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Sample records for clausius-clapeyron equation

  1. Heating-Cooling Asymmetry in the δ-γ Transformation in Plutonium: Clausius-Clapeyron Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mitchell, Jeremy Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-27

    Slides discuss the subject under the following topics: Pu phase transformations and features of the γ-δ transformation (heating-cooling asymmetry, cooling rate, effect of impurities); pressure effects in γ-δ transformations; Clausius-Clapeyron analysis; and discussion of heating-cooling asymmetry in the γ-δ transformation. The following conclusions are reached: burst behavior and extended transformation range due to pressure arrest; low slope of P-T curve for γ-δ favors this transformation for pressure arrest; asymmetry w.r.t. direction of transformation likely due to defects.

  2. Clausius-Clapeyron Scaling of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) in Cloud-Resolving Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J.; Romps, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work by Singh and O'Gorman has produced a theory for convective available potential energy (CAPE) in radiative-convective equilibrium. In this model, the atmosphere deviates from a moist adiabat—and, therefore, has positive CAPE—because entrainment causes evaporative cooling in cloud updrafts, thereby steepening their lapse rate. This has led to the proposal that CAPE increases with global warming because the strength of evaporative cooling scales according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. However, CAPE could also change due to changes in cloud buoyancy and changes in the entrainment rate, both of which could vary with global warming. To test the relative importance of changes in CAPE due to CC scaling of evaporative cooling, changes in cloud buoyancy, and changes in the entrainment rate, we subject a cloud-resolving model to a suite of natural (and unnatural) forcings. We find that CAPE changes are primarily driven by changes in the strength of evaporative cooling; the effect of changes in the entrainment rate and cloud buoyancy are comparatively small. This builds support for CC scaling of CAPE.

  3. How closely do changes in surface and column water vapor follow Clausius-Clapeyron scaling in climate change simulations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors governing the rate of change in the amount of atmospheric water vapor are analyzed in simulations of climate change. The global-mean amount of water vapor is estimated to increase at a differential rate of 7.3% K-1 with respect to global-mean surface air temperature in the multi-model mean. Larger rates of change result if the fractional change is evaluated over a finite change in temperature (e.g., 8.2% K-1 for a 3 K warming), and rates of change of zonal-mean column water vapor range from 6 to 12% K-1 depending on latitude. Clausius-Clapeyron scaling is directly evaluated using an invariant distribution of monthly-mean relative humidity, giving a rate of 7.4% K-1 for global-mean water vapor. There are deviations from Clausius-Clapeyron scaling of zonal-mean column water vapor in the tropics and mid-latitudes, but they largely cancel in the global mean. A purely thermodynamic scaling based on a saturated troposphere gives a higher global rate of 7.9% K-1. Surface specific humidity increases at a rate of 5.7% K-1, considerably lower than the rate for global-mean water vapor. Surface specific humidity closely follows Clausius-Clapeyron scaling over ocean. But there are widespread decreases in surface relative humidity over land (by more than 1% K-1 in many regions), and it is argued that decreases of this magnitude could result from the land/ocean contrast in surface warming.

  4. Departure from Clausius-Clapeyron scaling of water entering the stratosphere in response to changes in tropical upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueglistaler, S.; Liu, Y. S.; Flannaghan, T. J.; Ploeger, F.; Haynes, P. H.

    2014-02-01

    Water entering the stratosphere ([H2O]entry) is strongly constrained by temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Temperatures at tropical tropopause levels are 15-20 K below radiative equilibrium. A strengthening of the residual circulation as suggested by general circulation models in response to increasing greenhouse gases is, based on radiative transfer calculations, estimated to lead to a temperature decrease of about 2 K per 10% change in upwelling (with some sensitivity to vertical scale length). For a uniform temperature change in the inner tropics, [H2O]entry may be expected to change as predicted by the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure, referred here as "Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) scaling." Under CC scaling, this corresponds to ˜1 ppmv change in [H2O]entry per 10% change in upwelling. However, the change in upwelling also changes the residence time of air in the TTL. We show with trajectory calculations that this affects [H2O]entry, such that [H2O]entry changes ˜10 % less than expected from CC scaling. This residence time effect for water vapor is a consequence of the spatiotemporal variance in the temperature field. We show that for the present-day TTL, a little more than half of the effect is due to the systematic relation between flow and temperature field. The remainder can be understood from the perspective of a random walk problem, with slower ascent (longer path) increasing each air parcel's probability to encounter anomalously low temperatures. Our results show that atmospheric water vapor may depart from CC scaling with mean temperatures even when all physical processes of dehydration remain unchanged.

