WorldWideScience

Sample records for claviceps purpurea cloning

  1. Cloning, characterization, and targeted disruption of cpcat1, coding for an in planta secreted catalase of Claviceps purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garre, V; Müller, U; Tudzynski, P

    1998-08-01

    Claviceps purpurea has been shown to secrete catalases in axenic and parasitic culture. In order to determine the importance of these enzymes in the host-parasite interaction, especially their role in overcoming oxidative stress imposed on the pathogen by the plant's defense system, the catR gene from A. niger was used to isolate a putative catalase gene from a genomic library of C. purpurea, cpcat1 consists of an open reading frame of 2,148 bp that is interrupted by five introns. Its derived gene product shows significant homology to fungal catalases and contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids and three putative N-glycosylation sites, which indicates that CPCAT1 is a secreted catalase. Disruption of the gene by a gene replacement approach resulted in the loss of two catalase isoforms, CATC and CATD, strongly suggesting that they are both encoded by cpcat1. CATD is the major secreted catalase of C. purpurea and is furthermore the only catalase present in the honeydew of infected rye ears. Deletion mutants of cpcat1 were inoculated on rye plants and showed no significant reduction in virulence. Ovarian tissue and honeydew of plants inoculated with the mutants lacked CATD, confirming that this catalase is not essential for colonization of the host tissue by C. purpurea.

  2. The major Cu,Zn SOD of the phytopathogen Claviceps purpurea is not essential for pathogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, S; De Vries, OMH; Tudzynski, P

    2002-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the biotrophic pathogen Claviceps purpurea, which causes the ergot disease on a wide range of host grasses, were examined in axenic and pathogenic cultures. Almost all SOD activity in axenic culture originated from a single Cu,Zn SOD; a substantial part of th

  3. D-Lysergyl peptide synthetase from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, B; Han, M; Keller, U

    1996-11-01

    The ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea produces the medically important ergopeptines, which consist of a cyclol-structured tripeptide and D-lysergic acid linked by an amide bond. An enzyme activity capable of non-ribosomal synthesis of D-lysergyl-L-alanyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-proline lactam, the non-cyclol precursor of the ergopeptine ergotamine, has been purified about 18-fold from the ergotamine-producing C. purpurea strain D1. Analysis of radioactively labeled enzyme-substrate complexes revealed a 370-kDa lysergyl peptide synthetase 1 (LPS 1) carrying the amino acid activation domains for alanine, phenylalanine, and proline. The activation of D-lysergic acid is catalyzed by a 140-kDa peptide synthetase (LPS 2) copurifying with LPS 1. LPS 1 and LPS 2 contain 4'-phosphopantetheine and bind their substrates covalently by thioester linkage. Kinetic analysis of the synthesis reaction revealed a Km of approximately 1.4 microM for both D-lysergic acid and its structural homolog dihydrolysergic acid, which is one to two orders of magnitude lower than the Km values for the other amino acids involved. The Km values for the amino acids reflect their relative concentrations in the cellular pool of C. purpurea. This may indicate that in in vivo conditions D-lysergyl peptide formation is limited by the D-lysergic acid concentration in the cell. In vitro, the multienzyme preparation catalyzes the formation of several different D-lysergyl peptide lactams according to the amino acids supplied. Specific antiserum was used to detect LPS 1 in various C. purpurea strains. In C. purpurea wild type, the enzyme was expressed at all stages of cultivation and in different media, suggesting that it is produced constitutively.

  4. The Epipolythiodiketopiperazine Gene Cluster in Claviceps purpurea: Dysfunctional Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Prevents Formation of the Previously Unknown Clapurines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Dopstadt

    Full Text Available Claviceps purpurea is an important food contaminant and well known for the production of the toxic ergot alkaloids. Apart from that, little is known about its secondary metabolism and not all toxic substances going along with the food contamination with Claviceps are known yet. We explored the metabolite profile of a gene cluster in C. purpurea with a high homology to gene clusters, which are responsible for the formation of epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP toxins in other fungi. By overexpressing the transcription factor, we were able to activate the cluster in the standard C. purpurea strain 20.1. Although all necessary genes for the formation of the characteristic disulfide bridge were expressed in the overexpression mutants, the fungus did not produce any ETPs. Isolation of pathway intermediates showed that the common biosynthetic pathway stops after the first steps. Our results demonstrate that hydroxylation of the diketopiperazine backbone is the critical step during the ETP biosynthesis. Due to a dysfunctional enzyme, the fungus is not able to produce toxic ETPs. Instead, the pathway end-products are new unusual metabolites with a unique nitrogen-sulfur bond. By heterologous expression of the Leptosphaeria maculans cytochrome P450 encoding gene sirC, we were able to identify the end-products of the ETP cluster in C. purpurea. The thioclapurines are so far unknown ETPs, which might contribute to the toxicity of other C. purpurea strains with a potentially intact ETP cluster.

  5. The Epipolythiodiketopiperazine Gene Cluster in Claviceps purpurea: Dysfunctional Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Prevents Formation of the Previously Unknown Clapurines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudzynski, Paul; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Claviceps purpurea is an important food contaminant and well known for the production of the toxic ergot alkaloids. Apart from that, little is known about its secondary metabolism and not all toxic substances going along with the food contamination with Claviceps are known yet. We explored the metabolite profile of a gene cluster in C. purpurea with a high homology to gene clusters, which are responsible for the formation of epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) toxins in other fungi. By overexpressing the transcription factor, we were able to activate the cluster in the standard C. purpurea strain 20.1. Although all necessary genes for the formation of the characteristic disulfide bridge were expressed in the overexpression mutants, the fungus did not produce any ETPs. Isolation of pathway intermediates showed that the common biosynthetic pathway stops after the first steps. Our results demonstrate that hydroxylation of the diketopiperazine backbone is the critical step during the ETP biosynthesis. Due to a dysfunctional enzyme, the fungus is not able to produce toxic ETPs. Instead, the pathway end-products are new unusual metabolites with a unique nitrogen-sulfur bond. By heterologous expression of the Leptosphaeria maculans cytochrome P450 encoding gene sirC, we were able to identify the end-products of the ETP cluster in C. purpurea. The thioclapurines are so far unknown ETPs, which might contribute to the toxicity of other C. purpurea strains with a potentially intact ETP cluster. PMID:27390873

  6. Quantitative molecular diagnostic assays of grain washes for Claviceps purpurea are correlated with visual determinations of ergot contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Alexia; Gräfenhan, Tom; Links, Matthew G.; Hemmingsen, Sean M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the epiphytic microbiome of cereal grain using the universal barcode chaperonin-60 (cpn60). Microbial community profiling of seed washes containing DNA extracts prepared from field-grown cereal grain detected sequences from a fungus identified only to Class Sordariomycetes. To identify the fungal sequence and to improve the reference database, we determined cpn60 sequences from field-collected and reference strains of the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea. These data allowed us to identify this fungal sequence as deriving from C. purpurea, and suggested that C. purpurea DNA is readily detectable on agricultural commodities, including those for which ergot was not identified as a grading factor. To get a sense of the prevalence and level of C. purpurea DNA in cereal grains, we developed a quantitative PCR assay based on the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and applied it to 137 samples from the 2014 crop year. The amount of Claviceps DNA quantified correlated strongly with the proportion of ergot sclerotia identified in each grain lot, although there was evidence that non-target organisms were responsible for some false positives with the ITS-based assay. We therefore developed a cpn60-targeted loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and applied it to the same grain wash samples. The time to positive displayed a significant, inverse correlation to ergot levels determined by visual ratings. These results indicate that both laboratory-based and field-adaptable molecular diagnostic assays can be used to detect and quantify pathogen load in bulk commodities using cereal grain washes. PMID:28257512

  7. Quantitative molecular diagnostic assays of grain washes for Claviceps purpurea are correlated with visual determinations of ergot contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Alexia; Gräfenhan, Tom; Links, Matthew G; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2017-01-01

    We examined the epiphytic microbiome of cereal grain using the universal barcode chaperonin-60 (cpn60). Microbial community profiling of seed washes containing DNA extracts prepared from field-grown cereal grain detected sequences from a fungus identified only to Class Sordariomycetes. To identify the fungal sequence and to improve the reference database, we determined cpn60 sequences from field-collected and reference strains of the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea. These data allowed us to identify this fungal sequence as deriving from C. purpurea, and suggested that C. purpurea DNA is readily detectable on agricultural commodities, including those for which ergot was not identified as a grading factor. To get a sense of the prevalence and level of C. purpurea DNA in cereal grains, we developed a quantitative PCR assay based on the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and applied it to 137 samples from the 2014 crop year. The amount of Claviceps DNA quantified correlated strongly with the proportion of ergot sclerotia identified in each grain lot, although there was evidence that non-target organisms were responsible for some false positives with the ITS-based assay. We therefore developed a cpn60-targeted loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and applied it to the same grain wash samples. The time to positive displayed a significant, inverse correlation to ergot levels determined by visual ratings. These results indicate that both laboratory-based and field-adaptable molecular diagnostic assays can be used to detect and quantify pathogen load in bulk commodities using cereal grain washes.

  8. Deuterium NMR used to indicate a common mechanism for the biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid by Ricinus communis and Claviceps purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billault, Isabelle; Mantle, Peter G; Robins, Richard J

    2004-03-17

    Previous studies have shown that ricinoleic acid from castor bean oil of Ricinus communis is synthesized by the direct hydroxyl substitution of oleate, while it has been proposed that ricinoleate is formed by hydration of linoleate in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. The mechanism of the enzymes specific to ricinoleate synthesis has not yet been established, but hydroxylation and desaturation of fatty acids in plants apparently involve closely related mechanisms. As mechanistic differences in the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of natural products can lead to different isotopic distributions in the product, we could expect ricinoleate isolated from castor or ergot oil to show distinct (2)H distribution patterns. To obtain information concerning the substrate and isotope effects that occur during the biosynthesis of ricinoleate, the site-specific natural deuterium distributions in methyl ricinoleate isolated from castor oil and in methyl ricinoleate and methyl linoleate isolated from ergot oils have been measured by quantitative (2)H NMR. First, the deuterium profiles for methyl ricinoleate from the plant and fungus are equivalent. Second, the deuterium profile for methyl linoleate from ergot is incompatible with this chemical species being the precursor of methyl ricinoleate. Hence, it is apparent that 12-hydroxylation in C. purpurea is consistent with the biosynthetic mechanisms proposed for R. communis and is compatible with the general fundamental mechanistic similarities between hydroxylation and desaturation previously proposed for plant fatty acid biosynthesis.

  9. Localization of ergot alkaloids in sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopstadt, Julian; Vens-Cappell, Simeon; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Cramer, Benedikt; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    The fungus Claviceps purpurea produces highly toxic ergot alkaloids and accumulates these in the hardened bodies of fungal mycelium. These so-called sclerotia, or ergot bodies, replace the crop seed of infected plants, which can include numerous important food- and feedstuff such as rye and wheat. While several studies have explored details of the infection process and development of ergot bodies, little information is available on the spatial distribution of the mycotoxins in the sclerotia. Here we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) at a lateral resolution of 35 μm to visualize the distribution of two representative alkaloids, ergocristine and ergometrine, produced by Ecc93 and Gal 310 variants of C. purpurea, respectively, after infection of rye. To improve cryosectioning of this fragile biological material tissue with complex texture, we developed a practical embedding protocol based on cellulose polymers. The MALDI-MS images recorded from the so produced intact tissues sections revealed that ergometrine exhibited a relatively homogeneous distribution throughout the ergot body, whereas ergocristine was found to be enriched in the proximal region. This finding can be correlated to the morphological development of sclerotia as ergot alkaloids are only produced in the sphacelial stage. The ability to localize toxins and other secondary metabolites in intact sections of crop-infecting fungi with high lateral resolution renders MALDI-MSI a powerful tool for investigating biosynthetic pathways and for obtaining a deeper understanding of the parasite-host interaction. Graphical abstract Workflow for identification and spatial localization of ergot alkaloids in infected rye grains.

  10. Síndrome distérmica (hipertermia em bovinos associada à intoxicação por Claviceps purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilha Marcia R. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se três surtos de síndrome distérmica (hipertermia associada à intoxicação por Claviceps purpurea, em bovinos de leite durante o verão de 1999-2000, em três estabelecimentos do Rio Grande do Sul. De um total de 66 bovinos que ingeriram a ração contaminada com o fungo, 37 (56% adoeceram até 3 meses após a introdução da ração contaminada. Os principais sinais clínicos foram temperatura retal elevada, pêlos compridos, longos e sem brilho, salivação intensa, respiração ofegante, com a boca aberta e, em alguns casos, com a língua para fora da cavidade oral. Os animais acometidos procuravam sombra ou permaneciam dentro d'água. Houve diminuição de 10 a 30% no consumo de alimentos e perda de peso. A redução na produção de leite foi de 30 a 50%. Os sinais clínicos se intensificavam durante o dia e eram diretamente proporcionais à elevação da temperatura ambiental. Os achados de necropsia em um bovino que foi eutanasiado, incluíram leve enfisema pulmonar, principalmente na região dorsal dos lobos pulmonares diafragmáticos. Histologicamente havia moderada hipertrofia da musculatura lisa dos bronquíolos e ruptura de septos alveolares formando cotos alveolares em clava. Nos três estabelecimentos onde ocorreram os surtos, escleródios de C. purpurea foram observados nas amostras de ração fornecida aos bovinos. Os animais afetados recuperaram-se após aproximadamente 60 dias da retirada da ração contaminada. O diagnóstico baseou-se em dados epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos, na presença de escleródios de C. purpurea na ração fornecida aos animais, nos achados de necropsia e na histopatologia. A patogenia e o quadro clínico-patológico observados são discutidos e comparados com outros relatos dessa enfermidade.

  11. Claviceps purpurea expressing polygalacturonases escaping PGIP inhibition fully infects PvPGIP2 wheat transgenic plants but its infection is delayed in wheat transgenic plants with increased level of pectin methyl esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Chiara; Raiola, Alessandro; Janni, Michela; Gordon, Anna; O'Sullivan, Donal M; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2013-12-01

    Claviceps purpurea is a biotrophic fungal pathogen of grasses causing the ergot disease. The infection process of C. purpurea on rye flowers is accompanied by pectin degradation and polygalacturonase (PG) activity represents a pathogenicity factor. Wheat is also infected by C. purpurea and we tested whether the presence of polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) can affect pathogen infection and ergot disease development. Wheat transgenic plants expressing the bean PvPGIP2 did not show a clear reduction of disease symptoms when infected with C. purpurea. To ascertain the possible cause underlying this lack of improved resistance of PvPGIP2 plants, we expressed both polygalacturonases present in the C. purpurea genome, cppg1 and cppg2 in Pichia pastoris. In vitro assays using the heterologous expressed PGs and PvPGIP2 showed that neither PG is inhibited by this inhibitor. To further investigate the role of PG in the C. purpurea/wheat system, we demonstrated that the activity of both PGs of C. purpurea is reduced on highly methyl esterified pectin. Finally, we showed that this reduction in PG activity is relevant in planta, by inoculating with C. purpurea transgenic wheat plants overexpressing a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor (PMEI) and showing a high degree of pectin methyl esterification. We observed reduced disease symptoms in the transgenic line compared with null controls. Together, these results highlight the importance of pectin degradation for ergot disease development in wheat and sustain the notion that inhibition of pectin degradation may represent a possible route to control of ergot in cereals.

  12. Comparison of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis gene clusters in Claviceps species indicates loss of late pathway steps in evolution of C. fusiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Nicole; Wilson, Ella V; Machado, Caroline; Schardl, Christopher L; Tudzynski, Paul

    2007-11-01

    The grass parasites Claviceps purpurea and Claviceps fusiformis produce ergot alkaloids (EA) in planta and in submerged culture. Whereas EA synthesis (EAS) in C. purpurea proceeds via clavine intermediates to lysergic acid and the complex ergopeptines, C. fusiformis produces only agroclavine and elymoclavine. In C. purpurea the EAS gene (EAS) cluster includes dmaW (encoding the first pathway step), cloA (elymoclavine oxidation to lysergic acid), and the lpsA/lpsB genes (ergopeptine formation). We analyzed the corresponding C. fusiformis EAS cluster to investigate the evolutionary basis for chemotypic differences between the Claviceps species. Other than three peptide synthetase genes (lpsC and the tandem paralogues lpsA1 and lpsA2), homologues of all C. purpurea EAS genes were identified in C. fusiformis, including homologues of lpsB and cloA, which in C. purpurea encode enzymes for steps after clavine synthesis. Rearrangement of the cluster was evident around lpsB, which is truncated in C. fusiformis. This and several frameshift mutations render CflpsB a pseudogene (CflpsB(Psi)). No obvious inactivating mutation was identified in CfcloA. All C. fusiformis EAS genes, including CflpsB(Psi) and CfcloA, were expressed in culture. Cross-complementation analyses demonstrated that CfcloA and CflpsB(Psi) were expressed in C. purpurea but did not encode functional enzymes. In contrast, CpcloA catalyzed lysergic acid biosynthesis in C. fusiformis, indicating that C. fusiformis terminates its EAS pathway at elymoclavine because the cloA gene product is inactive. We propose that the C. fusiformis EAS cluster evolved from a more complete cluster by loss of some lps genes and by rearrangements and mutations inactivating lpsB and cloA.

  13. Biology, genetics, and management of ergot (Claviceps spp.) in rye, sorghum, and pearl millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedaner, Thomas; Geiger, Hartwig H

    2015-02-25

    Ergot is a disease of cereals and grasses caused by fungi in the genus Claviceps. Of particular concern are Claviceps purpurea in temperate regions, C. africana in sorghum (worldwide), and C. fusiformis in pearl millet (Africa, Asia). The fungi infect young, usually unfertilized ovaries, replacing the seeds by dark mycelial masses known as sclerotia. The percentage of sclerotia in marketable grain is strictly regulated in many countries. In winter rye, ergot has been known in Europe since the early Middle Ages. The alkaloids produced by the fungus severely affect the health of humans and warm-blooded animals. In sorghum and pearl millet, ergot became a problem when growers adopted hybrid technology, which increased host susceptibility. Plant traits reducing ergot infection include immediate pollination of receptive stigmas, closed flowering (cleistogamy), and physiological resistance. Genetic, nonpollen-mediated variation in ergot susceptibility could be demonstrated in all three affected cereals. Fungicides have limited efficacy and application is weather dependent. Sorting out the sclerotia from the harvest by photocells is expensive and time consuming. In conclusion, molecular-based hybrid rye breeding could improve pollen fertility by introgressing effective restorer genes thus bringing down the ergot infection level to that of conventional population cultivars. A further reduction might be feasible in the future by selecting more resistant germplasm.

  14. Detection of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) in a dairy feed component by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, P G

    1996-11-01

    A dairy feed that contained barley malt screenings caused hyperthermia in dairy cattle. The feed was suspected of containing ergot and was subsequently analyzed to determine the ricinoleate component, a special and prominent feature of oil-rich ergot tissue. Triglyceride oil was extracted by organic solvents from the dairy feed, and the oil was saponified to release fatty acids. Ricinoleate, as a methyl ester, was selectively resolved from other fatty acids by silica gel chromatography and was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography coupled with chemical ionization mass spectrometry, which demonstrated the presence of the methyl ricinoleate molecule and proved that the feed contained ergot. The methodology may be refined to monitor for ergot in powdered dairy feed more routinely.

  15. Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... copies of whole animals Therapeutic cloning, which creates embryonic stem cells. Researchers hope to use these cells to grow healthy tissue to replace injured or diseased tissues in the human body. NIH: National Human Genome Research Institute

  16. Chemical constituents of Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalah, Ali K; Yousef, Afifi H; Esmail, Abeer M; Abdelrazik, Mohamed H; Hegazy, Mohamed E F; Mohamed, Abou-El-Hamd H

    2010-03-01

    In continuation of our chemical investigation on some medicinal plants of the genus Tephrosia, reinvestigation of the methylenechloride/methanol (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea yielded an aromatic ester 1, a sesquiterpene 2 and prenylated flavonoid 3. The structures of the compounds were established by comprehensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOE, HMQC, HMBC, EIMS and CIMS.

  17. Chemical constituents of Tephrosia purpurea

    OpenAIRE

    Khalafalah, Ali K.; Yousef, Afifi H.; Abeer M Esmail; Abdelrazik, Mohamed H.; Hegazy, Mohamed E. F.; Abou-El-Hamd H Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    In continuation of our chemical investigation on some medicinal plants of the genus Tephrosia, reinvestigation of the methylenechloride/methanol (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea yielded an aromatic ester 1, a sesquiterpene 2 and prenylated flavonoid 3. The structures of the compounds were established by comprehensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOE, HMQC, HMBC, EIMS and CIMS.

  18. [Study on Salt Tolerance of Echinacea purpurea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Jia, Xiao-dong; Liu, Yong-zhi; Xuan, Ji-ping; Guo, Zhong-ren; Qiao, Yu-shan

    2015-12-01

    To explore the salt tolerance of Echiancea purpurea and its mechanism. Echiancea purpurea was used as test material in this study and six salinity levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mmol/L NaCl) were set. Effects on seed germination and salt tolerance relevant physiological and biochemical indexes of Echiancea purpurea were studied. Salt stress suppressed the germination of Echiancea purpurea seeds, induced osmotic adjustment substances proline, soluble sugar and K+ to increase, and activities of POD and SOD to rise, and meanwhile resulted in accumulation of Na+ and decrease of K+/Na+. Echiancea purpurea can tolerant salt stress to a certain degree, but in case of high salt concentrations, severe salt injury would remarkably suppress the growth of Echinacea purpurea.

  19. Chemical constituents of Tephrosia purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K Khalafalah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of our chemical investigation on some medicinal plants of the genus Tephrosia, reinvestigation of the methylenechloride/methanol (1:1 extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea yielded an aromatic ester 1, a sesquiterpene 2 and prenylated flavonoid 3. The structures of the compounds were established by comprehensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOE, HMQC, HMBC, EIMS and CIMS.

  20. Natural association of two different betasatellites with Sweet potato leaf curl virus in wild morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna Geetanjali, A; Shilpi, S; Mandal, Bikash

    2013-08-01

    Wild morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) was observed to be affected by leaf curl and yellow vein diseases during summer-rainy season of 2009 in New Delhi, India. The virus was experimentally transmitted through whitefly, Bemisia tabaci to I. purpurea that reproduced the two distinct symptoms. Sequence analysis of multiple full-length clones obtained through rolling circle amplification from the leaf curl and yellow vein samples showed 91.8-95.3% sequence identity with Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and the isolates were phylogenetically distinct from those reported from Brazil, China, Japan and USA. Interestingly, two different betasatellites, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite and papaya leaf curl betasatellite were found with SPLCV in leaf curl and yellow vein diseases of I. purpurea, respectively. This study is the first report of occurrence of SPLCV in wild morning glory in India. SPLCV was known to infect other species of morning glory; our study revealed that I. purpurea, a new species of morning glory was a natural host of SPLCV. To date, betasatellite associated with SPLCV in Ipomoea spp. is not known. Our study provides evidence of natural association of two different betasatellites with SPLCV in leaf curl and yellow vein diseases of I. purpurea.

  1. Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palbag, Satadru; Dey, Bijay Kr; Singh, Narendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. is popularly known as 'Sarapunkha' in classical Ayurvedic texts. It is a perennial plant belonging to the family Fabaceae, and occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent. T. purpurea is traditionally used to treat splenomegaly, cirrhosis, cough and cold, abdominal swelling and as an antidote in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Phytochemical investigations indicate the presence of semiglabrin, pongamole, lanceolatins A and B, rutin, lupeol, and β-sitosterol. Flavonoids including (+)-tephrorin A and B, (+)-tephrosone, an isoflavone, 7, 4'-dihydroxy-3', 5'-dimethoxyisoflavone and a chalcone, (+)-tephropurpurin were isolated from the whole plant. Pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant reported include anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiallergic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antitumor and insect repellent activity. In the present review, the literature on the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. are summarized to August, 2012.

  2. Ardea purpurea madagascariensis, nov. subsp. from Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    The purple heron of Madagascar is a much darker bird than Ardea purpurea L. of Europe and Africa. The fore part of the throat and the neck are streaked with black like in this species, but the black streaks are broader and more numerous. The black lines, running down each side of the neck are much b

  3. Two New Secondary Metabolites from Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Ning; Peng, Yan; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Yan, Tao; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Qius, Samuel X; Cao, Wen-Hao; Deng, Ligao; Huang, Ri-Ming

    2015-06-01

    Further investigation of Tephrosia purpurea led to the isolation of a new prenylated flavone, isoglabratephrin B (1) and a new 1,2-ethanedione benzofuran derivative, purpdione B (2). The structures of the new isolates were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis.

  4. Rare prenylated flavonoids from Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F; Abd el-Razek, Mohamed H; Nagashima, Fumihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Paré, Paul W

    2009-01-01

    Chemical investigations of aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea yielded the rare prenylated flavonoids, tephropurpulin A (1) and isoglabratephrin (2), in addition to a previously identified flavonoid, glabratephrin (3). Structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, as well as by HR-MS analysis; for compounds 2 and 3, structures were confirmed by X-ray analysis.

  5. The effect of Echinacea purpurea on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goey, Andrew K L; Meijerman, Irma; Rosing, Hilde; Burgers, Jacobus A; Mergui-Roelvink, Marja; Keessen, Marianne; Marchetti, Serena; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

    2013-09-01

    The herbal medicine Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea) has been shown to induce cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) both in vitro and in humans. This study explored whether E. purpurea affects the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A4 substrate docetaxel in cancer patients. Ten evaluable cancer patients received docetaxel (135 mg, 60 min IV infusion) before intake of a commercially available E. purpurea extract (20 oral drops three times daily) and 3 weeks later after a 14 day supplementation period with E. purpurea. In both cycles, pharmacokinetic parameters of docetaxel were determined. Before and after supplementation with E. purpurea, the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve of docetaxel was 3278 ± 1086 and 3480 ± 1285 ng ml(-1) h, respectively. This result was statistically not significant. Nonsignificant alterations were also observed for the elimination half-life (from 30.8 ± 19.7 to 25.6 ± 5.9 h, P = 0.56) and maximum plasma concentration of docetaxel (from 2224 ± 609 to 2097 ± 925 ng ml(-1) , P = 0.30). The multiple treatment of E. purpurea did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in this study. The applied E. purpurea product at the recommended dose may be combined safely with docetaxel in cancer patients. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Isolation, culture, and plant regeneration from Echinacea purpurea protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zeng-guang; Liu, Chun-zhao; Murch, Susan I; Saxena, Praveen K

    2006-01-01

    A plant regeneration system from the isolated protoplasts of Echinacea purpurea L. using an alginate solid/liquid culture is described in the chapter. Viable protoplasts were isolated rom 100 mg of young leaves of 4-wk-old seedlings in an isolation mixture containing 1.0% cellulase Onozuka R-10, 0.5% pectinase, and 0.3 mol/L mannitol. After isolation and purification, the mesophyll protoplasts were embedded into 0.6% Na-alginate at the density 1 x 10(-5) mL and cultured in modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) culture medium supplemented with 0.3 mol/L sucrose, 2.5 micromol/L benzylaminopurine (BA), and 5.0 micromol/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The visible colonies were present after 4 wk of culture. The protoplast-derived clones were transferred onto gellan gum-solidified basal medium supplemented with 1.0 micromol/L BA and 2.0 micromol/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and formed compact and green calli. Shoot development was achieved by subculturing the calli onto the same basal medium supplemented with 5.0 micromol/L BA and 2.0 micromol/L IBA. Further subculture onto basal medium resulted in the regeneration of complete plantlets.

  7. Controle químico da "ERGOT" (Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle & de Milliano ou doença-açucarada e das principais doenças foliares do sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Chemical control of "ERGOT"(Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle & de Milliano or sugary disease and the main foliar diseases of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicésio Filadelfo Janssen de Almeida Pinto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico da "ergot" (Claviceps africana foi realizado em campo de produção de sementes do híbrido de sorgo granífero BR 304 (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench., utilizando-se os fungicidas (g i.a./ha: captan (1250,0, fenarimol (80,0, trifenil hidróxido de estanho (166,7, prochloraz (450,0, chlorothalonil (1500,0, iprodione (750,0, azoxystrobin (150,0, thiabendazole (360,0, procimidone (750,0, ziram (1500,0 e tebuconazole (200,0. Parcelas sem aplicação de fungicida constituíram a testemunha. As pulverizações foram realizadas com pulverizador costal manual, com o jato dirigido para as panículas. O intervalo das aplicações dos fungicidas foi de 4 dias, a partir da antese. Aos 7 dias após o término das pulverizações, a porcentagem de panículas doentes variou 5,4 para o fungicida tebuconazole e 100,0% para a maioria dos demais tratamentos. Para a porcentagem de flores doentes por panícula, os valores variaram de 0,3% a 65,0% para o fungicida tebuconazole e testemunha, respectivamente. Não ocorreu diferença significativa entre as porcentagens de flores doentes por panículas nos tratamentos tebuconazole (0,3%, chlorothalonil (2,5% e prochloraz (3,0%, sendo esses os mais eficientes no controle da ergot. Adicionalmente, o fungicida mais eficiente no controle da antracnose foliar (Colletotrichum graminicola foi o prochloraz, ao passo que para a ferrugem (Puccinia purpurea e a cercosporiose (Cercospora fusimaculans, o maior controle foi obtido com o fungicida tebuconazole. Não houve aumento da germinação das sementes em nenhum dos tratamentos; entretanto, o aumento do peso de mil sementes foi significativo para os tratamentos com os fungicidas prochloraz, chlorotalonil e tebuconazole.The efficiency of fungicides in the control of sugar disease of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. was evaluated in a seed production field of the sorghum hybrid BR 304. The following fungicides and doses (g a.i./ha were evaluated : captan (1250

  8. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Manayi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially the alleviation of cold symptoms. The plant also attracted scientists′ attention to assess other aspects of its beneficial effects. For instance, antianxiety, antidepression, cytotoxicity, and antimutagenicity as induced by the plant have been revealed in various studies. The findings of the clinical trials are controversial in terms of side effects. While some studies revealed the beneficial effects of the plant on the patients and no severe adverse effects, some others have reported serious side effects including abdominal pain, angioedema, dyspnea, nausea, pruritus, rash, erythema, and urticaria. Other biological activities of the plant such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and larvicidal activities have been reported in previous experimental studies. Different classes of secondary metabolites of the plant such as alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins are believed to be biologically and pharmacologically active. Actually, concurrent determination and single analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides have been successfully developed mainly by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with different detectors including UV spectrophotometric, coulometric electrochemical, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detectors. The results of the studies which were controversial revealed that in spite of major experiments successfully accomplished using E. purpurea, many questions remain unanswered and future investigations may aim for complete recognition of the plant′s mechanism of action using new, complementary methods.

  9. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manayi, Azadeh; Vazirian, Mahdi; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially the alleviation of cold symptoms. The plant also attracted scientists' attention to assess other aspects of its beneficial effects. For instance, antianxiety, antidepression, cytotoxicity, and antimutagenicity as induced by the plant have been revealed in various studies. The findings of the clinical trials are controversial in terms of side effects. While some studies revealed the beneficial effects of the plant on the patients and no severe adverse effects, some others have reported serious side effects including abdominal pain, angioedema, dyspnea, nausea, pruritus, rash, erythema, and urticaria. Other biological activities of the plant such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and larvicidal activities have been reported in previous experimental studies. Different classes of secondary metabolites of the plant such as alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins are believed to be biologically and pharmacologically active. Actually, concurrent determination and single analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides have been successfully developed mainly by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with different detectors including UV spectrophotometric, coulometric electrochemical, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detectors. The results of the studies which were controversial revealed that in spite of major experiments successfully accomplished using E. purpurea, many questions remain unanswered and future investigations may aim for complete recognition of the plant's mechanism of action using new, complementary methods.

  10. New bromotyrosine alkaloids from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Rodrigues, C; Naik, C; Parameswaran, P.S.; Wahidullah, S.

    Seven new bromotyrosine alkaloids Purpurealidin A, B, C, D, F, G, H and the known compounds Purealidin Q, Purpurealidin E, 16-Debromoaplysamine-4 and Purpuramine I have been isolated from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea. Their structure...

  11. FEATURES OF PONDS ECOSYSTEM WHEN ECHINACEA PURPUREA (ECHINACEA PURPUREA L. MOENCH WERE USING IN CARP FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dobrjanska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.

  12. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-09-01

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG-trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG-trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea.

  13. Skin improvement and stability of Echinacea purpurea dermatological formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsawimonwat, S; Rattanadechsakul, J; Rattanadechsakul, P; Okonogi, S

    2010-10-01

    Echinacea purpurea contains many beneficial constituents for protection of skin from oxidative stress and for improving hydration of skin. This study aimed to investigate the stability and dermatological efficacy of E. purpurea cream and gel. Echinacea purpurea extract was incorporated into suitable cream and gel bases. Stability of the extract in the formulations was investigated by determining its residual total phenolic content and antioxidant activity after storage at 4°C, 30°C and 40°C for 6 months. The effect of those formulations on skin irritation, hydration level and wrinkle reduction was evaluated in 10 healthy volunteers, aged 25-40 years. The shelf lives of E. purpurea cream and gel in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were only 2 and 4 months respectively at 4°C and could be extended up to 7 months by incorporation of α-tocopherol or disodium editate. The corneometer hydration indices increased up to 10.6 AU and 11.4 AU, and the wrinkles decreased 9.47% and 14.92% because of the application of E. purpurea cream and gel for 1 month. Both formulations showed no irritation to skin. Echinacea purpurea cream and gel developed in this study were effective in improving skin hydration and reducing wrinkle, but showed low storage stability.

  14. Cytotoxic compounds from endemic Arnebia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzbasioglu, Merve; Kuruuzum-Uz, Ayse; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Simon, András; Tóth, Gabór; Harput, U Sebnem; Kazaz, Cavit; Bilgili, Bilgehan; Duman, Hayri; Saracoglu, Iclal; Demirezer, L Omur

    2015-04-01

    Phytochemical studies of the roots and aerial parts of endemic Arnebia purpurea S. Erik & H. Sumbul resulted in the isolation and characterization of four naphthoquinones [isovalerylalkannin (1), α-methyl-n-butanoyl alkannin (2), acetylalkannin (3), and alkannin (4)], a triterpene derivative [3-O-acetyl-oleanolic acid (5)], a steroid [β-sitosterol (6)], three flavonoid glycosides [isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (7), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-(5"-acetyl) apiofuranoside 7-O-rhamnopyranoside (9)] and a phenolic acid [rosmarinic acid (10)]. 3-O-Acetyl-oleanolic acid, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-mrutinoside, and kaempferol 3-O-(5"-acetyl) apiofuranoside 7-O-rhamnopyranoside are reported from an Arnebia species for the first time. Cytotoxic activities on L929 murine fibrosarcoma cell line of the isolated compounds were investigated using MTT assay. Naphthoquinones (1-4) showed intermediate cytotoxic activity in comparison with the standard, doxorubicin.

  15. Efeito de fungicidas na germinação in vitro de conídios de Claviceps africana Fungicides effect on conidia germination of Claviceps africana in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Regina Nogueira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do sorgo não enfrentava problemas sérios de doenças nas condições de cultivo no Brasil, até o ano de 1995, quando se registrou a ocorrência da doença-açucarada, causada por Claviceps africana, que afeta as panículas e reduz a quantidade e a qualidade dos grãos; os conídios constituem a principal fonte de inóculo fúngico. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito dos fungicidas tebuconazole, propiconazole, triadimenol, triadimefon, flutriafol e mancozeb na inibição in vitro da germinação dos conídios. Os fungicidas mancozeb, triadimenol e propiconazole foram os mais eficientes na inibição da germinação dos conídios.The sorghum crop did not face serious problems with diseases in Brazil, until occurrence of sugary disease (sorghum ergot, caused by Claviceps africana, was recorded in 1995 in Brazilian sorghum fields. The pathogen infects panicles reducing the quantity and quality of the produced grains. Conidia are the main fungus inoculum. This work aimed to study the potential of fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, triadimenol, triadimefon, flutriafol and mancozeb in inhibiting conidia germination in vitro. The fungicides mancozeb, triadimenol and propiconazole were the most effective to inhibit the in vitro germination.

  16. Diversidad genetica de aislamientos de cornezuelo (Claviceps africana fredrickson, mantle, y de milliano) de sorgo [Sorghum bicolor (l.) moench.] en Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted in Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, and Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico, in which pathogenicity of two isolates of ergot (Claviceps africana) obtained from the same two locations, were evaluated on six hybrids and three male sterile sorghum lines. Also, a genetic variance indicated signif...

  17. UPAYA PENGAKARAN Echinacea purpurea L DENGAN AUKSIN SECARA KULTUR JARINGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, to meet the needs of botanicals medicinal plants the cultivation directed, require good quality and uniform seeds on form and time.    Tissue culture research to from root of Echinacea purpurea L by the provision of IBA and NAA will be conducted.This recearched aimed to develop an and cultivate qualified Echinacea purpurea L as the raw material for drug foemulation. Tissue culture techniques has  more advantage because it is not affected by the climate, relatively fast production, free contamination of microbial and do not require large tracts of land. The research was carried out considering the need to be developed and cultivated plant Echinacea purpurea L qualified as raw material for the drug tissue culture techniques has advantages because it is not affected by the climate with relatively fast production time, free of microbial contamination and do not require large tracts of land. Shoots multipication done on MS medium using growth regulators GA3with concentration of 3 mg / l. Research foor rof induction on Echinacea purpurea L shoot made by adding growth regulators of IBA and NAA with concentrations with 0, 2, 4 and 6 mg / l respectively. The 2 months incubation periods produced tehe best root induction on the additon of IBA 4 mg / l. It producted 16 roots with a length of 4 cm and relatively lagre in size.Keywords: Echinacea purpurea L., tissue culture, IBA, NAA, plant growth regulators

  18. Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity ofTephrosia purpurea in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenoy Smita; Shwetha K; Prabhu K; Maradi R; Bairy KL; Shanbhag T

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of orally administered ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea in acute and subacute inflammation in rats.Methods: An ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea was prepared. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma were the models for acute and subacute inflammation respectively. Four groups of rats in each model were treated orally with 2% gum acacia, 100 mg /kg of aspirin, 500 mg/kg and 1 000 mg/kg of ethanolic extract ofTephrosia purpurea respectively. In carrageenan induced paw edema model, subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan was made into the hind paw of the rats sixty minutes after the administration of the respective drugs. The paw volume was measured immediately after injection of carrageenan, at 3 hours and at 6 hours. Then percentage inhibition of edema was calculated. In the cotton pellet granuloma model, animals were administered drugs for six days after placing cotton pellets in the axilla on each side. On the 7th day, dry weight of granuloma was calculated.Results:The rats treated withTephrosia purpurea did not exhibit any significant decrease in paw volume and serum ceruloplasmin levels as compared to the control and aspirin treated groups in the acute inflammation model; while, there was a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the weight of granuloma inTephrosia purpurea and aspirin treated groups as compared to control in subacute inflammation.Conclusions:The ethanolic extract of orally administered Tephrosia purpurea shows significant antiinflammatory effect in subacute inflammation but not in acute inflammation in rats.

  19. Investigation of phenolic constituents in Echinacea purpurea grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Chen; Zeng, Jian-Guo; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shou-Zhou

    2007-12-01

    Echinacea is a North American native medicinal herb. In 1990 s, it was introduced in China. Nowadays, Echinacea is growing successfully in a number of places in China, and has been used as a crude drug. However, the phytochemical variation in the plant grown in China has not been studied. In this study, the contents of total phenolics and caffeic acid derivatives in aerial parts and roots of Echinacea purpurea grown in China were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and colorimetric analysis. The effects of different drying methods on the components were also studied. The results show that the content of caffeic acid derivatives in E. purpurea reached its highest in the middle stage of full blossoming. The content of caffeic acid derivatives in fresh raw material was generally higher than that in dried raw material. There was no significant difference in the content of caffeic acid derivatives among three geographical populations of E. purpurea. Furthermore, the developmental pattern of total phenolics in E. purpurea was the same as that of caffeic acid derivatives. The stage of mid-bloom is an optimal harvesting period for both caffeic acid derivatives and total phenolics. In addition, the results show that the fresh raw material is the optimal material for pharmaceutical purposes, and that the optimal pharmaceutical parts are the roots, leaves and flowers.

  20. Echinacea purpurea extracts modulate murine dendritic cell fate and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jenna M; Pokorny, Amanda J; Rhule, Ava; Wenner, Cynthia A; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Shepherd, David M

    2010-05-01

    Echinacea is a top-selling herbal remedy that purportedly acts as an immunostimulant. However, the specific immunomodulatory effects of Echinacea remain to be elucidated. We focused on defining the effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts in dendritic cells (DCs), which generate innate and adaptive immune responses. We hypothesized that E. purpurea extracts would enhance murine bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) activation leading to increased immune responses. The fate and function of DCs from C57Bl/6 mice was evaluated following 48h exposure to E. purpurea root and leaf extracts. Flow cytometry revealed that the polysaccharide-rich root extract increased the expression of MHC class II, CD86, and CD54 surface biomarkers whereas the alkylamide-rich leaf extract inhibited expression of these molecules. Production of IL-6 and TNF-alpha increased in a concentration-dependent manner with exposure to the root, but not leaf, extract. In contrast, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2. While both extracts decreased the uptake of ovalbumin by BMDCs, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the antigen-specific activation of naïve CD4(+) T cells from OT II/Thy1.1 mice. Collectively, these results suggest that E. purpurea can be immunostimulatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-inflammatory depending on the portion of the plant and extraction method. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Why Clone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How might cloning be used in medicine? Cloning animal models of disease Much of what researchers learn ... issue of the genetic reshuffling that happensduring sexual reproduction and simply clone our drug-producing cow. Cloning ...

  2. The structures of the honeydew oligosaccharides synthesized by Claviceps africana Análise estrutural dos oligossacarídeos presentes no exsudato da doença açucarada do sorgo, sintetizados por Claviceps africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Bogo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the principal oligosaccharides in the honeydew exudate of the sorghum ergot pathogen Claviceps africana, which has become epidemic in the Americas, have been characterized through linkage analysis using FAB-MS and GC-MS techniques, as 1,6-di-b-D-fructofuranosyl-D-mannitol and 1,5-di-b-D-fructofuranosyl-D-arabitol trisaccharides, 1-b-D-fructofuranosyl-D-mannitol and 5-b-D-fructofuranosyl-D-arabitol disaccharides and other minor disaccharides and trisaccharides. Their structural diversity is explained according to perceived biosynthetic interrelationships in pathways that appear to be unique amongst ergot fungi, particularly concerning intra-molecular reduction of fructose. The oligosaccharide, 1,6-di-b-D-fructofuranosyl-D-mannitol, which inhibits C. africana macrospore germination at a concentration in water of 1 g/mL or more, forms together with other slightly less bioactive oligosaccharides, the basis of a novel strategy to limit ergot disease losses in hybrid sorghum seed production.As estruturas dos principais oligossacarídeos presentes no exsudato da doença açucarada do sorgo, produzidos pelo patógeno Claviceps africana, foram caracterizadas através de espectroscopia de bombardeamento rápido de átomos-espectrometria de massa (FAB-MS e cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massa (GC-MS. Dois grupos de oligossacarídeos foram elucidados, sendo o principal formado pelos trissacarídeos 1,6-di-b-D-frutofuranosil-D-manitol e 1,5-di-b-D-frutofuranosil-D-arabitol e os dissacarídeos 1-b-D-frutofuranosil-D-manitol e 5-b-D-frutofuranosil-D-arabitol e outros grupos menos importantes de dissacarídeos e trissacarídeos. As diversidades estruturais foram elucidadas de acordo com a inter-relação biossintética de sua rota metabólica, a qual parece ser exclusiva entre os fungos produtores da doença "ergot", particularmente com relação a redução intramolecular da frutose. O oligossacarídeo 1,6-di

  3. Anti hyperlipidemic activity of Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts in poloxomer 407 induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankti P. Dalwadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim & Objective: Screening Of Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Tephrosia purpurea Plant Extracts.   Material & Method: Screening of antihyperlipidemic was done by using Tephrosia purpurea Leaves, Stem and Whole plant (except Leaves extracts. Part extracts used for antihyperlipidemic activity were stem (500 mg/kg, leaves (400mg/kg and whole plant extracts except leaves at the dose of (300mg/kg, 600mg/kg.Hyperlipidemia was administered in experimental animals using Poloxomer 407 by intraperitoneal administration at the dose of 1g/kg. Blood was withdrawn through retro orbital puncture at 15& 24 hrs intervals. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts were evaluated by estimation of lipid profiles.Results: Estimation of lipid profile shows that Tephrosia purpurea stem extract (500mg/kg, Tephrosia purpurea leaves extract (400mg/kg, Tephrosia purpurea whole plant extract (300mg/kg shows the less significant antihyperlipidemic activity. While Tephrosia purpurea whole plant extract at the dose of 600mg/kg shows potent antihyperlipidemic activity. It decreases TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and increases HDL levels. Tephrosia purpurea whole plant extract 600 mg/kg shows significant antihyperlipidemic activity as standard drug Atorvastatin.Conclusion: Hydro methanolic extracts of Tephrosia purpurea whole plant inhibits cholesterol and triglycerides synthesis. Increasing in stimulation of lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase  is responsible for plasma triglycerides hydrolysis. The elevation of serum cholesterol levels following i.p. injection of Poloxomer 407 solution to rats was due to stimulation of 3-hydroxy-3-rmethylglutaryl-Co-enzyme A (HMG-Co A reductase activity in the liver by the Poloxomer. Hydro methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea Showed lowering of TG levels by increasing the lipoprotein lipase activities. The cholesterol lowering effect of Tephrosia purpurea extract were observed in rats treated with the Poloxomer 407 by the

  4. Biological effects of Echinacea purpurea on human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksić, Gordana; Petrović, Sandra; Joksić, Ivana; Leskovac, Andreja

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate radioprotective properties of Echinacea purpurea tablets in vivo. We analysed lymphocyte chromosome aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN), apoptosis of leukocytes and haematological parameters in a group of radiation workers who were identified as carrying dicentric chromosomes in their lymphocytes. All radiation workers were taking two 275 mg Echinacea tablets b.i.d., according to a pharmacist's recommendation. All parameters were analysed before and after the two-week treatment. At the end of the treatment lymphocyte CA frequency dropped significantly, and the number of apoptotic cells increased. The inverse lymphocyte-to-granulocyte ratio at the beginning of the study changed to normal at its end. In conclusion, biological effects observed after administration of Echinacea purpurea preparation suggest that it may be beneficial for the prevention of adverse health effects in workers exposed to ionising radiation.

  5. Antioxidant activity of fraction of Tephrosia purpurea linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (Family: Leguminosae was found to significantly inhibit the carbon tetrachloride-induced lipid peroxidation in vivo and superoxide generation in vivo . The ethyl acetate fraction of the same extract was studied for free radical scavenging and antilipid peroxidation activity. The IC50 values in both of these in vitro assays were found to be significantly reduced for ethyl acetate fraction compared with the ethanolic extract of the plant. The observation was further supported by comparing the in vivo antioxidant activity for both the ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction. The study concluded that the ethanolic extract of T. purpurea exhibits antioxidant activity in vivo and the ethyl acetate soluble fraction has improved antioxidant potential than the extract.

  6. Wound healing potential of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Santram; Pawar, Rajesh Singh; Jain, Alok Pal; Singhai, A K

    2006-11-24

    Tephrosia purpurea is a well-known herb for its hepatoprotective, anticancer, antiulcer, antibacterial and in healing bleeding piles, etc. The present study was aimed for wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (aerial part) in the form of simple ointment using three types of wound models in rats as incision wound, excision wound and dead space wound. The results were comparable to standard drug Fluticasone propionate ointment, in terms of wound contraction, tensile strength, histopathological and biochemical parameters such as hydroxyproline content, protein level, etc. Histopathological study showed significant (P<0.05) increase in fibroblast cells, collagen fibres and blood vessels formation. All parameters were observed significant (P<0.05) in comparison to control group.

  7. [Production systems of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae) in Central West Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Hernández, Blanca C; Barrios Eulogio, Pimienta; Castellanos Ramos, Javier Z; Muñoz Urias, Alejandro; Palomino Hasbach, Guadalupe; Pimienta Barrios, Enrique

    2008-06-01

    Morphological, physical and chemical traits related with fruit quality characteristics of Spondias purpurea L. agroecosystems were studied in Central-West Mexico for wild and cultivated populations. Spondias purpurea regularly thrive in shallow, rocky infertile soils unsuitable for conventional crops. The weight, axial and radial length, pH, total soluble solids (SST), reducing sugars, proteins and mineral content in fruits were recorded. The mean fresh fruit weight was superior in the cultivated varieties (20 g) than in the wild (16 g). Similarly the highest values of pH, SST, reducing sugars and protein content (3.3, 12.15 degrees Brix, 0.38 g/100 g and 1.18 g/100 g, respectively) were observed in the cultivated plantations compared with wild populations (3.0, 8.31 degrees Brix, 0.24 g/100 g and 0.14 g/100 g, respectively). In cultivated plantations, productivity ranged from 0.15 ton ha(-1) to 5.0 ton ha(-1), and must be considered satisfactory, considering the low inputs of fertilizers and pesticides applied to orchards. The fruits of S. purpurea are similar in nutrimental content to more important commercial fruit species; it produces fresh fruits during the dry months of spring, when few fresh fruits are available in the local markets. In addition, S. purpurea is a source of water and food for domestic animals and wild fauna. These traits emphasize their agronomical and ecological importance for tropical and subtropical environments, where it can also be used in reforestation programs because it can grow in infertile rocky soils, and in agroecosystems inhabited by low income farmers that practice subsistence agriculture. In fact, the cultivation of Spondias has helped convert marginal lands into productive lands.

  8. Antihepatotoxic activity of eclipta alba, tephrosia purpurea and boerhaavia diffusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, V N; Reddy, B P; Venkateshwarlu, V; Kokate, C K

    1992-01-01

    Alcoholic and chloroform extracts of E. albaT. purpurea and B. diffusa were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. The extracts were given after the liver was damaged with CCl4. Liver function was assessed based on liver to boy weight ratio, pentobarbitone sleep time, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and bilirubin. Alcoholic extract of E. alba was found to have good antihepatotoxic activity.

  9. Absolute configuration of novel bioactive flavonoids from Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L C; Chávez, D; Song, L L; Farnsworth, N R; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    2000-02-24

    [structure: see text] Three novel flavonoids, (+)-tephrorins A (1) and B (2) and (+)-tephrosone (3), were isolated from Tephrosia purpurea. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectral analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by Mosher ester methodology. Compounds 1 and 2 are flavanones containing an unusual tetrahydrofuran moiety. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their potential cancer chemopreventive properties using a cell-based quinone reductase induction assay.

  10. Phytotherapeutic effects of Echinacea purpurea in gamma-irradiated mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelella, Amira M. K.; Tawfik, Sameh S.; Zahran, Ahmed M.

    2007-01-01

    Echinacea (E.) purpurea herb is commonly known as the purple coneflower, red sunflower and rudbeckia. In this paper, we report the curative efficacy of an Echinacea extract in γ-irradiated mice. E. purpurea was given to male mice that were divided into five groups (control, treated, irradiated, treated before irradiation & treated after irradiation) at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight for 2 weeks before and after irradiation with 3 Gy of γ-rays. The results reflected the detrimental reduction effects of γ-rays on peripheral blood hemoglobin and the levels of red blood cells, differential white blood cells, and bone marrow cells. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) level, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSPx) activities and DNA fragmentation were also investigated. FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to explore the structural changes in liver tissues. Significant changes were observed in the microenvironment of the major constituents, including tyrosine and protein secondary structures. E. purpurea administration significantly ameliorated all estimated parameters. The radio-protection effectiveness was similar to the radio-recovery curativeness in comparison to the control group in most of the tested parameters. The radio-protection efficiency was greater than the radio-recovery in hemoglobin level during the first two weeks, in lymphoid cell count and TBARs level at the fourth week and in SOD activity during the first two weeks, as compared to the levels of these parameters in the control group. PMID:17993747

  11. Chicoric Acid Levels in Commercial Basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, we reported fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves contain chicoric acid, which is the principal phenolic compound in Echinacea purpurea and purportedly an active ingredient in dietary supplements derived from E. purpurea. Here we present the results from a study evaluating chicoric acid co...

  12. Age of planted Echinacea purpurea: The factor of seed yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Results for yield and quality of echinacea purpurea seed obtained from age of plants one, two, three, four and five year are presented. In the laboratory experiments germination energy (GE, total germination (TG and weight seed was examined. The highest yield of seed was achieved in three-year echinacea purpurea plants, and the lowest yield was achieved in one-year plants. Age of planted established influence significant on total germination. This parametar the highest of seed in three-year plants and the lowest of seed in five-year echinacea purpurea plants. The highest of germination energy of seed established for the seed deriving from three-year echinacea purpurea planted, and the lowest in one-year plants. The absolute mass of seeds the highest in one-year plants, and the lowest for the seed deriving from five-year echinacea purpurea planted. .

  13. Metabolic pathway of oligosaccharides in sorghum honeydew caused by Claviceps africana Rota metabólica de oligossacarídeos em exsudato da "doença açucarada" do sorgo causado por Claviceps africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Bogo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the alditol oligosaccharides in the Claviceps afriana honeydew is partly as a rational expression of the pathogen's selective nutritive metabolism of the sucrose supplied by the host plant. The experiments were carried out in laboratory and when 14C-D-sucrose, 14C-D-fructose or 14C-D-mannitol radiolabelled saccharides were incorporated into: a sorghum plant infected by C. africana, b whole and macereted micelia tissue and c cell-free honeydew of C. africana, it was observed that the glucose moiety of sucrose was not involved in oligosaccharides formation. Glucose was used by the pathogen as nutritional source. Part of the unused fructose moiety was reduced to mannitol by the pathogen's enzymes which was also excreted into honeydew where reductase activity accepted 14C mannitol. The mannitol was linked with fructose in a 2-position synthesizing the disaccharide 1-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-D-mannitol and then the process was repeated by the mannitol moiety of the disaccharide to yield the trisaccharide 1,6-di-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-D-mannitol, which became dominant. The direct formation of alditol saccharides from monosaccharides in this way seems to be unique to C. africana, contrasting with the fructosyl transfer from sucrose to sucrose which is usual in others ergot parasites.A ocorrência de oligossacarídeos contendo alditol em exsudações da doença açucarada produzidos por Claviceps africana é em parte uma expressão racional do metabolismo seletivo de nutrição do patógeno na tansformação da sacarose fornecida pela planta. Quando açúcares radioativos marcados com 14C (D-sucrose, D-fructose e D-mannitol foram incorporados em: a planta do sorgo infectada por C. africana, b tecido micelial inteiro e macerado isolado de C. africana e c exsudato livre de células de C. africana, foi observado que a glicose da sacarose não estava envolvida na formação de oligossacarídeos, sendo usada pelo patógeno como fonte

  14. What is Cloning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donate Home Cloning What is Cloning What is Cloning Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. ... clones made through modern cloning technologies. How Is Cloning Done? Many people first heard of cloning when ...

