizome was chemically analysed. The nortriterpenoid (17S)-2α,3α,11α,23,24-pentahydroxy-19(18 → 17)-abeo-28-norolean-12-en-18-one, was isolated and its structure was elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, chiefly using 2D NMR experiments, and X-ray analysis. It was shown to be exuded by roots and to exhibit anti-Phytophthora and antitumor activities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sistemas de producción de Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae en el centro-occidente de México

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    Blanca C Ramírez Hernández


    Full Text Available Describimos las características de los agroecosistemas y rasgos morfológicos, físicos y químicos relacionados con la calidad de los frutos de la guayaba, Spondias purpurea L., que se producen en poblaciones silvestres y cultivadas en el centro-occidente de México. Spondias purpurea se desarrolla en suelos rocosos, poco profundos e infértiles, poco aptos para la agricultura tradicional. En los frutos se registró el peso, longitud axial y radial, pH, sólidos solubles totales (SST, azúcares reductores, proteínas y contenido de minerales. El peso promedio de frutos en las variedades cultivadas (20 g resultó superior al de las silvestres (16 g. Las variedades cultivadas registraron en promedio los valores más altos de pH, SST, azúcares reductores y contenido de proteínas (3.3, 12.15º Brix, 0.38 g/100 g y 1.18 g/100 g, respectivamente que las silvestres (3.0, 8.31º Brix, 0.24 g/100 g y 0.14 g/100 g, respectivamente. La productividad de la especie es aceptable (de 0.15 ton ha-1 a 5.0 ton ha-1 dado que requiere de un mínimo de manejo agronómico. Esta especie tiene un contenido nutrimental comparable al de las especies frutales más importantes; además, produce frutos frescos durante los meses secos de la primavera por lo que S. purpurea es fuente de agua y alimento para la fauna silvestre y doméstica. Estas características resaltan su importancia agronómica y ecológica para los ambientes tropicales y subtropicales en donde puede ser utilizada en programas de reforestación por su capacidad para desarrollarse en suelos rocosos infértiles, y en agroecosistemas en los que se practica agricultura de subsistencia. De hecho, el cultivo de S. purpurea puede ayudar a convertir suelos marginales en productivos.Production systems of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae in Central West México. Morphological, physical and chemical traits related with fruit quality characteristics of Spondias purpurea L. agroecosystems were studied in Central

  18. Optimally cloned binary coherent states (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.


    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  19. [Media, cloning, and bioethics]. (United States)

    Costa, S I; Diniz, D


    This article was based on an analysis of three hundred articles from mainstream Brazilian periodicals over a period of eighteen months, beginning with the announcement of the Dolly case in February 1997. There were two main objectives: to outline the moral constants in the press associated with the possibility of cloning human beings and to identify some of the moral assumptions concerning scientific research with non-human animals that were published carelessly by the media. The authors conclude that there was a haphazard spread of fear concerning the cloning of human beings rather than an ethical debate on the issue, and that there is a serious gap between bioethical reflections and the Brazilian media.

  20. Probabilistic cloning of equidistant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Roa, Luis; Delgado, A.


    We study the probabilistic cloning of equidistant states. These states are such that the inner product between them is a complex constant or its conjugate. Thereby, it is possible to study their cloning in a simple way. In particular, we are interested in the behavior of the cloning probability as a function of the phase of the overlap among the involved states. We show that for certain families of equidistant states Duan and Guo's cloning machine leads to cloning probabilities lower than the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability of equidistant states. We propose an alternative cloning machine whose cloning probability is higher than or equal to the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability for any family of equidistant states. Both machines achieve the same probability for equidistant states whose inner product is a positive real number.

  1. Biodiversity versus cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo T, Jose Hernan


    The announcement has been made on the cloning of mice in these days and he doesn't stop to miss, because the world lives a stage where conscience of the protection is creating that should be given to the biodiversity. It is known that alone we won't subsist and the protection of the means and all that contains that environment is of vital importance for the man. But it is also known that the vegetables and animal transgenic that they come to multiply the species have appeared that we prepare. The transgenic has been altered genetically, for substitution of one or more genes of other species, inclusive human genes. This represents an improvement compared with the investigations that gave origin to the cloning animal. But it is necessary to notice that to it you arrived through the cloning. This year 28 million hectares have been sowed in cultivations of transgenic seeds and there is around 700 bovine transgenic whose milk contains a necessary protein in the treatment of the man's illnesses

  2. Effect of water availability on tolerance of leaf damage in tall morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea (United States)

    Atala, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto


    Resource availability may limit plant tolerance of herbivory. To predict the effect of differential resource availability on plant tolerance, the limiting resource model (LRM) considers which resource limits plant fitness and which resource is mostly affected by herbivore damage. We tested the effect of experimental drought on tolerance of leaf damage in Ipomoea purpurea, which is naturally exposed to both leaf damage and summer drought. To seek mechanistic explanations, we also measured several morphological, allocation and gas exchange traits. In this case, LRM predicts that tolerance would be the same in both water treatments. Plants were assigned to a combination of two water treatments (control and low water) and two damage treatments (50% defoliation and undamaged). Plants showed tolerance of leaf damage, i.e., a similar number of fruits were produced by damaged and undamaged plants, only in control water. Whereas experimental drought affected all plant traits, leaf damage caused plants to show a greater leaf trichome density and reduced shoot biomass, but only in low water. It is suggested that the reduced fitness (number of fruits) of damaged plants in low water was mediated by the differential reduction of shoot biomass, because the number of fruits per shoot biomass was similar in damaged and undamaged plants. Alternative but less likely explanations include the opposing direction of functional responses to drought and defoliation, and resource costs of the damage-induced leaf trichome density. Our results somewhat challenge the LRM predictions, but further research including field experiments is needed to validate some of the preliminary conclusions drawn.

  3. Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., isolated from the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. (United States)

    Tran, Phuong M; Dahl, John L


    Several fast- to intermediate-growing, acid-fast, scotochromogenic bacteria were isolated from Sarracenia purpurea pitcher waters in Minnesota sphagnum peat bogs. Two strains (DL734T and DL739T) were among these isolates. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the phylogenetic positions of both strains is in the genus Mycobacterium with no obvious relation to any characterized type strains of mycobacteria. Phenotypic characterization revealed that neither strain was similar to the type strains of known species of the genus Mycobacterium in the collective properties of growth, pigmentation or fatty acid composition. Strain DL734T grew at temperatures between 28 and 32 °C, was positive for 3-day arylsulfatase production, and was negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease and nitrate reduction. Strain DL739T grew at temperatures between 28 and 37 °C, and was positive for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urea, nitrate reduction and 3-day arylsulfatase production. Both strains were catalase-negative while only DL739T grew with 5 % NaCl. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles were unique for each strain. DL739T showed an ability to survive at 8 °C with little to no cellular replication and is thus considered to be psychrotolerant. Therefore, strains DL734T and DL739T represent two novel species of the genus Mycobacterium with the proposed names Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are DL734T (=JCM 30395T=NCCB 100519T) and DL739T (=JCM 30396T=NCCB 100520T), respectively.

  4. Evaluación del desarrollo en vivero de Peltogyne purpurea Pittier (Nazareno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Antonio Mosquera Mena


    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó teniendo en cuenta la importancia ecológica de la especie Peltogyne purpurea Pittier, ayudando a conservar la estructura del bosque natural, su importancia económica como especie de gran valor comercial, su situación de especie en vía de extinción y la posibilidad de regeneración por medio de semilla en vivero, con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento agronómico en vivero bajo cuatro sustratos diferentes en la finca Tulenapa ubicada en el municipio de Carepa (Antioquia, Colombia, la cual cuenta con las condiciones meteorológicas y medioambientales adecuadas para la adaptabilidad de la especie; se hace un análisis del comportamiento en vivero de esta plántula, evaluando la altura, el diámetro, el número de hojas y la supervivencia a los 90 días, utilizando cuatro sustratos bien definidos y de fácil consecución en la zona: gallinaza, codornaza, tierra con materia orgánica y un sustrato testigo compuesto por cascarilla de arroz y arena. El diseño estadístico empleado fue bloques compuestos al azar, se realizaron seis mediciones de las variables en estudio con intervalos de 15 días, a los resultados se les aplicó un análisis de varianza ANOVA y prueba P para análisis de medias. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para las variables diámetro y sobrevivencia. Las demás variables no presentan diferencias significativas. Al encontrar diferencia significativa en el tratamiento tierra para la sobrevivencia, se recomienda hacer la multiplicación de la especie en vivero utilizando el sustrato más parecido a su entorno natural, lo que facilitará dicho proceso a productores interesados.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. EpS/L25, Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea and Able To Synthesize Antimicrobial Compounds. (United States)

    Presta, Luana; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Miceli, Elisangela; Maggini, Valentina; Bogani, Patrizia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio; Fani, Renato


    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain EpS/L25, isolated from the stem/leaves of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea This genome will allow for comparative genomics in order to identify genes associated with the production of bioactive compounds and antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 Presta et al.

  6. Ethical issues in animal cloning. (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn


    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  7. Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Extract of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yahya


    Full Text Available In an attempt to further establish the pharmacological properties of Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae, hepatoprotective potential of methanol extract of B. purpurea leaves (MEBP was investigated using the paracetamol- (PCM- induced liver toxicity in rats. Five groups of rats (n=6 were used and administered orally once daily with 10% DMSO (negative control, 200 mg/kg silymarin (positive control, or MEBP (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg for 7 days, followed by the hepatotoxicity induction using paracetamol (PCM. The blood samples and livers were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant study using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay with the total phenolic content (TPC also determined. From the histological observation, lymphocyte infiltration and marked necrosis were observed in PCM-treated groups (negative control, whereas maintenance of the normal hepatic structural was observed in group pretreated with silymarin and MEBP. Hepatotoxic rats pretreated with silymarin or MEBP exhibited significant decrease (P<0.05 in ALT and AST enzyme level. Moreover, the extract also exhibited antioxidant activity and contained high TPC. In conclusion, MEBP exerts potential hepatoprotective activity that could be partly attributed to its antioxidant activity and high phenolic content and thus warrants further investigation.

  8. Genotoxicity biomonitoring of sewage in two municipal wastewater treatment plants using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea bioassay. (United States)

    Thewes, Márcia Regina; Junior, Delio Endres; Droste, Annette


    The genotoxicity of untreated and treated sewage from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WTP BN and WTP SJN) in the municipality of Porto Alegre, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, was evaluated over a one-year period using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Inflorescences of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed to sewage samples in February (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) 2009, and the micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were estimated in each period. The high genotoxicity of untreated sewage from WTP BN in February and April was not observed in treated sewage, indicating the efficiency of treatment at this WTP. However, untreated and treated sewage samples from WTP SJN had high MCN frequencies, except in October, when rainfall may have been responsible for reducing these frequencies at both WTPs. Physicochemical analyses of sewage from both WTPs indicated elevated concentrations of organic matter that were higher at WTP SJN than at WTP BN. Chromium was detected in untreated and treated sewage from WTP SJN, but not in treated sewage from WTP BN. Lead was found in all untreated sewage samples from WTP SJN, but only in the summer and autumn at WTP BN. These results indicate that the short-term Trad-MCN genotoxicity assay may be useful for regular monitoring of municipal WTPs.

  9. Minimal lethal concentration of hyrgromycin B in calli induction and shoot multiplication process of Digitalis purpurea L.

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    Elizabeth Kairúz Hernández-Díaz


    Full Text Available The plants of the genus Digitalis are characterized by the production of cardenolides, drugs widely used worldwide in the treatment of heart failure. In previous research a transformation protocol was developed from leaf disc of Digitalis purpurea L., using geneticin as selection marker. However some escapes in the selection process were obtained. So it is necessary to develop a more efficient selection scheme using another selective agent. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to select the minimum lethal concentration of hygromycin B during callus induction and shoots multiplication of D. purpurea. For callus induction we studied five concentrations of hygromycine B (3, 6, 9, 12, 15 mg l-1 during 28 days. Besides, the effect in shoot multiplication of four concentrations of hygromycine B (25, 50, 75, 100 mg l-1 was studied during 30 days. The minimal lethal concentration for callus formation was 12 mg l-1. In the case of shoot multiplication, 100% mortality was showed at 75 mg l-1 strictly after 30 days. The proposed selection scheme is recommended for future work at genetic transformation in this species. Keywords: cardenolides, genetic transformation, hpt, selection

  10. Modulatory effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts on human dendritic cells: a cell- and gene-based study. (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Yu; Chiao, Ming-Tsang; Yen, Po-Jen; Huang, Wei-Chou; Hou, Chia-Chung; Chien, Shih-Chang; Yeh, Kuo-Chen; Yang, Wen-Ching; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Yang, Ning-Sun


    Echinacea spp. are popularly used as an herbal medicine or food supplement for enhancing the immune system. This study shows that plant extracts from root [R] and stem plus leaf [S+L] tissues of E. purpurea exhibit opposite (enhancing vs inhibitory) modulatory effects on the expression of the CD83 marker in human dendritic cells (DCs), which are known as professional antigen-presenting cells. We developed a function-targeted DNA microarray system to characterize the effects of phytocompounds on human DCs. Down-regulation of mRNA expression of specific chemokines (e.g., CCL3 and CCL8) and their receptors (e.g., CCR1 and CCR9) was observed in [S+L]-treated DCs. Other chemokines and regulatory molecules (e.g., CCL4 and CCL2) involved in the c-Jun pathway were found to be up-regulated in [R]-treated DCs. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that E. purpurea extracts can modulate DC differentiation and expression of specific immune-related genes in DCs.

  11. Estructura de una población del árbol Peltogyne purpurea (Cesalpinaceae en un bosque intervenido de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Vílchez


    Full Text Available Se estudió la regeneración de una población del árbol Peltogyne purpurea Pittier después de una corta selectiva de madera en el bosque lluvioso tropical de Mogos, Península de Osa, Costa Rica. La distribución de los árboles adultos de P. purpurea según el diámetro del tallo a la altura del pecho tiene forma de campana. La categoría con la mayor cantidad de individuos correspondió a los árboles con tallos con diámetros entre 70 y 80 cm. No hubo diferencia significativa en el número de brinzales encontrados en los transectos establecidos siguiendo los cuatro puntos cardinales alrededor de los árboles reproductivos (madre. En general, la mayoría de los brinzales se encontraban en los primeros metros alrededor del árbol madre. Se observó otro pico de abundancia de brinzales a la distancia correspondiente con el final de la copa del árbol. La extracción de madera puede tener un efecto negativo en la regeneración de P. purpurea.Population structure of the tree Peltogyne purpurea (Cesalpinaceae in an altered forest at Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. The regeneration of the rain forest tree Peltogyne purpurea Pittier after selective logging was studied in Mogos, Osa Península, Costa Rica. The distribution of all adult trees of P. purpurea according to diameter at breath height (dbh categories revealed that the distribution of the adult trees followed a bell-shaped curve. The largest number of individuals was found in the 70 to 80 cm dbh category. We did not find any significant differences in the distribution of saplings around seed-producing trees. There were similar numbers of saplings in the four transects established around each reproductive tree following the four cardinal directions. Overall, the majority of the saplings were found in the first meters around each seed-producing tree. There was another peak in the number of saplings at the distance where the crown of the tree ended. Logging can negatively affect the regeneration

  12. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij


    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  13. Lessons learned from cloning dogs. (United States)

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C


    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Therapeutic cloning: The ethical limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, Peter A.


    A brief outline of stem cells, stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning is given. The position of therapeutic cloning with regard to other embryonic manipulations - IVF-based reproduction, embryonic stem formation from IVF embryos and reproductive cloning - is indicated. The main ethically challenging stages in therapeutic cloning are considered to be the nuclear transfer process including the source of eggs for this and the destruction of an embryo to provide stem cells for therapeutic use. The extremely polarised nature of the debate regarding the status of an early human embryo is noted, and some potential alternative strategies for preparing immunocompatible pluripotent stem cells are indicated

  15. Human cloning and child welfare. (United States)

    Burley, J; Harris, J


    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  16. Determination of the Annual Shading Potential of Salix Purpurea Coppice using Hemispherical Photographs (United States)

    Holzapfel, G.; Weihs, P.; Stockreiter, L.; Hoffmann, E.


    densities in terms of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the corresponding incident solar radiation energy reaching a shaded water surface (Global Site Factor). Responding to these questions a two year old natural stand of Salix purpurea was monitored. The growth of riparian vegetation and the correlation to solar transmission during different phenological phases are measured periodically with radiation sensors. LAI is investigated using hemispherical photographs. Analysis is done with the software Hemiview and Gap Light Analyser (GLA). Results show discrepancies between analysis with the software programs and measurements. Altogether, the variability and the trends of both are similar: the same daily and annual changes can be seen.

  17. [The discrete horror of cloning]. (United States)

    Guibourg, Ricardo A


    The author raises the topic of cloning after the decision of the Argentine government, which concerned for the "dignity of the human person", passed a decree of need and urgency, No. 200/97 (Annex), prohibiting cloning experiments with human beings. Therefore, considering that the topic is so terribly urgent and necessary, the author feels it is timely to consider it.

  18. [Scientific ethics of human cloning]. (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y


    True cloning is fission, budding or other types of asexual reproduction. In humans it occurs in monozygote twinning. This type of cloning is ethically and religiously good. Human cloning can be performed by twinning (TWClo) or nuclear transfer (NTClo). Both methods need a zygote or a nuclear transferred cell, obtained in vitro (IVTec). They are under the IVTec ethics. IVTecs use humans (zygotes, embryos) as drugs or things; increase the risk of malformations; increase development and size of abnormalities and may cause long-term changes. Cloning for preserving extinct (or almost extinct) animals or humans when sexual reproduction is not possible is ethically valid. The previous selection of a phenotype in human cloning violates some ethical principles. NTClo for reproductive or therapeutic purposes is dangerous since it increases the risk for nucleotide or chromosome mutations, de-programming or re-programming errors, aging or malignancy of the embryo cells thus obtained.

  19. Animal cloning: problems and prospects. (United States)

    Wells, D N


    An efficient animal cloning technology would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture, human medicine, and animal conservation. Nuclear cloning involves the production of animals that are genetically identical to the donor cells used in a technique known as nuclear transfer (NT). However, at present it is an inefficient process: in cattle, only around 6% of the embryos transferred to the reproductive tracts of recipient cows result in healthy, longterm surviving clones. Of concern are the high losses throughout gestation, during birth and in the post-natal period through to adulthood. Many of the pregnancy losses relate to failure of the placenta to develop and function correctly. Placental dysfunction may also have an adverse influence on postnatal health. These anomalies are probably due to incorrect epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome following NT, leading to inappropriate patterns of gene expression during the development of clones. Whilst some physiological tests on surviving clones suggest normality, other reports indicate a variety of post-natal clone-associated abnormalities. This variability in outcome may reflect species-specific and/or cloning methodological differences. Importantly, to date it appears that these clone-associated phenotypes are not transmitted to offspring following sexual reproduction. This indicates that they represent epigenetic errors, rather than genetic errors, which are corrected during gametogenesis. Whilst this needs confirmation at the molecular level, it provides initial confidence in the first application of NT in agriculture, namely, the production of small numbers of cloned sires from genetically elite bulls, for natural mating, to effectively disseminate genetic gain. In addition to the animal welfare concerns with the technology, the underlying health of the animals and the consequential effect on food safety are critical aspects that require investigation to gain regulatory and consumer

  20. Centros de origen, domesticación y diversidad genética de la ciruela mexicana, Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae)


    Fortuny-Fernández, Norka María; Ferrer, Miriam Monserrat; Ruenes-Morales, María del Rocío


    Resumen: Antecedentes y Objetivos: La identificación de poblaciones silvestres, con manejo agrícola o silvícola en los centros de origen y domesticación de plantas, es una acción importante en la conservación de los recursos fitogenéticos. Para identificar los centros de origen, domesticación y diversidad genética de Spondias purpurea en Mesoamérica se realizó un análisis filogeográfico de la especie. Métodos: Se amplificó el marcador de DNAcp trnS-trnG para 66 accesiones del banco de germo...

  1. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea(Caesalpinaceaein the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J Rocha


    Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuenta

  2. The diversity of anatomical diagnostical indication of medicinal plants (Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt and Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench)


    Kmitienė, Giedrė; Ragažinskienė, Ona


    Straipsnyje pateikiami Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt ir Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench antžeminės dalies stiebo ir lapo lapalakščio viršutinės bei apatinės dalies organų anatominės sandaros tyrimų rezultatai. Tyrimai atlikti 2006–2009 metais Vidurio Lietuvoje, Kaune, VDU Kauno botanikos sodo Vaistinių augalų mokslo sektoriaus Vaistinių augalų kolekcijoje ir 400 m2 bandymų plote bei Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Gamtos mokslų fakulteto Botanikos katedroje. Ištyrus šių dviejų rūšių augalų ...

  3. Human cloning: can it be made safe? (United States)

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian


    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe?

  4. In vitro propagation and production of cardiotonic glycosides in shoot cultures of Digitalis purpurea L. by elicitation and precursor feeding. (United States)

    Patil, Jitendra Gopichand; Ahire, Mahendra Laxman; Nitnaware, Kirti Manik; Panda, Sayantan; Bhatt, Vijay P; Kishor, Polavarapu B Kavi; Nikam, Tukaram Dayaram


    Digitalis purpurea L. (Scrophulariaceae; Foxglove) is a source of cardiotonic glycosides such as digitoxin and digoxin which are commercially applied in the treatment to strengthen cardiac diffusion and to regulate heart rhythm. This investigation deals with in vitro propagation and elicited production of cardiotonic glycosides digitoxin and digoxin in shoot cultures of D. purpurea L. In vitro germinated seedlings were used as a primary source of explants. Multiple shoot formation was achieved for three explant types (nodal, internodal, and leaf) cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with several treatments of cytokinins (6-benzyladenine-BA; kinetin-Kin; and thidiazuron-TDZ) and auxins (indole-3-acetic acid-IAA; α-naphthaleneacetic acid-NAA; and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid-2,4-D). Maximum multiple shoots (12.7 ± 0.6) were produced from nodal explants on MS + 7.5 μM BA. Shoots were rooted in vitro on MS containing 15 μM IAA. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized. To further maintain the multiple shoot induction, mother tissue was cut into four equal parts and repeatedly sub-cultured on fresh shoot induction liquid medium after each harvest. On adaptation of this strategy, an average of 18 shoots per explant could be produced. This strategy was applied for the production of biomass and glycosides digitoxin and digoxin in shoot cultures on MS medium supplemented with 7.5 μM BA and several treatments with plant growth regulators, incubation period, abiotic (salicylic acid, mannitol, sorbitol, PEG-6000, NaCl, and KCl), biotic (Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp., Alternaria sp., chitin, and yeast extract) elicitors, and precursors (progesterone, cholesterol, and squalene). The treatment of KCl, mycelial mass of Helminthosporium sp., and progesterone were highly effective for the production of cardenolides. In the presence of progesterone (200 to 300 mg/l), digitoxin and digoxin accumulation was enhanced by 9.1- and 11.9-folds

  5. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea(Caesalpinaceaein the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J Rocha


    Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuentaThe existence of mast fruiting has not been well documented in the Neotropics. The occurrence of a mast fruiting episode in the population of the tree Peltogyne purpurea in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica is described. In February and March of 2000 most of the trees of this species produced a large fruit crop, compared with 1995-1999, when the number of fruit producing trees was very low or zero and those that did bear fruit, did so at a low intensity. In contrast, the fruit crop of 2000 was massive, all trees examined produced fruits and the intensity of fruiting was maximal. There is not enough information on the event for a hypothesis to be formed because the climatic or biological cues that triggered this sporadic flowering are unknown and there is no meteorological data available for this area. Populations with this mode of reproduction may experience local extinction bacause of logging operations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1151-1155. Epub 2006 Dec. 15

  6. Wildlife conservation and reproductive cloning. (United States)

    Holt, William V; Pickard, Amanda R; Prather, Randall S


    Reproductive cloning, or the production of offspring by nuclear transfer, is often regarded as having potential for conserving endangered species of wildlife. Currently, however, low success rates for reproductive cloning limit the practical application of this technique to experimental use and proof of principle investigations. In this review, we consider how cloning may contribute to wildlife conservation strategies. The cloning of endangered mammals presents practical problems, many of which stem from the paucity of knowledge about their basic reproductive biology. However, situations may arise where resources could be targeted at recovering lost or under-represented genetic lines; these could then contribute to the future fitness of the population. Approaches of this type would be preferable to the indiscriminate generation of large numbers of identical individuals. Applying cloning technology to non-mammalian vertebrates may be more practical than attempting to use conventional reproductive technologies. As the scientific background to cloning technology was pioneered using amphibians, it may be possible to breed imminently threatened amphibians, or even restore extinct amphibian species, by the use of cloning. In this respect species with external embryonic development may have an advantage over mammals as developmental abnormalities associated with inappropriate embryonic reprogramming would not be relevant.

  7. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter


    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  8. Human therapeutic cloning (NTSC): applying research from mammalian reproductive cloning. (United States)

    French, Andrew J; Wood, Samuel H; Trounson, Alan O


    Human therapeutic cloning or nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSC) to produce patient-specific stem cells, holds considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine. The recent withdrawal of the only scientific publications claiming the successful generation of NTSC lines afford an opportunity to review the available research in mammalian reproductive somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with the goal of progressing human NTSC. The process of SCNT is prone to epigenetic abnormalities that contribute to very low success rates. Although there are high mortality rates in some species of cloned animals, most surviving clones have been shown to have normal phenotypic and physiological characteristics and to produce healthy offspring. This technology has been applied to an increasing number of mammals for utility in research, agriculture, conservation, and biomedicine. In contrast, attempts at SCNT to produce human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been disappointing. Only one group has published reliable evidence of success in deriving a cloned human blastocyst, using an undifferentiated hESC donor cell, and it failed to develop into a hESC line. When optimal conditions are present, it appears that in vitro development of cloned and parthenogenetic embryos, both of which may be utilized to produce hESCs, may be similar to in vitro fertilized embryos. The derivation of ESC lines from cloned embryos is substantially more efficient than the production of viable offspring. This review summarizes developments in mammalian reproductive cloning, cell-to-cell fusion alternatives, and strategies for oocyte procurement that may provide important clues facilitating progress in human therapeutic cloning leading to the successful application of cell-based therapies utilizing autologous hESC lines.

  9. In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto. (United States)

    Gurley, Bill J; Gardner, Stephanie F; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Gentry, W Brooks; Carrier, Julie; Khan, Ikhlas A; Edwards, David J; Shah, Amit


    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of Citrus aurantium , Echinacea purpurea , milk thistle (Silybum marianum), or saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 women, 6 men) were randomly assigned to receive C aurantium , E purpurea , milk thistle, or saw palmetto for 28 days. For each subject, a 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. Probe drug cocktails of midazolam and caffeine, followed 24 hours later by chlorzoxazone and debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine), were administered before (baseline) and at the end of supplementation. Presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6 by use of 1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam serum ratios (1-hour sample), paraxanthine/caffeine serum ratios (6-hour sample), 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone serum ratios (2-hour sample), and debrisoquin urinary recovery ratios (8-hour collection), respectively. The content of purported "active" phytochemicals was determined for each supplement. Comparisons of presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic ratios suggested that these particular supplements had no significant effect on CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Phytochemical profiles indicated that C aurantium was devoid of the CYP3A4 inhibitor 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. Quantities of fatty acids, flavonolignans, and cichoric acid were consistent with label claims for saw palmetto, milk thistle, and E purpurea , respectively. Botanical supplements containing C aurantium , milk thistle, or saw palmetto extracts appear to pose a minimal risk for CYP-mediated herb-drug interactions in humans. Although the effects of E purpurea on CYP activity were minor, further

  10. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 2: Echinacea purpurea-Lavandula angustifolia. (United States)

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schmidt, Richard J


    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 2: Echinacea purpurea Moench-Lavandula angustifolia Mill. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis reveals novel genes involved in cardiac glycoside biosynthesis and mlncRNAs associated with secondary metabolism and stress response in Digitalis purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digitalis purpurea is an important ornamental and medicinal plant. There is considerable interest in exploring its transcriptome. Results Through high-throughput 454 sequencing and subsequent assembly, we obtained 23532 genes, of which 15626 encode conserved proteins. We determined 140 unigenes to be candidates involved in cardiac glycoside biosynthesis. It could be grouped into 30 families, of which 29 were identified for the first time in D. purpurea. We identified 2660 mRNA-like npcRNA (mlncRNA candidates, an emerging class of regulators, using a computational mlncRNA identification pipeline and 13 microRNA-producing unigenes based on sequence conservation and hairpin structure-forming capability. Twenty five protein-coding unigenes were predicted to be targets of these microRNAs. Among the mlncRNA candidates, only 320 could be grouped into 140 families with at least two members in a family. The majority of D. purpurea mlncRNAs were species-specific and many of them showed tissue-specific expression and responded to cold and dehydration stresses. We identified 417 protein-coding genes with regions significantly homologous or complementary to 375 mlncRNAs. It includes five genes involved in secondary metabolism. A positive correlation was found in gene expression between protein-coding genes and the homologous mlncRNAs in response to cold and dehydration stresses, while the correlation was negative when protein-coding genes and mlncRNAs were complementary to each other. Conclusions Through comprehensive transcriptome analysis, we not only identified 29 novel gene families potentially involved in the biosynthesis of cardiac glycosides but also characterized a large number of mlncRNAs. Our results suggest the importance of mlncRNAs in secondary metabolism and stress response in D. purpurea.

  12. Cloning of a quantum measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal


    We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1→2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1→2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1→2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1→2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.

  13. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It. (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.


    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  14. Human cloning and 'posthuman' society. (United States)

    Blackford, Russell


    Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning.

  15. Cloning of a quantum measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' and INFN, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy) and Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, SK-845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)


    We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1{yields}2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1{yields}2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1{yields}2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1{yields}2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.

  16. A Clone of Your Own. (United States)

    Bilodeau, Kirsten


    Describes an activity used at the Washington Park Arboretum that helps students understand cloning through plant propagation. Students also learn how to make a pot from recycled newspapers and how to make soil that is appropriate for the plants. (DDR)

  17. Animal Cloning and Food Safety (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... safe to eat as food from conventionally bred animals. This conclusion stems from an extensive study of ...

  18. Preliminary data on antibacterial activity of Echinacea purpurea-associated bacterial communities against Burkholderia cepacia complex strains, opportunistic pathogens of Cystic Fibrosis patients. (United States)

    Chiellini, Carolina; Maida, Isabel; Maggini, Valentina; Bosi, Emanuele; Mocali, Stefano; Emiliani, Giovanni; Perrin, Elena; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Mengoni, Alessio; Fani, Renato


    Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria (Bcc) represent a serious threat for immune-compromised patient affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF) since they are resistant to many substances and to most antibiotics. For this reason, the research of new natural compounds able to inhibit the growth of Bcc strains has raised new interest during the last years. A source of such natural compounds is represented by medicinal plants and, in particular, by bacterial communities associated with these plants able to produce molecules with antimicrobial activity. In this work, a panel of 151 (endophytic) bacteria isolated from three different compartments (rhizospheric soil, roots, and stem/leaves) of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea were tested (using the cross-streak method) for their ability to inhibit the growth of 10 Bcc strains. Data obtained revealed that bacteria isolated from the roots of E. purpurea are the most active in the inhibition of Bcc strains, followed by bacteria isolated from the rhizospheric soil, and endophytes from stem/leaf compartment. At the same time, Bcc strains of environmental origin showed a higher resistance toward inhibition than the Bcc strains with clinical (i.e. CF patients) origin. Differences in the inhibition activity of E. purpurea-associated bacteria are mainly linked to the environment -the plant compartment- rather than to their taxonomical position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Islamic perspectives on human cloning. (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahmoud


    The present paper seeks to assess various views from Islamic jurists relating to human cloning, which is one of the controversial topics in the recent past. Taking Islamic jurisprudence principles, such as the rule of necessity for self preservation and respect for human beings, the rule of la darar wa la dirar ('the necessity to refrain from causing harm to oneself and others') and the rule of usr wa haraj, one may indicate that if human cloning could not be prohibited, as such, it could still be opposed because it gives way to various harmful consequences, which include family disorder, chaos in the clone's family relationships, physical and mental diseases for clones and suffering of egg donors and surrogate mothers. However with due attention to the fact that the reasons behind the prohibition of abortion only restrict the destruction of human embryos in their post-implantation stages, human cloning for biomedical research and exploitation of stem cells from cloned embryos at the blastocyst stage for therapeutic purposes would be acceptable.

  20. Artificial cloning of domestic animals. (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L


    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  1. Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang Xiangbin; Wadati, Miki


    Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits are studied. For the case of a one to two phase-covariant quantum cloning machine, we present the networks consisting of quantum gates to realize the quantum cloning transformations. The copied equatorial qubits are shown to be separable by using Peres-Horodecki criterion. The optimal one to M phase-covariant quantum cloning transformations are given

  2. Structured Review of Code Clone Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, W.T.B.; Ponisio, Laura; Wieringa, Roelf J.