  5. A U.S.-based analysis of the ability of the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship to explain changes in extreme rainfall with changing temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Timothy J.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2016-04-01

    Numerous papers have shown links between >99th percentile hourly precipitation and daily temperature (Pextreme versus T), often explained using the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relationship. The CC relationship predicts an approximately 7% increase in precipitation intensity per degree celsius. However, recent analyses indicate that the Pextreme versus T rate can be larger than the CC prediction. In this work, we analyze the Pextreme versus T rate with an automated method across the contiguous U.S. using station data aggregated on a 161 km grid. To evaluate controls on Pextreme versus T, we isolate convective storms to evaluate whether greater than CC rates are due to the transition between storm types or are a feature of convective storms at high T. We repeat the analysis using dew point to assess whether T control on extreme P is indeed a matter of moisture availability. When evaluated using both T and dew point, the northeastern U.S. is most likely to exhibit a greater than predicted Pextreme versus T rate (57% of the region when using T). At 56% of these points, the > CC rates appeared to occur entirely because of a transition between frontal and convective storms. At 30% of these sites, a greater than CC relationship appeared to occur entirely because of greater than CC scaling in convective intensity. At 11% of sites neither was found to be significant, and at 3% both were found to contribute significantly. This analysis suggests that > CC scaling is not prevalent everywhere in the contiguous U.S., and in regions where it does occur, it can be due to multiple causes.

  6. Changes in intensity of precipitation extremes in Romania on very hight temporal scale and implications on the validity of the Clausius-Clapeyron relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busuioc, Aristita; Baciu, Madalina; Breza, Traian; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Stoica, Cerasela; Baghina, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Many observational, theoretical and based on climate model simulation studies suggested that warmer climates lead to more intense precipitation events, even when the total annual precipitation is slightly reduced. In this way, it was suggested that extreme precipitation events may increase at Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate under global warming and constraint of constant relative humidity. However, recent studies show that the relationship between extreme rainfall intensity and atmospheric temperature is much more complex than would be suggested by the CC relationship and is mainly dependent on precipitation temporal resolution, region, storm type and whether the analysis is conducted on storm events rather than fixed data. The present study presents the dependence between the very hight temporal scale extreme rainfall intensity and daily temperatures, with respect to the verification of the CC relation. To solve this objective, the analysis is conducted on rainfall event rather than fixed interval using the rainfall data based on graphic records including intensities (mm/min.) calculated over each interval with permanent intensity per minute. The annual interval with available a such data (April to October) is considered at 5 stations over the interval 1950-2007. For Bucuresti-Filaret station the analysis is extended over the longer interval (1898-2007). For each rainfall event, the maximum intensity (mm/min.) is retained and these time series are considered for the further analysis (abbreviated in the following as IMAX). The IMAX data were divided based on the daily mean temperature into bins 2oC - wide. The bins with less than 100 values were excluded. The 90th, 99th and 99.9th percentiles were computed from the binned data using the empirical distribution and their variability has been compared to the CC scaling (e.g. exponential relation given by a 7% increase per temperature degree rise). The results show a dependence close to double the CC relation for

  7. Hydrostatic pressure dependence of transformation temperatures of Ti-Ni-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformation start temperatures of shape memory Ti50Ni50-xCux (x = 2, 3, 5, 12.5) alloys under hydrostatic pressures were obtained by resistivity measurements, and their thermodynamical analysis was made by using Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The obtained results are the followings. (1) As hydrostatic pressure increases, transformation temperatures (Ms and Af) of the B2 B19' transformation increase linearly for the 2Cu and 3Cu alloys, but decrease linearly for the 5Cu alloy. (2) For the 12.5Cu alloy, Ms and Af of B2 B19 transformation increase but those of B19 B19' transformation decrease as pressure increases. (3) The copper content dependence of volume change associated with martensitic transformation, which is calculated by Clausius-Clapeyron equation, suggests that the 5Cu alloy transforms in two steps B2 → B19 → B19' although it is believed to transform in one step. (orig.)