  15. Echinacea purpurea aerial extract alters course of influenza infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Dahlene; Liu, Xinyan; Savage, Caroline; Taur, Ying; Xiao, Weilie; Kennelly, Edward; Yuan, Jianda; Cassileth, Barrie; Salvatore, Mirella; Papanicolaou, Genovefa A

    2010-05-21

    Influenza infection is a major clinical problem and Echinacea purpurea, a widely consumed botanical product, is purported to alter the course of respiratory infections including influenza. Mice infected with WSN influenza A and treated with E. purpurea polysaccharide extract had less weight loss than untreated mice but similar pulmonary viral titers. Echinacea-treated mice had lower systemic and pulmonary KC and IL-10 levels and lower systemic IFN-gamma levels following influenza infection. These suggest that E. purpurea alters the clinical course of influenza infection in mice through modulation of cytokines and not direct antiviral activity. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Influence of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. on mast cells and erythrocytes membrane integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, A B; Dikshit, V J; Damre, A S; Kulkarni, K R; Saraf, M N

    2000-08-01

    The ethanolic extract of T. purpurea Linn. was studied for its in vitro effect on rat mast cell degranulation and erythrocyte membrane integrity in vitro. The extract in concentration of 25-200 microg/ml showed a dose-dependant inhibition of rat mast cell degranulation induded by compound 48/80 and egg albumin. T. purpurea extract was found to inhibit haemolysis of erythrocytes induced by hypotonic solution but accelerated haemolysis induced by heat at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. The studies reveal that the ethanolic extract of T. purpurea may inhibit degranulation of mast cells by a mechanism other than membrane stabilization.

  17. In vitro and in vivo studies of the immunomodulatory effect of Echinacea purpurea on dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. El-Ashmawy

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the immunomodulatory mechanisms of E. purpurea impact generation fate of DCs rather than differentiation stages. The results obtained in the in vivo study utilizing murine splenic DCs supported those observed in vitro.

  18. Observations on tephrosia purpurea (L.) pers. Growing in and around gauhat (assam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnick, C R; Majumdar, R

    1982-07-01

    Observations on Tephrosia purpurea (L.) pers. Which is known as Sarapunkha in Ayurveda, growing in and around Gauhati (Assam) has been systematically discussed in this paper. The Ethno-botanical records of the plant are also described here.

  19. OBSERVATIONS ON TEPHROSIA PURPUREA (L.) PERS. GROWING IN AND AROUND GAUHAT (ASSAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Karnick, C.R.; Majumdar, R

    1982-01-01

    Observations on Tephrosia purpurea (L.) pers. Which is known as Sarapunkha in Ayurveda, growing in and around Gauhati (Assam) has been systematically discussed in this paper. The Ethno-botanical records of the plant are also described here.

  20. Research on the biology of Echinacea pallida Nutt. and Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available In the second year of vegetation, after emergence, Echinacea pallida Nutt. and Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench, form a leaf rosette and the first floral shoots appear in June. Plant vigour is significantly higher in Echinacea purpurea than in E. pallida, saved for roots. E. pallida is tetraploid, 2n=4x=44 chromosomes, of small size, between 5,87 and 3,04 microns, relatively easy to individualize by their shape and size.

  1. Activation of PPARgamma by Metabolites from the Flowers of Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kathrine B; Petersen, Rasmus K; Petersen, Sidsel;

    2009-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones are insulin sensitizing drugs that target the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma. An n-hexane extract of the flowers of Echinacea purpurea was found to activate PPARgamma without stimulating adipocyte differentiation. Bioassay-guided fractionations yielded...... differentiation. Compound 5 was further shown to increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The data suggest that flowers of E. purpurea contain compounds with potential to manage insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes....

  2. ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA LINN IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Tanvir Shaikh; Tabrej Mujawar; Rashid Akthar; Sufiyan Ahmad; Mohib Khan

    2011-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (family Fabaceae) is considered in system of folklore medicine in the treatment of diabetes. The present experimental investigation established the lipid lowering properties of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. on experimentally Dexamethasone induced rats. The lipid parameters studied are Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLD...

  3. Anti hyperlipidemic activity of Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts in poloxomer 407 induced hyperlipidemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pankti P. Dalwadi; Pragnesh Patani

    2014-01-01

    Aim & Objective: Screening Of Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Tephrosia purpurea Plant Extracts.   Material & Method: Screening of antihyperlipidemic was done by using Tephrosia purpurea Leaves, Stem and Whole plant (except Leaves) extracts. Part extracts used for antihyperlipidemic activity were stem (500 mg/kg), leaves (400mg/kg) and whole plant extracts except leaves at the dose of (300mg/kg, 600mg/kg).Hyperlipidemia was administered in experimental animals using Poloxomer 407 by in...

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea against arsenic induced toxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ravuri Halley Gora; Sushma Lalita Baxla; Priscilla Kerketta; Subhasree Patnaik; Birendra Kumar Roy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea (TP) against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) induced sub-acute toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four wistar albino rats of either sex were randomly divided into three groups. Group II and III were orally administered with sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) daily in drinking water for 28 days. Additionally Group III was orally treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TP) ...

  5. Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea extract in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of 50% ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea in rodents. Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extract of T. purpurea was administrated in single doses of 50, 300 and 2000 mg/ kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In subacute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administered two doses of T. purpurea i.e., 200 and 400 mg/kg (One-tenth and one-fifth of the maximum tolerated dose, p.o. for 4 weeks. During 28 days of treatment, rats were observed weekly for any change in their body weight, food and water intake. At the end of 28 days, rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology study. Results: In the acute toxicity study, T. purpurea was found to be well tolerated upto 2 000 mg/kg, produced neither mortality nor changes in behavior in mice. In subacute toxicity study, T. purpurea at dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg did not produce any significant difference in their body weight, food and water intake when compared to vehicle treated rats. It also showed no significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental groups of rats apart from a decrease in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate content at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Histopathological study revealed normal architecture of kidney and liver of T. purpurea treated rats. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of T. purpurea and further corroborated the traditional use of this extract as an anti hepatocarcinogenic agent

  6. Chemical constituents of essential oils of Tephrosia purpurea and Ipomoea carnea and their repellent activity against Odoiporus longicollis

    OpenAIRE

    Sahayaraj Kitherian; Kombiah Poolpandi; Dikshit Anand K.; Rathi Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical constituents of essential oils (EOs) obtained from stem and root of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. and Ipomoea carnea Jacq. were investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Total lipid and oil content was high in the stem than the root of T. purpurea and I. carnea. Essential oils extracted from the stem and root of T. purpurea and I. carnea showed 9 and 8 compounds respectively. Hexadecanoic acid was found to be the principal co...

  7. Quantum cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Scarani, Valerio; Iblisdir, Sofyan; Gisin, Nicolas; Acin, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The impossibility of perfectly copying (or cloning) an arbitrary quantum state is one of the basic rules governing the physics of quantum systems. The processes that perform the optimal approximate cloning have been found in many cases. These "quantum cloning machines" are important tools for studying a wide variety of tasks, e.g. state estimation and eavesdropping on quantum cryptography. This paper provides a comprehensive review of quantum cloning machines (both for discrete-dimensional an...

  8. Effect of high pressure pasteurization on bacterial load and bioactivity of Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Min; Hu, Chun; Raghubeer, Errol; Kitts, David D

    2010-09-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology was applied to organic Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea) roots and flowers to determine the feasibility of using this technology for cold herb pasteurization, to produce microbiologically safe and shelf-stable products for the natural health products (NHPs) industry. HHP significantly (P purpurea methanol-derived extracts, evaluated in both chemical (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) [ABTS] and oxygen radical absorption capacity [ORAC] assay) and in cell culture models (RAW264, 7 macrophage, H(2)O(2)-induced intracellular oxidation, and lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-induced nitric oxide production), was not adversely affected by the application of HHP at both 2 and 5 min at 600 mPa. Furthermore, HHP did not affect the capacity of E. purpurea extracts to suppress nitric oxide production in LPS-activated macrophage cells. Therefore, our results show that HHP is an effective pasteurization process treatment to reduce microbial-contamination load while not adversely altering chemical and bioactive function of active constituents present in organic E. purpurea. Our study reports for the first time, the effectiveness of using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology pressure to pasteurize E. purpurea root and flower, and the comparative retention of bioactive phytochemicals. Therefore, this technique can be used in food and natural health product industries to produce high-quality, microbiologically safe, and shelf-stable products.

  9. Echinacea purpurea and P-glycoprotein drug transport in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Torstein Schrøder; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2009-01-01

    Echinacea is widely used as a medical herbal product, but its interaction potential with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has not yet been evaluated. The interaction potential of Echinacea purpurea towards P-gp mediated drug transport was studied in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Digoxin (30 nm) was used as a substrate and verapamil as a control inhibitor. Ethanol, 0.8%, needed for herbal extraction and compatibility with the commercial products, inhibited the net digoxin flux by 18%. E. purpurea influenced to a higher degree the B-A transport of digoxin than the A-B transport. A minor increase in net digoxin flux was observed at low concentrations of E. purpurea, an effect anticipated to be allosteric in nature. At higher concentrations, from 0.4 to 6.36 mg dry weight/mL, a statistically significant linear dose-related decrease was observed in the net digoxin flux, indicating a dose dependent E. purpurea inhibition of P-gp. Both Vmax and Km of the net digoxin flux, calculated to 23.7 nmol/cm2/h and 385 microm, respectively, decreased in the presence of E. purpurea in an uncompetitive fashion. Although the effects of Echinacea purpurea on systemic P-gp mediated drug transport are probably limited, an influence on drug bioavailability can not be excluded. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Chemical constituents of essential oils of Tephrosia purpurea and Ipomoea carnea and their repellent activity against Odoiporus longicollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahayaraj Kitherian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical constituents of essential oils (EOs obtained from stem and root of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn. Pers. and Ipomoea carnea Jacq. were investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Total lipid and oil content was high in the stem than the root of T. purpurea and I. carnea. Essential oils extracted from the stem and root of T. purpurea and I. carnea showed 9 and 8 compounds respectively. Hexadecanoic acid was found to be the principal constituent of stem (69.61% and root (46.97% of T. purpurea while 70.61and 88.89% for stem and root, respectively in the case of I. carnea. The findings of the present study suggest that T. purpurea and I. carnea EOs can be used as a source of hexadecanoic acid which could be used for industrial purposes. The essential oils of T. purpurea and I. carnea showed strong repellent activity for males (-0.73 and -0.70 for T. purpurea and I. carnea stem EO respectively than females (-0.63 and -0.59 for T. purpurea and I. carnea stem EO respectively against banana pseudostem weevil Odoiporus longicollis. The results indicated that the active compounds of essential oils from stems of T. purpurea and I. carnea can be explored as natural repellents for control of Odoiporus longicollis.

  11. The effect of coloured light on Ipomoea purpurea growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surducan, Vasile; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil

    2009-08-01

    Ipomoea purpurea is a climbing ornamental plant native to Mexico. The paper is describing the experimental setup and results for indoor growing plants exposed to white LED light (inside a reference chamber) and four different wavelength LED lights (inside a measure chamber). Four growing experiments of 12-15 days, took place in identical environmental conditions (identical temperature and relative humidity inside the reference and measure chambers, similar lighting conditions and soil moisture). At the end of the experiments, the plant chlorophyll and xanthophylls content have been measured and the plant aspect (vegetal mass, leaves colour and robustness) has been observed. The smallest content in chlorophyll (a and b) was developed by the plants growth in blue light (480 nm), however those plants where 10% taller than plants growth in white light, but less robust. The higher content in carotenoids and xanthophylls was observed in plants which growth in white and red light.

  12. Tephrosia purpurea alleviates phorbol ester-induced tumor promotion response in murine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M; Ahmed Su; Alam, A; Sultana, S

    2001-02-01

    In recent years, considerable emphasis has been placed on identifying new cancer chemopreventive agents, which could be useful for the human population. Tephrosia purpurea has been shown to possess significant activity against hepatotoxicity, pharmacological and physiological disorders. Earlier we showed that Tephrosia purpurea inhibits benzoyl peroxide-mediated cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present study, we therefore assessed the effect of Tephrosia purpurea on 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbal-13-acetate (TPA; a well-known phorbol ester) induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity in murine skin. The pre-treatment of Swiss albino mice with Tephrosia purpurea prior to application of croton oil (phorbol ester) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cutaneous carcinogenesis. Skin tumor initiation was achieved by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA) (25 microg per animal per 0.2 ml acetone) to mice. Ten days later tumor promotion was started by twice weekly topical application of croton oil (0.5% per animal per 0.2 ml acetone, v /v). Topical application of Tephrosia purpurea 1 h prior to each application of croton oil (phorbol ester) resulted in a significant protection against cutaneous carcinogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The animals pre-treated with Tephrosia purpurea showed a decrease in both tumor incidence and tumor yield as compared to the croton oil (phorbol ester)-treated control group. In addition, a significant reduction in TPA-mediated induction in cutaneous ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and [3H]thymidine incorporation was also observed in animals pre-treated with a topical application of Tephrosia purpurea. The effect of topical application of Tephrosia purpurea on TPA-mediated depletion in the level of enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules in skin was also evaluated and it was observed that topical application of Tephrosia purpurea prior to TPA resulted in the significant recovery of

  13. The bumblebee Bombus hortorum is the main pollinating visitor to Digitalis purpurea (Common Foxglove in a U.K. population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Broadbent

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Specialization in plant-pollinator systems represents an important issue for both the ecological understanding and conservation of these systems. We investigated the extent to which the bumblebee Bombus hortorum (Linnaeus is the main potential pollinator of Common Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea L. Twenty D. purpurea patches were selected in North Yorkshire, U.K., ten each in woodland and garden or park habitat. All insects visiting D. purpurea within the patches were recorded over seventy 30-min bouts. The relative frequency of insect visitors to other flowering plant species within 15 m of each patch was also determined. B. hortorum and B. pascuorum were the two most frequent visitors to D. purpurea, accounting for 82 - 92% and 3 -17%, respectively, of all insect visits (n = 1682, depending on habitat. B. hortorum showed a significant preference for visiting D. purpurea relative to its frequency of visits to other available plant species. The relationship of D. purpurea with B. hortorum, which pollinates several plant species with long corollas, therefore represents a potential case of asymmetric specialization, albeit one that may vary spatially. Because D. purpurea reproduction appears dependent on insect pollination, B. hortorum and B. pascuorum may help underpin the viability of D. purpurea populations.

  14. Root colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus increases growth and secondary metabolism of purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araim, Ghada; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T; Charest, Christiane

    2009-03-25

    Purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, is an important phytomedicinal species that contains phenolics and alkamides with antipathogenic properties. This study aimed to examine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the physiology and biochemistry of E. purpurea. It was hypothesized that AM colonization enhances the growth and secondary metabolism in E. purpurea. In this regard, a 13-week factorial greenhouse experiment was performed with E. purpurea, inoculated (or not) with the AM fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith. Overall, the results indicated that AM colonization significantly increased the mass of shoots and roots and the concentrations of proteins and most of the phenolics in the roots. Hence, the selected trait of mycorrhiza could play an important role in optimizing the growth of E. purpurea by inducing the production of secondary phytomedicinal metabolites.

  15. Academic Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  16. Research on the biology of Echinacea angustifolia (Dc. Moench and Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea angustifolia (Dc. Moench and Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench species have been highly appreciated for their therapeutic qualities, both of them belong to the few plants of immunostimulative and antiviral properties. The adaptation and cultivation process of these plants has been initiated for medical purposes at the Cluj-Napoca Agronomy Institute. The biological researches evidenced the two species, multiplied by nursery transplant, formed a rosette of leaves during their first year of plantation. The first floral offshoots in Echinacea purpurea were seen during the months September and October (in approximately 40 percent of plants. Flowering Echinacea angustifolia appeared only sporadically the first year of cultivation. Leaves number and plant mass in both species increased markedly the first year of vegetation starting from August. Herba and radix ratio represented 74 percent and 26 percent respectively of the whole plant mass in Echinacea angustifolia and 87 percent and 13 percent respectively in Echinacea purpurea.

  17. Chromatographic methods for metabolite profiling of virus- and phytoplasma-infected plants of Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Federica; Epifano, Francesco; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Orlandini, Giulia; Cavicchi, Lisa; Genovese, Salvatore; Bertelli, Davide; Benvenuti, Stefania; Curini, Massimo; Bertaccini, Assunta; Bellardi, Maria Grazia

    2011-10-12

    This study was focused on the effects of virus and phytoplasma infections on the production of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench secondary metabolites, such as caffeic acid derivatives, alkamides, and essential oil. The identification of caffeic acid derivatives and alkamides was carried out by means of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), HPLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and MS(2). Quantitative analysis of these compounds was carried out using HPLC-DAD. The results indicated that the presence of the two pathogens significantly decreases (P purpurea essential oil enabled the identification of 30 compounds. The main significant differences (P purpurea secondary metabolites, which is an important issue in defining the commercial quality, market value, and therapeutic efficacy of this herbal drug.

  18. Establishment of adventitious root cultures of Echinacea purpurea for the production of caffeic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo

    2009-01-01

    Echinacace purpurea (purple cone flower) is an important medicinal plant, and widely used for phytochemical purposes. The roots are traditionally used in herbal medicines and dietary supplements as an immunostimulant in treating inflammatory and viral diseases. Extensive research work has been carried out on both the induction of adventitious roots from E. purpurea as well as established small-scale (shake flask) to large-scale (bioreactor) cultures for the production of adventitious root biomass and caffeic acid derivatives. This chapter describes the methodologies of induction of adventitious roots from explants of E. purpurea, propagation of adventitious roots in suspension cultures, estimation of total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities. The detailed methodology for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of caffeic acid derivatives present in the adventitious roots is also discussed.

  19. [Chemical constituents from the aerial part of Echinacea purpurea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiu-Ling; Wang, Lei; Feng, Feng

    2013-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the aerial part of Echinacea purpurea. The compounds were separated and purified by repeatedly silica gel, ODS, D101 macroporous resin, MCI, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and recrystallization. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physiochemical properties and spectral analysis. Sixteen compounds were isolated and identified as (2S)-1-O-octacosanoyl glycerol (1), (5R,6S)-6-hydroxy-6-((E)-3-hydroxybut-1-enyl)-1,1, 5-trimethylcyclohexanone (2), (3S, 6E, 10R)-3, 10, 11-trihydroxy-3, 7, 11-trimethyl-dodeca-1, 6-diene (3), negunfurol (4), schensianol A (5), ent-4 (15) -eudesmene-1beta, 6alpha-diol (6), (E) -5-hydroxy-N-isobutylpentadec-2-enamide (7), syringaresinol (8), quercetin (9), ethyl laurate (10), ethyl caffeate (11), ferulic acid (12), alpha-spinasterol (13), stigmasterol (14), beta-daucosterol (15), octacosanoic acid (16). Compound 1 - 5 are isolated from the Asteraceae for the first time, compound 6 ,7, 9, 10, 12 are isolated from genus of Echinacea for the first time, compound 15, 16 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  20. GAMMA RADIATION EFFECT ON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE ACTIVITY IN HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L. AND ECHINACEA PURPUREA L., MOENCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Artenie

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we were focused on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD in Hypericum perforatum L and Echinacea purpurea L., Moench plantlets, obtained from seeds irradiated with gamma rays before germination.Total activity as well as specific activity of SOD in Hypericum perforatum L. plantlets shows an inhibition, which becames higher at higher irradiation doses. For Echinacea purpurea L. species, gamma radiation shows a slowly stimulative effect of total activity of SOD for some of the higher doses, but the specific enzyme activity is inhibated for all irradiation doses applyed on non-germinated irradiated seeds.

  1. Studies on the immunomodulatory activity of flavonoidal fraction of Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damre, A S; Gokhale, A B; Phadke, A S; Kulkarni, K R; Saraf, M N

    2003-04-01

    The flavonoid fraction of Tephrosia purpurea (FFTP) was studied for its effect on cellular and humoral functions and on macrophage phagocytosis in mice. Oral administration of FFTP (10-40 mg/kg) significantly inhibited sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. It also produced a significant, dose-related decrease in sheep erythrocyte-specific haemagglutination antibody titre. However, the fraction failed to show a significant change in the macrophage phagocytic activity. The results obtained indicate the ability of the flavonoidal fraction of T. purpurea to modulate both the cell-mediated and the humoral components of the immune system.

  2. Echinacea purpurea: A Proprietary Extract of Echinacea purpurea Is Shown to be Safe and Effective in the Prevention of the Common Cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie Maxine

    2016-01-01

    The research study in this review represents the largest clinical trial to date that evaluated the safety and efficacy of Echinacea purpurea for prophylactic treatment of the common cold, in addition to investigating its risk-benefit in a long-term treatment period. The clinical application of the proprietary standardized Echinacea purpurea extract(Echinaforce) demonstrated efficacy as a preventive cold treatment option over a 4-month duration. This study showed that Echinacea’s long-term prevention was associated with a reduction in the total number of cold episodes, a reduction in the number of days with colds, and a reduction in cold episodes requiring additional medication. Furthermore, the Echinacea test agent inhibited virally confirmed colds, exhibited maximal effects on recurrent infections, and demonstrated that its preventive effects increased relative to therapy compliance and adherence to the protocol. In summary, Echinacea purpurea when taken as recommended for the prevention of the common cold appears to provide a positive risk to benefit ratio.

  3. Transcriptomic Response of Purple Willow (Salix purpurea to Arsenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Yanitch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation, including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. ‘Fish Creek’ for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism. Four weeks of hydroponic exposure to 0, 5, 30 and 100 mg/L revealed that plants were able to tolerate up to 5 mg/L arsenic. Concentrations of 0 and 5 mg/L of arsenic treatment were then used to compare alterations in gene expression of roots, stems and leaves using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression revealed transcripts encoding proteins putatively involved in entry of arsenic into the roots, storage in vacuoles and potential transport through the plant as well as primary and secondary (indirect toxicity tolerance mechanisms. A major role for tannin as a compound used to relieve cellular toxicity is implicated as well as unexpected expression of the cadmium transporter CAX2, providing a potential means for internal arsenic mobility. These insights into the underpinning genetics of a successful phytoremediating species present novel opportunities for selection of dedicated arsenic tolerant crops as well as the potential to integrate such tolerances into a wider Salix ideotype alongside traits including biomass yield, biomass quality, low agricultural inputs and phytochemical production.

  4. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTI-HISTAMINE ACTIVITY OF THE AERIAL PARTS OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisami Nivedithadevi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae has been used as a medicinal plant in all over India. This plant is a much branched perennial herb. Roots are given orally against any type of poisoning such as snakebite and the aerial parts were used for hydrophobia, asthma, cough, heart disease and kidney problems. Anti-microbial activity of 50% alcoholic extract with different concentrations were tested against the fungal strains like Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus niger, Ganoderma lucida and Candida albicans and bacterial organisms like Escherichia coli, Serratia mercescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis. The 50% alcoholic extract of Tephrosia purpurea at 5mg, 10mg, and 20mg concentration showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus. Extracts of Tephrosia purpurea at 5mg, 10mg, and 20mg concentration did not show positive antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus niger, Ganoderma lucida and Candida albicans. Antihistamine activity of 50% alcohol extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TP was evaluated in isolated guinea pig ileum. It was observed that different concentrations (2mg, 4mg and 8mg/ml of TP extract antagonized the contraction of ileum induced by histamine. The extracts at 8mg/ml concentration expected maximum antagonistic. The results obtained with histamine in guinea-pig isolated ileum preparations are sensitive to histamine against like histamine at the lower concentration.

  5. Inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea and Nerium oleander on HSV-1 multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Farahani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of HSV-1 infections with the available chemical drugs may have some problems such as drug resistance and virus latency. Therefore, there is a requirement for new antiherpes drugs in today's world. The present study was carried out to analyze the inhibitory effect of Echinacea purpurea and Nerium oleander plants with ethnomedical background on HSV-1 replication. Methods: Plants were extracted by decoction method to obtain aqueous extract. These extracts were screened for their cytotoxicity against Hep-2 cell line by CPE (cytopathic effect assay. Antiviral effect of the plant extracts were determined by the virus cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Results: Nerium oleander extract had the highest toxicity (>0.1 μg/ml on Hep-2 cells and Echinacea purpurea extract exhibited significant antiherpes effect at nontoxic concentrations used on the cell lines. Findings indicated that Echinacea purpurea extract inhibited HSV-1 multiplication at concentrations >400 μg/ml. Conclusion: Echinacea purpurea plant had no any effect on cells at nontoxic concentrations and inhibited HSV-1 multiplication at concentrations >400 μg/ml. Further research is needed to find out the anti herpetic mechanism of this plant.

  6. Fractionation and evaluation of proteins in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balciunaite Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a plant rich in flavonoids, essential oils, phenolic compounds, saponins, polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content in dried roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench after homogenization of roots with liquid nitrogen, extraction in 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS and purification followed by fractionation of proteins using gel filtration chromatography. Total concentration of proteins was measured using the Bradford method, and evaluation of the molecular mass of proteins was accomplished by applying the SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. The Bradford assay revealed that the highest concentration of proteins in fractions collected after gel filtration chomatography was 4.66–6.07 mg mL-1. Glycoproteins, alkamides and polysaccharides in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench are chemical compounds that are responsible for their immunomodulatory properties. However, information about the difference of protein contents in fresh and dried roots of E. purpurea is insufficient.

  7. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Market Available Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh basil leaves contain chicoric acid, the principal phenolic compound of Echinacea purpurea and purportedly the active ingredient in its dietary supplements. Our group discovered and first reported chicoric acid in basil. This following study examined the distribution of chicoric acid within the...

  8. Fractionation and evaluation of proteins in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balciunaite, Gabriele; Juodsnukyte, Jovita; Savickas, Arunas; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Siatkute, Luka; Zvirblyte, Gitana; Mistiniene, Edita; Savickiene, Nijole

    2015-12-01

    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a plant rich in flavonoids, essential oils, phenolic compounds, saponins, polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content in dried roots of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench after homogenization of roots with liquid nitrogen, extraction in 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and purification followed by fractionation of proteins using gel filtration chromatography. Total concentration of proteins was measured using the Bradford method, and evaluation of the molecular mass of proteins was accomplished by applying the SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. The Bradford assay revealed that the highest concentration of proteins in fractions collected after gel filtration chomatography was 4.66-6.07 mg mL-1. Glycoproteins, alkamides and polysaccharides in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench are chemical compounds that are responsible for their immunomodulatory properties. However, information about the difference of protein contents in fresh and dried roots of E. purpurea is insufficient.

  9. A C-banded karyotype of mitotic chromosomes in diploid purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weizhen; Li, Qingling; Chen, Xiaolu; Ren, Yi; Chen, Rong; Wu, Hong; Yang, Yuesheng

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploid ermpglasm is an important resource for genetic studies and identification of individual chromosomes in the cells of the aneuploid is an important step. The karyotype has already been established for purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.), but due to the high similarity in the morphology of several pairs of chromosomes in this species, it cannot be used to identify individual chromosomes in its own complement. The objectives of this study are to develop and evaluate the Giemsa C-banding technique for the purpose of identifying the individual chromosomes in Echinacea purpurea. The established karyotype with C-bands showed that all the 11 pairs of chromosomes possessed centromeric bands. Telomeric bands appeared most frequently in almost all the chromosomes with only two exceptions, the short arm of the chromosome 9 and the long arm of the chromosome 10. Intercalary bands were found mainly in the long arm of some chromosomes with only two exceptions, the chromosomes 1 and 2 that had intercalary bands on both arms. The chromosome 4 was the only chromosome where intercalary bands were absent. Chromosomes in E. purpurea could be stained with Giemsa to bear C-bands. By classifying the chromosomes into groups and judging the C-bands, each chromosome could be identified. The methods established in this study might be used for the identification of chromosome constitution in aneuploid E. purpurea created in a breeding program.

  10. Diversity and biological activities of endophytic fungi associated with micropropagated medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echinacea is one of the top ten selling medicinal herbs in Europe and United States. Commercially available formulations may contain different plant parts of three species (Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida, and E. angustifolia). Our study evaluates the diversity of microbial community associated with ...

  11. Secondary Metabolites from Fungal Endophytes of Echinacea purpurea Suppress Cytokine Secretion by Macrophage-Type Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amninder; Oberhofer, Martina; Juzumaite, Monika; Raja, Huzefa A; Gulledge, Travis V; Kao, Diana; Faeth, Stanley H; Laster, Scott M; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2016-01-01

    Botanical extracts of Echinacea purpurea have been widely used for the treatment of upper respiratory infections. We sought to chemically examine fungal endophytes inhabiting E. purpurea, and to identify compounds produced by these endophytes with in vitro cytokine-suppressive activity. Twelve isolates from surface sterilized seeds of E. purpurea were subjected to fractionation and major components were isolated. Sixteen secondary metabolites belonging to different structural classes were identified from these isolates based on NMR and mass spectrometry data. The compounds were tested for their influence on cytokine secretion by murine macrophage-type cells. Alternariol (1), O-prenylporriolide (4), porritoxin (10) β-zearalenol (13), and (S)-zearalenone (14) inhibited production of TNF-α from RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS in the absence of any significant cytotoxicity. This is the first report of a cytokine-suppressive effect for 4. The results of this study are particularly interesting given that they show the presence of compounds with cytokine-suppressive activity in endophytes from a botanical used to treat inflammation. Future investigations into the role of fungal endophytes in the biological activity of E. purpurea dietary supplements may be warranted.

  12. OVERCOMING SEED DORMANCY IN Annona macroprophyllata AND Annona purpureaUSING PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELA FERREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Some Annonaceae seeds are known to exhibit dormancy mechanisms ranging from possible seed coat impermeability to physiological dormancy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellin (GA GA3 and GA4+7 + benzyladenine (GA4+7 + BA application in seeds of Annona macroprophyllata Donn. Sm (papausa and Annona purpurea Moc. & Sessé ex Dunal (chincuya. The experiment was performed by the application of GA3 and GA4+7 + BA on seeds in concentrations of 0, 200, 400, 500, 600, 800 and 1000 mg L-1. The regulators broke the dormancy of both species. However, application of the GA4+7 + BA mixture had more significant results, with greater increases in germination in A. macroprophyllata than in A. purpurea. Treatments that promoted the highest germinations were GA4+7 + BA at a concentration of 200 mg L-1 for A. macroprophyllata (77% and 200 mg L-1 of GA4+7 + BA and 500 mg L-1 of GA3 for A. purpurea (30% and 29%, respectively. Rate index, mean time and frequency of germination were distinct for both species and both treatments. Although both GA3 and GA4+7 + BA promote germination, the GA4+7 + BA mixture was more effective than GA3 to overcoming seed dormancy of both species, A. purpurea has a harder dormancy than A. macroprophyllata

  13. Comparative evaluation of the polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of propolis and Echinacea purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya S. Georgieva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare total phenolics and total flavonoides, and antioxidant capacity of propolis and Echinacea purpurea ethanol extracts. Methods: Propolis and dried Echinacea purpurea extracts were obtained by extraction methods. The extracts were tested for total phenol and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Results: The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids of propolis were found to be higher than Echinacea. The E.purpurea extract exhibited nearly 10 times lower antioxidant content in comparison with the propolis extracts. The 70% ethanol extract of propolis presented maximum antioxidant content, and the IC50 concentration was found to be higher in the 96% ethanol extract. However, both of the propolis extracts exhibited similar antioxidant activities. Conclusions: In the present study, the extracts of Echinacea purpurea and propolis were studied as sources of natural antioxidants. The results from the antioxidant assays show that all extracts can act as radical scavengers to a certain extent. They exhibit potent antioxidant activity in different solvent concentrations. Further studies in this area are in progress. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(1.000: 51-56

  14. Effect of Echinacea purpurea on Control of Leishmania major Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Sadati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania and is endemic in some areas of Iran. Echinacea purpurea is a native plant from North America which is one of the most important medical herbs known with immuno-stimulant properties. This study was performed to determine the effect of alcoholic extract of Echinacea purpurea on prophylaxis and treatment of Leishmania cutaneous lesions. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2009, eighteen mice were divided into 3 groups. Group one received Echinacea purpurea extract (200 mg/ml in their water, for 2 weeks before parasite injection, while group two were first injected with parasite amastigotes, followed by administration of Echinacea purpurea extract for 2 weeks. Group three was the control group, which received parasites, but not the extract. The size of Leishmania lesions in the tail base, right and left foot were measured with vernier caliper. The lesion areas were calculated and the collected data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The mean of lesion size in each group of mice were compared and analyzed. No significant differences in the lesions size were found between the three mice groups. Therefore, Echinacea purpurea extract was not effective against Leishmania major based on the findings of this study. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Echinacea extract is not effective in treatment or prophylaxis of leishmaniasis in mice. Yet, further studies are needed to determine the effects of other extracts of this plant.

  15. Herb-drug interaction between Echinacea purpurea and etravirine in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltó, José; Valle, Marta; Miranda, Cristina; Cedeño, Samandhy; Negredo, Eugenia; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this open-label, fixed-sequence study was to investigate the potential of the botanical supplement Echinacea purpurea to interact with etravirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of HIV. Fifteen HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with etravirine (400 mg once daily) for at least 4 weeks were included. E. purpurea root/extract-containing capsules were added to the antiretroviral treatment (500 mg every 8 h) for 14 days. Etravirine concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 h after a morning dose of etravirine on day 0 and etravirine plus E. purpurea on day 14. Individual etravirine pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis and compared between days 0 and 14 by means of the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and its 90% confidence interval (CI). The median age was 46 years (interquartile range, 41 to 50), and the median body weight was 76 kg (interquartile range, 68 to 92). Echinacea was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. The GMR for etravirine coadministered with E. purpurea relative to etravirine alone was 1.07 (90% CI, 0.81 to 1.42) for the maximum concentration, 1.04 (90% CI, 0.79 to 1.38) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h, and 1.04 (90% CI, 0.74 to 1.44) for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval. In conclusion, the coadministration of E. purpurea with etravirine was safe and well tolerated in HIV-infected patients; our data suggest that no dose adjustment for etravirine is necessary.

  16. Herb-Drug Interaction between Echinacea purpurea and Etravirine in HIV-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Marta; Miranda, Cristina; Cedeño, Samandhy; Negredo, Eugenia; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this open-label, fixed-sequence study was to investigate the potential of the botanical supplement Echinacea purpurea to interact with etravirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of HIV. Fifteen HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with etravirine (400 mg once daily) for at least 4 weeks were included. E. purpurea root/extract-containing capsules were added to the antiretroviral treatment (500 mg every 8 h) for 14 days. Etravirine concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 h after a morning dose of etravirine on day 0 and etravirine plus E. purpurea on day 14. Individual etravirine pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis and compared between days 0 and 14 by means of the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and its 90% confidence interval (CI). The median age was 46 years (interquartile range, 41 to 50), and the median body weight was 76 kg (interquartile range, 68 to 92). Echinacea was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. The GMR for etravirine coadministered with E. purpurea relative to etravirine alone was 1.07 (90% CI, 0.81 to 1.42) for the maximum concentration, 1.04 (90% CI, 0.79 to 1.38) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h, and 1.04 (90% CI, 0.74 to 1.44) for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval. In conclusion, the coadministration of E. purpurea with etravirine was safe and well tolerated in HIV-infected patients; our data suggest that no dose adjustment for etravirine is necessary. PMID:22869560

  17. Effects of flavonoids from Martynia annua and Tephrosia purpurea on cutaneous wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santram Lodhi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Martynia annua L. (M. annua, (Martyniaccae has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy, sore throat and inflammatory disorders. The leaf paste is used topically on Tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands and wounds of domestic animals. Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea, (Fabaceae has been used traditionally as a remedy for asthma, gonorrhea, rheumatism and ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the potential wound healing effects of different fractions ofethanol extract of M. annua leaves and aerial parts of T. purpurea. Materials and Methods: Methanol fraction of M. annua (MAF-C and ethyl acetate fraction of T. purpurea (TPF-A were evaluated for healing potential in dead-space and burn wound models. An ointment (5% w/w of MAF-C and TPF-A, pongamol (0.2 and 0.5% w/w and luteolin (0.2 and 0.5% w/w was applied topically twice a day. The effects were compared with Povidone Iodine ointment with respect to protein, collagen content, enzymatic assay and histopathological finding of granuloma tissues. Results: Ethanol extracts of M. annua and T. purpureawere exhibited total flavonoid contents of 126.2 ± 4.69 and 171.6 ± 6.38 mg (quercetin equivalent, respectively. HPLC fingerprinting confirmed the presence of luteolin in M. annua and quercetin in T. purpurea. TPF-A and MAF-C ointments (5% w/w significantly increases the hydroxyproline and protein contents. Luteolin and pongamol ointments were also found to be effective in both wound models. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that 5% w/w ointment of TPF-A and MAF-C fractions were more effective than isolated flavonoids in wound healing which may be due to synergistic interactions between the flavonoids and other constituents.

  18. Molecular cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Juliane C

    2013-01-01

    This protocol describes the basic steps involved in conventional plasmid-based cloning. The goals are to insert a DNA fragment of interest into a receiving vector plasmid, transform the plasmid into E. coli, recover the plasmid DNA, and check for correct insertion events.

  19. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Tephrosia purpurea on Cardiovascular Complications and Cataract Associated with Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha V Bhadada; Goyal, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.). Treatment of...

  20. Effects of phenytoin and Echinacea purpurea extract on proliferation and apoptosis of mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Chen, Zhenguo; Mao, Xiaoyan; Tang, Shijie

    2011-05-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common birth defects. Several environment factors are involved in the disorder, such as smoking, vitamin deficiency and teratogens. We investigated the teratogenic agent phenytoin and extract of the immunostimulant Echinacea purpurea in the etiology of cleft palate associated with the proliferation and apoptosis of mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal (MEPM) cells. We measured the effects of phenytoin, E. purpurea extract, and the mixture of phenytoin and E. purpurea extract on the cell viability of MEPM cells by CCK-8 assay and on the proliferation and apoptosis of MEPM cells by BrdU labeling assay, flow cytometry, and TUNEL assay. Exposure to phenytoin for 24 h inhibited cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis of MEPM cells, and E. purpurea extract had the reverse effect. Importantly, treatment with the mixture of phenytoin and E. purpurea extract increased the proliferation and decreased the apoptosis of MEPM cells as compared with treatment with phenytoin alone. The teratogenic effect of phenytoin on cleft palate is associated with the proliferation and apoptosis of MEPM cells, and E. purpurea extract may have a protective effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Effect of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha V Bhadada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.. Treatment of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea was given in the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o for 8 weeks. Various hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, -dp/dt and biochemical (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase parameters were recorded after 8 weeks of the treatment. To evaluate cataract, various biochemical estimations were done in eye lens. Streptozotocin produced hyperglycemia; hypoinsulinemia; hyperlipidemia; increased blood pressure; increased creatinine, cardiac enzymes, reduction in heart rate and cardiac hypertrophy in rats and all these changes were prevented by the treatment with aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea in both the doses. Streptozotocin also produced decrease in soluble protein and reduced glutathione in lens of rats that was prevented by aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea. Our data suggest that aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea prevents not only the streptozotocin-induced metabolic abnormalities but also cardiovascular complications as well as reduce the risk of development of cataract.

  2. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Tephrosia purpurea on Cardiovascular Complications and Cataract Associated with Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadada, Shraddha V; Goyal, R K

    2015-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.). Treatment of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea was given in the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o for 8 weeks. Various hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, -dp/dt) and biochemical (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase) parameters were recorded after 8 weeks of the treatment. To evaluate cataract, various biochemical estimations were done in eye lens. Streptozotocin produced hyperglycemia; hypoinsulinemia; hyperlipidemia; increased blood pressure; increased creatinine, cardiac enzymes, reduction in heart rate and cardiac hypertrophy in rats and all these changes were prevented by the treatment with aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea in both the doses. Streptozotocin also produced decrease in soluble protein and reduced glutathione in lens of rats that was prevented by aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea. Our data suggest that aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea prevents not only the streptozotocin-induced metabolic abnormalities but also cardiovascular complications as well as reduce the risk of development of cataract.

  3. Claviceps cyperi, a new cause of severe ergotism in dairy cattle consuming maize silage and teff hay contaminated with ergotised Cyperus esculentus (nut sedge on the Highveld of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Naude

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available During December/January 1996/97 typical summer syndrome (hyperthermia and a 30 % drop in milk yield occurred in succession in two Holstein dairy herds (n = 240 and n = 150 milking cows, respectively on the South African Highveld. These farms are situated in the midst of the prime maize and dairy farming areas of South Africa where this condition had never been diagnosed before. The individual components of the concentrate on both farms were negative for ergot alkaloids. Endophytic fungi and/or ergot infestation of teff and other grasses fed to the cows were then suspected of being involved, but neither endophytes nor ergot alkaloids could be implicated from these sources. By measuring the serum prolactin levels of groups of sheep (n = 5 fed the first farm's total mixed ration (TMR or its three individual fibre components for a period of 11 days, the source of the ergot alkaloids was identified. A statistically significant decrease in the level of this hormone occurred only in the group on maize silage (which constituted 28 % on dry matter base of the TMR. The involvement of the maize silage was further chemically confirmed by the high levels of total ergot alkaloids, predominantly ergocryptine, found by LC-MS in the silage as well as in the TMR (115-975 ppb and 65-300 ppb, respectively. The ergot alkaloid content (mainly ergocryptine of the maize silage on the second affected farm was 875 ppb. Withdrawal of contaminated silage resulted in gradual recovery of stock on both farms. Nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus and Cyperus rotundus of the family Cyperaceae has a world-wide distribution and is a common weed in annual crops, and can be parasitized by Claviceps cyperi. Careful examination of the maize silage from both farms revealed that it was heavily contaminated with nut sedge and that it contained minute sclerotia, identified as those of Claviceps cyperi, originating from the latter. Nut sedge was abundant on both farms and it is believed that

  4. Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-20

    genes , for example, has led to new treatments developed by the biotechnology industry for diseases such as diabetes and hemophilia . In the context of...stem cells should be permitted because of the potential for developing new therapies and advancing biomedical knowledge. On May 24, 2005, the House...to describe many different processes that involve making copies of biological material, such as a gene , a cell, a plant or an animal. The cloning of

  5. Effects of Sucrose and Other Additives on In Vitro Growth and Development of Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanayake Nilanthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower is being used for the preparation of more than 240 extracts, salves, and tinctures to help cure diseases like rabies, cold, and upper respiratory infections. Hence, efforts were made to develop a culture medium for successful in vitro culturing of cornflower and to regenerate buds and induce roots to enable mass propagation of selected clones. Of the three levels of sucrose tested as a supplement to MS media (Murashige and Skoog’s medium, 1962 3% showed better rooting of buds and appeared morphologically normal and identical as compared to those grown at higher and lower concentrations (2 and 4%. The additives hydrolyzed lactabumin (0.0, 100, 300, and 900 mgL−1, peptone (0.0, 100, 300, and 900 mgL−1, and yeast (0.0, 100, 300, and 900 mgL−1 to media containing 0.3 mgL−1 BA (6-benzyladenine and 0.01 mgL−1 NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid-plant growth regulators has negatively influenced proliferation of shoots. The higher concentrations of the above have delayed the development of plantlets. Shoot multiplication was enhanced by coconut water with 2% being the best among 4 and 8% tested. Shoot organogenesis was not influenced by copper sulphate (0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 mgL−1 and silver nitrate (0.0, 0.5, 2.5, and 12.5 mgL−1 supplements and at higher concentrations of the above inhibited plant growth.

  6. Synchronicity of pollination and inoculation with Claviceps africana and its effects on pollen-pistil compatibility and seed production in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-López, Ma Eugenia; Mendoza-Onofre, Leopoldo E; González-Hernández, Víctor A; Zavaleta-Mancera, H Araceli; Mora-Aguilera, Gustavo; Hernández-Martínez, Miguel; Córdova-Téllez, Leobigildo

    2010-04-01

    Sorghum ergot (caused by Claviceps africana) is a disease that affects sorghum seed development and yield. The interaction between pollen tube growth and hyphal development determines whether ovaries will be fertilized or colonized. Thus their respective deposition times on the stigma are critical. The effect of the time interval between pollination and inoculation on stigma receptivity and seed production was measured under field conditions in the male-sterile line A9 at Montecillo, State of México (2240m altitude). Pollination and inoculation treatments, from simultaneous application to 2 and 4h difference, were imposed when all stigmas on the panicle had emerged. Control panicles were either only pollinated or only inoculated. Eighteen hours later, pollen grains that adhered to, and germinated within the stigma, pollen tubes in the style and ovary, and fertilized pistils were counted. Pistils showing some disease expression (germinated spores, mycelium growth, or tissue necrosis) at 18, 48, and 72h were recorded. The number of diseased florets was registered at the dough growth stage, while number of seeds, grain yield and 100-seeds weight was measured at the physiological maturity. The pathogen applied in a water suspension of macro and secondary conidia caused a decrease in stigma receptivity; the greatest decrease (40-60%) occurred when the pollen and the inoculum were deposited almost simultaneously, regardless of which was deposited first. The route of the pollen tube was also the route for fungal infection. On average, treatments first inoculated had 60% more diseased florets and 36% less grain yield, 30% fewer seeds and seed size decreased 8%, than those first pollinated.

  7. Modulation of liver enzymes by an Iranian preparation of Echinacea purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manayi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B, a common infectious disease of liver, is transmitted by blood and body fluids like semen and vaginal fluid that carry hepatitis B virus (HBV.  In chronic infection, medical care is required to decrease possibility of cirrhosis and liver cancer. In the present report, the hepatoprotective effect of an Echinacea purpurea preparation (Echiherb® has been described in a patient who suffered from HBV infection. The levels of both enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT decreased to their normal level after 6 weeks of treatment. Therefore, this report may provide a new perspective for protection of liver in patients with HBV infection along with other diseases which damage liver cells using E. purpurea preparations.

  8. The effect of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench extract on experimental prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaudickas, D; Kondrotas, A J; Kevelaitis, E; Venskutonis, P R

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. Moench) on the prostate gland of rats using an experimental model of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The animals were administered 50 mg/kg of extract preparation for 4 and 8 weeks and the prostate mass and structural degenerative changes were evaluated in the course of the experiment. The administration of E. purpurea extract to rats with hyperplasia for 4 and 8 weeks gradually and significantly reduced the prostate mass and reversed the degenerative changes in the structure of the prostate gland. The present investigation suggests extract of purple coneflower prevents the development of BPH. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sommer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in

  10. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcz, Ewa; Sommer, Ewa; Nartowska, Jadwiga; Balan, Barbara; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Skopińska-Rózewska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins) exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in human also

  11. A new 1,2-ethanedione benzofurane derivative from Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Chen, Yinning; Gao, Chenghai; Yan, Tao; Cao, Wenhao; Huang, Riming

    2014-01-01

    A new 1,2-ethanedione benzofurane derivative, purpdione (1), was isolated from Tephrosia purpurea, together with seven known flavonoids, purpurenone (2), pongamol (3), ovalitenin A (4), karanjin (5), lanceolatin B (6), tachrosin (7) and villosinol (8). The new structure was elucidated based on the analysis of its spectroscopic data. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparing their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. The isolates exhibited marginal ability to inhibit the settlement of barnacle (Balanus reticulatus).

  12. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTI-HISTAMINE ACTIVITY OF THE AERIAL PARTS OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA L.

    OpenAIRE

    Duraisami Nivedithadevi; Paramasivam Manivannan; Ramamurthy Somasundaram

    2012-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae) has been used as a medicinal plant in all over India. This plant is a much branched perennial herb. Roots are given orally against any type of poisoning such as snakebite and the aerial parts were used for hydrophobia, asthma, cough, heart disease and kidney problems. Anti-microbial activity of 50% alcoholic extract with different concentrations were tested against the fungal strains like Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus niger, Ganoderma lucida and Candida alb...

  13. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Chorostowska-Wynimko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in

  14. Evaluating the efficacy of cinnamaldehyde and Echinacea purpurea plant extract in broilers against Eimeria acervulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orengo, J; Buendía, A J; Ruiz-Ibáñez, M R; Madrid, J; Del Río, L; Catalá-Gregori, P; García, V; Hernández, F

    2012-04-30

    Coccidiostats could be phased out as feed additives before 1 January 2013 for public health and food safety reasons, and, as a replacement, bioactive compounds found in plants are currently being investigated since they are more likely to be found acceptable by consumers. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of cinnamaldehyde (CIN) and Echinacea purpurea plant extract (EP) as additives by analyzing the performance traits, oocyst excretion and intestinal lesions following experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina. A total of 72 Ross male broilers were raised from 1 to 35 d and randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: control, without additives (C); 150 mg kg(-1) cinnamaldehyde (CIN); 1000 mg kg(-1)E. purpurea plant extract (EP); 150 mg kg(-1) cinnamaldehyde plus 1000 mg kg(-1)E. purpurea plant extract (CIN+EP). At 25 d, 12 chickens per treatment were orally infected with E. acervulina. Coccidia infestation led to lower performance but with no significant differences between the infected groups. Oocyst output reached its peak from 6 to 9 d post-infection in all treatments. At duodenal level, gross lesion scores were lower for cinnamaldehyde diets (P0.05). Scoring methods for macro- and microscopic lesions showed a positive linear relationship (G=+0.70). Further studies are necessary to assess the possible anticoccidian action of the cinnamaldehyde and its value as an alternative or adjunct in therapeutic or prophylactic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil in Echinacea purpurea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deqiang; Yuan, Yi; Jiang, Ling; Tai, Yuling; Yang, Xiumei; Hu, Fang; Xie, Zhongwen

    2013-03-01

    Echinacea purpurea L. is a medicinal plant originally from North America. It has become a commonly used herbal medicine worldwide because it contains various biologically active compounds. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from E. purpurea in both mice and rats. The extract was obtained from flower of E. purpurea by steam distillation. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated in vivo by using different animal models such as xylene-induced mouse ear edema, egg-white-induced rat paw edema, and cotton-induced granuloma tissue proliferating inflammation in mice. The serial dosages were used in vivo: the low dosage, the medium dosage and the high dosage. The low, medium and high dosages of extracts produced inhibitions of 39.24%, 47.22% and 44.79% respectively in the ear edema induced by xylene when compare with the control group. Only the high dosage group showed statistically significant inhibition (48.51%) of paw edema formation induced three hours by egg white compared with the control group (Ppurpurea have anti-inflammatory effects.

  16. Dietary Echinacea purpurea during murine pregnancy: effect on maternal hemopoiesis and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, G; Johns, T; Miller, S C

    2006-01-01

    The medicinal benefits of Echinacea sp. plants in several disease conditions, including insect bites, respiratory ailments, and even cancer and AIDS, have been touted for decades. Echinacea sp.-based phytoceuticals are among the top selling herbals in the Western marketplace today. However, evidence is very scant concerning the effects of using Echinacea species herbals during pregnancy. While available data indicates that fetal malformations do not occur during pregnancy in humans consuming this herb, there are no formal studies aimed at assessing the possibility that consuming Echinacea herbals may promote spontaneous abortions, thereby reducing the number of live births upon which to assess the presence or absence of malformations. We undertook a study in which pregnant mice were fed daily Echinacea purpurea from pregnancy onset until gestational days 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14. Maternal spleen and bone marrow were taken for enumeration of cells in each of five separate hemopoietic lineages/organ, and fetal status was recorded. The data indicate that the significant, pregnancy-induced elevation in splenic lymphocytes and nucleated erythroid cells was all but eliminated in those females which consumed E. purpurea daily throughout their pregnancy. Moreover, consuming E. purpurea during pregnancy reduced the number of viable fetuses. The data may be extrapolated to suggest that in humans, abstention from consuming Echinacea products during the early/mid stages of pregnancy, may be prudent.

  17. Evaluation of Cichoric Acid of Echinacea purpurea Extract under Different Ecological Conditions in Semnan Province Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Rostami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea is an herbaceous perennial plant as members of the Asteraceae family. It is one the important medicinal plant in pharmacy industrial. Active substances of Echinaceae are amplifier of body's immune system and antivirus. Echinacea is not native to Iran. The phytochemical traits of medicinal plants depend on ecological conditions involving growing areas, climate conditions; various grow stages and genetic modifications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of cichoric acid of E. purpurea extract in different ecological conditions in Semnan, Iran. Dormancy in seeds was broken by treating them with strafication in 4 °C for 48 h, was grown in nursery beds for autumn and early winter and transfered to four areas with different ecological conditions in late winter. Chashm, Ahuvan, Semnan and Foladmahale were chosen for this experiment. The spacing of plantlet was about 25 × 45 cm in the field. After 2- 3 months, aerial parts of the plants collected in all areas and extract samples were prepared and characterized using high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The components of a basic HPLC system were shown significant values of the cichoric acid in plants under four habitats. The level of cichoric acid in one condition was more than standards level that reported in another references. In addition, ecological diversities have significant impacts the quantity of cichoric acid in E. purpurea.   

  18. Synergistic immunomopharmacological effects of N-alkylamides in Echinacea purpurea herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicca, Andrea; Raduner, Stefan; Pellati, Federica; Strompen, Thomas; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Schoop, Roland; Gertsch, Jürg

    2009-07-01

    Echinacea purpurea extracts are used in the production of standardized herbal medicines for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections. Unsaturated N-alkylamide lipids, the main constituent of E. purpurea and E. angustifolia preparations capable of activating the cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB2) have been suggested to play a role as potential anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory principles. Here we show that ethanolic E. purpurea radix and herba extracts produce synergistic pharmacological effects on the endocannabinoid system in vitro. Superadditive action of N-alkylamide combinations was seen at the level of intracellular calcium release as a function of CB2 receptor activation. Likewise, synergism of the radix and herba tinctures was observed in experiments measuring LPS-stimulated cytokine expression from human PBMCs. While the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly superstimulated, the expression of the pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha protein was inhibited more strongly upon combination of the extracts. We show that N-alkylamides act in concert and exert pleiotropic effects modulating the endocannabinoid system by simultaneously targeting the CB2 receptor, endocannabinoid transport and degradation.

  19. Exploration of diuretic potential and electrolyte excretion of Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, D; Narayana, T V; Vidyasagar; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-03-01

    Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae) is a well-known traditional plant with diuretic effect but no scientific work published till date to support the claimed ethnomedical use. Therefore, the present study appraised the diuretic potential of methanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea (METP) in male wistar rats. The powdered plant material was extracted with methanol by hot extraction. The animals were divided into five groups for diuretic activity. The first group served as saline control (0.9%% saline solution, 25 ml/kg, body weight (b.w)), the second group received osmotic diuretic, urea (1 g/kg b.w), the third group received high-ceiling diuretic, furosemide (5 mg/kg b.w), and the other two groups were administered various concentrations of METP (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w) orally to hydrated rats and their urine volume was measured at 5th and 24th hr after drug administration, while animals were deprived of food and water. After collection of urine, the parameters such as urine output, diuretic activity, electrolyte excretion of Na(++), K(++), Ca(2++), and Cl(-), and pH were analyzed. METP at various dose levels exhibited significant diuretic activity as evidenced by increased urine volume, electrolyte concentration, and alkaline pH in comparison to control group of animals. The present study provides a quantitative basis for explaining the folkloric use of Tephrosia purpurea as a diuretic agent in Indian traditional system of medicine.

  20. In vitro anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Tephrosia purpurea shoot extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj H; Khobragade, Chandrahasy N

    2011-10-01

    The methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (Leguminosae) shoots was evaluated in-vitro for its anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase methods. The enzyme inhibitory activity was tested against isolated cow milk xanthine oxidase. The average anti-inflammatory activity of T. purpurea shoot extract in the concentration range of 1-2 microg/mL in the reacting system revealed significant anti-inflammatory activities, which, as recorded by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase assay methods, were 45.4, 10.5, and 70.5%, respectively. Screening of the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract in terms of kinetic parameters revealed a mixed type of inhibition, wherein the Km and Vmax values in the presence of 25 to 100 microg/mL shoot extract was 0.20 mM/mL and 0.035, 0.026, 0.023 and 0.020 microg/min, while, for the positive control, the Km and Vmax values were 0.21 mM/mL and 0.043 microg/min, respectively. These findings suggest that T. purpurea shoot extract may possess constituents with good medicinal properties that could be exploited to treat the diseases associated with oxidative stress, xanthine oxidase enzyme activity and inflammation.