    This report presents the results of a structured review of code clone literature. The aim of the review is to assemble a conceptual model of clone-related concepts which helps us to reason about clones. This conceptual model unifies clone concepts from a wide range of literature, so that findings

  3. Methylotroph cloning vehicle (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.


    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  4. Local cloning of two product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhengfeng; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng


    Local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) put considerable constraints on many quantum information processing tasks such as cloning and discrimination. Surprisingly, however, discrimination of any two pure states survives such constraints in some sense. We show that cloning is not that lucky; namely, probabilistic LOCC cloning of two product states is strictly less efficient than global cloning. We prove our result by giving explicitly the efficiency formula of local cloning of any two product states

  5. Local cloning of entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.


    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  6. Chemical and Antimicrobial Analyses of Sideritis romana L. subsp. purpurea (Tal. ex Benth.) Heywood, an Endemic of the Western Balkan. (United States)

    Tadić, Vanja; Oliva, Alessandra; Božović, Mijat; Cipolla, Alessia; De Angelis, Massimiliano; Vullo, Vincenzo; Garzoli, Stefania; Ragno, Rino


    A comprehensive study on essential oil and different solvent extracts of Sideritis romana L. subsp. purpurea (Tal. ex Benth.) Heywood (Lamiaceae) from Montenegro is reported. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oil revealed a total of 43 components with bicyclogermacrene (23.8%), germacrene D (8%), ( E )-caryophyllene (7.9%) and spathulenol (5.5%) as the major ones. Sesquiterpenoid group was found to be the most dominant one (64.8%), with 19.9% of the oxygenated forms. In the crude methanol extract of the investigated plant, obtained by Sohhlet exraction, the total phenol content was 14.7 ± 0.4 mg of GA/g, the total flavonoids were 0.29 ± 0.03% expressed as hyperoside percentage, whereas the total tannins content was 0.22 ± 0.04% expressed as pyrogallol percentage. For the antimicrobial activity determination, the following microorganisms have been used: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 29213)) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA (clinical strain)), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical strain), carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (clinical strain) and Candida albicans (ATCC 14053). The essential oil showed high potency against MSSA and MRSA, both at high (~5 × 10⁵ CFU/mL) and low (~5 × 10³ CFU/mL) inoculum. With respect to MSSA, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was 0.307 mg/mL, with bactericidal activity obtained at 0.615 mg/mL, while, in the case of MRSA, the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were 0.076 and 0.153 mg/mL, respectively. Regarding anti- Candida albicans activity, the MIC value was 2.46 mg/mL without reaching fungicidal activity. In addition to the observed essential oil efficacy, different solvent extracts were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. Similarly to the essential oil, thehighest efficacy was observed against both MSSA and MRSA strains, at high and

  7. Cerebroprotective Actions of Triticum aestivum Linn Powder and Bauhinia purpurea Flower Powder in Surgically Induced Cerebral Infraction in Rats. (United States)

    Annapurna, Akula; Vishala, Thonangi C; Bitra, Veera R; Rapaka, Deepthi; Shaik, Asmath


    The prime objective of this study is to evaluate the cerebroprotective actions of Triticum aestivum (wheatgrass) powder and Bauhinia purpurea flower (dev kanchan) powder against the experimentally induced global ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. In the first phase of the studies, 1 h before the surgical procedure, the Wistar rats were orally served with varied doses of wheatgrass powder (5, 10, 30, and 100 μg/kg) and Bauhinia flower powder (30, 100, 200, and 300 μg/kg), respectively. The ischemia was induced by 30-min bilateral carotid artery occlusion in succession to reperfusion for 4 h. It was proved that the wheatgrass powder and Bauhinia flower powder yielded a significant, dose-dependent cerebroprotection in terms of reduction in cerebral infarct size when compared with the control group. Coming to the second phase of the studies, a certain potential dose of 10 μg/kg of wheatgrass and 200 μg/kg of Bauhinia flower powders was selected keeping the protective action in view, and the animals were treated for 15 days. The major findings of the study are that wheatgrass and Bauhinia flower powders significantly augmented the magnitude of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., super oxide dismutase and catalase, and further reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation. The present study clearly showed that the wheatgrass powder and Bauhinia flower powder possess significant antioxidant properties that may act as a key ingredient in various ayurvedic preparations for the treatment of various diseases like cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. The wheat grass contains high amount of bioflavonoids, alkaloids, SOD etc which are responsible for anti oxidant activity.The Bauhinia purpurea contains glycosides, flavonoids and also plays a major role in DPPH activity which is responsible for anti oxidant activity.The wheat grass (10 mg/kg) and bauhinia (200 mg/kg) significantly(P bauhinia (200 mg/kg) significantly (P <0.0001) reduced the lipid peroxidation (MDA) and increased SOD

  8. Quantum cloning without external control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, G. de; Fazio, R.; Macchiavello, C.; Montangero, S.; Palma, G.M.


    Full text: In this work we present an approach to quantum cloning with unmodulated spin networks. The cloner is realized by a proper design of the network and a choice of the coupling between the qubits. We show that in the case of phase covariant cloner the XY coupling gives the best results. In the 1 → 2 cloning we find that the value for the fidelity of the optimal cloner is achieved, and values comparable to the optimal ones in the general N → M case can be attained. If a suitable set of network symmetries are satisfied, the output fidelity of the clones does not depend on the specific choice of the graph. We show that spin network cloning is robust against the presence of static imperfections. Moreover, in the presence of noise, it outperforms the conventional approach. In this case the fidelity exceeds the corresponding value obtained by quantum gates even for a very small amount of noise. Furthermore we show how to use this method to clone qutrits and qudits. By means of the Heisenberg coupling it is also possible to implement the universal cloner although in this case the fidelity is 10 % off that of the optimal cloner. (author)

  9. [Cloning and law in Hungary]. (United States)

    Julesz, Máté


    Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited. In Hungary, according to Article 174 of the Criminal Code, total human cloning constitutes a crime. Article 180, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian Act on Health declares that embryos shall not be brought about for research purposes; research shall be conducted only on embryos brought about for reproductive purposes when this is authorized by the persons entitled to decide upon its disposal, or when the embryo is damaged. Article 180, paragraph (5) of the Hungarian Act on Health stipulates that multiple individuals who genetically conform to one another shall not be brought about. According to Article 181, paragraph (1) of the Hungarian Act on Health, an embryo used for research shall be kept alive for not longer than 14 days, not counting the time it was frozen for storage and the time period of research.

  10. [Mystery and problems of cloning]. (United States)

    Nikitin, V A


    The attention of investigators is attracted to the fact that, in spite of great efforts in mammalian cloning, advances that have been made in this area of research are not great, and cloned animals have developmental pathologies often incompatible with life and/or reproduction ability. It is yet not clear what technical or biological factors underlie this, and how they are connected or interact with each other, which is more realistic strategically. There is a great number of articles dealing with the influence of cloning with the nuclear transfer on genetic and epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells. At the same time we can see the practical absence of analytical investigations concerning the technology of cloning as such, its weak points, and possible sources of cellular trauma in the course of microsurgery of nuclear transfer or twinning. This article discusses step by step several nuclear transfer techniques and the methods of dividing early preimplanted embryos for twinning with the aim to reveal possible sources of cell damage during micromanipulation that may have negative influence on the development of cloned organisms. Several new author's technologies based on the study of cell biophysical characteristics are described, which allow one to avoid cellular trauma during manipulation and minimize the possibility of cell damage at any rate.

  11. The topsy-turvy cloning law. (United States)

    Brassington, Iain; Oultram, Stuart


    In debates about human cloning, a distinction is frequently drawn between therapeutic and reproductive uses of the technology. Naturally enough, this distinction influences the way that the law is framed. The general consensus is that therapeutic cloning is less morally problematic than reproductive cloning--one can hold this position while holding that both are morally unacceptable--and the law frequently leaves the way open for some cloning for the sake of research into new therapeutic techniques while banning it for reproductive purposes. We claim that the position adopted by the law has things the wrong way around: if we accept a moral distinction between therapeutic and reproductive cloning, there are actually more reasons to be morally worried about therapeutic cloning than about reproductive cloning. If cloning is the proper object of legal scrutiny, then, we ought to make sure that we are scrutinising the right kind of clone.

  12. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the issue...

  13. Evaluation of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers on Shoot and Root Characteristics of Echinacea purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza Goldani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Purple coneflower with scientific name Echinacea purpurea (L. is an herbaceous perennial plant native to North America and is the one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. Root of Echinacea purpurea is commonly used around the world for stimulation of immune system. It is used as herbal medicine in respiratory infections, against malignant tumors and several inflammatory conditions However, nitrogen and phosphorus are the main elements that make up the proteins in plants and herbs for natural growth, especially is necessary in their productive organs. The results showed that nitrogen and phosphorus are important in continuation of flowering, the flowers fresh and dry weight and in essential oil. Fertilization of E. purpurea plants indicated that in absence or at low levels of nitrogen fertilization (0 and 100 kg acre-1, the addition of 50 and 100 kg acre-1 of potassium increased aerial parts, flower heads and root yield. Another report indicated that highest aerial biomass and root yield in E. purpurea was obtained with 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen at constant rates of phosphorus and potassium. Polyphenol content was not influenced by nitrogen fertilization and values fluctuated between 2.4 and 5.4 % in the aerial part at flowering and between 1.6 and 3.5 % in the roots. Fertilization with nitrogen caused a decrease in the concentrations of echinoside. Echinoside content was 1.16 % without nitrogen fertilization, and 0.94 % with nitrogen fertilization. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and yield of coneflower, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments were included three levels of nitrogen (0, 1 and 2 gr urea per kilogram of soil and three levels of phosphate fertilizer (0, 0.75 and 1.5 gr of phosphate (P2O5 per kg of soil. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied

  14. Quantitative analyses of the main chemical constituents in the roots of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia produced in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza, Jorge; Valverde, Roberto; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Molina, Jorge


    Free phenylpropanoids (chlorogenic and cichoric acids), and glycosidic (echinecoside), as well as the alkamides, present in root extracts of the medicinal plants Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia produced in 3 different locations of Costa Rica (Los Santos at 1650 masl, Santa Barbara de Heredia at 1250 masl and Ojo de Agua at 850 masl) were quantified. Results showed a decrease on secondary metabolites associated to an altitude reduction of the growing zone. Concentration of free phenylpropanoids and the echinecoside (synthesized exclusively for E. angustifolia) produced in Costa Rica was 100 and 34% higher than the concentration reported for a standard sample from U.S.A. Alkamides concentration ranged from 0.89-2.31%, as compared to 0.004-0.36% reported from U.S.A. The alkamides produced in Costa Rica were similar in the 3 growing zones. In addition, 2 of them showed different isomerism than the ones reported in samples from U.S.A. These results indicate that in tropical conditions not only is it possible to produce Echinacea, but also that the amount of metabolites is higher than those produced in the Echinacea's origin areas. The presence of compounds with different isomerism could provide an alternative use for those metabolites. (author) [es

  15. Inositol bisphosphate and inositol trisphosphate inhibit cell-to-cell passage of carboxyfluorescein in staminal hairs ofSetcreasea purpurea. (United States)

    Tucker, E B


    pH-buffered carboxyfluorescein (Buffered-CF) alone (control), or Buffered-CF solutions containing one of the following: (1)D-myo-inositol (I); (2)D-myo-inositol 2-monophosphate (IP1); (3)D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (IP2); (4)D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3); (5)D-fructose 2,6-diphosphate (F-2,6P2) were microinjected into the terminal cells of staminal hairs ofSetcreasea purpurea Boom. Passage of the CF from this terminal cell along the chain of cells towards the filament was monitored for 5 min using fluorescence microscopy and quantified using computer-assisted fluorescence-intensity video analysis. Cell-to-cell transport of CF in hairs microinjected with Buffered-CF containing either I, IP1 or F-2,6P2 was similar to that in hairs microinjected with Buffered-CF only. On the other hand, cell-to-cell transport of CF in hairs microinjected with Buffered-CF containing either IP2 or IP3 was inhibited. These results indicate that polyphosphoinositols may be involved in the regulation of intercellular transport of low-molecular-weight, hydrophilic molecules in plants.

  16. Symplastic Transport of Carboxyfluorescein in Staminal Hairs of Setcreasea purpurea Is Diffusive and Includes Loss to the Vacuole 1 (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph E.; Mauzerall, David; Tucker, Edward B.


    The kinetics of symplastic transport in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea was studied. The tip cell of a staminal hair was microinjected with carboxyfluorescein (CF) and the symplastic transport of this CF was videotaped and the digital data analyzed to produce kinetic curves. Using a finite difference equation for diffusion between cells and for loss of dye into the vacuole, kinetic curves were calculated and fitted to the observed data. These curves were matched with data from actual microinjection experiments by adjusting K (the coefficient of intercellular junction diffusion) and L (the coefficient of intracellular loss) until a minimum in the least squares difference between the curves was obtained. (a) Symplastic transport of CF was governed by diffusion through intercellular pores (plasmodesmata) and intracellular loss. Diffusion within the cell cytoplasm was never limiting. (b) Each cell and its plasmodesmata must be considered as its own diffusion system. Therefore, a diffusion coefficient cannot be calculated for an entire chain of cells. (c) The movement through plasmodesmata in either direction was the same since the data are fit by a diffusion equation. (d) Diffusion through the intercellular pores was estimated to be slower than diffusion through similar pores filled with water. PMID:16666864

  17. Symplastic Transport of Carboxyfluorescein in Staminal Hairs of Setcreasea purpurea Is Diffusive and Includes Loss to the Vacuole. (United States)

    Tucker, J E; Mauzerall, D; Tucker, E B


    The kinetics of symplastic transport in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea was studied. The tip cell of a staminal hair was microinjected with carboxyfluorescein (CF) and the symplastic transport of this CF was videotaped and the digital data analyzed to produce kinetic curves. Using a finite difference equation for diffusion between cells and for loss of dye into the vacuole, kinetic curves were calculated and fitted to the observed data. These curves were matched with data from actual microinjection experiments by adjusting K (the coefficient of intercellular junction diffusion) and L (the coefficient of intracellular loss) until a minimum in the least squares difference between the curves was obtained. (a) Symplastic transport of CF was governed by diffusion through intercellular pores (plasmodesmata) and intracellular loss. Diffusion within the cell cytoplasm was never limiting. (b) Each cell and its plasmodesmata must be considered as its own diffusion system. Therefore, a diffusion coefficient cannot be calculated for an entire chain of cells. (c) The movement through plasmodesmata in either direction was the same since the data are fit by a diffusion equation. (d) Diffusion through the intercellular pores was estimated to be slower than diffusion through similar pores filled with water.

  18. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Heng, E-mail: [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yue, Jie-Dong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)


    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results.

  19. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Heng; Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li; Yue, Jie-Dong; Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu


    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results

  20. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav


    Clone-MarkerFree. The integration of linearized expression cassettes into defined genomic loci is facilitated by CRISPR/Cas9. Cas9 is recruited to the chromosomal location by specific guide RNAs (gRNAs) expressed from a set of gRNA helper vectors. Using our genome engineering vector suite, single and triple insertions are obtained...

  1. Clone Poems and the Microcomputer. (United States)

    Irizarry, Estelle


    Describes how students can use the computer to study and create clone poems (altering original Spanish-language poems by substituting words and expressions), and how students can gain a deeper appreciation of the original poem's poetic structure and semantics. (CB)

  2. Probabilistic cloning and deleting of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuan; Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng


    We construct a probabilistic cloning and deleting machine which, taking several copies of an input quantum state, can output a linear superposition of multiple cloning and deleting states. Since the machine can perform cloning and deleting in a single unitary evolution, the probabilistic cloning and other cloning machines proposed in the previous literature can be thought of as special cases of our machine. A sufficient and necessary condition for successful cloning and deleting is presented, and it requires that the copies of an arbitrarily presumed number of the input states are linearly independent. This simply generalizes some results for cloning. We also derive an upper bound for the success probability of the cloning and deleting machine

  3. Human reproductive cloning: a conflict of liberties. (United States)

    Havstad, Joyce C


    Proponents of human reproductive cloning do not dispute that cloning may lead to violations of clones' right to self-determination, or that these violations could cause psychological harms. But they proceed with their endorsement of human reproductive cloning by dismissing these psychological harms, mainly in two ways. The first tactic is to point out that to commit the genetic fallacy is indeed a mistake; the second is to invoke Parfit's non-identity problem. The argument of this paper is that neither approach succeeds in removing our moral responsibility to consider and to prevent psychological harms to cloned individuals. In fact, the same commitment to personal liberty that generates the right to reproduce by means of cloning also creates the need to limit that right appropriately. Discussion of human reproductive cloning ought to involve a careful and balanced consideration of both the relevant aspects of personal liberty - the parents' right to reproductive freedom and the cloned child's right to self-determination.

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE Molecular cloning and functional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Nov 25, 2016 ... Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two novel ... Currently, many variants of HMW-GSs have been cloned from bread wheat .... SDS sedimentation tests were conducted using the methods described by Gao et ...

  5. Phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Imai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang, Xiang-Bin


    We study the phase-covariant quantum cloning machine for qudits, i.e., the input states in a d-level quantum system have complex coefficients with arbitrary phase but constant module. A cloning unitary transformation is proposed. After optimizing the fidelity between input state and single qudit reduced density operator of output state, we obtain the optimal fidelity for 1 to 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits and the corresponding cloning transformation

  6. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.


    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  7. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling (United States)

    Zhou, Yanli; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yongping


    Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea) is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26) was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2) and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1) were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling. PMID:27338368

  8. A single-copy galK promoter cloning vector suitable for cloning strong promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Gert; Court, Donald L.; Hammer, Karin


    We report the construction of lambda galK promoter cloning vectors for cloning and characterization of strong promoters. This phage, which contains a unique HindIII cloning site, was applied to the cloning and analysis of transcription initiations of the regulatory region of the deo-operon of...

  9. Tecnologia alternativa no controle de Ceratitis capitata e sua implicação na qualidade de frutos de Spondias purpurea


    Oliveira, Flávia Queiroz de


    A ciriguela Spondias purpurea é uma frutífera tropical de importância vital para os agricultores do semi-árido do Brasil, porém tem como um dos fatores limitantes a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diversos trabalhos têm discutido a aplicabilidade de produtos naturais, como óleos essenciais, em programas de controle desta praga. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a eficiência dessa tática no controle de C. capitata, assim como o impacto dessa tecnologia ...

  10. DNA cloning: a practical approach. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, D M [ed.


    This book is written for the advanced molecular biologist who needs a detailed discussion of cloning technology. Topics of discussion include: genomic library cloning (size of a genomic library, screening methods, chromosome walking, host cell genetics, and general features of bacteriophage Iambda); use of gt10 and gt11 cDNA lambda vectors and general cDNA cloning; RNase H-Pol I cDNA synthesis; method of detecting fusion proteins produced in bacteria; pEMBL family of double-stranded plasmid vectors that can be used to generate single strands; Escherichia coli transformation; production of mutations in cloned sequences; and cloning in gram negative bacteria.

  11. No-cloning theorem on quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki


    This paper discusses the no-cloning theorem in a logicoalgebraic approach. In this approach, an orthoalgebra is considered as a general structure for propositions in a physical theory. We proved that an orthoalgebra admits cloning operation if and only if it is a Boolean algebra. That is, only classical theory admits the cloning of states. If unsharp propositions are to be included in the theory, then a notion of effect algebra is considered. We proved that an atomic Archimedean effect algebra admitting cloning operation is a Boolean algebra. This paper also presents a partial result, indicating a relation between the cloning on effect algebras and hidden variables.

  12. Therapeutic and reproductive cloning: a critique. (United States)

    Bowring, Finn


    This article is a critical examination of the science and ethics of human cloning. It summarises the key scientific milestones in the development of nuclear transplantation, explains the importance of cloning to research into the medical potential of embryonic stem cells, and discusses the well-worn distinction between 'therapeutic' and 'reproductive' cloning. Suggesting that this distinction will be impossible to police, it goes on to consider the ethics of full human cloning. It is concluded that it represents an unacceptable form of parental despotism, and that the genetic engineering and cloning of future human beings will fracture the foundations of modern humanism.

  13. Clone DB: an integrated NCBI resource for clone-associated data (United States)

    Schneider, Valerie A.; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Clausen, Cliff; Meric, Peter A.; Zhou, Zhigang; Bouk, Nathan; Husain, Nora; Maglott, Donna R.; Church, Deanna M.


    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Clone DB ( is an integrated resource providing information about and facilitating access to clones, which serve as valuable research reagents in many fields, including genome sequencing and variation analysis. Clone DB represents an expansion and replacement of the former NCBI Clone Registry and has records for genomic and cell-based libraries and clones representing more than 100 different eukaryotic taxa. Records provide details of library construction, associated sequences, map positions and information about resource distribution. Clone DB is indexed in the NCBI Entrez system and can be queried by fields that include organism, clone name, gene name and sequence identifier. Whenever possible, genomic clones are mapped to reference assemblies and their map positions provided in clone records. Clones mapping to specific genomic regions can also be searched for using the NCBI Clone Finder tool, which accepts queries based on sequence coordinates or features such as gene or transcript names. Clone DB makes reports of library, clone and placement data on its FTP site available for download. With Clone DB, users now have available to them a centralized resource that provides them with the tools they will need to make use of these important research reagents. PMID:23193260

  14. Investigation on antimicrobial effects of essential oil of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. and identification of its chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Izadi


    Full Text Available Background: Purple coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea L. is a perennial herbaceous with astringent properties, disinfectant, antimicrobial and anti intoxication activity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of shoot essential oil of purple coneflower against some microorganisms including gram positive, gram negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Material and Methods: In this experimental and laboratory investigation, plant samples were collected in full blooming stage. Shoot essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation technique using Clevenger apparatus. The chemical constitutes of this oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS method. Anti microbial properties of the essential oil were determined using micro broth dilution and well disk diffusion methods. At the end, data were analyzed by the SPSS version 15 software, using the T-test and Duncan s' test. Results: Twenty nine components were identified by GC and GC/MS in the essential oil of purple coneflower representing 96.21% of total oil. The major components were Germacrene D (53.30%, -Cymene (9.78%, β-Caryophyllene (7.52%, α-Humulene (5.22%, β-Bisabolene (4.43% and α-Pinene (4.23%, respectively. This oil exhibited strong antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and yeast with average of inhibition zone (AIZ 39.63. Microorganisms differ in their resistance to purple coneflower oil. All of the bacteria including gram positive and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than fungi and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than gram positive bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium were more resistant than others. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that coneflower essential oil with significant antimicrobial effects and can be used instead of synthetic antibiotics that microbial resistance towards them is increasing.

  15. Cloning Expeditions: Risky but Rewarding (United States)


    In the 1980s, a good part of my laboratory was using the then-new recombinant DNA techniques to clone and characterize many important cell surface membrane proteins: GLUT1 (the red cell glucose transporter) and then GLUT2 and GLUT4, the red cell anion exchange protein (Band 3), asialoglycoprotein receptor subunits, sucrase-isomaltase, the erythropoietin receptor, and two of the subunits of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor. These cloned genes opened many new fields of basic research, including membrane insertion and trafficking of transmembrane proteins, signal transduction by many members of the cytokine and TGF-β families of receptors, and the cellular physiology of glucose and anion transport. They also led to many insights into the molecular biology of several cancers, hematopoietic disorders, and diabetes. This work was done by an exceptional group of postdocs and students who took exceptionally large risks in developing and using novel cloning technologies. Unsurprisingly, all have gone on to become leaders in the fields of molecular cell biology and molecular medicine. PMID:24061478

  16. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids


    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B.K.


    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain Ep R1 Isolated from Echinacea purpurea Roots and Effective in the Growth Inhibition of Human Opportunistic Pathogens Belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia Complex. (United States)

    Maggini, Valentina; Presta, Luana; Miceli, Elisangela; Fondi, Marco; Bosi, Emanuele; Chiellini, Carolina; Fagorzi, Camilla; Bogani, Patrizia; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Perrin, Elena; Fani, Renato


    In this announcement, we detail the draft genome sequence of the Pseudomonas sp. strain Ep R1, isolated from the roots of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea The elucidation of this genome sequence may allow the identification of genes associated with the production of antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2017 Maggini et al.

  18. Effect of oral administration of freshly pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea on the number of various subpopulations of B- and T-lymphocytes in healthy volunteers: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Evelyn; Parlesak, Alexandr; Henneicke-von-Zeppelin, H. H.


    BACKGROUND: In a recent double-blind placebo-controlled crossover-study the "immune stimulatory" effects (activation of macrophages leading to enhanced phagocytosis and production of several cytokines) of Echinacea purpurea preparations (EPP) which were observed in vitro experiments and following...

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Phenolic Acids in Rat Plasma Using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS after Oral Administration of Echinacea purpurea Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Du


    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine the concentration of seven phenolic acids (syringic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract. After mixing with the internal standard (IS, butylparaben, plasma samples were prepared by liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The separation was performed using the Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm with a gradient system consisting of solution A (0.1% acetic acid in water and solution B (methanol at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The detection was accomplished by a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode with electrospray ionization (ESI. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability. This method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetic properties of the seven compounds after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract in rats.

  20. Seslerio uliginosae-Scorzoneretum purpureae (Festuco-Brometea class in the Nida Basin (Małopolska Upland after 90 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Towpasz


    Full Text Available Seslerio uliginosae-Scorzoneretum purpureae is the only xerothermic community of the Festuco-Brometea class, where a rare species known as Sesleria uliginosa occurs in Poland. A couple of sites hosting this association in the Nida Basin were described in the 1920s and 1950s. All these stands are now situated in the areas designated as xerothermic nature reserves. The study aimed at describing the present-day characteristics of this rare association, the most likely being endemic in Poland, as well as the changes that have occurred in it. The species diversity and the contribution of xerothermic plants have decreased significantly in terms of their number and cover coefficient. Some of the diagnostic species of the association have become extremely rare. Sesleria uliginosa is the only one without visible changes in their dominant position in the community. Mosses, that have played a significant role before, were among the vanished species. At the same time, an increase in number and cover of mesophilous meadows species was observed. Mesophilous grasses belong to the group of species growing in significance in the phytocoenoses. The observed changes in species composition were reflected in a statistically significant increase of nitrogen indicator value. The slow process of succession observed in the Seslerio-Scorzoneretum purpureae could be attributed to the lack of appropriate land use, e.g. mowing and grazing that have been ceased in the nature reserves.

  1. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications. (United States)

    Džunková, Mária; D'Auria, Giuseppe; Pérez-Villarroya, David; Moya, Andrés


    Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb) cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs) with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  2. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Džunková

    Full Text Available Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  3. Cloning (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  4. Novel cloning machine with supplementary information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Daowen


    Probabilistic cloning was first proposed by Duan and Guo. Then Pati established a novel cloning machine (NCM) for copying superposition of multiple clones simultaneously. In this paper, we deal with the novel cloning machine with supplementary information (NCMSI). For the case of cloning two states, we demonstrate that the optimal efficiency of the NCMSI in which the original party and the supplementary party can perform quantum communication equals that achieved by a two-step cloning protocol wherein classical communication is only allowed between the original and the supplementary parties. From this equivalence, it follows that NCMSI may increase the success probabilities for copying. Also, an upper bound on the unambiguous discrimination of two nonorthogonal pure product states is derived. Our investigation generalizes and completes the results in the literature

  5. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ren Xijun [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 4750011 (China); Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  6. Effective and efficient model clone detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald


    Code clones are a major source of software defects. Thus, it is likely that model clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of models) have a significant negative impact on model quality, and thus, on any software created based on those models, irrespective of whether the software is generated fully...... automatically (“MDD-style”) or hand-crafted following the blueprint defined by the model (“MBSD-style”). Unfortunately, however, model clones are much less well studied than code clones. In this paper, we present a clone detection algorithm for UML domain models. Our approach covers a much greater variety...... of model types than existing approaches while providing high clone detection rates at high speed....

  7. Telomeres and the ethics of human cloning. (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz


    In search of a potential problem with cloning, I investigate the phenomenon of telomere shortening which is caused by cell replication; clones created from somatic cells will have shortened telomeres and therefore reach a state of senescence more rapidly. While genetic intervention might fix this problem at some point in the future, I ask whether, absent technological advances, this biological phenomenon undermines the moral permissibility of cloning.

  8. Species-specific challenges in dog cloning. (United States)

    Kim, G A; Oh, H J; Park, J E; Kim, M J; Park, E J; Jo, Y K; Jang, G; Kim, M K; Kim, H J; Lee, B C


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is now an established procedure used in cloning of several species. SCNT in dogs involves multiple steps including the removal of the nuclear material, injection of a donor cell, fusion, activation of the reconstructed oocytes and finally transfer to a synchronized female recipient. There are therefore many factors that contribute to cloning efficiency. By performing a retrospective analysis of 2005-2012 published papers regarding dog cloning, we define the optimum procedure and summarize the specific feature for dog cloning. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Human cloning: Eastern Mediterranean Region perspective. (United States)

    Abdur Rab, M; Khayat, M H


    Recent advances in genomics and biotechnology have ushered in a new era in health development. Therapeutic cloning possesses enormous potential for revolutionizing medical and therapeutic techniques. Cloning technology, however, is perceived as having the potential for reproductive cloning, which raises serious ethical and moral concerns. It is important that the Islamic countries come to a consensus on this vital issue. Developing science and technology for better health is a religious and moral obligation. There is an urgent need for Muslim scholars to discuss the issue of stem cell research and cloning rationally; such dialogue will not only consider the scientific merits but also the moral, ethical and legal implications.

  10. Cloning human DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.A.; Carr, A.M.; Lehmann, A.R.


    Many human genes involved in the repair of UV damage have been cloned using different procedures and they have been of great value in assisting the understanding of the mechanism of nucleotide excision-repair. Genes involved in repair of ionizing radiation damage have proved more difficult to isolate. Positional cloning has localized the XRCC5 gene to a small region of chromosome 2q33-35, and a series of yeast artificial chromosomes covering this region have been isolated. Very recent work has shown that the XRCC5 gene encodes the 80 kDa subunit of the Ku DNA-binding protein. The Ku80 gene also maps to this region. Studies with fission yeast have shown that radiation sensitivity can result not only from defective DNA repair but also from abnormal cell cycle control following DNA damage. Several genes involved in this 'check-point' control in fission yeast have been isolated and characterized in detail. It is likely that a similar checkpoint control mechanism exists in human cells. (author)

  11. Quantum cloning machines and their implementation in physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; Ye Liu; Fang Bao-Long


    We review the basic theory of approximate quantum cloning for discrete variables and some schemes for implementing quantum cloning machines. Several types of approximate quantum clones and their expansive quantum clones are introduced. As for the implementation of quantum cloning machines, we review some design methods and recent experimental results. (topical review - quantum information)

  12. Cloning and superluminal signaling£

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cloning; cloning fidelity; superluminal signaling; state discrimination. PACS No. 03.65.Bz. 1. .... The possibility of superluminal signaling in quantum mechanics stems from the concept .... quantum mechanics and relativity [13]. .... [13] A Shimony, in Foundations of quantum mechanics in the light of new technology edited by.

  13. The ethics of human reproductive cloning. (United States)

    Strong, Carson


    This article addresses the question of whether human reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples who would choose cloning as a way to have a genetically related child. At present, the risk of congenital anomalies constitutes a compelling argument against human reproductive cloning. The article explores whether reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable if, at some future time, cloning becomes possible without an elevated risk of anomalies. It is argued that freedom to use cloning is a form of procreative freedom and, as such, deserves respect. All of the objections that have been raised against human reproductive cloning fall under three main categories: those that appeal to the interests of the child, those based on consequences for society, and those arising from teleological views. Objections that appeal to the child's interests are, in turn, of two main kinds: consequentialist and deontological. All of these types of objections are examined, and it is found that each involves serious problems that prevent it from being a reasonable objection in the context of the infertility cases considered. It is concluded that human reproductive cloning would be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples, provided that it could be performed without an elevated risk of anomalies.

  14. Reversibility of continuous-variable quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, Radim; Marek, Petr; Fiurasek, Jaromir


    We analyze a reversibility of optimal Gaussian 1→2 quantum cloning of a coherent state using only local operations on the clones and classical communication between them and propose a feasible experimental test of this feature. Performing Bell-type homodyne measurement on one clone and anticlone, an arbitrary unknown input state (not only a coherent state) can be restored in the other clone by applying appropriate local unitary displacement operation. We generalize this concept to a partial reversal of the cloning using only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) and we show that this procedure converts the symmetric cloner to an asymmetric cloner. Further, we discuss a distributed LOCC reversal in optimal 1→M Gaussian cloning of coherent states which transforms it to optimal 1→M ' cloning for M ' < M. Assuming the quantum cloning as a possible eavesdropping attack on quantum communication link, the reversibility can be utilized to improve the security of the link even after the attack

  15. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald


    Code clones - that is, duplicate fragments of code - have been studied for a long time. There is strong evidence that code clones are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon is not restricted to code, but occurs in models in a very similar way. So it is...

  16. Recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning (United States)

    Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Emilia; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.


    No molecular cloning technique is considered universally reliable, and many suffer from being too laborious, complex, or expensive. Restriction-free cloning is among the simplest, most rapid, and cost-effective methods, but does not always provide successful results. We modified this method to enhance its success rate through the use of exponential amplification coupled with homologous end-joining. This new method, recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning, significantly extends the application of restriction-free cloning, and allows efficient vector construction with much less time and effort when restriction-free cloning fails to provide satisfactory results. The following modifications were made to the protocol:•Limited number of PCR cycles for both megaprimer synthesis and the cloning reaction to reduce error propagation.•Elimination of phosphorylation and ligation steps previously reported for cloning methods that used exponential amplification, through the inclusion of a reverse primer in the cloning reaction with a 20 base pair region of homology to the forward primer.•The inclusion of 1 M betaine to enhance both reaction specificity and yield. PMID:26150930

  17. Challenges in regulating farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunning, Jennifer; Hartlev, Mette; Gamborg, Christian

    Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety......Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety...