  8. HIGH ENERGY RATE EXTRUSION OF URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L.

    1963-07-23

    A method of extruding uranium at a high energy rate is described. Conditions during the extrusion are such that the temperature of the metal during extrusion reaches a point above the normal alpha to beta transition, but the metal nevertheless remains in the alpha phase in accordance with the Clausius- Clapeyron equation. Upon exiting from the die, the metal automatically enters the beta phase, after which the metal is permitted to cool. (AEC)

  9. Isosteric Sorption Heat Determination for some Starchy Grains

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTEKİN, Serdar; SOYSAL, Yurtsever

    2000-01-01

    InIn this study, isosteric sorption heat for 8 different starchy grains was determined by the application of the Clausius- Clapeyron equation to sorption isotherms. The latent heat of vaporisation of free water was not significantly different from the isosteric sorption heats of barley, durum wheat, oats, sorghum (31) and sorghum above 14% d.b. moisture content. There was no significant difference among the latent heat of vaporisation of free water and isosteric sorption heats of soft whea...

  10. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect Using Clear vs Cloudy Sky Diurnal Temperature Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayor, S. V.

    2006-12-01

    Standard meteorological observations from local airports can provide a tangible example of how the greenhouse effect is a part of everyday life. In the exercise outlined here, students plot diurnal temperature observations to compare the relative magnitude of the greenhouse effect under clear and cloudy-sky conditions, gaining insight into the strength of the greenhouse effect. Contemplation of the relation of surface temperature and humidity with cloud cover leads to a further understading of important atmospheric processes involving the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and terrestrial and solar radiation effects.

  11. First order phase transition at the irreversibility line of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoriza, H.; Goffman, M. F.; Arribére, A.; de La Cruz, F.

    1994-05-01

    Magnetization and susceptibility measurements show a first order phase transition in the magnetic flux structure at the irreversibility line of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals, in the field range 0Clausius-Clapeyron equation gives a variation of entropy of 0.06kB per vortex layer, at the transition. Above 360 Oe the irreversibility line has the known frequency dependence.

  12. Thermochemical study of the monobromonitrobenzene isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Rocha, Ines M. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-02-15

    The standard (p{sup o} = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, of the 2-, 3-, and 4-monobromonitrobenzene isomers, in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard massic energies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. From the temperature dependence of the vapour pressures of these compounds, measured by the Knudsen effusion technique, their standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

  13. Thermodynamic Characteristics of Adsorption-Desorption of Methane in 3# Coal Seam of Sihe

    OpenAIRE

    Dongmin Ma; Jianchang Zhang; Jianping Bai; Hui Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A series of methane adsorption-desorption isotherm experiments on anthracite of No. 3 Sihe coal mine were conducted at 20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C respectively. Based on Clausius-Clapeyron equation, isosteric heat of adsorption and maximum heat of adsorption has been calculated. These calculations indicate that the maximum heat of adsorption in process of elevated pressure (adsorption) and lowered stress (desorption) is 23.31 KJ/mol and 24.02 KJ/mol, so it belongs to physical adsorption. ...

  14. Pressure Model of Soft Body Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej, Matyka; Mark, Ollila

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by existing models used for soft body simulation which are rather complex to implement, we present a novel technique which is based on simple laws of physics and gives high quality results in real-time. We base the implementation on simple thermodynamics laws and use the Clausius-Clapeyron state equation for pressure calculation. In addition, this provides us with a pressure force that is accumulated into a force accumulator of a 3D mesh object by using an existing spring-mass engin...

  15. Pressure Model of Soft Body Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Maciej, M; Maciej, Matyka; Mark, Ollila

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by existing models used for soft body simulation which are rather complex to implement, we present a novel technique which is based on simple laws of physics and gives high quality results in real-time. We base the implementation on simple thermodynamics laws and use the Clausius-Clapeyron state equation for pressure calculation. In addition, this provides us with a pressure force that is accumulated into a force accumulator of a 3D mesh object by using an existing spring-mass engine. Finally after integration of Newtons second law we obtain the behavior of a soft body with fixed or non-fixed air pressure inside of it.