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea against arsenic induced toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravuri Halley Gora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea (TP against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 induced sub-acute toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four wistar albino rats of either sex were randomly divided into three groups. Group II and III were orally administered with sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg daily in drinking water for 28 days. Additionally Group III was orally treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TP @ 500 mg/kg daily for the same time period, whereas only deionized water was given to Group I (control. Serum biomarker levels, oxidative stress parameters and arsenic concentration were assessed in liver. Histopathology was also conducted. Results: It has been seen that TPE (500 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.01 reduced serum ALT, AST, ALP activity and increased total protein and reduced necrosis and inflammation in liver of group III compared to group II. A significantly (P < 0.01 higher LPO and lower GSH levels without change in SOD activity in liver was also observed in group II compared to group III, though there was no significant difference in arsenic accumulation between them. The plant extract also protects the animals of group III from significant (P < 0.01 reduction in body weight. Conclusion: Our study shows that supplementation of Tephrosia purpurea extract (500 mg/kg could ameliorate the hepatotoxic action of arsenic.

  2. Activities and prevalence of proteobacteria members colonizing Echinacea purpurea fully account for in vitro macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of this botanical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence supports the theory that bacterial communities colonizing Echinacea purpurea contribute to the innate immune enhancing activity of this botanical. Previously we reported that only about half of the variation in in vitro monocyte stimulating activity exhibited by E. purpurea extracts could ...

  3. Evolutionary history of Purple cone spruce (Picea purpurea) in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: homoploid hybrid origin and Pleistocene expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongshuai; Abbott, Richard J; Li, Lili; Li, Long; Zou, Jiabin; Liu, Jianquan

    2014-02-01

    Hybridization and introgression can play an important role in speciation. Here, we examine their roles in the origin and evolution of Picea purpurea, a diploid spruce species occurring on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Phylogenetic relationships and ecological differences between this species and its relatives, P. schrenkiana, P. likiangensis and P. wilsonii, are unclear. To clarify them, we surveyed sequence variation within and between them for 11 nuclear loci, three chloroplast (cp) and two mitochondrial (mt) DNA fragments, and examined their ecological requirements using ecological niche modelling. Initial analyses based on 11 nuclear loci rejected a close relationship between P. schrenkiana and P. purpurea. BP&P tests and ecological niche modelling indicated substantial divergence between the remaining three species and supported the species status of P. purpurea, which contained many private alleles as expected for a well-established species. Sequence variation for cpDNA and mtDNA suggested a close relationship between P. purpurea and P. wilsonii, while variation at the nuclear se1364 gene suggested P. purpurea was more closely related to P. likiangensis. Analyses of genetic divergence, Bayesian clustering and model comparison using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) of nuclear (nr) DNA variation all supported the hypothesis that P. purpurea originated by homoploid hybrid speciation from P. wilsonii and P. likiangensis. The ABC analysis dated the origin of P. purpurea at the Pleistocene, and the estimated hybrid parameter indicated that 69% of its nuclear composition was contributed by P. likiangensis and 31% by P. wilsonii. Our results further suggested that during or immediately following its formation, P. purpurea was subject to organelle DNA introgression from P. wilsonii such that it came to possess both mtDNA and cpDNA of P. wilsonii. The estimated parameters indicated that following its origin, P. purpurea underwent an

  4. Biological activity and phytochemical analysis of three Indonesian medicinal plants, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium polyanthum and Zingiber purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Kuspradini, Harlinda; Arung, Enos Tangke; Aryani, Farida; Min, Yu-Hong; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kim, Yong-ung

    2011-03-01

    Extracts of Indonesian medicinal plants, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium polyanthum, and Zingiber purpurea were investigated for their biological activity. The presence of phytochemicals, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were investigated. Parts of M. koenigii, S. polyanthum, and Z. purpurea were extracted with ethanol. The extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion method, while antioxidant activity was determined with a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Cytotoxicity was investigated using the brine shrimp lethality test, and phytochemical screening was performed using a standard method. M. koenigii leaf extract exhibited the most activity in the test microorganism activity index (AI), 0.38-1.25, when compared with standard drugs. S. polyanthum ripened fruit displayed significant antioxidant activity (90%) in comparison to ascorbic acid (95%). Z. purpurea rhizome extract possessed the highest cytotoxic effect with a LC(50) of 52 μg/mL. Phytochemical analysis revealed that carbohydrate, tannin, alkaloid, steroid, triterpenoid, and flavonoid were present in the extracts of M. koenigii leaves and twigs, S. polyanthum leaves and ripened and unripe fruits, and Z. purpurea rhizome, while saponin was only present in the S. polyanthum ripened fruit extract. Our work revealed that the M. koenigii leaves, S. polyanthum ripened fruit, and Z. purpurea rhizome extracts have potential as sources of new antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds, respectively.

  5. Alkamide Stability in Echinacea purpurea Extracts with and without Phenolic Acids in Dry Films and in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Murphy, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    Degradation of the major alkamides in E. purpurea extracts was monitored under four different accelerated storage conditions, phenolic-depleted and phenolic-rich dry E. purpurea extracts and phenolic-depleted and phenolic-rich DMSO E. purpurea extracts at 70, 80, and 90 °C. Degradation of alkamides followed apparent first-order reaction rate kinetics. Alkamides degraded faster in dry films than in DMSO solution. The phenolic acids acted as antioxidants by limiting the loss of the alkamides in dry E. purpurea extracts. In contrast, E. purpurea alkamides in DMSO degraded faster when the phenolic fraction was absent. The overall order of degradation rate constants was alkamides 1 ≈ 2 ≈ 6 > 9 ≈ 8 > 3 ≈ 5 ≈ 7. The energy of activation (Ea) predicted for alkamide degradation averaged 101 ± 12 kJ/mol in dry films ± phenolic acids, suggesting the oxidation mechanism was the same under both conditions. In DMSO solutions, Ea values were about one-half of those in dry films (61 ± 14 kJ/mol), suggesting a different mechanism for alkamide oxidation in solution compared to dry. Predicted half-lives for alkamides in extracts suggested very good stability. PMID:17199322

  6. Activities and Prevalence of Proteobacteria Members Colonizing Echinacea purpurea Fully Account for Macrophage Activation Exhibited by Extracts of This Botanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Mona H; Tyler, Heather L; Pugh, Nirmal D; Moraes, Rita M; Maddox, Victor L; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S

    2016-09-01

    Evidence supports the theory that bacterial communities colonizing Echinacea purpurea contribute to the innate immune enhancing activity of this botanical. Previously, we reported that only about half of the variation in in vitro monocyte stimulating activity exhibited by E. purpurea extracts could be accounted for by total bacterial load within the plant material. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that the type of bacteria, in addition to bacterial load, is necessary to fully account for extract activity. Bacterial community composition within commercial and freshly harvested (wild and cultivated) E. purpurea aerial samples was determined using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacterial isolates representing 38 different taxa identified to be present within E. purpurea were acquired, and the activity exhibited by the extracts of these isolates varied by over 8000-fold. Members of the Proteobacteria exhibited the highest potency for in vitro macrophage activation and were the most predominant taxa. Furthermore, the mean activity exhibited by the Echinacea extracts could be solely accounted for by the activities and prevalence of Proteobacteria members comprising the plant-associated bacterial community. The efficacy of E. purpurea material for use against respiratory infections may be determined by the Proteobacterial community composition of this plant, since ingestion of bacteria (probiotics) is reported to have a protective effect against this health condition. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. [Simulation of Stipa purpurea distribution pattern on Tibetan Plateau based on MaxEnt model and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-jun; Zhang, Yi-li; Yu, Hai-bin

    2015-02-01

    The impact of climate change on species distribution is a hot issue in biogeography research. This study utilized the constructive species Stipa purpurea as the research object, which was widely distributed in alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau, investigated its distribution in the Tibetan Plateau through the field survey and herbarium search, and used MaxEnt model to simulate its historical, current and future distribution trends to analyze its distribution pattern in each historical period and explore the cause of species distribution changes. Research results showed that diversity of Stipa species in alpine grassland of the Tibetan Plateau was high, its main distribution area was the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau and areas along the Himalaya, and its distribution was strongly affected by precipitation of warmest quarter, precipitation of wettest quarter and annual precipitation. According to the distribution pattern of S. purpurea in the Last Glacial Maximum, and geographical and geological features of the Tibetan Plateau, this paper proposed that: North Tibet core area of South Qiangtang and Ali region of west Himalaya mountainous area were the core area of the potential distribution for S. purpurea, since these regions could provide more suitable habitats for S. purpurea than other regions and be the refugia where the current S. purpurea was migrated and differentiated from. The presence of refugia may contribute to the understanding of related issues of the alpine plants' origin and differentiation in the Tibetan Plateau.

  8. Isolation of chlorogenic acid from Mutellina purpurea L. herb using high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore proper isolation conditions of chlorogenic acid from the herb of Mutelina purpurea L. - a new source of this bioactive molecule. The accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 40% aqueous solution of methanol combined with high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) was utilised for the efficient extraction and the separation of chlorogenic acid from the M. purpurea herb in less than 30 min. The structure of the obtained compound was confirmed by mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. The preparative HPCCC was performed using the mixture of ethyl acetate, butanol and water (4:1:5, v/v/v) in the reverse-phase mode. The chlorogenic acid was isolated from this herb for the first time, yielding 96% purity. The ASE with 40% methanol combined with HPCCC separation was proven to be a useful tool for quick and efficient isolation of chlorogenic acid from M. purpurea.

  9. 雀稗麦角菌原生质体诱变育种及发酵条件研究%Protoplast mutagenesis of Claviceps paspali and optimization of fermentation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩增飞; 刘志国; 曾丽娟; 房国梁; 付云洁

    2009-01-01

    The strain of Claviceps paspali producing higher yield of ergot alkaloids was obtained through protoplast mutagensis, in which the mycelium of Claviceps paspali was first treated by lywallzyme and the different concentrations of the nitrosoguanidine, and the stable mutants was obtained after the primary screen of UV and second screen of fermentation.The productivity of ergot alkaloids was measured by the method of Van-Urk.The results showed that the productivity of ergot alkaloids was increased by 16 folds (from 90mg/L to 1600mg/L) and the unit productivity of ergot alkaloids was increased by 17 folds ( from 22.5mg/L/g to 400mg/L/g).Inoculum of 20% could short the period of fermentation.These results indicated that the protoplast nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis was a feasible approach to increase the productivity of lysergic amide by the C.papspali strain.%为获得麦角碱高产菌株,提高雀稗麦角菌(Claviceps paspali strain 3103)发酵的产碱率,用溶壁酶水解处理菌丝体、不同浓度的亚硝基胍诱变处理制备的原生质体,经再生培养获得诱变菌株,再经紫外初筛后进行发酵复筛,采用Van-Urk方法测定产碱量.筛选得到的高产菌株进行二级发酵并优化其发酵条件.实验结果表明,经亚硝基胍诱变处理,麦角总碱的产率由90mg/L提高到了1600mg/L,增加了约16倍;单位产碱率由22.5mg/L/g提高到了400mg/L/g,增加了约17倍;连续传代培养可以得到稳定的高产菌株,接种量为20% 时可有效缩短发酵周期.结果表明,用亚硝基胍对原生质体进行诱变处理可有效提高C.papspali的产碱率.

  10. Effect of Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae aqueous extract on antibody response to Bothrops asper venom and immune cell response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chaves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea roots on the murine antibody response to Bothrops asper snake venom in vivo was studied. Three groups were used. Group #1, baseline control, was treated with snake venom plus PBS. Group #2 was treated with snake venom plus sodium alginate as adjuvant (routine method used at Instituto Clodomiro Picado, and group #3 or experimental group, was treated with snake venom plus aqueous extract of E. purpurea root as adjuvant. In all groups, the first inoculation was done with Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA. By the time of the second bleeding, mice in group #3 showed a remarkable increment in the level of anti-venom antibodies compared with those in groups #1 or #2. In vitro immune cell proliferation as a response to aqueous extract of E. purpurea root was studied using human lymphocytes activated with different lectins (Con A, PHA and PWM. In all cases, increase in percentage of lymphoproliferation was greater when E. purpurea root extract was used in addition to individual lectins. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 113-119. Epub 2007 March. 31.Se estudió in vivo, el efecto del extracto acuoso de las raíces de Echinacea purpurea en la respuesta de los anticuerpos murinos al veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper. El grupo 1 control, fue tratado con el veneno y PBS. El grupo 2 con veneno y alginato de sodio (método utilizado en el Instituto Clodomiro Picado, y el grupo 3 o experimental, con veneno y extracto acuoso de las raíces de E. purpurea. En todos los grupos, la primera inmunización fue hecha con FCA (Freund’s Complete Adjuvant. En las muestras correspondientes a la segunda sangría, los ratones del grupo 3 mostraron un marcado incremento en el nivel de anticuerpos, en comparación con los ratones de los otros grupos. También se determinó la proliferación de células inmunes in vitro, como respuesta al extracto acuoso de la raíz de E. purpurea, utilizando linfocitos humanos activados con

  11. Herb-drug interaction between Echinacea purpurea and darunavir-ritonavir in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltó, José; Valle, Marta; Miranda, Cristina; Cedeño, Samandhy; Negredo, Eugenia; Barbanoj, Manuel José; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this open-label, fixed-sequence study was to investigate the potential of Echinacea purpurea, a commonly used botanical supplement, to interact with the boosted protease inhibitor darunavir-ritonavir. Fifteen HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy including darunavir-ritonavir (600/100 mg twice daily) for at least 4 weeks were included. E. purpurea root extract capsules were added to the antiretroviral treatment (500 mg every 6 h) from days 1 to 14. Darunavir concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after a morning dose of darunavir-ritonavir on days 0 (darunavir-ritonavir) and 14 (darunavir-ritonavir plus echinacea). Individual darunavir pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis and compared between days 0 and 14 with the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and its 90% confidence interval (CI). The median age was 49 (range, 43 to 67) years, and the body mass index was 24.2 (range, 18.7 to 27.5) kg/m(2). Echinacea was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. The GMR for darunavir coadministered with echinacea relative to that for darunavir alone was 0.84 (90% CI, 0.63-1.12) for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval, 0.90 (90% CI, 0.74-1.10) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h, and 0.98 (90% CI, 0.82-1.16) for the maximum concentration. In summary, coadministration of E. purpurea with darunavir-ritonavir was safe and well tolerated. Individual patients did show a decrease in darunavir concentrations, although this did not affect the overall darunavir or ritonavir pharmacokinetics. Although no dose adjustment is required, monitoring darunavir concentrations on an individual basis may give reassurance in this setting.

  12. Herb-Drug Interaction between Echinacea purpurea and Darunavir-Ritonavir in HIV-Infected Patients▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltó, José; Valle, Marta; Miranda, Cristina; Cedeño, Samandhy; Negredo, Eugenia; Barbanoj, Manuel José; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this open-label, fixed-sequence study was to investigate the potential of Echinacea purpurea, a commonly used botanical supplement, to interact with the boosted protease inhibitor darunavir-ritonavir. Fifteen HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy including darunavir-ritonavir (600/100 mg twice daily) for at least 4 weeks were included. E. purpurea root extract capsules were added to the antiretroviral treatment (500 mg every 6 h) from days 1 to 14. Darunavir concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after a morning dose of darunavir-ritonavir on days 0 (darunavir-ritonavir) and 14 (darunavir-ritonavir plus echinacea). Individual darunavir pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis and compared between days 0 and 14 with the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and its 90% confidence interval (CI). The median age was 49 (range, 43 to 67) years, and the body mass index was 24.2 (range, 18.7 to 27.5) kg/m2. Echinacea was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. The GMR for darunavir coadministered with echinacea relative to that for darunavir alone was 0.84 (90% CI, 0.63-1.12) for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval, 0.90 (90% CI, 0.74-1.10) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h, and 0.98 (90% CI, 0.82-1.16) for the maximum concentration. In summary, coadministration of E. purpurea with darunavir-ritonavir was safe and well tolerated. Individual patients did show a decrease in darunavir concentrations, although this did not affect the overall darunavir or ritonavir pharmacokinetics. Although no dose adjustment is required, monitoring darunavir concentrations on an individual basis may give reassurance in this setting. PMID:21078942

  13. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of different parts of Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmapriya, Ramamoorthy; Ashwini, Sankar; Raveendran, Ramasamy

    2017-02-01

    The antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of four major parts of methanolic extracts of Tephrosia purpurea including leaves, root, stem and seed were investigated and compared. In vitro antioxidant activity of T. purpurea extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), reducing power assay and antihemolytic assay. In vitro cytotoxic effect of T. purpurea extracts on SW620 colorectal cancer cell line was studied using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl -2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Folin-ciocalteu and aluminium chloride methods were used to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents respectively. Among the four extracts studied, leaves extract showed the highest antioxidant activity, DPPH: 186.3 ± 14.0 μg/mL, FRAP: 754.2 ± 50.9 μmol Fe(II)/mg and reducing power activity: 65.7 ± 4.2 μg/mg of quercetin equivalent (QE/mg) and there was no significant difference observed in antihemolytic activity. Leaves extract showed effective cytotoxicity on colorectal cancer cells (IC50: 95.73 ± 9.6 μg/mL) and also had the higher total phenolic (90.5 ± 6.7 μg/mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE/mg) and flavonoid content (21.8 ± 5.4 μg QE/mg). These results suggest higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of leaves extract in comparison with other extracts and these activities could be due to the presence of rich phenolic and flavonoid content.

  14. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of different parts of Tephrosia purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamoorthy Padmapriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of four major parts of methanolic extracts of Tephrosia purpurea including leaves, root, stem and seed were investigated and compared. In vitro antioxidant activity of T. purpurea extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, reducing power assay and antihemolytic assay. In vitro cytotoxic effect of T. purpurea extracts on SW620 colorectal cancer cell line was studied using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl -2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Folin-ciocalteu and aluminium chloride methods were used to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents respectively. Among the four extracts studied, leaves extract showed the highest antioxidant activity, DPPH: 186.3 ± 14.0 μg/mL, FRAP: 754.2 ± 50.9 μmol Fe(II/mg and reducing power activity: 65.7 ± 4.2 μg/mg of quercetin equivalent (QE/mg and there was no significant difference observed in antihemolytic activity. Leaves extract showed effective cytotoxicity on colorectal cancer cells (IC 50 : 95.73 ± 9.6 μg/mL and also had the higher total phenolic (90.5 ± 6.7 μg/mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE/mg and flavonoid content (21.8 ± 5.4 μg QE/mg. These results suggest higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of leaves extract in comparison with other extracts and these activities could be due to the presence of rich phenolic and flavonoid content.

  15. Effect of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Leaves on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Avijeet; Nahata, Alok; Singhai, Abhay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and nephrocurative effects of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. leaves against gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats. The maximum free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was the basis for the selection of this extract for the in vivo study. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to induce toxicity in the toxic group and the ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg p.o.) was administered in all treated groups. Blood urea and serum creatinine levels were monitored to assess the effects. The antioxidant potential was also evaluated by the estimation of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Gentamicin intoxication caused significant increases in blood urea and serum creatinine levels as compared to the normal control. In the preventive regimen, the extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant reductions in the elevated blood urea and serum creatinine. Histopathological changes were in accordance with the biochemical findings. Also in the curative regimen, the blood urea and serum creatinine levels revealed significant curative effects. In our in vivo antioxidant activity, the GSH level was significantly (PTephrosia purpurea leaves possesses marked nephroprotective and curative activities without any toxicity. The proposed mechanisms for the claimed activity are antioxidant activity and the inhibition of an overproduction of NO and Cox-2 expression. These activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolics and flavonoidal compounds like rutin and quercetin. Thus, it can be said that Tephrosia purpurea could offer a promising role in the treatment of acute renal injury caused by nephrotoxins like gentamicin.

  16. The Clone Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  17. Ameliorative potential of Tephrosia purpurea extract against arsenic induced toxicity in wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra kumar Roy; Naveen Kumar; Reetu Toppo; Priscilla Kerketta; Sushma Lalita Baxla; Ravuri Halley Gora

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the protective activity of Tephrosia purpurea extract (TPE) against arsenic induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: For this study, twenty four wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, group – I rats were given sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg and group – II rats were treated with TPE @ 500 mg/kg along with sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determin...

  18. Primeiro registro de Myriastra purpurea (Ridley, 1884 para a costa brasileira (Porifera, Demospongiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Mothes de Moraes

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The first record of occurrence of Myriastra purpurea (Ridley, 1884 for the South Atlantic Ocean at shallow areas of the Brazilian coast (State of Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba Bay: 23º04'53"/44º00'34"W and State of Santa Catarina, Porto Belo: 27º09'12"S/48º29'30"W widely enlarges the distribution of the species, known only from the Indo-Pacific region. Detailed descriptions and ilustrations of the specimens are offered. A table of micrometric measurements and camera lucida drawings of spicules is also offered.

  19. Effect of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Leaves on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    JAIN, Avijeet; NAHATA, Alok; SINGHAI, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and nephrocurative effects of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. leaves against gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats. The maximum free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was the basis for the selection of this extract for the in vivo study. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to induce toxicity in the toxic group and the ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg p.o.) was administered in all treated groups. Blo...

  20. In vitro antioxidant studies of the ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, G P

    2007-07-01

    The ethanolic extract of the root of Tephrosia purpurea was screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The ethanolic extract exhibited IC(50) values of 132.31±8.79 and 405.22±15.09 respectively in DPPH and nitric acid radical inhibition assay. These values were slightly more than those obtained for ascorbic acid and rutin used as standard. The findings justify the therapeutic application of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value.

  1. In vitro antioxidant studies of the ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, G.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of the root of Tephrosia purpurea was screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The ethanolic extract exhibited IC50 values of 132.31±8.79 and 405.22±15.09 respectively in DPPH and nitric acid radical inhibition assay. These values were slightly more than those obtained for ascorbic acid and rutin used as standard. The findings justify the therapeutic application of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic v...

  2. Cloning of observables

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analyzed.

  3. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  4. Study the Effect of Echinacea Purpurea Extract on Cellular Delayed Type Hypersensitivity and Splenocyte Proliferation in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M. Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Purple cone flower plant (Echinacea purpurea is one of the mostimportant Herbal products in many countries. Up to now a lot of experimentsdemonstrated the controversial effects of this herb on immune system . In thisresearch we study the in vivo and in vitro effect of Iranian E.purpurea extract oncellular immunity.Materials and Methods: At first we determined the lethal dose of E.purpurea extract after intraperitoneal injection in BALB/c mice. Then we made five groups of mice and treat them by four times intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml extract at different doses (0, 0.4, 2, 10 and 50 mg/ml during two weeks. Splenocyte proliferation response to extract was assessed by MTT method. Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTHresponse was evaluated by priming mice with 1×108 Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC injected subcutaneously in the back on day 7after treatment.Results: As a result no significant variation in weight and spleen index of test groups to control was observed. Splenocyte proliferation and DTH response of test groups to control increased significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: However these data confirmed the results of previous studies, inaddition presented the first results about significant increase in DTH response that could not be seen before. Scince the main reason of this difference refers to active compounds of herb extract, comparing effective component of this extract with that of E.purpurea cultivated in other geographical condition will consider as the next studies.

  5. Evaluation of immunopathologic effects of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea in mice after experimental challenge with Pasteurella multocida serotype A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, A; Gharibi, D; Ghorbanpoor, M; Anbari, S; Pourmahdi Broojeni, M

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the immunopathological effects of aqueous Echinacea purpurea extract (EPE) on mice experimentally challenged with Pasteurella multocida serotype A, forty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups. The groups included a control group (received sterile distilled water 2 times/week for 2 weeks, intraperitoneally and then 100 µl sterile saline intranasally), a PMA group (received sterile distilled water as the control group and after 2 weeks, 5.6 × 10(3) CFU/ml of P. multocida serotype A, intranasally), an EPE+PMA group (received E. purpurea extract intraperitoneally 2 times/week for 2 weeks and then challenged as the PMA group) and an EPE group (received E. purpurea extract as EPE+PMA group and then 100 µl sterile saline intranasally). After 24 and 48 h post challenge, half of the animals in each group were sacrificed and analyzed for bacterial counts in their lungs and livers, TNFα serum levels and histapathological changes. The results showed significant differences in lung bacterial counts between PMA and EPE+PMA groups. TNFα serum level was significantly higher in the PMA group. Histopathological examination revealed infiltration of neutrophils in alveolar septa and hyperemia in the PMA group. In addition, the criteria of bronchopneumonia were partially recovered in the EPE+PMA compared to the PMA group. According to the results, it seems that E. purpurea extract has an immunomodulatory effect and can be used to prevent or control of pneumonia caused by Pasteurella.

  6. Effects of extracts from Echinacea purpurea (L) MOENCH on mice infected with different strains of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Cosmo, Maria Luiza Antonio; Reis, Michelle de Paula; Dos Santos, Pamela Secundo; Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Gasparotto, Francielly Mourão; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, due to the growing concern about recurrent epidemics by Toxoplasma gondii and other pathogens in Brazil, there has been an increase in the use of different preparations obtained from Echinacea purpurea in order to test their effectiveness against these infections. Although studies have suggested the beneficial effects of this species against the influenza virus, no data are available on the use of E. purpurea aqueous extract in T. gondii infections. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of its administration in Swiss mice submitted to acute and prolonged infection with different T. gondii strains. This study showed that E. purpurea extract induced a significant reduction in the number of tachyzoites in the peritoneal fluid and liver imprints from mice infected by the RH strain. Moreover, prolonged treatment significantly increased the number of brain cysts of animals infected with ME 49 strain. The results obtained in this study suggest that the crude extract obtained from E. purpurea has important protective activities against infection with different T. gondii strains.

  7. Seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic compounds and phenolic acids in the roots of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Maria O; Fretté, Xavier C; Christensen, Kathrine B; Christensen, Lars P; Grevsen, Kai

    2012-12-12

    Roots of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea pallida cultivated for 4 years in a North European climate were analyzed for seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic constituents (alkamides, ketoalkenes, and ketoalkynes) and phenolic acids by harvesting five times during 1 year to establish the optimal time for harvest. A total of 16 alkamides, three ketoalkenes, two ketoalkynes, and four phenolic acids (echinacoside, cichoric acid, caftaric acid, and chlorogenic acid) were identified in aqueous ethanolic (70%) extracts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The major alkamides in the roots of E. purpurea were at their lowest concentration in the middle of autumn and early winter, and the total concentration of lipophilic compounds in E. pallida showed the same pattern. Moreover, all of the major phenolic acids in E. purpurea were at their highest concentrations in spring. The optimal harvest time in spring is in contrast to normal growing guidelines; hence, this specific information of seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic and phenolic compounds in E. purpurea and E. pallida is valuable for research, farmers, and producers of medicinal preparations.

  8. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON HEPATO AND NEPHROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF BUTTERFLY TREE (BAUHINIA PURPUREA LINN. AGAINST ACETAMINOPHEN INDUCED TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sivanagi Reddy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepato and nephroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia purpurea against paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, Oral doses of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia purpurea was administered to group of animals for 14 days. Silymarin (25 mg/kg served as a standard and paracetamol suspension at a dose of 750 mg/kg, Body weight, was used to induce liver and kidney damage. Parameters of study were glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, triglycerides and total protein as liver function tests, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine and urea as kidney function tests. Biochemical studies showed increase in the levels of serum GOT, GPT, ALP, total bilirubin, triglycerides, BUN, creatinine and urea and reduction in the levels of total protein in paracetamol induced groups. These values are retrieved significantly (p< 0.05 in a dose dependant manner by treatment with ethanolic extracts of Bauhinia purpurea stem bark at three different doses. The overall result suggests that the ethanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia purpurea possesses hepato and nephroprotective activity against paracetamol induced toxicity.

  9. [Response of Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree rings at different slope aspects to rapid warming in western Sichuan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin-de; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2016-02-01

    By using an empirical 'signal-free' standardization approach, we constructed four Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree-ring chronologies at southeast and northwest slope aspects of Erdaohai and east slope aspect of Zharisi, Songpan, west Sichuan, China. The response analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between tree rings and climatic variables were conducted to explore the divergent responses of tree growth at different slope aspects to the recent warming climate. Results showed that tree growth of P. purpurea at east slope aspect was obviously accelerated (0.011 a-1) since rapid warming in 1980, whereas those at northwest slope aspect was significantly reduced (-0.006 a-1). Tree growth of P. purpurea at southeast slope aspect and A. faxoniana at northwest slope aspect decreased in significantly. With the rapid warming, growth-climate relationships of P. purpurea and A. faxoniana at different slope aspects changed significantly. After rapid warming in 1980, the promoting effects of growing season temperature (GST) on P. purpurea growth at east slope increased significantly, while the inhibitory effects of GST on its growth at southeast and northwest slopes also increased significantly. However, the effects of GST on A. faxoniana growth at northwest slope did not change significantly before and after rapid warming. The effects of precipitation in May (PM) on P. purpurea growth at east slope was changed from inhibition before rapid warming to significant promotion after rapid warming, while the inhibitory effects of PM on P. purpurea growth at southeast and northwest slopes increased significantly. For A. faioniana at northwest slope, however, it did not change obviously before and after rapid warming. The response analysis between tree growth and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) showed that soil moisture variations at different slope aspects were an important reason of tree-ring growth response difference since rapid warming. In addition, the

  10. Proteomic characterization of the major arthropod associates of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotelli, Nicholas J; Smith, Aidan M; Ellison, Aaron M; Ballif, Bryan A

    2011-06-01

    The array of biomolecules generated by a functioning ecosystem represents both a potential resource for sustainable harvest and a potential indicator of ecosystem health and function. The cupped leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, harbor a dynamic food web of aquatic invertebrates in a fully functional miniature ecosystem. The energetic base of this food web consists of insect prey, which is shredded by aquatic invertebrates and decomposed by microbes. Biomolecules and metabolites produced by this food web are actively exchanged with the photosynthesizing plant. In this report, we provide the first proteomic characterization of the sacrophagid fly (Fletcherimyia fletcheri), the pitcher plant mosquito (Wyeomyia smithii), and the pitcher-plant midge (Metriocnemus knabi). These three arthropods act as predators, filter feeders, and shredders at distinct trophic levels within the S. purpurea food web. More than 50 proteins from each species were identified, ten of which were predominantly or uniquely found in one species. Furthermore, 19 peptides unique to one of the three species were identified using an assembled database of 100 metazoan myosin heavy chain orthologs. These molecular signatures may be useful in species monitoring within heterogeneous ecosystem biomass and may also serve as indicators of ecosystem state.

  11. KERAGAMAN GENETIK AKSESI EKINASE (Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench HASIL SELEKSI MASSA TAHUN I MELALUI ANALISIS RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Subositi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ekinase (Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench a medicinal plant that has immunostimulatory activity. This plant has been cultivating in Tawangmangu region by Medicinal Plant and Traditional Medicine Research and Development Office since 2002. Ten accessions of E. purpurea were found based on their morphological variation, three accessions of them are selected as promising accessions namely BH2, BHU3 dan BHU5. The objective of this research was to observe the genetic diversity of  those  promising accessions and 8 variants accession from mass selection year I using RAPD analysis. Those accessions were amplified using 10 RAPD primers. A total of 64 scorable fragments were generated from 9 RAPD primers, among which 48 fragments (75% were polymorphic. The Dice coefficient was used to calculated the genetic similarity and UPGMA was used to generate the dendogram. The genetic similarity index among accessions evaluated ranged from 75,49-84,21% thus indicating that low level of genetic diversity. RAPD analysis proved to be efficient for genetic diversity of ekinase accessions from mass selection year I.

  12. Ameliorative potential of Tephrosia purpurea extract against arsenic induced toxicity in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra kumar Roy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the protective activity of Tephrosia purpurea extract (TPE against arsenic induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: For this study, twenty four wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, group – I rats were given sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg and group – II rats were treated with TPE @ 500 mg/kg along with sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days. On 29th day animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, haematological parameter analysis and histomorphological examination are carried out with estimation of arsenic concentration in tissues. Results: Oral administration of sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant decrease in Hb%, TEC and TLC, significant increase of serum glucose, cholesterol, calcium and significant increase in arsenic accumulation in tissues. Histopathological results of intestine revealed haemorrhagic enteritis along with loss of villi. Treatment with Tephrosia purpurea @ 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the elevated glucose, LDH levels, along with significant increase haematological levels towards normal. There was reduced haemorrhagic enteritis and presence of intact villi, as compared to arsenic treated group. But there was no significant difference in serum calcium, serum cholesterol and arsenic concentration in tissues, when compared with arsenic treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of TPE (500 mg/kg daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against arsenic induced toxicity by its protective effect. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 493-496

  13. Gibberellic acid increases secondary metabolite production in Echinacea purpurea hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Bilal H; Stiles, Amanda R; Saxena, Praveen K; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-12-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA(3)) is reported to have diverse effects on hairy root cultures of many plant species; therefore, the effects of GA(3) on the growth, secondary metabolite production (caffeic acid derivatives and lignin), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, and free radical scavenging activity of light-grown Echinacea purpurea L. hairy roots were investigated. Eight concentrations of GA(3), ranging from 0.005 to 1.0 μM, were added to shake flask cultures. The moderate GA(3) concentration, 0.025 μM, resulted in the highest concentrations of cichoric acid, caftaric acid, and chlorogenic acid, as well as increased PAL activity, cell viability, and free radical scavenging activity, while higher and lower GA(3) concentrations resulted in reduced levels compared to the control (lacking GA(3)). The moderate GA(3) concentration also affected root morphogenesis; supplementation with 0.025 μM GA(3) resulted in the development of thick, dense, purple-colored roots, while roots exposed to the higher and lower concentrations of GA(3) were thin and off-white. This study demonstrates that supplementation with GA(3) may be an excellent strategy to optimize the production of secondary metabolites from E. purpurea hairy root cultures; however, the GA(3) concentration is a critical factor.

  14. Echinacea purpurea supplementation does not enhance VO2max in distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W; Bond, Kelsey L; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Doyle, J Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Oral supplementation of Echinacea purpurea (ECH) has been reported to increase levels of serum erythropoietin and as a result improve endurance performance in untrained subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if ECH supplementation alters maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in trained endurance runners. Using a double-blind design, 16 trained endurance runners (9 ECH and 7 placebo [PLA]) supplemented with either 8,000 mg·d(-1) of ECH or wheat flour (PLA) for 6 weeks. Maximal aerobic treadmill tests and blood samples were measured before and after supplementation to determine VO2max, hematocrit (Hct), and hemoglobin (Hb). VO2max, Hct, and Hb did not differ between the ECH and PLA groups before or after supplementation. Furthermore, supplementation of ECH failed to improve VO2max (67.37 ± 4.62 vs. 67.23 ± 5.82 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), Hct (43.57 ± 2.38 vs. 42.85 ± 1.46%), or Hb (14.93 ± 1.27 vs. 15.55 ± 0.80 g·dL(-1)) from baseline measurements. Echinacea purpurea supplementation of 8,000 mg·d(-1) for 6 weeks failed to increase VO2max, Hct, or Hb in trained endurance runners and thus does not seem to influence physiological variables that affect distance running performance.

  15. Echinacea purpurea root extract enhances the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Mi; Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Lee, Youn-Sun; Kim, Wonkyun; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Oh, Seikwan; Jung, Jae-Chul; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Lee, Yong-Moon; Hong, Jin Tae; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

    2014-06-01

    Echinacea purpurea has been shown to have anti-diabetic activities; for example, it activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Adipogenesis has been used to study the insulin signaling pathway and to screen anti-diabetic compounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of E. purpurea (EEEP) and its constituents on the insulin-induced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When adipocyte differentiation was induced with insulin plus 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and dexamethasone, the accumulation of lipid droplets and the cellular triglyceride content were significantly increased by EEEP. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα in adipocytes treated with EEEP were gradually increased as compared with control cells. Fat accumulation and triglyceride content of adipocytes treated with dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide were significantly increased as compared with control cells. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα in adipocytes treated with dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide were significantly higher than in control cells. These results suggest EEEP promotes the adipogenesis that is partially induced by insulin and that dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide appears to be responsible for EEEP-enhanced adipocyte differentiation.

  16. Antibodies against Yariv's reagent for immunolocalization of arabinogalactan-proteins in aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllner, Esther Marie; Gramann, Jean Christian; Classen, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins are glycoproteins that occur in higher plants and are involved in important processes like cell differentiation and plant growth. In the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea L., they belong to the putative immunomodulating compounds and are structurally well characterized. For microscopic localization of arabinogalactan-proteins, synthetic (β-D-Glc)3 Yariv phenylglycoside that specifically binds to most plant arabinogalactan-proteins was used to label arabinogalactan-proteins in fresh cut sections of stems and petioles of Echinacea purpurea. Polyclonal antibodies against (β-D-Glc)3 Yariv phenylglycoside were used to detect the arabinogalactan-protein-(β-D-Glc)3 Yariv phenylglycoside complex. After addition of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated secondary antibodies, the sections were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Arabinogalactan-proteins are localized mainly in the central cylinder in the collateral vascular bundles, especially in the area of the xylem. In cell walls of fully differentiated vessels and tracheids, arabinogalactan-proteins have been detected mainly at the inner area of the wall close to the cell lumina. Intense labeling occurs around pit canals connecting adjacent vessels. Furthermore, arabinogalactan-proteins are present in the lumina of cells of the sclerenchyma caps and in companion cells of the phloem. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Characterization and immunolocalization of arabinogalactan-proteins in roots of Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossy, Andreas; Blaschek, Wolfgang; Classen, Birgit

    2009-11-01

    From the high molecular weight fraction of an aqueous extract from roots of Echinacea purpurea L. Moench, arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), a class of proteoglycans proposed to be involved in cell differentiation and plant growth, were purified and characterized with regard to amino acid composition and structure of the polysaccharide moiety. The protein content of the AGP was 5.0 % (w/w) with the dominating amino acids Glx, Hyp, Asx, Ser, Thr and Ala. The highly branched polysaccharide moiety shows a linkage composition typical of AGPs with 1,3-, 1,6- and 1,3,6-linked galactopyranosyl residues and arabinofuranosyl residues predominantly as terminal and 1,5-linked residues. Terminal units of glucuronopyranose acid were also detected. Furthermore, a new method for the localization of AGPs in plant tissue has been developed. The synthetic (beta- D-Glc)(3) Yariv phenylgycoside (betaGlcY) is known to specifically bind to AGPs. For immunolocalization, polyclonal betaGlcY-antibodies have been generated and were used to label Yariv-treated thin sections of roots from E. purpurea. After addition of the FITC-conjugated secondary antibody, the sections were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. AGPs are detected mainly in the central cylinder in the area of the xylem. Cell walls of vessels and tracheids are strongly labelled, especially at the inner area of the wall. Furthermore, there is intense labelling of the pit canals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  18. Production of cadiotonic glycosides in Digitalis purpurea using temporary immersion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naivy Pérez-Alonso

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Digitalis purpurea, is an example of cardiotonic drug. Digoxin and digitoxin are glycosides produced by this plant which are cardiac stimulants with a wide use in the treatment of heart problems. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of temporary immersion on biomass production and the content of cardiotonic glycosides (digitoxin and digoxin, determined by Liquid Cromatography. Biomass production was favoured by increasing the frequency of immersions. The highest value of fresh weight (106.2 g and lower porcentage of hyperhydricity (27 % were obtained with immersions of 2 minutes every 4 hours. The content of digoxin was always lower than digitoxin. However, the concentration of digoxin increases with 6 and 8 immersions per day, while the accumulation of digitoxin was stable in all treatments. The aeration rates did not increase the biomasss and the concentration of digoxine was nule, nevertheless the concentration of digitoxine increased up to 111μg g.DW. The effect of temporary immersion on glycosides accumulation in shoots of Digitalis purpurea presented in this paper has not been described in the literature till now. temporary immersion Keywords: digitoxin, digoxin, secondary metabolites,

  19. Comparison of alkylamide yield in ethanolic extracts prepared from fresh versus dry Echinacea purpurea utilizing HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelman, Kevin; Wetschler, Matthew H; Cech, Nadja B

    2009-07-12

    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, a top selling botanical medicine, is currently of considerable interest due to immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) binding activities of its alkylamide constituents. The purpose of these studies was to comprehensively profile the alkylamide (alkamide) content of E. purpurea root, and to compare yields of alkylamide constituents resulting from various ethanolic extraction procedures commonly employed by the dietary supplements industry. To accomplish this goal, a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was validated for quantitative analysis of several E. purpurea alkylamides. Using this method, at least 15 alkylamides were identified and it was shown that fresh and dry E. purpurea extracts prepared from equivalent amounts (dry weight) of roots, with exceptions, exhibited similar yield of specific alkylamides. However, the amount of total dissolved solids in the dry extract was higher (by 38%) than the fresh extract. Two extracts prepared from dried roots at different ratios of root:solvent (1:5, w:v and 1:11, w:v) were similar in yield of total dissolved solids, but, there were differences in quantities of specific alkylamides extracted using these two root:solvent ratios. In addition, the important bioactive dodecatetraenoic acid isobutylamides are fully extracted from dry E. purpurea root in 2 days, suggesting that the manufacturing practice of macerating Echinacea extracts for weeks may be unnecessary for optimal alkylamide extraction. Finally, the identification of a new alkylamide has been proposed. These results demonstrate the differences of the described extractions and utility of the analytical methods used to determine the wide-ranging individual alkylamide content of commonly consumed Echinacea extracts.

  20. In vitro CYP3A4 metabolism: inhibition by Echinacea purpurea and choice of substrate for the evaluation of herbal inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Torstein Schrøder; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2008-11-01

    The in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition profiles of Echinacea purpurea, St. John's wort and ketoconazole were evaluated by three different substrates: 7-benzyloxy-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC), 7-benzyloxyquinoline (BQ) and testosterone. St. John's wort and ketoconazole produced similar inhibition profiles regardless of substrate. For E. purpurea, testosterone metabolism showed a much lower CYP3A4 inhibition (IC(50) 5394 microg/ml) compared to the fluorescent substrates BFC and BQ (IC(50) 354 and 452 mg/ml, respectively). It is suggested that the substrate/assay-dependent effects may arise from a complex nature of E. purpurea constituents, involving different CYP3A4 substrate binding sites. The choice of substrate might thus be essential for evaluation of the inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism for some herbs. A weak inhibition potential of E. purpurea towards CYP3A4-mediated metabolism in vitro was confirmed by the use of three different substrates.

  1. Statement on Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ban on efforts to implant a human cloned embryo for the purpose of reproduction. The scientific evidence ... stem cell research, including the use of nuclear transplantation techniques (also known as research or therapeutic cloning), ...

  2. Ethical issues in cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satris, S

    2000-01-01

    There is great public concern with the ethics of human cloning. This paper briefly examines some of what I identify as pseudo-problems or myths associated with cloning, and some of the more substantial ethical concerns.

  3. Purification and molecular cloning of a new galactose-specific lectin from Bauhinia variegata seeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Luciano S Pinto; Celso S Nagano; Taianá M Oliveira; Tales R Moura; Alexandre H Sampaio; Henri Debray; Vicente P Pinto; Odir A Dellagostin; Benildo S Cavada

    2008-09-01

    A new galactose-specific lectin was purified from seeds of a Caesalpinoideae plant, Bauhinia variegata, by affinity chromatography on lactose–agarose. Protein extracts haemagglutinated rabbit and human erythrocytes (native and treated with proteolytic enzymes), showing preference for rabbit blood treated with papain and trypsin. Among various carbohydrates tested, the lectin was best inhibited by D-galactose and its derivatives, especially lactose. SDS-PAGE showed that the lectin, named BVL, has a pattern similar to other lectins isolated from the same genus, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin (BPA). The molecular mass of BVL subunit is 32 871 Da, determined by MALDI-TOF spectrometry. DNA extracted from B. variegata young leaves and primers designed according to the B. purpurea lectin were used to generate specific fragments which were cloned and sequenced, revealing two distinct isoforms. The bvl gene sequence comprised an open reading frame of 876 base pairs which encodes a protein of 291 amino acids. The protein carried a putative signal peptide. The mature protein was predicted to have 263 amino acid residues and 28 963 Da in size.

  4. Purification and molecular cloning of a new galactose-specific lectin from Bauhinia variegata seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Luciano S; Nagano, Celso S; Oliveira, Taianá M; Moura, Tales R; Sampaio, Alexandre H; Debray, Henri; Pinto, Vicente P; Dellagostin, Odir A; Cavada, Benildo S

    2008-09-01

    A new galactose-specific lectin was purified from seeds of a Caesalpinoideae plant, Bauhinia variegata, by affinity chromatography on lactose-agarose. Protein extracts haemagglutinated rabbit and human erythrocytes (native and treated with proteolytic enzymes), showing preference for rabbit blood treated with papain and trypsin. Among various carbohydrates tested, the lectin was best inhibited by D-galactose and its derivatives, especially lactose. SDS-PAGE showed that the lectin, named BVL, has a pattern similar to other lectins isolated from the same genus, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin (BPA). The molecular mass of BVL subunit is 32 871 Da, determined by MALDI-TOF spectrometry. DNA extracted from B.variegata young leaves and primers designed according to the B. purpurea lectin were used to generate specific fragments which were cloned and sequenced, revealing two distinct isoforms. The bvl gene sequence comprised an open reading frame of 876 base pairs which encodes a protein of 291 amino acids. The protein carried a putative signal peptide. The mature protein was predicted to have 263 amino acid residues and 28 963 Da in size.

  5. GIS-based characterization of the geographic distributions of wild and cultivated populations of the Mesoamerican fruit tree Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison J; Knouft, Jason H

    2006-12-01

    Humans are having a profound impact on the geographic distributions of plant populations. In crop species, domestication has been accompanied by the geographic expansion of cultivated populations relative to their wild ancestors. We used a geographical information system (GIS)-based approach to investigate differences in the environmental factors characterizing the geographic distributions of cultivated and wild populations of the Mesoamerican fruit tree Spondias purpurea. Locality data for 86 cultivated and 28 wild S. purpurea populations were used in conjunction with environmental data layers and Maxent, a maximum entropy application for predicting species distributions. Interpredictivity analyses and principal components analysis revealed that the predicted distribution of wild S. purpurea is nested within the cultivated distribution and that the ecological niche (defined by environmental characteristics) of cultivated S. purpurea has expanded relative to that of wild populations. Significant differences between wild and cultivated populations were detected for five environmental variables, corresponding to the expansion of S. purpurea during the domestication process from its native habitat in the Mesoamerican tropical dry forests into less seasonal habitats. These data suggest that humans have altered the range of habitats occupied by cultivated S. purpurea populations relative to their wild progenitors.

  6. Quick and clean cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Frank; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

    2014-01-01

    Identification of unknown sequences that flank known sequences of interest requires PCR amplification of DNA fragments that contain the junction between the known and unknown flanking sequences. Since amplified products often contain a mixture of specific and nonspecific products, the quick and clean (QC) cloning procedure was developed to clone specific products only. QC cloning is a ligation-independent cloning procedure that relies on the exonuclease activity of T4 DNA polymerase to generate single-stranded extensions at the ends of the vector and insert. A specific feature of QC cloning is the use of vectors that contain a sequence called catching sequence that allows cloning specific products only. QC cloning is performed by a one-pot incubation of insert and vector in the presence of T4 DNA polymerase at room temperature for 10 min followed by direct transformation of the incubation mix in chemo-competent Escherichia coli cells.

  7. Applications of the Phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower in Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Echinacea purpurea (EP, purple coneflower have been used traditionally in North America for the treatment of various types of infections and wounds, and they have become very popular herbal medicines globally. Recent studies have revealed that certain standardized preparations contain potent and selective antiviral and antimicrobial activities. In addition, they display multiple immune-modulatory activities, comprising stimulation of certain immune functions such as phagocytic activity of macrophages and suppression of the proinflammatory responses of epithelial cells to viruses and bacteria, which are manifested as alterations in secretion of various cytokines and chemokines. These immune modulations result from upregulation or downregulation of the relevant genes and their transcription factors. All these bioactivities can be demonstrated at noncytotoxic concentrations of extract and appear to be due to multiple components rather than the individual chemical compounds that characterize Echinacea extracts. Potential applications of the bioactive extracts may go beyond their traditional uses.

  8. Applications of the phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower) in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, James B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of Echinacea purpurea (EP, purple coneflower) have been used traditionally in North America for the treatment of various types of infections and wounds, and they have become very popular herbal medicines globally. Recent studies have revealed that certain standardized preparations contain potent and selective antiviral and antimicrobial activities. In addition, they display multiple immune-modulatory activities, comprising stimulation of certain immune functions such as phagocytic activity of macrophages and suppression of the proinflammatory responses of epithelial cells to viruses and bacteria, which are manifested as alterations in secretion of various cytokines and chemokines. These immune modulations result from upregulation or downregulation of the relevant genes and their transcription factors. All these bioactivities can be demonstrated at noncytotoxic concentrations of extract and appear to be due to multiple components rather than the individual chemical compounds that characterize Echinacea extracts. Potential applications of the bioactive extracts may go beyond their traditional uses.

  9. Endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial communities isolated from the medicinal plants Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Carolina; Maida, Isabel; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Biffi, Sauro; Maggini, Valentina; Gori, Luigi; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-09-01

    In this work we analyzed the composition and structure of cultivable bacterial communities isolated from the stem/leaf and root compartments of two medicinal plants, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell, grown in the same soil, as well as the bacterial community from their rhizospheric soils. Molecular PCR-based techniques were applied to cultivable bacteria isolated from the three compartments of the two plants. The results showed that the two plants and their respective compartments were characterized by different communities, indicating a low degree of strain sharing and a strong selective pressure within plant tissues. Pseudomonas was the most highly represented genus, together with Actinobacteria and Bacillus spp. The presence of distinct bacterial communities in different plant species and among compartments of the same plant species could account for the differences in the medicinal properties of the two plants. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  10. Studies on the Insecticidal and Repellent Properties of the Seed Extract of Tephrosia Purpurea (LINN Pers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Saxena

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field trials were conducted to find out the insecticidal and repellent properties of petroleum ether extract of the seeds of Tephrosia purpurea. In laboratory trials contact toxicity of the extract was assessed against land leeches, houseflies, mosquitoes, rice weevil and flour beetle. In field trials, the repellency of the extract was assessed against land leeches, mosquitoes and simulium flies. In laboratory trials, the dosage required for 100 per cent mortality was 0.0005 gm/cm/sup 2/ for land leeches, 0.0157 gm/cm/sup 2/ for flour beetle. In field trials, the extract was found to be repellent against land leeches for 5 hours, mosquitoes for 4 hours and simulium flies for 5 hours.

  11. Spasmolytic activity of a herbal drug isolated from Tephrosia purpurea in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Kapil K; Khare, M L; Saxena, R C

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the spasmolytic activity of herbal drugs isolated from Tephrosia purpurea on guinea pigs for the treatment of asthma in India. For this investigation, the herbal drug was extracted with 70% ethanol in soxhlet apparatus. After purification and isolution, the drug was used in experimental animals to observe prophylactic activity. For anaphylactic activity, horse serum 0.5 ml along with triple antigen (0.5 ml) was induced in guinea pigs. To observe prophylactic activity, male guinea pigs weighing about 250-450 gms were killed by cervical dislocation and the trachea was isolated. Each trachea was cut in to six segments. Each segment consists of three cartilage rings. Each end of tracheal muscles was attached to the bronchospasm transducers for isometric recording of the tension charges on a polygraph. The results of experiments clearly showed the spasmolytic activity of the drug. The preliminary phytochemical investigation, however shows the presence of glycoside saponins.

  12. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavana, P; Manoharan, S; Renju, G L; Sethupathy, S

    2007-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide leading metabolic syndrome, associated with profound alterations in carbohydrate, lipids, lipoproteins and protein metabolisms. Worldwide, traditional practitioners for the treatment of diabetes and its complications use a wide variety of medicinal plants. In the present study the aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea leaves (TpALet) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Profound alterations in the concentrations of blood glucose, lipids and lipoproteins were observed in diabetic rats. Oral administration of TpALet to diabetic rats at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the level of blood glucose and increased the level of plasma insulin as well as normalized the lipids and lipoproteins profile. The present study thus demonstrated that TpALet has prominent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  13. Phylogenetic Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang; Li, You-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds.

  14. Characters with multiple usages- phenotypic variability analysis at Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Radu POP

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Merging aesthetics with utility, some medicinal plants can benefit both of a high production and decoration potential. This calls for diversification of improvement directions of the species. Through this article we suggest one of these species, Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench. This is considered to be important at this time, acquisition of new biological forms - varieties in this species, which show multiple attributes utility based on key biological characteristics, agronomic, physiological, biochemical and agrochemical (medicinal, decorative, culinary etc.. To achieve this goal, studies were undertaken, given in this article, which is the starting point for selecting characters representative for our targets.The results presented in this study reveal a pronounced genetic polymorphism showing the selection operation can use the original material for a quantitative and qualitative differentiation of valuable genotypes that could be approved.

  15. Сравнительный фитохимический анализ цветков rudbeckia hirta l. и echinacea purpurea l.

    OpenAIRE

    Лукашов, Р. И.; Д. В. Моисеев

    2012-01-01

    The botanical characteristic of Echinacea purpurea L. as the inserted species form the Republic of Belarus is given. Identification of raw Echinacea purpurea L. harvested in the territory of the Republic of Belarus is held. The alcohols extracts of Echinacea purpurea L. contained a significant amount of hydroxycinnamic acids and a few amount flavonoids. The flavonoid composition of Rudbeckia hirta L. compared with the composition of Echinacea purpurea L. flavonoids is more var...

  16. Echinacea purpurea and osteopathic manipulative treatment in children with recurrent otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Richard A; Aldous, Michael B; Worden, Katherine A; Grant, Kathryn L

    2008-10-02

    Recurrent otitis media is a common problem in young children. Echinacea and osteopathic manipulative treatment have been proposed as preventive measures, but have been inadequately studied. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Echinacea purpurea and/or osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) for prevention of acute otitis media in otitis-prone children. A randomized, placebo-controlled, two-by-two factorial trial with 6-month follow-up, conducted 1999 - 2002 in Tucson, Arizona. Patients were aged 12-60 months with recurrent otitis media, defined as three or more separate episodes of acute otitis media within six months, or at least four episodes in one year. Ninety children (44% white non-Hispanic, 39% Hispanic, 57% male) were enrolled, of which 84 had follow-up for at least 3 months. Children were randomly assigned to one of four protocol groups: double placebo, echinacea plus sham OMT, true OMT (including cranial manipulation) plus placebo echinacea, or true echinacea plus OMT. An alcohol extract of Echinacea purpurea roots and seeds (or placebo) was administered for 10 days at the first sign of each common cold. Five OMT visits (or sham treatments) were offered over 3 months. No interaction was found between echinacea and OMT. Echinacea was associated with a borderline increased risk of having at least one episode of acute otitis media during 6-month follow-up compared to placebo (65% versus 41%; relative risk, 1.59, 95% CI 1.04, 2.42). OMT did not significantly affect risk compared to sham (44% versus 61%; relative risk, 0.72, 95% CI 0.48, 1.10). In otitis-prone young children, treating colds with this form of echinacea does not decrease the risk of acute otitis media, and may in fact increase risk. A regimen of up to five osteopathic manipulative treatments does not significantly decrease the risk of acute otitis media. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00010465.