  18. Probabilistic cloning with supplementary information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Koji; Shimamura, Junichi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki


    We consider probabilistic cloning of a state chosen from a mutually nonorthogonal set of pure states, with the help of a party holding supplementary information in the form of pure states. When the number of states is 2, we show that the best efficiency of producing m copies is always achieved by a two-step protocol in which the helping party first attempts to produce m-1 copies from the supplementary state, and if it fails, then the original state is used to produce m copies. On the other hand, when the number of states exceeds two, the best efficiency is not always achieved by such a protocol. We give examples in which the best efficiency is not achieved even if we allow any amount of one-way classical communication from the helping party

  19. Phenotypic and genomic characterization of the antimicrobial producer Rheinheimera sp. EpRS3 isolated from the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea: insights into its biotechnological relevance. (United States)

    Presta, Luana; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Miceli, Elisangela; Maggini, Valentina; Bogani, Patrizia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio; Fani, Renato


    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in plant microbiota; however, despite medicinal plant relevance, very little is known about their highly complex endophytic communities. In this work, we report on the genomic and phenotypic characterization of the antimicrobial compound producer Rheinheimera sp. EpRS3, a bacterial strain isolated from the rhizospheric soil of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. In particular, EpRS3 is able to inhibit growth of different bacterial pathogens (Bcc, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) which might be related to the presence of gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of different types of secondary metabolites. The outcomes presented in this work highlight the fact that the strain possesses huge biotechnological potential; indeed, it also shows antimicrobial effects upon well-described multidrug-resistant (MDR) human pathogens, and it affects plant root elongation and morphology, mimicking indole acetic acid (IAA) action. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones (United States)

    Tian, X. Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Sakashita, Kunihito; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Okano, Ryoichi; Tabara, Norio; Curchoe, Carol; Jacob, Lavina; Zhang, Yuqin; Smith, Sadie; Bormann, Charles; Xu, Jie; Sato, Masumi; Andrew, Sheila; Yang, Xiangzhong


    The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the comparators were managed under the same conditions and received the same diet. The composition of the meat and milk from the clones were largely not statistically different from those of matched comparators, and all parameters examined were within the normal industry standards or previously reported values. The data generated from our match-controlled experiments provide science-based information desired by regulatory agencies to address public concerns about the safety of meat and milk from somatic animal clones. PMID:15829585

  1. Chorioallantoic placenta defects in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka-Saito, Noriko; Kohda, Takashi; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Miki, Hiromi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Mizutani, Eiji; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ogura, Atsuo; Ishino, Fumitoshi


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been applied to produce live clones successfully in several mammalian species, but the success rates are very low. In mice, about half of the nuclear transfer embryos undergo implantation, but very few survive to term. We undertook detailed histological analyses of placentas from cloned mouse embryos generated from cumulus cells at 10.5 dpc of pregnancy, by which stage most clones have terminated their development. At 10.5 dpc, the extraembryonic tissues displayed several defined histological patterns, each reflecting their stage of developmental arrest. The most notable abnormality was the poor development of the spongiotrophoblast layer of diploid cells. This is in contrast to the placental hyperplasia frequently observed in somatic clones at 12.5 dpc or later stages. A variety of structural abnormalities were also observed in the embryos. Both placental and embryonic defects likely contribute to the low success rate of the mouse clones

  2. "Goodbye Dolly?" The ethics of human cloning. (United States)

    Harris, J


    The ethical implications of human clones have been much alluded to, but have seldom been examined with any rigour. This paper examines the possible uses and abuses of human cloning and draws out the principal ethical dimensions, both of what might be done and its meaning. The paper examines some of the major public and official responses to cloning by authorities such as President Clinton, the World Health Organisation, the European parliament, UNESCO, and others and reveals their inadequacies as foundations for a coherent public policy on human cloning. The paper ends by defending a conception of reproductive rights of "procreative autonomy" which shows human cloning to be not inconsistent with human rights and dignity. PMID:9451604

  3. [Human cloning in Muslim and Arab law]. (United States)

    Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, Sami A


    Cloning is a modern medical procedure that Muslim religious authorities treat en resorting to the general principles established by classical Muslim law based on the Koran and the Sunnah of Muhhamad as the messenger of God. In this regard, human beings are not capable of deciding what is or what is not lawful without resorting to divine norms. Cloning clashes with several principles. Firstly, the principle of the respect for life in relation to surpernumeraries, but Muslim authors are not in unanimous agreement on the determination of the moment at which life begins. Secondly, is the respect of progeny: cloning could only take place between a married couple. But even if these two principles are respected, cloning poses two major problems: the diversity of species expounded by the Koran and the Sunnah and a lack of interest. Which explains the quasi-unanimous opposition of Muslim writings regarding cloning.

  4. Phytoalexin Elicitation- Potency As A Novel Technology for Biological Control and Protection Digitalis purpurea L. plants from Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment with Gamma Ray and Electric Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosila, H.A.; Lila, M.; Ahmed, T.E.S.


    Digitalis purpurea L seeds treated with gamma ray, (G) 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 KR, and electric current (E), 0, 100, 150, 200 mA, then planted in splite-splite plot design for 3 replicates (R) and 2 successive seasons, in sandy soil irrigated with brackish water (900ppm) through surface drip irrigation system (SDI).The formed plants were foliar sprayed with manganese (M),0,3ppm-The formed Phytoalexin (PA) was bioassayed and chemically quantified.M3ppm could induce sistemic resistance (ISR) which initiate to farm 0.064, 0.070 mg PA 100mg fresh leaves. The formed PA exhibited PA-glycosidal structure wherefore, achieve therapeutic potency. (G) depress significantlly PA 73-91% of control while (E) activated (PA) significantly 134-154% of control. At (GE) interaction, such (G) dose PA increased significantlly by increasing (E) dose up to E200mA. Hence (E) efface a serious depression of (G). At (GEM) interaction, (G) 2.5, 5, 7.5 KR EO mA, M3ppm the formed. (PA) were; 91, 75, 63 were increased significantlly by increasing (E) dose up to E200mA M3ppm 128, 119, 109 – 129, 117, 107% of control for first and second season, respectively. Therefore, M elicitor application, in GEM combination, could be considered as a novel strategy for biological control and plant protection, from economic and environmental benefit point of view. It would occur by decreasing the cost of fungicides, bactericides and pesticides in Digitalis purpurea L biomass production, grown in extended agriculture area.

  5. Inhibition of Genotoxic Effects of UVC Radiation on Human Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells by Echinacea Purpurea (L.) Moench Herbal Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosalec, I.; Segvic Klaric, M.; Kopjar, N.; Milic, M.


    Exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation might provoke acute and chronic inflammation and oxidative stress which might cause DNA damage leading to skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Previously we showed that Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (EH) extract, rich in phenolic acids, has protective effect on human blood lymphocytes exposed to UVC radiation. In this study we checked whether the pre-treatment of human keratinocyte HaCaT cells with lyophilisate of EH (1 and 10 mg/mL) could reduce or prevent primary DNA damage induced by UVC radiation (253.7 nm) in laboratory conditions. Prior to that experiment we examined cell viability using MTT test upon exposure to EH and UVC (30 and 60 min) alone and in combination. Primary DNA damage in HaCaT cells was studied using the alkaline comet assay. Exposure of cells to EH and UVC alone or EH in combination with UV radiation did not reduce cell viability. Opposite to that UV radiation (30 and 60 min) caused a significant increase in the level of primary DNA damage (P < 0.001). Pre-treatment of cells with both concentrations of EH was not genotoxic to HaCaT cells. Only concentration of 1 mg/mL EH successfully protected the cells against the effects of 30 min exposure to UVC radiation. Positive results obtained in this study speak in favour of continuing the research on effectiveness of Echinacea purpurea preparations and their potential application in developing cosmetic products for skin protection.(author)

  6. Inhibition of Photo-Genotoxic Effects of UV Radiation on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocites by Echinacea Purpurea (L.) Moench Herbal Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segvic Klaric, M.; Kosalec, I.; Vladimir-Knezevic, S.; Blazekovic, B.; Milic, M.; Kopjar, N.


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has many negative effects on human skin, including acute and chronic inflammation and oxidative stress which might cause DNA damage leading to skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. It was suggested that intake of phenolic acids, which are active components of some medicinal plants, might reduce DNA damage caused by UV radiation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to check wheather the pretreatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with lyophilisate of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (EH) extract (1 and 10 mg/mL) could reduce or prevent primary DNA damage induced by UVC radiation (253.7 nm) in laboratory conditions. Primary DNA damage was studied using the alkaline comet assay on isolated human blood lymphocytes. Plant extract used in this experiment contains phenolic acids (3.47 %), flavonoids (0.13 %), tannins (0.86 %) and proanthocyanidins (0.26 %). HPLC analysis showed that lyophilisate of EH extract contains 3.65 % of chicoric acid. Exposure of lymphocytes to UV radiation (30 and 60 min) caused a significant increase in the level of primary DNA damage (P < 0.001). Pretreatment of cells with both concentrations of EH was not genotoxic, and successfully protected the cells against the effects of UV radiation (30 min). Both concentrations of EH significantly reduced comet tail length after 60 min of UV radiation, while only pre-treatment with 1 mg/mL significantly reduced the values of tail intensity and tail moment (P < 0.001). Positive results obtained in this study speak in favour of continuing the research on effectiveness of Echinacea purpurea preparations and their potential application in developing cosmetic products for skin protection. (author)

  7. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM. Costa

    Full Text Available The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13 than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26 and in the control group (up to 1.10, which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.

  8. Economical quantum cloning in any dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durt, Thomas; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Cerf, Nicolas J.


    The possibility of cloning a d-dimensional quantum system without an ancilla is explored, extending on the economical phase-covariant cloning machine for qubits found in Phys. Rev. A 60, 2764 (1999). We prove the impossibility of constructing an economical version of the optimal universal 1→2 cloning machine in any dimension. We also show, using an ansatz on the generic form of cloning machines, that the d-dimensional 1→2 phase-covariant cloner, which optimally clones all balanced superpositions with arbitrary phases, can be realized economically only in dimension d=2. The used ansatz is supported by numerical evidence up to d=7. An economical phase-covariant cloner can nevertheless be constructed for d>2, albeit with a slightly lower fidelity than that of the optimal cloner requiring an ancilla. Finally, using again an ansatz on cloning machines, we show that an economical version of the 1→2 Fourier-covariant cloner, which optimally clones the computational basis and its Fourier transform, is also possible only in dimension d=2

  9. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Liu, Athena


    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  10. Human cloning and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eslami


    Full Text Available Catholic Church and most of Muslims believe that human cloning is in contrast with human rights. They argue that applying Somatic Nuclear Transfer Technique or so-called cloning to humans is against human dignity. Their main reason is that the cloned person would be a copy or shadow of another person and lack his or her identity and uniqueness. They also argue that in the process of cloning human beings would be treated as laboratory mice. This article tries to evaluate this kind of argumentation and shows that the "human dignity" expression in the relevant writings is vague and has been used inappropriately. مسیحیان و برخی از مسلمانان استدلال می‌کنند که کاربست تکنیک شبیه‌سازی ناقض کرامت انسانی است. این دلیل خود به صورت‌های مختلفی بیان می‌شود، مانند آنکه انسان موضوع آزمایش‌های علمی قرار می‌گیرد و با او مانند حیوانات رفتار می‌شود. گاه نیز تغییر نحوة تولید مثل، مایة نقض کرامت انسانی قلمداد می‌گردد و گاه به مسئلة از بین رفتن هویت فردی اشاره می‌شود. نگارنده در دو قسمت، دیدگاه مسیحیان و مسلمانان را در این باره نقل و تحلیل کرده است و کوشیده است نشان دهد که استناد به مفهوم کرامت انسانی در این جا مبهم و ناگویاست و مخالفان کوشش دقیقی در جهت تبیین دلیل خود به عمل نیاورده‌اند.

  11. Metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium in plant cell cultures of transgenic (rhizomania-resistant) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium). (United States)

    Müller, B P; Zumdick, A; Schuphan, I; Schmidt, B


    The metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium was investigated in heterotrophic cell suspension and callus cultures of transgenic (bar-gene) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris). Similar studies were performed with suspensions of carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium). 14C-labelled chemicals were the (racemic) glufosinate, L-glufosinate, and D-glufosinate, as well as the metabolites N-acetyl L-glufosinate and 3-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propionic acid (MPP). Cellular absorption was generally low, but depended noticeably on plant species, substance and enantiomer. Portions of non-extractable residues ranged from 0.1% to 1.2% of applied 14C. Amounts of soluble metabolites resulting from glufosinate or L-glufosinate were between 0.0% and 26.7% of absorbed 14C in non-transgenic cultures and 28.2% and 59.9% in transgenic sugarbeet. D-Glufosinate, MPP and N-acetyl L-glufosinate proved to be stable. The main metabolite in transgenic sugarbeet was N-acetyl L-glufosinate, besides traces of MPP and 4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid (MPB). In non-transgenic sugarbeet, glufosinate was transformed to a limited extent to MPP and trace amounts of MPB. In carrot, D stramonium and D purpurea, MPP was also the main product; MPB was identified as a further trace metabolite in D stramonium and D purpurea.

  12. Coding sequence of human rho cDNAs clone 6 and clone 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chardin, P; Madaule, P; Tavitian, A


    The authors have isolated human cDNAs including the complete coding sequence for two rho proteins corresponding to the incomplete isolates previously described as clone 6 and clone 9. The deduced a.a. sequences, when compared to the a.a. sequence deduced from clone 12 cDNA, show that there are in human at least three highly homologous rho genes. They suggest that clone 12 be named rhoA, clone 6 : rhoB and clone 9 : rhoC. RhoA, B and C proteins display approx. 30% a.a. identity with ras proteins,. mainly clustered in four highly homologous internal regions corresponding to the GTP binding site; however at least one significant difference is found; the 3 rho proteins have an Alanine in position corresponding to ras Glycine 13, suggesting that rho and ras proteins might have slightly different biochemical properties.

  13. Optimal cloning of mixed Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guta, Madalin; Matsumoto, Keiji


    We construct the optimal one to two cloning transformation for the family of displaced thermal equilibrium states of a harmonic oscillator, with a fixed and known temperature. The transformation is Gaussian and it is optimal with respect to the figure of merit based on the joint output state and norm distance. The proof of the result is based on the equivalence between the optimal cloning problem and that of optimal amplification of Gaussian states which is then reduced to an optimization problem for diagonal states of a quantum oscillator. A key concept in finding the optimum is that of stochastic ordering which plays a similar role in the purely classical problem of Gaussian cloning. The result is then extended to the case of n to m cloning of mixed Gaussian states

  14. The Shiite Pluralistic Position on Human Cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyid Hasan Islami Ardekani


    Full Text Available With regard to human cloning or artificial human reproduction – and contrary to the opinions of Sunni scholars - Shiite thinkers have not held a unified position. After having surveyed a number of Shiite fatwas and analyses on the subject, this essay will classify them into four groups. The first group states that we are granted absolute permission to engage in human cloning; while the second group believes that there is limited permission; the third group argues that cloning as such is primarily permitted but because of its consequences and secondary grounds it is prohibited and unlawful; and the fourth group is of the view that cloning as such and by itself is prohibited and unlawful. In what follows, the author has examined these four views, ending in support of the permission theory.

  15. DNA microarrays : a molecular cloning manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sambrook, Joseph; Bowtell, David


    .... This manual, designed to extend and to complement the information in the best-selling Molecular Cloning, is a synthesis of the expertise and experience of more than 30 contributors all innovators in a fast moving field...

  16. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald


    Code clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of code) have been studied for long, and there is strong evidence that they are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon occurs similarly in models, suggesting that model clones are as detrimental to model quality...... as they are to code quality. However, programming language code and visual models have significant differences that make it difficult to directly transfer notions and algorithms developed in the code clone arena to model clones. In this article, we develop and propose a definition of the notion of “model clone” based...... we believe that our approach advances the state of the art significantly, it is restricted to UML models, its results leave room for improvements, and there is no validation by field studies....

  17. Generation of phase-covariant quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimipour, V.; Rezakhani, A.T.


    It is known that in phase-covariant quantum cloning, the equatorial states on the Bloch sphere can be cloned with a fidelity higher than the optimal bound established for universal quantum cloning. We generalize this concept to include other states on the Bloch sphere with a definite z component of spin. It is shown that once we know the z component, we can always clone a state with a fidelity higher than the universal value and that of equatorial states. We also make a detailed study of the entanglement properties of the output copies and show that the equatorial states are the only states that give rise to a separable density matrix for the outputs

  18. Skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Sho; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Ohgane, Jun; Hattori, Naka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Shiota, Kunio


    In female mammals, dosage compensation for X-linked genes is accomplished by inactivation of one of two X chromosomes. The X-inactivation ratio (a percentage of the cells with inactivated maternal X chromosomes in the whole cells) is skewed as a consequence of various genetic mutations, and has been observed in a number of X-linked disorders. We previously reported that phenotypically normal full-term cloned mouse fetuses had loci with inappropriate DNA methylation. Thus, cloned mice are excellent models to study abnormal epigenetic events in mammalian development. In the present study, we analyzed X-inactivation ratios in adult female cloned mice (B6C3F1). Kidneys of eight naturally produced controls and 11 cloned mice were analyzed. Although variations in X-inactivation ratio among the mice were observed in both groups, the distributions were significantly different (Ansary-Bradley test, P < 0.01). In particular, 2 of 11 cloned mice showed skewed X-inactivation ratios (19.2% and 86.8%). Similarly, in intestine, 1 of 10 cloned mice had a skewed ratio (75.7%). Skewed X-inactivation was observed to various degrees in different tissues of different individuals, suggesting that skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice is the result of secondary cell selection in combination with stochastic distortion of primary choice. The present study is the first demonstration that skewed X-inactivation occurs in cloned animals. This finding is important for understanding both nuclear transfer technology and etiology of X-linked disorders

  19. Japan. Human cloning ban allows some research. (United States)

    Normile, D


    TOKYO--Japanese legislators last week approved a ban on human cloning that leaves room for the use of certain techniques in basic research. The action comes at the same time officials in two other countries--China and France--aired similar proposals that would prohibit so-called reproductive cloning while recognizing the possible importance of the technology in combating disease and improving human health.

  20. Endangered wolves cloned from adult somatic cells. (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hwang, Woo Suk; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Kim, Joung Joo; Shin, Nam Shik; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun


    Over the world, canine species, including the gray wolf, have been gradually endangered or extinct. Many efforts have been made to recover and conserve these canids. The aim of this study was to produce the endangered gray wolf with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for conservation. Adult ear fibroblasts from a female gray wolf (Canis lupus) were isolated and cultured in vitro as donor cells. Because of limitations in obtaining gray wolf matured oocytes, in vivo matured canine oocytes obtained by flushing the oviducts from the isthmus to the infundibulum were used. After removing the cumulus cells, the oocyte was enucleated, microinjected, fused with a donor cell, and activated. The reconstructed cloned wolf embryos were transferred into the oviducts of the naturally synchronized surrogate mothers. Two pregnancies were detected by ultrasonography at 23 days of gestation in recipient dogs. In each surrogate dog, two fetal sacs were confirmed by early pregnancy diagnosis at 23 days, but only two cloned wolves were delivered. The first cloned wolf was delivered by cesarean section on October 18, 2005, 60 days after embryo transfer. The second cloned wolf was delivered on October 26, 2005, at 61 days postembryo transfer. Microsatellite analysis was performed with genomic DNA from the donor wolf, the two cloned wolves, and the two surrogate female recipients to confirm the genetic identity of the cloned wolves. Analysis of 19 microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned wolves were genetically identical to the donor wolf. In conclusion, we demonstrated live birth of two cloned gray wolves by nuclear transfer of wolf somatic cells into enucleated canine oocyte, indicating that SCNT is a practical approach for conserving endangered canids.

  1. Clone tag detection in distributed RFID systems (United States)

    Kamaludin, Hazalila; Mahdin, Hairulnizam


    Although Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is poised to displace barcodes, security vulnerabilities pose serious challenges for global adoption of the RFID technology. Specifically, RFID tags are prone to basic cloning and counterfeiting security attacks. A successful cloning of the RFID tags in many commercial applications can lead to many serious problems such as financial losses, brand damage, safety and health of the public. With many industries such as pharmaceutical and businesses deploying RFID technology with a variety of products, it is important to tackle RFID tag cloning problem and improve the resistance of the RFID systems. To this end, we propose an approach for detecting cloned RFID tags in RFID systems with high detection accuracy and minimal overhead thus overcoming practical challenges in existing approaches. The proposed approach is based on consistency of dual hash collisions and modified count-min sketch vector. We evaluated the proposed approach through extensive experiments and compared it with existing baseline approaches in terms of execution time and detection accuracy under varying RFID tag cloning ratio. The results of the experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline approaches in cloned RFID tag detection accuracy. PMID:29565982

  2. Reproductive cloning combined with genetic modification. (United States)

    Strong, C


    Although there is widespread opposition to reproductive cloning, some have argued that its use by infertile couples to have genetically related children would be ethically justifiable. Others have suggested that lesbian or gay couples might wish to use cloning to have genetically related children. Most of the main objections to human reproductive cloning are based on the child's lack of unique nuclear DNA. In the future, it may be possible safely to create children using cloning combined with genetic modifications, so that they have unique nuclear DNA. The genetic modifications could be aimed at giving such children genetic characteristics of both members of the couple concerned. Thus, cloning combined with genetic modification could be appealing to infertile, lesbian, or gay couples who seek genetically related children who have genetic characteristics of both members. In such scenarios, the various objections to human reproductive cloning that are based on the lack of genetic uniqueness would no longer be applicable. The author argues that it would be ethically justifiable for such couples to create children in this manner, assuming these techniques could be used safely.

  3. Emotional reactions to human reproductive cloning. (United States)

    May, Joshua


    Extant surveys of people's attitudes towards human reproductive cloning focus on moral judgements alone, not emotional reactions or sentiments. This is especially important given that some (especially Leon Kass) have argued against such cloning on the ground that it engenders widespread negative emotions, like disgust, that provide a moral guide. To provide some data on emotional reactions to human cloning, with a focus on repugnance, given its prominence in the literature. This brief mixed-method study measures the self-reported attitudes and emotions (positive or negative) towards cloning from a sample of participants in the USA. Most participants condemned cloning as immoral and said it should be illegal. The most commonly reported positive sentiment was by far interest/curiosity. Negative emotions were much more varied, but anxiety was the most common. Only about a third of participants selected disgust or repugnance as something they felt, and an even smaller portion had this emotion come to mind prior to seeing a list of options. Participants felt primarily interested and anxious about human reproductive cloning. They did not primarily feel disgust or repugnance. This provides initial empirical evidence that such a reaction is not appropriately widespread. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  4. Clone tag detection in distributed RFID systems. (United States)

    Kamaludin, Hazalila; Mahdin, Hairulnizam; Abawajy, Jemal H


    Although Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is poised to displace barcodes, security vulnerabilities pose serious challenges for global adoption of the RFID technology. Specifically, RFID tags are prone to basic cloning and counterfeiting security attacks. A successful cloning of the RFID tags in many commercial applications can lead to many serious problems such as financial losses, brand damage, safety and health of the public. With many industries such as pharmaceutical and businesses deploying RFID technology with a variety of products, it is important to tackle RFID tag cloning problem and improve the resistance of the RFID systems. To this end, we propose an approach for detecting cloned RFID tags in RFID systems with high detection accuracy and minimal overhead thus overcoming practical challenges in existing approaches. The proposed approach is based on consistency of dual hash collisions and modified count-min sketch vector. We evaluated the proposed approach through extensive experiments and compared it with existing baseline approaches in terms of execution time and detection accuracy under varying RFID tag cloning ratio. The results of the experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline approaches in cloned RFID tag detection accuracy.

  5. Cloning: Past, Present, and the Exciting Future. Breakthroughs in Bioscience. (United States)

    Di Berardino, Marie A.

    This document explores the history of cloning by focusing on Dolly the Sheep, one of the first large animal clonings. The disadvantages and advantages of transgenic clones are discussed as well as the future implications of cloning from the perspective of human health. (Contains 10 resources.) (YDS)

  6. Public perceptions of farm animal cloning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    This report presents a picture of European opinion on farm animal cloning. In the report, both agricultural and biomedical applications of farm animal cloning are considered. With the arrival of Dolly, animal cloning became an integral part of the biotech debate, but this debate did not isolate...... animal cloning as a single issue....

  7. Cloning the entanglement of a pair of quantum bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Navez, Patrick; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurasek, Jaromir


    It is shown that any quantum operation that perfectly clones the entanglement of all maximally entangled qubit pairs cannot preserve separability. This 'entanglement no-cloning' principle naturally suggests that some approximate cloning of entanglement is nevertheless allowed by quantum mechanics. We investigate a separability-preserving optimal cloning machine that duplicates all maximally entangled states of two qubits, resulting in 0.285 bits of entanglement per clone, while a local cloning machine only yields 0.060 bits of entanglement per clone

  8. Quantum cloning of mixed states in symmetric subspaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng


    Quantum-cloning machine for arbitrary mixed states in symmetric subspaces is proposed. This quantum-cloning machine can be used to copy part of the output state of another quantum-cloning machine and is useful in quantum computation and quantum information. The shrinking factor of this quantum cloning achieves the well-known upper bound. When the input is identical pure states, two different fidelities of this cloning machine are optimal

  9. Online detection and quatification of ergot bodies in cereals using near infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ph.; Fernandez - Pierna, J.A.; Egmond, van H.P.; Dardenne, P.; Baeten, V.


    The occurrence of ergot bodies (sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea) in cereals presents a high toxicity risk for animals and humans due to the alkaloid content. To reduce this risk, the European Commission fixed an ergot concentration limit of 0.1% in all feedstuffs containing unground cereals, and a

  10. The ergot alkaloid gene cluster: Functional analyses and evolutionary aspects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorenz, N.; Haarmann, T.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Jung, M.; Tudzynski, P.


    Roč. 70, 15-16 (2009), s. 1822-1832 ISSN 0031-9422 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Claviceps purpurea * Ergot fungus * Ergot alkaloid gene cluster Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2009

  11. Cloning Mice and Men: Prohibiting the Use of iPS Cells for Human Reproductive Cloning


    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard


    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation.

  12. Cloning mice and men: prohibiting the use of iPS cells for human reproductive cloning. (United States)

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard


    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Update on the First Cloned Dog and Outlook for Canine Cloning. (United States)

    Jang, Goo; Lee, ByeongChun


    As man's best friend, dogs have an important position in human society. Ten years ago, we reported the first cloned dog, and his birth has raised various scientific issues, such as those related to health, reproduction, and life span. He has developed without any unique health issues. In this article, we summarize and present perspectives on canine cloning.

  14. Efecto del método de secado en la longevidad y la calidad de las semillas de Bauhinia purpurea.: I. Almacenamiento en Condiciones Ambientales Effect of the drying method on the longevity and quality of seeds from Bauhinia purpurea.: I. Storage under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Navarro


    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento con el objetivo de determinar la influencia combinada de diferentes métodos de secado, las condiciones de almacenamiento al ambiente y la edad fisiológica de las semillas de B. purpurea, en la capacidad germinativa y en la calidad de estas. Los tratamientos para el secado fueron: A en las legumbres, B artificial, y C al sol. Se determinó el porcentaje de viabilidad y de germinación, así como el contenido de humedad (CH, con una frecuencia mensual durante un año de almacenamiento; además se registró la temperatura y la humedad relativa (máxima y mínima durante el período evaluado. En el procesamiento de la información se utilizaron análisis multivariados (GLM y Factorial. En los tratamientos A y C se observaron semejanzas en cuanto a la viabilidad y la germinación, aunque las semillas alcanzaron la muerte fisiológica a los siete y nueve meses de permanencia en el almacén, respectivamente. El secado de las semillas con silicagel mostró que la pérdida de la capacidad germinativa siguió un modelo polinomial cúbico, con una marcada tendencia a la linealidad, y al finalizar el estudio fue de 70%. Las diferencias entre el CH de las semillas secadas artificialmente (B y al sol (C permitieron confirmar que la longevidad en B fue dos a cuatro veces mayor que en C. Los factores más influyentes en el ritmo de pérdida de la calidad de las semillas B. purpurea almacenadas al ambiente fueron el contenido de humedad y la edad.A trial was carried out with the objective of determining the combined influence of different drying methods, the storage under ambient conditions and the physiological age of the seeds from B. purpurea, on their germination capacity and quality. The treatments for drying were: A in the pods, B artificial and C under sunlight. The percentage of viability and germination, as well as the moisture content (MC, were determined, with a monthly frequency during a year of storage; in addition the

  15. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos


    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  16. Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells. (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hossein, M Shamim; Shamim, M Hossein; Kim, Jung Ju; Kang, Sung Keun; Schatten, Gerald; Hwang, Woo Suk


    Several mammals--including sheep, mice, cows, goats, pigs, rabbits, cats, a mule, a horse and a litter of three rats--have been cloned by transfer of a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg cell (oocyte) that has had its nucleus removed. This technology has not so far been successful in dogs because of the difficulty of maturing canine oocytes in vitro. Here we describe the cloning of two Afghan hounds by nuclear transfer from adult skin cells into oocytes that had matured in vivo. Together with detailed sequence information generated by the canine-genome project, the ability to clone dogs by somatic-cell nuclear transfer should help to determine genetic and environmental contributions to the diverse biological and behavioural traits associated with the many different canine breeds.

  17. Human reproductive cloning and reasons for deprivation. (United States)

    Jensen, D A


    Human reproductive cloning provides the possibility of genetically related children for persons for whom present technologies are ineffective. I argue that the desire for genetically related children is not, by itself, a sufficient reason to engage in human reproductive cloning. I show this by arguing that the value underlying the desire for genetically related children implies a tension between the parent and the future child. This tension stems from an instance of a deprivation and violates a general principle of reasons for deprivation. Alternative considerations, such as a right to procreative autonomy, do not appear helpful in making the case for human reproductive cloning merely on the basis of the desire for genetically related children.

  18. Antioxidant capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators. (United States)

    Hudec, Jozef; Burdová, Mária; Kobida, L'ubomír; Komora, Ladislav; Macho, Vendelín; Kogan, Grigorij; Turianica, Ivan; Kochanová, Radka; Lozek, Otto; Habán, Miroslav; Chlebo, Peter


    The changes of the antioxidant (AOA) and antiradical activities (ARA) and the total contents of phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydroxybenzoic acid in roots and different aerial sections of Echinacea purpurea, nettle, and dandelion, after treatment with ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, a polyamine inhibitor (O-phosphoethanolamine, KF), and a phenol biosynthesis stimulator (carboxymethyl chitin glucan, CCHG) were analyzed spectrophotometrically; hydroxycinnamic acids content was analyzed by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Both regulators increased the AOA measured as inhibition of peroxidation (IP) in all herb sections, with the exception of Echinacea stems after treatment with KF. In root tissues IP was dramatically elevated mainly after CCHG application: 8.5-fold in Echinacea, 4.14-fold in nettle, and 2.08-fold in dandelion. ARA decrease of Echinacea leaves treated with regulators was in direct relation only with cichoric acid and caftaric acid contents. Both regulators uphold the formation of cinnamic acid conjugates, the most expressive being that of cichoric acid after treatment with CCHG in Echinacea roots from 2.71 to 20.92 mg g(-1). There was a strong relationship between increase of the total phenolics in all sections of Echinacea, as well as in the studied sections of dandelion, and the anthocyanin content.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Brahmachari


    Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to study the comparative phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Barks (BPBE and leaves ethanolic extracts (BPLE in albino wistar rats to validate their ethno medical use in hyperglycemia as well as to explore the better option. Phytochemicals in ethanolic extracts were analyzed by standard natural product chemistry methods. Diabetes was developed in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin @ 60mg/ Kg bw. Diabetic albino wister rats (n=3 of either sex (150-200gm bw were orally fed with the extracts once daily for 4 weeks. Glibenclamide @ 0.5mg/Kg bw was used as a positive control for comparison. Fasting blood glucose level at 0, 14th and 28th day and hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin on 28th day of experiment were analyzed. Our results show that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and phenolics. Rats treated with plant extracts show better glucose modulation, decreased hemoglobin glycosylation and improved hemoglobin concentration as compared to diabetic control. The hypoglycemic effect of only BPBE at 420 mgkg-1 on 14th and 28th day is comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (P>0.01. The bark extract has been observed to be more potent hypoglycemic agent than leave extract.

  20. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di


    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops.

  1. Exploiting the Complementarity between Dereplication and Computer-Assisted Structure Elucidation for the Chemical Profiling of Natural Cosmetic Ingredients: Tephrosia purpurea as a Case Study. (United States)

    Hubert, Jane; Chollet, Sébastien; Purson, Sylvain; Reynaud, Romain; Harakat, Dominique; Martinez, Agathe; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Renault, Jean-Hugues


    The aqueous-ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea seeds is currently exploited in the cosmetic industry as a natural ingredient of skin lotions. The aim of this study was to chemically characterize this ingredient by combining centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) as a fractionation tool with two complementary identification approaches involving dereplication and computer-assisted structure elucidation. Following two rapid fractionations of the crude extract (2 g), seven major compounds namely, caffeic acid, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, ethyl galactoside, ciceritol, stachyose, saccharose, and citric acid, were unambiguously identified within the CPE-generated simplified mixtures by a recently developed (13)C NMR-based dereplication method. The structures of four additional compounds, patuletin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, guaiacylglycerol 8-vanillic acid ether, and 2-methyl-2-glucopyranosyloxypropanoic acid, were automatically elucidated by using the Logic for Structure Determination program based on the interpretation of 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, and COSY) connectivity data. As more than 80% of the crude extract mass was characterized without need for tedious and labor-intensive multistep purification procedures, the identification tools involved in this work constitute a promising strategy for an efficient and time-saving chemical profiling of natural extracts.

  2. Cloning arbuscule-related genes from mycorrhizas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burleigh, Stephen


    Until recently little was known about the identity of the genes expressed in the arbuscules of mycorrhizas, due in part to problems associated with cloning genes from the tissues of an obligate symbiont. However, the combination of advanced molecular techniques, innovative use of the materials...... available and fortuitous cloning has resulted in the recent identification of a number of arbuscule-related genes. This article provides a brief summary of the genes involved in arbuscule development, function and regulation, and the techniques used to study them. Molecular techniques include differential...

  3. Social behavior and kin discrimination in a mixed group of cloned and non cloned heifers (Bos taurus). (United States)

    Coulon, M; Baudoin, C; Abdi, H; Heyman, Y; Deputte, B L


    For more than ten years, reproductive biotechnologies using somatic cell nuclear transfer have made possible the production of cloned animals in various domestic and laboratory species. The influence of the cloning process on offspring characteristics has been studied in various developmental aspects, however, it has not yet been documented in detail for behavioral traits. Behavioral studies of cloned animals have failed to show clear inter-individual differences associated with the cloning process. Preliminary results showed that clones favor each other's company. Preferential social interactions were observed among cloned heifers from the same donor in a mixed herd that also included cloned heifers and control heifers produced by artificial insemination (AI). These results suggest behavioral differences between cloned and non-cloned animals and similarities between clones from the same donor. The aim of the present study was to replicate and to extend these previous results and to study behavioral and cognitive mechanisms of this preferential grouping. We studied a group composed of five cloned heifers derived from the same donor cow, two cloned heifers derived from another donor cow, and AI heifers. Cloned heifers from the same donor were more spatially associated and interacted more between themselves than with heifers derived from another donor or with the AI individuals. This pattern indicates a possible kin discrimination in clones. To study this process, we performed an experiment (using an instrumental conditioning procedure with food reward) of visual discrimination between images of heads of familiar heifers, either related to the subjects or not. The results showed that all subjects (AI and cloned heifers) discriminated between images of familiar cloned heifers produced from the same donor and images of familiar unrelated heifers. Cattle discriminated well between images and used morphological similarities characteristic of cloned related heifers. Our

  4. Changes in the gut microbiota of cloned and non-cloned control pigs during development of obesity: gut microbiota during development of obesity in cloned pigs. (United States)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Mølbak, Lars; Stagsted, Jan; Boye, Mette


    Obesity induced by a high-caloric diet has previously been associated with changes in the gut microbiota in mice and in humans. In this study, pigs were cloned to minimize genetic and biological variation among the animals with the aim of developing a controlled metabolomic model suitable for a diet-intervention study. Cloning of pigs may be an attractive way to reduce genetic influences when investigating the effect of diet and obesity on different physiological sites. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the changes in the composition of the gut microbiota of cloned vs. non-cloned pigs during development of obesity by a high-fat/high-caloric diet. Furthermore, we investigated the association between diet-induced obesity and the relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the fecal-microbiota. The fecal microbiota from obese cloned (n = 5) and non-cloned control pigs (n= 6) was investigated biweekly over a period of 136 days, by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). A positive correlation was observed between body-weight at endpoint and percent body-fat in cloned (r=0.9, Pmicrobiota between the cloned pigs or between cloned and non-cloned control pigs. Body-weight correlated positively with the relative abundance of Firmicutes in both cloned (r=0.37; Pgut microbiota in neither the obese nor the lean state. Diet-induced obesity was associated with an increase in the relative abundance of Firmicutes over time. Our results suggest that cloned pigs are not a more suitable animal model for gut microbiota-obesity related studies than non-cloned pigs. This study is the first to evaluate if cloned pigs provide a better animal model than conventional pigs in diet-intervention, obesity and gut microbiota research.

  5. Information cloning of harmonic oscillator coherent states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show that in the case of unknown harmonic oscillator coherent statesit is possible to achieve what we call perfect information cloning. By this we mean that it is still possible to make arbitrary number of copies of a state which has exactly the same information content as the original unknown coherent state. By making use ...

  6. Stochasticity or the fatal `imperfection' of cloning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 7, 2005 ... The concept of clone is analysed with the aim of exploring the limits to which a phenotype can be said to be determined geneticaly. First of all, mutations that result from the replication, topological manipulation or lesion of DNA introduce a source of heritable variation in an otherwise identical genetic ...

  7. Cloning and expression of pineapple sucrosephosphate synthase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 1132-base pairs (bp) polymerase-chain-reaction product of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) (EC from pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) fruit was cloned and nominated as Ac- SPS1. The sequence encodes a putative 377 amino acids protein containing two serine conserved features that had ...

  8. Top 5 exotic clones for potato breeding (United States)

    Wild and cultivated relatives of potato feature prominently in breeding programs. In this short article, I describe five exotic clones that have promising traits for the future of the US potato industry. They include M6, an inbred line of S. chacoense that provides a source of genes for self-compati...

  9. Experimental eavesdropping based on optimal quantum cloning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Lemr, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Miranowicz, A.


    Roč. 110, č. 17 (2013), "173601-1"-"173601-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum cryptography * qubits * eavesdropping * quantum cloning Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013

  10. [Telomere lengthening by trichostatin A treatment in cloned pigs]. (United States)

    Xie, Bing-Teng; Ji, Guang-Zhen; Kong, Qing-Ran; Mao, Jian; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Shi-Chao; Wu, Mei-Ling; Wang, Juan; Liu, Lin; Liu, Zhong-Hua


    Telomeres are repeated GC rich sequences at the end of chromosomes, and shorten with each cell division due to DNA end replication problem. Previously, reprogrammed somatic cells of cloned animals display variable telomere elongation. However, it was reported that the cloned animals including Dolly do not reset telomeres and show premature aging. In this study, we investigated telomere function in cloned or transgenic cloned pigs, including the cloned Northeast Min pigs, eGFP, Mx, and PGC1α transgenic cloned pigs, and found that the telomere lengths of cloned pigs were significantly shorter than the nuclear donor adult fibroblasts and age-matched noncloned pigs (Pstage for 24 h. Consistent with previous reports, the developmental rate of SCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage was significantly increased compared with those of the control group (16.35% vs. 27.09%, 21.60% vs. 34.90%, Plengthen the telomere lengths of cloned pigs.

  11. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik


    Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites......, differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... 3-year harvest rotation, and it consistently ranked as the highest yielding clone on four of the five sites and not significantly lower than the highest yielding clone on the fifth site. The ranking of the other clones was more dependent on site with significant interaction between clone and site...

  12. Babesia bovis clones: biochemical and enzymatic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Camarillo, S.D.


    Studies were undertaken to generate additional knowledge of the biochemistry of Babesia bovis. A modified in vitro culture technique used for cloning B. bovis. This technique included a low oxygen concentration atmosphere (2%, O 2 , 5% CO 2 , 93% N 2 ) and 4 mm fluid level. Cultures initiated with one infected erythrocyte were maintained until parasitemias of positive wells reached 2% parasitemia. Primary clones were obtained and from these, nine clones were recloned twice and used for subsequent studies. A procedure was developed to concentrate and separate B. bovis merozoites and infected erythrocytes by Percoll density gradients. Merozoites separated at 1.087 g/ml specific density, whereas infected erythrocytes separated at 1.121 g/ml. Viability of purified parasites was not affected. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to identify metabolic enzyme in B. bovis and B. bigemina. The enzymes LDH, GDH, GPI and HK were detected in both species. Molecular analysis by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins metabolically labeled with 35 S-methionine indicated that two clones, derived from the same field strain, were similar but not identical to the parent. Fewer proteins were observed in the parental strain. Growth of two 60-Co irradiated B. bovis clones indicated a dose-effect relationship. Growth of parasites exposed for the longest period was initially retarded but returned to normal growth after two or three subcultures. Cultures exposed for shorter periods were unaffected with respect to the rate of growth. Analysis of electrophoretic mobility of metabolic enzyme showed a change in migration pattern

  13. A Gateway MultiSite recombination cloning toolkit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena K Petersen

    Full Text Available The generation of DNA constructs is often a rate-limiting step in conducting biological experiments. Recombination cloning of single DNA fragments using the Gateway system provided an advance over traditional restriction enzyme cloning due to increases in efficiency and reliability. Here we introduce a series of entry clones and a destination vector for use in two, three, and four fragment Gateway MultiSite recombination cloning whose advantages include increased flexibility and versatility. In contrast to Gateway single-fragment cloning approaches where variations are typically incorporated into model system-specific destination vectors, our Gateway MultiSite cloning strategy incorporates variations in easily generated entry clones that are model system-independent. In particular, we present entry clones containing insertions of GAL4, QF, UAS, QUAS, eGFP, and mCherry, among others, and demonstrate their in vivo functionality in Drosophila by using them to generate expression clones including GAL4 and QF drivers for various trp ion channel family members, UAS and QUAS excitatory and inhibitory light-gated ion channels, and QUAS red and green fluorescent synaptic vesicle markers. We thus establish a starter toolkit of modular Gateway MultiSite entry clones potentially adaptable to any model system. An inventory of entry clones and destination vectors for Gateway MultiSite cloning has also been established (

  14. Technological Literacy and Human Cloning. Resources in Technology. (United States)

    Baird, Steven L.


    Discusses how technology educators can deal with advances in human genetics, specifically, cloning. Includes a definition and history of cloning, discusses its benefits, and looks at social concerns and arguments for and against human cloning. Includes classroom activities and websites. (Contains 10 references.) (JOW)

  15. Early selection of Eucalyptus clones in retrospective nursery test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the framework of the eucalyptus breeding programme in the Congo, two retrospective tests were conducted using mature clones in the field and young cuttings under nursery conditions with two hybrids: 13 clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis* Eucalyptus grandis for the test TC 82-1B and 17 clones of Eucalyptus ...

  16. Evaluation of a Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and related ELISA for respective induction and assessment of acquired immunity to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea in Awassi Ewes. (United States)

    Barbour, Elie K; Assi, Chibli A Abou; Shaib, Houssam; Hamadeh, Shadi; Murtada, Muhammad; Mahmoud, Ghassan; Yaghmoor, Soonham; Iyer, Archana; Harakeh, Steve; Kumosani, Taha


    The aim of this study was to evaluate an experimental Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) bacterin and an indirect ELISA system to assess quantitatively the acquired immunity in Awassi ewes to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea (EP) dried roots. Four treatments of the ewes were included in the experimental design, with 6 ewes/treatment. The first treatment (T1) had the controls that were non-vaccinated and non-treated with EP. The T2 ewes were only treated with EP. The T3 and T4 ewes were vaccinated at D1 (initiation of trial) and D10, while the T4 ewes were additionally administered the EP dried roots. Blood was collected from the jugular vein of all ewes at D1, D10, D21 and D45. The construction of the vaccine and the ELISA are detailed within the manuscript. The ELISA was able to detect quantitatively the significant acquired primary and secondary immunity to the vaccine in T3 and T4 ewes, compared to their low level of background immunities at initiation of the experiment (p0.05) in T1 control ewes, and in the T2 ewes that were given only the (EP) (p>0.05). Moreover, the ELISA was able to uncover the significant seroconversion of secondary immune response in T4 ewes at D21 compared to that at D10 (pewes. This is the first work in literature that reports the need to supplement the vaccination by the experimental SE bacterin with daily oral intake of 250mg of EP-dried roots, effective the first vaccination day and up to 21 days, for obtaining a statistically significant seroconversion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli and enterococci within the accumulated fluid of the northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.). (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L; Byers, Stacey E; Shively, Dawn A; Ferguson, Donna M; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara


    Sarracenia purpurea L., a carnivorous bog plant (also known as the pitcher plant), represents an excellent model of a well-defined, self-contained ecosystem; the individual pitchers of the plant serve as a microhabitat for a variety of micro- and macro-organisms. Previously, fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) were shown as incidental contaminants in pitcher fluid; however, whether their occurrence in pitcher fluid is incidental or common has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and growth potential of E. coli and enterococci in pitcher plant fluid from a protected bog in northwest Indiana. Escherichia coli and enterococci were recovered in pitcher fluids (n=43 plants), with mean densities (log CFU mL-1) of 1.28+/-0.23 and 1.97+/-0.27, respectively. In vitro experiments showed that E. coli growth in fluid not containing insects or indigenous organisms was directly proportional to the fluid concentration (growth was 10-fold in 24 h in 100% fluid); however, in the presence of other indigenous organisms, E. coli and enterococci were only sustained for 5 days at 26 degrees C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that the plant Enterococcus faecalis isolates were genetically distinct from the human isolates; identical PFGE patterns were observed among plant isolates that fell into one of six clonal groups. These findings suggest that (i) E. coli and enterococci occurrence in pitcher plants is rather common in the bog studied, although their originating source is unclear, and (ii) the pitcher fluid contains adequate nutrients, especially carbon and energy sources, to promote the growth of indicator bacteria; however, under natural conditions, the biotic factors (e.g., competition for nutrients) may restrict their growth.

  18. Éxito reproductivo y calidad de los frutos en poblaciones del extremo sur de la distribución de Ipomoea purpurea (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Galetto


    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de frutos y semillas en Ipomea purpurea en relación con diferentes tratamientos de polinización (autopolinización espontánea, autopolinización manual y polinización cruzada, durante dos temporadas reproductivas. La masa de los frutos, de las semillas y el número de semillas por fruto, se compararon entre tratamientos y entre años, a fin de detectar diferencias en la calidad de los frutos. Los resultados para las poblaciones estudiadas en el centro de Argentina confirman que se trata de una especie autocompatible y con la capacidad de producir frutos por autogamia espontánea. Los valores de éxito reproductivo mediados por polinización natural fueron altos (> 50%. Un fruto maduro pesa 0,1 g y contiene 4-6 semillas; la masa del total de semillas producidas por un fruto representa alrededor del 60% de la masa total del fruto. Los caracteres de los frutos y las semillas no presentaron diferencias significativas entre años o tratamientos. Asimismo, se compararon los frutos provenientes de polinización natural entre los individuos con distinto color de flor. En general, tampoco se encontraron diferencias significativas. Sólo los frutos provenientes de flores rosa presentaron un número significativamente menor de semillas que los frutos de los otros morfotipos florales (blanco o púrpura. El grupo principal de visitantes florales fue el de los Himenópteros, que pueden ser considerados polinizadores. Se registraron otros grupos de visitantes florales que no tendrían un papel preponderante en la transferencia de polen

  19. Above- and below-ground responses of Calamagrostis purpurea to UV-B radiation and elevated CO{sub 2} under phosphorus limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussell, J.S.; Gwynn-Jones, D.; Griffith, G.W.; Scullion, J. (Aberystwyth Univ., IBERS, Wales (United Kingdom))


    UV-B radiation and elevated CO{sub 2} may impact rhizosphere processes through altered below-ground plant resource allocation and root exudation, changes that may have implications for nutrient acquisition. As nutrients limit plant growth in many habitats, their supply may dictate plant response under elevated CO{sub 2}. This study investigated UV-B exposure and elevated CO{sub 2} effects, including interactions, on plant growth, tissue chemistry and rooting responses relating to P acquisition. The sub-arctic grass Calamagrostis purpurea was subjected to UV-B (0 or 3.04 kJ m-2day-1) and CO{sub 2} (ambient 380 or 650 ppmv) treatments in a factorial glasshouse experiment, with sparingly soluble P (0 or 0.152 mg P per plant as FePO{sub 4}) a further factor. It was hypothesized that UV-B exposure and elevated CO{sub 2} would change plant resource allocation, with CO{sub 2} mitigating adverse responses to UV-B exposure and aiding P uptake. Plant biomass and morphology, tissue composition and rhizosphere leachate properties were measured. UV-B directly affected chemical composition of shoots and interacted with CO{sub 2} to give a greater root biomass. Elevated CO{sub 2} altered the composition of both shoots and roots and increased shoot biomass and secondary root length, while leachate pH decreased. Below-ground responses to CO{sub 2} did not affect P acquisition although P limitation progressively reduced leachate pH and increased secondary root length. Although direct plant growth, foliar composition and below-ground nutrient acquisition responses were dominated by CO{sub 2} treatments, UV-B modified these CO{sub 2} responses significantly. These interactions have implications for plant responses to future atmospheric conditions. (Author)

  20. Cloning and joint measurements of incompatible components of spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brougham, Thomas; Andersson, Erika; Barnett, Stephen M.


    A joint measurement of two observables is a simultaneous measurement of both quantities upon the same quantum system. When two quantum-mechanical observables do not commute, then a joint measurement of these observables cannot be accomplished directly by projective measurements alone. In this paper we shall discuss the use of quantum cloning to perform a joint measurement of two components of spin associated with a qubit system. We introduce cloning schemes which are optimal with respect to this task. The cloning schemes may be thought to work by cloning two components of spin onto their outputs. We compare the proposed cloning machines to existing cloners

  1. Recent progress and problems in animal cloning. (United States)

    Tsunoda, Y; Kato, Y


    It is remarkable that mammalian somatic cell nuclei can form whole individuals if they are transferred to enucleated oocytes. Advancements in nuclear transfer technology can now be applied for genetic improvement and increase of farm animals, rescue of endangered species, and assisted reproduction and tissue engineering in humans. Since July 1998, more than 200 calves have been produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cell nuclei in Japan, but half of them were stillborn or died within several months of parturition. Morphologic abnormalities have also been observed in cloned calves and embryonic stem cell-derived mice. In this review, we discuss the present situation and problems with animal cloning and the possibility for its application to human medicine.

  2. Radiation-induced aneusomic clones in bone marrow of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, Sei-Ichi; Ishihara, Takaaki


    Wistar rats 3 months old were given a single whole-body X-irradiation with 700 R. They were killed 9.3 months, on average, after irradiation. From the bone marrows of the 23 irradiated rats, 54 clones of cells with radiation-induced chromosome abnormalities ranging from 3.3 to 78.3% in size were obtained. Karyotype analysis at the banding level showed that 43 out of the 54 clones had balanced chromosome constitutions and that the remaining 11 clones were unbalanced. The 43 balanced clones consisted of 33 clones with reciprocal translocations, 6 with inversions and 4 with both translocations and inversions. The 11 unbalanced clones were made up of 7 aneuploid clones and 4 pseudo-diploid clones. Of the 54 clones, 15 were large with frequencies of more than 25%. Contrary to general belief that cells with unbalanced chromosome constitutions have less capacity to proliferate than those with balanced ones, 8 of the 15 large clones, especially all, except 1, of the largest 6 clones were unbalanced, either aneuploid or pseudo-diploid

  3. Ethical issues regarding human cloning: a nursing perspective. (United States)

    Dinç, Leyla


    Advances in cloning technology and successful cloning experiments in animals raised concerns about the possibility of human cloning in recent years. Despite many objections, this is not only a possibility but also a reality. Human cloning is a scientific revolution. However, it also introduces the potential for physical and psychosocial harm to human beings. From this point of view, it raises profound ethical, social and health related concerns. Human cloning would have an impact on the practice of nursing because it could result in the creation of new physiological and psychosocial conditions that would require nursing care. The nursing profession must therefore evaluate the ethics of human cloning, in particular the potential role of nurses. This article reviews the ethical considerations of reproductive human cloning, discusses the main reasons for concern, and reflects a nursing perspective regarding this issue.

  4. U.S. consumers attitudes toward farm animal cloning. (United States)

    Brooks, Kathleen R; Lusk, Jayson L


    In January 2008, the United States Food and Drug Administration concluded "meat and milk from cattle, swine, and goat clones or their offspring are as safe to eat as food we eat from those species now" (U.S. FDA, 2010). However, cloning remains a very controversial topic. A web-based survey administered by Knowledge Networks was used to determine U.S. consumers' awareness of and attitudes toward meat and milk from cloned cattle. Findings reveal consumers do not differentiate much between products from cloned animals and products from non-cloned animals. Overall consumers are concerned that animal cloning is an unnatural process and that it will lead to human cloning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Combinations of probabilistic and approximate quantum cloning and deleting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Daowen


    We first construct a probabilistic and approximate quantum cloning machine (PACM) and then clarify the relation between the PACM and other cloning machines. After that, we estimate the global fidelity of the approximate cloning that improves the previous estimation for the deterministic cloning machine; and also derive a bound on the success probability of producing perfect multiple clones. Afterwards, we further establish a more generalized probabilistic and approximate cloning and deleting machine (PACDM) and discuss the connections of the PACDM to some of the existing quantum cloning and deleting machines. Finally the global fidelity and a bound on the success probability of the PACDM are obtained. Summarily, the quantum devices established in this paper improve and also greatly generalize some of the existing machines

  6. Keith's MAGIC: Cloning and the Cell Cycle. (United States)

    Wells, D N


    Abstract Professor Keith Campbell's critical contribution to the discovery that a somatic cell from an adult animal can be fully reprogrammed by oocyte factors to form a cloned individual following nuclear transfer (NT)(Wilmut et al., 1997 ) overturned a dogma concerning the reversibility of cell fate that many scientists had considered to be biologically impossible. This seminal experiment proved the totipotency of adult somatic nuclei and finally confirmed that adult cells could differentiate without irreversible changes to the genetic material.

  7. Therapeutic cloning in individual parkinsonian mice (United States)

    Tabar, Viviane; Tomishima, Mark; Panagiotakos, Georgia; Wakayama, Sayaka; Menon, Jayanthi; Chan, Bill; Mizutani, Eiji; Al-Shamy, George; Ohta, Hiroshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Studer, Lorenz


    Cell transplantation with embryonic stem (ES) cell progeny requires immunological compatibility with host tissue. ‘Therapeutic cloning’ is a strategy to overcome this limitation by generating nuclear transfer (nt)ES cells that are genetically matched to an individual. Here we establish the feasibility of treating individual mice via therapeutic cloning. Derivation of 187 ntES cell lines from 24 parkinsonian mice, dopaminergic differentiation, and transplantation into individually matched host mice showed therapeutic efficacy and lack of immunological response. PMID:18376409

  8. Genetically Modified GMDH Method with Cloning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.


    Roč. 28, - (2007), s. 29-37 ISSN 1870-4069. [NNAM 2007. International Conference on Neural Networks and Associative Memories /2./. Mexico City, 04.11.2007-09.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GMDH neural network * genetic selection * cloning * Machine Learning Repository Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Cloning simulation in the cage environment.


    Douthart, R J; Thomas, J J; Rosier, S D; Schmaltz, J E; West, J W


    The CAGE/GEM(TM) software toolkit for genetic engineering is briefly described. The system functionally uses color graphics and is menu driven. It integrates genetics and features information ("Overlays") with information based on sequence analysis ("Representations"). The system is structured around CAD (Computer Aided Design) principles. The CAGE (Computer Aided Genetic Engineering) aspects of the software are emphasized and illustrated by a simulated cloning of the hepatitis B core antigen...

  10. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations. (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J


    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits.

  11. Universality of clone dynamics during tissue development (United States)

    Rulands, Steffen; Lescroart, Fabienne; Chabab, Samira; Hindley, Christopher J.; Prior, Nicole; Sznurkowska, Magdalena K.; Huch, Meritxell; Philpott, Anna; Blanpain, Cedric; Simons, Benjamin D.


    The emergence of complex organs is driven by the coordinated proliferation, migration and differentiation of precursor cells. The fate behaviour of these cells is reflected in the time evolution of their progeny, termed clones, which serve as a key experimental observable. In adult tissues, where cell dynamics is constrained by the condition of homeostasis, clonal tracing studies based on transgenic animal models have advanced our understanding of cell fate behaviour and its dysregulation in disease1,2. But what can be learnt from clonal dynamics in development, where the spatial cohesiveness of clones is impaired by tissue deformations during tissue growth? Drawing on the results of clonal tracing studies, we show that, despite the complexity of organ development, clonal dynamics may converge to a critical state characterized by universal scaling behaviour of clone sizes. By mapping clonal dynamics onto a generalization of the classical theory of aerosols, we elucidate the origin and range of scaling behaviours and show how the identification of universal scaling dependences may allow lineage-specific information to be distilled from experiments. Our study shows the emergence of core concepts of statistical physics in an unexpected context, identifying cellular systems as a laboratory to study non-equilibrium statistical physics.

  12. Emergence of clones in sexual populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neher, Richard A; Vucelja, Marija; Mezard, Mark; Shraiman, Boris I


    In sexual population, recombination reshuffles genetic variation and produces novel combinations of existing alleles, while selection amplifies the fittest genotypes in the population. If recombination is more rapid than selection, populations consist of a diverse mixture of many genotypes, as is observed in many populations. In the opposite regime, which is realized for example in the facultatively sexual populations that outcross in only a fraction of reproductive cycles, selection can amplify individual genotypes into large clones. Such clones emerge when the fitness advantage of some of the genotypes is large enough that they grow to a significant fraction of the population despite being broken down by recombination. The occurrence of this ‘clonal condensation’ depends, in addition to the outcrossing rate, on the heritability of fitness. Clonal condensation leads to a strong genetic heterogeneity of the population which is not adequately described by traditional population genetics measures, such as linkage disequilibrium. Here we point out the similarity between clonal condensation and the freezing transition in the random energy model of spin glasses. Guided by this analogy we explicitly calculate the probability, Y, that two individuals are genetically identical as a function of the key parameters of the model. While Y is the analog of the spin-glass order parameter, it is also closely related to rate of coalescence in population genetics: two individuals that are part of the same clone have a recent common ancestor. (paper)

  13. Tumor clone dynamics in lethal prostate cancer. (United States)

    Carreira, Suzanne; Romanel, Alessandro; Goodall, Jane; Grist, Emily; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Miranda, Susana; Prandi, Davide; Lorente, David; Frenel, Jean-Sebastien; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Flohr, Penelope; Tunariu, Nina; S de Bono, Johann; Demichelis, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt


    It is unclear whether a single clone metastasizes and remains dominant over the course of lethal prostate cancer. We describe the clonal architectural heterogeneity at different stages of disease progression by sequencing serial plasma and tumor samples from 16 ERG-positive patients. By characterizing the clonality of commonly occurring deletions at 21q22, 8p21, and 10q23, we identified multiple independent clones in metastatic disease that are differentially represented in tissue and circulation. To exemplify the clinical utility of our studies, we then showed a temporal association between clinical progression and emergence of androgen receptor (AR) mutations activated by glucocorticoids in about 20% of patients progressing on abiraterone and prednisolone or dexamethasone. Resistant clones showed a complex dynamic with temporal and spatial heterogeneity, suggesting distinct mechanisms of resistance at different sites that emerged and regressed depending on treatment selection pressure. This introduces a management paradigm requiring sequential monitoring of advanced prostate cancer patients with plasma and tumor biopsies to ensure early discontinuation of agents when they become potential disease drivers. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Survival of Skin Graft between Transgenic Cloned Dogs and Non-Transgenic Cloned Dogs (United States)

    Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Jung; Lim, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Byung Il; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun


    Whereas it has been assumed that genetically modified tissues or cells derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) should be accepted by a host of the same species, their immune compatibility has not been extensively explored. To identify acceptance of SCNT-derived cells or tissues, skin grafts were performed between cloned dogs that were identical except for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and foreign gene. We showed here that differences in mtDNA haplotypes and genetic modification did not elicit immune responses in these dogs: 1) skin tissues from genetically-modified cloned dogs were successfully transplanted into genetically-modified cloned dogs with different mtDNA haplotype under three successive grafts over 63 days; and 2) non-transgenic cloned tissues were accepted into transgenic cloned syngeneic recipients with different mtDNA haplotypes and vice versa under two successive grafts over 63 days. In addition, expression of the inserted gene was maintained, being functional without eliciting graft rejection. In conclusion, these results show that transplanting genetically-modified tissues into normal, syngeneic or genetically-modified recipient dogs with different mtDNA haplotypes do not elicit skin graft rejection or affect expression of the inserted gene. Therefore, therapeutically valuable tissue derived from SCNT with genetic modification might be used safely in clinical applications for patients with diseased tissues. PMID:25372489

  15. High-dimensional quantum cloning and applications to quantum hacking. (United States)

    Bouchard, Frédéric; Fickler, Robert; Boyd, Robert W; Karimi, Ebrahim


    Attempts at cloning a quantum system result in the introduction of imperfections in the state of the copies. This is a consequence of the no-cloning theorem, which is a fundamental law of quantum physics and the backbone of security for quantum communications. Although perfect copies are prohibited, a quantum state may be copied with maximal accuracy via various optimal cloning schemes. Optimal quantum cloning, which lies at the border of the physical limit imposed by the no-signaling theorem and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, has been experimentally realized for low-dimensional photonic states. However, an increase in the dimensionality of quantum systems is greatly beneficial to quantum computation and communication protocols. Nonetheless, no experimental demonstration of optimal cloning machines has hitherto been shown for high-dimensional quantum systems. We perform optimal cloning of high-dimensional photonic states by means of the symmetrization method. We show the universality of our technique by conducting cloning of numerous arbitrary input states and fully characterize our cloning machine by performing quantum state tomography on cloned photons. In addition, a cloning attack on a Bennett and Brassard (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol is experimentally demonstrated to reveal the robustness of high-dimensional states in quantum cryptography.

  16. Human cloning: category, dignity, and the role of bioethics. (United States)

    Shuster, Evelyne


    Human cloning has been simultaneously a running joke for massive worldwide publicity of fringe groups like the Raelians, and the core issue of an international movement at the United Nations in support of a treaty to ban the use of cloning techniques to produce a child (so called reproductive cloning). Yet, even though debates on human cloning have greatly increased since the birth of Dolly, the clone sheep, in 1997, we continue to wonder whether cloning is after all any different from other methods of medically assisted reproduction, and what exactly makes cloning an 'affront to the dignity of humans.' Categories we adopt matter mightily as they inform but can also misinform and lead to mistaken and unproductive decisions. And thus bioethicists have a responsibility to ensure that the proper categories are used in the cloning debates and denounce those who try to win the ethical debate through well-crafted labels rather than well-reasoned argumentations. But it is as important for bioethicists to take a position on broad issues such as human cloning and species altering interventions. One 'natural question' would be, for example, should there be an international treaty to ban human reproductive cloning?

  17. Procreative liberty, enhancement and commodification in the human cloning debate. (United States)

    Shapshay, Sandra


    The aim of this paper is to scrutinize a contemporary standoff in the American debate over the moral permissibility of human reproductive cloning in its prospective use as a eugenic enhancement technology. I shall argue that there is some significant and under-appreciated common ground between the defenders and opponents of human cloning. Champions of the moral and legal permissibility of cloning support the technology based on the right to procreative liberty provided it were to become as safe as in vitro fertilization and that it be used only by adults who seek to rear their clone children. However, even champions of procreative liberty oppose the commodification of cloned embryos, and, by extension, the resulting commodification of the cloned children who would be produced via such embryos. I suggest that a Kantian moral argument against the use of cloning as an enhancement technology can be shown to be already implicitly accepted to some extent by champions of procreative liberty on the matter of commodification of cloned embryos. It is in this argument against commodification that the most vocal critics of cloning such as Leon Kass and defenders of cloning such as John Robertson can find greater common ground. Thus, I endeavor to advance the debate by revealing a greater degree of moral agreement on some fundamental premises than hitherto recognized.

  18. Heterogeneity in induced thermal resistance of rat tumor cell clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasovic, S.P.; Rosenblatt, P.L.; Heitzman, D.


    Four 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma clones were examined for their survival response to heating under conditions that induced transient thermal resistance (thermotolerance). Clones MTC and MTF7 were isolated from the subcutaneous locally growing tumor, whereas clones MTLn2 and MTLn3 were derived from spontaneous lung metastases. There was heterogeneity among these clones in thermotolerance induced by either fractionated 45 0 C or continuous 42 0 C heating, but the order of sensitivity was not necessarily the same. The clones developed thermal resistance at different rates and to different degrees within the same time intervals. There was heterogeneity between clones isolated from within either the primary site or metastatic lesions. However, clones derived from metastatic foci did not intrinsically acquire more or less thermotolerance to fractionated 45 0 C or continuous 42 0 C heating than did clones from the primary tumor. Further, there was no apparent relationship between any phenotypic properties that conferred more or less thermotolerance in vitro and any phenotypic properties that conferred enhanced metastatic success of these same clones by spontaneous (subcutaneous) or experimental (intravenous) routes in vivo. These tumor clones also differ in their karyotype, metastatic potential, cell surface features, sensitivity to x-irradiation and drugs, and ability to repair sublethal radiation damage. These results provide further credence to the concept that inherent heterogeneity within tumors may be as important in therapeutic success as other known modifiers of outcome such as site and treatment heterogeneity

  19. Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation. (United States)

    Savulescu, J


    The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus. PMID:10226910

  20. Effects of donor fibroblast cell type and transferred cloned embryo number on the efficiency of pig cloning. (United States)

    Li, Zicong; Shi, Junsong; Liu, Dewu; Zhou, Rong; Zeng, Haiyu; Zhou, Xiu; Mai, Ranbiao; Zeng, Shaofen; Luo, Lvhua; Yu, Wanxian; Zhang, Shouquan; Wu, Zhenfang


    Currently, cloning efficiency in pigs is very low. Donor cell type and number of cloned embryos transferred to an individual surrogate are two major factors that affect the successful rate of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pigs. This study aimed to compare the influence of different donor fibroblast cell types and different transferred embryo numbers on recipients' pregnancy rate and delivery rate, the average number of total clones born, clones born alive and clones born healthy per litter, and the birth rate of healthy clones (=total number of healthy cloned piglets born /total number of transferred cloned embryos). Three types of donor fibroblasts were tested in large-scale production of cloned pigs, including fetal fibroblasts (FFBs) from four genetically similar Western swine breeds of Pietrain (P), Duroc (D), Landrace (L), and Yorkshire (Y), which are referred to as P,D,LY-FFBs, adult fibroblasts (AFBs) from the same four breeds, which are designated P,D,L,Y-AFBs, and AFBs from a Chinese pig breed of Laiwu (LW), which is referred to as LW-AFBs. Within each donor fibroblast cell type group, five transferred cloned embryo number groups were tested. In each embryo number group, 150-199, 200-249, 250-299, 300-349, or 350-450 cloned embryos were transferred to each individual recipient sow. For the entire experiment, 92,005 cloned embryos were generated from nearly 115,000 matured oocytes and transferred to 328 recipients; in total, 488 cloned piglets were produced. The results showed that the mean clones born healthy per litter resulted from transfer of embryos cloned from LW-AFBs (2.53 ± 0.34) was similar with that associated with P,D,L,Y-FFBs (2.72 ± 0.29), but was significantly higher than that resulted from P,D,L,Y-AFBs (1.47 ± 0.18). Use of LW-AFBs as donor cells for SCNT resulted in a significantly higher pregnancy rate (72.00% vs. 59.30% and 48.11%) and delivery rate (60.00% vs. 45.93% and 35.85%) for cloned embryo recipients, and a

  1. Changes in the gut microbiota of cloned and non-cloned control pigs during development of obesity: gut microbiota during development of obesity in cloned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Mølbak, Lars


    Background Obesity induced by a high-caloric diet has previously been associated with changes in the gut microbiota in mice and in humans. In this study, pigs were cloned to minimize genetic and biological variation among the animals with the aim of developing a controlled metabolomic model...... suitable for a diet-intervention study. Cloning of pigs may be an attractive way to reduce genetic influences when investigating the effect of diet and obesity on different physiological sites. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the changes in the composition of the gut microbiota of cloned vs....... non-cloned pigs during development of obesity by a high-fat/high-caloric diet. Furthermore, we investigated the association between diet-induced obesity and the relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the fecal-microbiota. The fecal microbiota from obese cloned (n = 5) and non...