  17. Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh, belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC 50 values, all the extracts′ concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases.

  18. Effects of supplemented diets by levamisole and Echinacea purpurea extract on growth and reproductive parameters in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Kasiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation the effects of supplemented diets by levamisole andEchinacea purpurea (Moench, 1794 extract on growth and reproductive parameters in angelfish,Pterophyllum scalare (Lictenstein, 1823. 54 Uniform angelfish (average weight 3.8±0.29 g wereselected. The fishes were fed by three diets which included commercial extruder diet (control,commercial extruder diet supplemented by 0.25 ppt levamisole (T1 and commercial extruder dietsupplemented by 0.25 ppt Echinacea purpurea extract (T2. The experiment was conducted for 3 months.The weight gain in T2 was significantly higher than other groups (p0.05 in fecundity and hatching rate among groups but the best survival of yolk-sacabsorption period was found in group fed supplemented diet by Echinacea extract (pEchinacea extract supplementation andlarval survival can be promoted by it.

  19. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea: An in vivo study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Azmat; Khan, Rahat Ali; Nasiruddin, Mohammad; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Our objective is to study the nephroprotective activity and antioxidant potential of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Healthy adult albino rats of either sex (150-200 g) were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each Group I (vehicle control) and Group II (negative control). Group III (BBE200) and Group IV (BBE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea bark in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively, and Group V (BPE200) and Group VI (BPE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively. All the treatments were given for nine days. Cisplatin in a single dose of 6 mg/kg i.p. was given on the 4 th day to all groups, except the vehicle control group. On the 10 th day, blood and urine were collected for biochemical tests and the rats were sacrificed. The kidney was removed for histology and lipid peroxidation-antioxidant test. Cisplatin caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by elevated blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was decreased creatinine clearance in Group II as compared with Group I. Administration of BBE and BPE at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in Group III and Group VI caused a dose-dependant reduction in the rise of blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was a dose-dependant increase in creatinine clearance compared with Group II. There was increased catalase and glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde levels in Group II, while BBE 400 (Group IV) and BPE 400 (Group VI) treatments significantly reversed the changes toward normal values. Histological examination of the kidney revealed protection in Group IV and Group VI compared with Group II. The ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark has a nephroprotective activity against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  20. Estimation of Flavonoid, Polyphenolic Content and In-vitro Antioxidant Capacity of leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani Patel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn (sarpankh, belonging to the family Leguminosae being used for the treatment of jaundice and claimed to be effective in many other diseases. The present research work wasunder taken to investigate the in-vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Method The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So that the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-Spectrophotometric determination.

  1. An Integrated Field and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Method for the Estimation of Pigments Content of Stipa Purpurea in Shenzha, Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stipa purpurea is the representative type of alpine grassland in Tibet and the surviving and development material for herdsmen. This paper takes Shenzha County as the research area. Based on the analysis of typical hyperspectral variables sensitive to chlorophyll content of Stipa purpurea, 10 spectral variables with significant correlation with chlorophyll were extracted. The estimation model of chlorophyll was established. The photosynthetic pigment contents in the Shenzha area were calculated by using HJ-1A remote sensing images. The results show that (1 there are significant correlations between chlorophyll content and spectral variables; in particular, the coefficient of Chlb in Stipa purpurea with RVI is the largest (0.728; (2 10 variables are correlated with chlorophyll, and the order of correlation is Chlb > Chla > Chls; (3 for the estimation of Chla, the EVI is the best variable. RVI, NDVI, and VI2 are suitable for Chlb; RVI and NDVI are also suitable for the estimation of Chls; (4 the mean estimated content of Chla in Stipa bungeana is about 4.88 times that of Chlb, while Cars is slightly more than Chlb; (5 the distribution of Chla is opposite to Chlb and Chls content in water area.

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation with Echinacea purpurea on vaccine efficacy against infection with Flavobacterium columnare in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guz, L; Puk, K; Walczak, N; Oniszczuk, T; Oniszczuk, A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of dietary Echinacea purpurea (EP) on the response of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to a Flavobacterium columnare vaccine was investigated. Two hundred D. rerio with an average weight of 290 ± 40 g were selected and fed different levels of E. purpurea (5 g kg(-1) diet--group 1, 10 g kg(-1) diet--group 2, 20 g kg(-1) diet--group 3, 30 g kg(-1) diet--group 4, and 0 g kg(-1) diet--group 5). Experimental feeding was begun 3 weeks prior to bath immunization and continued until the end of the experiment. Twenty-eight days after immunization the fish were challenged by bath immersion with F. columnare at a concentration of 1 x 10(6) CFU/ml. The relative percent survival of the experimental groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) was 5.0, 6.0, 30.0, 36.0 and 5.0, respectively. In conclusion, diet supplementation with E. purpurea may effectively enhance the response of zebrafish to a F. columnare vaccine.

  3. Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Antihypertensive Properties of Echinacea purpurea Flower Extract and Caffeic Acid Derivatives Using In Vitro Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shiow-Ying; Sung, Jih-Min; Huang, Po-Wei; Lin, Sheng-Dun

    2017-02-01

    The extraction yield, total phenols, caffeic acid derivatives (CAD), and antioxidant properties of 50% ethanolic Echinacea purpurea flower extract were determined. The in vitro inhibitory effects of 50% ethanolic extract and CAD on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) linked with type 2 diabetes were also investigated. The extraction yield, total phenols, and total CAD of the extract were 27.04%, 195.69 mg CAE/g and 78.42 mg/g, respectively. Cichoric acid (56.03 mg/g) was the predominant CAD compound in the extract. The extract exhibited good antioxidant properties. The extract and CAD inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the tested samples, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid (IC50 of 1.71-1.81 mg/mL) had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity, cichoric acid (IC50 of 0.28 mg/mL) showed higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Both chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid (IC50 of 0.11-0.14 mg/mL) demonstrated higher ACE-inhibitory activity. The in vitro results suggest that E. purpurea extract and CAD have good potential for managing hyperglycemia and hypertension. Overall, the data suggest it is a choice for developing antihyperglycemia and antihypertension compounds from field-grown E. purpurea.

  4. Tephrosia purpurea ameliorates N-diethylnitrosamine and potassium bromate-mediated renal oxidative stress and toxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N; Sharma, S; Alam, A; Saleem, M; Sultana, S

    2001-06-01

    In an earlier communication, we have shown that Tephrosia purpurea ameliorates benzoyl peroxide-induced oxidative stress in murine skin (Saleem et al. 1999). The present study was designed to investigate a chemopreventive efficacy of T purpurea against N-diethylnitrosamine-initiated and potassium bromate-mediated oxidative stress and toxicity in rat kidney. A single intraperitoneal dose of N-diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg body weight) one hr prior to the dose of KBrO3 (125 mg/kg body weight) increases microsomal lipid peroxidation and the activity of xanthine oxidase and decreases the activities of renal antioxidant enzymes viz., catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phase II metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase and causes depletion in the level of renal glutathione content. A sharp increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine has also been observed. Prophylactic treatment of rats with T. purpurea at doses of 5 mg/kg body weight and 10 mg/kg body weight prevented N-diethylnitrosamine-initiated and KBrO3 promoted renal oxidative stress and toxicity. The susceptibility of renal microsomal membrane for iron ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activities were significantly reduced (Ppurpurea besides a skin antioxidant can be a potent chemopreventive agent against renal oxidative stress and carcinogenesis induced by N-diethylnitrosamine and KBrO3.

  5. Statement on Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as our understanding of this technology advances. Support Stem Cell Research (including Research Cloning) AAAS supports stem cell research, including the use of nuclear transplantation techniques (also ...

  6. Echinacea purpurea significantly induces cytochrome P450 3A activity but does not alter lopinavir-ritonavir exposure in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzak, Scott R; Robertson, Sarah M; Hunt, Jennifer D; Chairez, Cheryl; Malati, Christine Y; Alfaro, Raul M; Stevenson, James M; Kovacs, Joseph A

    2010-08-01

    . To determine the influence of Echinacea purpurea on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir-ritonavir and on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and P-glycoprotein activity by using the probe substrates midazolam and fexofenadine, respectively. Open-label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study. Outpatient clinic in a federal government research center. Thirteen healthy volunteers (eight men, five women). Subjects received lopinavir 400 mg-ritonavir 100 mg twice/day with meals for 29.5 days. On day 16, subjects received E. purpurea 500 mg 3 times/day for 28 days: 14 days in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir and 14 days of E. purpurea alone. In order to assess CYP3A and P-glycoprotein activity, subjects received single oral doses of midazolam 8 mg and fexofenadine 120 mg, respectively, before and after the 28 days of E. purpurea. On days 15 and 30 of lopinavir-ritonavir administration (before and after E. purpurea administration, respectively), serial blood samples were collected over 12 hours to determine lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations and subsequent pharmacokinetic parameters by using noncompartmental methods. Neither lopinavir nor ritonavir pharmacokinetics were significantly altered by 14 days of E. purpurea coadministration. The post-echinacea: pre-echinacea geometric mean ratios (GMRs) for lopinavir area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0-12 hours and for maximum concentration were 0.96 (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.10, p=0.82) and 1.00 (90% CI 0.88-1.12, p=0.72), respectively. Conversely, GMRs for midazolam AUC from time zero extrapolated to infinity and oral clearance were 0.73 (90% CI 0.61-0.85, p=0.008) and 1.37 (90% CI 1.10-1.63, p=0.02), respectively. Fexofenadine pharmacokinetics did not significantly differ before and after E. purpurea administration (p>0.05). Echinacea purpurea induced CYP3A activity but did not alter lopinavir concentrations, most likely due to the presence of the potent CYP3A inhibitor, ritonavir. Echinacea purpurea

  7. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  8. Assessment of the effect of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench on apoptotic and mitotic activity of liver cells during intoxication by cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalinskiene, Alina; Lesauskaite, Vaiva; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Abdrakhmanov, Oleg; Kregzdyte, Rima; Sadauskiene, Ilona; Ivanov, Leonid; Savickiene, Nijole; Zitkevicius, Virgilijus; Savickas, Arunas

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is an important industrial pollutant, although its mechanism of toxicity has not been completely clarified. Cd(2+) is toxic to a wide range of organs and tissues, however, the primary target organs of Cd(2+) toxicity are the liver and kidney. Echinacea purpurea stimulating one or another tread of the immune system stimulates the expression of immunoglobulins and interferons. The experiments were performed on white laboratory mice using intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections 0.05 LD(50) amount of CdCl(2) solution. Two groups of mice were injected by Echinacea purpurea liquid extract: one 0.05 LD(50) and the other 0.1 LD(50). In this article, the Cd(2+) distribution in internal organs, its effect on the mitotic and apoptotic activity of liver cells, as well as effects of Echinacea purpurea liquid extract on Cd(2+)-induced changes in mice were investigated. Cd(2+) concentration in mice blood, liver, and kidney was detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Long-term injections of extract of Echinacea purpurea combined with Cd(2+)Cl(2) leads to the significant increase of Cd(2+) concentration in blood and investigated organs of experimental mice. Mitotic and apoptotic activity of liver cells was expressed as the estimated number of mitotic and apoptotic liver cells in randomly selected reference areas in histological slide. Echinacea purpurea decreases the mitotic activity of liver cells induced by Cd(2+) and increases apoptotic activity of the liver cells.

  9. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by the multiherbal commercial product Sambucus Force and its main constituents Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder-Aasen, Torstein; Molden, Guri; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2012-11-01

    The multiherbal product Sambucus Force contains Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra as its main constituents. The aims of this study were to evaluate Sambucus Force's inhibition potential and inhibition mechanisms towards CYP3A4, and to evaluate the inhibitory co-contribution of E. purpurea and S. nigra. Metabolic studies were performed with recombinant human CYP3A4, with testosterone as substrate. Sambucus Force inhibited CYP3A4 activity with a mean (95% confidence interval) half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) value of 1192 (1091-1302) µg/mL. The inhibitory potency seems exclusively to be exerted by E. purpurea, implicating an insignificant inhibition by S. nigra. The inhibition by E. purpurea as a single herb was in agreement with mechanism-based inhibition with heterotropic positive cooperative effects. Echinacea purpurea acted differently in the multiherbal product, which showed a dual inhibition profile with both an uncompetitive (substrate-dependent) inhibition and a time-dependent (substrate-independent) inhibitory mechanism. These mechanistic differences are suggested to be caused by herb-herb interactions in the multiherbal product. The CYP3A4 inhibition of Sambucus Force in vitro is considered relatively weak, but recommended high herbal dosages might enhance the potential for clinical interactions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Hydroponic screening for metal resistance and accumulation of cadmium and zinc in twenty clones of willows and poplars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Utmazian, Maria Noel dos [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wieshammer, Gerlinde [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Vega, Rosa [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wenzel, Walter W. [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: walter.wenzel@boku.ac.at

    2007-07-15

    We screened 20 different clones of willow and poplar species in hydroponic experiments for their metal resistance and accumulation properties. Plants were exposed for 4 weeks either to single additions of ({mu}M) 4.45 Cd or 76.5 Zn, or a metal cocktail containing the same amounts of Cd and Zn along with 7.87 Cu and 24.1 Pb. Plant biomass, metal tolerance and metal accumulation pattern in roots and leaves varied greatly between clones. The leaf:root ratio of metal concentrations was clearly underestimated compared to soil experiments. The largest metal concentrations in leaves were detected in Salix dasyclados (315 mg Cd kg{sup -1} d.m.) and a Salix smithiana clone (3180 mg Zn kg{sup -1} d.m.) but these species showed low metal tolerance. In spite of smaller Cd and Zn concentrations, the metal-tolerant clones Salix matsudana, Salix fragilis-1, and Salix purpurea-1 hold promise for phytoextraction as they produced large biomass and metal contents in leaves. - Hydroponically grown willows and poplar clones accumulate up to (mg kg{sup -1} d.w.) 315 Cd and 3180 Zn in leaves.

  11. Cloning-free CRISPR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, Mandana; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Geijsen, Niels; Sherwood, Richard I

    2015-01-01

    We present self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR), a technology that allows for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic mutation and site-specific knockin transgene creation within several hours by circumventing the need to clone a site-specific single-guide RNA (sgRNA) or knockin homology construct for each targ

  12. Cloning-free CRISPR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, Mandana; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Geijsen, Niels; Sherwood, Richard I

    2015-01-01

    We present self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR), a technology that allows for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic mutation and site-specific knockin transgene creation within several hours by circumventing the need to clone a site-specific single-guide RNA (sgRNA) or knockin homology construct for each

  13. Cloning-free CRISPR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, Mandana; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Geijsen, Niels|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194303403; Sherwood, Richard I

    2015-01-01

    We present self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR), a technology that allows for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic mutation and site-specific knockin transgene creation within several hours by circumventing the need to clone a site-specific single-guide RNA (sgRNA) or knockin homology construct for each targ

  14. Echinacea purpurea and osteopathic manipulative treatment in children with recurrent otitis media: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worden Katherine A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recurrent otitis media is a common problem in young children. Echinacea and osteopathic manipulative treatment have been proposed as preventive measures, but have been inadequately studied. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Echinacea purpurea and/or osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT for prevention of acute otitis media in otitis-prone children. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, two-by-two factorial trial with 6-month follow-up, conducted 1999 – 2002 in Tucson, Arizona. Patients were aged 12–60 months with recurrent otitis media, defined as three or more separate episodes of acute otitis media within six months, or at least four episodes in one year. Ninety children (44% white non-Hispanic, 39% Hispanic, 57% male were enrolled, of which 84 had follow-up for at least 3 months. Children were randomly assigned to one of four protocol groups: double placebo, echinacea plus sham OMT, true OMT (including cranial manipulation plus placebo echinacea, or true echinacea plus OMT. An alcohol extract of Echinacea purpurea roots and seeds (or placebo was administered for 10 days at the first sign of each common cold. Five OMT visits (or sham treatments were offered over 3 months. Results No interaction was found between echinacea and OMT. Echinacea was associated with a borderline increased risk of having at least one episode of acute otitis media during 6-month follow-up compared to placebo (65% versus 41%; relative risk, 1.59, 95% CI 1.04, 2.42. OMT did not significantly affect risk compared to sham (44% versus 61%; relative risk, 0.72, 95% CI 0.48, 1.10. Conclusion In otitis-prone young children, treating colds with this form of echinacea does not decrease the risk of acute otitis media, and may in fact increase risk. A regimen of up to five osteopathic manipulative treatments does not significantly decrease the risk of acute otitis media. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00010465

  15. PHARMACOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON 'SHVET SHARPUNKHA' - A COMPARATIVE DIAGNOSTIC ACCOUNT OF TEPHROSIA VILLOSA PERS. AND T. PURPUREA (LINN.) PERS. FORM ALBIFLORA S. R. PAUL et. R. C. GUPTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R C

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of 'shapunkha', the 'Shvet' (white) and 'Rakta' (red) are described in some of the Ayurvedic texts and the former is reported therapeutically more effective. Some of the Ayurvedic physicians use T. villosa Pers. as 'Shvet sharpunkha' due to its persistently villous silky white parts. While others have advocated white colour of flowers as main feature for distinguishing "Shvet sharpunkha'. A white flowered form of Tephrosia purpurea which is found in association with red or purple flowered ones is reported by us as T. purpurea (Linn.) Pers. Form albiflora S. R. Paul et R. C. Gupta. In the present work, however, detailed comparative pharmacognosy of all vegetable parts of T. villosa and T. purpurea f. albiflora have been carried out. Also the study reveals that two species exhibit great similarity in their macro - an microscopical feature.

  16. Biogenic nano-scale silver particles by Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract and their inborn antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitha, B.; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y.; Reddy, P. Sreedhara

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract. The biomolecules present in the leaf extract are responsible for the formation of Ag NPs and they found to play dual role of both reducing as well as capping agents. The high crystallinity of Ag NPs is evident from bright circular spot array of SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile. The synthesized Ag NPs are found to be nearly spherical ones with size approximately ∼20 nm. FTIR spectrum evidences the presence of different functional groups of biomolecules participated in encapsulating Ag NPs and the possible mechanism of Ag NPs formation was also suggested. Appearance of yellow color and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 425 nm confirms the Ag NPs formation. PL spectra showed decrement in luminescence intensity at higher excitation wavelengths. Antimicrobial activity of Ag NPs showed better inhibitory activity towards Pseudomonas spp. and Penicillium spp. compared to other test pathogens using standard Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay.

  17. Use of ethylenediurea (EDU) to ameliorate ozone effects on purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szantoi, Zoltan [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: szantzo@auburn.edu; Chappelka, Arthur H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: chappah@auburn.edu; Muntifering, Russell B. [Animal Sciences Department, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: muntirb@auburn.edu; Somers, Greg L. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: somergl@auburn.edu

    2007-11-15

    Purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea) were placed into open-top chambers (OTCs) for 6 and 12 weeks in 2003 and 2004, respectively, and exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF) or twice-ambient (2x) ozone (O{sub 3}) in 2003, and to CF, 2x or non-filtered (NF), ambient air in 2004. Plants were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) weekly as a foliar spray. Foliar symptoms were observed in >95% of the plants in 2x-treated OTCs in both years. Above-ground biomass was not affected by 2x treatments in 2003, but root and total-plant biomass decreased in 2004. As a result of higher concentrations of select cell wall constituents (% ADF, NDF and lignin) nutritive quality was lower for plants exposed to 2x-O{sub 3} in 2003 and 2004 (26% and 17%, respectively). Significant EDU x O{sub 3} interactions for concentrations of cell wall constituents in 2003 indicated that EDU ameliorated O{sub 3} effects on nutritive quality. Interactions observed in 2004 were inconsistent. - EDU can potentially ameliorate negative effects of O{sub 3} on nutritive quality in purple coneflower.

  18. Induction of Tetraploids from Petiole Explants through Colchicine Treatments in Echinacea purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanayake Nilanthi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Petiole explants were obtained from in vitro grown diploid (2x=22 Echinacea purpurea plantlets. Shoots were regenerated by culturing the explants on MS basal medium containing 0.3 mg/L benzyladenine (BA, 0.01 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and four concentrations (30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/L of colchicine for 30 days, or 120 mg/L of colchicine for various durations (7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The regenerated shoots were induced to root on MS basal medium with 0.01 mg/L NAA, and then the root-tips of the regenerated shoots were sampled for count of chromosome number. It was found that a treatment duration of >7 days was necessary for induction of tetraploid (4x=44 shoots, and treatment with 120 mg/L colchicine for 28 days was the most efficient for induction of tetraploids, yielding 23.5% of tetraploids among all the regenerated shoots. Chimeras were observed in almost all the treatments. However, the ratio of tetraploid to diploid cells in a chimeric plant was usually low. In comparison with diploid plants, tetraploid plants in vitro had larger stomata and thicker roots with more root branches, and had prominently shorter inflorescence stalk when mature.

  19. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor K Paisie

    Full Text Available The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems.

  20. Agaricus bisporus compost improves the potential of Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid for copper accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdziak, Z; Mleczek, M; Gąsecka, M; Drzewiecka, K; Kaczmarek, Z; Siwulski, M; Goliński, P

    2016-08-02

    The aim of the study was to determine the ability of spent mushroom compost (SMC) from the production of Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) to stimulate the growth and efficiency of copper (Cu) accumulation by Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid. Roots, shoots and leaves were analysed in terms of total Cu content and selected biometric parameters. Due to the absence of information regarding the physiological response of the studied plant, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), phenolic compounds and salicylic acid (SA) contents were investigated. The obtained results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness (usefulness) of SMC in promoting the growth and stimulation of Cu accumulation by the studied Salix taxon. The highest Cu content in roots and shoots was found at the 10% SMC addition (507±22 and 380±11 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while there was a reduction of the content in leaves and young shoots (109±8 and 124±7 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively). In terms of physiological response, lowered secretion of LMWOAs, biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and SA, as well as accumulation of soluble sugars in Salix leaves was observed with SMC addition. Simultaneously, an elevation of the total phenolic content in leaves of plants cultivated with SMC was observed, considered as antioxidant biomolecules.

  1. Immune enhancing effects of Echinacea purpurea root extract by reducing regulatory T cell number and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Ran; Oh, Sei-Kwan; Lim, Woosung; Lee, Hyeon Kook; Moon, Byung-In; Seoh, Ju-Young

    2014-04-01

    Echinacea purpurea preparations (EPs) have been traditionally used for the treatment of various infections and also for wound healing. Accumulating evidence suggests their immunostimulatory effects. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to play a key role in immune regulation in vivo. However, there have been no reports so far on the effects of EP on the frequency or function of Tregs in vivo. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the quantitative and functional changes in Tregs by in vivo administration with EP. The frequencies of CD4+FoxP3+ and CD4+CD25+ Tregs in the spleens of BALB/c mice administered with EP for 3 weeks were investigated by flow cytometry. The suppressive function of CD4CD25+ Tregs in association with the proliferative activity of CD4+CD25 effector T cells (Teffs) and the feeder function of CD4 antigen-presenting cells (APCs) were analyzed by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester-dilution assay. The results showed a lowered frequency of CD4+FoxP3+ and CD4+CD25+ Tregs and attenuated suppressive function of CD4+CD25+ Tregs, while the feeder function of APCs was enhanced in the EP-administered mice. On the other hand, the proliferative activity of Teffs was not significantly different in the EP-administered mice. The results suggest that decreased number and function of Tregs, in association with the enhanced feeder function of APCs, may contribute to the enhancement of immune function by EP.

  2. Effect of Echinacea purpurea L. on oxidative status and meat quality in Arbor Acres broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu Tai; Ciou, Jhih Ying; Chen, Chung Li; Yu, Bi

    2013-01-15

    Echinacea purpurea L. (EP) is a popular herbal antioxidant and immunomodulator. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of EP on meat quality and oxidative status in broilers. Two hundred and fifty (1-day-old) male broilers (Arbor Acres) were randomly allocated to five groups including the control (corn-soybean meal diet) and 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% EP powder groups, with two replicates per treatment group. The results indicated that the addition of 0.5% and 1.0% EP significantly increased water-holding capacity and decreased storage loss of breast and thigh fillets at 35 days old. For fillet colour, L* (lightness) values were lower, and a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values were higher with EP supplementation. Lower crude fat contents were observed in EP groups in comparison with control at 35 days of age in breast and thigh fillets, respectively. Production of malondialdehyde was slightly reduced in serum of EP supplemented birds compared to the control group. Results for Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly higher for the 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% EP supplemental groups than control group in serum. Liver and spleen tissues results showed that the antioxidative enzymes activities were higher with EP powder at 35 days of age. Dried EP can be used as a feed additive to improve the meat quality and oxidative status in Arbor Acres broilers. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Synergetic effects of oral administration of levamisole and Echinacea purpurea on immune response in Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; khayat-Nuri, Hadi; Abadi, Narges; Ghavami, Siavash; Golabi, Mostafa; Shanebandi, Dariush

    2011-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of levamisole and Echinacea purpurea (EP), separately and together on the immune response of the rat as a laboratory model. In this experiment, 40 male Wistar rats were obtained and divided into four groups (n=10). These groups received normal saline (10 mg/kg), EP (500 mg/kg), levamisole (2 mg/kg) and EP (500 mg/kg) with levamisole (2 mg/kg) as oral gavages every day for a period of 4 weeks, respectively. After obtaining blood samples (at the end of each week), haematocrit (HCT), differential and total white blood cell (WBC) counts, phagocyte activity (number), total protein, albumin and globulins levels of samples were obtained. The results of the study showed that the gamma globulin level, WBC, neutrophil and monocyte counts and phagocyte activity increased significantly in comparison with normal saline group during the study. According to the results, each of the mentioned agents had a stimulant effect on the immune system separately and together on rats. In the group that received EP and levamisole simultaneously, these effects were synergistically increased. These compounds, by increasing the mentioned factors, will probably affect the immune system. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibiotic resistance differentiates Echinacea purpurea endophytic bacterial communities with respect to plant organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Chiellini, Carolina; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Fondi, Marco; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-10-01

    Recent findings have shown that antibiotic resistance is widespread in multiple environments and multicellular organisms, as plants, harboring rich and complex bacterial communities, could be hot spot for emergence of antibiotic resistances as a response to bioactive molecules production by members of the same community. Here, we investigated a panel of 137 bacterial isolates present in different organs of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea, aiming to evaluate if different plant organs harbor strains with different antibiotic resistance profiles, implying then the presence of different biological interactions in the communities inhabiting different plant organs. Data obtained showed a large antibiotic resistance variability among strains, which was strongly related to the different plant organs (26% of total variance, P < 0.0001). Interestingly this uneven antibiotic resistance pattern was present also when a single genus (Pseudomonas), ubiquitous in all organs, was analyzed and no correlation of antibiotic resistance pattern with genomic relatedness among strains was found. In conclusion, we speculate that antibiotic resistance patterns are tightly linked to the type of plant organ under investigation, suggesting the presence of differential forms of biological interaction in stem/leaves, roots and rhizosphere. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Antagonistic interactions between endophytic cultivable bacterial communities isolated from the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Isabel; Chiellini, Carolina; Mengoni, Alessio; Bosi, Emanuele; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fondi, Marco; Fani, Renato

    2016-09-01

    In this work we have studied the antagonistic interactions existing among cultivable bacteria isolated from three ecological niches (rhizospheric soil, roots and stem/leaves) of the traditional natural medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. The three compartments harboured different taxonomic assemblages of strains, which were previously reported to display different antibiotic resistance patterns, suggesting the presence of differential selective pressure due to antagonistic molecules in the three compartments. Antagonistic interactions were assayed by the cross-streak method and interpreted using a network-based analysis. In particular 'within-niche inhibition' and 'cross-niche inhibition' were evaluated among isolates associated with each compartment as well as between isolates retrieved from the three different compartments respectively. Data obtained indicated that bacteria isolated from the stem/leaves compartment were much more sensitive to the antagonistic activity than bacteria from roots and rhizospheric soil. Moreover, both the taxonomical position and the ecological niche might influence the antagonistic ability/sensitivity of different strains. Antagonism could play a significant role in contributing to the differentiation and structuring of plant-associated bacterial communities. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Induction of tetraploids from petiole explants through colchicine treatments in Echinacea purpurea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilanthi, Dahanayake; Chen, Xiao-Lu; Zhao, Fu-Cheng; Yang, Yue-Sheng; Wu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Petiole explants were obtained from in vitro grown diploid (2x = 22) Echinacea purpurea plantlets. Shoots were regenerated by culturing the explants on MS basal medium containing 0.3 mg/L benzyladenine (BA), 0.01 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and four concentrations (30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/L) of colchicine for 30 days, or 120 mg/L of colchicine for various durations (7, 14, 21, and 28 days). The regenerated shoots were induced to root on MS basal medium with 0.01 mg/L NAA, and then the root-tips of the regenerated shoots were sampled for count of chromosome number. It was found that a treatment duration of >7 days was necessary for induction of tetraploid (4x = 44) shoots, and treatment with 120 mg/L colchicine for 28 days was the most efficient for induction of tetraploids, yielding 23.5% of tetraploids among all the regenerated shoots. Chimeras were observed in almost all the treatments. However, the ratio of tetraploid to diploid cells in a chimeric plant was usually low. In comparison with diploid plants, tetraploid plants in vitro had larger stomata and thicker roots with more root branches, and had prominently shorter inflorescence stalk when mature.

  7. Spasmolytic, bronchodilator and vasorelaxant activity of methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Jan, Asma; Qadir, M Imran; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The methanolic extract of the whole plant of Tephrosia pupurea, Linn. was subjected to find out its possible therapeutic utility to validate its folkloric use in native systems of medicine. The extract on application to spontaneous contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations exerted a concentration dependent (0.003-3.0 mg/mL) relaxant effect. The extract also caused concentration dependent relaxation of K+(80 mM)-induced spastic contractions. These findings were further supported by the observations that the extract caused a concentration dependent right ward shift of the Ca2+ response curves in manner similar to that of verapamil. The extract exhibited a relaxant effect on carbachol and high K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions of isolated rabbit tracheal preparations in a manner similar to verapamil. The observed non-specific bronchodilator response is possibly mediated through Ca2+ channel blockade. Moreover, the extract also exhibited a dose dependent relaxant effect on phenylephrine (1 microM) and K+(80 mM)-induced contractions in a manner similar to verapamil. On the basis of the above-mentioned findings, it can be concluded that the use of Tephrosia purpurea, in gastrointestinal spasm, asthma and hypertension is likely to be mediated through calcium channel blockage.

  8. The Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea active bioassay for water monitoring: evaluating and comparing methodological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Betânia Brizola Cassanego

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea cuttings with flower buds are utilized in bioassays to diagnose genotoxic effects of water. The literature describes different substances used to adapt and recover the cuttings before and after exposure to water samples and also describes the effects of different exposure times. This study evaluated and compared the micronuclei (MCN frequencies in T. pallida when cuttings with flower buds were submitted to different methodological conditions. The bioassay was then applied bimonthly during seven months to assess the genotoxic potential of a site located on the Sinos River in Campo Bom, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Micronuclei frequencies in buds of cuttings adapted and recovered in distilled water and in Hoagland solution were 3.0 and 2.9, respectively, for cuttings exposed to river water, and 1.19 and 1.23 in controls. No significant differences among MCN frequencies were observed when cuttings were exposed for 8, 24 or 32 hours to river water (from 3.07 to 4.73 and in controls (from 1.13 to 2.00 in all samplings during a year. Adaptation and recovery of cuttings in distilled water or Hoagland solution and exposure for different times did not influence the response of T. pallida, indicating that all the conditions tested are viable for biomonitoring of water genotoxicity. Water samples from the Sinos River presented genotoxicity during the period monitored, evidenced by the MCN frequencies recorded which were significantly higher than the frequencies of the controls.

  9. A spatially explicit analysis of seedling recruitment in the terrestrial orchid Orchis purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Vandepitte, Katrien; Honnay, Olivier; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    Seed dispersal and the subsequent recruitment of new individuals into a population are important processes affecting the population dynamics, genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of plant populations. Spatial patterns of seedling recruitment were investigated in two populations of the terrestrial orchid Orchis purpurea using both univariate and bivariate point pattern analysis, parentage analysis and seed germination experiments. Both adults and recruits showed a clustered spatial distribution with cluster radii of c. 4-5 m. The parentage analysis resulted in offspring-dispersal distances that were slightly larger than distances obtained from the point pattern analyses. The suitability of microsites for germination differed among sites, with strong constraints in one site and almost no constraints in the other. These results provide a clear and coherent picture of recruitment patterns in a tuberous, perennial orchid. Seed dispersal is limited to a few metres from the mother plant, whereas the availability of suitable germination conditions may vary strongly from one site to the next. Because of a time lag of 3-4 yr between seed dispersal and actual recruitment, and irregular flowering and fruiting patterns of adult plants, interpretation of recruitment patterns using point patterns analyses ideally should take into account the demographic properties of orchid populations.

  10. Use of ethylenediurea (EDU) to ameliorate ozone effects on purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szantoi, Zoltan; Chappelka, Arthur H; Muntifering, Russell B; Somers, Greg L

    2007-11-01

    Purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea) were placed into open-top chambers (OTCs) for 6 and 12 weeks in 2003 and 2004, respectively, and exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF) or twice-ambient (2x) ozone (O3) in 2003, and to CF, 2x or non-filtered (NF), ambient air in 2004. Plants were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) weekly as a foliar spray. Foliar symptoms were observed in >95% of the plants in 2x-treated OTCs in both years. Above-ground biomass was not affected by 2x treatments in 2003, but root and total-plant biomass decreased in 2004. As a result of higher concentrations of select cell wall constituents (% ADF, NDF and lignin) nutritive quality was lower for plants exposed to 2x-O3 in 2003 and 2004 (26% and 17%, respectively). Significant EDU x O3 interactions for concentrations of cell wall constituents in 2003 indicated that EDU ameliorated O3 effects on nutritive quality. Interactions observed in 2004 were inconsistent.

  11. Enzyme free cloning for high throughput gene cloning and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R.N.; Daniëls, M.; Kaptein, R.; Folkers, G.E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural and functional genomics initiatives significantly improved cloning methods over the past few years. Although recombinational cloning is highly efficient, its costs urged us to search for an alternative high throughput (HTP) cloning method. We implemented a modified Enzyme Free Cloning (EF

  12. Enzyme free cloning for high throughput gene cloning and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R.N.; Daniëls, M.; Kaptein, R.; Folkers, G.E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural and functional genomics initiatives significantly improved cloning methods over the past few years. Although recombinational cloning is highly efficient, its costs urged us to search for an alternative high throughput (HTP) cloning method. We implemented a modified Enzyme Free Cloning

  13. Unified Approach to Universal Cloning and Phase-Covariant Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jia-Zhong; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the problem of approximate quantum cloning when the quantum state is between two latitudes on the Bloch's sphere. We present an analytical formula for the optimized 1-to-2 cloning. The formula unifies the universal quantum cloning (UQCM) and the phase covariant quantum cloning.

  14. Enzyme free cloning for high throughput gene cloning and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R.N.; Daniëls, M.; Kaptein, R.; Folkers, G.E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural and functional genomics initiatives significantly improved cloning methods over the past few years. Although recombinational cloning is highly efficient, its costs urged us to search for an alternative high throughput (HTP) cloning method. We implemented a modified Enzyme Free Cloning (EF

  15. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the TIGR japonica Pseudomolecu...les kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  16. BIOETHICS AND HUMAN CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  17. Do Managers Clone Themselves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Alma S.

    1981-01-01

    A recent questionnaire survey provides statistics on male managers' views of female managers. The author recommends that male managers break out of their cloning behavior and that the goal ought to be a plurality in management. (Author/WD)

  18. In-vitro activity of saponins of bauhinia purpurea, madhuca longifolia, celastrus paniculatus and semecarpus anacardium on selected oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K S; Seshagiri, M

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  19. Molecular Phylogeny, Diversity, and Bioprospecting of Endophytic Fungi Associated with wild Ethnomedicinal North American Plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Camila R; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-07-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, of which Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium, and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 are the most frequent colonizers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis. The compounds (-)-5-methylmellein and (-)-(3R)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterraneaEPU38CA crude extract. (-)-5-Methylmellein showed weak activity against Phomopsis obscurans, P. viticola, and Fusarium oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botrytis cinerea. (-)-(3R)-8-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5-methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment.

  20. Cytotoxic effects of Echinacea purpurea flower extracts and cichoric acid on human colon cancer cells through induction of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Ling; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Yi-Fu Chen, Jeff; Chan, Kung-Chi; Lin, Sheng-Dun

    2012-10-11

    Echinacea is a top-selling herbal supplement that acts as immunostimulant. It has been used to treat common cold, coughs, bronchitis and upper respiratory infections. It is also a popular product used in anticancer therapy. The cytotoxic effects of Echinacea on cancer cells are still not clear. The aims of this study were to provide a preliminary validation of the effects of 50% aqueous ethanol extract of Echinacea purpurea flowers and its major compound, cichoric acid, on human colon cancer cells Caco-2 and HCT-116. The cytotoxic effects of Echinace flower extracts and cichoric acid on cell viability, telomerase activity, DNA fragmentation, β-catenin, caspase-9, and cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) of human colon cancer cell were examined. The results showed a significant inhibition of proliferation in E. purpurea flower extract and cichoric acid in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cichoric acid treatment decreased telomerase activity in HCT-116 cells. Moreover, cichoric acid effectively induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells, which were characterized by DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-9, cleavage of PARP and downregulation of β-catenin. Our data indicate that cichoric acid has a strong growth-inhibitory effect against colon cancer cells, presumably resulting from the reduced telomerase activity and the induction of apoptosis. The exact mechanism of action should still be determined in future studies. Overall, the effects of 50% aqueous ethanol extract of E. purpurea flowers and cichoric acid may have provided in vitro evidence for the use as chemotherapeutic agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies on phytochemical, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic and antiproliferative activities of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarland, Rayn Clarenc; Bañuelos-Hernández, Angel Ernesto; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar Del Carmen; Díaz de León-Sánchez, Fernando; Pérez-Flores, Laura Josefina; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando; Mendoza-Espinoza, José Alberto

    2017-12-01

    Echinacea (Asteraceae) is used because of its pharmacological properties. However, there are few studies that integrate phytochemical analyses with pharmacological effects. Evaluate the chemical profile and biological activity of hydroalcoholic Echinacea extracts. Density, dry matter, phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu method), flavonoids (AlCl3 method), alkylamides (GC-MS analysis), antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS methods), antiproliferative effect (SRB assay), anti-inflammatory effect (paw oedema assay, 11 days/Wistar rats; 0.4 mL/kg) and hypoglycaemic effect (33 days/Wistar rats; 0.4 mL/kg) were determined in three Echinacea extracts which were labelled as A, B and C (A, roots of Echinacea purpurea L. Moench; B, roots, leaves, flowers and seeds of Echinacea purpurea; C, aerial parts and roots of Echinacea purpurea and roots of Echinacea angustifolia DC). Extract C showed higher density (0.97 g/mL), dry matter (0.23 g/mL), phenols (137.5 ± 2.3 mEAG/mL), flavonoids (0.62 ± 0.02 mEQ/mL), and caffeic acid (0.048 mg/L) compared to A and B. A, B presented 11 alkylamides, whereas C presented those 11 and three more. B decreased the oedema (40%) on day 2 similar to indomethacin. A and C showed hypoglycaemic activity similar to glibenclamide. Antiproliferative effect was only detected for C (IC50 270 μg/mL; 8171 μg/mL; 9338 μg/mL in HeLa, MCF-7, HCT-15, respectively). The difference in the chemical and pharmacological properties among extracts highlights the need to consider strategies and policies for standardization of commercial herbal extracts in order to guarantee the safety and identity of this type of products.

  2. Radioprotection effect on irradiation mice of haemopoietic cell of echinacea purpurea(north American herb) by the celiac medication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kiyoto; Gu, Yeunhwa; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Park, Sangrea; Trai, Kaoru; Tanaka, Kenichirou; Tajima, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Takeo; Suzuki, Ikukatsu [Suauka Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan); Mishima, Satoshi [Api Co., LTD., Kifu (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The medicine that suspension made phosphoric acid saline make the dryness leaf powder of Echinacea purpurea which is typical north American herb in medical herb with the multiple seeds muddy, in the ICR male mouse (age of five weeks). It period in three times a week, eight weeks, and Celiac Medication was given. (360mg/kg/mouse). 2Gy irradiated it by the X-ray irradiation device (200kV, 0.35Gy/min) for the Echinacea purpurea medication the third week. Collecting blood was done in the sutra time target from the day before X-ray irradiation, and a change in the corpuscle number (the number of the leukocyte, the number of the lymphocyte, the number of the granulocytes, the number of monocyte) was observed. The number of the leukocytes of the non-medication control group faced, and increase in the number of the leukocytes in the medication group wasn't recognized with the thing before the X-ray irradiation as a result. It faced though the number of the leukocytes decreased remarkably due to the radiation irradiation in the non-medication control group, and the decrease was controlled as for the medication group. The recovery of the number of the leukocytes of the medication group in the group after the X-ray irradiation showed a tendency of becoming early in comparison with the non-medication control group. As for the number of the lymphocyte except for the leukocyte, the number of the granulocyte, the number of monocyte as well, it could get the same result as the number of the leukocytes. Than the above result, Echinacea purpurea toward the mice blood cell. Effect on radiation protection along with effect on repression of a blood number decrease due to the irradiation manufactured by was suggested.

  3. Effects of chemically characterized fractions from aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia on myelopoiesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasahayam, Sindhura; Baraka, Hany N; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; Abuasal, Bilal S; Widrlechner, Mark P; Sayed, Khalid A El; Meyer, Sharon A

    2011-11-01

    Echinacea species are used for beneficial effects on immune function, and various prevalent phytochemicals have immunomodulatory effects. Using a commercial E. purpurea (L.) Moench product, we have evaluated the myelopoietic effect on bone marrow of rats treated with various extracts and correlated this with their chemical class composition. Granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) from femurs of female Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed at 24 h after 7 daily oral treatments. A 75% ethanolic extract at 50 mg dried weight (derived from 227 mg aerial parts) per kg body weight increased GM-CFCs by 70% but at 100 mg/kg was without effect. Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of E. angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia and E. purpurea from the USDA North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station increased GM-CFCs by 3- and 2-fold, respectively, at 200 mg/kg (~1400 mg/kg plant material). Extract from another USDA E. angustifolia was inactive. Proton and APT NMR, MS, and TLC indicated alkylamides and caffeic-acid derivatives (CADs) present in ethanolic extracts of both the commercial and USDA-derived material. Cichoric and caftaric acids were prominent in both E. purpurea ethanolic extracts but absent in E. angustifolia. Aqueous extract of the commercial material exhibited polysaccharide and CAD signatures and was without effect on GM-CFCs. A methanol-CHCl3 fraction of commercial source, also inactive, was almost exclusively 1:4 nonanoic: decanoic acids, which were also abundant in commercial ethanolic extract but absent from USDA material. In conclusion, we have demonstrated an ethanolextractable myelostimulatory activity in Echinacea aerial parts that, when obtained from commercial herbal supplements, may be antagonized by medium-chain fatty acids presumably derived from a non-plant additive. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  5. Sistemas de producción de Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae en el centro-occidente de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca C Ramírez Hernández

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Describimos las características de los agroecosistemas y rasgos morfológicos, físicos y químicos relacionados con la calidad de los frutos de la guayaba, Spondias purpurea L., que se producen en poblaciones silvestres y cultivadas en el centro-occidente de México. Spondias purpurea se desarrolla en suelos rocosos, poco profundos e infértiles, poco aptos para la agricultura tradicional. En los frutos se registró el peso, longitud axial y radial, pH, sólidos solubles totales (SST, azúcares reductores, proteínas y contenido de minerales. El peso promedio de frutos en las variedades cultivadas (20 g resultó superior al de las silvestres (16 g. Las variedades cultivadas registraron en promedio los valores más altos de pH, SST, azúcares reductores y contenido de proteínas (3.3, 12.15º Brix, 0.38 g/100 g y 1.18 g/100 g, respectivamente que las silvestres (3.0, 8.31º Brix, 0.24 g/100 g y 0.14 g/100 g, respectivamente. La productividad de la especie es aceptable (de 0.15 ton ha-1 a 5.0 ton ha-1 dado que requiere de un mínimo de manejo agronómico. Esta especie tiene un contenido nutrimental comparable al de las especies frutales más importantes; además, produce frutos frescos durante los meses secos de la primavera por lo que S. purpurea es fuente de agua y alimento para la fauna silvestre y doméstica. Estas características resaltan su importancia agronómica y ecológica para los ambientes tropicales y subtropicales en donde puede ser utilizada en programas de reforestación por su capacidad para desarrollarse en suelos rocosos infértiles, y en agroecosistemas en los que se practica agricultura de subsistencia. De hecho, el cultivo de S. purpurea puede ayudar a convertir suelos marginales en productivos.Production systems of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae in Central West México. Morphological, physical and chemical traits related with fruit quality characteristics of Spondias purpurea L. agroecosystems were studied in Central

  6. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea: An in vivo study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Azmat Rana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to study the nephroprotective activity and antioxidant potential of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Healthy adult albino rats of either sex (150-200 g were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each Group I (vehicle control and Group II (negative control. Group III (BBE200 and Group IV (BBE400 were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea bark in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively, and Group V (BPE200 and Group VI (BPE400 were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively. All the treatments were given for nine days. Cisplatin in a single dose of 6 mg/kg i.p. was given on the 4 th day to all groups, except the vehicle control group. On the 10 th day, blood and urine were collected for biochemical tests and the rats were sacrificed. The kidney was removed for histology and lipid peroxidation-antioxidant test. Cisplatin caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by elevated blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was decreased creatinine clearance in Group II as compared with Group I. Administration of BBE and BPE at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in Group III and Group VI caused a dose-dependant reduction in the rise of blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was a dosedependant increase in creatinine clearance compared with Group II. There was increased catalase and glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde levels in Group II, while BBE 400 (Group IV and BPE 400 (Group VI treatments significantly reversed the changes toward normal values. Histological examination of the kidney revealed protection in Group IV and Group VI compared with Group II. The ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark has a nephroprotective activity against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  7. HPLC method validated for the simultaneous analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides in Echinacea purpurea plants and products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Per; Johnsen, Søren; Christensen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to determine caffeic acid derivatives, for example, cichoric acid, and alkamides in plant parts and herbal products of Echinacea purpurea. The method consists of an extraction procedure whereby the hydrophilic...... phenolics as well as the lipophilic alkamides are released from the samples, followed by the analytical HPLC procedure for quantitative determination of these compounds. The method is the first one validated for the determination of these two groups of compounds in the same procedure. Naringenin has been...

  8. Secondary cell wall composition and candidate gene expression in developing willow (Salix purpurea) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongfang; Gritsch, Cristina; Tryfona, Theodora; Ray, Mike J; Andongabo, Ambrose; Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Jones, Huw D; Dupree, Paul; Karp, Angela; Shewry, Peter R; Mitchell, Rowan A C

    2014-05-01

    The properties of the secondary cell wall (SCW) in willow largely determine the suitability of willow biomass feedstock for potential bioenergy and biofuel applications. SCW development has been little studied in willow and it is not known how willow compares with model species, particularly the closely related genus Populus. To address this and relate SCW synthesis to candidate genes in willow, a tractable bud culture-derived system was developed in Salix purpurea, and cell wall composition and RNA-Seq transcriptome were followed in stems during early development. A large increase in SCW deposition in the period 0-2 weeks after transfer to soil was characterised by a big increase in xylan content, but no change in the frequency of substitution of xylan with glucuronic acid, and increased abundance of putative transcripts for synthesis of SCW cellulose, xylan and lignin. Histochemical staining and immunolabeling revealed that increased deposition of lignin and xylan was associated with xylem, xylem fibre cells and phloem fibre cells. Transcripts orthologous to those encoding xylan synthase components IRX9 and IRX10 and xylan glucuronyl transferase GUX1 in Arabidopsis were co-expressed, and showed the same spatial pattern of expression revealed by in situ hybridisation at four developmental stages, with abundant expression in proto-xylem, xylem fibre and ray parenchyma cells and some expression in phloem fibre cells. The results show a close similarity with SCW development in Populus species, but also give novel information on the relationship between spatial and temporal variation in xylan-related transcripts and xylan composition.

  9. PRODUCCIÓN DE Echinacea purpurea EN TRES LOCALIDADES DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Loaiza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la producción de la planta medicinal Echinacea purpurea en 3 localida- des de Costa Rica: Los Santos, a 1650 msnm, temperatura máxima de 26,5°C y mínima de 15,5°C, precipitación promedio de 2635 mm año -1, y suelos franco-arcillo-arenosos de alta fertilidad; Santa Bárbara, a 1250 msnm,temperatura máxima de 27,4°C y mínima de 16,9°C, precipitación promedio de 2924 mm año -1, y suelos francos de fertilidad media; y, Ojo de Agua a 850 msnm, temperatura máxima de 29,1°C y mínima de 19,1°C, precipitación promedio de 2302 mm año -1, y suelos franco-arenosos de fertilidad baja. La mayor cantidad de follaje y raíz se produjo en la zona de Los Santos, seguida por Santa Bárbara y Ojo de Agua, respectivamente. Aun cuando en la zona de Los Santos la densidad de siembra fue solo de 112500 plantas ha-1 comparada con 243000 plantas ha-1 en las otras 2 localidades; parece que las condiciones climáticas prevalecientes a la altura de Los Santos, así como las prácticas culturales utilizadas, favorecieron no sólo la producción de materia seca sino también la acumulación de los metabolitos secundarios de interés. El ingreso económico neto obtenido en la zona de Los Santos fue 47 y 59% mayor que en Santa Bárbara y Ojo de Agua, respectivamente.

  10. Echinacea purpurea L. in children: safety, tolerability, compliance, and clinical effectiveness in upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Paul Richard; Smith, Fraser; Schusky, Read Weaver

    2007-11-01

    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench was mistakenly taken from North America to Germany in 1939 where it was cultivated and various extractions were prepared and subsequently used to treat upper respiratory tract infections. Parents often administer Echinacea to their children, but safety data on the use of Echinacea in Canadian children is lacking. A screening history, physical examination, and daily record of symptoms from an initial visit through to a the follow-up visit 13 days later were used to increase patient safety. Each subject was administered an aerial part Echinacea extract. The dose was based on age (2.5 mL three times per day for children aged 2-5 years, and 5 mL two times per day for children aged 6-12 years) and administered for 10 days in an open-label trial. A rating scale was used to measure tolerance to the treatment. We assessed the safety and compliance of use of the Echinacea extract by measuring the amount of extract returned at the end of the study, having the parents complete and return a daily symptom diary, and recording the subjects' use of other natural health products or medications during the trial. Clinical effectiveness of the Echinacea extract could not be accurately assessed because of the small trial size and because the extract had been administered when some of the subjects had an upper respiratory tract infection that had begun 1 or more days prior to the study; however, each subject's symptoms improved. No allergic or adverse reaction occurred and no safety issues arose.

  11. Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench modulates human T-cell cytokine response☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fabiana N.; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Lin, Hong; Lau, Clara B.S.; Kennelly, Edward J.; Cassileth, Barrie R.; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the composition of a neutral and weakly acidic water-soluble extract from Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (EchNWA) previously shown to modify murine influenza infection, and to assess immunomodulatory effects on human T-cells. EchNWA extract from fresh aerial parts was extracted with water, ethanolic precipitation, and size-exclusion chromatography. The chemical profile of EchNWA was characterized by chromatography (size-exclusion, HPLC, GC–MS), and small molecule finger-print analysis performed by HPLC–PDA. Jurkat T-cells at high and low cell density were pretreated or not with doses of EchNWA, followed by activation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin (PMA+I). Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFNg) cytokine secretions were measured by multi-cytokine luminex technology. Results showed that EchNWA contains 80% polysaccharides, predominantly a 10 kDa entity; phenolic compounds, cynarin, cichoric and caftaric acids, but no detectable alkylamides. Cytokine production required stimulation and was lower after PMA+I activation in high-density compared to low-density conditions. EchNWA mediated a strong dose-dependent enhancement of high-density T-cell production of IL-2 and IFNg response to PMA+I. EchNWA alone did not stimulate T-cells. EchNWA enhanced mean fluorescence intensity of IL-2 in Jurkat T-cells activated by PMA+1 or ionomycin alone. Conversely EchNWA mediated modest but significant suppression of IFNg response and reduced the percentage of CD25+ T-cells under low-density conditions. Conclusions are that EchNWA polysaccharides, but not phenolic compounds have dose-related adjuvant effects on human T-cell cytokine responses characterized by enhancing and suppressive effects that are regulated by T-cell density. PMID:24434371

  12. Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench modulates human T-cell cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fabiana N; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Lin, Hong; Lau, Clara B S; Kennelly, Edward J; Cassileth, Barrie R; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna

    2014-03-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the composition of a neutral and weakly acidic water-soluble extract from Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (EchNWA) previously shown to modify murine influenza infection, and to assess immunomodulatory effects on human T-cells. EchNWA extract from fresh aerial parts was extracted with water, ethanolic precipitation, and size-exclusion chromatography. The chemical profile of EchNWA was characterized by chromatography (size-exclusion, HPLC, GC-MS), and small molecule fingerprint analysis performed by HPLC-PDA. Jurkat T-cells at high and low cell density were pretreated or not with doses of EchNWA, followed by activation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin (PMA+I). Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFNg) cytokine secretions were measured by multi-cytokine luminex technology. Results showed that EchNWA contains 80% polysaccharides, predominantly a 10kDa entity; phenolic compounds, cynarin, cichoric and caftaric acids, but no detectable alkylamides. Cytokine production required stimulation and was lower after PMA+I activation in high-density compared to low-density conditions. EchNWA mediated a strong dose-dependent enhancement of high-density T-cell production of IL-2 and IFNg response to PMA+I. EchNWA alone did not stimulate T-cells. EchNWA enhanced mean fluorescence intensity of IL-2 in Jurkat T-cells activated by PMA+1 or ionomycin alone. Conversely EchNWA mediated modest but significant suppression of IFNg response and reduced the percentage of CD25+ T-cells under low-density conditions. Conclusions are that EchNWA polysaccharides, but not phenolic compounds have dose-related adjuvant effects on human T-cell cytokine responses characterized by enhancing and suppressive effects that are regulated by T-cell density. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of gibberellic acid, stratification and salinity on seed germination of Echinacea purpurea cv. Magnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadeh Shamila Yadolahi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the appropriate treatment for breaking dormancy and the effect of salinity on seed germination of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea cv. Magnus, in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, five levels of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0, 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg×L−1 with four levels of cold moist stratification period of seeds at 5°C (0, 5, 10 and 15 days were launched. A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications. The statistical analysis showed that concentration of 250 mg×L−1 GA3 with 10 days of cold moist chilling significantly increased the percentage of germination of normal seedlings and reduced the mean time of germination. In the second experiment, the seeds were chilled for 10 days at 5°C and half of them treated with 250 mg×L−1 GA3 for 24 hours. The seeds treated with GA3, and those non-treated were subjected to NaCl for salinity stress. The experiment was conducted using five salinity levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM NaCl in four replications in a completely randomized design. The results showed that purple coneflower is highly sensitive to salinity in the germination stage. The results also showed that by increasing salinity levels, the percentage of germination and normal seedlings significantly decreased and the mean time to germination increased, compared to the control treatment. But the seeds treated with GA3 showed higher viability and better performance under salinity stress condition.

  14. Effects of cichoric acid extract from Echinacea purpurea on collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Li, Weizu; Wang, Yuchan; Zhang, Xiaosu; Yu, Deqiang; Yin, Yanyan; Xie, Zhongwen; Yuan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Cichoric acid extract (CAE) from Echinacea purpurea L. was used to investigate the anti-arthritic effect by using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. The hind paw swelling volume and the body weight were measured and recorded. All the drug solutions were administered orally to rats for a total of 28 days. On day 28, the rats were anaesthetized and decapitated. The thymus and spleen were weighed for the determination of the organ index. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) in the serum was measured using commercially available ELISA kits. Total and phosphor-NF-κB and Cox-2 protein expression in synovial tissues were determined by histological slides quantification and western blot analysis. Our data showed that administration of all doses of CAE (8, 16, and 32 mg/kg) significantly decreased the paw swelling, restored body weight gain and decreased the organ index of the thymus and spleen compared with that of the CIA group. CAE (8, 16, and 32 mg/kg) treatment significantly reduced the levels of TNFα, IL-1β and PGE-2 in serum compared with the CIA group. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that CAE has obvious anti-arthritic activity. In addition, CAE (32 mg/kg) significantly decreased the levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), TNFα and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in synovium tissues of the ankle joint compared with the CIA group. Furthermore, CAE administration significantly decreased the protein expression of phosphor-NF-κB and Cox-2 in synovium tissues of the knee joint compared with the CIA group. The results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of CAE may account for its anti-arthritic effect, and CAE could be a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  15. Research Advances in Immunomodulation of Echinacea purpurea. in China%国内紫锥菊免疫调节作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 付京城; 李洪; 付京花

    2012-01-01

    紫锥菊属植物,是原产于美洲的一类菊科野生花卉。紫锥菊以其免疫调节作用闻名于世。近年来,国内引种成功,其各种药理作用在人类、畜牧业以及水产养殖业有了广泛的研究。综述国内紫锥菊免疫调节作用在不同行业的研究进展,为紫锥菊在国内的应用提供参考。%The Echinacea purpurea., one of the plants of Compositae originated from America, has been widely used for centuries in North America and later in Europe for many therapeutic purposes. In resent years, the Echinacea purpurea. was introduced successfully in China and the pharmacological effects were widely researched in human, animal husbandry and aquiculture respectively. The advances in immunomodulation studies on Echinacea purpurea. in China were reviewed to provide the references for application of Echinacea purpurea .

  16. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 2: Echinacea purpurea-Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schmidt, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 2: Echinacea purpurea Moench-Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. EpS/L25, Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea and Able To Synthesize Antimicrobial Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presta, Luana; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Miceli, Elisangela; Maggini, Valentina; Bogani, Patrizia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain EpS/L25, isolated from the stem/leaves of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. This genome will allow for comparative genomics in order to identify genes associated with the production of bioactive compounds and antibiotic resistance. PMID:27151804

  18. THE EFFECT OF THE TREATMENTS WITH GAMMA RADIATIONS ON THE CONTENT OF NUCLEIC ACIDS TO THE SPECIES OF HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L. AND ECHINACEA PURPUREA (L MOENCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luminita Ichim

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The gamma radiations determined to the species of Echinacea purpurea (L Moench on increase of the quantity of DNA, comparatively to control and to the species of Hypericum perforatum (L., the decrease of the quantity of DNA (excepting the30 Gy dose witch hand a stimulative effect.

  19. Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Extract of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to further establish the pharmacological properties of Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae, hepatoprotective potential of methanol extract of B. purpurea leaves (MEBP was investigated using the paracetamol- (PCM- induced liver toxicity in rats. Five groups of rats (n=6 were used and administered orally once daily with 10% DMSO (negative control, 200 mg/kg silymarin (positive control, or MEBP (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg for 7 days, followed by the hepatotoxicity induction using paracetamol (PCM. The blood samples and livers were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant study using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay with the total phenolic content (TPC also determined. From the histological observation, lymphocyte infiltration and marked necrosis were observed in PCM-treated groups (negative control, whereas maintenance of the normal hepatic structural was observed in group pretreated with silymarin and MEBP. Hepatotoxic rats pretreated with silymarin or MEBP exhibited significant decrease (P<0.05 in ALT and AST enzyme level. Moreover, the extract also exhibited antioxidant activity and contained high TPC. In conclusion, MEBP exerts potential hepatoprotective activity that could be partly attributed to its antioxidant activity and high phenolic content and thus warrants further investigation.

  20. Growing environment and nutrient availability affect the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Saxena, Praveen K

    2006-12-01

    Medicinal plant production is different from other agricultural production systems in that the plants are grown for the production of specific phytochemical(s) for human use. To address this need, a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant, controlled-environment production system was developed for production of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia. Within the prototype facility, the growing systems, nutrient availability, water and physical environment were highly controlled. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of different hydroponic systems, nutrient solution NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratios and mild water stress on the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea plants. The deep-flow solution culture system in which the plant roots were continuously immersed in the nutrient solutions was optimum for the growth of E. purpurea. Higher concentrations of caftaric acid, cynarin and echinacoside were produced in E. angustifolia plants grown in the soil-based growing media while the plants grown in the deep-flow solution system had higher levels of cichoric acid. Altering the NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratio or limited water stress did not have any significant effect on the phytochemical content of Echinacea plants. Echinacea plants grown in the controlled environment systems had higher or similar amounts of cynarin, caftaric acid, echinacoside and cichoric acid as previously reported in the literature for both field-cultivated and wild-harvested Echinacea plants. This growing system offers the advantages of year-round crop production with minimal contamination by environmental pollutants and common microbes.

  1. Alkamides and a neolignan from Echinacea purpurea roots and the interaction of alkamides with G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Judit; Rédei, Dóra; Forgo, Peter; Szabó, Pál; Freund, Tamás F; Haller, József; Bojnik, Engin; Benyhe, Sándor

    2011-10-01

    Multiple chromatographic separations of the CHCl₃-soluble extract of the roots of Echinacea purpurea led to the isolation of 19 compounds. Four natural products, three alkamides and nitidanin diisovalerianate, were identified, and five further compounds were detected for the first time in this species. Additionally, 10 known E. purpurea metabolites were isolated. The structures were determined by mass spectrometry and advanced 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The bioactivity of the isolated compounds was studied in [³⁵S]GTPγS-binding experiments performed on rat brain membrane preparations. Both partial and inverse agonist compounds for cannabinoid (CB1) receptors were identified among the metabolites, characterized by weak to moderate interactions with the G-protein signaling mechanisms. The G-protein-modulating activities of the Echinacea compounds are rather far from the full agonist effects seen with the CB1 receptor agonist reference compound arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA). However, upon coadministration with ACEA, a number of them proved capable of inhibiting the stimulation of the pure agonist, thereby demonstrating cannabinoid receptor antagonist properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Echinacea purpurea Extract Polarizes M1 Macrophages in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages Through the Activation of JNK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Aikun; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yanping; Chen, Hongliang; Zheng, Shasha; Li, Yali; Xu, Xin; Li, Weifen

    2017-09-01

    Echinacea purpurea is an indigenous North American purple cone flower used by North Americans for treatment of various infectious diseases and wounds. This study investigated the effect of polysaccharide enriched extract of Echinacea purpurea (EE) on the polarization of macrophages. The results showed that 100 µg/mL of EE could markedly activate the macrophage by increasing the expression of CD80, CD86, and MHCII molecules. Meanwhile, EE upregulated the markers of classically activated macrophages (M1) such as CCR7 and the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, TNF-αand NO. The functional tests showed that EE enhanced the phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal activity of macrophage against ST. Furthermore, we demonstrated that JNK are required for EE-induced NO and M1-related cytokines production. Together, these results demonstrated that EE can polarize macrophages towards M1 phenotype, which is dependent on the JNK signaling pathways. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2664-2671, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of instant controlled pressure drop treatments on the oligosaccharides extractability and microstructure of Tephrosia purpurea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Bouthaina Ben; Lamy, Cécile; Andre, Patrice; Allaf, Karim

    2008-12-12

    The study of the oligosaccharides extracted from Tephrosia purpurea seeds was undertaken using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) as a pre-treatment prior to conventional solvent extraction. This DIC procedure provided structural modification in terms of expansion, higher porosity and improvement of specific surface area; diffusion of solvent inside such seeds and availability of oligosaccharides increase notably. In this paper, we investigated and quantified the impact of the different DIC operative parameters on the yields of ciceritol and stachyose extracted from T. purpurea seeds. The treatment could be optimized with a steam pressure (P) (P=0.2 MPa), initial water content (W) (W=30% dry basis (DB)) and thermal treatment time (t) (t=30s). By applying DIC treatment in these conditions, the classic process of extraction was intensified in both aspects of yields (145% of ciceritol and 185% of stachyose), and kinetics (1h of extraction time instead of 4h for conventional process). The scanning electron microscopy micrographs provided evident modifications of structure of seeds due to the DIC treatment.

  4. Genotoxicity biomonitoring of sewage in two municipal wastewater treatment plants using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewes, Márcia Regina; Junior, Delio Endres; Droste, Annette

    2011-01-01

    The genotoxicity of untreated and treated sewage from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WTP BN and WTP SJN) in the municipality of Porto Alegre, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, was evaluated over a one-year period using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Inflorescences of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed to sewage samples in February (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) 2009, and the micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were estimated in each period. The high genotoxicity of untreated sewage from WTP BN in February and April was not observed in treated sewage, indicating the efficiency of treatment at this WTP. However, untreated and treated sewage samples from WTP SJN had high MCN frequencies, except in October, when rainfall may have been responsible for reducing these frequencies at both WTPs. Physicochemical analyses of sewage from both WTPs indicated elevated concentrations of organic matter that were higher at WTP SJN than at WTP BN. Chromium was detected in untreated and treated sewage from WTP SJN, but not in treated sewage from WTP BN. Lead was found in all untreated sewage samples from WTP SJN, but only in the summer and autumn at WTP BN. These results indicate that the short-term Trad-MCN genotoxicity assay may be useful for regular monitoring of municipal WTPs. PMID:22215975

  5. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Todd

    Full Text Available Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-α, and also suppress production of TNF-α in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-α, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-α suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-α, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can

  6. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Daniel A; Gulledge, Travis V; Britton, Emily R; Oberhofer, Martina; Leyte-Lugo, Martha; Moody, Ashley N; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Grubbs, Laura F; Juzumaite, Monika; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Faeth, Stanley H; Laster, Scott M; Cech, Nadja B

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-α, and also suppress production of TNF-α in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-α, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-α suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-α, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can originate from endophytic

  7. Placentation in cloned cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Visintin, J A

    2007-01-01

    To elucidate the morphological differences between placentas from normal and cloned cattle pregnancies reaching term, the umbilical cord, placentomes and interplacentomal region of the fetal membranes were examined macroscopically as well as by light and scanning electron microscopy. In pregnancies...... than one primary villus, as opposed to a single villus in non-cloned placentae. Scanning electron microscopy of blood vessel casts revealed that there was also more than one stem artery per villous tree and that the ramification of the vessels failed to form dense complexes of capillary loops...

  8. Why clone flies? Using cloned Drosophila to monitor epigenetic defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Andrew J; Lloyd, Vett K

    2007-01-01

    Since the birth of the first cloned sheep in 1996, advances in nuclear transplantation have led to both the creation of genetically tailored stem cells and the generation of a number of cloned organisms. The list of cloned animals reared to adulthood currently includes the frog, sheep, mouse, cow, goat, pig, rabbit, cat, zebrafish, mule, horse, rat and dog. The addition of Drosophila to this elite bestiary of cloned animals has prompted the question - why clone flies? Organisms generated by nuclear transplantation suffer from a high rate of associated defects, and many of these defects appear to be related to aberrant genomic imprinting. Imprinted gene expression also appears to be compromised in Drosophila clones. Proper imprinted gene regulation relies on a suite of highly conserved chromatin-modifying genes first identified in Drosophila. Thus, Drosophila can potentially be used to study epigenetic dysfunction in cloned animals and to screen for genetic and epigenetic conditions that promote the production of healthy clones.

  9. Clip, connect, clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujima, Jun; Lunzer, Aran; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    using three mechanisms: clipping of input and result elements from existing applications to form cells on a spreadsheet; connecting these cells using formulas, thus enabling result transfer between applications; and cloning cells so that multiple requests can be handled side by side. We demonstrate...

  10. The Cloning of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Judith E.; Dobson, Russell L.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that the U.S. school system purports to prize human variability, but many educators are engaged in activities that seek to homogenize students. Describes these activities, including diagnosis, labeling, ability grouping, and positive reinforcement. Presents suggestions for counselors to combat sources of cloning and self-validation. (RC)

  11. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  12. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, S.A.

    1991-12-31

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  13. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  14. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  15. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... evaluate the issue. back to top FDA Studies Cloning For more than five years, CVM scientists studied ...

  16. Morphological and Genetic Variation along a North-to-South Transect in Stipa purpurea, a Dominant Grass on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Implications for Response to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wensheng; Zhao, Yao; You, Jianling; Qi, Danhui; Zhou, Yin; Chen, Jiakuan; Song, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the potential of species to cope with rapid environmental climatic modifications is of vital importance for determining their future viability and conservation. The variation between existing populations along a climatic gradient may predict how a species will respond to future climate change. Stipa purpurea is a dominant grass species in the alpine steppe and meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Ecological niche modelling was applied to S. purpurea, and its distribution was found to be most strongly correlated with the annual precipitation and the mean temperature of the warmest quarter. We established a north-to-south transect over 2000 km long on the QTP reflecting the gradients of temperature and precipitation, and then we estimated the morphological by sampling fruited tussocks and genetic divergence by using 11 microsatellite markers between 20 populations along the transect. Reproductive traits (the number of seeds and reproductive shoots), the reproductive-vegetative growth ratio and the length of roots in the S. purpurea populations varied significantly with climate variables. S. purpurea has high genetic diversity (He = 0.585), a large effective population size (Ne >1,000), and a considerable level of gene flow between populations. The S. purpurea populations have a mosaic genetic structure: some distant populations (over 1000 km apart) clustered genetically, whereas closer populations (transect and might be mediated by seed dispersal via migratory herbivores, such as the chiru (Pantholops hodgsonii). These findings suggest that population performance variation and gene flow both facilitate the response of S. purpurea to climate change.

  17. Estimulación de cardenólidos en brotes de Digitalis purpurea L. cultivados in vitro mediante elicitores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naivy Lisbet Pérez-Alonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Stimulation of cardenolides production in Digitalis purpurea L. shoot cultures by elicitors additionTítulo corto: Elicitores en la producción de cardenólidosResumen: Digitalis purpurea L. es una de las principales fuentes de cardenólidos tales como digoxina y digitoxina. Estos fármacos son ampliamente usados en la disfunción cardíaca y para regular las arritmias del corazón. El presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de estudiar el efecto de tres elicitores en el cultivo de brotes de Digitalis purpurea var. Roter Berggold para incrementar la producción in vitro de cardenólidos. La elicitación es una estrategia para incrementar la producción de biomasa y metabolitos secundarios en el cultivo in vitro. Los elicitores evaluados fueron ChitoPlant (0,001; 0,01; 0,1 g.L-1; SilioPlant (0,01; 0,1; 1,0 g.L-1 y Jasmonato de metilo (60, 80 y 100 µM, descritos por primera vez para el incremento de cardenólidos. Se demostró que la elicitación es una estrategia viable para el incremento de cardenólidos en brotes de D. purpurea. El ChitoPlant®, redujo la altura sin afectación en el resto de las variables morfológicas evaluadas. Además indujo un incremento significativo en el contenido de cardenólidos. El SilioPlant® (0,01 g.L-1 no provocó afectaciones en la biomasa e incrementó significativamente la síntesis de cardenólidos en los brotes en 3,6 y 6,9 veces el contenido de digoxina y digitoxina respectivamente. La elicitación con el jasmonato de metilo provocó una reducción de la biomasa. Los contenidos de digoxina y digitoxina se incrementaron ligera y significativamente con 80 y 100 µM de jasmonato de metilo respectivamente. El mejor resultado integral se obtuvo con 0,01 g.L-1 de SilioPlant, el cual indujo la mayor producción neta de cardenólidos por frasco de cultivo (4,72 µg digoxina y 88,27 µg digitoxina. Palabras clave: chitoplant, digitoxina, digoxina, jasmonato de metilo, silioplantAbstract:

  18. Probabilistic Cloning and Quantum Computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ting; YAN Feng-Li; WANG Zhi-Xi

    2004-01-01

    @@ We discuss the usefulness of quantum cloning and present examples of quantum computation tasks for which the cloning offers an advantage which cannot be matched by any approach that does not resort to quantum cloning.In these quantum computations, we need to distribute quantum information contained in the states about which we have some partial information. To perform quantum computations, we use a state-dependent probabilistic quantum cloning procedure to distribute quantum information in the middle of a quantum computation.

  19. The effect of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract on rat cytochrome P450 expression level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozikiewicz, P M; Bogacz, A; Karasiewicz, M; Mikolajczak, P L; Ozarowski, M; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, A; Czerny, B; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Grzeskowiak, E

    2010-08-01

    It is claimed that application of botanical supplements or herbal medicinal products with synthetic drugs that are cytochrome P450 enzymes substrates may induce significant herb-drug interactions and may alter pharmacotherapy. Echinacea preparations are one of the best selling products in the Europe and their medicinal use is still increasing but data about interactions of Echinacea extract with CYP enzymes are limited. In this study, we have investigated potential influence of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract containing 3.7% polyphenolic compounds on the mRNA expression level of major CYP450 enzymes using animal model. Total RNA was isolated from the rat liver tissue according to the manufacturer's protocol. Complementary DNA was synthesized from a mature mRNA template using reverse transcription. The level of mRNA expression in liver was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR using specific target primers for CYP450 genes. In this study, it was demonstrated a significant increase of rat CYP2D1 and CYP1A1 expression level by 40% (p = 0.007) and 80% (p = 0.01), respectively. A weak inductory effect of the extract was observed for CYP1A2 by 16% (p > 0.05) compared with the control group. The levels of rat CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 mRNA were reduced by 41% (p Echinacea ethanolic extract. CYP2D2 and CYP2C6 activities were also inhibited by extract but in a lesser degree than CYP3A1 activity. Moreover, very little or no inhibition was noted for CYP2E1 both after 3 and 10 days of treatment. Our in vivo data indicate that the Echinacea ethanolic extract can potently inhibit the expression of CYP3A1/2 and can also induce of CYP1A1, CYP2D1. These findings suggest that Echinacea extract may influence the P450-mediated metabolism of different drugs and may initiate chemical carcinogenesis by activation of some compounds to their carcinogenic metabolites. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of the Annual Shading Potential of Salix Purpurea Coppice using Hemispherical Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, G.; Weihs, P.; Stockreiter, L.; Hoffmann, E.

    2012-04-01

    densities in terms of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the corresponding incident solar radiation energy reaching a shaded water surface (Global Site Factor). Responding to these questions a two year old natural stand of Salix purpurea was monitored. The growth of riparian vegetation and the correlation to solar transmission during different phenological phases are measured periodically with radiation sensors. LAI is investigated using hemispherical photographs. Analysis is done with the software Hemiview and Gap Light Analyser (GLA). Results show discrepancies between analysis with the software programs and measurements. Altogether, the variability and the trends of both are similar: the same daily and annual changes can be seen.

  1. Efeito do período de chuva no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla e Ipomoea purpurea pelos herbicidas glyphosate e sulfosate Effect of rainfall on Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea purpurea control by glyphosate and sulfosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Monquero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do período de chuva sobre a eficácia dos herbicidas sulfosate e glyphosate no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla e Ipomoea purpurea. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, no Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, em Araras, SP. Os tratamentos, além da testemunha, consistiram na aplicação de duas doses em equivalente ácido dos herbicidas sulfosate (0,66 e 1,32 kg ha-1 e glyphosate (0,72 e 1,44 kg ha-1, sendo as plantas tratadas submetidas à simulação de chuva de 20 mm durante 30 minutos, nos intervalos de 2, 4, 6, 8 e 48 horas após a aplicação. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. A eficácia no controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliada 7, 14 e 21 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT e a matéria seca, aos 28 DAT. E. heterophylla não foi eficazmente controlada pelo herbicida glyphosate, exigindo intervalo sem chuva superior a 24 horas após a aplicação para obter, na maior dose, controle de apenas 60%. Por sua vez, o herbicida sulfosate proporcionou controle de 75%, mesmo na menor dose, quando a chuva ocorreu quatro horas depois da aplicação. I. purpurea também não foi controlada de maneira eficaz pelo herbicida glyphosate, independentemente da dose e do intervalo de chuva; no entanto, somente a maior dose do herbicida sulfosate foi eficiente no controle desta espécie, a partir de quatro horas sem chuva. Para ambas as espécies, o herbicida sulfosate foi menos afetado pelo período da chuva.The influence of rainfall occurrence was evaluated on the efficacy of the herbicides glyphosate and sulfosate applied in post-emergence on Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea purpurea. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, in Araras-SP, Brazil. The treatments,plus control, consisted of two doses, in acid equivalent of sulfosate (0.66 and 1.32 kg ha-1 and glyphosate (0.72 and

  2. Entering the Clone Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Suppose you make your parents so happy,they decide to have another baby just like you.It might be flattering,but how would you feel about having a little brother or sister who is also your twin? A laboratory experiment conducted last fall suggests it may someday be possible.For the first time ever,scientists made exact copies, or clones, of a human embryo.

  3. Copper and cadmium tolerance, uptake and effect on chloroplast ultrastructure. Studies on Salix purpurea and Phragmites australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakmaoui, A.; Ater, A. [Abdelmalek Essaadi Univ., Tetouan (Morocco). Dept. of Biology; Boka, K. [Eoetvoes Lorand Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Plant Anatomy; Baron, M. [Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Biochemistry and Cell and Molecular Biology of Plants

    2007-05-15

    We have compared the effect of toxic Cu and Cd concentrations on growth, metal accumulation, and chloroplast ultrastructure of willow (Salix purpurea L.) and reed [Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.]. After a 10-day treatment, both species have tolerated to some extent the lowest concentration of both metals; however, plant growth was strongly reduced at the highest Cu and Cd concentrations. These plants could be described as Cu-tolerant at the lowest concentration tested, showing a higher tolerance index in reed than in willow; in contrast, willow exhibited higher tolerance against Cd. Both plants appeared to be moderate root accumulators of Cu and Cd. Ultrastructural studies revealed special features that can provide some protection against heavy metals stress, such as ferritin aggregates in the stroma. In addition, Cu and Cd induced distortion of thylakoids, reduction of grana stacks, as well as an increased number and size of plastoglobuli and peripheral vesicles. (orig.)

  4. Effects of Tephrosia purpurea aqueous seed extract on blood glucose and antioxidant enzyme activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavana, P; Sethupathy, S; Santha, K; Manoharan, S

    2008-10-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous seed extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TpASet) on blood glucose and antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic [Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and non enzymatic [Glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E] antioxidant status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of "TpASet" at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight showed significant improvement in above mentioned parameters. Our results clearly indicate that "TpASet" has potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive principles from "TpASet".

  5. Activity-guided isolation of constituents of Tephrosia purpurea with the potential to induce the phase II enzyme, quinone reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L C; Gerhäuser, C; Song, L; Farnsworth, N R; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    1997-09-01

    An isoflavone, 7,4'-dihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyisoflavone (1), and a chalcone, (+)-tephropurpurin (2), both novel compounds, as well as six constituents of known structure, (+)-purpurin (3), pongamol (4), lanceolatin B (5), (-)-maackiain (6), (-)-3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-8,9-methylene-dioxypterocarpan (7), and (-)-medicarpin (8), were obtained as active compounds from Tephrosia purpurea, using a bioassay based on the induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity with cultured Hepa 1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells. Additionally, three inactive compounds of known structure, 3'-methoxydaidzein, desmoxyphyllin B, and 3,9-dihydroxy-8-methoxycoumestan, were isolated and identified. The structure elucidation of compounds 1 and 2 was carried out by spectral data interpretation.

  6. Isomeric C12-alkamides isolated from purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench) exhibit characteristics of a PPARγ partial agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Kotowska, Dorota; Wolber, Gerhard

    Nuclear hormone receptor PPARγ is predominantly found in adipose tissue and plays a role in regulating adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis. PPARγ belongs to the superfamily of transcription factors that bind DNA and regulate transcription in a ligand-dependent manner. A dichloromethane extract...... of Echinacea purpurea roots increasing glucose uptake (GU) and activating PPARγ was subjected to bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation. Basal and insulin-dependent GU in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and PPARγ transactivation assay were used to assess the bioactivity of extract, fractions and isolated metabolites....... Two novel isomeric dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid 2-methylbutylamides together with two known C12-alkamides and -linolenic acid were isolated from active fractions. The compounds were found to activate PPARγ but only the isomeric alkamides were able to increase basal and insulin-dependent GU...

  7. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacks, S.A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

  8. Cloning-free CRISPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Arbab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR, a technology that allows for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic mutation and site-specific knockin transgene creation within several hours by circumventing the need to clone a site-specific single-guide RNA (sgRNA or knockin homology construct for each target locus. We introduce a self-cleaving palindromic sgRNA plasmid and a short double-stranded DNA sequence encoding the desired locus-specific sgRNA into target cells, allowing them to produce a locus-specific sgRNA plasmid through homologous recombination. scCRISPR enables efficient generation of gene knockouts (∼88% mutation rate at approximately one-sixth the cost of plasmid-based sgRNA construction with only 2 hr of preparation for each targeted site. Additionally, we demonstrate efficient site-specific knockin of GFP transgenes without any plasmid cloning or genome-integrated selection cassette in mouse and human embryonic stem cells (2%–4% knockin rate through PCR-based addition of short homology arms. scCRISPR substantially lowers the bar on mouse and human transgenesis.

  9. Secure the Clones

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Thomas; Pichardie, David

    2012-01-01

    Exchanging mutable data objects with untrusted code is a delicate matter because of the risk of creating a data space that is accessible by an attacker. Consequently, secure programming guidelines for Java stress the importance of using defensive copying before accepting or handing out references to an internal mutable object. However, implementation of a copy method (like clone()) is entirely left to the programmer. It may not provide a sufficiently deep copy of an object and is subject to overriding by a malicious sub-class. Currently no language-based mechanism supports secure object cloning. This paper proposes a type-based annotation system for defining modular copy policies for class-based object-oriented programs. A copy policy specifies the maximally allowed sharing between an object and its clone. We present a static enforcement mechanism that will guarantee that all classes fulfil their copy policy, even in the presence of overriding of copy methods, and establish the semantic correctness of the ove...

  10. Ethical issues in livestock cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although cloning may eventually become an important technology for livestock production, four ethical issues must be addressed before the practice becomes widespread. First, researchers must establish that the procedure is not detrimental to the health or well-being of affected animals. Second, animal research institutions should evaluate the net social benefits to livestock producers by weighing the benefits to producers against the opportunity cost of research capacity lost to biomedical projects. Third, scientists should consider the indirect effects of cloning research on the larger ethical issues surrounding human cloning. Finally, the market structure for products of cloned animals should protect individual choice, and should recognize that many individuals find the prospect of cloning (or consuming cloned animals) repugnant. Analysis of these four issues is complicated by spurious arguments alleging that cloning will have a negative impact on environment and genetic diversity.

  11. Phytopharmacologic preparations as predictors of plant bioactivity: A particular approach to Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Cristiana; Martins, Natália; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-01-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed a multitude of health benefits of plant products and their derived formulations. Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is a good example, widely used due to its therapeutic properties. In the present study, the chemical composition of the different samples and antioxidant properties of E. purpurea hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from dry or fresh raw material were evaluated and compared with dietary supplements based on the same plant (tablets and syrup), to determine the most active phytopharmacologic preparation or formulation. Chemical composition of the different samples was assessed through the determination of free sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The in vitro antioxidant properties were determined using four assays: 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of b-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Total phenolics and flavonoids were also determined. Overall, the hydroethanolic extract of fresh plant revealed the highest activity, directly related with its higher contents in phenolic (229.22 ± 4.38 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/mL), flavonoids (124.83 ± 7.47 mg GAE/mL), organic acids (8.89 ± 0.10 g/100 g), and tocopherols (4.55 ± 0.02 mg/100 g). Tablets followed by syrup revealed the worst effect, positively correlated with the lowest abundance in bioactive molecules. The weak in vitro antioxidant potential of commercial phytopharmacologic formulations could be related to their chemical composition, including the addition of excipients. Further studies are necessary to deepen knowledge on this area, namely focusing on in vivo experiments, to establish upcoming guidelines to improve the quality and bioavailability of phytopharmacologic formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient counter-current chromatographic isolation and structural identification of two new cinnamic acids from Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Li, JiaYin; Li, MiLu; Hu, Xia; Tan, Jun; Liu, Zhong Hua

    2012-10-01

    Two new cinnamic acids, 2-O-caffeoyl-3-O-isoferuloyltartaric (3), and 2, 3-di-O-isoferuloyltartaric acid (5), along with three known caffeic acids, cichoric acid (1), 2-O-caffeoyl-3-O-feruloyltartaric acid (2) and 2-O-caffeoyl-3-O-p-coumaroyltartaric acid (4), have been successfully isolated and purified from Echinacea purpurea. In this study, we investigated an efficient method for the preparative isolation and purification of cinnamic acids from E. purpurea by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation was performed using a two-phase solvent composed of n-hexane-ethyl-acetate-methanol-0.5% aqueous acetic acid (1:3:1:4, v/v). The upper phase was used as the stationary phase and the lower phase as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min. From 250 mg of crude extracts, 65.1 mg of 1, 8.3 mg of 2, 4.0 mg of 3, 4.5 mg of 4, and 4.3 mg of 5 were isolated in one-step, with purities of 98.5%, 97.7%, 94.6%, 94.3%, and 98.6%, respectively, as evaluated by HPLC-DAD. The chemical structures were identified by electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra. HSCCC was very efficient for the separation and purification of the cinnamic acids from

  13. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea(Caesalpinaceaein the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuentaThe existence of mast fruiting has not been well documented in the Neotropics. The occurrence of a mast fruiting episode in the population of the tree Peltogyne purpurea in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica is described. In February and March of 2000 most of the trees of this species produced a large fruit crop, compared with 1995-1999, when the number of fruit producing trees was very low or zero and those that did bear fruit, did so at a low intensity. In contrast, the fruit crop of 2000 was massive, all trees examined produced fruits and the intensity of fruiting was maximal. There is not enough information on the event for a hypothesis to be formed because the climatic or biological cues that triggered this sporadic flowering are unknown and there is no meteorological data available for this area. Populations with this mode of reproduction may experience local extinction bacause of logging operations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1151-1155. Epub 2006 Dec. 15

  14. Research Progress of Introduced Echinacea purpurea%我国引种药用植物紫锥菊研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜; 周凤琴

    2012-01-01

    紫锥菊全草药用价值广泛,在欧美颇负盛名.上世纪90年代始引种我国.从栽培学、化学成分、质量评价和药理活性方面综述了紫锥菊引种至我国10余年来的研究成果,为紫锥菊在我国进一步的开发应用提供理论依据.%This article reviews the research of Echinacea purpurea introduced to China for more than ten years,including cultivation techniques, chemical composition, pharmacological activity and so on. It provides a theoretical basis for the development and application of Echinacea purpurea.

  15. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DERYNG AND CLEVENGER-TYPE APPARATUS IN ISOLATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF COMPONENTS OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM THE MUTELINA PURPUREA THELL. FLOWERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj, Tomasz; Sieniawska, Elwira; Kowalski, Radoslaw; Wesolowskp, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-01-01

    In this study, both qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical composition of M. purpurea essential oil obtained in the Deryng and Clevenger-type apparatuses were compared. As a result, content of volatile compounds were: 785.67 mg/mL and 833.33 mg/mL in the oil obtained in the Deryng (D-EO) and Clevenger-type apparatuses (C-EO), respectively. The major components of both essential oils from M. purpurea were: a-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, (Z)-sesquisabinene hydrate, (E)-sesquisabinene hydrate, and a-bis-abolol. The correlation coefficients values are not determined by the differences in the concentrations of the components resulting from the application of two different methods of distillation.

  16. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  17. Leaf metabolite profile of the Brazilian resurrection plant Barbacenia purpurea Hook. (Velloziaceae) shows two time-dependent responses during desiccation and recovering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suguiyama, Vanessa F; Silva, Emerson A; Meirelles, Sergio T; Centeno, Danilo C; Braga, Marcia R

    2014-01-01

    Barbacenia purpurea is a resurrection species endemic to rock outcrops, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It tolerates great temperature variations, which are associated to periods of up to 30 days without precipitation. Using a metabolomic approach, we analyzed, under winter and summer conditions, changes in the leaf metabolite profile (MP) of potted plants of B. purpurea submitted to daily watered and water deficit for at least 20 days and subsequent slow rehydration for 5 days. Leaves were collected at different time points and had their MP analyzed by GC/MS, HPAEC, and UHPLC techniques, allowing the identification of more than 60 different compounds, including organic and amino acids, sugars, and polyols, among others. In the winter experiment, results suggest the presence of two time-dependent responses in B. purpurea under water stress. The first one starts with the increase in the content of caffeoyl-quinic acids, substances with strong antioxidant activity, until the 16th day of water suppression. When RWC reached less than 80 and 70%, in winter and summer respectively, it was observed an increase in polyols and monosaccharides, followed by an increment in the content of RFO, suggesting osmotic adjustment. Amino acids, such as GABA and asparagine, also increased due to 16 days of water suppression. During rehydration, the levels of the mentioned compounds became similar to those found at the beginning of the experiment and when compared to daily watered plants. We conclude that the tolerance of B. purpurea to dehydration involves the perception of water deficit intensity, which seems to result in different strategies to overcome the gradient of water availability imposed along a certain period of stress mainly during winter. Data from summer experiment indicate that the metabolism of B. pupurea was already primed for drought stress. The accumulation of phenolics in summer seemed to be more temperature and irradiance-dependent than on the RWC.

  18. The isolation and synthesis of a novel benzofuran compound from Tephrosia purpurea, and the synthesis of several related derivatives, which suppress histamine H1 receptor gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Manik Chandra; Das, Asish Kumar; Itou, Tomohiro; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Hisao

    2015-11-01

    A novel naturally occurring compound with a benzofuran skeleton was isolated from a plant, Tephrosia purpurea collected in Bangladesh. The chemical synthesis of this compound confirmed its structure, and preliminary biological results showed its suppressive activity towards histamine H1 gene expression. One isomer and four derivatives were also synthesized, and their suppression activity was investigated. Although only small quantities of this compound can be isolated from its natural source, a 10 g scale synthesis was demonstrated by the newly developed method.

  19. Effect of potassium chloride and phenyl mercuric acetate on the regulation of stomatal opening and water economy in Tephrosia purpurea Pers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, T.; Sen, D.N.

    1973-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the effects of potassium chloride and phenylmercuric acetate on the plant Tephrosia purpurea. KCl and PMA were sprayed on the plants, and consequent water loss and leaf water content were measured at different time intervals. KCl treated plants lost more water than PMA treated ones; their stomata remained wide open. The percentage of absolute moisture remained higher in the PMA treated plants than in the KCl treated plants.

  20. Leaf metabolite profile of the Brazilian resurrection plant Barbacenia purpurea Hook. (Velloziaceae shows two time-dependent responses during desiccation and recovering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fuentes Suguiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Barbacenia purpurea is a resurrection species endemic to rock outcrops, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It tolerates great temperature variations, which are associated to periods of up to 30 days without precipitation. Using a metabolomic approach, we analyzed, under winter and summer conditions, changes in the leaf metabolite profile (MP of potted plants of B. purpurea submitted to daily watered and water deficit for at least 20 days and subsequent slow rehydration for 5 days. Leaves were collected at different time points and had their MP analyzed by GC/MS, HPAEC, and UHPLC techniques, allowing the identification of more than 60 different compounds, including organic and amino acids, sugars, and polyols, among others. In the winter experiment, results suggest the presence of two time-dependent responses in B. purpurea under water stress. The first one starts with the increase in the content of caffeoyl-quinic acids, substances with strong antioxidant activity, until the 16th day of water suppression. When RWC reached less than 80% and 70%, in winter and summer respectively, it was observed an increase in polyols and monosaccharides, followed by an increment in the content of RFO, suggesting osmotic adjustment. Amino acids, such as GABA and asparagine, also increased due to 16 days of water suppression. During rehydration, the levels of the mentioned compounds became similar to those found at the beginning of the experiment and when compared to daily watered plants. We conclude that the tolerance of B. purpurea to dehydration involves the perception of water deficit intensity, which seems to result in different strategies to overcome the gradient of water availability imposed along a certain period of stress mainly during winter. Data from summer experiment indicate that the metabolism of B. pupurea was already primed for drought stress. The accumulation of phenolics in summer seemed to be more temperature and irradiance-dependent than on the RWC.

  1. To clone or not to clone--whither the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, M L

    1999-01-01

    The cloning of Dolly the lamb from adult cells by scientists at the Roslin Laboratories near Edinburgh in February 1997 has startled the world because it now opens the way to clone adult human beings. The reaction to Ian Wilmut's breakthrough has been instant and largely negative. Bills were rushed into both the US Senate and House of Representatives aimed at banning the cloning of human beings. Human cloning is premature at this stage, but there are many positive spin-offs of cloning in the field of genetic engineering, such as the production of human proteins such as blood clotting factors which aid in healing wounds. Progress by means of cloning can also be made into devising a cure for Parkinson's Disease amongst others. No lesser ethicist than John C. Fletcher of the University of Virginia foresees circumstances in which human cloning is acceptable e.g. to enable a couple to replace a dying child, to enable a couple, one of whom is infertile, to clone a child from either partner. Extensive regulation of cloning by the law is inevitable but, in doing so, the legislation should be careful not to outlaw research in this area which could be beneficial to mankind.

  2. A Comparison Study of the Effects of Echinacea purpurea Ethanolic Extract and Mesna on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Macroscopic Fetal Defects in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Najafzadeh Varzi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s There are some reports that the teratogenic effects of cyclophosphamide (CPA can be prevented by application of antioxidant drugs and stimulation of the maternal immune system. Echinacea purpurea extract is antioxidative and immunomodulator drug. Mesna (Sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate is used for decreasing side effects of CPA, especially hemorrhagic cystitis. In this study, we compared the prophylactic effects of mesna and Echinacea extract on teratogenic effects of CPA. Materials and Methods This study was performed on 32 pregnant rats that were divided into 4 groups. The first group (control group received normal saline and the other groups received CPA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally on 13th day of gestation. Mesna and E. purpurea extracts were administrated at doses of 100 and 400 mg/kg by IP injection, respectively, along with it and 12 hr later, after CPA injection. Rats were dissected on day 20 of gestation, embryos harvested and after determination of gross malformations they were stained by Alizarin red-Alcian blue method. ResultsCleft palate incidence was 38.46, 30.77 and 14.28% in fetuses of rats that received only CPA, CPA with mesna and CPA with Echinacea extract, respectively. In addition, skeletal anomalies incidence including limbs, vertebra, sternum, and scapula defects were decreased by Echinacea extract.ConclusionE. purpurea has significant effect on preventing CPA-induced malformations and better prophylactic effect than mesna on cases like CPA-induced cleft palate.

  3. Domestication and the distribution of genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations of the Mesoamerican fruit tree Spondias purpurea L. (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison J; Schaal, Barbara A

    2006-05-01

    Domestication occurs as humans select and cultivate wild plants in agricultural habitats. The amount and structure of variation in contemporary cultivated populations has been shaped, in part, by how genetic material was transferred from one cultivated generation to the next. In some cultivated tree species, domestication involved a shift from sexually reproducing wild populations to vegetatively propagated cultivated populations; however, little is known about how domestication has impacted variation in these species. We employed AFLP data to explore the amount, structure, and distribution of variation in clonally propagated domesticated populations and sexually reproducing wild populations of the Neotropical fruit tree, Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae). Cultivated populations from three different agricultural habitats were included: living fences, backyards, and orchards. AFLP data were analysed using measures of genetic diversity (% polymorphic loci, Shannon's diversity index, Nei's gene diversity, panmictic heterozygosity), population structure (F(ST) analogues), and principal components analyses. Levels of genetic variation in cultivated S. purpurea populations are significantly less than variation found in wild populations, although the amount of diversity varies in different agricultural habitats. Cultivated populations have a greater proportion of their genetic variability distributed among populations than wild populations. The genetic structure of backyard populations resembles that of wild populations, but living fence and orchard populations have 1/3 more variability distributed among populations, most likely a reflection of relative levels of vegetative reproduction. Finally, these results suggest that S. purpurea was domesticated in two distinct regions within Mesoamerica.

  4. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Echinacea purpurea to Prevent Common Cold Episodes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jawad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the safety (risk and efficacy (benefit of Echinacea purpurea extract in the prevention of common cold episodes in a large population over a 4-month period. Methods. 755 healthy subjects were allocated to receive either an alcohol extract from freshly harvested E. purpurea (95% herba and 5% root or placebo. Participants were required to record adverse events and to rate cold-related issues in a diary throughout the investigation period. Nasal secretions were sampled at acute colds and screened for viruses. Results. A total of 293 adverse events occurred with Echinacea and 306 with placebo treatment. Nine and 10% of participants experienced adverse events, which were at least possibly related to the study drug (adverse drug reactions. Thus, the safety of Echinacea was noninferior to placebo. Echinacea reduced the total number of cold episodes, cumulated episode days within the group, and pain-killer medicated episodes. Echinacea inhibited virally confirmed colds and especially prevented enveloped virus infections (P<0.05. Echinacea showed maximal effects on recurrent infections, and preventive effects increased with therapy compliance and adherence to the protocol. Conclusions. Compliant prophylactic intake of E. purpurea over a 4-month period appeared to provide a positive risk to benefit ratio.

  5. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Echinacea purpurea to Prevent Common Cold Episodes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, M; Schoop, R; Suter, A; Klein, P; Eccles, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the safety (risk) and efficacy (benefit) of Echinacea purpurea extract in the prevention of common cold episodes in a large population over a 4-month period. Methods. 755 healthy subjects were allocated to receive either an alcohol extract from freshly harvested E. purpurea (95% herba and 5% root) or placebo. Participants were required to record adverse events and to rate cold-related issues in a diary throughout the investigation period. Nasal secretions were sampled at acute colds and screened for viruses. Results. A total of 293 adverse events occurred with Echinacea and 306 with placebo treatment. Nine and 10% of participants experienced adverse events, which were at least possibly related to the study drug (adverse drug reactions). Thus, the safety of Echinacea was noninferior to placebo. Echinacea reduced the total number of cold episodes, cumulated episode days within the group, and pain-killer medicated episodes. Echinacea inhibited virally confirmed colds and especially prevented enveloped virus infections (P Echinacea showed maximal effects on recurrent infections, and preventive effects increased with therapy compliance and adherence to the protocol. Conclusions. Compliant prophylactic intake of E. purpurea over a 4-month period appeared to provide a positive risk to benefit ratio.

  6. Isomeric C12-alkamides from the roots of Echinacea purpurea improve basal and insulin-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Dorota; El-Houri, Rime B; Borkowski, Kamil; Petersen, Rasmus K; Fretté, Xavier C; Wolber, Gerhard; Grevsen, Kai; Christensen, Kathrine B; Christensen, Lars P; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2014-12-01

    Echinacea purpurea has been used in traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment and prevention of upper respiratory tract infections and the common cold. Recent investigations have indicated that E. purpurea also has an effect on insulin resistance. A dichloromethane extract of E. purpurea roots was found to enhance glucose uptake in adipocytes and to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. The purpose of the present study was to identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the potential antidiabetic effect of the dichloromethane extract using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. Basal and insulin-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to assess the bioactivity of extract, fractions and isolated metabolites. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ transactivation assay was used to determine the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activating properties of the extract, active fractions and isolated metabolites. Two novel isomeric dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid 2-methylbutylamides together with two known C12-alkamides and α-linolenic acid were isolated from the active fractions. The isomeric C12-alkamides were found to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, to increase basal and insulin-dependent glucose uptake in adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, and to exhibit characteristics of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ partial agonist. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Preliminary data on antibacterial activity of Echinacea purpurea-associated bacterial communities against Burkholderia cepacia complex strains, opportunistic pathogens of Cystic Fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Carolina; Maida, Isabel; Maggini, Valentina; Bosi, Emanuele; Mocali, Stefano; Emiliani, Giovanni; Perrin, Elena; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Mengoni, Alessio; Fani, Renato

    2017-03-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria (Bcc) represent a serious threat for immune-compromised patient affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF) since they are resistant to many substances and to most antibiotics. For this reason, the research of new natural compounds able to inhibit the growth of Bcc strains has raised new interest during the last years. A source of such natural compounds is represented by medicinal plants and, in particular, by bacterial communities associated with these plants able to produce molecules with antimicrobial activity. In this work, a panel of 151 (endophytic) bacteria isolated from three different compartments (rhizospheric soil, roots, and stem/leaves) of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea were tested (using the cross-streak method) for their ability to inhibit the growth of 10 Bcc strains. Data obtained revealed that bacteria isolated from the roots of E. purpurea are the most active in the inhibition of Bcc strains, followed by bacteria isolated from the rhizospheric soil, and endophytes from stem/leaf compartment. At the same time, Bcc strains of environmental origin showed a higher resistance toward inhibition than the Bcc strains with clinical (i.e. CF patients) origin. Differences in the inhibition activity of E. purpurea-associated bacteria are mainly linked to the environment -the plant compartment- rather than to their taxonomical position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals.

  9. Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-08

    ACCESSION NO.D,. 03261102F 2312 A~5 11. TITLE (include Securqt Classification) 0 Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase 12. PERSONAL...I’:- AFOSR.Tlt. 8 7 - 0 9 8,2 0IL * pi AFOSR- 85 -0377 PROGRESS REPORT Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase 5." Period of...Pharmacology and the Cardiovascular Research Institute September 8, 1987 .’, 5.’- "’S ". -f, AFOSR - 85 -0377 PROGRESS REPORT Molecular Cloning of

  10. Human cloning and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J; Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  11. Echinacea Purpurea Significantly Induces Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) but does not alter Lopinavir-Ritonavir Exposure in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzak, Scott R.; Robertson, Sarah M.; Hunt, Jennifer D.; Chairez, Cheryl; Malati, Christine Y.; Alfaro, Raul M.; Stevenson, James M.; Candidate, Pharm.D.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective To determine the influence of Echinacea purpurea on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir-ritonavir, and on CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity using the probe substrates midazolam, and fexofenadine, respectively. Design Open label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study. Setting Outpatient clinic in a Federal Government research hospital. Subjects Thirteen (8 males) healthy volunteers (median age: 31 yrs). Measurements and main results Healthy volunteers received lopinavir-ritonavir (400/100 mg) twice daily for 30 days. On study day 16, subjects began taking Echinacea purpurea 500 mg three times daily, which they continued for four weeks, the first two weeks in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir. On days 15 and 30 of lopinavir-ritonavir administration (pre and post-Echinacea, respectively), serial blood samples were collected over 12 hrs to determine lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations and subsequent pharmacokinetic parameters using non-compartmental methods. Study subjects also received single doses of midazolam (8 mg orally) and fexofenadine (120 mg orally) before- and after 28 days of Echinacea purpurea to assess CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, respectively. Neither lopinavir nor ritonavir pharmacokinetics were significantly altered by 2 weeks of Echinacea coadministration. The geometric mean ratios (GMR, 90% CI) for lopinavir area under the concentration vs. time curve from zero to 12 hrs (AUC0–12) and maximum concentration (post-Echinacea/pre-Echinacea) were 0.96 (0.83, 1.10) and 1.00 (0.88, 1.12), respectively (P > 0.05). Conversely, GMRs (90% CIs) for midazolam AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) and oral clearance were 0.73 (0.61, 0.85) (P = 0.008) and 1.37 (1.10, 1.63) (P = 0.02), respectively. Fexofenadine pharmacokinetics did not significantly differ pre- and post-echinacea administration (P > 0.05). Conclusion Echinacea purpurea induced CYP3A activity but did not alter lopinavir concentrations, most likely due to

  12. Non-specific symbiotic germination of Cynorkis purpurea (Thouars) Kraezl., a habitat-specific terrestrial orchid from the Central Highlands of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, M; Yokoya, K; Schofield, E J; Zettler, L W; Sarasan, V

    2016-08-01

    Orchids, particularly terrestrial taxa, rely mostly on basidiomycete fungi in the Cantharellales and Sebacinales that trigger the process of seed germination and/or initiate the full development of the seedling. During the course of development, orchids may associate with the same fungus, or they may enlist other types of fungi for their developmental needs leading to resilience in a natural setting. This study examined in vitro seed germination and seedling developmental behavior of Cynorkis purpurea, a terrestrial orchid from the Central Highlands of Madagascar. This species is mostly restricted to gallery forests in the Itremo Massif, in moist substrate between rocks bordering streams. The main objective was to understand the influence of diverse mycorrhizal fungi on seed germination and further development of C. purpurea. The study aims to compare symbiotic versus asymbiotic germination and seedling development with seeds and fungi collected from a 13-km(2) area in the Itremo region. Seeds collected from the wild were sown with diverse orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) spanning 12 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in three genera (Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Sebacina) acquired from different habitats. Treatments were assessed in terms of the percentage of germinated seeds and fully developed seedlings against those in asymbiotic control media treatments. Overall, OMF significantly improved seedling development within the 12-week experiment period. Sebacina as a genus was the most effective at promoting seedling development of C. purpurea, as well as having the ability to enter into successful symbiotic relationships with orchids of different life forms; this new knowledge may be especially useful for orchid conservation practiced in tropical areas like Madagascar. A Sebacina isolate from an epiphytic seedling of Polystachya concreta was the most effective at inducing rapid seedling development and was among the five that outperformed fungi isolated from roots

  13. [The discrete horror of cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibourg, Ricardo A

    2009-01-01

    The author raises the topic of cloning after the decision of the Argentine government, which concerned for the "dignity of the human person", passed a decree of need and urgency, No. 200/97 (Annex), prohibiting cloning experiments with human beings. Therefore, considering that the topic is so terribly urgent and necessary, the author feels it is timely to consider it.

  14. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter V Henstock

    Full Text Available High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1 a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2 a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3 a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow.

  15. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henstock, Peter V; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow.

  16. [Scientific ethics of human cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2005-01-01

    True cloning is fission, budding or other types of asexual reproduction. In humans it occurs in monozygote twinning. This type of cloning is ethically and religiously good. Human cloning can be performed by twinning (TWClo) or nuclear transfer (NTClo). Both methods need a zygote or a nuclear transferred cell, obtained in vitro (IVTec). They are under the IVTec ethics. IVTecs use humans (zygotes, embryos) as drugs or things; increase the risk of malformations; increase development and size of abnormalities and may cause long-term changes. Cloning for preserving extinct (or almost extinct) animals or humans when sexual reproduction is not possible is ethically valid. The previous selection of a phenotype in human cloning violates some ethical principles. NTClo for reproductive or therapeutic purposes is dangerous since it increases the risk for nucleotide or chromosome mutations, de-programming or re-programming errors, aging or malignancy of the embryo cells thus obtained.

  17. Quantum probabilistically cloning and computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this article we make a review on the usefulness of probabilistically cloning and present examples of quantum computation tasks for which quantum cloning offers an advantage which cannot be matched by any approach that does not resort to it.In these quantum computations,one needs to distribute quantum information contained in states about which we have some partial information.To perform quantum computations,one uses state-dependent probabilistic quantum cloning procedure to distribute quantum information in the middle of a quantum computation.And we discuss the achievable efficiencies and the efficient quantum logic network for probabilistic cloning the quantum states used in implementing quantum computation tasks for which cloning provides enhancement in performance.

  18. Untersuchungen zur Epimerisierung und Transformation von Ergotalkaloiden

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ergotalkaloide sind sekundäre Stoffwechselprodukte des parasitären Schlauchpilzes Claviceps purpurea der auf Getreide Mutterkörner (Sklerotien) bildet. In Sklerotien sind toxische Ergotalkaloide enthalten. Durch C. purpurea werden vorrangig sechs verschiedene Ergotalkaloid-Epimerenpaare gebildet, die toxischen C8-(R)-Epimere und die biologisch nicht relevanten C8-(S)-Epimere, die ineinander umgewandelt werden können. Das Ziel der Arbeit war es, die Epimerisierung der Ergotalkaloide während de...

  19. Clone Networks, Clone Extensions and Biregularizations of Varieties of Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Plonka

    2001-01-01

    We consider algebras of type τ- without nullary operations. An identity ψ≈ψ of type τ is clone compatible if ψ and ψ are the same variable or the sets of fundamental operation symbols in ψ and ψ are non-empty and identical. For a variety V, we denote by Vc the variety defined by all clone compatible identities from Id(V). In this paper, we give a construction of algebras called a clone network. Under some assumptions, we describe algebras from Vc by means of this construction. We find some properties of Vc and applications.

  20. Limitations on Cloning in Classical Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Fenyes, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a result precisely analogous to the traditional quantum no-cloning theorem holds in classical mechanics. This classical no-cloning theorem does not prohibit classical cloning, we argue, because it is based on a too-restrictive definition of cloning. Using a less popular, more inclusive definition of cloning, we give examples of classical cloning processes. We also prove that a cloning machine must be at least as complicated as the object it is supposed to clone.

  1. Genomics and proteomics of immune modulatory effects of a butanol fraction of echinacea purpurea in human dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Pei-Ing

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinacea spp. extracts and the derived phytocompounds have been shown to induce specific immune cell activities and are popularly used as food supplements or nutraceuticals for immuno-modulatory functions. Dendritic cells (DCs, the most potent antigen presenting cells, play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunities. In this study, we investigated the specific and differential gene expression in human immature DCs (iDCs in response to treatment with a butanol fraction containing defined bioactive phytocompounds extracted from stems and leaves of Echinacea purpurea, that we denoted [BF/S+L/Ep]. Results Affymetrix DNA microarray results showed significant up regulation of specific genes for cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-18 and chemokines (CXCL 2, CCL 5, and CCL 2 within 4 h after [BF/S+L/Ep] treatment of iDCs. Bioinformatics analysis of genes expressed in [BF/S+L/Ep]-treated DCs revealed a key-signaling network involving a number of immune-modulatory molecules leading to the activation of a downstream molecule, adenylate cyclase 8. Proteomic analysis showed increased expression of antioxidant and cytoskeletal proteins after treatment with [BF/S+L/Ep] and cichoric acid. Conclusion This study provides information on candidate target molecules and molecular signaling mechanisms for future systematic research into the immune-modulatory activities of an important traditional medicinal herb and its derived phytocompounds.

  2. A resurrection experiment finds evidence of both reduced genetic diversity and potential adaptive evolution in the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuester, Adam; Wilson, Ariana; Chang, Shu-Mei; Baucom, Regina S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the negative economic and ecological impact of weeds, relatively little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms that influence their persistence in agricultural fields. Here, we use a resurrection approach to examine the potential for genotypic and phenotypic evolution in Ipomoea purpurea, an agricultural weed that is resistant to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in current-day agriculture. We found striking reductions in allelic diversity between cohorts sampled nine years apart (2003 vs. 2012), suggesting that populations of this species sampled from agricultural fields have experienced genetic bottleneck events that have led to lower neutral genetic diversity. Heterozygosity excess tests indicate that these bottlenecks may have occurred prior to 2003. A greenhouse assay of individuals sampled from the field as seed found that populations of this species, on average, exhibited modest increases in herbicide resistance over time. However, populations differed significantly between sampling years for resistance: some populations maintained high resistance between the sampling years whereas others exhibited increased or decreased resistance. Our results show that populations of this noxious weed, capable of adapting to strong selection imparted by herbicide application, may lose genetic variation as a result of this or other environmental factors. We probably uncovered only modest increases in resistance on average between sampling cohorts due to a strong and previously identified fitness cost of resistance in this species, along with the potential that nonresistant migrants germinate from the seed bank.