  2. Consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef. The impact of exposure to technological information about animal cloning. (United States)

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sawada, Manabu; Sato, Kazuo


    Novel food technologies, such as cloning, have been introduced into the meat production sector; however, their use is not widely supported by many consumers. This study was designed to assess whether Japanese consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef (specifically, beef derived from bovine embryo and somatic cell-cloned cattle) would change after they were provided with technological information on animal cloning through a web-based survey. The results revealed that most respondents did not discriminate between their attitudes toward the consumption of the two types of cloned beef, and that most respondents did not change their attitudes toward cloned beef after receiving the technological information. The respondents' individual characteristics, including their knowledge about the food safety of cloned beef and their basic knowledge about animal cloning, influenced the likelihood of a change in their attitudes after they received the information. In conclusion, some consumers might become less uncomfortable about the consumption of cloned beef by the straightforward provision of technological information about animal cloning; however, most consumers are likely to maintain their attitudes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatoprotective action of various partitions of methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaves against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity: involvement of the antioxidant mechanisms. (United States)

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Yahya, Farhana; Mamat, Siti Syariah; Mahmood, Nur Diyana; Mohtarrudin, Nurhafizah; Taher, Muhammad; Hamid, Siti Selina Abdul; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki


    Methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea L. (family Fabaceae) (MEBP) possesses high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and recently reported to exert hepatoprotection against paracetamol (PCM)-induced liver injury in rats. In an attempt to identify the hepatoprotective bioactive compounds in MEBP, the extract was prepared in different partitions and subjected to the PCM-induced liver injury model in rats. Dried MEBP was partitioned successively to obtain petroleum ether (PEBP), ethylacetate (EABP) and aqueous (AQBP) partitions, respectively. All partitions were subjected to in vitro antioxidant (i.e. total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)- and superoxide-radicals scavenging assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay) and anti-inflammatory (i.e. lipooxygenase (LOX) and xanthine oxidase (XO) assay) analysis. The partitions, prepared in the dose range of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg, together with a vehicle (10 % DMSO) and standard drug (200 mg/kg silymarin) were administered orally for 7 consecutive days prior to subjection to the 3 mg/kg PCM-induced liver injury model in rats. Following the hepatic injury induction, blood samples and liver were collected for the respective biochemical parameter and histopathological studies. Body weight changes and liver weight were also recorded. The partitions were also subjected to the phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis. Of all partitions, EABP possessed high TPC value and demonstrated remarkable antioxidant activity when assessed using the DPPH- and superoxide-radical scavenging assay, as well as ORAC assay, which was followed by AQBP and PEBP. All partitions also showed low anti-inflammatory activity via the LOX and XO pathways. In the hepatoprotective study, the effectiveness of the partitions is in the order of EABP>AQBP>PEBP, which is supported by the microscopic analysis and histopathological scoring. In the biochemical analysis, EABP also exerted the most effective

  4. Effect of Zinc Sulfate and Ascorbic Acid on some Morpho-Physiological Traits of Echinacea purpurea (Purple coneflower under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Farahvash


    Full Text Available To quantify the response of some morpho-physiological traits of Echinacea purpurea to thr application of zinc sulfate and ascorbic acid under water deficit, an experiment was carried out in split plot factorial based on RCBD with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2011-12. Experimental factors consisted of water stress as the main factor with three levels (irrigation after70mm evaporation, irrigation after120mm evaporation and irrigation after 170mm evaporation from class A pan, Secondary factor consisted of: application of microelement with two levels (control and application of zinc sulfate 0.005 concentration and ascorbic acid with four levels (not application, application of 50 mg/l of ascorbic acid, application of 100 mg/l of ascorbic acid and application of 150 mg/l of ascorbic acid. The results showed that the effect of water deficit on purple coneflower caused significant differences in diameter of stem, number of flowering branch, stomata density, zinc concentration of aerial parts plant, fresh weight, relative water content of leaf, LAI, proline concentration, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. Comparison of means for water deficits between the different levels of drought stress showed that the maximum LAI, with 2.85, belonged to control. Comparison of means for interaction effects between drought stress and application of zinc sulfate revealed that the maximum proline concentration belonged to spraying plants with zinc sulfate at irrigation after 170mm evaporation from class A pan with 10.16 mg/g.fw. Minimum proline concentration was due to without applying zinc sulfate in complete irrigation (control with 0.08 mg/g.fw. Maximum crop growth rate with 6.77 g/ was was related to control and the minimum, with 4.16 g/, to irrigation after 170mm. Maximum relative crop growth rate, with 0.19 g/, belonged to control and the

  5. Fundamental resource-allocating model in colleges and universities based on Immune Clone Algorithms (United States)

    Ye, Mengdie


    In this thesis we will seek the combination of antibodies and antigens converted from the optimal course arrangement and make an analogy with Immune Clone Algorithms. According to the character of the Algorithms, we apply clone, clone gene and clone selection to arrange courses. Clone operator can combine evolutionary search and random search, global search and local search. By cloning and clone mutating candidate solutions, we can find the global optimal solution quickly.

  6. Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors (United States)

    Tian, X Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Enright, Brian; Yang, Xiangzhong


    Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other specie, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle. PMID:14614770

  7. Gaussian cloning of coherent states with known phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Moorad


    The fidelity for cloning coherent states is improved over that provided by optimal Gaussian and non-Gaussian cloners for the subset of coherent states that are prepared with known phases. Gaussian quantum cloning duplicates all coherent states with an optimal fidelity of 2/3. Non-Gaussian cloners give optimal single-clone fidelity for a symmetric 1-to-2 cloner of 0.6826. Coherent states that have known phases can be cloned with a fidelity of 4/5. The latter is realized by a combination of two beam splitters and a four-wave mixer operated in the nonlinear regime, all of which are realized by interaction Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the photon operators. Therefore, the known Gaussian devices for cloning coherent states are extended when cloning coherent states with known phases by considering a nonbalanced beam splitter at the input side of the amplifier

  8. Preservation and Reproduction of Microminipigs by Cloning Technology. (United States)

    Enya, Satoko; Kawarasaki, Tatsuo; Otake, Masayoshi; Kangawa, Akihisa; Uenishi, Hirohide; Mikawa, Satoshi; Nishimura, Takashi; Kuwahawa, Yasushi; Shibata, Masatoshi

    Microminipigs have been maintained in small populations of closed colonies, involving risks of inbreeding depression and genetic drift. In order to avoid these risks, we assessed the applicability of cloning technology. Male and female clones were produced from a stock of cryopreserved somatic cells, obtaining offspring by means of natural mating. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of original microminipigs, clones and their offspring were analyzed and recorded. Clones presented characteristics similar to those of the cell-stock data. Although the body weight of clones tended to be heavier than that of the cell-stock data, body weights of their offspring were similar to those of previous reports. Thus, cloned microminipigs have the potential to be a valuable genetic resource for reproduction and breeding. Our proposed methodology might be useful to provide a large number of animals with adequate quality from a limited population with sufficient genetic diversity. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. [Product safety analysis of somatic cell cloned bovine]. (United States)

    Hua, Song; Lan, Jie; Song, Yongli; Lu, Chenglong; Zhang, Yong


    Somatic cell cloning (nuclear transfer) is a technique through which the nucleus (DNA) of a somatic cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte for the generation of a new individual, genetically identical to the somatic cell donor. It could be applied for the enhancement of reproduction rate and the improvement of food products involving quality, yield and nutrition. In recent years, the United States, Japan and Europe as well as other countries announced that meat and milk products made from cloned cattle are safe for human consumption. Yet, cloned animals are faced with a wide range of health problems, with a high death rate and a high incidence of disease. The precise causal mechanisms for the low efficiency of cloning remain unclear. Is it safe that any products from cloned animals were allowed into the food supply? This review focuses on the security of meat, milk and products from cloned cattle based on the available data.

  10. Stability of the JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. (United States)

    Haubek, D; Ennibi, O-K; Vaeth, M; Poulsen, S; Poulsen, K


    The JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is strongly associated with aggressive periodontitis. To obtain information about colonization dynamics of the JP2 clone, we used PCR to examine its presence in 365 Moroccan juveniles from whom periodontal plaque samples were collected at baseline and after one and two years. Periodontal attachment loss was measured at baseline and at the two-year follow-up. At baseline, 43 (12%) carriers of the JP2 clone were found. Nearly half (44 %) of these were persistently colonized with the clone. The relative risk for the development of aggressive periodontitis, adjusted for the concomitant presence of other genotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans, was highest for individuals continuously infected by the JP2 clone (RR = 13.9; 95% CI, 9.0 to 21.4), indicating a relationship between infectious dose and disease, which further substantiates the evidence for the JP2 clone as a causal factor in aggressive periodontitis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Bryukhomitsky


    Full Text Available The Biometric Keyboard Monitoring System is represented. It’s intended for permanent textindependent control and analysis of automated information data systems users’ keyboard script. It’s suggested a keyboard monitoring method, which is combined the idea and advantages of threaded method of keyboard parameters representation and immunological approach to its realization, based upon the detectors cloning model. Suggested method potentially possesses a pinpoint accuracy, higher convergence rate of classification problems solving, ability to learn on only “own” class exemplars.

  12. Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and cloning. (United States)


    This document presents arguments that conclude that it is unethical to use somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for infertility treatment due to concerns about safety; the unknown impact of SCNT on children, families, and society; and the availability of other ethically acceptable means of assisted reproduction. This document replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee report titled, "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning)," last published in Fertil Steril 2000;74:873-6. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantum correlations support probabilistic pure state cloning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, Luis, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alid-Vaccarezza, M.; Jara-Figueroa, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Klimov, A.B. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Revolución 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)


    The probabilistic scheme for making two copies of two nonorthogonal pure states requires two auxiliary systems, one for copying and one for attempting to project onto the suitable subspace. The process is performed by means of a unitary-reduction scheme which allows having a success probability of cloning different from zero. The scheme becomes optimal when the probability of success is maximized. In this case, a bipartite state remains as a free degree which does not affect the probability. We find bipartite states for which the unitarity does not introduce entanglement, but does introduce quantum discord between some involved subsystems.



    Betancourt, A; Rodríguez, Edisleidy; Relova, Damarys; Barrera, Maritza


    Con el objetivo de obtener un aislado de Coronavirus bovino clonado biológicamente se adaptó el aislado VB73/04 a la multiplicación en la línea celular MDBK. Este aislado indujo la formación de placas, las cuales resultaron homogéneas después del clonaje biológico. La población viral obtenida fue identificada como Coronavirus bovino por RT-PCR y Seroneutralización. In order to obtain a biologically cloned bovine coronavirus isolate, the isolate VB73/04 was adapted to multiplication in MDBK...

  15. Scientific report on human and animal dietary exposure to ergot alkaloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    The ergot alkaloids (EAs) are mycotoxins produced by several species of fungi in the genus Claviceps. In Europe, Claviceps purpurea is the most widespread species and it commonly affects cereals such as rye, wheat, triticale, barley, millets and oats. Food and feed samples used to estimate human.......43–1.45 μg/kg bw per day and 16.38–16.61 μg/kg bw per day (LB–UB) in the same species. A statistically significant linear relationship between the content of sclerotia and the levels of EAs quantified was observed in different crops (barley, oats, rye, triticale and wheat grains). However, the absence...

  16. Chimeric infectious DNA clones, chimeric porcine circoviruses and uses thereof



    The present invention relates to infectious DNA clones, infectious chimeric DNA clones of porcine circovirus (PCV), vaccines and means of protecting pigs against viral infection or postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) caused by PCV2. The new chimeric infectious DNA clone and its derived, avirulent chimeric virus are constructed from the nonpathogenic PCV1 in which the immunogenic ORF gene of the pathogenic PCV2 replaces a gene of the nonpathogenic PCV1, preferably in the same pos...

  17. The Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001: vagueness and federalism. (United States)

    Swartz, Jonathan S


    On July 31, 2001, the U.S. House of Representatives passed The Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001. The legislation proposes a complete ban on somatic cell nuclear transfer to create cloned human embryos; it threatens transgressors with criminal punishment and civil fines. House Bill 2505 is the first human cloning prohibition to pass either chamber of Congress. This note argues that the bill is unconstitutionally vague and inconsistent with the Supreme Court's recent Commerce Clause jurisprudence.

  18. Biotechnology. Perseverance leads to cloned pig in Japan. (United States)

    Pennisi, E; Normile, D


    Low success rates and unpredictable results have plagued cloning researchers, particularly those trying to clone pigs. Now, on page 1188, Japanese researchers offer the first scientific report of a cloned pig, named Xena, raising hopes that pigs could one day provide an unlimited supply of organs for transplantation thanks to their close physiological relationship to humans. But this week those hopes were dealt a blow by more evidence suggesting that pig retroviruses can infect human cells.

  19. [Human cloning and the protection of women's interests]. (United States)

    Canabes, Marcela Ahumada


    The Human Cloning, both therapeutic and full birth cloning, involves and affects women in a special way. The United Nation's Declaration on the Cloning of Human Beings includes a special clause referred to them. Also the Spanish law does it. This works pretend to analyse the meaning of the inclusion of women's interests in this document. At the same time, I will consider the foundations and the importance of the reference to the women.

  20. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning. (United States)

    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris


    The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect

  1. Transfer of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis with T cell clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romball, C.G.; Weigle, W.O.


    We have investigated three T lymphocyte clones isolated from CBA/CaJ mice primed with mouse thyroid extract (MTE) in adjuvant. All three clones are L3T4+, Ig-, and Lyt2- and proliferate to MTE, mouse thyroglobulin (MTG) and rat thyroid extract. Clones A7 and B7 transfer thyroiditis to irradiated (475 rad) syngeneic mice, but not to normal recipients. The thyroid lesion induced by the B7 clone is characterized by the infiltration of both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells. The thyroiditis is transient in that lesions are apparent 7 and 14 days after transfer, but thyroids return to normal by day 21. Clone B7 showed helper activity for trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin-primed B cells in vitro when stimulated with trinitrophenyl-MTG and also stimulated the production of anti-MTG antibody in recipient mice. Clone A7 induced thyroid lesions characterized by infiltration of the thyroid with mononuclear cells, with virtually no polymorphonuclear cell infiltration. This clone has shown no helper activity following stimulation with trinitrophenyl-MTG. The third clone (D2) proliferates to and shows helper activity to MTG, but fails to transfer thyroiditis to syngeneic, irradiated mice. On continuous culture, clone B7 lost its surface Thy. The loss of Thy appears unrelated to the ability to transfer thyroiditis since subclones of B7 with markedly different percentages of Thy+ cells transferred disease equally well

  2. The science and technology of farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vajta, Gábor

    , goats, horses, cats, etc. have been cloned with the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. Although the technology still has relatively low success rates and there seems to be substantial problems with the welfare of some of the cloned animals, cloning is used both within basic research...... include the production of genetically identical animals for research purposes, and also the creation of genetically modified animals. In the agricultural sector, cloning can be used as a tool within farm animal breeding. We do not intend to give an exhaustive review of the all the literature available...

  3. Isolation, cloning and molecular characterization of a thermotolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation, cloning and molecular characterization of a thermotolerant xylanase from Streptomyces sp. THW31. Thayat Sriyapai, Peechapack Somyoonsap, Supatra Areekit, Paisarn Khawsak, Arda Pakpitcharoen, Kosum Chansiri ...

  4. Knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. (United States)

    Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili


    The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge.

  5. Counterfactual quantum cloning without transmitting any physical particles (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Zhai, Shuqin; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou


    We propose a counterfactual 1 →2 economical phase-covariant cloning scheme. Compared with the existing protocols using flying qubits, the main difference of the presented scheme is that the cloning can be achieved without transmitting the photon between the two parties. In addition, this counterfactual scheme does not need to construct controlled quantum gates to perform joint logical operations between the cloned qubit and the blank copy. We also numerically evaluate the performance of the present scheme in the practical experiment, which shows this cloning scheme can be implemented with a high success of probability and the fidelity is close to the optimal value in the ideal asymptotic limit.

  6. The evaluation of growth dynamics of Lonicera kamtschatica clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Matuškovič


    Full Text Available Artickle deals with the evaluation of growth dynamics of selected set of clones Lonicera kamtschatica in the conditions of Nitra. We measured the growth of the shrubs twice a year (in spring and autumn during 2003–2005. Within all clones 5 shrubs were evaluated. On the basis of the obtained results we can claim the highest increase of height in case of LKL 21 followed by clones LKL 16 and LKL 5. The lowest growth increase was typical for LKL 58 and LKL 66.In term of statistical evaluation the year can be considered as a statistically significant factor forming a growth intensity of clones during 2003–2005. The effect of year on growing processes is strong (ε2 = 0.96 while the participation of year with clone influenced the growth increase in medium size (ε2 = 0.42. LKL 21 and LKL 58 in comparison with other clones are the most disperatable in term of growth increase. Within mentioned clones statistically significant differences were recorded in 7 evaluated pairs. In the same way LKL 42 is very different from another clones as well. On the basis of all provided analysis the tested clones from point of wiev perspectivity of planting can be set up in the following order: LKL 21, LKL 16, LKL 5, LKL 42, LKL 49, LKL 96, LKL 6, LKL 60, LKL 66 and LKL 58.

  7. Construction of an infectious plasmid clone of Muscovy duck parvovirus by TA cloning and creation of a partially attenuated strain. (United States)

    Yen, T-Y; Li, K-P; Ou, S-C; Shien, J-H; Lu, H-M; Chang, P-C


    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection is a highly contagious and fatal disease of Muscovy ducklings. The infectious clone methodology is a valuable tool to study the pathogenic mechanisms of viruses, but no infectious clone of MDPV is yet available. In this study, a plasmid clone containing the full-length genome of MDPV was constructed using the TA cloning methodology. This MDPV clone was found to be infectious after transfection of primary Muscovy duck embryo fibroblast cells and passage in embryonated Muscovy duck eggs. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the K75N mutation in the VP1 protein of MDPV resulted in the partial attenuation of the virus. The availability of an MDPV infectious clone can facilitate investigation of the pathogenic mechanisms of MDPV and development of vaccines against diseases caused by MDPV.

  8. [Cloning: necessary reflections on the imaginary]. (United States)

    Minahim, María Auxiliadora


    The article covers the innumerable reasons given for using cloning for therapeutic and reproductive purposes. The most commonly used argument in favour of the procedure has been that of preserving human dignity, which would include the wide exercising of personal autonomy without restrictions of an ethical nature. This view is countered by questions relating to the use of the technique, namely self-determination and the loss of the integrity of the species, which would include the transformation of a generation through the production of human beings and tissues. It must also be made clear that therapeutic cloning (which is carried out through the use of stem cells) is not yet a reality in the scientific world, with the result that the procedure that is supposedly necessary, which argues in favour of the destruction of the young embryo is misleading, as are also certain discourses used to refer to the theme and the science. Criminal law, on prohibiting this practice is anticipating it becoming a reality, protecting legal rights that affect supra-individual interests, such as the destruction of the young embryo, one of the issues of concern to ADIN (Acción Directa de Inconstitucionalidad en Brasil - Direct Action on Unconstitutionality in Brazil) 3510-0.

  9. Determining Complementary Properties with Quantum Clones (United States)

    Thekkadath, G. S.; Saaltink, R. Y.; Giner, L.; Lundeen, J. S.


    In a classical world, simultaneous measurements of complementary properties (e.g., position and momentum) give a system's state. In quantum mechanics, measurement-induced disturbance is largest for complementary properties and, hence, limits the precision with which such properties can be determined simultaneously. It is tempting to try to sidestep this disturbance by copying the system and measuring each complementary property on a separate copy. However, perfect copying is physically impossible in quantum mechanics. Here, we investigate using the closest quantum analog to this copying strategy, optimal cloning. The coherent portion of the generated clones' state corresponds to "twins" of the input system. Like perfect copies, both twins faithfully reproduce the properties of the input system. Unlike perfect copies, the twins are entangled. As such, a measurement on both twins is equivalent to a simultaneous measurement on the input system. For complementary observables, this joint measurement gives the system's state, just as in the classical case. We demonstrate this experimentally using polarized single photons.

  10. Dose dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of division related median clone sizes difference. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G,; Kreczik, A.; Treichel, M.


    Following irradiation of the progenitor cells the clone growth of CHO cells decreases as a result of cell losses. Lethally acting expressions of micronuclei are produced by heritable lethal mutations. The dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of the median clone sizes difference on the radiation dose was measured and compared to non-irradiated controls. Using the cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-method binucleated cells with micronuclei were counted as ratio of all binucleated cells within a clone size distribution. This ratio (shortened: micronucleus yield) was determined for all clone size distributions, which had been exposed to different irradiation doses and incubation times. The micronucleus yields were compared to the corresponding median clone sizes differences. The micronucleus yield is linearly dependent on the dose and is independent of the incubation time. The same holds true for the division related median clone sizes difference, which as a result is also linearly dependent on the micronucleus yield. Due to the inevitably errors of the cell count of micronucleated binucleated cells, an automatic measurement of the median clone sizes differences is the preferred method for evaluation of cellular radiation sensitivity for heritable lethal mutations. This value should always be determined in addition, if clone survival fractions are used as predictive test because it allows for an estimation of the remission probability of surviving cells. (orig.) [de

  11. Assessment of the genetic diversity of natural rubber tree clones of the SINCHI Institutes clone collection, using of morphological descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Mendez, Isaac; Quintero Barrera, Lorena; Aristizabal, Fabio A; Rodriguez Acuna, Olga


    Genetic diversity of natural rubber clones of the in SINCHI Institute’s clone collection was assessed. Clones of Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. De Juss.) Muell.Arg., Hevea spp. (H. brasiliensis x H. benthamiana), and three more species of Hevea genus are a part of the collection. Seventy-two materials were characterized with twenty-eight morphological descriptors. They were later used to generate a similarity matrix through the analysis of multi-categorical variables, and to obtain clusters based on the matrix. A low variability between clones of H. brasiliensis and H. spp. was observed, presumably because of the direct descendants of most of the materials from crosses of parental PB 80, PB 5/51, PB 49 and Tjir, exception made of clone GU 1410. Clustering between some materials product of exclusive cross of PB series, a group between clones descendants of parental clones PB 86, and clustering between descendants of parental clones PB 5/51, were observed. Clones from other species of Hevea differ from this big group.

  12. Local circulating clones of Staphylococcus aureus in Ecuador. (United States)

    Zurita, Jeannete; Barba, Pedro; Ortega-Paredes, David; Mora, Marcelo; Rivadeneira, Sebastián

    The spread of pandemic Staphylococcus aureus clones, mainly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), must be kept under surveillance to assemble an accurate, local epidemiological analysis. In Ecuador, the prevalence of the USA300 Latin American variant clone (USA300-LV) is well known; however, there is little information about other circulating clones. The aim of this work was to identify the sequence types (ST) using a Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis 14-locus genotyping approach. We analyzed 132 S. aureus strains that were recovered from 2005 to 2013 and isolated in several clinical settings in Quito, Ecuador. MRSA isolates composed 46.97% (62/132) of the study population. Within MRSA, 37 isolates were related to the USA300-LV clone (ST8-MRSA-IV, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] +) and 10 were related to the Brazilian clone (ST239-MRSA-III, PVL-). Additionally, two isolates (ST5-MRSA-II, PVL-) were related to the New York/Japan clone. One isolate was related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-MRSA-IV, PVL-), one isolate (ST45-MRSA-II, PVL-) was related to the USA600 clone, and one (ST22-MRSA-IV, PVL-) was related to the epidemic UK-EMRSA-15 clone. Moreover, the most prevalent MSSA sequence types were ST8 (11 isolates), ST45 (8 isolates), ST30 (8 isolates), ST5 (7 isolates) and ST22 (6 isolates). Additionally, we found one isolate that was related to the livestock associated S. aureus clone ST398. We conclude that in addition to the high prevalence of clone LV-ST8-MRSA-IV, other epidemic clones are circulating in Quito, such as the Brazilian, Pediatric and New York/Japan clones. The USA600 and UK-EMRSA-15 clones, which were not previously described in Ecuador, were also found. Moreover, we found evidence of the presence of the livestock associated clone ST398 in a hospital environment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Potency of Gamma ray, Electric Current and Elicitor Application, as a Novel Practical Technique, to Improve Biomass Production and Glycoside Quality for Digitalis purpurea L. Grown in Sandy Soil Irrigated with Brackish Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosila, H.A.; Afifi, L.M.A.; Ahmed, T.E.S.


    Digitalis purpurea L seeds were treated before sowing with gamma ray (G:0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 KR, and electric current (E:O, 100, 150, 200 mA) then grown in sandy soil irrigated with brackish water (900 ppm) , in splite-splite plot design for 3 replicat (R) at two subsequent seasons , through surface drip irrigation system. Plants at 4- month old and monthly until before flowering were foliar sprayed with MnSO 4 as abiotic elicitor (M :O, 3 ppm). Biomass/ Feddan, percentage of total glycosides and percentage of bioactive glycosides, digitoxin and gitoxin were quantitated. Statistical analysis for the obtained data revealed that G, E and M achieved significant in biomass yield and its quality traits. Moreover, interactions ; GE, GM, EM and GEM achieved synergistic and significant increment for this traits. At such G dose the trait was increased by increasing E dose and M concentration. Hence, G 2.5, 5,7.5 KR E200 mA M3 ppm achieved significant increment, as percent over that of control, in biomass production / Feddan by 22, 29, 32%, total glycoside by 27, 40, 30%, digitoxin 27, 40, 30% for both first and second seasons, respectively. Whereas, increment for gitoxin were 27, 41, 30% at first season and 26, 38, 30% at second season, respectively. Overall, these finding strongly confirm the reliability of GEM as a novel practical technique for overproduction biomass/Fed. and quality improvement bioactive cardiac glycosides, digitoxin and gitoxin in Digitalis purpurea L.

  14. Infectious Maize rayado fino virus from cloned cDNA (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is the type member of the marafiviruses within the family Tymoviridae. A cDNA clone from which infectious RNA can be transcribed was produced from a US isolate of MRFV (MRFV-US). Infectivity of transcripts derived from cDNA clones was demonstrated by infection of mai...

  15. Cloning of T lymphocytes from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, B. E.; Krouwels, F. H.; Bruinier, B.; Reijneke, R. M.; Mengelers, H. J.; Koenderman, L.; Jansen, H. M.; Out, T. A.


    We have prepared T-cell clones from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from four healthy, nonsmoking persons and from four patients with allergic asthma. T cells were cloned by direct limiting dilution and with the use of a fluorescent activated cell sorter with an automated cell deposition unit.

  16. Cloning, recombinant expression and characterization of a new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new amylase gene APGA1 was cloned from Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 12974 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. This is the first report on cloning and expression of amylolytic gene from the industrially important microorganism A. pullulans. The purified recombinant protein with MW of 66 kDa and specific activity of ...

  17. Molecular cloning, expression analysis and sequence prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta as an essential transcriptional factor, regulates the differentiation of adipocytes and the deposition of fat. Herein, we cloned the whole open reading frame (ORF) of bovine C/EBPβ gene and analyzed its putative protein structures via DNA cloning and sequence analysis. Then, the ...

  18. Cloning and transformation of SCMV CP gene and regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coated protein gene of sugarcane mosaic virus ( SCMV CP gene) was cloned from maize (Zea mays L.) leaves showing dwarf mosaic symptoms by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) with degraded primers. The results of sequencing and homologous comparison indicated that the cloned gene ...

  19. Evaluation of flooding tolerance in cuttings of Populus clones used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We analysed the responses to flooding of 14 poplar clones used for forestation at the Paraná River Delta, Argentina. Some are commercial clones planted in the area, and others belong to a poplar breeding program from the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) in Argentina. Potted plants of 60 cm high ...

  20. High-throughput cloning and expression in recalcitrant bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma, Eric R.; Poolman, Bert

    We developed a generic method for high-throughput cloning in bacteria that are less amenable to conventional DNA manipulations. The method involves ligation-independent cloning in an intermediary Escherichia coli vector, which is rapidly converted via vector-backbone exchange (VBEx) into an


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma, Eric Robin; Poolman, Berend


    The invention provides means and methods for efficiently cloning nucleic acid sequences of interest in micro-organisms that are less amenable to conventional nucleic acid manipulations, as compared to, for instance, E.coli. The present invention enables high-throughput cloning (and, preferably,

  2. A set of BAC clones spanning the human genome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzywinski, M.; Bosdet, I.; Smailus, D.; Chiu, R.; Mathewson, C.; Wye, N.; Barber, S.; Brown-John, M.; Chan, S.; Chand, S.; Cloutier, A.; Girn, N.; Lee, D.; Masson, A.; Mayo, M.; Olson, T.; Pandoh, P.; Prabhu, A.L.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Tsai, M.Y.; Albertson, D.; Lam, W.W.; Choy, C.O.; Osoegawa, K.; Zhao, S.; Jong, P.J. de; Schein, J.; Jones, S.; Marra, M.A.


    Using the human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) fingerprint-based physical map, genome sequence assembly and BAC end sequences, we have generated a fingerprint-validated set of 32 855 BAC clones spanning the human genome. The clone set provides coverage for at least 98% of the human

  3. Assessment of wood density of seven clones of Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the objective of evaluating the correlation of wood basic density with age in seven Eucalyptus grandis clones planted in Brazil, five trees in each clone were sampled at the ages of 0, 5, 1, 5, 2, 5, 3, 5, 4, 5 and 7, 5 years. The analysis of these samples showed that the intraclonal variation of the basic density (except for 0, ...

  4. The Development of improved willow clones for eastern North America (United States)

    R. F. Kopp; L. B. Smart; C. A. Maynard; J. G. Isebrands; G. A. Tuskan; L. P. Abrahamson


    Efforts aimed at genetic improvement of Salix are increasing in North America.Most of these are directed towards developing improved clones for biomass production, phytoremediation, nutrient filters, and stream bank stabilization in the Northeast and North-central United States. Native species are of primary interest, but a small number of clones containing non-native...

  5. Automated Cell-Cutting for Cell Cloning (United States)

    Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya; Ohba, Kohtaro

    We develop an automated cell-cutting technique for cell cloning. Animal cells softened by the cytochalasin treatment are injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels: one microchannel is wide, used to transport cells, and generates the cutting flow; the other is thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell is aspirated and stretched in the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volumes of the cell before and after aspiration are calculated; the volumes are used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Finally, we apply a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. This paper reports the cutting process, the cutting system, and the results of the experiment.

  6. ATM Card Cloning and Ethical Considerations. (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Krishan, Kewal; Sharma, Suresh K; Kanchan, Tanuj


    With the advent of modern technology, the way society handles and performs monetary transactions has changed tremendously. The world is moving swiftly towards the digital arena. The use of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) cards (credit and debit) has led to a "cash-less society" and has fostered digital payments and purchases. In addition to this, the trust and reliance of the society upon these small pieces of plastic, having numbers engraved upon them, has increased immensely over the last two decades. In the past few years, the number of ATM fraud cases has increased exponentially. With the money of the people shifting towards the digital platform, ATM skimming has become a problem that has eventually led to a global outcry. The present review discusses the serious repercussions of ATM card cloning and the associated privacy, ethical and legal concerns. The preventive measures which need to be taken and adopted by the government authorities to mitigate the problem have also been discussed.

  7. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi


    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal

  8. Cloning the interleukin 1 receptor from human T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, J.E.; Acres, R.B.; Grubin, C.E.; McMahan, C.J.; Wignall, J.M.; March, C.J.; Dower, S.K.


    cDNA clones of the interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor expressed in a human T-cell clone have been isolated by using a murine IL-1 receptor cDNA as a probe. The human and mouse receptors show a high degree of sequence conservation. Both are integral membrane proteins possessing a single membrane-spanning segment. Similar to the mouse receptor, the human IL-1 receptor contains a large cytoplasmic region and an extracellular, IL-1 binding portion composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains. When transfected into COS cells, the human IL-1 receptor cDNA clone leads to expression of two different affinity classes of receptors, with K a values indistinguishable from those determined for IL-1 receptors in the original T-cell clone. An IL-1 receptor expressed in human dermal fibroblasts has also been cloned and sequenced and found to be identical to the IL-1 receptor expressed in T cells

  9. [TSA improve transgenic porcine cloned embryo development and transgene expression]. (United States)

    Kong, Qing-Ran; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Bo; Huan, Yan-Jun; Wang, Feng; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Zhong-Feng; Wu, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Hua


    Uncompleted epigenetic reprogramming is attributed to the low efficiency of producing transgenic cloned animals. Histone modification associated with epigenetics can directly influence the embryo development and transgene expression. Trichostatin A (TSA), as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can change the status of histone acetylation, improve somatic cell reprogramming, and enhance cloning efficiency. TSA prevents the chromatin structure from being condensed, so that transcription factor could binds to DNA sequence easily and enhance transgene expression. Our study established the optimal TSA treatment on porcine donor cells and cloned embryos, 250 nmol/L, 24 h and 40 nmol/L, 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, we found that both the cloned embryo and the donor cell treated by TSA resulted in the highest development efficiency. Meanwhile, TSA can improve transgene expression in donor cell and cloned embryo. In summary, TSA can significantly improve porcine reconstructed embryo development and transgene expression.