  3. A comparative study on rooting of in vitro regenerated shoots in haploid, diploid and tetraploid purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Haploid, diploid and tetraploid shoots of Echinacea purpurea L. sharing the same genome were cultured in medium and their rooting response to the composition of the culture medium was investigated. It was found that in medium without growth regulators, haploid shoots could initiate roots quite efficiently with the shortest time required for the emergence of roots and with the highest rooting rate; the response of the diploids was similar to that of the haploids and largely different from that of the tetraploids. The tetraploids obviously required longer time for the initiation of roots and had the lowest rooting rate. Supplementing the medium with 0.05 and 0.15 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid or 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA had little positive effect on the rooting of diploid shoots and, in some cases, had even negative effect on the rooting of haploid shoots, but enhanced effectively the rooting of the tetraploid shoots. By supplementing the medium with 0.3 mg/L IBA, the time required for the emergence of roots from the tetraploid shoots was shortened and the rooting rate was increased largely. As a result, healthy tetraploid plantlets with fully developed root system could be efficiently propagated.

  4. Transformación genética de Echinacea purpurea y E. angustifolia mediante Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Loaiza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secciones de tallos de vitroplántulas de Echinacea purpurea y E. angustifolia fueron inoculadas con Agrobacterium rhizogenes cepa SV3101, con la finalidad de obtener plántulas transformadas. Se evaluó el efecto de la acetosiringona en combinación con floroglucinol sobre la transformación. El proceso de transformación aumentó proporcional y significativamente conforme se incrementó las concentraciones de ambos productos; llegándose a obtener un 100% de trasformación cuando se usó 200 μM de acetosiringona en combinación con 50 mg l –1 de floroglucinol. La eliminación de la bacteria se logró con 6 ml l-1 del Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM. También, se logró el cultivo in vitro de sólo raíces trasformadas, las cuales incrementaron su peso seco 11 veces en un periodo de 24 días de cultivo, momento en el cual se hace necesario iniciar un nuevo cultivo.

  5. Impact of UV-B radiation on some biochemical changes and growth parameters in Echinacea purpurea callus and suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam H. Manaf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of UV-B light force, exposure time and incubation period on producing caffeic acid derivatives and growth parameters in Echinacea purpurea callus and suspension culture were assessed. UV-B led to an increment of all growth parameters and antioxidant activity in callus and cell suspension and caffeic acid derivatives in cell suspension by increasing incubation period. The reverse was true for G-POD activity in cell suspension and PAL activity in both types of cultures. Incubation period 2 weeks was more effective in caffeic acid, total phenols and G-POD activity in callus cells and incubation period one week only for total phenols in cell suspension. The two exposure times 2 and 4 h increased antioxidant activity in the two types of cultures. Exposure time 2 h led to increase caffeic acid and total phenols in callus cells. The maximum increase in caffeic acid, total phenols and PAL activity in cell suspension was achieved by 4 h exposure time. Likewise, using 2 UV-B lamps for 2 h was the most effective in creating more biochemical components than the other treatments.

  6. Evaluation of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers on Shoot and Root Characteristics of Echinacea purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza Goldani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Purple coneflower with scientific name Echinacea purpurea (L. is an herbaceous perennial plant native to North America and is the one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. Root of Echinacea purpurea is commonly used around the world for stimulation of immune system. It is used as herbal medicine in respiratory infections, against malignant tumors and several inflammatory conditions However, nitrogen and phosphorus are the main elements that make up the proteins in plants and herbs for natural growth, especially is necessary in their productive organs. The results showed that nitrogen and phosphorus are important in continuation of flowering, the flowers fresh and dry weight and in essential oil. Fertilization of E. purpurea plants indicated that in absence or at low levels of nitrogen fertilization (0 and 100 kg acre-1, the addition of 50 and 100 kg acre-1 of potassium increased aerial parts, flower heads and root yield. Another report indicated that highest aerial biomass and root yield in E. purpurea was obtained with 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen at constant rates of phosphorus and potassium. Polyphenol content was not influenced by nitrogen fertilization and values fluctuated between 2.4 and 5.4 % in the aerial part at flowering and between 1.6 and 3.5 % in the roots. Fertilization with nitrogen caused a decrease in the concentrations of echinoside. Echinoside content was 1.16 % without nitrogen fertilization, and 0.94 % with nitrogen fertilization. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and yield of coneflower, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments were included three levels of nitrogen (0, 1 and 2 gr urea per kilogram of soil and three levels of phosphate fertilizer (0, 0.75 and 1.5 gr of phosphate (P2O5 per kg of soil. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied

  7. Effect of oral administration of freshly pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea on the number of various subpopulations of B- and T-lymphocytes in healthy volunteers: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Evelyn; Parlesak, Alexandr; Henneicke-von-Zeppelin, H. H.;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a recent double-blind placebo-controlled crossover-study the "immune stimulatory" effects (activation of macrophages leading to enhanced phagocytosis and production of several cytokines) of Echinacea purpurea preparations (EPP) which were observed in vitro experiments and following......-40 years) participated in the study. They received either a commercially available pressed juice of E. purpurea herbs or placebo juice using a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design with two treatment periods of 14 days. The total number of lymphocytes and 12 subgroups of lymphocytes were...

  8. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) cloning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15-52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost-effective and demonstrates the versatility as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. We established a DH10B-derived E. coli strain expressing an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system, termed PPY, which facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies.

  9. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  10. Biomimetic Cloning of Quantum Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, U; Lamata, L; Solano, E

    2013-01-01

    We propose a bio-inspired sequential quantum protocol for the cloning and preservation of the statistics associated to quantum observables of a given system. It combines the cloning of a set of commuting observables, permitted by the no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems, with a controllable propagation of the initial state coherences to the subsequent generations. The protocol mimics the scenario in which an individual in an unknown quantum state copies and propagates its quantum information into an environment of blank qubits. Finally, we propose a realistic experimental implementation of this protocol in trapped ions.

  11. Cloning: revisiting an old debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Allen D

    1994-09-01

    The debate about cloning that took place 25 years ago, although directed toward a different sort of cloning, elucidates fundamental issues currently at stake in reproductive technologies and research. Paul Ramsey and Joseph Fletcher were participants in this early debate. The differences between Ramsey and Fletcher about the meaning and sufficiency of freedom, the understanding and weighing of good and evil, the connection between embodiment and personhood, the relationship of humans with nature, and the meaning of parenthood suggest both a broader agenda for the debate about cloning and a cautious move forward in the development of embryo-splitting.

  12. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Richard S.; Allen, Larry N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

  13. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  14. A Clone of Your Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Kirsten

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity used at the Washington Park Arboretum that helps students understand cloning through plant propagation. Students also learn how to make a pot from recycled newspapers and how to make soil that is appropriate for the plants. (DDR)

  15. Human cloning and 'posthuman' society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning.

  16. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26 was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm, as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2 and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1 were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling.

  17. The effect of Echinacea purpurea aerial organ dried extract vs. Zinc oxide on skin wound healing in rat: a morphometric & histopathologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delazar A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Because of eventual side effects of chemical drugs, the efficacy of natural wound healing accelerators in long-term diseases and some situations is demanded to practitioners. The initial aim of our study was to assess full thickness excisional skin wound healing and inflammation diminution, Morphometrically and Histopathologically, after topical application of dried extract of Echinacea purpurea aerial part in rats, compared with zinc oxide. "nMethods: Sixty wistar rats received four full thickness excisional wounds with the aim of surgical punch on the back skin under surgical anesthesia. All rats were randomly divided into groups 1, 2 and 3, of Echinacea purpurea, zinc oxide and control, respectively. All of them were treated topically once a day for 21 uninterrupted days. Healing of the wounds was daily measured by taking digital photographs and analysis. Histopathologic assessment was carried out in the 0th, 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of treatment period as well, and wound healing was assessed using 1 to 6 healing grades. "nResults: According to Morphometric findings, the wound contraction rate in group 1 after 21 days of skin punching, with wound size of 0.18±0.03 mm2 in contrast with group 2, 2.81±0.21mm2, was much higher than that in other groups. Group 1 with wound contraction rate of 2.5 times in the day 7 and 3 times in the day 14 more than group 2, had the best wound contraction (p<0.01. histopathologic assessment revealed that, overall healing rate in the group 1 was highest (p<0.01. "nConclusion: Echinacea purpurea dried herbal extract could be a new capable remedy to accelerate skin wound healing because of its potential anti-phlogosis and wound healing stimulatory properties.

  18. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantitative analysis of the Echinacea purpurea constituent undeca-2-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goey, Andrew K L; Sparidans, Rolf W; Meijerman, Irma; Rosing, Hilde; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2011-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea is one of the most popular herbal medicines and is known for its immunostimulatory effects. Alkylamides are the main lipophilic components of E. purpurea that contribute to its pharmacological actions. For quantification in human plasma of one of these alkylamides, undeca-2-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay has been developed and validated. Plasma samples were pretreated using liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of diethyl ether and n-hexane (50:50, v/v). Dried extracts were reconstituted in 50 μL of acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v) after which 15 μL of sample was injected into the HPLC system. HPLC was performed using a Polaris 3 C18-A column (50 mm×2 mm ID) and isocratic elution with acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v) containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Subsequently, electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode followed by tandem mass spectrometry was performed for detection. The total run time was 3 min. The assay was validated over a concentration range from 0.05 to 50 ng/mL for undeca-2-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, with 0.05 ng/mL being the lower limit of quantification using 1.0 mL plasma samples. Inter-assay inaccuracy (±12.7%), within-day and between-day precisions (CV≤8.23%) were acceptable. Further, undeca-2-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide was found to be chemically stable under relevant conditions. Finally, the applicability of this assay has been successfully demonstrated in a pharmacokinetic experiment in which a human volunteer ingested a commercial extract of E. purpurea. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Echinacea purpurea in combination with meglumine antimoniate on treatment of Leishmania major-induced cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkari, Bahador; Mohseni, Mobin; Moein, Mahmoud Reza; Shahriarirad, Reza; Asgari, Qasem

    2017-01-01

    Progressive resistance of Leishmania parasite to available drugs including, meglumine antimoniate, has been reported from various regions of the world, especially Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Echinacea purpurea in a combination therapy with glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major. Hydroalcoholic extract of E. purpurea was prepared from the plant. Amastigote form of L. major was inoculated to the tail base of thirty mice. After their tails became wounded, mice were divided into six groups. The first group was used as control and the second group received 100 mg/kg of Echinacea extract (orally). The third group was treated by meglumine antimoniate with dose of 20 mg/kg. Combination therapy was used for group four, five, and six where the mice received a different concentration of extract (100-200 mg/kg) and glucantime (10-20 mg/kg). The size of the cutaneous lesion on tail base was measured regularly. Findings were analyzed by SPSS software and using Kruskal-Wallis test. The sizes of the lesion were increased in all mice of control group by the time. The mean size of lesions in mice receiving the extract and/or receiving the extract along with meglumine antimoniate was lower than those of control mice, but the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). On the other hand, the differences between the group of mice which received meglumine antimoniate alone, and the rest of groups were statistically significant (P purpurea extract in doses which have been used in this study and combination with meglumine antimoniate was not much effective against L. major in BALB/C mice.

  20. Evaluation of chemical parameters and ecotoxicity of a soil developed on gossan following application of polyacrylates and growth of Spergularia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; de Varennes, Amarilis; Macías, Felipe; Leitão, Sara; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics and ecotoxicity of a mine soil developed on gossan materials and amended with hydrophilic polyacrylate polymers after a growth cycle of Spergularia purpurea. Different acute bioassays (Daphnia magna immobilization; microalgae growth inhibition; germination and growth of lettuce and oat) were carried out with simulated leachates, pore water and soil samples. The germination and growth of native shrubs (Cistus ladanifer and Lavandula sampaioana) were also evaluated in the lysimeters where S. purpurea had grown. The soil had high total concentrations (g/kg) of Al (3.50-8.60), As (2.55-2.73), Cu (0.13-0.91) and Pb (4.48-6.16). However, the percentages of elements in aqueous extracts (simulating leachates, pore water, and the conditions of the rhizosphere soil) were small when compared to their total soil concentrations (less than 9% except for Na in leachates). Growth of S. purpurea and other natural colonization of plant species (Poaceae, Fabaceae and Asteraceae families) improved chemical characteristics but the application of the polyacrylate polymers contributed to a further improvement of soil quality. However, this was not sufficient to ensure the growth of a large number of shrubs despite a great germination rate. Among the several species used on the ecotoxicological assessment, the D. magna test was the only bioassay that showed a clear toxicity of soil leachates, suggesting the importance of using several ecotoxicological tests to assess the environmental risk of soil contamination and its rehabilitation. Although the studied soil can be considered contaminated taking into account the total soil concentrations of Al, As, Cu and Pb, the low concentrations of the same chemical elements in extractable solutions, that simulated the fractions really available for organisms, did not demonstrate a substantial toxic effects in the organisms and, consequently, negative impact on the environment.

  1. Islamic perspectives on human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    The present paper seeks to assess various views from Islamic jurists relating to human cloning, which is one of the controversial topics in the recent past. Taking Islamic jurisprudence principles, such as the rule of necessity for self preservation and respect for human beings, the rule of la darar wa la dirar ('the necessity to refrain from causing harm to oneself and others') and the rule of usr wa haraj, one may indicate that if human cloning could not be prohibited, as such, it could still be opposed because it gives way to various harmful consequences, which include family disorder, chaos in the clone's family relationships, physical and mental diseases for clones and suffering of egg donors and surrogate mothers. However with due attention to the fact that the reasons behind the prohibition of abortion only restrict the destruction of human embryos in their post-implantation stages, human cloning for biomedical research and exploitation of stem cells from cloned embryos at the blastocyst stage for therapeutic purposes would be acceptable.

  2. Cloning goes to the movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormick, Craig

    2006-10-01

    Public attitude research conducted by Biotechnology Australia shows that one of the major sources of information on human reproductive cloning is movies. Traditionally, understanding of new and emerging technologies has come through the mass media but human cloning, being so widely addressed through the popular culture of movies, is more effectively defined by Hollywood than the news media or science media. But how well are the science and social issues of cloning portrayed in box office hits such as The Island, Multiplicity, Star Wars: Attack of the Clones and Jurassic Park? These movies have enormous reach and undoubted influence, and are therefore worth analyzing in some detail. This study looks at 33 movies made between 1971 and 2005 that address human reproductive cloning, and it categorizes the films based on their genre and potential influence. Yet rather than simply rating the quality of the science portrayed, the study compares the key messages in these movies with public attitudes towards cloning, to examine the correlations.

  3. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  4. Suspected ergotism in two heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D M; Dorling, P R

    1983-10-01

    A syndrome similar to gangrenous ergotism was seen in 2 Friesian heifers grazing meadow hay containing perennial rye grass seed heads parasited by an ergot presumed to be Claviceps purpurea. Clinical signs were bilateral hind limb lameness and gangrene. There was angiographic evidence of vasoconstriction in the lower hind limbs with necrosis of all tissues in the distal region of both hind limbs.

  5. Online detection and quatification of ergot bodies in cereals using near infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ph.; Fernandez - Pierna, J.A.; Egmond, van H.P.; Dardenne, P.; Baeten, V.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of ergot bodies (sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea) in cereals presents a high toxicity risk for animals and humans due to the alkaloid content. To reduce this risk, the European Commission fixed an ergot concentration limit of 0.1% in all feedstuffs containing unground cereals, and a l

  6. Structured Review of Code Clone Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, Wiebe; Ponisio, María Laura; Wieringa, Roel

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a structured review of code clone literature. The aim of the review is to assemble a conceptual model of clone-related concepts which helps us to reason about clones. This conceptual model unifies clone concepts from a wide range of literature, so that findings ab

  7. Structured Review of Code Clone Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, W.T.B.; Ponisio, Laura; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a structured review of code clone literature. The aim of the review is to assemble a conceptual model of clone-related concepts which helps us to reason about clones. This conceptual model unifies clone concepts from a wide range of literature, so that findings ab

  8. Investigation on antimicrobial effects of essential oil of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. and identification of its chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Izadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Purple coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea L. is a perennial herbaceous with astringent properties, disinfectant, antimicrobial and anti intoxication activity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of shoot essential oil of purple coneflower against some microorganisms including gram positive, gram negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Material and Methods: In this experimental and laboratory investigation, plant samples were collected in full blooming stage. Shoot essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation technique using Clevenger apparatus. The chemical constitutes of this oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS method. Anti microbial properties of the essential oil were determined using micro broth dilution and well disk diffusion methods. At the end, data were analyzed by the SPSS version 15 software, using the T-test and Duncan s' test. Results: Twenty nine components were identified by GC and GC/MS in the essential oil of purple coneflower representing 96.21% of total oil. The major components were Germacrene D (53.30%, -Cymene (9.78%, β-Caryophyllene (7.52%, α-Humulene (5.22%, β-Bisabolene (4.43% and α-Pinene (4.23%, respectively. This oil exhibited strong antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and yeast with average of inhibition zone (AIZ 39.63. Microorganisms differ in their resistance to purple coneflower oil. All of the bacteria including gram positive and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than fungi and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than gram positive bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium were more resistant than others. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that coneflower essential oil with significant antimicrobial effects and can be used instead of synthetic antibiotics that microbial resistance towards them is increasing.

  9. Stimulatory effect of Echinacea purpurea extract on the trafficking activity of mouse dendritic cells: revealed by genomic and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wang, Wen-Hsin; Wang, Bi-Xue; Aravindaram, Kandan; Hwang, Pei-Ing; Wu, Han-Ming; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2010-11-01

    Several Echinacea species have been used as nutraceuticals or botanical drugs for "immunostimulation", but scientific evidence supporting their therapeutic use is still controversial. In this study, a phytocompound mixture extracted from the butanol fraction (BF) of a stem and leaf (S+L) extract of E. purpurea ([BF/S+L/Ep]) containing stringently defined bioactive phytocompounds was obtained using standardized and published procedures. The transcriptomic and proteomic effects of this phytoextract on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were analyzed using primary cultures. Treatment of BMDCs with [BF/S+L/Ep] did not significantly influence the phenotypic maturation activity of dendritic cells (DCs). Affymetrix DNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses of genes differentially expressed in DCs treated with [BF/S+L/Ep] for 4 or 12 h revealed that the majority of responsive genes were related to cell adhesion or motility (Cdh10, Itga6, Cdh1, Gja1 and Mmp8), or were chemokines (Cxcl2, Cxcl7) or signaling molecules (Nrxn1, Pkce and Acss1). TRANSPATH database analyses of gene expression and related signaling pathways in treated-DCs predicted the JNK, PP2C-α, AKT, ERK1/2 or MAPKAPK pathways as the putative targets of [BF/S+L/Ep]. In parallel, proteomic analysis showed that the expressions of metabolic-, cytoskeleton- or NF-κB signaling-related proteins were regulated by treatment with [BF/S+L/Ep]. In vitro flow cytometry analysis of chemotaxis-related receptors and in vivo cell trafficking assay further showed that DCs treated with [BF/S+L/Ep] were able to migrate more effectively to peripheral lymph node and spleen tissues than DCs treated as control groups. Results from this study suggest that [BF/S+L/Ep] modulates DC mobility and related cellular physiology in the mouse immune system. Moreover, the signaling networks and molecules highlighted here are potential targets for nutritional or clinical application of Echinacea or other candidate medicinal

  10. Oral Echinacea purpurea extract in low-grade, steroid-dependent, autoimmune idiopathic uveitis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Pier Giorgio; Stagni, Edoardo; Filippello, Massimo; Camillieri, Giovanni; Giovannini, Alfonso; Leggio, Gian Marco; Drago, Filippo

    2006-12-01

    The aim of to test efficacy and safety of Echinacea purpurea (echinacea) extract in the control of low-grade uveitis. Fifty-one (51) patients with low-grade, steroid dependent, autoimmune uveitis were recruited; posterior uveitis was excluded. The start therapy was represented by topical desamethazone for anterior uveitis and oral prednisone, rapidly tapered, for anterior uveitis with inflammatory scores equal to +2 and in all cases of intermediate uveitis. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) decrease or improvement was defined as a reduction or increase of 2 or more letters seen from the initial BCVA; ETDRS chart was used. Thirty-two (32) patients (21 with anterior uveitis and 11 with intermediate uveitis) received Echinacea (150 mg twice/day) as add-on therapy, whereas 20 patients (10 with anterior uveitis and 9 with intermediate uveitis) were treated with the conventional steroid therapy alone. Thirty-one (31) patients showed anterior uveitis and 20 intermediate uveitis. The follow-up duration was 9 months. At the last follow-up, 19/21 patients with anterior uveitis and 9/11 with intermediate uveitis treated with echinacea presented uveitis settled, with a steroid-off time of 209 and 146 days, respectively. BCVA was stable or improved in 19/21 of anterior uveitis and 9/11 of intermediate uveitis. No adverse reactions supposed to be resulting from commercial-grade echinacea were recorded. Patients who did not receive echinacea required a longer treatment period with steroids with a steroid-off time of 121 and 87 days. Systemic echinacea appears safe and effective in the control of low-grade autoimmune idiopathic uveitis.

  11. Use of hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of Spergularia purpurea in a mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, G; de Varennes, A

    2010-06-15

    We used hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of an indigenous plant (Spergularia purpurea (Persoon) G. Don fil.) in a soil from a pyrite mine. Lysimeters were filled with the mine soil with no amendment (control), with a polyacrylate polymer, with a polymer removed from diapers, and with shredded diapers. The establishment of a plant cover was faster in soil amended with polymer from diapers, and 85 days after sowing the soil was completely covered in all treatments except control. The concentrations of trace elements in plant shoots decreased in amended soil. The activities of soil acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, protease and cellulase were greatest in soil amended with the polyacrylate polymer or with polymer removed from diapers, while the application of shredded diapers leads to values that were in general intermediate between these treatments and unamended control. Basal- and substrate-induced respirations, and dehydrogenase were greatest in soil amended with polymers, but the presence of a plastic film and fibrous materials from shredded diapers prevented any improvement in these parameters compared with unamended soil. In the second experiment, we evaluated the risk of downward movement of polymers in columns of a sandy soil. Polymer from diapers, with or without Cu, was placed at a 10 cm-depth. Five leaching cycles with artificial rain took place and leachates were analyzed for organic matter and Cu. At the end of the experiment, the soil columns were sliced and each layer was analyzed separately. Some repacking of soil and polymer particles took place, but there was no indication that polymers moved to any great depth in soil columns.

  12. Influence of Different Processing Methods on the Seed Germination of Echinacea purpurea%不同处理对紫花松果菊种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆叶; 黄承玲; 储蓉; 魏德生

    2012-01-01

    为摸清不同处理方式对紫花松果菊种子萌发的影响,采用单因素随机区组试验设计,对引进的紫花松果菊[Echinacea purpurea,(L) Moench.]种子萌发特性进行研究.结果表明:1)在室内平均温度和湿度分别为25.3℃和80.6%时,种子经过稀释10倍、20倍和40倍的95%乙醇溶液浸泡处理5 min后进行萌发,其萌发率均达90%左右;2)在室内平均温度和湿度分别为27.4℃和74.3%的环境中,GA溶液浓度为5 mg/L时的萌发率最高(达41%),浓度超过5 mg/L的GA溶液对紫花松果菊种子的萌发无积极作用,相反还有抑制作用.%In order to ascertain the influence of different processing methods on the seed germination of E. purpurea, the single factor randomized block was designed to study the seed germination of E. purpurea. The results showed that:l) The E. purpurea seeds were soaked in 95% ethanol solution which was diluted 10 times,20 times, 40 times respectively for five minutes under 25. 3*C of laboratory average temperature and 80. 6% of relative humidity before starting to be researched the seed germination, then about 90% seed germination rate was obtained; 2) In order to increase the seed germination rate of E. purpurea under 27. 4癈 of laboratory average temperature and 74. 3% of relative humidity, the GA solution in certain concentration areas (<5 mg/L) was controlled before soaking the E. purpurea seeds. The high-concentration GA solution had no positive effect of E. purpurea seed germination.

  13. [Mystery and problems of cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V A

    2010-01-01

    The attention of investigators is attracted to the fact that, in spite of great efforts in mammalian cloning, advances that have been made in this area of research are not great, and cloned animals have developmental pathologies often incompatible with life and/or reproduction ability. It is yet not clear what technical or biological factors underlie this, and how they are connected or interact with each other, which is more realistic strategically. There is a great number of articles dealing with the influence of cloning with the nuclear transfer on genetic and epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells. At the same time we can see the practical absence of analytical investigations concerning the technology of cloning as such, its weak points, and possible sources of cellular trauma in the course of microsurgery of nuclear transfer or twinning. This article discusses step by step several nuclear transfer techniques and the methods of dividing early preimplanted embryos for twinning with the aim to reveal possible sources of cell damage during micromanipulation that may have negative influence on the development of cloned organisms. Several new author's technologies based on the study of cell biophysical characteristics are described, which allow one to avoid cellular trauma during manipulation and minimize the possibility of cell damage at any rate.

  14. [Cloning and law in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited. In Hungary, according to Article 174 of the Criminal Code, total human cloning constitutes a crime. Article 180, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian Act on Health declares that embryos shall not be brought about for research purposes; research shall be conducted only on embryos brought about for reproductive purposes when this is authorized by the persons entitled to decide upon its disposal, or when the embryo is damaged. Article 180, paragraph (5) of the Hungarian Act on Health stipulates that multiple individuals who genetically conform to one another shall not be brought about. According to Article 181, paragraph (1) of the Hungarian Act on Health, an embryo used for research shall be kept alive for not longer than 14 days, not counting the time it was frozen for storage and the time period of research.

  15. Analysis on Genetic Diversity of Echinacea purpurea Moench Based on SRAP%紫锥菊遗传多样性的S RA P分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜

    2014-01-01

    采用SRAP分子标记技术,对14份引种紫锥菊材料的遗传多样性进行分析。结果显示,9对SRAP引物组合扩增出171条带,多态性比率为80.7%,说明SRAP可应用于紫锥菊种内遗传多样性分析;聚类分析表明紫锥菊样品间的亲缘关系与种质来源地存在一定的相关性。%The sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP)molecular marker was used to detect the genetic diversity among 14 introduced Echinacea purpurea from different germplasm sources.The results showed that 171 bands were obtained by 9 pairs of SRAP primers.The percentage of polymorphic bands was 80.7%.It indicated that the SRAP markers could be used for intraspecific genetic diversity analysis of Echi-nacea purpurea.Cluster analysis showed that there was certain correlation between the genetic relationship and germplasm sources.

  16. Seslerio uliginosae-Scorzoneretum purpureae (Festuco-Brometea class in the Nida Basin (Małopolska Upland after 90 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Towpasz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Seslerio uliginosae-Scorzoneretum purpureae is the only xerothermic community of the Festuco-Brometea class, where a rare species known as Sesleria uliginosa occurs in Poland. A couple of sites hosting this association in the Nida Basin were described in the 1920s and 1950s. All these stands are now situated in the areas designated as xerothermic nature reserves. The study aimed at describing the present-day characteristics of this rare association, the most likely being endemic in Poland, as well as the changes that have occurred in it. The species diversity and the contribution of xerothermic plants have decreased significantly in terms of their number and cover coefficient. Some of the diagnostic species of the association have become extremely rare. Sesleria uliginosa is the only one without visible changes in their dominant position in the community. Mosses, that have played a significant role before, were among the vanished species. At the same time, an increase in number and cover of mesophilous meadows species was observed. Mesophilous grasses belong to the group of species growing in significance in the phytocoenoses. The observed changes in species composition were reflected in a statistically significant increase of nitrogen indicator value. The slow process of succession observed in the Seslerio-Scorzoneretum purpureae could be attributed to the lack of appropriate land use, e.g. mowing and grazing that have been ceased in the nature reserves.

  17. The geographic mosaic of herbicide resistance evolution in the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea: Evidence for resistance hotspots and low genetic differentiation across the landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuester, Adam; Chang, Shu-Mei; Baucom, Regina S

    2015-09-01

    Strong human-mediated selection via herbicide application in agroecosystems has repeatedly led to the evolution of resistance in weedy plants. Although resistance can occur among separate populations of a species across the landscape, the spatial scale of resistance in many weeds is often left unexamined. We assessed the potential that resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea has evolved independently multiple times across its North American range. We examined both adaptive and neutral genetic variations in 44 populations of I. purpurea by pairing a replicated dose-response greenhouse experiment with SSR genotyping of experimental individuals. We uncovered a mosaic pattern of resistance across the landscape, with some populations exhibiting high-survival postherbicide and other populations showing high death. SSR genotyping revealed little evidence of isolation by distance and very little neutral genetic structure associated with geography. An approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analysis uncovered evidence for migration and admixture among populations before the widespread use of glyphosate rather than the very recent contemporary gene flow. The pattern of adaptive and neutral genetic variations indicates that resistance in this mixed-mating weed species appears to have evolved in independent hotspots rather than through transmission of resistance alleles across the landscape.

  18. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    1.This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. 2.Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. 3. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. 4.Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb-drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Phenolic Acids in Rat Plasma Using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS after Oral Administration of Echinacea purpurea Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine the concentration of seven phenolic acids (syringic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract. After mixing with the internal standard (IS, butylparaben, plasma samples were prepared by liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The separation was performed using the Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm with a gradient system consisting of solution A (0.1% acetic acid in water and solution B (methanol at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The detection was accomplished by a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode with electrospray ionization (ESI. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability. This method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetic properties of the seven compounds after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract in rats.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Phenolic Acids in Rat Plasma Using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS after Oral Administration of Echinacea purpurea Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Wang, Zhibin; Wang, Libo; Gao, Mingjie; Wang, Liqian; Gan, Chunli; Yang, Chunjuan

    2017-09-07

    A rapid and sensitive Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine the concentration of seven phenolic acids (syringic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) in rat plasma after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract. After mixing with the internal standard (IS), butylparaben, plasma samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The separation was performed using the Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm) with a gradient system consisting of solution A (0.1% acetic acid in water) and solution B (methanol) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The detection was accomplished by a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI). The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability. This method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetic properties of the seven compounds after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract in rats.

  1. The topsy-turvy cloning law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, Iain; Oultram, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    In debates about human cloning, a distinction is frequently drawn between therapeutic and reproductive uses of the technology. Naturally enough, this distinction influences the way that the law is framed. The general consensus is that therapeutic cloning is less morally problematic than reproductive cloning--one can hold this position while holding that both are morally unacceptable--and the law frequently leaves the way open for some cloning for the sake of research into new therapeutic techniques while banning it for reproductive purposes. We claim that the position adopted by the law has things the wrong way around: if we accept a moral distinction between therapeutic and reproductive cloning, there are actually more reasons to be morally worried about therapeutic cloning than about reproductive cloning. If cloning is the proper object of legal scrutiny, then, we ought to make sure that we are scrutinising the right kind of clone.

  2. Animal cloning: advances and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuaire Lilian

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Few recent advances have revolutionized the developmental biology as the animal cloning has. Since the birth of Dolly, the sheep, in 1996, which was the first derived clone of a mature animal, a new scientific era began. It has been characterized by growing demystification that differentiated cells are unalterable entities in its nuclear organization and chromatin structure, and by a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the development. Throughout this paper, we will review some of the achievements and limitations of the techniques used, both in therapeutic and in the reproductive cloning, as well as the perspectives that its application allows to glimpse within a close future. At the same time, we will point out some considerations regarding the ethical debate that surrounds such a controversial issue.

  3. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the issue...

  4. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yue, Jie-Dong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-11-20

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results.

  5. Mammalian cloning: possibilities and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitalipov, S M; Wolf, D P

    2000-10-01

    The cloning of mammals originated with the production of limited numbers of genetically identical offspring by blastomere separation or embryo splitting. In the past few years, remarkable progress has been reported in cloning by nuclear transfer (NT) with donor nuclei recovered from embryonic, fetal or adult cells. Factors that contribute to the successful reprogramming of the transferred nucleus and the normal term development of the newly reconstructed embryo include the cell cycle stage of both the donor nucleus and recipient cytoplast, the timing of fusion and cytoplast activation, and the source of donor nuclei. The possibility of producing live offspring by somatic cell NT carries potential applications in animal husbandry, biotechnology, transgenic and pharmaceutical production, biomedical research, and the preservation of endangered species. However, the low efficiencies of cloning by NT coupled with high embryonic, fetal and neonatal losses may restrict immediate commercial applications in agriculture. These limitations notwithstanding, the greatest benefits and practical implications of this new technology could be in transplantation medicine and therapeutic cloning.

  6. Operads, clones, and distributive laws

    CERN Document Server

    Curien, Pierre-Louis

    2012-01-01

    We show how non-symmetric operads (or multicategories), symmetric operads, and clones, arise from three suitable monads on Cat, each extending to a (pseudo-)monad on the bicategory of categories and profunctors. We also explain how other previous categorical analyses of operads (via Day's tensor products, or via analytical functors) fit with the profunctor approach.

  7. Positional cloning of deafness genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, H.; Cremers, F.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The identification of the majority of the known causative genes involved in nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (NSHL) started with linkage analysis as part of a positional cloning procedure. The human and mouse genome projects in combination with technical developments on genotyping, transcript

  8. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav

    2016-01-01

    Clone-MarkerFree. The integration of linearized expression cassettes into defined genomic loci is facilitated by CRISPR/Cas9. Cas9 is recruited to the chromosomal location by specific guide RNAs (gRNAs) expressed from a set of gRNA helper vectors. Using our genome engineering vector suite, single and triple insertions are obtained...

  9. Clone Poems and the Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1989-01-01

    Describes how students can use the computer to study and create clone poems (altering original Spanish-language poems by substituting words and expressions), and how students can gain a deeper appreciation of the original poem's poetic structure and semantics. (CB)

  10. Graph rewriting with polarized cloning

    CERN Document Server

    Duval, Dominique; Prost, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    We tackle the problem of graph transformation with a particular focus on node cloning. We propose a graph rewriting framework where nodes can be cloned zero, one or more times. A node can be cloned together with all its incident edges, with only the outgoing edges, with only the incoming edges or without any of the incident edges. We thus subsume previous works such as the sesqui-pushout, the heterogeneous pushout and the adaptive star grammars approaches. A rule is defined as a span $\\spa{\\grpol{L}}{l}{\\grpol{K}}{r}{R}$ where the right-hand side $R$ is a multigraph, the left-hand side $\\grpol{L}$ and the interface $\\grpol{K}$ are polarized multigraphs. A polarized multigraph is a multigraph endowed with some cloning annotations on nodes and edges. We introduce the notion of polarized multigraphs and define a rewriting step as pushback followed by a pushout in the same way as in the sesqui-pushout approach.

  11. Human reproductive cloning: a conflict of liberties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havstad, Joyce C

    2010-02-01

    Proponents of human reproductive cloning do not dispute that cloning may lead to violations of clones' right to self-determination, or that these violations could cause psychological harms. But they proceed with their endorsement of human reproductive cloning by dismissing these psychological harms, mainly in two ways. The first tactic is to point out that to commit the genetic fallacy is indeed a mistake; the second is to invoke Parfit's non-identity problem. The argument of this paper is that neither approach succeeds in removing our moral responsibility to consider and to prevent psychological harms to cloned individuals. In fact, the same commitment to personal liberty that generates the right to reproduce by means of cloning also creates the need to limit that right appropriately. Discussion of human reproductive cloning ought to involve a careful and balanced consideration of both the relevant aspects of personal liberty - the parents' right to reproductive freedom and the cloned child's right to self-determination.

  12. Stimulatory effect of Echinacea purpurea extract on the trafficking activity of mouse dendritic cells: revealed by genomic and proteomic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bi-Xue

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Echinacea species have been used as nutraceuticals or botanical drugs for "immunostimulation", but scientific evidence supporting their therapeutic use is still controversial. In this study, a phytocompound mixture extracted from the butanol fraction (BF of a stem and leaf (S+L extract of E. purpurea ([BF/S+L/Ep] containing stringently defined bioactive phytocompounds was obtained using standardized and published procedures. The transcriptomic and proteomic effects of this phytoextract on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs were analyzed using primary cultures. Results Treatment of BMDCs with [BF/S+L/Ep] did not significantly influence the phenotypic maturation activity of dendritic cells (DCs. Affymetrix DNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses of genes differentially expressed in DCs treated with [BF/S+L/Ep] for 4 or 12 h revealed that the majority of responsive genes were related to cell adhesion or motility (Cdh10, Itga6, Cdh1, Gja1 and Mmp8, or were chemokines (Cxcl2, Cxcl7 or signaling molecules (Nrxn1, Pkce and Acss1. TRANSPATH database analyses of gene expression and related signaling pathways in treated-DCs predicted the JNK, PP2C-α, AKT, ERK1/2 or MAPKAPK pathways as the putative targets of [BF/S+L/Ep]. In parallel, proteomic analysis showed that the expressions of metabolic-, cytoskeleton- or NF-κB signaling-related proteins were regulated by treatment with [BF/S+L/Ep]. In vitro flow cytometry analysis of chemotaxis-related receptors and in vivo cell trafficking assay further showed that DCs treated with [BF/S+L/Ep] were able to migrate more effectively to peripheral lymph node and spleen tissues than DCs treated as control groups. Conclusion Results from this study suggest that [BF/S+L/Ep] modulates DC mobility and related cellular physiology in the mouse immune system. Moreover, the signaling networks and molecules highlighted here are potential targets for nutritional or clinical

  13. Echinacea purpurea-derived alkylamides exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects and alleviate clinical symptoms of atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Attila; Szabó-Papp, Judit; Soeberdt, Michael; Knie, Ulrich; Dähnhardt-Pfeiffer, Stephan; Abels, Christoph; Bíró, Tamás

    2017-05-27

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic inflammatory and pruritic skin disease. There is still an unmet need for topical anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic substances exhibiting an excellent safety profile. The endocannabinoid system is known to regulate various aspects of cutaneous barrier and immune functions, thus targeting it may be a valid approach for alleviating the symptoms of AE. To assess the putative efficacy of Echinacea purpurea-derived alkylamides (Ec. extract) activating cannabinoid (CB)-2 receptors in exerting anti-inflammatory effects and alleviating symptoms of AE. In vitro anti-inflammatory efficiency was investigated by monitoring the effects of Ec. extract on poly-(I:C)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (Q-PCR) and release (ELISA) of HaCaT keratinocytes. Irritancy and sensitization potential (assessed by Human Repeat Insult Patch Test; Clinical trial 1); clinical efficiency in alleviating symptoms of AE (Clinical trial 2) as well as effects on human skin structure and lipid content (Clinical trial 3 followed by transmission electron microscopy and HPTLC) were investigated in randomized double blind clinical trials. Ec. extract significantly reduced mRNA expression as well as release of poly-(I:C)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) in keratinocytes. Thus, not surprisingly, the well-tolerated (Clinical trial 1) Ec. extract-based cream reduced local SCORAD statistically significantly, not only compared to baseline, but also compared to the comparator (Clinical trial 2). Of great importance, besides the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, administration of the Ec. extract-based cream also resulted in significantly higher levels of overall epidermal lipids, ceramide EOS (ω-esterified fatty acid+sphingosine sphingoid base), and cholesterol at Day 15 compared to baseline as well as significantly greater numbers of intercellular lipid lamellae in the intercellular space (Clinical trial 3). The investigated Ec. extract shows great

  14. Economical Phase-Covariant Cloning of Qudits

    CERN Document Server

    Buscemi, F; Macchiavello, C; Buscemi, Francesco; Ariano, Giacomo Mauro D'; Macchiavello, Chiara

    2004-01-01

    We derive the optimal $N\\to M$ phase-covariant quantum cloning for equatorial states in dimension $d$ with $M=kd+N$, $k$ integer. The cloning maps are optimal for both global and single-qudit fidelity. The map is achieved by an ``economical'' cloning machine, which works without ancilla. The connection between optimal phase-covariant cloning and optimal multi-phase estimation is finally established.

  15. 紫锥菊叶柄高效再生体系的建立%Establishment of An Efficient Regeneration System for Echinacea Purpurea Petiol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉萍; 李宜芸; 李茜雯; 王小菁

    2015-01-01

    紫锥菊具有增强免疫和抗感染的作用,在国际上具有悠久的应用历史,近年来国内也有引种.该文以紫锥菊的不同器官(根、叶片、叶柄)为外植体,研究各激素配比对不同外植体建立再生体系的影响.结果表明:根、叶片、叶柄不定芽分化的适宜培养基分别为MS+0.5 mg/L 6-BA+0.2 mg/L NAA、MS+2.0 mg/L 6-BA、MS+0.5 mg/L 6-BA,诱导率分别为43.8%、73.7%和94.8%;增殖的适宜培养基为MS+0.5 mg/L 6-BA,增殖系数为9.0,生根培养基为MS基本培养基.研究结果为紫锥菊的快速繁殖和进一步开展遗传转化奠定基础.%Echinacea Purpurea, which has the functions of enhancing immunity and anti-infection, has been used as a medicinal plant for a long history worldwide, and was introduced to China in recent years.In order to establish an efficient regeneration system of E.Purpurea, we studied the effect of concentrations of 6-BA and NAA on the plant regeneration of different explants.The results showed that:a, the optimum media for bud differentiation from petiol, leaf and root were MS+0.5 mg/L 6-BA+0.2 mg/L NAA, MS+2.0 mg/L 6-BA, and MS+0.5 mg/L 6-BA, respectively;b, the optimum media for differentiation and rooting were MS+0.5 mg/L 6-BA, MS, re-spectively;c, the multiplication coefficient reached to 9.0.This work provides a practical plant regeneration meth-od for rapid propagation and genetic modification of E.Purpurea.

  16. Prevention of influenza virus induced bacterial superinfection by standardized Echinacea purpurea, via regulation of surface receptor expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalanathan, Selvarani; Schoop, Roland; Suter, Andy; Hudson, James

    2017-04-02

    Viral infections may predispose the airways to secondary bacterial infections that can lead to unfavorable progression of principally self-limiting illnesses. Such complicated respiratory infections include pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis, acute otitis media, and sepsis, which cause high morbidity and lethality. Some of the pathogenic consequences of viral infections, like the expression of bacterial adhesion receptors and the disturbance of physical barrier integrity due to inflammation, may create permissive conditions for co-infections. Influenza virus A (H3N2) is a major pathogen that causes secondary bacterial infections and inflammation that lead to pneumonia. The herbal medicine Echinacea purpurea, on the other hand, has been widely used to prevent and treat viral respiratory infections, and recent clinical data suggest that it may prevent secondary infection complications as well. We investigated the role of standardized E. purpurea (Echinaforce(®) extract or EF) on H3N2-induced adhesion of live nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Staphylococcus aureus, along with the expression of bacterial receptors, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), fibronectin, and platelet activating factor receptor (PAFr), by BEAS-2B cells. Inflammatory processes were investigated by determining the cellular expression of IL-6 and IL-8 and the involvement of Toll-like receptor (TLR-4) and NFκB p65. We found that influenza virus A infection increased the adhesion of H. influenzae and S. aureus to bronchial epithelial cells via upregulated expression of the ICAM-1 receptor and, to some extent, of fibronectin and PAFr. Echinaforce (EF) significantly reduced the expression of ICAM-1, fibronectin, and PAFr and consequently the adhesion of both bacterial strains. EF also effectively prevented the super-expression of inflammatory cytokines by suppressing the expression of NFκB and possibly TLR-4. These results indicate that E. purpurea has the potential to reduce the

  17. Dealing with clones in the tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, E

    2006-01-01

    The note describes the way clone tracks are found and eliminated in the LHCb tracking. Both the "clone killer" algorithm and the related "clone finder" tool are presented. The performance of the algorithm as it is used at present in Brunel is also discussed.

  18. A single-copy galK promoter cloning vector suitable for cloning strong promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Gert; Court, Donald L.; Hammer, Karin

    1986-01-01

    We report the construction of lambda galK promoter cloning vectors for cloning and characterization of strong promoters. This phage, which contains a unique HindIII cloning site, was applied to the cloning and analysis of transcription initiations of the regulatory region of the deo-operon of...

  19. A single-copy galK promoter cloning vector suitable for cloning strong promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Gert; Court, Donald L.; Hammer, Karin

    1986-01-01

    We report the construction of lambda galK promoter cloning vectors for cloning and characterization of strong promoters. This phage, which contains a unique HindIII cloning site, was applied to the cloning and analysis of transcription initiations of the regulatory region of the deo-operon of...

  20. Therapeutic and reproductive cloning: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This article is a critical examination of the science and ethics of human cloning. It summarises the key scientific milestones in the development of nuclear transplantation, explains the importance of cloning to research into the medical potential of embryonic stem cells, and discusses the well-worn distinction between 'therapeutic' and 'reproductive' cloning. Suggesting that this distinction will be impossible to police, it goes on to consider the ethics of full human cloning. It is concluded that it represents an unacceptable form of parental despotism, and that the genetic engineering and cloning of future human beings will fracture the foundations of modern humanism.

  1. Induction of Echinacean purpurea Hairy Roots and in Vitro Culture%紫锥菊毛状根诱导及离体培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世海; 毕晓秀; 杨慧洁

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究紫锥菊毛状根的诱导及活性成分的产生.方法 用发根农杆菌(Agrohacterimn rhizogenes)A4,R1601,1025感染紫锥菊外植体.结果 紫锥菊外植体被3种发根农杆菌感染后,外植体伤口处均能陆续分化生长出白色的毛状根.A4菌株的诱导效果明显好于其他2种菌株,A4对紫锥菊叶片的毛状根诱导率高达66.7%o紫锥菊毛状根的最佳诱导条件为:发根农杆菌A4,感染时间12 min,菌液A600值0.8,共培养温度24℃,共培养时间2d,预培养时间2 d,培养基pH值6.0,此条件下紫锥菊毛状根的平均诱导率达到54%;对诱导出的毛状根进行PCR检测,证明其确为已转化的毛状根.检测得到紫锥菊毛状根中的多糖含量为15.54%,总酚的含量为2.491%.结论 本实验所建立的紫锥菊毛状根培养系统,为研究紫锥菊毛状根大量培养生产活性成分奠定了基础.%OBJECTIVE To study the induction of Echinacea purpurea hairy roots and the production of chemical constituents therein. METHODS Leaf blades and stems of Echinacea purpurea were infected by Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4, R1601, and 1025, respectively. RESULTS Hairy roots were induced from the wounded brim of the explants after inoculation of E. Purpurea explants with A. Rhizogenes of A4, R1601 or 1 025. The percentage of rooted leaf explants was 66. 7% after A4 infection. At the same time,single-factor experiments for several influential factors were carried out to find the best condition for inducement of Echinacea purpurea hairy roots. The most appropriate A. Rhizogenes was A4, the most appropriate infecting time was about 12 min, the most appropriate A600, of A4 suspension was about 0. 8, the most appropriate co-culture time was 2 d, the most appropriate preculture time was 2 d, the most appropriate co-culture temperature was about 24 t and the most appropriate pH of culture medium was about 6. 0, under which the average inducing rate reached 54%. The induced roots were

  2. Determination of cichoric acid in introducing plant of Echinacea purpurea%引种紫锥菊中菊苣酸的定性定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 聂斌; 武力; 曾振灵; 吴鸿; 陈建新

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立薄层色谱法(TLC)和高效液相色谱法(HPLC),对紫锥菊不同部位中的菊苣酸进行分析,为紫锥菊质量标准的建立提供依据.方法:TLC鉴别紫锥菊根、茎、叶、花中的菊苣酸;HPLC测定以上各部位中菊苣酸的含量,色谱柱为XTerra C18柱( 150 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈-0.1%磷酸水溶液(23:77),流速为1.0 mL·min-1,紫外检测波长为326 nm.结果:TLC中菊苣酸的斑点清晰可辨,Rf值为0.72; HPLC测得菊苣酸的进样浓度在0.5~100 μg·mL-1范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系(r =0.9999),方法的平均回收率(n=3)为95.3%( RSD= 3.6%),紫锥菊根、茎、叶、花中的菊苣酸含量分别为12.1,0.68,5.60,2.47 mg·g-1.结论:该检测方法简便可行,可用于紫锥菊中菊苣酸的质量控制.%Objective:To establish TLC and HPLC methods to analyze cichoric acid in different parts of Echinacea purpurea. Methods: TLC was adopted to rapidly identify the cichoric acid of different parts of Echinacea purpurea, including root, stem, leaf and flower, and HPLC was adopted to determine the content of cichoric acid in different parts of the plant. The column of Xterra C18( 150 mm ×4. 6 mm,5 μm) was adopted,with mixture of acetonitrile -0. 1 % phosphoric acid (23: 17) as mobile phase at flow rate of 1. 0 mL · min -1, and the UV detector was set at 326 nm. Results;The cichoric acid dot of TLC was clear and the Rf value was 7. 2. For HPLC determination,a good linear relationship in the range of 0. 5 - 100 μg · mL-1 ( r = 0. 9999 ) and ideal average recovery (95. 3% , RSD = 3.6% ,n =3) were obtained. The content of the cichoric acid in root, stem,leaf and flower of Echinacea purpurea was 12. 1,0.68,5.60,2.47 mg · g-1 respectively. Conclusion:The method is simple,and can be used to control quality of cichoric acid in Echinacea purpurea.

  3. Phenotypic and genomic characterization of the antimicrobial producer Rheinheimera sp. EpRS3 isolated from the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea: insights into its biotechnological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presta, Luana; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Miceli, Elisangela; Maggini, Valentina; Bogani, Patrizia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio; Fani, Renato

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in plant microbiota; however, despite medicinal plant relevance, very little is known about their highly complex endophytic communities. In this work, we report on the genomic and phenotypic characterization of the antimicrobial compound producer Rheinheimera sp. EpRS3, a bacterial strain isolated from the rhizospheric soil of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. In particular, EpRS3 is able to inhibit growth of different bacterial pathogens (Bcc, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) which might be related to the presence of gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of different types of secondary metabolites. The outcomes presented in this work highlight the fact that the strain possesses huge biotechnological potential; indeed, it also shows antimicrobial effects upon well-described multidrug-resistant (MDR) human pathogens, and it affects plant root elongation and morphology, mimicking indole acetic acid (IAA) action. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Clone DB: an integrated NCBI resource for clone-associated data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Valerie A; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Clausen, Cliff; Meric, Peter A; Zhou, Zhigang; Bouk, Nathan; Husain, Nora; Maglott, Donna R; Church, Deanna M

    2013-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Clone DB (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clone/) is an integrated resource providing information about and facilitating access to clones, which serve as valuable research reagents in many fields, including genome sequencing and variation analysis. Clone DB represents an expansion and replacement of the former NCBI Clone Registry and has records for genomic and cell-based libraries and clones representing more than 100 different eukaryotic taxa. Records provide details of library construction, associated sequences, map positions and information about resource distribution. Clone DB is indexed in the NCBI Entrez system and can be queried by fields that include organism, clone name, gene name and sequence identifier. Whenever possible, genomic clones are mapped to reference assemblies and their map positions provided in clone records. Clones mapping to specific genomic regions can also be searched for using the NCBI Clone Finder tool, which accepts queries based on sequence coordinates or features such as gene or transcript names. Clone DB makes reports of library, clone and placement data on its FTP site available for download. With Clone DB, users now have available to them a centralized resource that provides them with the tools they will need to make use of these important research reagents.

  5. Rice's Salt Tolerance Gene Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with US colleagues, CAS researchers have made significant progress in their studies into functional genes for key agronomic traits by cloning SKC1, a salt-tolerant functional gene of rice and making clear its biological functions and mechanisms. This pioneering work,which was reported in the Oct. issue of Nature Genetics (37:1141-1146), is believed to hold promise to increase the output of the crop plant in this country.

  6. El envejecimiento de los clones

    OpenAIRE

    Trippi, Victorio S.

    2007-01-01

    El envejecimiento de los clones se observa en plantas que muestran crecimiento definido por un determinismo genético, cuando se multiplican con tejidos que evolucionan hacia el crecimiento reproductivo. Las plantas fuertemente influenciadas por el ambiente, pueden mostrar fenómenos de senescencia cuando la condición de ambiente determina el crecimiento reproductivo. Los cambios asociados con la edad resultan de alteraciones del citoplasma como un tipo de diferenciación cel...

  7. Conotoxins Are Purified and Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ A group of CAS scientists have succeeded in purifying many conotoxins and cloning more than 100 new genes from six species of cone snails living in waters off the coast of the South China Sea, paving the way for the development of new drugs to relieve neuropathic pains. The work has been honored with a first prize from the 2005 Awards for S&T Progress in Shanghai.

  8. Cloning expeditions: risky but rewarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Harvey

    2013-12-01

    In the 1980s, a good part of my laboratory was using the then-new recombinant DNA techniques to clone and characterize many important cell surface membrane proteins: GLUT1 (the red cell glucose transporter) and then GLUT2 and GLUT4, the red cell anion exchange protein (Band 3), asialoglycoprotein receptor subunits, sucrase-isomaltase, the erythropoietin receptor, and two of the subunits of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor. These cloned genes opened many new fields of basic research, including membrane insertion and trafficking of transmembrane proteins, signal transduction by many members of the cytokine and TGF-β families of receptors, and the cellular physiology of glucose and anion transport. They also led to many insights into the molecular biology of several cancers, hematopoietic disorders, and diabetes. This work was done by an exceptional group of postdocs and students who took exceptionally large risks in developing and using novel cloning technologies. Unsurprisingly, all have gone on to become leaders in the fields of molecular cell biology and molecular medicine.

  9. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM. Costa

    Full Text Available The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13 than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26 and in the control group (up to 1.10, which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.

  10. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G M; Droste, A

    2012-11-01

    The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13) than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26) and in the control group (up to 1.10), which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.

  11. De novo assembly and annotation of the transcriptome of the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea uncovers gene expression changes associated with herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Trent; Baucom, Regina S

    2014-08-25

    Human-mediated selection can lead to rapid evolution in very short time scales, and the evolution of herbicide resistance in agricultural weeds is an excellent example of this phenomenon. The common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea, is resistant to the herbicide glyphosate, but genetic investigations of this trait have been hampered by the lack of genomic resources for this species. Here, we present the annotated transcriptome of the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea, along with an examination of whole genome expression profiling to assess potential gene expression differences between three artificially selected herbicide resistant lines and three susceptible lines. The assembled Ipomoea transcriptome reported in this work contains 65,459 assembled transcripts, ~28,000 of which were functionally annotated by assignment to Gene Ontology categories. Our RNA-seq survey using this reference transcriptome identified 19 differentially expressed genes associated with resistance-one of which, a cytochrome P450, belongs to a large plant family of genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification. The differentially expressed genes also broadly implicated receptor-like kinases, which were down-regulated in the resistant lines, and other growth and defense genes, which were up-regulated in resistant lines. Interestingly, the target of glyphosate-EPSP synthase-was not overexpressed in the resistant Ipomoea lines as in other glyphosate resistant weeds. Overall, this work identifies potential candidate resistance loci for future investigations and dramatically increases genomic resources for this species. The assembled transcriptome presented herein will also provide a valuable resource to the Ipomoea community, as well as to those interested in utilizing the close relationship between the Convolvulaceae and the Solanaceae for phylogenetic and comparative genomics examinations.

  12. The influence of light intensity on anatomical structure and pigment contents of Tradescantia pallida (Rose Hunt. cv. purpurea Boom (Commelinaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élder Antonio Sousa Paiva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of five different light intensities on the anatomical structure and on the pigment contents in leaves of Tradescantia pallida cv. purpurea. Once light intensity became lower, the thickness of leaf lamina and mesophyll were reduced. Adjustments in light-harvesting antenna size were observed: an increase in chlorophyll a + b/carotenoids ratio at low-light growth conditions. There was a strong positive linear correlation between the light intensity values and anthocyanin contents. Hence, T. pallida cv. purpurea acclimation to distinct environmental conditions might be related to its capacity of altering structurally and physiologically its phenotype.As espécies de Tradescantia colonizam uma ampla faixa de ambientes, desde aqueles completamente expostos a luz até aqueles caracteristicamente sombreados. Suas estratégias adaptativas e eficiência como invasoras de culturas estão provavelmente associadas a sua adaptação a intensidades luminosas distintas. Este trabalho mostra os efeitos de cinco diferentes intensidades luminosas na estrutura anatômica e no teor de pigmentos em folhas de Tradescantia pallida. As espessuras da lâmina foliar e do mesofilo foram alteradas, tornando-se mais delgadas à medida que a intensidade luminosa diminuiu. Observou-se um ajuste nos pigmentos fotossintéticos caracterizado por aumentos na razão clorofilas/carotenóides sob condições de baixa intensidade luminosa. Houve uma forte correlação linear positiva entre os valores de intensidade luminosa e teores de antocianinas. Deste modo, pode-se concluir que a aclimatação da espécie aos diferentes habitats está relacionada a alterações estruturais e fotossintéticas.

  13. 不同采收期紫锥菊产量及菊苣酸动态变化研究%Dynamic changes of yield and cichoric acid content in Echinacea purpurea at different harvest time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣; 杨跃生; 吴鸿

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of different harvest time on yield and cichoric acid content of Echinacea purpurea. Methods Yield and phenophase at different harvest time were observed and dynamic changes of cichoric acid in E. purpurea were studied using HPLC. Results The highest yield in the aerial parts of annual E. purpurea was obtained on Nov. 2nd when fruits matured, which was 38.3% higher than that in the blossom peak; The highest yield in underground parts was obtained on Sep. 15 at the peak of blossom and from then to Nov. 2nd when fruits matured the yield dropped slightly; The content of cichoric acid in the aerial parts was almost stable from July 10th when flower buds initiated to Sep. 27th at the peak of blossom, followed by a dropping period from Sep. 27th to Oct. 20th when fruits developing and an increasing period from Oct. 20th to Nov. 2nd. The change trend of cichoric acid in the underground parts was similar to that in the aerial parts. The changes of yield and cichoric acid content in biennial E. purpurea were almost the same as annual E. purpurea, but the highest yield in the underground parts was achieved at the time when fruits matured, and the total yield in the whole plant was 2.7 times as much as that in annual E. purpurea. The highest yield of cichoric acid was obtained both in annual and biennial E. purpurea at the time when fruits matured. Conclusion The suitable harvest time of E. purpurea in Guangzhou is at fruit mature period, and two-year cultivation is more reasonable than one-year.%目的 研究不同采收期紫锥菊质量和产量的变化.方法 通过对不同采收期的紫锥菊进行产量测定和物候期观察,并采用HPLC法对紫锥菊中的菊苣酸进行动态变化研究.结果 一年生紫锥菊地上部分的产量以11月2日(果熟期)采收的最高,比盛花期产量高38.3%,地下部分产量以9月15日(盛花期)采收的最高,从9月15日到11月2日地下部分产量有少量的降低,

  14. Effect of oral administration of freshly pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea on the number of various subpopulations of B- and T-lymphocytes in healthy volunteers: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Evelyn; Parlesak, Alexandr; Henneicke-von-Zeppelin, H. H.

    2005-01-01

    -40 years) participated in the study. They received either a commercially available pressed juice of E. purpurea herbs or placebo juice using a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design with two treatment periods of 14 days. The total number of lymphocytes and 12 subgroups of lymphocytes were......-Mann-Whitney-U-test, which is claimed to be optimal for the evaluation of the results of studies with a cross-over design, a significant difference was found for the number of CD8 + -T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells corresponding to either a decrease during treatment with verum or an increase in the number......BACKGROUND: In a recent double-blind placebo-controlled crossover-study the "immune stimulatory" effects (activation of macrophages leading to enhanced phagocytosis and production of several cytokines) of Echinacea purpurea preparations (EPP) which were observed in vitro experiments and following...

  15. Perfil de flavonoides e avaliação do potencial antioxidante e citotóxico de Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae da região amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Moraes dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae. Plants of the Bauhinia species (Fabaceae are used in the treatment of several infections and diseases, especially diabetes. In this paper, with an aim to contribute to the knowledge of the chemistry and therapeutic potential of the Amazonian species of the genus Bauhinia, flavonoid profiles in the leaves and branches of Bauhinia purpurea collected in Manaus and São Gabriel da Cachoeira/AM were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and ESIMS. Differences in the flavonoid profiles were detected along with the presence of rutin and isoquercitrin in the leaves collected in Manaus. All samples showed antioxidant activity, however, no cytotoxic activity against cell lines MDA-MB435 (breast, HCT-8 (colon, and SF-295 (glioblastoma could be detected.

  16. Study on the antioxidant effect of volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea L.on edible oils%紫花松果菊挥发油的油脂抗氧化作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芳; 杨秀梅; 江玲; 余德强; 袁艺

    2013-01-01

    Peroxide value, acid value and TBA value as indexes, rapeseed oil and lard as mediums, compared with the synthetic antioxidants BHT and BHA.the antioxidant effect of volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea Lon rapeseed oil and lard was studied.The results showed that within the scope of the study,the antioxidant effect of volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea Lon rapeseed oil and lard were existed and were enhanced with the increasing amout.The antioxidant effect was obvious on rapeseed oil with the addition of 2g/kg volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea L.and the influence was almost equivalent to 0.2g/kg BHT and BHA.The antioxidant effect of volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea Lon lard was less than rapeseed oil.%以过氧化值、酸值及TBA值为指标,以菜籽油和猪油为介质,并与人工合成抗氧化剂BHT和BHA进行对照,研究了紫花松果菊挥发油对菜籽油和猪油的抗氧化性能结果表明:在所研究的浓度范围内,紫花松果菊挥发油对菜籽油和猪油均具有一定的抗氧化作用,且具有剂量效应关系其中,添加量为2g/kg的紫花松果菊挥发油对菜籽油的抗氧化效果较为明显,几乎等效于0.2g/kg BHT和BHA的抗氧化作用.紫花松果菊挥发油对猪油的抗氧化效果则不及对菜籽油的抗氧化效果明显.

  17. The bioanalysis of the major Echinacea purpurea constituents dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamides in human plasma using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goey, Andrew K L; Rosing, Hilde; Meijerman, Irma; Sparidans, Rolf W; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2012-08-01

    Alkylamides are a group of active components of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea), which have immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. For the most abundant alkylamides, dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamides (DTAI), an LC-MS/MS assay has been developed and validated for quantification in human plasma. This assay will be used to support a clinical interaction study with E. purpurea. A 300 μL plasma aliquot underwent liquid-liquid extraction with diethylether-n-hexane (50:50, v/v). After evaporization and reconstitution in 100 μL of acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v) 20 μL of sample were injected into the HPLC system. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Polaris 3 C18-A column (50 mm × 2 mm ID, particle size 3 μm), a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and isocratic elution with acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v) containing 0.1% formic acid during the first 5 min. Hereafter, gradient elution was applied for 0.5 min, followed by restoration of the initial isocratic conditions. The total run time was 7.5 min. The assay was validated over a concentration range from 0.01 to 50 ng/mL for DTAI, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.01 ng/mL. Validation results show that DTAI can be accurately and precisely quantified in human plasma. DTAI also demonstrated to be chemically stable under relevant conditions. Finally, the applicability of this assay has been successfully demonstrated by measuring the plasma concentration of DTAI in patients after ingestion of a commercial extract of E. purpurea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheep that have been genetically modified to produce milk that contains a human protein essential for blood clotting. The hope is that someday this protein can be purified from the milk and given to humans whose blood does not ...

  19. Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭荣华

    2002-01-01

    As we come near to the 21st century, it is clear than ever that science and technology are changing the way we live and work. The breakthroughs1 in bioengineering2 science are helping to uncover the mysteries of life, holding out new hope for life-saving cures to some of our greatly terrible diseases.

  20. 两引种地紫锥菊扫描电镜的观察研究%Studies on the introduced Echinacea purpurea from two provinces by scanning electron microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜; 孙俊英; 郭庆梅; 周凤琴

    2012-01-01

    目的:为引种紫锥菊药材鉴定提供微形态依据.方法:采用扫描电子显微镜技术对怀柔和桐城两引种地紫锥菊叶片和花粉粒进行观察和比较.结果:两引种地紫锥菊在叶片微形态上具有相似性,但花粉粒在萌发孔类型和极面观形状上差异较大,存在一定的分化.结论:不同引种地紫锥菊的花粉粒微形态特征存在差异,可为不同引种地紫锥菊的鉴别和分类提供参考依据.%Objective: To provide infrastructure basis for identification of the Echinacea purpurea. Methods: Ultrastructural observations were carried out for leaf and pollen from two provinces by scanning electron microscope. Results: The ultrastruclures are similar in leaf but different in pollen from two provinces. Conclusion: The exterior ultrastructure of Echinacea purpurea from two provinces showed the characteristics of diversity. The results of the study could be used for the identification of the introduced Echinacea purpurea from different provinces.

  1. Nuclear transfer technology in mammalian cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, D P; Mitalipov, S; Norgren, R B

    2001-01-01

    The past several years have witnessed remarkable progress in mammalian cloning using nuclear transfer (NT). Until 1997 and the announcement of the successful cloning of sheep from adult mammary gland or fetal fibroblast cells, our working assumption was that cloning by NT could only be accomplished with relatively undifferentiated embryonic cells. Indeed, live offspring were first produced by NT over 15 years ago from totipotent, embryonic blastomeres derived from early cleavage-stage embryos. However, once begun, the progression to somatic cell cloning or NT employing differentiated cells as the source of donor nuclei was meteoric, initially involving differentiated embryonic cell cultures in sheep in 1996 and quickly thereafter, fetal or adult somatic cells in sheep, cow, mouse, goat, and pig. Several recent reviews provide a background for and discussion of these successes. Here we will focus on the potential uses of reproductive cloning along with recent activities in the field and a discussion concerning current interests in human reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  2. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Code clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of code) have been studied for long, and there is strong evidence that they are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon occurs similarly in models, suggesting that model clones are as detrimental to model quality...... as they are to code quality. However, programming language code and visual models have significant differences that make it difficult to directly transfer notions and algorithms developed in the code clone arena to model clones. In this article, we develop and propose a definition of the notion of “model clone” based...... on the thorough analysis of practical scenarios. We propose a formal definition of model clones, specify a clone detection algorithm for UML domain models, and implement it prototypically. We investigate different similarity heuristics to be used in the algorithm, and report the performance of our approach. While...

  3. Effective and efficient model clone detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Code clones are a major source of software defects. Thus, it is likely that model clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of models) have a significant negative impact on model quality, and thus, on any software created based on those models, irrespective of whether the software is generated fully...... automatically (“MDD-style”) or hand-crafted following the blueprint defined by the model (“MBSD-style”). Unfortunately, however, model clones are much less well studied than code clones. In this paper, we present a clone detection algorithm for UML domain models. Our approach covers a much greater variety...... of model types than existing approaches while providing high clone detection rates at high speed....

  4. Cloning cattle: the methods in the madness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oback, Björn; Wells, David N

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is much more widely and efficiently practiced in cattle than in any other species, making this arguably the most important mammal cloned to date. While the initial objective behind cattle cloning was commercially driven--in particular to multiply genetically superior animals with desired phenotypic traits and to produce genetically modified animals-researchers have now started to use bovine SCNT as a tool to address diverse questions in developmental and cell biology. In this paper, we review current cattle cloning methodologies and their potential technical or biological pitfalls at any step of the procedure. In doing so, we focus on one methodological parameter, namely donor cell selection. We emphasize the impact of epigenetic and genetic differences between embryonic, germ, and somatic donor cell types on cloning efficiency. Lastly, we discuss adult phenotypes and fitness of cloned cattle and their offspring and illustrate some of the more imminent commercial cattle cloning applications.

  5. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2011-01-01

    and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal...... outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5) was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n...... = 6) by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could...

  6. Telomeres and the ethics of human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    In search of a potential problem with cloning, I investigate the phenomenon of telomere shortening which is caused by cell replication; clones created from somatic cells will have shortened telomeres and therefore reach a state of senescence more rapidly. While genetic intervention might fix this problem at some point in the future, I ask whether, absent technological advances, this biological phenomenon undermines the moral permissibility of cloning.

  7. Quantum cloning with an optical fiber amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Fasel, S; Ribordy, G; Scarani, V; Zbinden, H; Fasel, Sylvain; Gisin, Nicolas; Ribordy, Gregoire; Scarani, Valerio; Zbinden, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown theoretically that a light amplifier working on the physical principle of stimulated emission should achieve optimal quantum cloning of the polarization state of light. We demonstrate close-to-optimal universal quantum cloning of polarization in a standard fiber amplifier for telecom wavelengths. For cloning $1\\to 2$ we find a fidelity of 0.82, the optimal value being ${5/6}=0.83$.

  8. Optimal quantum cloning via stimulated emission

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, C; Zeilinger, Anton; Simon, Christoph; Weihs, Gregor; Zeilinger, Anton

    2000-01-01

    We show that optimal universal quantum cloning can be realized via stimulated emission. Universality of the cloning procedure is achieved by choosing systems that have appropriate symmetries. We first discuss a scheme based on stimulated emission in certain three-level-systems, e.g. atoms in a cavity. Then we present a way of realizing optimal universal cloning based on stimulated parametric down-conversion. This scheme also implements the optimal universal NOT operation.

  9. Human cloning: Eastern Mediterranean Region perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdur Rab, M; Khayat, M H

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in genomics and biotechnology have ushered in a new era in health development. Therapeutic cloning possesses enormous potential for revolutionizing medical and therapeutic techniques. Cloning technology, however, is perceived as having the potential for reproductive cloning, which raises serious ethical and moral concerns. It is important that the Islamic countries come to a consensus on this vital issue. Developing science and technology for better health is a religious and moral obligation. There is an urgent need for Muslim scholars to discuss the issue of stem cell research and cloning rationally; such dialogue will not only consider the scientific merits but also the moral, ethical and legal implications.

  10. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callesen Henrik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are widely used as models for human physiological changes in intervention studies, because of the close resemblance between human and porcine physiology and the high degree of experimental control when using an animal model. Cloned animals have, in principle, identical genotypes and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5 was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n = 6 by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could not be established. Conclusions From the present study we conclude that cloned and normal outbred pigs are phenotypically different. However, it cannot be concluded that the use of cloned animals will reduce the inter-individual variation in intervention studies, though this is based on a limited number of animals.

  11. Experimental Quantum Cloning of Single Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lamas-Linares, A; Howell, J C; Bouwmeester, D; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Simon, Christoph; Howell, John C.; Bouwmeester, Dik

    2002-01-01

    Although perfect copying of unknown quantum systems is forbidden by the laws of quantum mechanics, approximate cloning is possible. A natural way of realizing quantum cloning of photons is by stimulated emission. In this context the fundamental quantum limit to the quality of the clones is imposed by the unavoidable presence of spontaneous emission. In our experiment a single input photon stimulates the emission of additional photons from a source based on parametric down-conversion. This leads to the production of quantum clones with near optimal fidelity. We also demonstrate universality of the copying procedure by showing that the same fidelity is achieved for arbitrary input states.

  12. Quantum cloning disturbed by thermal Davies environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajka, Jerzy; Łuczka, Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    A network of quantum gates designed to implement universal quantum cloning machine is studied. We analyze how thermal environment coupled to auxiliary qubits, `blank paper' and `toner' required at the preparation stage of copying, modifies an output fidelity of the cloner. Thermal environment is described in terms of the Markovian Davies theory. We show that such a cloning machine is not universal any more but its output is independent of at least a part of parameters of the environment. As a case study, we consider cloning of states in a six-state cryptography's protocol. We also briefly discuss cloning of arbitrary input states.

  13. Species-specific challenges in dog cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G A; Oh, H J; Park, J E; Kim, M J; Park, E J; Jo, Y K; Jang, G; Kim, M K; Kim, H J; Lee, B C

    2012-12-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is now an established procedure used in cloning of several species. SCNT in dogs involves multiple steps including the removal of the nuclear material, injection of a donor cell, fusion, activation of the reconstructed oocytes and finally transfer to a synchronized female recipient. There are therefore many factors that contribute to cloning efficiency. By performing a retrospective analysis of 2005-2012 published papers regarding dog cloning, we define the optimum procedure and summarize the specific feature for dog cloning.

  14. ES cells derived from cloned embryos in monkey - a jump toward human therapeutic cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangzhong Yang; Sadie L Smith

    2007-01-01

    @@ Therapeutic cloning refers to the derivation of embryonic stem cells (ntESC) from embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) also known as cloning. Cloning involves transplanting a differentiated cell into an oocyte that has had its nucleus (DNA) removed.

  15. Cloning non-transformed sheep B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, P J; Beskorwayne, T; Godson, D L; Popowych, Y; Hein, W

    2000-04-03

    The capacity to clone B cells and establish permanent B cell lines has greatly facilitated a wide variety of studies characterising the growth, differentiation, and gene expression of murine and human B cells. Similar investigations of B cell biology for other species have been severely restricted by an inability to culture or clone B cells. This is the first report of a method to clone non-transformed sheep B cells using a culture system based on murine CD154 and a combination of human gamma chain-common cytokines. Sheep Peyer's patch B cells were cultured for 120 days and then cloned by limiting dilution culture. The parental B cell culture contained both surface immunoglobulin (sIg)M(+) and sIgG1(+) B cells and both types of B cell were cloned. Clonality was confirmed by PCR analysis of Ig heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) expression and DNA sequencing of HC V genes. There was agreement between the PCR and flow cytometric analyses of HC isotype expression on the B cell clones but the available monoclonal antibodies specific for sheep lambda and kappa LC did not react with all clones. Soluble Ig was detected in the culture supernatant of sIgG1(+) clones but not sIgM(+) clones. The B cell clones remained dependent upon CD154 and gamma chain-common cytokine co-stimulation for sustained growth and maintained stable Ig expression. The cloning of non-transformed sheep B cells should provide a valuable tool for studying sheep B cell biology, establishing Ig HC- and LC-specific monoclonal antibodies, analysing the B cell Ig repertoire, and may be used to produce sheep monoclonal antibodies.

  16. Probabilistic cloning with supplementary information

    CERN Document Server

    Azuma, K; Koashi, M; Imoto, N; Azuma, Koji; Shimamura, Junichi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We consider probabilistic cloning of a state chosen from a mutually nonorthogonal set of pure states, with the help of a party holding supplementary information in the form of pure states. When the number of states is two, we show that the best efficiency of producing m copies is always achieved by a two-step protocol in which the helping party first attempts to produce m-1 copies from the supplementary state, and if it fails, then the original state is used to produce m copies. On the other hand, when the number of states exceeds two, the best efficiency is not always achieved by such a protocol. We give examples in which the best efficiency is not achieved even if we allow any amount of one-way classical communication from the helping party.

  17. The ethics of human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carson

    2005-03-01

    This article addresses the question of whether human reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples who would choose cloning as a way to have a genetically related child. At present, the risk of congenital anomalies constitutes a compelling argument against human reproductive cloning. The article explores whether reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable if, at some future time, cloning becomes possible without an elevated risk of anomalies. It is argued that freedom to use cloning is a form of procreative freedom and, as such, deserves respect. All of the objections that have been raised against human reproductive cloning fall under three main categories: those that appeal to the interests of the child, those based on consequences for society, and those arising from teleological views. Objections that appeal to the child's interests are, in turn, of two main kinds: consequentialist and deontological. All of these types of objections are examined, and it is found that each involves serious problems that prevent it from being a reasonable objection in the context of the infertility cases considered. It is concluded that human reproductive cloning would be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples, provided that it could be performed without an elevated risk of anomalies.

  18. Progress in interspecies cloning of mammals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Duancheng; BI Chunming; CHEN Dayuan

    2004-01-01

    Interspecies mammalian cloning can be achieved by application of two key techniques, i.e.the technique of interspecies nuclear transfer and the technique of interspecies pregnancy.The general principles, problems and possible solutions, as well as the recent advances of interspecies mammalian cloning have been summarized in this review.

  19. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Code clones - that is, duplicate fragments of code - have been studied for a long time. There is strong evidence that code clones are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon is not restricted to code, but occurs in models in a very similar way. So it is...

  20. Challenges in regulating farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunning, Jennifer; Hartlev, Mette; Gamborg, Christian

    Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety......Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety...

  1. Computerized adaptive testing with item cloning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; van der Linden, Willem J.

    2003-01-01

    To increase the number of items available for adaptive testing and reduce the cost of item writing, the use of techniques of item cloning has been proposed. An important consequence of item cloning is possible variability between the item parameters. To deal with this variability, a multilevel item

  2. Cloning of endangered mammalian species: any progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Pasqualino; Galli, Cesare; Ptak, Grazyna

    2007-05-01

    Attempts through somatic cell nuclear transfer to expand wild populations that have shrunk to critical numbers is a logical extension of the successful cloning of mammals. However, although the first mammal was cloned 10 years ago, nuclear reprogramming remains phenomenological, with abnormal gene expression and epigenetic deregulation being associated with the cloning process. In addition, although cloning of wild animals using host oocytes from different species has been successful, little is known about the implication of partial or total mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in cloned embryos, fetuses and offspring. Finally, there is a need for suitable foster mothers for inter-intra specific cloned embryos. Considering these issues, the limited success achieved in cloning endangered animals is not surprising. However, optimism comes from the rapid gain in the understanding of the molecular clues underlying nuclear reprogramming. If it is possible to achieve a controlled reversal of the differentiated state of a cell then it is probable that other issues that impair the cloning of endangered animals, such as the inter-intra species oocyte or womb donor, will be overcome in the medium term.

  3. Cloned Sheep May Age Prematurely

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; B.Verrengia; 孙颖

    1999-01-01

    1996年的头条科技新闻之一是:多利羊被克隆成功。世人曾为消息雀跃,以为克隆技术马上可以造福人类了,而且科幻作家也开始忙碌起来。而今,当多利羊过3岁生日时,人们却伤感地发现: In Dolly’s case,she is 3,but her genetic material is aging at the rate of the6-year-old sheep from which she was cloned. 这就是所谓aging prematurely。这则消息给人们带来的忧虑有两条。一是:被克隆的动物的预期寿命比人们想象的要短;二是:人们是否能够有效利用克隆的人体细胞去治疗疾病。目前,科学家们的担心还是集中于后者。本书收入的另一篇有关克隆的文章(It’s A Boy!Scientists Clone First Male Mammal)和本篇构成了强烈的对照,可谓一喜一忧。然而,无论喜忧,人类在克隆技术方面正在以坚实的步伐向前迈进。

  4. Finding Code Clones for Refactoring with Clone Metrics : A Case Study of Open Source Software

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eunjong; Yoshida, Norihiro; IshioTakashi; Inoue, Katsuro; Sano, Tateki

    2011-01-01

    A code clone is a code fragment that has identical or similar code fragments to it in the source code. Code clone has been regarded as one of the factors that makes software maintenance more difficult. Therefore, to refactor code clones into one method is promising way to reduce maintenance cost in the future. In our previous study, we proposed a method to extract code clones for refactoring using clone metrics. We had conducted an empirical study on Java application developed by NEC Corporat...

  5. Efecto del método de secado en la longevidad y la calidad de las semillas de Bauhinia purpurea.: I. Almacenamiento en Condiciones Ambientales Effect of the drying method on the longevity and quality of seeds from Bauhinia purpurea.: I. Storage under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Navarro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento con el objetivo de determinar la influencia combinada de diferentes métodos de secado, las condiciones de almacenamiento al ambiente y la edad fisiológica de las semillas de B. purpurea, en la capacidad germinativa y en la calidad de estas. Los tratamientos para el secado fueron: A en las legumbres, B artificial, y C al sol. Se determinó el porcentaje de viabilidad y de germinación, así como el contenido de humedad (CH, con una frecuencia mensual durante un año de almacenamiento; además se registró la temperatura y la humedad relativa (máxima y mínima durante el período evaluado. En el procesamiento de la información se utilizaron análisis multivariados (GLM y Factorial. En los tratamientos A y C se observaron semejanzas en cuanto a la viabilidad y la germinación, aunque las semillas alcanzaron la muerte fisiológica a los siete y nueve meses de permanencia en el almacén, respectivamente. El secado de las semillas con silicagel mostró que la pérdida de la capacidad germinativa siguió un modelo polinomial cúbico, con una marcada tendencia a la linealidad, y al finalizar el estudio fue de 70%. Las diferencias entre el CH de las semillas secadas artificialmente (B y al sol (C permitieron confirmar que la longevidad en B fue dos a cuatro veces mayor que en C. Los factores más influyentes en el ritmo de pérdida de la calidad de las semillas B. purpurea almacenadas al ambiente fueron el contenido de humedad y la edad.A trial was carried out with the objective of determining the combined influence of different drying methods, the storage under ambient conditions and the physiological age of the seeds from B. purpurea, on their germination capacity and quality. The treatments for drying were: A in the pods, B artificial and C under sunlight. The percentage of viability and germination, as well as the moisture content (MC, were determined, with a monthly frequency during a year of storage; in addition the

  6. "Goodbye Dolly?" The ethics of human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J

    1997-01-01

    The ethical implications of human clones have been much alluded to, but have seldom been examined with any rigour. This paper examines the possible uses and abuses of human cloning and draws out the principal ethical dimensions, both of what might be done and its meaning. The paper examines some of the major public and official responses to cloning by authorities such as President Clinton, the World Health Organisation, the European parliament, UNESCO, and others and reveals their inadequacies as foundations for a coherent public policy on human cloning. The paper ends by defending a conception of reproductive rights of "procreative autonomy" which shows human cloning to be not inconsistent with human rights and dignity. PMID:9451604

  7. [Human cloning in Muslim and Arab law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, Sami A

    2009-01-01

    Cloning is a modern medical procedure that Muslim religious authorities treat en resorting to the general principles established by classical Muslim law based on the Koran and the Sunnah of Muhhamad as the messenger of God. In this regard, human beings are not capable of deciding what is or what is not lawful without resorting to divine norms. Cloning clashes with several principles. Firstly, the principle of the respect for life in relation to surpernumeraries, but Muslim authors are not in unanimous agreement on the determination of the moment at which life begins. Secondly, is the respect of progeny: cloning could only take place between a married couple. But even if these two principles are respected, cloning poses two major problems: the diversity of species expounded by the Koran and the Sunnah and a lack of interest. Which explains the quasi-unanimous opposition of Muslim writings regarding cloning.

  8. AQUA Cloning: A Versatile and Simple Enzyme-Free Cloning Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes M Beyer

    Full Text Available Assembly cloning is increasingly replacing conventional restriction enzyme and DNA-ligase-dependent cloning methods for reasons of efficiency and performance. Here, we describe AQUA (advanced quick assembly, a simple and versatile seamless assembly cloning approach. We demonstrate the applicability and versatility of AQUA Cloning in selected proof-of-principle applications including targeted insertion-, deletion- and site-directed point-mutagenesis, and combinatorial cloning. Furthermore, we show the one pot de novo assembly of multiple DNA fragments into a single circular plasmid encoding a complex light- and chemically-regulated Boolean A NIMPLY B logic operation. AQUA Cloning harnesses intrinsic in vivo processing of linear DNA fragments with short regions of homology of 16 to 32 bp mediated by Escherichia coli. It does not require any kits, enzymes or preparations of reagents and is the simplest assembly cloning protocol to date.

  9. Preparation of iron nanoparticles-loaded Spondias purpurea seed waste as an excellent adsorbent for removal of phosphate from synthetic and natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, M; Foroughifard, S; Etemad Gholtash, J; Abbaspourrad, A

    2015-08-15

    The synthesis and characterization of nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (NZVI) supported on Spondias purpurea seed waste (S-NaOH-NZVI) was performed for the adsorption of phosphate (P) ions from waste waters. The effects of various parameters, such as contact time, pH, concentration, reusability and temperature were studied. The adsorption of phosphate ions has been studied in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, and Langmuir isotherms models have also been used to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) indicated that the adsorption of phosphate ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at 25-80 °C. No significant loss of activity was observed; confirming that the S-NaOH-NZVI has high stability during the adsorption process even after 12th runs. The suggested adsorbent in this paper was also implemented to remove P from the Persian Gulf water. XRD, FTIR and EDX analysis indicated the presence of Fe3 (PO4)2⋅8H2O (vivianite) on the S-NaOH-NZVI@P surface.

  10. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT PARTS OF BAUHUNIA PURPUREA LINN. PLANT IN STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Brahmachari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to study the comparative phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Barks (BPBE and leaves ethanolic extracts (BPLE in albino wistar rats to validate their ethno medical use in hyperglycemia as well as to explore the better option. Phytochemicals in ethanolic extracts were analyzed by standard natural product chemistry methods. Diabetes was developed in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin @ 60mg/ Kg bw. Diabetic albino wister rats (n=3 of either sex (150-200gm bw were orally fed with the extracts once daily for 4 weeks. Glibenclamide @ 0.5mg/Kg bw was used as a positive control for comparison. Fasting blood glucose level at 0, 14th and 28th day and hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin on 28th day of experiment were analyzed. Our results show that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and phenolics. Rats treated with plant extracts show better glucose modulation, decreased hemoglobin glycosylation and improved hemoglobin concentration as compared to diabetic control. The hypoglycemic effect of only BPBE at 420 mgkg-1 on 14th and 28th day is comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (P>0.01. The bark extract has been observed to be more potent hypoglycemic agent than leave extract.

  11. Antioxidant capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, Jozef; Burdová, Mária; Kobida, L'ubomír; Komora, Ladislav; Macho, Vendelín; Kogan, Grigorij; Turianica, Ivan; Kochanová, Radka; Lozek, Otto; Habán, Miroslav; Chlebo, Peter

    2007-07-11

    The changes of the antioxidant (AOA) and antiradical activities (ARA) and the total contents of phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydroxybenzoic acid in roots and different aerial sections of Echinacea purpurea, nettle, and dandelion, after treatment with ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, a polyamine inhibitor (O-phosphoethanolamine, KF), and a phenol biosynthesis stimulator (carboxymethyl chitin glucan, CCHG) were analyzed spectrophotometrically; hydroxycinnamic acids content was analyzed by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Both regulators increased the AOA measured as inhibition of peroxidation (IP) in all herb sections, with the exception of Echinacea stems after treatment with KF. In root tissues IP was dramatically elevated mainly after CCHG application: 8.5-fold in Echinacea, 4.14-fold in nettle, and 2.08-fold in dandelion. ARA decrease of Echinacea leaves treated with regulators was in direct relation only with cichoric acid and caftaric acid contents. Both regulators uphold the formation of cinnamic acid conjugates, the most expressive being that of cichoric acid after treatment with CCHG in Echinacea roots from 2.71 to 20.92 mg g(-1). There was a strong relationship between increase of the total phenolics in all sections of Echinacea, as well as in the studied sections of dandelion, and the anthocyanin content.

  12. Echinacea purpurea root extract inhibits TNF release in response to Pam3Csk4 in a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, David J; Balles, John A; Scholten, Jeffrey D; Mulder, Timothy; Rana, Jatinder

    2015-10-01

    Polysaccharides derived from Echinacea have historically been shown to be immunostimulatory. We describe in this work however the anti-inflammatory effect of a water extract of Echinacea purpurea roots (EPRW) that inhibited Pam3Csk4 stimulated production of TNFα by human monocytic THP-1 cells. The polyphenols and alkylamides typically found in Echinacea extracts were absent in EPRW suggesting that the anti-inflammatory component(s) was a polysaccharide. This anti-inflammatory activity was shown to be mediated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway as chemical inhibition of PI3K abolished the EPRW anti-inflammatory effect. Demonstration of phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal S6 proteins, downstream targets of PI3K confirmed EPRW-mediated activation of this pathway. In conclusion, this observation suggests that non-alkylamide/non-polyphenolic phytochemicals from Echinacea may contribute in part to some of the anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects such as reduced severity of symptoms that have been observed in vivo in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections with Echinacea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Total bacterial load within Echinacea purpurea, determined using a new PCR-based quantification method, is correlated with LPS levels and in vitro macrophage activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Nirmal D; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies indicate that the majority of in vitro monocyte/macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of Echinacea depends on bacterial components. In the present study, total bacterial load was determined within E. purpurea samples and ranged from 6.4 × 10(6) to 3.3 × 10(8) bacteria/g of dry plant material. To estimate total bacterial load, we developed a PCR-based quantification method that circumvents the problems associated with nonviable/nonculturable cells (which precludes using plate counts) or the coamplification of mitochondrial or chloroplast DNA with the use of universal bacterial primers (which precludes the use of qPCR). Differences in total bacterial load within Echinacea samples were strongly correlated with the activity (NF-κB activation in THP-1 cells) and content of bacterial lipopolysaccharides within extracts of this plant material. These results add to the growing body of evidence that bacteria within Echinacea are the main source of components responsible for enhancing innate immune function. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Effects of dietary administration of Echinacea purpurea on growth indices and biochemical and hematological indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoii, Somayeh Bohlouli; Kohyani, Ahmad Tahmasebi; Parseh, Ali; Salati, Amir Parviz; Sadeghi, Ehsan

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Echinacea purpurea (EP) on growth and some hematological and blood biochemical indices of rainbow trout fingerlings. A basal diet was supplemented with 0 (control), 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 g EP kg⁻¹ to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish with an initial average weight of approximately 8 g. After 8 weeks of feeding trial, fish fed diets with 0.25 and 0.5 g EP kg⁻¹ showed highest final weight and SGR and fish fed with the control diet indicated the lowest final weight and SGR. There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in FCR between the control group and the groups fed with diets of 0.25 and 0.5 g EP kg⁻¹. Biochemical parameters such as serum total protein content, albumin content, globulin content, and albumin/globulin ratio in the fish were evaluated. There were significant differences between hematological parameters including RBC, WBC, HB, lymphocyte, and neutrophil percentage in fish fed with dietary nucleotide compared with control treatment (P < 0.05). The results suggest that EP administration at 0.25 and 0.5 g EP kg⁻¹ exerted positive effects on growth and biochemical and hematological indices in rainbow trout.

  15. A novel benzofuran, 4-methoxybenzofuran-5-carboxamide, from Tephrosia purpurea suppressed histamine H1 receptor gene expression through a protein kinase C-δ-dependent signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Manik Chandra; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Kadota, Takuya; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Hisao; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is upregulated in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and its expression level is strongly correlated with the severity of allergic symptoms. We previously reported isolation of the putative anti-allergic compound, 4-methoxybenzofuran-5-carboxamide (MBCA) from Tephrosia purpurea and its chemical synthesis (Shill et al., Bioorg Med Chem 2015;23:6869-6874). However, the mechanism underlying its anti-allergic activity remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the mechanism of MBCA on phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)- or histamine-induced upregulation of H1R gene expression in HeLa cells, and in vivo effects of MBCA were also determined in toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-sensitized rats. MBCA suppressed PMA- and histamine-induced upregulation of H1R expression at both mRNA and protein levels and inhibited PMA-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ at Tyr(311) and subsequent translocation to the Golgi. Furthermore, MBCA ameliorated allergic symptoms and suppressed the elevation of H1R and helper T cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine mRNAs in TDI-sensitized rats. Data suggest that MBCA alleviates nasal symptoms in TDI-sensitized rats through the inhibition of H1R and Th2 cytokine gene expression. The mechanism of its H1R gene suppression underlies the inhibition of PKCδ activation.

  16. Exploiting the Complementarity between Dereplication and Computer-Assisted Structure Elucidation for the Chemical Profiling of Natural Cosmetic Ingredients: Tephrosia purpurea as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jane; Chollet, Sébastien; Purson, Sylvain; Reynaud, Romain; Harakat, Dominique; Martinez, Agathe; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2015-07-24

    The aqueous-ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea seeds is currently exploited in the cosmetic industry as a natural ingredient of skin lotions. The aim of this study was to chemically characterize this ingredient by combining centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) as a fractionation tool with two complementary identification approaches involving dereplication and computer-assisted structure elucidation. Following two rapid fractionations of the crude extract (2 g), seven major compounds namely, caffeic acid, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, ethyl galactoside, ciceritol, stachyose, saccharose, and citric acid, were unambiguously identified within the CPE-generated simplified mixtures by a recently developed (13)C NMR-based dereplication method. The structures of four additional compounds, patuletin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, guaiacylglycerol 8-vanillic acid ether, and 2-methyl-2-glucopyranosyloxypropanoic acid, were automatically elucidated by using the Logic for Structure Determination program based on the interpretation of 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, and COSY) connectivity data. As more than 80% of the crude extract mass was characterized without need for tedious and labor-intensive multistep purification procedures, the identification tools involved in this work constitute a promising strategy for an efficient and time-saving chemical profiling of natural extracts.

  17. Metabolic responses of willow (Salix purpurea L.) leaves to mycorrhization as revealed by mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy metabolite profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Chamoun, Rony; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-01-01

    The root system of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic interfaces with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are important for nutrient cycling and ecosystem sustainability. The elucidation of the undergoing changes in plants' metabolism during symbiosis is essential for understanding nutrient acquisition and for alleviation of soil stresses caused by environmental cues. Within this context, we have undertaken the task of recording the fluctuation of willow (Salix purpurea L.) leaf metabolome in response to AMF inoculation. The development of an advanced metabolomics/bioinformatics protocol employing mass spectrometry (MS) and 1H NMR analyzers combined with the in-house-built metabolite library for willow (http://willowmetabolib.research.mcgill.ca/index.html) are key components of the research. Analyses revealed that AMF inoculation of willow causes up-regulation of various biosynthetic pathways, among others, those of flavonoid, isoflavonoid, phenylpropanoid, and the chlorophyll and porphyrin pathways, which have well-established roles in plant physiology and are related to resistance against environmental stresses. The recorded fluctuation in the willow leaf metabolism is very likely to provide AMF-inoculated willows with a significant advantage compared to non-inoculated ones when they are exposed to stresses such as, high levels of soil pollutants. The discovered biomarkers of willow response to AMF inoculation and corresponding pathways could be exploited in biomarker-assisted selection of willow cultivars with superior phytoremediation capacity or genetic engineering programs. PMID:26042135

  18. Metabolic Responses of Willow (Salix purpurea L. Leaves to Mycorrhization as Revealed by Mass Spectrometry and 1H NMR Spectroscopy Metabolite Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos A Aliferis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The root system of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic interfaces with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, which are important for nutrient cycling and ecosystem sustainability. The elucidation of the undergoing changes in plants’ metabolism during symbiosis is essential for understanding nutrient acquisition and for alleviation of soil stresses caused by environmental cues. Within this context, we have undertaken the task of recording the fluctuation of willow (Salix purpurea L. leaf metabolome in response to AMF inoculation. The development of an advanced metabolomics/bioinformatics protocol employing mass spectrometry (MS and 1H NMR analyzers combined with the in-house-built metabolite library for willow (http://willowmetabolib.research.mcgill.ca/index.html are key components of the research. Analyses revealed that AMF inoculation of willow causes up-regulation of various biosynthetic pathways, among others, those of flavonoid, isoflavonoid, phenylpropanoid, and the chlorophyll and porphyrin pathways, which have well-established roles in plant physiology and are related to resistance against environmental stresses. The recorded fluctuation in the willow leaf metabolism is very likely to provide AMF-inoculated willows with a significant advantage compared to non-inoculated ones when they are exposed to stresses such as, high levels of soil pollutants. The discovered biomarkers of willow response to AMF inoculation and corresponding pathways could be exploited in biomarker-assisted selection of willow cultivars with superior phytoremediation capacity or genetic engineering programs.

  19. Aberrant DNA methylation in cloned ovine embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; HOU Jian; LEI TingHua; BAI JiaHua; GUAN Hong; AN XiaoRong

    2008-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of cloned ovine embryos. The em-bryos derived from in vitro fertilization were also examined for reference purpose. The results showed that: (1) during the pre-implantation development, cloned embryos displayed a similar demethylation profile to the fertilized embryos; that is, the methylation level decreased to the lowest at 8-cell stage, and then increased again at morulae stage. However, methylation level was obviously higher in cloned embryos than in stage-matched fertilized embryos, especially at 8-cell stage and afterwards; (2) at blastocyst stage, the methylation pattern in cloned embryos was different from that in fertilized em-bryos. In cloned blastocyst, inner cell mass (ICM) exhibited a comparable level to trophectoderm cells (TE), while in in-vitro fertilized blastocyst the methylation level of ICM was lower than that of TE, which is not consistent with that reported by other authors. These results indicate that DNA methylation is abnormally reprogrammed in cloned embryos, implying that aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming may be one of the factors causing cloned embryos developmental failure.

  20. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  1. Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.

  2. PARTICULARITĂŢILE STRUCTURII MORFOLOGICE ÎN PRIMII DOI ANI DE VEGETAŢIE A SPECIEI DE ECHINACEA PURPUREA (L. ÎN CONDIŢII BIOECOLOGICE ALE REPUBLICII MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor MELNIC

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A fost studiată structura morfologică a speciei de Echinacea purpurea cultivată timp de doi ani în condiţii bioecolo­gice autohtone. Ulterior, analizând acumularea biomasei diferitelor părţi de plantă în diferite faze de vegetaţie. Rezulta­tele obţinute au arătat că dinamica acumulării de biomasă la toate trei părţi ale plantei are o capacitate sporită în ce pri­veşte masa şi numărul de lăstari, inflorescenţe, atât în primul an de cultură, cât şi în al doilea an. Acest fapt este o dovadă a adaptabilităţii sporite la condiţiile bioecologice autohtone.THE PECULIARITIES OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE IN THE FIRST TWO YEARSOF VEGETATION OF THE SPECIES ECHINACEA PURPUREA (L. INMOLDOVA'S BIOECOLOGICAL CONDITIONSIn this paper are the results of studying of the morphological structure of Echinacea purpurea species cultivated for two years in indigenous bioecological conditions. In this period of time was analyzed biomass accumulation of different plant parts in different stages of vegetation. The results showed that the dynamics of biomass accumulation in all three parts of the plant has increased capacity as well as the number of flowering shoots, both in the first year of cultivation and in year two. This proves about an increased adaptability to indigenous bioecological conditions. 

  3. Crosslinked Spondia purpurea gum: NaCl and p H effects on the gel absorption capability; Goma de ciriguela reticulada: efeito de sal e PH na capacidade de absorcao do gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, Joao Batista A.; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Paula, Regina C.M. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Paula, Haroldo C.B. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica

    1999-07-01

    Exudate gum from Spondia purpurea tree was cross linked with epichlorohydrin and its swelling behaviour as a function of Na Cl concentration and pH was investigated. Preliminary structural study was carried out by C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The gum was found to absorb 35 time its own weight in water. Swelling increased with pH, being maximal in the pH range 8-10. The equilibrium water content was found to decrease with increasing Na Cl concentration. (author)

  4. Endangered wolves cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hwang, Woo Suk; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Kim, Joung Joo; Shin, Nam Shik; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2007-01-01

    Over the world, canine species, including the gray wolf, have been gradually endangered or extinct. Many efforts have been made to recover and conserve these canids. The aim of this study was to produce the endangered gray wolf with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for conservation. Adult ear fibroblasts from a female gray wolf (Canis lupus) were isolated and cultured in vitro as donor cells. Because of limitations in obtaining gray wolf matured oocytes, in vivo matured canine oocytes obtained by flushing the oviducts from the isthmus to the infundibulum were used. After removing the cumulus cells, the oocyte was enucleated, microinjected, fused with a donor cell, and activated. The reconstructed cloned wolf embryos were transferred into the oviducts of the naturally synchronized surrogate mothers. Two pregnancies were detected by ultrasonography at 23 days of gestation in recipient dogs. In each surrogate dog, two fetal sacs were confirmed by early pregnancy diagnosis at 23 days, but only two cloned wolves were delivered. The first cloned wolf was delivered by cesarean section on October 18, 2005, 60 days after embryo transfer. The second cloned wolf was delivered on October 26, 2005, at 61 days postembryo transfer. Microsatellite analysis was performed with genomic DNA from the donor wolf, the two cloned wolves, and the two surrogate female recipients to confirm the genetic identity of the cloned wolves. Analysis of 19 microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned wolves were genetically identical to the donor wolf. In conclusion, we demonstrated live birth of two cloned gray wolves by nuclear transfer of wolf somatic cells into enucleated canine oocyte, indicating that SCNT is a practical approach for conserving endangered canids.

  5. Economical phase-covariant cloning with multiclones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wen-Hai; Ye Liu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a very simple method to derive the explicit transformations of the optimal economical to M phase-covariant cloning. The fidelity of clones reaches the theoretic bound [D'Ariano G M and Macchiavello C 2003 Phys. Rcv. A 67 042306]. The derived transformations cover the previous contributions [Delgado Y,Lamata L et al,2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 150502] in which M must be odd.

  6. Royana: Successful Experience in Cloning the Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Kazemi Ashtiani; Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani; Sayyed Mortaza Hosseini; Fariba Moulavi; Mahdi Hajian; Mohsen Frouzanfar; Parvaneh Abedi; Maryam Meamar; Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi; Hamid Gourabi; Abdolhossein Shahverdi; Hossein Baharvand; Ahmad Vosough Dizaj; Hossein Imani; Poopak Eftekhari-Yazdi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study describes our experiences in reproductive cloning using two differentprocedures resulting in birth of the first successfully cloned sheep in Iran and theMiddle-East, nick-named "Royana".Materials and Methods: Abattoir-derived sheep oocytes were enucleated after in vitromaturation for 18-20hrs and then reconstructed by ear-derived sheep somatic cells usingtwo different procedures of renucleation (subzonary, intracytoplasmic), embryo culture (coculture,sequential medium) a...

  7. A modified version of the digestion-ligation cloning method for more efficient molecular cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Li, Yanling; Zhang, Jiannan; Chen, Hongman; Ren, Daming; Zhang, Lijun; An, Yingfeng

    2014-05-15

    Here we describe a modified version of the digestion-ligation approach for efficient molecular cloning. In comparison with the original method, the modified method has the additional steps of gel purification and a second ligation after the first ligation of the linearized vector and DNA insert. During this process, the efficiency and reproducibility could be significantly improved for both stick-end cloning and blunt-end cloning. As an improvement of the very important molecular cloning technique, this method may find a wide range of applications in bioscience and biotechnology.

  8. Do Clones Dream of Love? Images of Clones in Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantasies about clones, cyborgs and androids have become part and parcel of the mythology of modern times – the mythologies of the biotechnological era in which the achievements of genetic engineering have inflamed fears of possible abuse of scientific knowledge and the consequences of such abuse. The paper considers the phenomenon of reproductive cloning of human beings as it is represented in popular culture, especially film as it is one of the most important sources of representations and constructions of ideas about clones. After the introductory consideration of this phenomenon in scientific, ethical and media debates which are imbued with rejection of reproductive cloning, I have analyzed the different uses of the clone motif in selected movies. I have examined the structure and content of the genre formula of "social melodrama" which is present in films about clones, and have analyzed the mythical patterns pertaining to the topic of cloning, such as the myth of immortality, the myth of twins, the myth of the uniqueness of human kind etc. Ultimately, the nature and origins of the fear of clones and disgust that clones cause have been examined, and it has been shown that they mostly boil down to the fear of the dehumanization of human beings, the fear of the loss of difference and the transgression of biological, sociocultural and metaphysical boundaries.

  9. CloneAssistant 1.0: a stand-alone software for automated cloning primer design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaogang; Meng, Yijun; Lv, Shaolei; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Zheyu; Chen, Ming

    2010-11-01

    "CloneAssistant 1.0" is a stand-alone software compatible with the current Windows operating systems, which can automatically design cloning primers with full consideration of the sequence information of vectors and genes, cloning strategies, the principles of primer design, reading frames, position effects, and enzymatic reaction conditions for users. Five internal XML (extensible markup language) databases [restriction enzymes, plasmids, universal buffers, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) protection bases, and an MCS (multiple cloning site) double digest interference database] were established to serve as the basic support for "CloneAssistant 1.0". The primer pairs designed are sorted according to the difficulty of the follow-up experiments. Once a primer pair is selected by the user, detailed experimental guidance for this primer pair will be provided. In addition, "CloneAssistant 1.0" can be used for restriction map analysis, ORF (open reading frame) finding, sequence alignment and complementary analysis, translation, restriction enzyme and universal buffer queries, and isocaudamer analysis. "CloneAssistant 1.0" makes gene clone design much easier, and it can be freely downloaded from http://bis.zju.edu.cn/clone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reproductive cloning combined with genetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, C

    2005-11-01

    Although there is widespread opposition to reproductive cloning, some have argued that its use by infertile couples to have genetically related children would be ethically justifiable. Others have suggested that lesbian or gay couples might wish to use cloning to have genetically related children. Most of the main objections to human reproductive cloning are based on the child's lack of unique nuclear DNA. In the future, it may be possible safely to create children using cloning combined with genetic modifications, so that they have unique nuclear DNA. The genetic modifications could be aimed at giving such children genetic characteristics of both members of the couple concerned. Thus, cloning combined with genetic modification could be appealing to infertile, lesbian, or gay couples who seek genetically related children who have genetic characteristics of both members. In such scenarios, the various objections to human reproductive cloning that are based on the lack of genetic uniqueness would no longer be applicable. The author argues that it would be ethically justifiable for such couples to create children in this manner, assuming these techniques could be used safely.

  11. Emotional reactions to human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Extant surveys of people's attitudes towards human reproductive cloning focus on moral judgements alone, not emotional reactions or sentiments. This is especially important given that some (especially Leon Kass) have argued against such cloning on the ground that it engenders widespread negative emotions, like disgust, that provide a moral guide. To provide some data on emotional reactions to human cloning, with a focus on repugnance, given its prominence in the literature. This brief mixed-method study measures the self-reported attitudes and emotions (positive or negative) towards cloning from a sample of participants in the USA. Most participants condemned cloning as immoral and said it should be illegal. The most commonly reported positive sentiment was by far interest/curiosity. Negative emotions were much more varied, but anxiety was the most common. Only about a third of participants selected disgust or repugnance as something they felt, and an even smaller portion had this emotion come to mind prior to seeing a list of options. Participants felt primarily interested and anxious about human reproductive cloning. They did not primarily feel disgust or repugnance. This provides initial empirical evidence that such a reaction is not appropriately widespread. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Universal Quantum Cloning Machines for Two Identical Mixed Qubits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shuai; ZHAO Mei-Sheng; LIU Nai-Le; CHEN Zeng-Bing

    2007-01-01

    We present a series of universal quantum cloning machines for two identical mixed qubits. Every machine is optimal in the sense that it achieves the optimal bound of the single copy shrinking factor. Unlike in the case of pure state cloning, the single copy shrinking factor does not uniquely determine the cloning map in the case of mixed state cloning.

  13. Public perceptions of farm animal cloning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    This report presents a picture of European opinion on farm animal cloning. In the report, both agricultural and biomedical applications of farm animal cloning are considered. With the arrival of Dolly, animal cloning became an integral part of the biotech debate, but this debate did not isolate...... animal cloning as a single issue....

  14. AN APPROACH FOR CLONE DETECTION IN DOCUMENTATION REUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Lutsiv

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the searching method for repetitions in DocBook/DRL or plain text documents. An algorithm has been designed based on software clone detection. The algorithm supports filtering results: clones are rejected if clone length in the group is less than 5 symbols, intersection of clone groups is eliminated, meaningfulness clones are removed, the groups containing clones consisting only of XML are eliminated. Remaining search is supported: found clones are extracted from the documentation, and clone search is repeated. One step is proved to be enough. Adaptive reuse technique of Paul Bassett – Stan Jarzabek has been implemented. A software tool has been developed on the basis of the algorithm. The tool supports setting parameters for repetitions detection and visualization of the obtained results. The tool is integrated into DocLine document development environment, and provides refactoring of documents using found clones. The Clone Miner clone detection utility is used for clones search. The method has been evaluated for Linux Kernel Documentation (29 documents, 25000 lines. Five semantic kinds of clones have been selected: terms (abbreviations, one word and two word terms, hyperlinks, license agreements, functionality description, and code examples. 451 meaningful clone groups have been found, average clone length is 4.43 tokens, and average number of clones in a group is 3.56.

  15. Cloning: Past, Present, and the Exciting Future. Breakthroughs in Bioscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Berardino, Marie A.

    This document explores the history of cloning by focusing on Dolly the Sheep, one of the first large animal clonings. The disadvantages and advantages of transgenic clones are discussed as well as the future implications of cloning from the perspective of human health. (Contains 10 resources.) (YDS)

  16. [Ethical considerations on human cloning. A psychoanalytic perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of ethical issues related to two types of human cloning is presented: cloning embryonic cells not intended to culminate in the birth of a new individual and cloning human beings. Advantages and objections related to both types of human cloning are analyzed from an ethical point of view. Repercussions on individuals born by the technique of cloning are discussed from a psychoanalytical perspective. It can be concluded that cloning embryonic cells could be admissible, while not cloning considered as a reproductive option.

  17. Nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in distant cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Tao; Zhu Ai-Dong; Zhang Shou

    2012-01-01

    A scheme for implementing nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in cavities is proposed.By modulating the parameters of the system,the optimal 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning machine,1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning machine,and 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning machine are constructed.The present scheme,which is attainable with current technology,saves two qubits compared with previous cloning machines.

  18. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo

    2013-01-01

    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic ...

  19. Evaluation for Plant Regeneration Potential of Root Explants in Echinacea purpurea%松果菊根外植体植株再生能力的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dahanayake NILANTHI; 赵福成; 杨跃生; 吴鸿

    2009-01-01

    为了评价松果菊Echinacea purpurea L.根外植体的再生能力,将从松果菊无菌小苗得到的根外植体和叶片以及叶柄外植体接种到含有不同种类和浓度的细胞分裂素和生长素的培养基上,诱导不定芽的再生.结果表明,在多数情况下,根外植体的再生能力显著高于叶片,和叶柄类似.0.3 mg/L的苄基腺嘌呤和0.01 mg/L的萘乙酸是诱导根外植体不定芽再生最合适的激素种类和质量浓度组合.根外植体培养的不定芽再生频率为100%,每个根外植体得到再生芽1.75个.当把这些由根再生的不定芽从母体组织切开并转移培养到含有0.01 mg/L萘乙酸的培养基后,很容易生根并成为完整的植株.可见根是组培快繁松果菊理想的外植体材料.%For evaluation of the plant regeneration potential of root explants, explants of root, leaf and petiole were taken from in vitro grown purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea L. Plantlets and cultured on adventitious bud inducing media with different cytokinins and auxins at various concentrations. In most of the cases, the regeneration potential of root explants was much higher than that of leaf ones and similar to that of petiole explants, and a combination of 0.3 mg/L benzyladeine with 0.01 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid was the most effective combination and concentrations for inducing adventitious bud regen-eration. Although the best result of bud regeneration was obtained from culture of petiole explants, a good result in regenera-tion rate of 100% and a high number of 1.75 buds per exphnt were obtained from culture of root explants. Buds regenerated from root explants initiated roots and became intact plants readily upon transfer to a medium containing 0.01 mg/L naphthale-neacetic acid. Results of the experiments indicated that root was an ideal explant source for rapid propagation by means of tis-sue culture in this plant species.