  10. Probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states (United States)

    Rui, Pinshu; Zhang, Wen; Liao, Yanlin; Zhang, Ziyun


    It is well known that a quantum state, secretly chosen from a certain set, can be probabilistically cloned with positive cloning efficiencies if and only if all the states in the set are linearly independent. In this paper, we focus on probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states. We show that a linearly-independent subset of linearly-dependent quantum states {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩} can be probabilistically cloned if and only if any state in the subset cannot be expressed as a linear superposition of the other states in the set {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩}. The optimal cloning efficiencies are also investigated.

  11. Clone Detection for Graph-Based Model Transformation Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strüber, Daniel; Plöger, Jennifer; Acretoaie, Vlad


    and analytical quality assurance. From these use cases, we derive a set of key requirements. We describe our customization of existing model clone detection techniques allowing us to address these requirements. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation, indicating that our customization of ConQAT, one......Cloning is a convenient mechanism to enable reuse across and within software artifacts. On the downside, it is also a practice related to significant long-term maintainability impediments, thus generating a need to identify clones in affected artifacts. A large variety of clone detection techniques...... has been proposed for programming and modeling languages; yet no specific ones have emerged for model transformation languages. In this paper, we explore clone detection for graph-based model transformation languages. We introduce potential use cases for such techniques in the context of constructive...

  12. Piglets born from handmade cloning, an innovative cloning method without micromanipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Y.; Kragh, P.M.; Zhang, Y.


    Porcine handmade cloning (HMC), a simplified alternative of micromanipulation based traditional cloning (TC) has been developed in multiple phases during the past years, but the final evidence of its biological value, births of piglets was missing. Here we report the first births of healthy piglets......) of HMC reconstructed embryos developed to blastocysts with an average cell number of 77 ± 3 (n = 26) after 7 days in vitro culture (IVC). According to our knowledge, this is the highest in vitro developmental rate after porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). A total of 416 blastocysts from HMC......, mixed with 150 blastocysts from TC using a cell line from a different breed were transferred surgically to nine synchronized recipients. Out of the four pregnancies (44.4%) two were lost, while two pregnancies went to term and litters of 3 and 10 piglets were delivered by Caesarean section, with live...

  13. Marshall Barber and the century of microinjection: from cloning of bacteria to cloning of everything. (United States)

    Korzh, Vladimir; Strähle, Uwe


    A hundred years ago, Dr. Marshall A. Barber proposed a new technique - the microinjection technique. He developed this method initially to clone bacteria and to confirm the germ theory of Koch and Pasteur. Later on, he refined his approach and was able to manipulate nuclei in protozoa and to implant bacteria into plant cells. Continuous improvement and adaptation of this method to new applications dramatically changed experimental embryology and cytology and led to the formation of several new scientific disciplines including animal cloning as one of its latest applications. Interestingly, microinjection originated as a method at the crossroad of bacteriology and plant biology, demonstrating once again the unforeseen impact that basic research in an unrelated field can have on the development of entirely different disciplines.

  14. Bengal Bay clone ST772-MRSA-V outbreak: conserved clone causes investigation challenges. (United States)

    Blomfeldt, A; Larssen, K W; Moghen, A; Haugum, K; Steen, T W; Jørgensen, S B; Aamot, H V


    The Bengal Bay clone, ST772-MRSA-V, associated with multi-drug resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and skin and soft tissue infections, is emerging worldwide. In Norway, a country with low prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), increased occurrence of ST772-MRSA-V has also caused hospital outbreaks. The conserved nature of this clone challenged the outbreak investigations. To evaluate the usefulness of S. aureus protein A (spa) typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting/analysis (MLVF/MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) when investigating outbreaks with a conserved MRSA clone. A panel of 25 MRSA isolates collected in 2004-2014, consisting of six hospital outbreak isolates and 19 sporadic isolates, were analysed using spa typing, polymerase chain reaction detection of genes encoding PVL, MLVF/MLVA and PFGE. All isolates were ST772-MRSA-V-t657 and resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin and norfloxacin, and 88% were PVL positive. PFGE could not discriminate between the isolates (≥85% similarity). MLVF resolved five types [Simpson's index of diversity (SID)=0.56], MLVA resolved six types (SID=0.66), and both methods separated the hospital isolates into two defined outbreaks. MLVF/MLVA could not discriminate all epidemiologically unlinked cases and identical genotypes originated from a timespan of 10 years. MLVA was regarded as most suitable due to its higher discriminatory power and ability to provide unambiguous profiles. However, the Bengal Bay clone may require higher resolution methods for exact demarcation of outbreaks due to low diversity among isolates. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic superiority of exotic clones over indigenous clones for quantitative and qualitative traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.; Khatri, A.; Ahmad, M.; Siddiqui, N.A.; Dahar, M.H.; Khanzada, M.H.; Nizamani, G.S.


    Seventeen exotic sugar cane clones along with two local checks (BL4 and L116) were planted for three consecutive years (1989-90 to 1991-92) and evaluated for cane yield, yield components (plant height, cane girth, stalks per stool, stool weight), fibre, sucrose and sugar yield. Two exotic clones AEC82-1026 and AEC86-329 proved to be significantly (p< 0.05) superior in cane yield (130.62 and 114.87 t/ha respectively) and sugar yield 18.10 and 19.33 t/ha respectively) to both checks, cane and sugar yield of BL4 were 100.73 and 12.69 t/ha and that of L116 were 74.19 11.03 t/ha respectively. Cane and sugar yields were positively (P<0.01) correlated with plant height, cane girth and weight per stool. These promising clones would be subjected to extensive studies for cane yield in different parts of Sindh province. (author)

  16. Reproductive cloning in humans and therapeutic cloning in primates: is the ethical debate catching up with the recent scientific advances? (United States)

    Camporesi, S; Bortolotti, L


    After years of failure, in November 2007 primate embryonic stem cells were derived by somatic cellular nuclear transfer, also known as therapeutic cloning. The first embryo transfer for human reproductive cloning purposes was also attempted in 2006, albeit with negative results. These two events force us to think carefully about the possibility of human cloning which is now much closer to becoming a reality. In this paper we tackle this issue from two sides, first summarising what scientists have achieved so far, then discussing some of the ethical arguments in favour and against human cloning which are debated in the context of policy making and public consultation. Therapeutic cloning as a means to improve and save lives has uncontroversial moral value. As to human reproductive cloning, we consider and assess some common objections and failing to see them as conclusive. We do recognise, though, that there will be problems at the level of policy and regulation that might either impair the implementation of human reproductive cloning or make its accessibility restricted in a way that could become difficult to justify on moral grounds. We suggest using the time still available before human reproductive cloning is attempted successfully to create policies and institutions that can offer clear directives on its legitimate applications on the basis of solid arguments, coherent moral principles, and extensive public consultation.

  17. Cocoa Clone Resistant to Phytophthora Palmivora Pod Borer (CPB) in South Sulawesi


    Sartika Dewi, Vien


    Helopeltis sp. is one of the main pest in cacao plants. Helopeltis sp. Able to decreasing the production of cacao about 50-60%. This research aims to understand the development of Helopeltis sp. investation in five types of clone cocoa. Collected data have done every week for six weeks in five types of clone cocoa which are clone GBT, clone M01, clone 45, clone s2 and clone BB. Every clone chosen 15 pod sampeles fruit with different size of pod following 5-10cm, 11-13cm and ripe pod which use...

  18. Somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning: practical applications and current legislation. (United States)

    Niemann, H; Lucas-Hahn, A


    Somatic cloning is emerging as a new biotechnology by which the opportunities arising from the advances in molecular genetics and genome analysis can be implemented in animal breeding. Significant improvements have been made in SCNT protocols in the past years which now allow to embarking on practical applications. The main areas of application of SCNT are: Reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and basic research. A great application potential of SCNT based cloning is the production of genetically modified (transgenic) animals. Somatic cell nuclear transfer based transgenic animal production has significant advances over the previously employed microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of zygotes. This cell based transgenesis is compatible with gene targeting and allows both, the addition of a specific gene and the deletion of an endogenous gene. Efficient transgenic animal production provides numerous opportunities for agriculture and biomedicine. Regulatory agencies around the world have agreed that food derived from cloned animals and their offspring is safe and there is no scientific basis for questioning this. Commercial application of somatic cloning within the EU is via the Novel Food regulation EC No. 258/97. Somatic cloning raises novel questions regarding the ethical and moral status of animals and their welfare which has prompted a controversial discussion in Europe which has not yet been resolved. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Personality consistency analysis in cloned quarantine dog candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi


    Full Text Available In recent research, personality consistency has become an important characteristic. Diverse traits and human-animal interactions, in particular, are studied in the field of personality consistency in dogs. Here, we investigated the consistency of dominant behaviours in cloned and control groups followed by the modified Puppy Aptitude Test, which consists of ten subtests to ascertain the influence of genetic identity. In this test, puppies are exposed to stranger, restraint, prey-like object, noise, startling object, etc. Six cloned and four control puppies participated and the consistency of responses at ages 7–10 and 16 weeks in the two groups was compared. The two groups showed different consistencies in the subtests. While the average scores of the cloned group were consistent (P = 0.7991, those of the control group were not (P = 0.0089. Scores of Pack Drive and Fight or Flight Drive were consistent in the cloned group, however, those of the control group were not. Scores of Prey Drive were not consistent in either the cloned or the control group. Therefore, it is suggested that consistency of dominant behaviour is affected by genetic identity and some behaviours can be influenced more than others. Our results suggest that cloned dogs could show more consistent traits than non-cloned. This study implies that personality consistency could be one of the ways to analyse traits of puppies.

  20. Duration of gestation in pregnant dogs carrying cloned fetuses. (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Geon A; Park, Eun Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Lee, Byeong Chun


    The aim of this study was to investigate gestation duration and the physiologic characteristics of pregnant dogs bearing cloned fetuses, especially in the prepartum period. A retrospective study was performed to compare gestation duration in females pregnant with cloned (somatic cell nuclear transfer) fetuses (cloned group) with those bearing noncloned fetuses (control group), and effects of litter size, birth weight, and breed of somatic cell donors on gestation duration in the cloned group were evaluated. Clinical delivery onset signs associated with serum progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were also compared in both groups. The gestation duration calculated from day of ovulation was significantly longer in the cloned (62.8 ± 0.3 days) versus the control group (60.9 ± 0.5 days; P dogs bearing cloned fetuses might be because of the smaller litter size in this group. Also, the weaker drop in serum progesterone levels in the prepartum period in cloned dog pregnancies indicates that the parturition signaling process might be altered resulting in longer gestation periods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A strategy for clone selection under different production conditions. (United States)

    Legmann, Rachel; Benoit, Brian; Fedechko, Ronald W; Deppeler, Cynthia L; Srinivasan, Sriram; Robins, Russell H; McCormick, Ellen L; Ferrick, David A; Rodgers, Seth T; Russo, A Peter


    Top performing clones have failed at the manufacturing scale while the true best performer may have been rejected early in the screening process. Therefore, the ability to screen multiple clones in complex fed-batch processes using multiple process variations can be used to assess robustness and to identify critical factors. This dynamic ranking of clones' strategy requires the execution of many parallel experiments than traditional approaches. Therefore, this approach is best suited for micro-bioreactor models which can perform hundreds of experiments quickly and efficiently. In this study, a fully monitored and controlled small scale platform was used to screen eight CHO clones producing a recombinant monoclonal antibody across several process variations, including different feeding strategies, temperature shifts and pH control profiles. The first screen utilized 240 micro-bioreactors were run for two weeks for this assessment of the scale-down model as a high-throughput tool for clone evaluation. The richness of the outcome data enable to clearly identify the best and worst clone as well as process in term of maximum monoclonal antibody titer. The follow-up comparison study utilized 180 micro-bioreactors in a full factorial design and a subset of 12 clone/process combinations was selected to be run parallel in duplicate shake flasks. Good correlation between the micro-bioreactor predictions and those made in shake flasks with a Pearson correlation value of 0.94. The results also demonstrate that this micro-scale system can perform clone screening and process optimization for gaining significant titer improvements simultaneously. This dynamic ranking strategy can support better choices of production clones. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  2. Performance of quantum cloning and deleting machines over coherence (United States)

    Karmakar, Sumana; Sen, Ajoy; Sarkar, Debasis


    Coherence, being at the heart of interference phenomena, is found to be an useful resource in quantum information theory. Here we want to understand quantum coherence under the combination of two fundamentally dual processes, viz., cloning and deleting. We found the role of quantum cloning and deletion machines with the consumption and generation of quantum coherence. We establish cloning as a cohering process and deletion as a decohering process. Fidelity of the process will be shown to have connection with coherence generation and consumption of the processes.

  3. Probabilistic cloning of coherent states without a phase reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christian R.; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marek, Petr


    We present a probabilistic cloning scheme operating independently of any phase reference. The scheme is based solely on a phase-randomized displacement and photon counting, omitting the need for nonclassical resources and nonlinear materials. In an experimental implementation, we employ the scheme...... to clone coherent states from a phase covariant alphabet and demonstrate that the cloner is capable of outperforming the hitherto best-performing deterministic scheme. An analysis of the covariances between the output states shows that uncorrelated clones can be approached asymptotically...

  4. Experimental continuous-variable cloning of partial quantum information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik Lund


    The fidelity of a quantum transformation is strongly linked with the prior partial information of the state to be transformed. We illustrate this interesting point by proposing and demonstrating the superior cloning of coherent states with prior partial information. More specifically, we propose...... two simple transformations that under the Gaussian assumption optimally clone symmetric Gaussian distributions of coherent states as well as coherent states with known phases. Furthermore, we implement for the first time near-optimal state-dependent cloning schemes relying on simple linear optics...

  5. Experimental reversion of the optimal quantum cloning and flipping processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciarrino, Fabio; Secondi, Veronica; De Martini, Francesco


    The quantum cloner machine maps an unknown arbitrary input qubit into two optimal clones and one optimal flipped qubit. By combining linear and nonlinear optical methods we experimentally implement a scheme that, after the cloning transformation, restores the original input qubit in one of the output channels, by using local measurements, classical communication, and feedforward. This nonlocal method demonstrates how the information on the input qubit can be restored after the cloning process. The realization of the reversion process is expected to find useful applications in the field of modern multipartite quantum cryptography

  6. Twelve years before the quantum no-cloning theorem (United States)

    Ortigoso, Juan


    The celebrated quantum no-cloning theorem establishes the impossibility of making a perfect copy of an unknown quantum state. The discovery of this important theorem for the field of quantum information is currently dated 1982. I show here that an article published in 1970 [J. L. Park, Found. Phys. 1, 23-33 (1970)] contained an explicit mathematical proof of the impossibility of cloning quantum states. I analyze Park's demonstration in the light of published explanations concerning the genesis of the better-known papers on no-cloning.

  7. Cloning mice and ES cells by nuclear transfer from somatic stem cells and fully differentiated cells. (United States)

    Wang, Zhongde


    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer (NT) has been successful in several mammalian species. In addition to cloning live animals (reproductive cloning), this technique has also been used in several species to establish cloned embryonic stem (ntES) cell lines from somatic cells. It is the latter application of this technique that has been heralded as being the potential means to produce isogenic embryonic stem cells from patients for cell therapy (therapeutic cloning). These two types of cloning differ only in the steps after cloned embryos are produced: for reproductive cloning the cloned embryos are transferred to surrogate mothers to allow them to develop to full term and for therapeutic cloning the cloned embryos are used to derive ntES cells. In this chapter, a detailed NT protocol in mouse by using somatic stem cells (neuron and skin stem cells) and fully differentiated somatic cells (cumulus cells and fibroblast cells) as nuclear donors is described.

  8. Effect of TH-lines and clones on the growth and differentiation of B cell clones in microculture. (United States)

    Kotloff, D B; Cebra, J J


    Antibody isotype expression by B cell clones was analyzed using in vitro microcultures containing low numbers of hapten-gelatin-enriched B cells and higher numbers of hemocyanin-specific helper T cell lines or clones. Twenty-eight to sixty-three percent of clones grown in microculture with haptenated hemocyanin and T cells from established lines expressed IgG and/or IgA isotypes in random mixtures, almost always accompanied by IgM. Helper T cells from hemocyanin-specific clones also supported the expression of non-IgM isotypes by the B cell clones, suggesting that a single specificity of T cell can provide sufficient growth and differentiation factors for the display of isotype switching. A positive correlation between the antibody output of clones and the expression of non-IgM isotypes indicated that the switching process may be associated with cell division. Although memory B cells that give clones expressing IgG and/or IgA in the absence of IgM are also enriched on haptenated gelatin, they are not stimulable under conditions of this microculture assay.

  9. Cloning systems for Rhodococcus and related bacteria (United States)

    Finnerty, W.R.; Singer, M.E.


    A plasmid transformation system for Rhodococcus was developed using an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle plasmid. Rhodococcus sp. H13-A contains three cryptic indigenous plasmids, designated pMVS100, pMVS200 and pMVS300, of 75, 19.5 and 13.4 kilobases (Kb), respectively. A 3.8 Kb restriction fragment of pMVS300 was cloned into pIJ30, a 6.3 Kb pBR322 derivative, containing the E. coli origin of replication (ori) and ampicillin resistance determinant (bla) as well as a Streptomyces gene for thiostrepton resistance, tsr. The resulting 10.1 Kb recombinant plasmid, designated pMVS301, was isolated from E. coli DH1 (pMVS301) and transformed into Rhodococcus sp. AS-50, a derivative of strain H13-A, by polyethylene glycol-assisted transformation of Rhodococcus protoplasts and selection for thiostrepton-resistant transformants. This strain was deposited with the ATCC on Feb. 1, 1988 and assigned ATCC 53719. The plasmid contains the Rhodococcus origin of replication. The plasmid and derivatives thereof can therefore be used to introduce nucleic acid sequences to and from Rhodococcus for subsequent expression and translation into protein. The isolated origin of replication can also be used in the construction of new vectors. 2 figs.

  10. Intoxicações em eqüinos no Brasil Intoxications in horses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Riet-Correa


    Full Text Available Relatam-se algumas intoxicações descritas em eqüídeos no Brasil. Dentre as intoxicações por plantas, incluem-se: Senecio spp., Ateleia glazioviana, Crotalaria juncea, Equisetum spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Baccharis coridifolia, Senna occidentalis e Brachiaria spp.. Mencionam-se, também, as micotoxicoses causadas por Fusarium moniliforme, Claviceps purpurea e aflatoxinas, e as intoxicações por uréia, iodo, chumbo e inseticidas clorados.Toxic disease reported in horses in Brazil are reviewed. Intoxications by plants including: Senecio spp, Ateleia glazioviana, Crotalaria juncea, Equisetum spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Baccharis coridifolia, Senna occidentalis e Brachiaria spp. are described. Mycotoxicosis caused by Fusarium moniliforme, Claviceps purpurea and aflatoxins, and intoxications by urea, iodine, lead, chlorinated insecticides are also mentioned.

  11. FastCloning: a highly simplified, purification-free, sequence- and ligation-independent PCR cloning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a variety of methods and expensive kits are available, molecular cloning can be a time-consuming and frustrating process. Results Here we report a highly simplified, reliable, and efficient PCR-based cloning technique to insert any DNA fragment into a plasmid vector or into a gene (cDNA in a vector at any desired position. With this method, the vector and insert are PCR amplified separately, with only 18 cycles, using a high fidelity DNA polymerase. The amplified insert has the ends with ~16-base overlapping with the ends of the amplified vector. After DpnI digestion of the mixture of the amplified vector and insert to eliminate the DNA templates used in PCR reactions, the mixture is directly transformed into competent E. coli cells to obtain the desired clones. This technique has many advantages over other cloning methods. First, it does not need gel purification of the PCR product or linearized vector. Second, there is no need of any cloning kit or specialized enzyme for cloning. Furthermore, with reduced number of PCR cycles, it also decreases the chance of random mutations. In addition, this method is highly effective and reproducible. Finally, since this cloning method is also sequence independent, we demonstrated that it can be used for chimera construction, insertion, and multiple mutations spanning a stretch of DNA up to 120 bp. Conclusion Our FastCloning technique provides a very simple, effective, reliable, and versatile tool for molecular cloning, chimera construction, insertion of any DNA sequences of interest and also for multiple mutations in a short stretch of a cDNA.

  12. Optimal multicopy asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states (United States)

    Fiurášek, Jaromír; Cerf, Nicolas J.


    We investigate the asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states which produces M copies from N input replicas in such a way that the fidelity of each copy may be different. We show that the optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning can be performed with a single phase-insensitive amplifier and an array of beam splitters. We obtain a simple analytical expression characterizing the set of optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning machines and prove the optimality of these cloners using the formalism of Gaussian completely positive maps and semidefinite programming techniques. We also present an alternative implementation of the asymmetric cloning machine where the phase-insensitive amplifier is replaced with a beam splitter, heterodyne detector, and feedforward.

  13. Construction of recombinant DNA clone for bovine viral diarrhea virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, S.G.; Cho, H.J.; Masri, S.A.


    Molecular cloning was carried out on the Danish strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to construct strategy for the diagnostic tools and effective vaccine of BVD afterwards. A recombinant DNA clone (No. 29) was established successfully from cDNA for viral RNA tailed with adenine homopolymer at 3 -end. 32 P-labeled DNA probes of 300~1, 800bp fragments, originating from the clone 29, directed specific DNA-RNA hybridization results with BVDV RNA. Recombinant DNA of the clone 29 was about 5,200bp representing 41.6% of the full length of Danish strain's RNA, and restriction sites were recognized for EooR I, Sst I, Hind III and Pst I restriction enzymes in the DNA fragment

  14. Learning, memory and exploratory similarities in genetically identical cloned dogs. (United States)

    Shin, Chi Won; Kim, Geon A; Park, Won Jun; Park, Kwan Yong; Jeon, Jeong Min; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Byeong Chun


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows generation of genetically identical animals using donor cells derived from animals with particular traits. To date, few studies have investigated whether or not these cloned dogs will show identical behavior patterns. To address this question, learning, memory and exploratory patterns were examined using six cloned dogs with identical nuclear genomes. The variance of total incorrect choice number in the Y-maze test among cloned dogs was significantly lower than that of the control dogs. There was also a significant decrease in variance in the level of exploratory activity in the open fields test compared to age-matched control dogs. These results indicate that cloned dogs show similar cognitive and exploratory patterns, suggesting that these behavioral phenotypes are related to the genotypes of the individuals.

  15. Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding xyloglucan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 22, 2011 ... plays important role in growth and development of plants. XETs are a family of enzymes .... cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector (Promega Corporation, WI, USA). The recombinant ..... wall modification in the poaceae. Protein Sci.

  16. Genetic variability in Sambucus nigra L. clones : a preliminary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. ONLINE ... yield and production evaluations revealed that clones from ..... Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol. Ecol. ... and genetic evaluation of interspecific hybrids within the genus.

  17. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    Therapeutic cloning produces embryonic stem cells for experiments aimed at creating ... In the second approach, they use an electrical current to fuse the entire somatic .... (16), ovarian hyper stimulation is another risk associated with assisted ...

  19. Cloning and expression of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite P22 protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 1, 2011 ... Expressd protein was purified by affinity chromatography and confirmed by western blot ... Key words: Toxoplasma gondii, cloning, recombinant P22. INTRODUCTION. Toxoplasma gondii ..... an ELISA Assay. Iran. J. Immunol.

  20. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model. PMID:23166393

  1. Cloning and in silico analysis of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Apr 16, 2014 ... RESEARCH ARTICLE. Cloning and in .... enzyme kinetic characterization studies of Panicum virga- .... Total RNA was extracted from stem using Trizol reagent ..... β-sheet (extended strand) were the main elements of PpCAD.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reproductive cloning, and that promises made too early could. Commitment ... one hand, the medical profession and the public grapple with the promise ..... Austin TW, Lagasse E. Hepatic regeneration from hematopoietic stem cells. Mech Dev ...

  3. Cloning and semi-quantitative expression of endochitinase ( ech42 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloning and semi-quantitative expression of endochitinase (ech42) gene from Trichoderma spp. Pratibha Sharma, K Saravanan, R Ramesh, P Vignesh Kumar, Dinesh Singh, Manika Sharma, Monica S. Henry, Swati Deep ...

  4. In silico cloning and bioinformatic analysis of PEPCK gene in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a critical gluconeogenic enzyme, catalyzes the first committed step in the diversion of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates toward gluconeogenesis. According to the relative conservation of homologous gene, a bioinformatics strategy was applied to clone Fusarium ...

  5. Optimal multicopy asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiurasek, Jaromir; Cerf, Nicolas J.


    We investigate the asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states which produces M copies from N input replicas in such a way that the fidelity of each copy may be different. We show that the optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning can be performed with a single phase-insensitive amplifier and an array of beam splitters. We obtain a simple analytical expression characterizing the set of optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning machines and prove the optimality of these cloners using the formalism of Gaussian completely positive maps and semidefinite programming techniques. We also present an alternative implementation of the asymmetric cloning machine where the phase-insensitive amplifier is replaced with a beam splitter, heterodyne detector, and feedforward

  6. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    of medicine, animal husbandry, fish farming and animal ..... northern pike (Esox lucius) growth hormone; Mol. Mar. Biol. ... prolactin 1-luciferase fusion gene in African catfish and ... 1988 Cloning and sequencing of cDNA that encodes goat.

  7. Proteomic analysis of pancreas derived from adult cloned pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Young Keun; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Yong-Mahn; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Kyung-Kwang


    The potential medical applications of animal cloning include xenotransplantation, but the complex molecular cascades that control porcine organ development are not fully understood. Still, it has become apparent that organs derived from cloned pigs may be suitable for transplantation into humans. In this study, we examined the pancreas of an adult cloned pig developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting. Proteomic analysis revealed 69 differentially regulated proteins, including such apoptosis-related species as annexins, lamins, and heat shock proteins, which were unanimously upregulated in the SCNT sample. Among the downregulated proteins in SCNT pancreas were peroxiredoxins and catalase. Western blot results indicate that several antioxidant enzymes and the anti-apoptotic protein were downregulated in SCNT pancreas, whereas several caspases were upregulated. Together, these data suggest that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreas of an adult cloned pig leads to apoptosis

  8. Efficiency and response of conilon coffee clones to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Deleon Martins


    Full Text Available Studies on nutritional efficiency of phosphorus in conilon coffee plants are important tools to unravel the high limitation that natural low levels of this nutrient in soil impose to these species cultivars. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the nutritional efficiency and the response to phosphorus of conilon coffee clones. Plants were managed during 150 days in pots containing 10 dm³ of soil, in greenhouse. A factorial scheme 13 x 2 was used, with three replications, being the factors: 13 clones constituting the clonal cultivar "Vitória Incaper 8142" and two levels of phosphate fertilization (0% and 150% of the P2O5 usualy recommended, in a completely randomized design (CRD. The results indicate a differentiated response of dry matter production and of phosphorus content on each level of phosphate fertilization for the conilon coffee clones and that CV-04, CV-05 and CV-08 clones are nutritionally efficient and responsive to the phosphate fertilization.

  9. Cloning and characterization of an insecticidal crystal protein gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The sequence of the cloned crystal protein gene showed almost complete homology with a mosquitocidal toxin gene from Bacillus .... diet or by topical application on food substrates as .... has very high similarity (99.74%) at DNA level with.

  10. Sex-reversed somatic cell cloning in the mouse. (United States)

    Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Sado, Takashi; Ogura, Atsuo


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer has many potential applications in the fields of basic and applied sciences. However, it has a disadvantage that can never be overcome technically-the inflexibility of the sex of the offspring. Here, we report an accidental birth of a female mouse following nuclear transfer using an immature Sertoli cell. We produced a batch of 27 clones in a nuclear transfer experiment using Sertoli cells collected from neonatal male mice. Among them, one pup was female. This "male-derived female" clone grew into a normal adult and produced offspring by natural mating with a littermate. Chromosomal analysis revealed that the female clone had a 39,X karyotype, indicating that the Y chromosome had been deleted in the donor cell or at some early step during nuclear transfer. This finding suggests the possibility of resuming sexual reproduction after a single male is cloned, which should be especially useful for reviving extinct or endangered species.

  11. (PCR) for direct cloning of blunt-end DNA fragments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 19, 2011 ... Key words: Blunt-end cloning, phosphorylated DNA fragment, dephosphorylated blunt-end vector. INTRODUCTION ... With this method, a lot of steps are saved, which includes restriction .... pBSK-blunt (data not shown).

  12. Molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of a 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 4, 2009 ... other plant HMGRs and contained 2 transmembrane domains and a catalytic domain. The potential significance ... used as animal feed. Therefore ... Table 1. Primers used in the cloning and analysis of JcHMGR gene. Primers.

  13. The global governance of human cloning: the case of UNESCO. (United States)

    Langlois, Adèle


    Since Dolly the Sheep was cloned in 1996, the question of whether human reproductive cloning should be banned or pursued has been the subject of international debate. Feelings run strong on both sides. In 2005, the United Nations adopted its Declaration on Human Cloning to try to deal with the issue. The declaration is ambiguously worded, prohibiting "all forms of human cloning inasmuch as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life". It received only ambivalent support from UN member states. Given this unsatisfactory outcome, in 2008 UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) set up a Working Group to investigate the possibility of a legally binding convention to ban human reproductive cloning. The Working Group was made up of members of the International Bioethics Committee, established in 1993 as part of UNESCO's Bioethics Programme. It found that the lack of clarity in international law is unhelpful for those states yet to formulate national regulations or policies on human cloning. Despite this, member states of UNESCO resisted the idea of a convention for several years. This changed in 2015, but there has been no practical progress on the issue. Drawing on official records and first-hand observations at bioethics meetings, this article examines the human cloning debate at UNESCO from 2008 onwards, thus building on and advancing current scholarship by applying recent ideas on global governance to an empirical case. It concludes that, although human reproductive cloning is a challenging subject, establishing a robust global governance framework in this area may be possible via an alternative deliberative format, based on knowledge sharing and feasibility testing rather than the interest-based bargaining that is common to intergovernmental organizations and involving a wide range of stakeholders. This article is published as part of a collection on global governance.

  14. Probabilistic Cloning of Three Real States with Optimal Success Probabilities (United States)

    Rui, Pin-shu


    We investigate the probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) of three real states with average probability distribution. To get the analytic forms of the optimal success probabilities we assume that the three states have only two pairwise inner products. Based on the optimal success probabilities, we derive the explicit form of 1 →2 PQC for cloning three real states. The unitary operation needed in the PQC process is worked out too. The optimal success probabilities are also generalized to the M→ N PQC case.

  15. Cosmological constant, inflation and no-cloning theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Qingguo, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin Fengli, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, 116, Taiwan (China)


    From the viewpoint of no-cloning theorem we postulate a relation between the current accelerated expansion of our universe and the inflationary expansion in the very early universe. It implies that the fate of our universe should be in a state with accelerated expansion. Quantitatively we find that the no-cloning theorem leads to a lower bound on the cosmological constant which is compatible with observations.

  16. Temperatura óptima de germinación y patrones de imbibición de las semillas de Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium y Bauhinia purpurea Optimum germination temperature and imbibition patterns of the seeds from Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium and Bauhinia purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Reino


    Full Text Available Se utilizaron semillas frescas y envejecidas de las plantas arbóreas Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium y Bauhinia purpurea, procedentes de la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes «Indio Hatuey», Matanzas, Cuba. Se diseñó un experimento de clasificación simple y cinco réplicas para la respuesta germinativa a diferentes temperaturas del sustrato (constante a 25ºC y tres alternas: 25/30ºC, 25/35ºC y 25/40ºC. Antes de la siembra las semillas de A. lebbeck se escarificaron (agua a 80ºC/2'. Para el patrón de imbibición las semillas se colocaron sobre papel de filtro humedecido con agua destilada, según la temperatura óptima de germinación, en luz blanca fluorescente y en diferentes tiempos de imbibición. En las semillas frescas de todas las especies los mayores porcentajes de germinación final se obtuvieron a temperatura alterna de 25/35ºC y en las enveje­cidas a 25/30ºC. Con respecto al patrón de imbibición, todas siguieron un patrón trifásico de absorción de agua. Las semillas frescas y envejecidas de G.. sepium presentaron un patrón de imbibición muy similar; sin embargo, las semillas frescas de las otras especies tuvieron una mayor velocidad de hidratación que las enve­jecidas y, por consiguiente, alcanzaron el comienzo de la fase III del patrón de imbibición (i.e., germinación visible más rápidamente. Se concluye que el rango de temperatura óptima para la germinación de las semillas envejecidas fue de 25/30ºC y para las frescas fue de 25/35ºC y ambas presentaron un patrón trifásico de absorción de agua cuando la siembra se realizó en la temperatura óptima de germinación.Fresh and aged seeds of the trees Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium and Bauhinia purpurea from the Experi­mental Station of Pastures and Forages «Indio Hatuey», Matanzas, Cuba, were used. A simple classification experiment and five replications were designed for the germinative response to different temperatures of the

  17. Rhodococcus erythropolis MTHt3 biotransforms ergopeptines to lysergic acid


    Thamhesl, Michaela; Apfelthaler, Elisabeth; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Kunz-Vekiru, Elisavet; Krska, Rudolf; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Moll, Wulf-Dieter


    Background Ergopeptines are a predominant class of ergot alkaloids produced by tall fescue grass endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum or cereal pathogen Claviceps purpurea. The vasoconstrictive activity of ergopeptines makes them toxic for mammals, and they can be a problem in animal husbandry. Results We isolated an ergopeptine degrading bacterial strain, MTHt3, and classified it, based on its 16S rDNA sequence, as a strain of Rhodococcus erythropolis (Nocardiaceae, Actinobacteria). For strai...