  20. The toxic action of essential oils from Tephrosia purpurea on Rhizopertha dominica%灰毛豆精油对谷蠹的毒杀作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠华; 王苏宁; 曾东强; 姚振威; 李有志

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess insecticidal activities of the essential oils from Tephrosiapurpurea leaves, T.purpurea barks and T.purpurea seeds against Rhizopertha dominica, the repellent, contact, fumigant and population inhibition toxicity of the three kinds of essential oils to R.dominica were determined respectively.The results showed: 1) Repellent rate reached to the maximum value with the corresponding repellency percentage of 82.3%, 90.7% and 94.3% after 48 h treatment; 2) All the three kinds of essential oils had exhibited contact toxicity against the 5-day old nymph of R.dominica after 24 h treatment, with the value of LD50 being 25.0, 27.9 and 27.8 mg/insect respectively; 3) Fumigant activity to the adult was examined after 48 hours' exposure to each of the three kinds of essential oils at the concentration of 10.0 g/m3; Their mortality ranged from 56.2% to 57.4%, and there was no significant difference among the mortality to the three kinds of essential oils; 4) At the dosage of 200 mg essential oils per 100 g paddy; the current population inhibition rate of the three kinds of essential oils against R.dominica population was 45.5%, 53.6% and 76.8%; F1 progeny population inhibition rate was 43.8%, 68.7% and 75.1%, and essential oils from the seeds exhibited more noted population inhibition activity than that of the other two kinds of essential oils.%为评价灰毛豆叶、树皮和种子精油对谷蠹的毒杀活性,分别测定了它们对谷蟗的驱避活性、触杀活性、熏蒸活性及种群抑制作用.结果表明,处理48 h后,3种精油对谷蠹成虫的驱避率达到最大值,分别是82.3%、90.7%和94.3%;3种精油都对谷蠹5日龄若虫具有触杀活性,其LD50值分别为每虫25.0、27.9和27.8 mg;在用量为20.0 mg/L时,3种精油对谷蠹成虫都具有熏蒸活性,熏蒸48 h后成虫的死亡率为56.2%~57.4%,3种精油的熏蒸活性无显著性差异;当100 g稻谷中拌有200 mg精油时,3种精油对当代

  1. Cloning and sequencing genes related to preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Juan-zi; LIU Yan-fang; YAO Yuan-qing; YAN Wei; ZHU Feng; ZHAO Zhong-liang

    2001-01-01

    To clone genes specifically expressed in the placenta of patients with preeclampsia, and to explain the mechanism in the etiopathology ofpreeclampsia. Methods: The placentae ofpreeclamptic and normotensive subjects with pregnancy were used as models, and the cDNA Library was constructed and 20 differentially expressed fragments were cloned after a new version of PCR-based subtractive hybridization. The false positive clones were identified by reverse dot blot analysis. With one of the obtained gene taken as the probe, the placentas of 10 normal pregnant women and 10 preeclamptic patients were studied by using dot hybridization methods. Results: Six false positive clones were identified by reverse dot blot, and the rest 14 clones were identified as preeclampsia-related genes. These clones were sequenced, and analyzed with BLAST analysis system. Eleven of 14 clones were genes already known, among which one belongs to necdin family; the rest 3 were identified as novel genes. These 3 genes were acknowledged by GenBank, with the accession numbers AF232216, AF232217, AF233648. The results of dot hybridization using necdin gene as probe were as follows: (1) There was this mRNA in the placental tissues of normal pregnancy as well as in that ofpreeclampsia.(2) The intensity of transcription of this mRNA in the placental tissues of preeclampsia increased significantly compared with that of the normal pregnancy (P<0.05). Conclusions: This study for the first time reported this group of genes, especially necdin-expressing gene, which are related to the etiopathology of preeclampsia. In addition, the overtranscription ofnecdin gene has been found in preeclampsia. It is helpful in further studies of the etiology ofpreeclampsia.

  2. Occurrence and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli and enterococci within the accumulated fluid of the northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L.; Byers, Stacey E.; Shively, Dawn A.; Ferguson, Donna M.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2005-01-01

    Sarracenia purpurea L., a carnivorous bog plant (also known as the pitcher plant), represents an excellent model of a well-defined, self-contained ecosystem; the individual pitchers of the plant serve as a microhabitat for a variety of micro- and macro-organisms. Previously, fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) were shown as incidental contaminants in pitcher fluid; however, whether their occurrence in pitcher fluid is incidental or common has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and growth potential of E. coli and enterococci in pitcher plant fluid from a protected bog in northwest Indiana. Escherichia coli and enterococci were recovered in pitcher fluids (n = 43 plants), with mean densities (log CFU mL-1) of 1.28 ± 0.23 and 1.97 ± 0.27, respectively. In vitro experiments showed that E. coli growth in fluid not containing insects or indigenous organisms was directly proportional to the fluid concentration (growth was 10-fold in 24 h in 100% fluid); however, in the presence of other indigenous organisms, E. coli and enterococci were only sustained for 5 days at 26 °C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that the plant Enterococcus faecalis isolates were genetically distinct from the human isolates; identical PFGE patterns were observed among plant isolates that fell into one of six clonal groups. These findings suggest that (i) E. coli and enterococci occurrence in pitcher plants is rather common in the bog studied, although their originating source is unclear, and (ii) the pitcher fluid contains adequate nutrients, especially carbon and energy sources, to promote the growth of indicator bacteria; however, under natural conditions, the biotic factors (e.g., competition for nutrients) may restrict their growth.

  3. Evaluation of a Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and related ELISA for respective induction and assessment of acquired immunity to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea in Awassi Ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Elie K; Assi, Chibli A Abou; Shaib, Houssam; Hamadeh, Shadi; Murtada, Muhammad; Mahmoud, Ghassan; Yaghmoor, Soonham; Iyer, Archana; Harakeh, Steve; Kumosani, Taha

    2015-05-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an experimental Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) bacterin and an indirect ELISA system to assess quantitatively the acquired immunity in Awassi ewes to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea (EP) dried roots. Four treatments of the ewes were included in the experimental design, with 6 ewes/treatment. The first treatment (T1) had the controls that were non-vaccinated and non-treated with EP. The T2 ewes were only treated with EP. The T3 and T4 ewes were vaccinated at D1 (initiation of trial) and D10, while the T4 ewes were additionally administered the EP dried roots. Blood was collected from the jugular vein of all ewes at D1, D10, D21 and D45. The construction of the vaccine and the ELISA are detailed within the manuscript. The ELISA was able to detect quantitatively the significant acquired primary and secondary immunity to the vaccine in T3 and T4 ewes, compared to their low level of background immunities at initiation of the experiment (p0.05) in T1 control ewes, and in the T2 ewes that were given only the (EP) (p>0.05). Moreover, the ELISA was able to uncover the significant seroconversion of secondary immune response in T4 ewes at D21 compared to that at D10 (p<0.05), and the absence of significant seroconversion of secondary response in T3 ewes. This is the first work in literature that reports the need to supplement the vaccination by the experimental SE bacterin with daily oral intake of 250mg of EP-dried roots, effective the first vaccination day and up to 21 days, for obtaining a statistically significant seroconversion.

  4. Éxito reproductivo y calidad de los frutos en poblaciones del extremo sur de la distribución de Ipomoea purpurea (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Galetto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de frutos y semillas en Ipomea purpurea en relación con diferentes tratamientos de polinización (autopolinización espontánea, autopolinización manual y polinización cruzada, durante dos temporadas reproductivas. La masa de los frutos, de las semillas y el número de semillas por fruto, se compararon entre tratamientos y entre años, a fin de detectar diferencias en la calidad de los frutos. Los resultados para las poblaciones estudiadas en el centro de Argentina confirman que se trata de una especie autocompatible y con la capacidad de producir frutos por autogamia espontánea. Los valores de éxito reproductivo mediados por polinización natural fueron altos (> 50%. Un fruto maduro pesa 0,1 g y contiene 4-6 semillas; la masa del total de semillas producidas por un fruto representa alrededor del 60% de la masa total del fruto. Los caracteres de los frutos y las semillas no presentaron diferencias significativas entre años o tratamientos. Asimismo, se compararon los frutos provenientes de polinización natural entre los individuos con distinto color de flor. En general, tampoco se encontraron diferencias significativas. Sólo los frutos provenientes de flores rosa presentaron un número significativamente menor de semillas que los frutos de los otros morfotipos florales (blanco o púrpura. El grupo principal de visitantes florales fue el de los Himenópteros, que pueden ser considerados polinizadores. Se registraron otros grupos de visitantes florales que no tendrían un papel preponderante en la transferencia de polen

  5. Comparison of Conventional Microwave and Focused Microwave-assisted Extraction to Enhance the Efficiency of the Extraction of Antioxidant Flavonols from Jocote Pomace (Spondias purpurea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Letícia C B; Carneiro, Larissa M; Branco, Carla R C; Branco, Alexsandro

    2015-06-01

    Jocote (Spondias purpurea L.) is rich in phenolic compounds which have antioxidant properties. The focused microwave-assisted extraction (FMAE) was compared with the conventional microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to obtain flavonols from jocote pomace. The effects of parameters such as the extraction time, the temperature and the composition of the solvent mixture (i.e., the ethanol to water ration) were evaluated and optimized using a statistical experimental design approach. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the important effects and interactions of these independent variables on the extractive yield and quantification of some flavonoids. In addition, the antioxidant activity was analyzed. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was evaluated according to the DPPH assay. The results showed that the optimum extracting parameters used FMAE with extraction time of 20 min, temperature of 68 °C and ethanol composition of 80% in water. Under these conditions, a yield of 3.42% was obtained. Rutin and quercetin were quantified (0.19 mg/mL and 0.024 mg/mL, respectively) through HPLC-DAD. The total phenol and flavonoid contents were found to be 0.897 g GAE/g and 1.271 g QE/g, respectively. In the DPPH scavenging assay, the IC50 value of the extract occurred at 43.10 μg/mL. This study shows that FMAE is suitable as an efficient extraction procedure for the extraction of flavonols from jocote pomace.

  6. Effect of exogenous nitric oxide on germination and some of biochemical characteristics of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. in saline condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Asadi-Sanam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To find out the role and effects of exogenous nitric oxide (NO application in reducing oxidative damage induced by salinity stress in purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. seed germination, a compeletly randomized design in factorial arrangment with three replications was conducted in Plant Physiology Laboratory of the Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University in 2012. The crop seeds were pre-soaked in 0.1 mM of sodium nitroprusside (SNP 0.1 as nitric oxide donor solution as well as in distilled water (SNP 0 as control for 20 hs just before the onset of the experiment. Then, pre-treated seeds were subjected to different levels of salinity (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 mM NaCl solution to germinate. Results showed that the SNP0.1 treatment in saline conditions had significant effect on germination percentage. Different levels of salinity significantly reduced germination rate, germination vigor and index. Pretreated with exogenous NO increased the activity of SOD, POD and APX as compared with SNP0. Accordingly, the highest activity of SOD (116.3 μM g-1 FW, POD (1.7 μM g-1 FW. min. and APX (50.1 μM g-1 FW. min. was related to the 125, 50 and 125 Mm NaCl, respectively. Significant and adverse effects of NO were seen on CAT activity. Exogenous NO, as an antioxidant, also reduced peroxidation of membrane lipids (MDA and delayed the oxidation of proteins. Overall, it could be concluded that sodium nitroprusside as NO donor could improve coneflower seed germination characteristics in saline condition and increase salinity tolerance by means of scavenging of free ROS radicals.

  7. Echinacea purpurea along with zinc, selenium and vitamin C to alleviate exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbaniah, F; Wiyono, W H; Yunus, F; Setiawati, A; Totzke, U; Verbruggen, M A

    2011-10-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) frequently cause exacerbations of chronic-obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Stimulation of the innate immune system may provide an early defence against such infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether Echinacea purpurea (EP) along with micronutrients may alleviate COPD exacerbations caused by acute URTI. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in COPD patients with acute URTI. Patients were given ciprofloxacin for 7 days and additionally one tablet per day of EP, of EP along with zinc, selenium and ascorbic acid (EP+), or of placebo until day 14. Serum levels of TNF α and interleukins 1β, 6 and 10 were measured before and after treatment. Until week 4 post-end of treatment, all patients had to daily report on COPD symptoms in diaries. In total, 108 mostly male patients with a mean age of 65·8 years (40-81 years) were enrolled. Patients of the three treatment arms did not vary significantly in baseline characteristics. EP+, but not EP resulted in significantly less severe and shorter exacerbation episodes following URTI as compared with placebo suggesting a synergistic effect of Echinacea and micronutrients. Large variations in biomarkers in-between and within groups were unrelated to treatment. Study medication was safe and well tolerated with overall 15 adverse events one of which was serious. Among those, sleeping disorders were most frequent and likely related to the underlying disease. The combination of EP, zinc, selenium and vitamin C may alleviate exacerbation symptoms caused by URTI in COPD. Further studies are warranted to investigate the interactions among Echinacea, zinc, selenium and vitamin C. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Cloning Mice and Men: Prohibiting the Use of iPS Cells for Human Reproductive Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation.

  9. Update on the First Cloned Dog and Outlook for Canine Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Goo; Lee, ByeongChun

    2015-10-01

    As man's best friend, dogs have an important position in human society. Ten years ago, we reported the first cloned dog, and his birth has raised various scientific issues, such as those related to health, reproduction, and life span. He has developed without any unique health issues. In this article, we summarize and present perspectives on canine cloning.

  10. Cloning mice and men: prohibiting the use of iPS cells for human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-08

    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation.

  11. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of four phenol compounds in rat plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Chunli; Liu, Lu; Du, Yan; Wang, Liqian; Gao, Mingjie; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Chunjuan

    2016-05-01

    A rapid and sensitive assay based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was established and validated for the simultaneous determination of cichoric acid, chlorogenic acid, quinic acid, and caffeic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract using butylparaben as the internal standard. Samples were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The separations for analytes were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC HSS C18 column (1.8 μm 2.1 × 100 mm) using a gradient elution program with acetonitrile/10 mM ammonium acetate (pH 5.6) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The analytes were detected in multiple reaction monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization. The lower limit of quantification of each analyte was not higher than 10.85 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation of the intraday and interday precisions was less than 14.69%. The relative errors of accuracies were in the range of -13.80 to 14.91%. The mean recoveries for extraction recovery and matrix effect were higher than 80.79 and 89.98%, respectively. The method validation results demonstrated that the proposed method was sensitive, specific, and reliable, which was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of four components after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Consensus maps of cloned plant cuticle genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eviatar; Nevo

    2010-01-01

    Plant cuticle,which covers the plant surface,consists of waxes and cutins,and is associated with plant drought,cold,and salt resistance.Hitherto,at least 47 genes participating in the formation of plant cuticle have been cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana,Oryza sativa,Zea mays,Ricinus communis,Brassica napus,and Medicago truncatula;and about 85% of them encode proteins sharing above 50% identities with their rice homologous sequences.These cloned cuticle genes were mapped in silico on different chromosomes of rice and Arabidopsis,respectively.The mapping results revealed that plant cuticle genes were not evenly distributed in both genomes.About 40% of the mapped cuticle genes were located on chromosome 1 in Arabidopsis,while 20% of the mapped cuticle genes were located on chromosome 2 but none on chromosome 12 in rice.Some cloned plant cuticle genes have several rice homologous sequences,which might be produced by chromosomal segment duplication.The consensus map of cloned plant cuticle genes will provide important clues for the selection of candidate genes in a positional cloning of an unknown cuticle gene in plants.

  13. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  14. Pre-weaning performance and health of pigs born to cloned (fetal cell derived) swine versus non-cloned swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Adams, C; Wiseman, B

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pre-weaning performance of pigs derived from cloned versus non-cloned parents. Five cloned gilts and one cloned boar were used to produce five litters of pigs. One of five cloned females and the cloned boar were derived from two genetically unmanipulated fetal fibroblast cell lines. The remaining female clones were derived from a fetal fibroblast cell line in which random insertion of a alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene targeting construct had occurred. Fetal cell lines had similar genetic backgrounds and were derived from three different fetuses in three different litters. Five litters of pigs were also generated from matings between two non-cloned boars and five non-cloned gilts. The mean gestation length, mean litter size, mean birth and weaning weights for male and female pigs were similar for litters derived from cloned parents versus non-cloned parents. The proportions of pigs born live and pigs that survived to weaning were also similar for pigs born to cloned as compared to non-cloned parents. In summary, matings between cloned swine derived from fetal fibroblast cell lines yielded litters of pigs that were similar in the number born, piglet birth weight and perinatal and pre-weaning mortality to litters produced by non-cloned swine.

  15. 盐胁迫对松果菊生长及其菊苣酸含量的影响%Effects of Salt Stress on Growth and Cichoric Acid Content of Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 贾晓东; 刘永芝; 宣继萍; 贾展慧; 郭忠仁

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of NaCl on the growth and cichoric acid content of Echinacea purpurea, 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mmol/L NaCl were treated to E. purpurea cultivated in garden soil, and salt injury index, fresh weight, dry weight and cichoric acid content were determined. The results showed that: with the increase of NaCl concentration, salt injury index increased as well; less than or equal to 120 mmol/L NaCl did not bring obvious influence to the fresh weight of E. purpurea, while 150 mmol/L NaCl markedly decreased their fresh weight; the dry weight of E. purpurea reduced gradually as salt concentration rose; cichoric acid content increased first and then decreased with the increase of salt concentration, getting to the maximum value at 90 mmol/L NaCl level; cichoric acid production per plant showed no significant change between 0 and 60 mmol/L NaCl, increased significantly at 90 mmol/L and then decreased obviously. Although salt stress caused a certain degree of salt damage to E. purpurea, it increased cichoric acid content within a certain salt concentration (0-90 mmol/L).%  为了探讨盐胁迫对松果菊生长及其药用成分菊苣酸含量的影响,分别以0、30、60、90、120、150 mmol/L的NaCl处理土培的松果菊植株,并测定处理后的松果菊盐害指数、鲜重、干重以及菊苣酸含量。结果表明:盐害指数随着盐浓度的升高而升高;120 mmol/L及以下浓度的NaCl处理对松果菊鲜重影响并不明显,而150 mmol/L时则使鲜重显著降低;随着盐浓度的升高,松果菊干重呈逐渐减小的趋势;菊苣酸含量随盐浓度的升高呈先升高后下降的趋势,在90 mmol/L时达到最大值;菊苣酸的单株产量在盐浓度为0~60 mmol/L时无显著变化,在90 mmol/L时显著升高,之后显著降低。盐胁迫虽然对松果菊生长产生了一定的盐害作用,但在一定的盐浓度范围内(0~90 mmol/L)也同时提高了菊苣酸的含量水平。

  16. MOLECULAR CLONING OF HUMAN NEUROTROPHIN-4 GENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Cloning and sequencing of the human neurotrophin-4(hNT-4) gene.Methods With the chromosomal DNA of human blood lymphocytes as template,hNT-4 coding genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and recombinated into phage vector pGEM-T Easy,which were sequenced by using Sanger's single stranded DNA terminal termination method.Results The sequence of the cloned gene is completely the same as that reported in the literature(GenBank data base,M86528).Conclusion This study successfully cloning and sequenced the gene of mhNT-4,and it would be convenient for us to study the expression of mhNT-4 in eukaryote,and to continue the research on the gene therapy of Alzheimer's disease intensively.This study indicate that the hNT-4 is conservative in different races and individuals.

  17. THE CLONING OF HUMAN NEUROTROPHIN-3 GENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, we have cloned the gene of human neurotrophin-3 (hNT-3) from the genomic DNA of white blood cells (WBC) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplification products were cloned into pUC19 and sequenced. Genomic sequence comparison of the cloned fragment and the reported hNT-3 (GenBank M61180) reveals 7 base differences: 1 in the signal peptide, 3 in the prepro peptide, and 3 in the mature hNT-3. Except the 2 varied bases (16th, T to G; 285th, A to C) in the signal peptide and pro-sequence resulted in the change of their encoded amino-acids (Tyr→Asp; Gln→His), the other varied bases have no influence on their respective encoded amino-acids, and all the changes have no influence on the open reading frame (ORF) of the hNT-3.

  18. Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hossein, M Shamim; Shamim, M Hossein; Kim, Jung Ju; Kang, Sung Keun; Schatten, Gerald; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-04

    Several mammals--including sheep, mice, cows, goats, pigs, rabbits, cats, a mule, a horse and a litter of three rats--have been cloned by transfer of a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg cell (oocyte) that has had its nucleus removed. This technology has not so far been successful in dogs because of the difficulty of maturing canine oocytes in vitro. Here we describe the cloning of two Afghan hounds by nuclear transfer from adult skin cells into oocytes that had matured in vivo. Together with detailed sequence information generated by the canine-genome project, the ability to clone dogs by somatic-cell nuclear transfer should help to determine genetic and environmental contributions to the diverse biological and behavioural traits associated with the many different canine breeds.

  19. Simplified cryopreservation of porcine cloned blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yutao; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a non-invasive delipation (lipid removal) method combined with ultrarapid vitrification has been used successfully for in vitro produced (IVP) porcine embryos. In the present study, this method was combined with parthenogenesis and a recent form of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT......)â€"handmade cloning (HMC)â€"to establish a simplified and efficient cryopreservation system for porcine cloned embryos. In Experiment 1, zonae pellucidae of oocytes were partially digested with pronase, followed by centrifugation to polarize lipid particles. Ninety percent (173/192) oocytes were successfully......). Our results prove that porcine embryos produced from delipated oocytes by PA or HMC can be cryopreserved effectively by ultrarapid vitrification. Further experiments are required to assess the in vivo developmental competence of the cloned-vitrified embryos  ...

  20. Bac clones generated from sheared dna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Vessere, Gery M.; Shu, Chung Li; Hoskins,Roger A.; Abad, Jose P.; de Pablos, Beatriz; Villasante, Alfredo; deJong, Pieter J.

    2006-08-09

    BAC libraries generated from restriction-digested genomic DNA display representational bias and lack some sequences. To facilitate completion of genome projects, procedures have been developed to create BACs from DNA physically sheared to create fragments extending up to 200kb. The DNA fragments were repaired to create blunt ends and ligated to a new BAC vector. This approach has been tested by generating BAC libraries from Drosophila DNA, with insert lengths of 50 kb to 150 kb. The libraries lack chimeric clone problems as determined by mapping paired BAC-end sequences of one library to the D. melanogaster genome sequence. The utility of ''sheared'' libraries was demonstrated by closure of a previous clone gap and by isolation of clones from telomeric regions, which were notably absent from previous Drosophila BAC libraries.

  1. Cloning for human reproduction: one American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, R

    2001-09-01

    The author, an American law professor, believes that whole-body cloning of adult humans will be possible in the near future. He does not believe the procedure should be banned when used as a form of assisted reproduction, but that it should be regulated by the government to ensure proper testing and application. After raising a number of scientific, ethical, religious and legal issues, Professor Chester addresses parentage in light of both old and new concepts of the 'family.' Finally, he focuses on the problem of women as surrogate mothers of clones, arguing in the process that the surrogate, having no real genetic tie to the clone, would have less of a claim to parentage than at least some of the surrogates currently gestating foetuses.

  2. Human cloning: three mistakes and an alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Françoise

    2002-06-01

    The current debate on the ethics of cloning humans is both uninspired and uninspiring. In large measure this is because of mistakes that permeate the discourse, including the mistake of thinking that cloning technology is strictly a reproductive technology when it is used to create whole beings. As a result, the challenge this technology represents regarding our understanding of ourselves and the species to which we belong typically is inappropriately downplayed or exaggerated. This has meant that important (albeit disquieting) societal issues and species-type concerns have not been fully explored. This paper, intended as a corrective, suggests that we take an alternate view of human cloning as both an enhancement and a reproductive technology. This proposed shift in the framework for analysis counters the current narrow framing of the issues and introduces new questions about the prospect of modifying the species.

  3. Human reproductive cloning and reasons for deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, D A

    2008-08-01

    Human reproductive cloning provides the possibility of genetically related children for persons for whom present technologies are ineffective. I argue that the desire for genetically related children is not, by itself, a sufficient reason to engage in human reproductive cloning. I show this by arguing that the value underlying the desire for genetically related children implies a tension between the parent and the future child. This tension stems from an instance of a deprivation and violates a general principle of reasons for deprivation. Alternative considerations, such as a right to procreative autonomy, do not appear helpful in making the case for human reproductive cloning merely on the basis of the desire for genetically related children.

  4. Information cloning of harmonic oscillator coherent states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N D Hari Dass; Pradeep Ganesh

    2002-08-01

    We show that in the case of unknown harmonic oscillator coherent statesit is possible to achieve what we call perfect information cloning. By this we mean that it is still possible to make arbitrary number of copies of a state which has exactly the same information content as the original unknown coherent state. By making use of this perfect information cloning it would be possible to estimate the original state through measurements and make arbitrary number of copies of the estimator. We define the notion of a measurement fidelity and calculate it for our case as well as for the Gaussian cloners.

  5. Photonic Programmable Tele-Cloning Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    The concept of quantum teleportation allows an unknown quantum states to be broadcasted and processed in a distributed quantum network. The quantum information injected into the network can be diluted to distant multi-copies by quantum cloning and processed by arbitrary quantum logic gates which were programed in advance in the network quantum state. A quantum network combines simultaneously these fundamental quantum functions could lead to new intriguing applications. Here we propose a photonic programmable telecloning network based on a four-photon interferometer. The photonic network serves as quantum gate, quantum cloning and quantum teleportation and features experimental advantage of high brightness by photon recycling.

  6. Cloning arbuscule-related genes from mycorrhizas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burleigh, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Until recently little was known about the identity of the genes expressed in the arbuscules of mycorrhizas, due in part to problems associated with cloning genes from the tissues of an obligate symbiont. However, the combination of advanced molecular techniques, innovative use of the materials...... available and fortuitous cloning has resulted in the recent identification of a number of arbuscule-related genes. This article provides a brief summary of the genes involved in arbuscule development, function and regulation, and the techniques used to study them. Molecular techniques include differential...

  7. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo

    2013-10-21

    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer produced an almost identical genome. The whole genome sequence data of donor and cloned dogs can provide a resource for further investigations on epigenetic contributions in phenotypic differences.

  8. Social behavior and kin discrimination in a mixed group of cloned and non cloned heifers (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, M; Baudoin, C; Abdi, H; Heyman, Y; Deputte, B L

    2010-12-01

    For more than ten years, reproductive biotechnologies using somatic cell nuclear transfer have made possible the production of cloned animals in various domestic and laboratory species. The influence of the cloning process on offspring characteristics has been studied in various developmental aspects, however, it has not yet been documented in detail for behavioral traits. Behavioral studies of cloned animals have failed to show clear inter-individual differences associated with the cloning process. Preliminary results showed that clones favor each other's company. Preferential social interactions were observed among cloned heifers from the same donor in a mixed herd that also included cloned heifers and control heifers produced by artificial insemination (AI). These results suggest behavioral differences between cloned and non-cloned animals and similarities between clones from the same donor. The aim of the present study was to replicate and to extend these previous results and to study behavioral and cognitive mechanisms of this preferential grouping. We studied a group composed of five cloned heifers derived from the same donor cow, two cloned heifers derived from another donor cow, and AI heifers. Cloned heifers from the same donor were more spatially associated and interacted more between themselves than with heifers derived from another donor or with the AI individuals. This pattern indicates a possible kin discrimination in clones. To study this process, we performed an experiment (using an instrumental conditioning procedure with food reward) of visual discrimination between images of heads of familiar heifers, either related to the subjects or not. The results showed that all subjects (AI and cloned heifers) discriminated between images of familiar cloned heifers produced from the same donor and images of familiar unrelated heifers. Cattle discriminated well between images and used morphological similarities characteristic of cloned related heifers. Our

  9. Quick and clean cloning: a ligation-independent cloning strategy for selective cloning of specific PCR products from non-specific mixes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Thieme

    Full Text Available We have developed an efficient strategy for cloning of PCR products that contain an unknown region flanked by a known sequence. As with ligation-independent cloning, the strategy is based on homology between sequences present in both the vector and the insert. However, in contrast to ligation-independent cloning, the cloning vector has homology with only one of the two primers used for amplification of the insert. The other side of the linearized cloning vector has homology with a sequence present in the insert, but nested and non-overlapping with the gene-specific primer used for amplification. Since only specific products contain this sequence, but none of the non-specific products, only specific products can be cloned. Cloning is performed using a one-step reaction that only requires incubation for 10 minutes at room temperature in the presence of T4 DNA polymerase to generate single-stranded extensions at the ends of the vector and insert. The reaction mix is then directly transformed into E. coli where the annealed vector-insert complex is repaired and ligated. We have tested this method, which we call quick and clean cloning (QC cloning, for cloning of the variable regions of immunoglobulins expressed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma tumor samples. This method can also be applied to identify the flanking sequence of DNA elements such as T-DNA or transposon insertions, or be used for cloning of any PCR product with high specificity.

  10. China Succeeded in Somatic Cell Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jianlan

    2002-01-01

    @@ Chinese scientists have succeeded in cloning a colony of cattle from fully differentiated somatic cells. The news was announced jointly by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the government of Shandong Province at a press conference held on March 7, 2002.

  11. Clone history shapes Populus drought responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sherosha; Bräutigam, Katharina; Hamanishi, Erin T; Wilkins, Olivia; Thomas, Barb R; Schroeder, William; Mansfield, Shawn D; Plant, Aine L; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2011-07-26

    Just as animal monozygotic twins can experience different environmental conditions by being reared apart, individual genetically identical trees of the genus Populus can also be exposed to contrasting environmental conditions by being grown in different locations. As such, clonally propagated Populus trees provide an opportunity to interrogate the impact of individual environmental history on current response to environmental stimuli. To test the hypothesis that current responses to an environmental stimulus, drought, are contingent on environmental history, the transcriptome- level drought responses of three economically important hybrid genotypes-DN34 (Populus deltoides × Populus nigra), Walker [P. deltoides var. occidentalis × (Populus laurifolia × P. nigra)], and Okanese [Walker × (P. laurifolia × P. nigra)]-derived from two different locations were compared. Strikingly, differences in transcript abundance patterns in response to drought were based on differences in geographic origin of clones for two of the three genotypes. This observation was most pronounced for the genotypes with the longest time since establishment and last common propagation. Differences in genome-wide DNA methylation paralleled the transcriptome level trends, whereby the clones with the most divergent transcriptomes and clone history had the most marked differences in the extent of total DNA methylation, suggesting an epigenomic basis for the clone history-dependent transcriptome divergence. The data provide insights into the interplay between genotype and environment in the ecologically and economically important Populus genus, with implications for the industrial application of Populus trees and the evolution and persistence of these important tree species and their associated hybrids.

  12. Genetic crossing vs cloning by computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, S. [Cologne Univ., Koeln (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulation using Penna`s bit string model, and compare the process of asexual reproduction by cloning with that by genetic crossover. We find them to be comparable as regards survival of a species, and also if a natural disaster is simulated.

  13. Detecting Android Malware Using Clone Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健; Manar H. Alalfi; Member; ACM; IEEE; Thomas R. Dean; 邹颖

    2015-01-01

    Android is currently one of the most popular smartphone operating systems. However, Android has the largest share of global mobile malware and significant public attention has been brought to the security issues of Android. In this paper, we investigate the use of a clone detector to identify known Android malware. We collect a set of Android applications known to contain malware and a set of benign applications. We extract the Java source code from the binary code of the applications and use NiCad, a near-miss clone detector, to find the classes of clones in a small subset of the malicious applications. We then use these clone classes as a signature to find similar source files in the rest of the malicious applications. The benign collection is used as a control group. In our evaluation, we successfully decompile more than 1 000 malicious apps in 19 malware families. Our results show that using a small portion of malicious applications as a training set can detect 95% of previously known malware with very low false positives and high accuracy at 96.88%. Our method can effectively and reliably pinpoint malicious applications that belong to certain malware families.

  14. Genetic Crossing vs Cloning by Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Subinay

    We perform Monte Carlo simulation using Penna's bit string model, and compare the process of asexual reproduction by cloning with that by genetic crossover. We find them to be comparable as regards survival of a species, and also if a natural disaster is simulated.

  15. No-cloning of quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ching-Yi; Lambert, Neill; Liao, Teh-Lu; Nori, Franco; Li, Che-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering allows two parties to verify their entanglement, even if one party’s measurements are untrusted. This concept has not only provided new insights into the nature of non-local spatial correlations in quantum mechanics, but also serves as a resource for one-sided device-independent quantum information tasks. Here, we investigate how EPR steering behaves when one-half of a maximally entangled pair of qudits (multidimensional quantum systems) is cloned by a universal cloning machine. We find that EPR steering, as verified by a criterion based on the mutual information between qudits, can only be found in one of the copy subsystems but not both. We prove that this is also true for the single-system analogue of EPR steering. We find that this restriction, which we term ‘no-cloning of quantum steering’, elucidates the physical reason why steering can be used to secure sources and channels against cloning-based attacks when implementing quantum communication and quantum computation protocols.

  16. CloneCloud: Boosting Mobile Device Applications Through Cloud Clone Execution

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Byung-Gon; Maniatis, Petros; Naik, Mayur

    2010-01-01

    Mobile applications are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and provide ever richer functionality on mobile devices. At the same time, such devices often enjoy strong connectivity with more powerful machines ranging from laptops and desktops to commercial clouds. This paper presents the design and implementation of CloneCloud, a system that automatically transforms mobile applications to benefit from the cloud. The system is a flexible application partitioner and execution runtime that enables unmodified mobile applications running in an application-level virtual machine to seamlessly off-load part of their execution from mobile devices onto device clones operating in a computational cloud. CloneCloud uses a combination of static analysis and dynamic profiling to optimally and automatically partition an application so that it migrates, executes in the cloud, and re-integrates computation in a fine-grained manner that makes efficient use of resources. Our evaluation shows that CloneCloud can achieve up to 21.2x s...

  17. Unraveling carbohydrate transport mechanisms in young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea) by 13CO2 efflux measurements from stem and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Ronny; Muhr, Jan; Keitel, Claudia; Kayler, Zachary; Gavrichkova, Olga; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Transport mechanisms of soluble carbohydrates and diurnal CO2 efflux from tree stems and surrounding soil are well studied. However, the effect of transport carbohydrates on respiration and their interaction with storage processes is largely unknown. Therefore, we performed a set of 13CO2 pulse labeling experiments on young trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea). We labeled the whole tree crowns in a closed transparent plastic chamber with 99% 13CO2 for 30 min. In one experiment, only a single branch was labeled and removed 36 hours after labeling. In all experiments, we continuously measured the 13CO2 efflux from stem, branch and soil and sampled leaf and stem material every 3 h for 2 days, followed by a daily sampling of leaves in the successive 5 days. The compound specific δ 13C value of extracted soluble carbohydrates from leaf and stem material was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HPLC-IRMS). The 13CO2 signal from soil respiration occurred only few hours after labeling indicating a very high transport rate of carbohydrates from leaf to roots and to the rhizosphere. The label was continuously depleted within the next 5 days. In contrast, we observed a remarkable oscillating pattern of 13CO2 efflux from the stem with maximum 13CO2 enrichment at noon and minima at night time. This oscillation suggests that enriched carbohydrates are respired during the day, whereas in the night the enriched sugars are not respired. The observed oscillation in stem 13CO2 enrichment remained unchanged even when only single branches were labelled and cut right afterwards. Thus, storage and conversion of carbohydrates only occurred within the stem. The δ13C patterns of extracted soluble carbohydrates showed, that a transformation of transitory starch to carbohydrates and vice versa was no driver of the oscillating 13CO2 efflux from the stem. Carbohydrates might have been transported in the phloem to

  18. 灰毛豆甲醇提取物的杀虫活性%Insecticidal activity of methanol extracts from Tephrosia purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李有志; 黄素青; 徐汉虹

    2007-01-01

    研究灰毛豆(Tephrosia purpurea)各部位提取物的杀虫活性及其作用方式.结果表明,灰毛豆对白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus Skuse幼虫、菜青虫Puerus rapae(L.)、斜纹夜蛾Prodenia litura(Fabricius)幼虫和黄曲条跳甲Phyllotreta striolata(Fabricius)成虫都有杀虫活性.灰毛豆种子、树皮、根皮、豆荚、枝条和树叶的甲醇提取物对白纹伊蚊4龄幼虫24 h的LC50值分别是22.1,97.7,36.6,142.6,165.6和618.3 mg·L-1,树干木质部没有杀虫活性;灰毛豆种子、树皮和根皮甲醇提取物对3龄菜青虫24 h的触杀毒力LC50值分别是232.1,206.3和236.7 mg·L-1;种子、树皮、根皮、枝条、树叶和豆荚对3龄菜青虫的24h胃毒毒力LC50值分别是192.6,168.4,249.7,524.5,1 001.0,和510.7 mg·L-1.在取食或接触有提取物的叶碟后,5龄菜青虫会出现取食量减少和生长发育变慢的亚致死现象.这些研究结果表明,灰毛豆除茎干木质部以外的其它各部位均含有杀虫活性成分,其作用方式为胃毒和触杀.

  19. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites......, differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... 3-year harvest rotation, and it consistently ranked as the highest yielding clone on four of the five sites and not significantly lower than the highest yielding clone on the fifth site. The ranking of the other clones was more dependent on site with significant interaction between clone and site...

  20. Italy Cloning Guru Says Babies on Their Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanie; Holmes; 孙海羽

    2002-01-01

    The Italian fertility expert whose avowed aim is to create the first human clone,said on Wednesday three women were pregnant with clones, but complained that thebabies would be viewed as freaks by a hostile society.

  1. Cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of a staphylokinase variant, SakøC, ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Hence in this study, we reported the cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of ...

  2. IVA cloning: A single-tube universal cloning system exploiting bacterial In Vivo Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Nafría, Javier; Watson, Jake F; Greger, Ingo H

    2016-06-06

    In vivo homologous recombination holds the potential for optimal molecular cloning, however, current strategies require specialised bacterial strains or laborious protocols. Here, we exploit a recA-independent recombination pathway, present in widespread laboratory E.coli strains, to develop IVA (In Vivo Assembly) cloning. This system eliminates the need for enzymatic assembly and reduces all molecular cloning procedures to a single-tube, single-step PCR, performed in IVA is a complete system, and offers significant advantages over alternative methods for all cloning procedures (insertions, deletions, site-directed mutagenesis and sub-cloning). Significantly, IVA allows unprecedented simplification of complex cloning procedures: five simultaneous modifications of any kind, multi-fragment assembly and library construction are performed in approximately half the time of current protocols, still in a single-step fashion. This system is efficient, seamless and sequence-independent, and requires no special kits, enzymes or proprietary bacteria, which will allow its immediate adoption by the academic and industrial molecular biology community.

  3. A quantum network for implementation of the optimal quantum cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Jie-Lin; Zhang Wen-Hai

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a quantum network to implement the optimal 1→2 quantum cloning in 2 dimensions, including the optimal asymmetric universal, the optimal symmetric phase-covariant, and the asymmetric real state cloning. By only choosing different angles of the single-qubit rotations, the quantum network can implement three optimal quantum cloning.

  4. Market share for semen and cloned embryos in dairy herds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Use of cloned embryos from desirable genotypes (commercial clone lines) enables faster dissemination of superior genetics to dauy producers. Under optimal purchasing strategies of milk producers, the annual proportion of replacement cows from commercial clone lines indicates the market share of clon

  5. A Gateway MultiSite recombination cloning toolkit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena K Petersen

    Full Text Available The generation of DNA constructs is often a rate-limiting step in conducting biological experiments. Recombination cloning of single DNA fragments using the Gateway system provided an advance over traditional restriction enzyme cloning due to increases in efficiency and reliability. Here we introduce a series of entry clones and a destination vector for use in two, three, and four fragment Gateway MultiSite recombination cloning whose advantages include increased flexibility and versatility. In contrast to Gateway single-fragment cloning approaches where variations are typically incorporated into model system-specific destination vectors, our Gateway MultiSite cloning strategy incorporates variations in easily generated entry clones that are model system-independent. In particular, we present entry clones containing insertions of GAL4, QF, UAS, QUAS, eGFP, and mCherry, among others, and demonstrate their in vivo functionality in Drosophila by using them to generate expression clones including GAL4 and QF drivers for various trp ion channel family members, UAS and QUAS excitatory and inhibitory light-gated ion channels, and QUAS red and green fluorescent synaptic vesicle markers. We thus establish a starter toolkit of modular Gateway MultiSite entry clones potentially adaptable to any model system. An inventory of entry clones and destination vectors for Gateway MultiSite cloning has also been established (www.gatewaymultisite.org.

  6. Efecto del método de secado en la longevidad y calidad de las semillas de Bauhinia purpurea.: II. Almacenamiento en cámara fría Effect of drying method on the longevity and quality of seeds from Bauhinia purpurea.: II. Storage in cold-storage room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Navarro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la influencia combinada de los métodos de secado, las condiciones de almacenamiento y la edad fisiológica de las semillas de Bauhinia purpurea, en su capacidad germinativa y calidad. Los tratamientos para el secado fueron: A en las legumbres; B artificial; y C al sol. Se determinó el contenido de humedad (CH, la germinación y la viabilidad de las semillas durante los 12 meses de almacenamiento en cámara fría. Para el procesamiento de la información se emplearon análisis multivariados. En A el mayor valor de la capacidad germinativa (98,67% se observó en la primera evaluación, al igual que en B (100%, donde las diferencias entre los meses fueron mínimas en todo el estudio. En C la capacidad germinativa fue de 79,33% a los 12 meses, lo que representó un aumento cuantitativo de la longevidad de las semillas con respecto a A. El proceso germinativo en A, entre 0 y 9 meses de almacenamiento, se completó a los 9 días de iniciada la prueba, mientras que en el resto de las evaluaciones ocurrió a los 6 días. Entre las simientes de B y C se observó un comportamiento semejante, con la diferencia de que el potencial germinativo se logró expresar a los 6 días en B a 0 y 2 meses; en C a 0, 1, 2 y 11 meses; mientras que en B la germinación se inició a los 6 días para 9 y 10 meses. Se concluye que a las semillas de bauhinia se les puede aplicar los tratamientos ensayados en este trabajo, aunque los mejores resultados se obtuvieron al utilizar silicagel (B.The combined influence of different drying methods, the storage conditions and the physiological age of seeds from Bauhinia purpurea, on their germinative capacity and quality was determined. The treatments for drying were: A in the pods; B artificial; and C under sunlight. The moisture content (MC, germination and viability of the seeds were determined during the 12 months of storage in the cold-storage room. For the information processing multivariate analyses were used. In

  7. Keeping up with the cloneses--issues in human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, B E

    1999-01-01

    The advent of cloning animals has created a maelstrom of social concern about the "ethical issues" associated with the possibility of cloning humans. When the "ethical concerns" are clearly examined, however, many of them turn out to be less matters of rational ethics than knee-jerk emotion, religious bias, or fear of that which is not understood. Three categories of real and spurious ethical concerns are presented and discussed: 1) that cloning is intrinsically wrong, 2) that cloning must lead to bad consequences, and 3) that cloning harms the organism generated. The need for a rational ethical framework for discussing biotechnological advances is presented and defended.

  8. Stochasticity or the fatal `imperfection' of cloning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reiner A Veitia

    2005-02-01

    The concept of clone is analysed with the aim of exploring the limits to which a phenotype can be said to be determined geneticaly. First of all, mutations that result from the replication, topological manipulation or lesion of DNA introduce a source of heritable variation in an otherwise identical genetic background. But more important, stochastic effects in many biological processes may superimpose a phenotypic variation which is not encoded in the genome. The source of stochasticity ranges from the random selection of alleles or whole chromosomes to be expressed in small cell populations, to fluctuations in processes such as gene expression, due to limiting amounts of the players involved. The picture emerging is that the term clone is a statistical over-simplification representing a series of individuals having essentially the same genome but capable of exhibiting wide phenotypic variation. Finally, to what extent fluctuations in biological processes, usually thought of as noise, are in fact signal is also discussed.

  9. Cytogenetically unrelated clones in hematological neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, S; Mitelman, F

    1989-01-01

    We have reviewed literature data on 6,306 cases of hematological neoplasia--acute and chronic lymphatic and myeloid leukemias (CML excepted), myelodysplastic and chronic lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative disorders, and malignant lymphomas--with the goal of quantitatively ascertaining how often cytogenetically unrelated clones occur in these diseases. Unexpectedly wide variations were found: in ANLL, unrelated clones were present in 1.1% of the 2,506 known cases with chromosome abnormalities characterized with banding technique; in the various myelodysplastic (MDS) and chronic myeloproliferative (CMD) disorders (total number of cases 1,299) the frequency was 4.3% and in lymphatic malignancies 1.3% (total case number 2,501). In the latter group the proportions varied between 0.4% and 0.6% in ALL and malignant lymphoma (ML) to as much as 6.2% in CLD and 7.3% in CLL. Some karyotypic abnormalities were encountered more often than would be expected from their general frequency in the various diseases. This discrepancy was particularly evident in MDS and CMD, where 5q- was found in slightly less and +8 in somewhat more than half of the 56 cases. Furthermore, these two aberrations were found as the only changes in the two coexisting clones in one-fourth of the material. Although if viewed in isolation these data would undoubtedly be best explained by assuming a multicellular origin of the neoplasm, it is entirely possible that what are cytogenetically perceived as unrelated clones could be subclones with some invisible aberration in common. If so, this interpretation indicates that changes like +8 and 5q-, both of which are common rearrangements in bone marrow neoplasms, are actually secondary changes that develop during tumor progression.

  10. Comparison and early selection of new clones in Populus tomentosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zi-hui; WANG Ze-Liang; LIN Shan-zhi; ZHANG Zhi-yi

    2008-01-01

    In our study, two experimental plantations, respectively, with 24 and 32 new clones of P. tomentosa, were established in Weixian County, Hebei Province and Wuzhi County, Henan Province using a completely randomized block design. A comparative study was conducted on the continuous 5-year-old height and diameter at breast height (DBH) of new clones in the two plantations. As well, based on genetic correlation over the years of testing of these clones, a preliminary study of early selection was carried out. Results indicate that the growth traits of the new clones in Weixian were better than those in Wuzhi The traits show weak correlation between the two plantations. In some stands, the height, DBH and seedling volume of 5-year-old clones presented statistically sig-nificant differences among clones. In both plantations, the new clones showed over 0.6 repeatability of beight, DBH and volume, as well as larger coefficients of variation (CV). The fact that these clones achieved the largest repeatability and CV in the second year suggests that these traits are highly controlled by heredity. Thus, based on the growth traits of the second year, the new clones B305, B307, B303, H75, BT18, BTI7 and 21J-1 were considered suitable in Weixian. hi Wuzhi, the new clones had variable repeatability and CVs in various years and their correlation of growth traits among different years was not high. We conclude that early selection of new clones was not feasible in Wuzhi.

  11. Cloning of Leishmania Major P4 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Shaddel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Leishmania major P4 gene is normally expressed during amastigote form ofthe parasite and can be good candidate for producing an effective vaccine. In this study wecloned this gene in suitable vector (pQE-30 for further vaccine preparation studies.Materials and Methods: Leishmania promastigotes were grown in N.N.N.medium and culturein RPMI 1640 cell culture medium. Total genomic DNA was extracted by centrifugationof promastigotes. The pellet was suspended in lysis buffer and followed by boiling method.PCR was carried out using P4 gene specific primers. PCR product was detected by agarosgel electrophoresis and cloned into Bluescript plasmid via T/A cloning method. Reactionwas transformed into XL1- Blue competent cell and recombinant plasmid screened usingagar plate contained X-gal and IPTG. The product was extracted, digested by restrictionenzyme and electrophoresed on agarose gel.Results: Plasmid was extracted and cloned gene was released by restriction enzyme andsubcloned into pQE-30 expression vector.Conclusion: This construct is ready for protein expression in in-vitro.

  12. Mapping genomic library clones using oligonucleotide arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapolsky, R.J.; Lipshutz, R.J. [Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a high-density DNA probe array and accompanying biochemical and informatic methods to order clones from genomic libraries. This approach involves a series of enzymatic steps for capturing a set of short dispersed sequence markers scattered throughout a high-molecular-weight DNA. By this process, all the ambiguous sequences lying adjacent to a given Type IIS restriction site are ligated between two DNA adaptors. These markers, once amplified and labeled by PCR, can be hybridized and detected on a high-density olligonucleotide array bearing probes complementary to all possible markers. The array is synthesized using light-directed combinatorial chemistry. For each clone in a genomic library, a characteristic set of sequence markers can be determined. On the basis of the similarity between the marker sets for each pair of clones, their relative overlap can be measured. The library can be sequentially ordered into a contig map using this overlap information. This new methodology does not require gel-based methods or prior sequence information and involves manipulations that should allow for easy adaptation to automated processing and data collection. 28 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Tumor clone dynamics in lethal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Suzanne; Romanel, Alessandro; Goodall, Jane; Grist, Emily; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Miranda, Susana; Prandi, Davide; Lorente, David; Frenel, Jean-Sebastien; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Flohr, Penelope; Tunariu, Nina; S de Bono, Johann; Demichelis, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt

    2014-09-17

    It is unclear whether a single clone metastasizes and remains dominant over the course of lethal prostate cancer. We describe the clonal architectural heterogeneity at different stages of disease progression by sequencing serial plasma and tumor samples from 16 ERG-positive patients. By characterizing the clonality of commonly occurring deletions at 21q22, 8p21, and 10q23, we identified multiple independent clones in metastatic disease that are differentially represented in tissue and circulation. To exemplify the clinical utility of our studies, we then showed a temporal association between clinical progression and emergence of androgen receptor (AR) mutations activated by glucocorticoids in about 20% of patients progressing on abiraterone and prednisolone or dexamethasone. Resistant clones showed a complex dynamic with temporal and spatial heterogeneity, suggesting distinct mechanisms of resistance at different sites that emerged and regressed depending on treatment selection pressure. This introduces a management paradigm requiring sequential monitoring of advanced prostate cancer patients with plasma and tumor biopsies to ensure early discontinuation of agents when they become potential disease drivers.

  14. Cloning Voronoi Diagrams via Retroactive Data Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dickerson, Matthew T; Goodrich, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of replicating a Voronoi diagram $V(S)$ of a planar point set $S$ by making proximity queries, which are of three possible (in decreasing order of information content): 1. the exact location of the nearest site(s) in $S$; 2. the distance to and label(s) of the nearest site(s) in $S$; 3. a unique label for every nearest site in $S$. We provide algorithms showing how queries of Type 1 and Type 2 allow an exact cloning of $V(S)$ with $O(n)$ queries and $O(n \\log^2 n)$ processing time. We also prove that queries of Type 3 can never exactly clone $V(S)$, but we show that with $O(n \\log\\frac{1}{\\epsilon})$ queries we can construct an $\\epsilon$-approximate cloning of $V(S)$. In addition to showing the limits of nearest-neighbor database security, our methods also provide one of the first natural algorithmic applications of retroactive data structures.

  15. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-07-21

    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits.

  16. Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs

    CERN Document Server

    Bulatov, Andrei A; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by a desire to understand the computational complexity of counting constraint satisfaction problems (counting CSPs), particularly the complexity of approximation, we study functional clones of functions on the Boolean domain, which are analogous to the familiar relational clones constituting Post's lattice. One of these clones is the collection of log-supermodular (lsm) functions, which turns out to play a significant role in classifying counting CSPs. In our study, we assume that non-negative unary functions (weights) are available. Given this, we prove that there are no functional clones lying strictly between the clone of lsm functions and the total clone (containing all functions). Thus, any counting CSP that contains a single non-lsm function is computationally as hard as any problem in #P. Furthermore, any non-trivial functional clone (in a sense that will be made precise below) contains the binary function "implies". As a consequence, all non-trivial counting CSPs (with non-negative unary wei...

  17. Developing a code of ethics for human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmann, J; Graber, G

    2000-01-01

    Under what conditions might the cloning of human beings constitute an ethical practice? A tendency exists to analyze human cloning merely as a technical procedure. As with all revolutionary technological developments, however, human cloning potentially exists in a broad social context that will both shape and be shaped by the biological techniques. Although human cloning must be subjected to technical analysis that addresses fundamental ethical questions such as its safety and efficacy, questions exist that focus our attention on broader issues. Asserting that cloning inevitably leads to undesirable consequences commits the fallacy of technological determinism and untenably separates technological and ethical evaluation. Drawing from the Report of the National Bioethics Advisory Committee and Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, we offer a draft "Code of Ethics for Human Cloning" in order to stimulate discussion about the ethics of the broader ramifications of human cloning as well as its particular technological properties.

  18. Ethical issues regarding human cloning: a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Leyla

    2003-05-01

    Advances in cloning technology and successful cloning experiments in animals raised concerns about the possibility of human cloning in recent years. Despite many objections, this is not only a possibility but also a reality. Human cloning is a scientific revolution. However, it also introduces the potential for physical and psychosocial harm to human beings. From this point of view, it raises profound ethical, social and health related concerns. Human cloning would have an impact on the practice of nursing because it could result in the creation of new physiological and psychosocial conditions that would require nursing care. The nursing profession must therefore evaluate the ethics of human cloning, in particular the potential role of nurses. This article reviews the ethical considerations of reproductive human cloning, discusses the main reasons for concern, and reflects a nursing perspective regarding this issue.

  19. U.S. consumers attitudes toward farm animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kathleen R; Lusk, Jayson L

    2011-10-01

    In January 2008, the United States Food and Drug Administration concluded "meat and milk from cattle, swine, and goat clones or their offspring are as safe to eat as food we eat from those species now" (U.S. FDA, 2010). However, cloning remains a very controversial topic. A web-based survey administered by Knowledge Networks was used to determine U.S. consumers' awareness of and attitudes toward meat and milk from cloned cattle. Findings reveal consumers do not differentiate much between products from cloned animals and products from non-cloned animals. Overall consumers are concerned that animal cloning is an unnatural process and that it will lead to human cloning.

  20. Survival of skin graft between transgenic cloned dogs and non-transgenic cloned dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Jung; Lim, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Byung Il; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2014-01-01

    Whereas it has been assumed that genetically modified tissues or cells derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) should be accepted by a host of the same species, their immune compatibility has not been extensively explored. To identify acceptance of SCNT-derived cells or tissues, skin grafts were performed between cloned dogs that were identical except for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and foreign gene. We showed here that differences in mtDNA haplotypes and genetic modification did not elicit immune responses in these dogs: 1) skin tissues from genetically-modified cloned dogs were successfully transplanted into genetically-modified cloned dogs with different mtDNA haplotype under three successive grafts over 63 days; and 2) non-transgenic cloned tissues were accepted into transgenic cloned syngeneic recipients with different mtDNA haplotypes and vice versa under two successive grafts over 63 days. In addition, expression of the inserted gene was maintained, being functional without eliciting graft rejection. In conclusion, these results show that transplanting genetically-modified tissues into normal, syngeneic or genetically-modified recipient dogs with different mtDNA haplotypes do not elicit skin graft rejection or affect expression of the inserted gene. Therefore, therapeutically valuable tissue derived from SCNT with genetic modification might be used safely in clinical applications for patients with diseased tissues.