  18. Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of 18 Potato Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Bolandi


    Full Text Available Introduction Introducing potato cultivars with high yield, early maturing and desirable quality have a key role in food security, decreasing the fluctuation of the price and the store costs and also providing fresh crops throughout the year. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plant is one of leading agricultural products in the world with 365 million ton glands in year stands in fourth place after wheat, rice and corn. The main objective of the breeding program is yield. Increase in plant yield in the past due to the gradual elimination of defects visible by experts and today the new criteria for selection are based on principles of morphological and functional characteristics associated with the plant. Variety is one of the effective factors on plant growth and development on potato that yields components of potato is heavily dependent on it. Yield increasing in each variety affect the genetic and natural structure of variety. Nine clones of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kennebec from sources in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania, and the commercially grown clone, clone 1, which was imported from Vancouver, were multiplied from pathogen-tested seed and compared in 3 Victorian potato districts during 2 seasons. The results showed that differences exist in total and size grade yield and tuber number and appearance between clones of a cultivar. They further highlight the importance of selection work to maintain desirable characteristics of established cultivars and to remove mutants with undesirable characteristics. The results of the study, Hassanpanah and Hassanabadi (2012 showed that the clones 397003-7, 396151-27, 397045-100 and Savalan (check produced higher total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant, plant height, main stem number per plant, tuber size average and stable tuber yield. These clones produced high and mid-uniform tuber, tuber inner crack and tuber inner ring, mid-late maturity and mid and high dry in comparison

  19. Cloning and adoption: a reply to Levy and Lotz. (United States)

    Strong, Carson


    In previous articles I discussed the ethics of human reproductive cloning, focusing on a possible future scenario in which reproductive cloning can be accomplished without an elevated risk of anomalies to the children who are created. I argued that in such a scenario it would be ethically permissible for infertile couples to use cloning as a way to have genetically related children and that such use should not be prohibited. In 'Reproductive Cloning and a (Kind of) Genetic Fallacy', Neil Levy and Mianna Lotz raise objections to my conclusions. They disagree with the view, for which I argued, that some couples can have defensible reasons for desiring genetically related children. They also offer several new arguments against reproductive cloning, including an argument that it would diminish the number of adoptions, thereby adversely affecting the welfare of children who need to be adopted. In this paper I point out that Levy and Lotz's criticisms misconstrue my arguments and that there are serious problems with their arguments for prohibiting infertile couples from using cloning, including their argument from adoption.

  20. [The status of human cloning in the international setting]. (United States)

    Rey del Castillo, Javier


    The General Assembly of the United Nations submitted a Declaration on Human Cloning in March 2005. The text of such Declaration was the result of a difficult and long process, taking more than three years. Being a Declaration instead of a Resolution, it has not legal capability in inforcing United Nations members to act according to its recommendations. This article begins with an explanation of several terms referred to cloning. Different countries' legislation on cloning is analyzed. Positions of the same countries at the Convention of the United Nations are as well analyzed. Comparing both countries' views shows that national legislation on cloning is independent and orientated by some countries' particular interests and biological and ethical views on these issues. Future developments on human cloning and its applications will be shared among all countries, both the ones currently allowing and supporting "therapeutic" cloning and the ones now banning it. In such case, it would be important to reach agreements on these issues at an international level. The article discusses possible legislative developments and offers some proposals to reach such agreements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sybi Cynthia


    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs deployed in the destructive atmosphere are susceptible to clone attacks. Clone attack in wireless sensor network is a complicated problem because it deployed in hostile environments, and also the nodes could be physically compromised by an adversary. For valuable clone attack detection, the selection criteria play an important role in the proposed work. In this paper, it has been classified the existing detection schemes regarding device type, detection methodologies, deployment strategies and detection ranges and far explore various proposals in deployment based selection criteria category. And also this paper provides a review of detection methodology based on various clone attack detection techniques. It is also widely agreed that clones should be detected quickly as possible with the best optional. Our work is exploratory in that the proposed algorithm concern with table assisted random walk with horizontal and vertical line, frequent level key change and revokes the duplicate node. Our simulation results show that it is more efficient than the detection criteria in terms of security feature, and in detection rate with high resiliency. Specifically, it concentrates on deployment strategy which includes grid based deployment technique. These all come under the selection criteria for better security performance. Our protocol analytically provides effective and clone attack detection capability of robustness.

  2. Analysis of an epigenetic argument against human reproductive cloning. (United States)

    Nordgren, Anders


    Human reproductive cloning is a much disputed ethical issue. This technology is often condemned as being contrary to human dignity. However, there are also risk arguments. An ethical argument that is often put forward by scientists but seldom developed in more detail focuses on health risks in animal cloning. There is a high risk that animal clones exhibit abnormalities and these are increasingly believed to be due to errors in epigenetic reprogramming. The argument is that human reproductive cloning should not be carried out because human clones are also likely to exhibit abnormalities due to inappropriate epigenetic reprogramming. Different versions of this epigenetic argument are analysed, a categorical version and a non-categorical. The non-categorical version is suggested to be more well-considered. With regard to policy making on human reproductive cloning, the categorical version can be used to prescribe a permanent ban, while the non-categorical version can be used to prescribe a temporary ban. The implications of the precautionary principle--as interpreted in the European Union--are investigated. The conclusion is that it seems possible to support a temporary ban by reference to this principle.

  3. Information-theoretic limitations on approximate quantum cloning and broadcasting (United States)

    Lemm, Marius; Wilde, Mark M.


    We prove quantitative limitations on any approximate simultaneous cloning or broadcasting of mixed states. The results are based on information-theoretic (entropic) considerations and generalize the well-known no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems. We also observe and exploit the fact that the universal cloning machine on the symmetric subspace of n qudits and symmetrized partial trace channels are dual to each other. This duality manifests itself both in the algebraic sense of adjointness of quantum channels and in the operational sense that a universal cloning machine can be used as an approximate recovery channel for a symmetrized partial trace channel and vice versa. The duality extends to give control of the performance of generalized universal quantum cloning machines (UQCMs) on subspaces more general than the symmetric subspace. This gives a way to quantify the usefulness of a priori information in the context of cloning. For example, we can control the performance of an antisymmetric analog of the UQCM in recovering from the loss of n -k fermionic particles.

  4. Photonic quantum simulator for unbiased phase covariant cloning (United States)

    Knoll, Laura T.; López Grande, Ignacio H.; Larotonda, Miguel A.


    We present the results of a linear optics photonic implementation of a quantum circuit that simulates a phase covariant cloner, using two different degrees of freedom of a single photon. We experimentally simulate the action of two mirrored 1→ 2 cloners, each of them biasing the cloned states into opposite regions of the Bloch sphere. We show that by applying a random sequence of these two cloners, an eavesdropper can mitigate the amount of noise added to the original input state and therefore, prepare clones with no bias, but with the same individual fidelity, masking its presence in a quantum key distribution protocol. Input polarization qubit states are cloned into path qubit states of the same photon, which is identified as a potential eavesdropper in a quantum key distribution protocol. The device has the flexibility to produce mirrored versions that optimally clone states on either the northern or southern hemispheres of the Bloch sphere, as well as to simulate optimal and non-optimal cloning machines by tuning the asymmetry on each of the cloning machines.

  5. The US FDA and animal cloning: risk and regulatory approach. (United States)

    Rudenko, Larisa; Matheson, John C


    The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine issued a voluntary request to producers of livestock clones not to introduce food from clones or their progeny into commerce until the agency had assessed whether production of cattle, swine, sheep, or goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) posed any unique risks to the animal(s) involved in the process, humans, or other animals by consuming food from those animals, compared with any other assisted reproductive technology (ART) currently in use. Following a comprehensive review, no anomalies were observed in animals produced by cloning that have not also been observed in animals produced by other ARTs and natural mating. Further systematic review on the health of, and composition of meat and milk from, cattle, swine, and goat clones and the progeny of cattle and sheep did not result in the identification of any food-consumption hazards. The agency therefore concluded that food from cattle, swine, and goat clones was as safe to eat as food from animals of those species derived by conventional means. The agency also concluded that food from the progeny of the clone of any species normally consumed for food is as safe to eat as those animals. The article also describes the methodology used by the agency to analyze data and draw these conclusions, the plans the agency has proposed to manage any identified risks, and the risk communication approaches the agency has used.

  6. Generating West Nile Virus from an Infectious Clone. (United States)

    Vandergaast, Rianna; Fredericksen, Brenda L


    WNV infectious clones are valuable tools for elucidating WNV biology. Nevertheless, relatively few infectious WNV clones have been generated because their construction is hampered by the instability of flaviviral genomes. More recently, advances in cloning techniques as well as the development of several two-plasmid WNV infectious clone systems have facilitated the generation of WNV infectious clones. Here we described a protocol for recovering WNV from a two-plasmid system. In this approach, large quantities of these constructs are digested with restriction enzymes to produce complementary restriction sites at the 3' end of the upstream fragment and the 5' end of the downstream fragment. These fragments are then annealed to produce linear template for in vitro transcription to synthesize infectious RNA. The resulting RNA is transfected into cells and after several days WNV is recovered in the culture supernatant. This method can be used to generate virus from infectious clones encoding high- and low-pathogenicity strains of WNV, as well as chimeric virues.

  7. Cloning, overexpression, and characterization of cobrotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, H.-C.; Kumar, Thallampuranam Krishnaswamy S.; Yu Chin


    Cobrotoxin (CBTX) is a highly toxic short neurotoxin, isolated from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom. In the present study for the first time we report the cloning and expression of CBTX in high yields (12 mg/L) in Escherichia coli. CBTX fused to the IgG-binding domain of protein A (IgG-CBTX) was expressed in the soluble form. The misfolded CBTX portion (of the overexpressed fusion protein) was refolded under optimal redox conditions. The fusion protein (IgG-CBTX) was observed to undergo autocatalytic cleavage to yield CBTX with additional 5 amino acids upstream of its N-terminal end. The far UV and near UV circular dichroism spectra of the recombinant CBTX were identical to those of the toxin isolated from the crude venom source. Recombinant CBTX was isotope labeled ( 15 N and 13 C) and all the resonances ( 1 H, 13 C, and 15 N) in the protein have been unambiguously assigned. 1 H- 15 N HSQC spectrum of recombinant CBTX revealed that the protein is in a biologically active conformation. 1 H- 15 N chemical shift perturbation data showed that recombinant CBTX binds to a peptide derived from the α7 subunit of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AchR) with high affinity. The AchR peptide is found to bind to residues located at the tip of Loop-2 in CBTX. The results of the present study provide an avenue to understand the structural basis for the high toxicity exhibited by CBTX. In addition, complete resonance assignments in CBTX (reported in this study) are expected to trigger intensive research towards the design of new pharmacological agents against certain neural disorders

  8. Hepatocyte specific expression of human cloned genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, R


    A large number of proteins are specifically synthesized in the hepatocyte. Only the adult liver expresses the complete repertoire of functions which are required at various stages during development. There is therefore a complex series of regulatory mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the differentiated state and for the developmental and physiological variations in the pattern of gene expression. Human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B display a pattern of gene expression similar to adult and fetal liver, respectively; in contrast, cultured fibroblasts or HeLa cells do not express most of the liver specific genes. They have used these cell lines for transfection experiments with cloned human liver specific genes. DNA segments coding for alpha1-antitrypsin and retinol binding protein (two proteins synthesized both in fetal and adult liver) are expressed in the hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, but not in HeLa cells or fibroblasts. A DNA segment coding for haptoglobin (a protein synthesized only after birth) is only expressed in the hepatoma cell line HepG2 but not in Hep3B nor in non hepatic cell lines. The information for tissue specific expression is located in the 5' flanking region of all three genes. In vivo competition experiments show that these DNA segments bind to a common, apparently limiting, transacting factor. Conventional techniques (Bal deletions, site directed mutagenesis, etc.) have been used to precisely identify the DNA sequences responsible for these effects. The emerging picture is complex: they have identified multiple, separate transcriptional signals, essential for maximal promoter activation and tissue specific expression. Some of these signals show a negative effect on transcription in fibroblast cell lines.

  9. Cloning of low dose radiation induced gene RIG1 by RACE based on non-cloned cDNA library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Ying; Sui Jianli; Tie Yi; Zhang Yuanping; Zhou Pingkun; Sun Zhixian


    Objective: To obtain full-length cDNA of radiation induced new gene RIG1 based on its EST fragment. Methods: Based on non-cloned cDNA library, enhanced nested RACE PCR and biotin-avidin labelled probe for magnetic bead purification was used to obtain full-length cDNA of RIG1. Results: About 1 kb of 3' end of RIG1 gene was successfully cloned by this set of methods and cloning of RIG1 5' end is proceeding well. Conclusion: The result is consistent with the design of experiment. This set of protocol is useful for cloning of full-length gene based on EST fragment

  10. Differentiated cells are more efficient than adult stem cells for cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. (United States)

    Sung, Li-Ying; Gao, Shaorong; Shen, Hongmei; Yu, Hui; Song, Yifang; Smith, Sadie L; Chang, Ching-Chien; Inoue, Kimiko; Kuo, Lynn; Lian, Jin; Li, Ao; Tian, X Cindy; Tuck, David P; Weissman, Sherman M; Yang, Xiangzhong; Cheng, Tao


    Since the creation of Dolly via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), more than a dozen species of mammals have been cloned using this technology. One hypothesis for the limited success of cloning via SCNT (1%-5%) is that the clones are likely to be derived from adult stem cells. Support for this hypothesis comes from the findings that the reproductive cloning efficiency for embryonic stem cells is five to ten times higher than that for somatic cells as donors and that cloned pups cannot be produced directly from cloned embryos derived from differentiated B and T cells or neuronal cells. The question remains as to whether SCNT-derived animal clones can be derived from truly differentiated somatic cells. We tested this hypothesis with mouse hematopoietic cells at different differentiation stages: hematopoietic stem cells, progenitor cells and granulocytes. We found that cloning efficiency increases over the differentiation hierarchy, and terminally differentiated postmitotic granulocytes yield cloned pups with the greatest cloning efficiency.

  11. Optimal cloning of qubits given by an arbitrary axisymmetric distribution on the Bloch sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Miranowicz, Adam


    We find an optimal quantum cloning machine, which clones qubits of arbitrary symmetrical distribution around the Bloch vector with the highest fidelity. The process is referred to as phase-independent cloning in contrast to the standard phase-covariant cloning for which an input qubit state is a priori better known. We assume that the information about the input state is encoded in an arbitrary axisymmetric distribution (phase function) on the Bloch sphere of the cloned qubits. We find analytical expressions describing the optimal cloning transformation and fidelity of the clones. As an illustration, we analyze cloning of qubit state described by the von Mises-Fisher and Brosseau distributions. Moreover, we show that the optimal phase-independent cloning machine can be implemented by modifying the mirror phase-covariant cloning machine for which quantum circuits are known.

  12. Restriction enzyme body doubles and PCR cloning: on the general use of type IIs restriction enzymes for cloning. (United States)

    Tóth, Eszter; Huszár, Krisztina; Bencsura, Petra; Kulcsár, Péter István; Vodicska, Barbara; Nyeste, Antal; Welker, Zsombor; Tóth, Szilvia; Welker, Ervin


    The procedure described here allows the cloning of PCR fragments containing a recognition site of the restriction endonuclease (Type IIP) used for cloning in the sequence of the insert. A Type IIS endonuclease--a Body Double of the Type IIP enzyme--is used to generate the same protruding palindrome. Thus, the insert can be cloned to the Type IIP site of the vector without digesting the PCR product with the same Type IIP enzyme. We achieve this by incorporating the recognition site of a Type IIS restriction enzyme that cleaves the DNA outside of its recognition site in the PCR primer in such a way that the cutting positions straddle the desired overhang sequence. Digestion of the PCR product by the Body Double generates the required overhang. Hitherto the use of Type IIS restriction enzymes in cloning reactions has only been used for special applications, the approach presented here makes Type IIS enzymes as useful as Type IIP enzymes for general cloning purposes. To assist in finding Body Double enzymes, we summarised the available Type IIS enzymes which are potentially useful for Body Double cloning and created an online program ( for the selection of suitable Body Double enzymes and the design of the appropriate primers.

  13. Exponential megapriming PCR (EMP cloning--seamless DNA insertion into any target plasmid without sequence constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ulrich

    Full Text Available We present a fast, reliable and inexpensive restriction-free cloning method for seamless DNA insertion into any plasmid without sequence limitation. Exponential megapriming PCR (EMP cloning requires two consecutive PCR steps and can be carried out in one day. We show that EMP cloning has a higher efficiency than restriction-free (RF cloning, especially for long inserts above 2.5 kb. EMP further enables simultaneous cloning of multiple inserts.

  14. Production of cloned mice and ES cells from adult somatic cells by nuclear transfer: how to improve cloning efficiency? (United States)

    Wakayama, Teruhiko


    Although it has now been 10 years since the first cloned mammals were generated from somatic cells using nuclear transfer (NT), most cloned embryos usually undergo developmental arrest prior to or soon after implantation, and the success rate for producing live offspring by cloning remains below 5%. The low success rate is believed to be associated with epigenetic errors, including abnormal DNA hypermethylation, but the mechanism of "reprogramming" is unclear. We have been able to develop a stable NT method in the mouse in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. Especially in the mouse, only a few laboratories can make clones from adult somatic cells, and cloned mice are never successfully produced from most mouse strains. However, this technique promises to be an important tool for future research in basic biology. For example, NT can be used to generate embryonic stem (NT-ES) cell lines from a patient's own somatic cells. We have shown that NT-ES cells are equivalent to ES cells derived from fertilized embryos and that they can be generated relatively easily from a variety of mouse genotypes and cell types of both sexes, even though it may be more difficult to generate clones directly. In general, NT-ES cell techniques are expected to be applied to regenerative medicine; however, this technique can also be applied to the preservation of genetic resources of mouse strain instead of embryos, oocytes and spermatozoa. This review describes how to improve cloning efficiency and NT-ES cell establishment and further applications.

  15. Cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindan, M.V.; Burelle, M.; Cantin, C.; Kabrie, C.; Labrie, F.; Lachance, Y.; Leblanc, G.; Lefebvre, C.; Patel, P.; Simard, J.


    The authors discuss how in order to define the functional domains of the human androgen receptor, complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the human androgen receptor (hAR) have been isolated from a human testis λgtll cDNA library using synthetic oligonnucleotide probes, homologous to segments of the human glucocorticoid, estradiol and progesterone receptors. The cDNA clones corresponding to the human glucocorticoid, estradiol and progesterone receptors were eliminated after cross-hybridization with their respective cDNA probes and/or after restriction mapping of the cDNA clones. The remaining cDNA clones were classified into different groups after analysis by restriction digestion and cross-hybridization. Two of the largest cDNA clones from each group were inserted into an expression vector in both orientations. The linearized plasmids were used as templates in in vitro transcription with T7 RNA polymerase. Subsequent in vitro translation of the purified transcripts in rabbit reticulocyte lysate followed by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) permitted the characterization of the encoded polyeptides. The expressed proteins larger than 30,000 Da were analyzed for their ability to bind tritium-labelled dihydrotestosterone ([ 3 H] DHT) with high affinity and specificity

  16. Implementing phase-covariant cloning in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Meng-Zheng [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000 (China); Ye, Liu, E-mail: [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)


    An efficient scheme is proposed to implement phase-covariant quantum cloning by using a superconducting transmon qubit coupled to a microwave cavity resonator in the strong dispersive limit of circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). By solving the master equation numerically, we plot the Wigner function and Poisson distribution of the cavity mode after each operation in the cloning transformation sequence according to two logic circuits proposed. The visualizations of the quasi-probability distribution in phase-space for the cavity mode and the occupation probability distribution in the Fock basis enable us to penetrate the evolution process of cavity mode during the phase-covariant cloning (PCC) transformation. With the help of numerical simulation method, we find out that the present cloning machine is not the isotropic model because its output fidelity depends on the polar angle and the azimuthal angle of the initial input state on the Bloch sphere. The fidelity for the actual output clone of the present scheme is slightly smaller than one in the theoretical case. The simulation results are consistent with the theoretical ones. This further corroborates our scheme based on circuit QED can implement efficiently PCC transformation.

  17. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting. (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang


    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two-dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cloning from stem cells: different lineages, different species, same story. (United States)

    Oback, Björn


    Following nuclear transfer (NT), the most stringent measure of extensive donor cell reprogramming is development into viable offspring. This is referred to as cloning efficiency and quantified as the proportion of cloned embryos transferred into surrogate mothers that survive into adulthood. Cloning efficiency depends on the ability of the enucleated recipient cell to carry out the reprogramming reactions ('reprogramming ability') and the ability of the nuclear donor cell to be reprogrammed ('reprogrammability'). It has been postulated that reprogrammability of the somatic donor cell epigenome is inversely proportional to its differentiation status. In order to test this hypothesis, reprogrammability was compared between undifferentiated stem cells and their differentiated isogenic progeny. In the mouse, cells of divergent differentiation status from the neuronal, haematopoietic and skin epithelial lineage were tested. In cattle and deer, skeletal muscle and antler cells, respectively, were used as donors. No conclusive correlation between differentiation status and cloning efficiency was found, indicating that somatic donor cell type may not be the limiting factor for cloning success. This may reflect technical limitations of the NT-induced reprogramming assay. Alternatively, differentiation status and reprogrammability may be unrelated, making all cells equally difficult to reprogramme once they have left the ground state of pluripotency.

  19. Cloning of the cDNA for human 12-lipoxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, T.; Hoshiko, S.; Radmark, O.; Samuelsson, B.


    A full-length cDNA clone encoding 12-lipoxygenase was isolated from a human platelet cDNA library by using a cDNA for human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase as probe for the initial screening. The cDNA had an open reading frame encoding 662 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 75,590. Three independent clones revealed minor heterogeneities in their DNA sequences. Thus, in three positions of the deduced amino acid sequence, there is a choice between two different amino acids. The deduced sequence from the clone plT3 showed 65% identity with human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase and 42% identity with human leukocyte 5-lipoxygenase. The 12-lipoxygenase cDNA recognized a 3.0-kilobase mRNA species in platelets and human erythroleukemia cells (HEL cells). Phorbol 12-tetradecanoyl 13-acetate induced megakaryocytic differentiation of HEL cells and 12-lipoxygenase activity and increased mRNA for 12-lipoxygenase. The identity of the cloned 12-lipoxygenase was assured by expression in a mammalian cell line (COS cells). Human platelet 12-lipoxygenase has been difficult to purify to homogeneity. The cloning of this cDNA will increase the possibilities to elucidate the structure and function of this enzyme

  20. Fire coral clones demonstrate phenotypic plasticity among reef habitats. (United States)

    Dubé, Caroline E; Boissin, Emilie; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Planes, Serge


    Clonal populations are often characterized by reduced levels of genotypic diversity, which can translate into lower numbers of functional phenotypes, both of which impede adaptation. Study of partially clonal animals enables examination of the environmental settings under which clonal reproduction is favoured. Here, we gathered genotypic and phenotypic information from 3,651 georeferenced colonies of the fire coral Millepora platyphylla in five habitats with different hydrodynamic regimes in Moorea, French Polynesia. In the upper slope where waves break, most colonies grew as vertical sheets ("sheet tree") making them more vulnerable to fragmentation. Nearly all fire corals in the other habitats are encrusting or massive. The M. platyphylla population is highly clonal (80% of the colonies are clones), while characterized by the highest genotype diversity ever documented for terrestrial or marine populations (1,064 genotypes). The proportion of clones varies greatly among habitats (≥58%-97%) and clones (328 clonal lineages) are distributed perpendicularly from the reef crest, perfectly aligned with wave energy. There are six clonal lineages with clones dispersed in at least two adjacent habitats that strongly demonstrate phenotypic plasticity. Eighty per cent of the colonies in these lineages are "sheet tree" on the upper slope, while 80%-100% are encrusting or massive on the mid slope and back reef. This is a unique example of phenotypic plasticity among reef-building coral clones as corals typically have wave-tolerant growth forms in high-energy reef areas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Weed control is commonly performed by the inter-row mechanical weeding associated to intrarow glyphosate directed spraying, causing a risk for drift or accidental herbicide application, that can affect the crop of interest. The objective was to evaluate the response of clones C219, GG100, I144, and I224 of eucalypt (Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla to glyphosate doses of 0, 18, 36, 72, 180, 360, and 720 g of acid equivalent per hectare. The clones showed different growth patterns with regard to height, leaf number, stem dry weight, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, and relative leaf growth rate. The clones I144 and GG100 were more susceptible to glyphosate, showing the doses required to reduce dry weight by 50% of 113.4 and 119.6 g acid equivalent per hectare, respectively. The clones C219 and I224 were less susceptible to glyphosate, showing the doses required to reduce dry weight by 50% of 237.5 and 313.5 g acid equivalent per hectare, respectively. Eucalyptus clones respond differently to glyphosate exposure, so that among I224, C219, GG100, and I144, the susceptibility to the herbicide is increasing.

  2. Cloning an expressed gene shared by the human sex chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, S.M.; Banting, G.S.; Pym, B.; Wolfe, J.; Goodfellow, P.N.


    The existence of genes shared by mammalian sex chromosomes has been predicted on both evolutionary and functional grounds. However, the only experimental evidence for such genes in humans is the cell-surface antigen encoded by loci on the X and Y chromosomes (MIC2X and MIC2Y, respectively), which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 12E7. Using the bacteriophage λgt11 expression system in Escherichia coli and immunoscreening techniques, the authors have isolated a cDNA clone whose primary product is recognized by 12E7. Southern blot analysis using somatic cell hybrids containing only the human X or Y chromosomes shows that the sequences reacting with the cDNA clone are localized to the sex chromosomes. In addition, the clone hybridizes to DNAs isolated from mouse cells that have been transfected with human DNA and selected for 12E7 expression on the fluorescence-activated cell sorter. The authors conclude that the cDNA clone encodes the 12E7 antigen, which is the primary product of the MIC2 loci. The clone was used to explore sequence homology between MIC2X and MIC2Y; these loci are closely related, if not identical

  3. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang


    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. PMID:20435038

  4. Entangled cloning of stabilizer codes and free fermions (United States)

    Hsieh, Timothy H.


    Though the no-cloning theorem [Wooters and Zurek, Nature (London) 299, 802 (1982), 10.1038/299802a0] prohibits exact replication of arbitrary quantum states, there are many instances in quantum information processing and entanglement measurement in which a weaker form of cloning may be useful. Here, I provide a construction for generating an "entangled clone" for a particular but rather expansive and rich class of states. Given a stabilizer code or free fermion Hamiltonian, this construction generates an exact entangled clone of the original ground state, in the sense that the entanglement between the original and the exact copy can be tuned to be arbitrarily small but finite, or large, and the relation between the original and the copy can also be modified to some extent. For example, this Rapid Communication focuses on generating time-reversed copies of stabilizer codes and particle-hole transformed ground states of free fermion systems, although untransformed clones can also be generated. The protocol leverages entanglement to simulate a transformed copy of the Hamiltonian without having to physically implement it and can potentially be realized in superconducting qubits or ultracold atomic systems.

  5. Embryo Aggregation in Pig Improves Cloning Efficiency and Embryo Quality. (United States)

    Buemo, Carla Paola; Gambini, Andrés; Moro, Lucia Natalia; Hiriart, María Inés; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Collas, Philippe; Salamone, Daniel Felipe


    In this study, we analyzed the effects of the cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro embryo development and embryo quality by measuring blastocyst diameter and cell number, DNA fragmentation levels and the expression of genes associated with pluripotency, apoptosis, trophoblast and DNA methylation in the porcine. Zona-free reconstructed cloned embryos were cultured in the well of the well system, placing one (1x non aggregated group) or three (3x group) embryos per microwell. Our results showed that aggregation of three embryos increased blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst diameter of cloned pig embryos. DNA fragmentation levels in 3x aggregated cloned blastocysts were significantly decreased compared to 1x blastocysts. Levels of Oct4, Klf4, Igf2, Bax and Dnmt 1 transcripts were significantly higher in aggregated embryos, whereas Nanog levels were not affected. Transcripts of Cdx2 and Bcl-xl were essentially non-detectable. Our study suggests that embryo aggregation in the porcine may be beneficial for cloned embryo development and embryo quality, through a reduction in apoptotic levels and an improvement in cell reprogramming.

  6. Cloning transformations in spin networks without external control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Chiara, Gabriele; Fazio, Rosario; Montangero, Simone; Macchiavello, Chiara; Palma, G. Massimo


    In this paper we present an approach to quantum cloning with unmodulated spin networks. The cloner is realized by a proper design of the network and a choice of the coupling between the qubits. We show that in the case of phase covariant cloner the XY coupling gives the best results. In the 1→2 cloning we find that the value for the fidelity of the optimal cloner is achieved, and values comparable to the optimal ones in the general N→M case can be attained. If a suitable set of network symmetries are satisfied, the output fidelity of the clones does not depend on the specific choice of the graph. We show that spin network cloning is robust against the presence of static imperfections. Moreover, in the presence of noise, it outperforms the conventional approach. In this case the fidelity exceeds the corresponding value obtained by quantum gates even for a very small amount of noise. Furthermore, we show how to use this method to clone qutrits and qudits. By means of the Heisenberg coupling it is also possible to implement the universal cloner although in this case the fidelity is 10% off that of the optimal cloner

  7. The Use of Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME to Assess the Quality and Stability of Fruit Products: An Example Using Red Mombin Pulp (Spondias purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katieli Martins Todisco


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the volatiles profile of red mombin (Spondias purpurea pulp and its powder produced by spray-drying (SD as an example to show utility of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME in the analysis of parameters such as the quality and stability of fruit products. Volatiles profiles of the pulp were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and compared to the profile of the powder stored at 0, 60 and 120 days in plastic (PP or laminated packages (LP. The results showed that the technique was able to identify 36 compounds in the red mombin pulp, 17 out of which have been described for the first time in this fruit, showing that red mombin fresh pulp appears to be unique in terms of volatiles composition. However, only 24 compounds were detected in the powder. This decrease is highly correlated (r2 = 0.99, at least for the majority of compounds, to the degree of volatility of compounds. Furthermore, the powder stored in PP or LP showed no statistical differences in the amounts of its components for a period of 120 days of storage. Finally, this work shows how HS-SPME analysis can be a valuable tool to assess the quality and stability of fruit products.

  8. Calcium-loaded 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid blocks cell-to-cell diffusion of carboxyfluorescein in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea. (United States)

    Tucker, E B


    The effect of microinjected calcium-loaded 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (CaBAPTA) on cell-to-cell diffusion of carboxyfluorescein (CF) was examined in staminal hairs of S. purpurea Boom. The CaBAPTA was microinjected into the cytoplasm of the staminal hairs either with CF or prior to a subsequent microinjection of CF. The cell-to-cell diffusion of CF along the hair was monitored using enhanced-fluorescence video microscopy. Cytoplasmic streaming stopped in cells treated with CaBAPTA, indicating that intracellular Ca(2+) had increased. Cell-to-cell diffusion of CF was blocked in cells treated with Ca-BAPTA. An inhibition of cytoplasmic streaming and cell-to-cell diffusion was observed in the cells adjoining the CaBAPTA-microinjected cell, indicating that the Ca-BAPTA appeared to pass through plasmodesmata. While cytoplasmic streaming resumed 5-10 min after CaBAPTA treatment, cell-to-cell diffusion did not resume until 30-120 min later. These data support an involvement of calcium in the regulation of cell-to-cell communication in plants.

  9. Suppression induction in vivo by a T helper clone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crispe, I N; Owens, T


    We have previously described a helper T cell clone which augments in vivo cytotoxic T cell responses when injected at 10(4) cells per mouse, but not at 10(5) per mouse (Crispe, I. N. et al., Immunology 1984. 52:55). To test whether this dose-response relationship was due to the induction...... of suppression, naive syngeneic mice were injected with 10(5) cloned T helper cells, and their spleen cells were subsequently assayed for suppressive activity in adoptive transfer experiments. Lymphocytes from such mice indeed suppressed an antigen-specific cytotoxic response, but only in the presence...... of the same T helper cell clone freshly added at the time of adoptive transfer. On this basis we argue that the distinction between T helper cell activity and T suppressor-inducer activity corresponds to differences in cell numbers, rather than to two separate cell lineages....

  10. Unconditional quantum cloning of coherent states with linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuchs, G.; Andersen, U.L.; Josse, V.


    Intense light pulses with non-classical properties are used to implement protocols for quantum communication. Most of the elements in the tool box needed to assemble the experimental set-ups for these protocols are readily described by Bogoliubov transformations corresponding to Gaussian transformations that map Gaussian states onto Gaussian states. One particularly interesting application is quantum cloning of a coherent state. A scheme for optimal Gaussian cloning of optical coherent states is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Its optical realization is based entirely on simple linear optical elements and homodyne detection. The optimality of the presented scheme is only limited by detection inefficiencies. Experimentally we achieved a cloning fidelity of about 65%, which almost touches the optimal value of 2/3. (author)

  11. Human cloning, stem cell research. An Islamic perspective. (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, Aida I


    The rapidly changing technologies that involve human subjects raise complex ethical, legal, social, and religious issues. Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hopes for the treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has raised many complex questions. This field causes debate and challenge, not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. There is no consensus on the morality of human cloning, even within specific religious traditions. In countries in which religion has a strong influence on political decision making, the moral status of the human embryo is at the center of the debate. Because of the inevitable consequences of reproductive cloning, it is prohibited in Islam. However, stem cell research for therapeutic purposes is permissible with full consideration, and all possible precautions in the pre-ensoulment stages of early fetus development, if the source is legitimate.

  12. Molecular cloning of cellulase genes from indigenous bacterial isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Bor Chyan; Pauline Liew Woan Ying; Mat Rasol Awang


    Indigenous cellulolytic bacterial isolates having high activities in degrading carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were isolated from local environments. Identification of these isolates were performed by molecular techniques. By using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, PCR products encoding cellulase gene were amplified from the total genomic DNAs. Purified PCR product was successfully cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli host system. The complete nucleotide sequences of the cellulase genes determined. The analysis of amino acid sequences deduced from the genes indicated that the cloned DNA fragments show high homology to those of endoglucanase genes of family GH5. All cloned genes consist of an N-terminal signal peptide, a catalytic domain of family 5 glycosyl hydrolase and a cellulose-binding domain of family III. (Author)

  13. Somatically segregating clone of apomictic maize-tripsacum hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, B.F.; Lukina, L.A.


    The results of further study on clone AM-5, isolated in the progeny of γ-irradiated plants of the apomictic hybrid of maize with tripsacum (2n = 38) are reported. The variegated-leaf seedlings of the clone segregate somatically and produce variegated, mottled, green (phenotypically normal) plants in different ratios in the apomictic progenies. The variegated, and to a lesser degree, green segregants segregate further. The mottled apomictics as well as mottled branches of variegated seedlings maintain their phenotype on transplantation, however, these is a progressive enhancement of the characters of vegetative lethality. Lethals of two extra maize genomes to the AM-5 nucleus does not affect significantly the scope and nature of segregation. At the same time, the loss of tripsacum genome restores normal phenotype. Clone AM-5 is an example of hybrid apomictic form causing significant morphological variability, which is, nevertheless, not related with apomictic and reversion to the sexual process


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An efficient bacterial transformation system suitable for cloning the coding sequence of the ovine leptin gene in E. coli DH5α host cells using the pGEMT easy vector it is described in this paper. The necessity of producing leptin is based on the fact that the role of this molecule in the animal and human organism is still unknown, leptin not existing as commercial product on the Romanian market. The results obtained in the bacterial transformation, cloning, recombinant clones selection, control of the insertion experiments and DNA computational analysis represent the first steps in further genetic engineering experiments such as production of DNA libraries, DNA sequencing, protein expression, etc., for a further contribution in elucidating the role of leptin in the animal and human organism.

  15. Distribution and uses of legume DNA clone resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.


    Since 1990, my lab has developed and distributed various DNA clone resources for the legumes. In the first several years, the focus was on members of the tropical genus, Vigna, including the widely cultivated species, mungbean (V. radiata) and cowpea (V. unguiculata). Both of these grain legumes play key roles in agriculture in developing countries of Asia (mungbean) and Africa (cowpea). Moreover, because there is substantial genome conservation among legumes, these genetic resources have also been utilized by a wide range of researchers in other crop species. In 1997, my lab began to focus on the development and distribution of a new generation of DNA clone resources; Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC). A library of these clones was constructed in soybean (Glycine max) the most important legume species worldwide in terms of economic value. Again, the library has become a valuable resource for the legume research community and has been widely used in studies of legume genomics. (author)

  16. Efficient preparation of shuffled DNA libraries through recombination (Gateway) cloning. (United States)

    Lehtonen, Soili I; Taskinen, Barbara; Ojala, Elina; Kukkurainen, Sampo; Rahikainen, Rolle; Riihimäki, Tiina A; Laitinen, Olli H; Kulomaa, Markku S; Hytönen, Vesa P


    Efficient and robust subcloning is essential for the construction of high-diversity DNA libraries in the field of directed evolution. We have developed a more efficient method for the subcloning of DNA-shuffled libraries by employing recombination cloning (Gateway). The Gateway cloning procedure was performed directly after the gene reassembly reaction, without additional purification and amplification steps, thus simplifying the conventional DNA shuffling protocols. Recombination-based cloning, directly from the heterologous reassembly reaction, conserved the high quality of the library and reduced the time required for the library construction. The described method is generally compatible for the construction of DNA-shuffled gene libraries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Spatial constraints govern competition of mutant clones in human epidermis. (United States)

    Lynch, M D; Lynch, C N S; Craythorne, E; Liakath-Ali, K; Mallipeddi, R; Barker, J N; Watt, F M


    Deep sequencing can detect somatic DNA mutations in tissues permitting inference of clonal relationships. This has been applied to human epidermis, where sun exposure leads to the accumulation of mutations and an increased risk of skin cancer. However, previous studies have yielded conflicting conclusions about the relative importance of positive selection and neutral drift in clonal evolution. Here, we sequenced larger areas of skin than previously, focusing on cancer-prone skin spanning five decades of life. The mutant clones identified were too large to be accounted for solely by neutral drift. Rather, using mathematical modelling and computational lattice-based simulations, we show that observed clone size distributions can be explained by a combination of neutral drift and stochastic nucleation of mutations at the boundary of expanding mutant clones that have a competitive advantage. These findings demonstrate that spatial context and cell competition cooperate to determine the fate of a mutant stem cell.

  18. Flowering and the Pollen Fertility in Iranian Garlic Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Abbasifar


    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. cannot produce seed because it is a sterile plant. For studying bolting and determination of pollen fertility, 68 Iranian garlic clones were gathered from different parts of Iran and evaluated in Research Field of Horticultural Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. For determining the pollen fertility, some tests including specific RAPD marker, pollen germination, pollen viability detection using acetocarmine and in vitro culture of ovules and fruits were used. Results showed that 37 of Iranian garlic clones could produce scape and inflorescence. The percentage range of pollen stained with acetocarmine was from 0.5 up to 20 percent showing infertility of pollens. Lack of two markers (OPJ121300 and OPJ121700 and pollen tube growth proved the infertility of garlic clones pollen. Fruits and embryo sac were alive for more than two months, showing their potential for producing seeds following pollination with fertile pollens.

  19. Cloning, expression, and chromosome mapping of human galectin-7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peder; Rasmussen, H H; Flint, T


    The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Here we report the cloning and expression of a novel member of this family (galectin-7) that correspond to IEF (isoelectric focusing) 17 (12,700 Da; pI, 7.6) in the human...... keratinocyte protein data base, and that is strikingly down-regulated in SV40 transformed keratinocytes (K14). The cDNA was cloned from a lambda gt11 cDNA expression library using degenerated oligodeoxyribonucleotides back-translated from an IEF 17 peptide sequence. The protein encoded by the galectin-7 clone......14 keratinocytes imply a role in cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions necessary for normal growth control. The galectin-7 gene was mapped to chromosome 19. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Mar-17...

  20. Potencial forrageiro de novos clones de capim-elefante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botrel Milton de Andrade


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de novos clones selecionados de capim-elefante. O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa Gado de Leite, em Coronel Pacheco -- MG, por um período de dois anos. Foi avaliado o potencial forrageiro de 20 clones de capim-elefante, obtidos pelo programa de melhoramento, e mais duas cultivares tradicionais (Cameroon e Taiwan A-146 usadas como testemunhas. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. As adubações para estabelecimento e manutenção foram realizadas de acordo com a análise do solo, visando suprir as exigências nutricionais do capim-elefante. Observaram-se diferenças significativas entre os clones, quanto ao potencial para produção de forragem, à relação folha/colmo e ao perfilhamento aéreo e basal. A maioria dos clones avaliados apresentou maior produção de matéria seca que as cultivares tradicionais, Cameroon e Taiwan A-146, durante o período seco e chuvoso. Não houve diferença significativa no teor de proteína bruta da matéria seca das cultivares controles (Cameroon e Taiwan A-146 e dos clones avaliados, em ambas as estações (águas e seca. O clone F 27-01, lançado pela Embrapa Gado de Leite com o nome de cultivar Pioneiro, destacou-se para quase todas as características agronômicas estudadas.

  1. Cloning Endangered Felids by Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer. (United States)

    Gómez, Martha C; Pope, C Earle


    In 2003, the first wild felid was produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer. Since then other wild felid clone offspring have been produced by using the same technique with minor modifications. This chapter describes detailed protocols used in our laboratory for (1) the isolation, culture, and preparation of fibroblast cells as donor nucleus, and (2) embryo reconstruction with domestic cat enucleated oocytes to produce cloned embryos that develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro and, after transfer into synchronized recipients, establish successful pregnancies.

  2. The ethics of cloning and human embryo research. (United States)

    Saran, Madeleine


    The successful cloning experiments that led to Dolly in 1997 have raised many ethical and policy questions. This paper will focus on cloning research in human embryonic cells. The possible gains of the research will be judged against the moral issues of doing research on a person. This paper concludes that while the embryo has some moral status, its moral status is outweighed by the multitude of benefits that embryonic stem cell research will bring to humanity. Policy suggestions are given for dealing with this new and developing field of stem cell research.

  3. Multiperiod Mean-Variance Portfolio Optimization via Market Cloning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankirchner, Stefan, E-mail: [Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn, Institut fuer Angewandte Mathematik, Hausdorff Center for Mathematics (Germany); Dermoune, Azzouz, E-mail: [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Laboratoire Paul Painleve UMR CNRS 8524 (France)


    The problem of finding the mean variance optimal portfolio in a multiperiod model can not be solved directly by means of dynamic programming. In order to find a solution we therefore first introduce independent market clones having the same distributional properties as the original market, and we replace the portfolio mean and variance by their empirical counterparts. We then use dynamic programming to derive portfolios maximizing a weighted sum of the empirical mean and variance. By letting the number of market clones converge to infinity we are able to solve the original mean variance problem.

  4. Cloning the mammoth: a complicated task or just a dream? (United States)

    Loi, Pasqualino; Saragusty, Joseph; Ptak, Grazyna


    Recently there has been growing interest in applying the most advanced embryological tools, particularly cloning, to bring extinct species back to life, with a particular focus on the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius). Mammoth's bodies found in the permafrost are relatively well preserved, with identifiable nuclei in their tissues. The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature published on the topic, and to present the strategies potentially suitable for a mammoth cloning project, with a frank assessment of their feasibility and the ethical issues involved.

  5. Multiperiod Mean-Variance Portfolio Optimization via Market Cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankirchner, Stefan; Dermoune, Azzouz


    The problem of finding the mean variance optimal portfolio in a multiperiod model can not be solved directly by means of dynamic programming. In order to find a solution we therefore first introduce independent market clones having the same distributional properties as the original market, and we replace the portfolio mean and variance by their empirical counterparts. We then use dynamic programming to derive portfolios maximizing a weighted sum of the empirical mean and variance. By letting the number of market clones converge to infinity we are able to solve the original mean variance problem.

  6. Public and Private Preferences for Animal Cloning Policies


    Brooks, Kathleen R.; Lusk, Jayson L.


    Data on individuals’ private shopping choices are often used to draw conclusions about their desires for food policies. The purpose of this paper is to test this often-implicit assumption using data from a nationwide survey about animal cloning. We find that although individuals’ private choices indicate a strong desire to avoid meat and milk from cloned cattle, public choices predict that only 40.29% have a positive WTP for such a ban. The results suggest caution is necessary when inferr...

  7. Clone-specific differences in Pragmites australis: Effects of ploidy level and geographic origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, D.; Lambertini, Carla; Jampeetong, Arunothai


    by the geographic origin, the euploidy level (4x, 6x, 8x and 12x), and to assess differences between native and introduced clones in North America. Growth, morphology, photosynthetic characteristics, photosynthetic pigments and enzymes were measured on 11 geographically distinct clones propagated in a common...... result in an increase in plant size, probably because the number of cell divisions during development is reduced. Four North American clones were included in the study. The clone from the Atlantic Coast and the supposed invasive European clone resembled each other. The Gulf Coast clone differed from...

  8. Determination of radioinduced delay in DNA synthesis in two-garlic-clones cells (Allium Sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Lezcano, A.; Perez Talavera, S.


    To contribute to tech improvement of the use of ionizing radiations as an auxiliary tool in the fitoimprovement, dose-effect curves for the 'Martinez' and 'Sancti Spiritus-3' clones were stablished by using as effect the delay induced by radiations in DNA synthesis determined by the 'Martinez' clone which induces a delay of 50% in reference to the control is approximately 11 Gy, while the dose value for the 'Sancti Spiritus-3' clone is 18 Gy, thus the 'Martinez' clones has a higher sensitivity to radiations than the other clone, therefore it coincides with what we found for these clones other indexes are used as radiosensitivity criteria

  9. Maternal endometrial oedema may increase perinatal mortality of cloned and transgenic piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winter, K.D.; Dantzer, Vibeke


    The perinatal mortality of cloned animals is a well-known problem. In the present retrospective study, we report on mortality of cloned transgenic or non-transgenic piglets produced as part of several investigations. Large White (LW) sows (n = 105) received hand-made cloned LW or minipig...... endometrial oedema in sows pregnant with cloned and transgenic piglets, as well as in empty recipients, at term. The growth of certain organs in some of the cloned piglets was reduced and the rate of stillborn piglets was greater in cloned and transgenic piglets delivered vaginally, possibly because of oedema...

  10. Peripheral blood and intrathyroidal T cell clones from patients with thyroid autoimmune diseases. (United States)

    Massart, C; Caroff, G; Maugendre, D; Genetet, N; Gibassier, J


    For a better understanding of the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmune diseases, we have studied morphological and functional properties of T clones from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and from intrathyroidal lymphocytes (ITL) obtained from 3 patients with Graves' disease or 1 Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Investigations were carried out on clones cultured alone or cocultured with autologous thyrocytes. Clonage efficiency ranged from 30% to 33% for PBL and 10% to 36% for ITL. A predominance of CD4-positive clones was observed whatever the origin of the lymphocytes or the autoimmune pathology. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) was detected in the majority (17/19) of the clones tested. Intracytoplasmic interleukin (IL-4) was secreted in 7/19 clones and both cytokines were produced in 5/19 clones. In coculture a proliferative response and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) production were observed with 6 clones (4 from Graves thyrocytes and 2 from thyroiditis). No cytotoxic clone was derived from Graves or thyroiditis tissues. These data demonstrate that the large majority of T clones are principally CD4-T cells; all the clones secreted TNF-alpha and a large majority produced IFN-gamma. Only a few clones produced IL-4 alone or associated with IFN-gamma. Six T clones induced proliferative response and of TNF-alpha secretion in coculture. Further investigations must be performed on these antigen-reactive T clones to analyse their role in the pathogenesis of the human thyroid autoimmune diseases.

  11. A study on total phenolics and vitamin c contents of kalecik karasi (vitis vinifera l.) clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, N.; Keskin, S.


    In this study total phenolic and vitamin C contents of the fully ripe berries of 23 clones of Kalecik Karasi which is one of the leading Turkish local red-wine grape cultivar originally grown in Kizilirmak valley near Kalecik/Ankara region were examined under the clone selection project supported by TUBTAK (Project Nr: 107 O 731). High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for vitamin C and spectrophotometer for total phenolics estimation. One way ANOVA was used to compare means of clone for their total phenolic and vitamin C contents. In addition to this univariate method, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify similarity levels among the clones by considering total phenolics and vitamin C content together. Differences among the clones were found statistically significant for both characteristics. Total phenolic contents of the clones varied from 3.310 mg (clone 21) to 3.389 mg (clone 6) as GAE g fw. Vitamin C content ranged from 14.010 mg (clone 6) to 16.500 mg (clone 19) in 100g fw. Furthermore, similarity level for all clones was 83.1% that means variation rate is about 17% among the clones. As a summary of whole data, the first three performing clones are 6 (3.389 mg), 10 (3.374 mg) and 1 (3.365 mg) for total phenolics, and 19 (16.500 mg), 9 (16.020 mg), and 21 (16.015 mg) for vitamin C contents of the berries. (author)

  12. Developmental Competence and Epigenetic Profile of Porcine Embryos Produced by Two Different Cloning Methods. (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Petersen, Bjoern; Li, Rong; Hermann, Doris; Hassel, Petra; Ziegler, Maren; Larsen, Knud; Niemann, Heiner; Callesen, Henrik


    The "Dolly" based cloning (classical nuclear transfer, [CNT]) and the handmade cloning (HMC) are methods that are nowadays routinely used for somatic cloning of large domestic species. Both cloning protocols share several similarities, but differ with regard to the required in vitro culture, which in turn results in different time intervals until embryo transfer. It is not yet known whether the differences between cloned embryos from the two protocols are due to the cloning methods themselves or the in vitro culture, as some studies have shown detrimental effects of in vitro culture on conventionally produced embryos. The goal of this study was to unravel putative differences between two cloning methods, with regard to developmental competence, expression profile of a panel of developmentally important genes and epigenetic profile of porcine cloned embryos produced by either CNT or HMC, either with (D5 or D6) or without (D0) in vitro culture. Embryos cloned by these two methods had a similar morphological appearance on D0, but displayed different cleavage rates and different quality of blastocysts, with HMC embryos showing higher blastocyst rates (HMC vs. CNT: 35% vs. 10%, p cloned embryos were similar on D0, but differed on D6. In conclusion, both cloning methods and the in vitro culture may affect porcine embryo development and epigenetic profile. The two cloning methods essentially produce embryos of similar quality on D0 and after 5 days in vitro culture, but thereafter both histone acetylation and gene expression differ between the two types of cloned embryos.

  13. Enzyme assay, cloning and sequencing of novel β-glucosidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioinformatics studies also suggested that the cloned β-glucosidases share some characteristics with their bacterial counterparts. The findings in this study highlight the increasing need for more information on β-glucosidase structure and function. Keywords: Aspergillus niger, β-glucosidase, cellulase, PCR, sequencing, ...

  14. Chapter 7. Cloning and analysis of natural product pathways. (United States)

    Gust, Bertolt


    The identification of gene clusters of natural products has lead to an enormous wealth of information about their biosynthesis and its regulation, and about self-resistance mechanisms. Well-established routine techniques are now available for the cloning and sequencing of gene clusters. The subsequent functional analysis of the complex biosynthetic machinery requires efficient genetic tools for manipulation. Until recently, techniques for the introduction of defined changes into Streptomyces chromosomes were very time-consuming. In particular, manipulation of large DNA fragments has been challenging due to the absence of suitable restriction sites for restriction- and ligation-based techniques. The homologous recombination approach called recombineering (referred to as Red/ET-mediated recombination in this chapter) has greatly facilitated targeted genetic modifications of complex biosynthetic pathways from actinomycetes by eliminating many of the time-consuming and labor-intensive steps. This chapter describes techniques for the cloning and identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, for the generation of gene replacements within such clusters, for the construction of integrative library clones and their expression in heterologous hosts, and for the assembly of entire biosynthetic gene clusters from the inserts of individual library clones. A systematic approach toward insertional mutation of a complete Streptomyces genome is shown by the use of an in vitro transposon mutagenesis procedure.

  15. Construction characterization and application of Flavivirus infectious clones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Xiaohong


    The topics in this thesis revolve around a group of plus-strand RNA viruses that belong to the Flavivirus genus, a general introduction of which is presented in Chapter 1. The experimental chapters in this thesis mainly focus on the construction and characterization of flavivirus infectious clones

  16. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen


    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  17. Natural crayfish clone as emerging model for various biological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 2. Marmorkrebs: Natural crayfish clone as emerging model for various biological disciplines. Günter Vogt. Mini-review Volume 36 Issue 2 June 2011 pp 377-382. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Swimming behaviour of Daphnia clones: differentiation through predator infochemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, A.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.


    We studied variation in small-scale swimming behavior (SSB) in four clones of Daphnia galeata (water flea) in response to predator infochemicals. The aim of this study was 3-fold. First, we tested for differences in SSB in Daphnia; second, we examined the potential of differences in SSB to explain

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 29, 2012 ... Cloning and Functional. Expression of Cycloartenol Synthases from Mangrove Species. Rhizophora stylosa Griff. And Kandelia candel (L.) Druce. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 71(7): 1788-1792. Felsenstein J (1985). Confidence limits on phylogenies: An approach using the bootstrap. Evolution. 39:783-791 ...

  20. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19 (United States)

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck interleukin-17 (United States)

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belonging to the Th17 family is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. A 1034-bp cDNA encoding duck IL-17 (duIL-17) was cloned from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of ducks. The encoded protein, predicted to consisted of 169 amino acids, displayed a molec...

  2. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (DOP-PCR) products were hybridized with cDNA of the male spinach flowers in florescence. The female .... China), 1 μL (3.5 U/μL) T4 ligase and sterile double- distilled ... Cloning of hybrid PCR products and screening of cDNA sequence.

  3. Mouse cloning and somatic cell reprogramming using electrofused blastomeres. (United States)

    Riaz, Amjad; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Dai, Xiangpeng; Li, Wei; Liu, Lei; Wan, Haifeng; Yu, Yang; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Qi


    Mouse cloning from fertilized eggs can assist development of approaches for the production of "genetically tailored" human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that are not constrained by the limitations of oocyte availability. However, to date only zygotes have been successfully used as recipients of nuclei from terminally differentiated somatic cell donors leading to ES cell lines. In fertility clinics, embryos of advanced embryonic stages are usually stored for future use, but their ability to support the derivation of ES cell lines via somatic nuclear transfer has not yet been proved. Here, we report that two-cell stage electrofused mouse embryos, arrested in mitosis, can support developmental reprogramming of nuclei from donor cells ranging from blastomeres to somatic cells. Live, full-term cloned pups from embryonic donors, as well as pluripotent ES cell lines from embryonic or somatic donors, were successfully generated from these reconstructed embryos. Advanced stage pre-implantation embryos were unable to develop normally to term after electrofusion and transfer of a somatic cell nucleus, indicating that discarded pre-implantation human embryos could be an important resource for research that minimizes the ethical concerns for human therapeutic cloning. Our approach provides an attractive and practical alternative to therapeutic cloning using donated oocytes for the generation of patient-specific human ES cell lines.

  4. Cloning, chromosome localization and features of a novel human ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report cloning and some features of a novel human gene, MATH2, which encodes a protein of 337 amino acid residues with a basic helix–loop–helix domain ... State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China ...

  5. Cloning, expression and functional analysis of MAP30 from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 7, 2011 ... gene was cloned and expressed and the induction of the recombinant MAP30 protein on .... RNA reverse transcription was carried out by RevertAidTM First ... volume of Premix Ex Taq™ (Takara Bio Inc, Japan), PCR cycling.

  6. Cloning and expression of cell wall acid invertase gene fragment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 25, 2010 ... intron. It had a high homology to previously cloned cell wall acid invertase genes in other plants by sequence .... Japan) in a final volume of 50 µl. The programs for ... The first strand of cDNA was synthesized by using SYBR ...

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity within sour cherry clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin; Andersen, Sven Bode; Henriksen, K.


    of improved breeding material. However, no differences in allele profile were found between or within the clones, calling into question the extent of the available genetic diversity and indicating that the observed variance in yield may have to be explained by other genetic mechanisms, including epigenetic...

  8. Cloning of nis gene and Nisin purification from Lactococcus lactis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purified nisin by chloroform extraction was analyzed on 20% SDS-PAGE and gave sharp band at ~ 3.4 kDa. The 3 dimension structure of the purified Nisin was studied by CPHModels as pdb with chimera program. Keywords: Lactococcus lactis, nis cloning, 16S rRNA, chloroform extraction and SDS-PAGE

  9. Farmer participatory evaluation of eight elite clones of cocoyam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight elite clones of cocoyam were evaluated for high yield, tolerance to major diseases and pests and culinary properties. Phenotypic attributes evaluated at peak vegetative phase 24 weeks after planting (24 WAP) were plant height, number of leaves and leaf area. At harvest, 12 months after planting (12 MAP), variables ...

  10. Production and verification of heterozygous clones in Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi


    Nov 28, 2011 ... Microsatellite-centromere mapping in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Genomics, 30: 337-341. Kobayashi T, Ide A, Hiasa T, Fushiki S, Ueno K (1994). Production of cloned amago salmon Oncorhynchus rhodurus. Fish. Sci. 60: 275-281. Komen H, Thorgaard GH (2007). Androgenesis, gynogenesis and the.

  11. Cloning and mRNA expression pattern analysis under low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 13, 2011 ... This research cloned endochitinase-antifreeze protein precursor (EAPP) gene of .... Company, RevertAidTM First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit from .... different times of low temperature in root, stem and leaf of Dongmu-70 rye.

  12. Consumer perceptions of food products from cloned animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaskell, George; Kronberger, Nicole; Fischler, Claude


    In the view of the authors of this report converging lines of theoretical and empirical research suggest that cloned meat is likely to be a controversial issue with the European public, sitting as it does at the nexus of sensitivities around food, animals and the life sciences. If, as appears...

  13. Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding xyloglucan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evolutionary studies using phylogenetic tree indicated its grouping with XETs from maize (with >95% bootstrap support), barley, rice, etc. This is the first report on cloning and characterization of an XET (PgXET1) from pearl millet, an important dual-purpose crop. Key words: Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase, Pennisetum ...

  14. Cloning and sequence analysis of benzo-a-pyreneinducible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phylogenetic tree based on the amino acid sequences clearly shows tilapia CYP1A and killifish CYP1A to be more closely related to each other than to the other CYP1A subfamilies. Sequence analysis of 3727 bp of genomic DNA showed that the clone obtained was the structural gene of CYP1A which consists of ...

  15. Cloning and functional analysis in transgenic tobacco of a tapetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 5'-flanking region of 1174 bp upstream of the translation start point (TSP) of a reported Arabidopsis anther-specific gene, Anther7 gene (ATA7), which putatively encodes a protein related to lipid transfer protein, was cloned and functionally analyzed in transgenic tobacco after been fused with β- glucuronidase (GUS) ...

  16. Gene cloning and characterization of NADH oxidase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genome search of Thermococcus kodakarensis revealed three open reading frames, Tk0304, Tk1299 and Tk1392 annotated as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidases. This study deals with cloning, and characterization of Tk0304. The gene, composed of 1320 nucleotides, encodes a protein of 439 ...

  17. Cloning and characterization of an insecticidal crystal protein gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A 1.9-kb DNA fragment, PCR-amplified from HD549 using cryII-gene-specific primers, was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant protein produced 92% mortality in first-instar larvae of Spodoptera litura and 86% inhibition of adult emergence in Phthorimaea operculella, but showed very low toxicity against ...

  18. Molecular Cloning And Sequencing Of Disintegrin Like Domain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disintegrin-like domain was cloned and sequenced from Cerastes cerastes venom gland tissue. Nested RT-PCR was performed using initial primers designed based on the homology of disintegrins from Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Glodius halys , Agkistrodon halys and Trimeresurus macrosquamatus. The homology was ...

  19. Cloning and expression of a tomato glutathione S- transferase (GST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, ShGSTU1 was cloned into plasmid pET-28a, efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli upon isopropyl-β-D-1-thiogalactopyronoside (IPTG) induction, purified with Ni2+ affinity chromatography and biochemically characterized. The results show that the optimal conditions for the expression of recombinant ...

  20. Handmade cloning of mammals | Elsheikh | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    processes, and biological processes during embryogenesis. These parameters have been widely investigated using the micromanipulator-based cloning technique (MBCT). This technique is a tedious, multi-step, time consuming and complicated procedure that utilizes expensive equipment. The HMER has emerged as an ...

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of the plasma membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O. violaceus) was cloned. The full-length cDNA of O. violaceus gene (OvPIP) was 1314 bp and contained 1188 open reading frame encoding a protein of 395 amino acids. Homology analysis revealed that OvPIP strongly resembled other PIP ...

  2. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RPS16 of eukaryote is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS16 gene and is also a homolog of prokaryotic RPS9. The cDNA and genomic sequence of RPS16 was cloned successfully for the first time from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain ...

  3. Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for biomedical research - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, this research involves the deliberate production, use, and ultimate destruction of cloned embryos, hence re-awakening the debate on the moral status of the embryo. Other moral anxieties include the possibility that women (as donors of ova) would be exploited, that this research would land on the slippery slope of ...

  4. Cloning and expression of cell wall acid invertase gene fragment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fragment of invertase gene containing catalytic sites of cysteine was cloned from poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima wild.) by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The length of the fragment was 521 bp, encoding 173 amino acids and containing a part of open reading frames, but no intron. It had a high ...

  5. Characterization and cloning of TMV resistance gene N homologues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco cultivars Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants carrying the N gene contain a multitude of N-related genes. We cloned a few N homologues and isolated two full-length cDNAs of NL-C26 and NL-B69 genes from N. tabacum cv. Samsun NN. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the coding regions of ...

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of pathogenesis-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We described the cloning and characterization of pathogenesis-related protein 5 gene in maize, named ZmPR5 (GenBank Accession Number: HM230665). Molecular and bioinformatic analyses of ZmPR5 revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 525 bp, encoding a protein of 175 amino acids (aa) and a deduced ...

  7. Cloning, expression and purification of cold adapted acetate kinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shell) Neobuccinum living in the Antarctic ice-covered sea. An open reading frame of 1203 bp, coding for acetate kinase gene, called ack, was amplified, cloned into the expression vector, pETY-16b, and the enzyme was overproduced by ...

  8. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  9. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome- specific EST sequences. Chuan-Liang Deng, Wei-Li Zhang, Ying Cao, Shao-Jing Wang, ... Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1 gene). 389 2.31E-13. 98.96. SP3−12. Betula pendula histidine kinase 3 (HK3) mRNA, ...

  10. Cloning and expression of a Vi mimotope of Salmonella enterica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 15, 2009 ... A recombinant His-Vi protein of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was successfully constructed and cloned into ... mainly through consumption of food or water contami- nated with .... and healthy individuals (double arrows) followed by the detection using recombinant His-Vi protein as the primary antibody ...

  11. Gene Cloning of Iranian Leishmania major Mannose-1-Phosphate Guanyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Salehi


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Leishmania is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite, which infects human be­ings when infected sand fly vector takes a blood meal.  Most efforts are towards designing an effective vaccine to prevent leishmaniasis. In this way, development of candidate antigen for vaccine has spe­cial im­portant. In this study, we cloned mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase gene of Iranian L .major in pET32a expression vector. "nMethods: Primers based on L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase sequence gene was de­signed and synthesized. DNA of Leishmania promastigotes was extracted and PCR reaction was done. PCR product was cloned into pTZ57R and sub cloned into pET32a expression vector. "nResults: Recombinant plasmid containing 1140 bp as L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltrans­ferase gene was extracted and confirmed by restriction analysis. PCR product was sequenced and de­posited to GenBank. There were some differences in amino acid sequences between Iranian L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase and others previously accepted in GenBank "nConclusion: We amplified and cloned Iranian L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase successfully.

  12. Cloning of a gene encoding glycosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 3, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Cloning ... 2Guangzhou Sugarcane Industry Research Institute, Guangzhou 510316, China. ..... min at 4°C and then washed once with deionized water after ..... Brierley RA, Davis RG, Holtz CG (1994). .... Kita M, Hirata Y, Moriguchi T, Endo-Inagaki T, Matsumoto R, Hasegawa.

  13. GMDH Method with Genetic Selection Algorithm and Cloning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.


    Roč. 23, č. 5 (2013), s. 451-464 ISSN 1210-0552 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : multivariate data * GMDH * linear regression * Gauss-Markov conditions * cloning * genetic selection * classification Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2013

  14. Cloning and heterologous expression of a gene encoding lycopene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report describes the cloning and expression of a gene lycopene epsilon cyclase, (LCYE) from Camellia sinensis var assamica which is a precursor of the carotenoid lutein in tea. The 1982 bp cDNA sequence with 1599 bp open reading frame of LCYE was identified from an SSH library constructed for quality trait in tea.

  15. cDNA cloning, structural analysis, SNP detection and tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    detection and tissue expression profile of the IGF1 gene in Malabari and Attappady Black goats of India. J. Genet. ... Keywords. gene cloning; gene expression; goat; insulin-like growth factor 1; mRNA; single-nucleotide ..... cle tenderness (Koohmaraie et al. .... growth factor (IGF) system in the bovine oviduct at oestrus and.

  16. Characterization of three newly established rat sarcoma cell clones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, Monika; Leba, M.; Sedmíková, M.; Vannucci, Luca; Horák, Vratislav


    Roč. 48, č. 10 (2012), s. 610-618 ISSN 1071-2690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08063 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : sarcoma * cell clones * lewis rat Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.289, year: 2012

  17. Clones, Drones and Dragons: Ongoing Uncertainties around School Leader Development (United States)

    Walker, Allan


    This article examines a number of key issues around successful school leadership and leader development. Three metaphors are used to frame, track and analyse recent research and commentary in the area--these are clones, drones and dragons. Although development mechanisms rarely fall neatly within one category, the metaphors provide a useful way to…

  18. Generation Of Multicopy Pichia Clones From Gap Vector | Ekwenye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris was used as a host to generate multicopy clones using in-vitro multimerization and GAP vector approaches. The latter approach relied on the selection of spontaneously occurring multiple integrants based on zeocin resistance. Higher levels of heterologous protein could result using ...

  19. Evaluation of enset clones against enset bacterial wilt | Welde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A large number of enset clones collected from the Sidama, Gurage, Kembata Tembaro and Hadyia zones were assessed for resistance/tolerance to enset bacterial wilt, Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) at the Awassa Agricultural Research Center, Awassa in Ethiopia, during the period 1994 to 2000.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human testis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human testis-specific gene by use of ... pared against 70 other libraries, and the hits showing >10- fold differences .... proteins or testis-development-related proteins such as TSP-. NY, TPX1 ...