  16. Experimental study of damping in civil engineering structures using smart materials (CuAlBe - SMA): an application to a steel portico

    OpenAIRE

    Torra Ferré, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Carreras, Guillem; Casciati, Fabio; Soul, H.

    2010-01-01

    The target of the paper focuses in the required properties for successful behavior of the CuAlBe Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) in damping of steel structures under the action of earthquakes. The appropriate fracture – life, the long time of aging, the minor creep effects on cycling, the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and the self-heating effects are also, evaluated. Analysis via simulation using a proprietary model of the SMA behavior furnishes satisfactory results. Our main interest is focused in th...

  17. Thermodynamics analysis of aluminum plasma transition induced by hypervelocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhixiang; Zhang, Qingming; Ju, Yuanyuan

    2016-02-01

    The production of plasmas during hypervelocity meteoroid and space debris impact has been proposed to explain the presence of paleomagnetic fields on the lunar surface, and also the electromagnetic damage to spacecraft electronic devices. Based on Gibbs' ensemble theory, we deduce Saha equation of state and figure out the ionization degree; further, by using the derivation of Clausius-Clapeyron equation, we obtain the entropy increase and latent heat of plasma transition after vaporization; finally, we analyze the conversion efficiency of kinetic energy into internal energy, present two key contradictions, and revise them with the entropy increase, latent heat, and conversion efficiency. We analyze the aluminum plasma transition from multiple perspectives of the equation of state, latent heat of phase transition, and conversion efficiency and propose the internal energy and impact velocity criterion, based on the laws of thermodynamics.

  18. Hydrogen vapor pressures from 4 to 30 K: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following properties for the hydrogens from 4 to 300K are reviewed: liquid-gas and solid-gas vapor pressures, triple-point values, virial coefficients, liquid and solid densities, and heats of transformation. We have correlated these properties with as much consistency as the data allow. Empirical equations are given for virial coefficients and densities. Clausius-Clapeyron equations relate vapor pressure and temperature with the other properties. Data are frequently available with H2 and D2 and are sometimes available for HD and T2. We have, therefore, estimated HT and DT values to complete the set. We have also reviewed work on binary H-D mixtures and have estimated the expected behavior for H-T and D-T systems

  19. Methane Hydrate Formation and Dissociation in the Presence of Silica Sand and Bentonite Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Saw V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation and dissociation of methane hydrates in a porous media containing silica sand of different sizes and bentonite clay were studied in the presence of synthetic seawater with 3.55 wt% salinity. The phase equilibrium of methane hydrate under different experimental conditions was investigated. The effects of the particle size of silica sand as well as a mixture of bentonite clay and silica sand on methane hydrate formation and its dissociation were studied. The kinetics of hydrate formation was studied under different subcooling conditions to observe its effects on the induction time of hydrate formation. The amount of methane gas encapsulated in hydrate was computed using a real gas equation. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation is used to estimate the enthalpy of hydrate dissociation with measured phase equilibrium data.

  20. Prediction of heat capacities and heats of vaporization of organic liquids by group contribution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceriani, Roberta; Gani, Rafiqul; Meirelles, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work a group contribution method is proposed for the estimation of the heat capacity of organic liquids as a function of temperature for fatty compounds found in edible oil and biofuels industries. The data bank used for regression of the group contribution parameters (1395 values......-2085] and the Rowlinson-Bondi equation. Also, the predictive performance of general correlations of heats of vaporization based on the corresponding-states method, such as Carruth and Kobayashi [G.F. Carruth, R. Kobayashi, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 11 (1972) 509-516], Sivaraman et al. [A. Sivaraman, J.W. Magee, R...... in the prediction of heats of vaporization of fatty compounds based on the vapor pressure model of Ceriani and Meirelles [R. Ceriani. A.J.A. Meirelles, Fluid Phase Equilib. 215 (2004) 227-236] and its combination with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation has been Studied. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Adsorption properties of biomass-based activated carbon prepared with spent coffee grounds and pomelo skin by phosphoric acid activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Ouyang, Feng

    2013-03-01

    Activated carbon prepared from spent coffee grounds and pomelo skin by phosphoric acid activation had been employed as the adsorbent for ethylene and n-butane at room temperature. Prepared activated carbon was characterized by means of nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. It was confirmed that pore structure played an important role during the adsorption testes. Adsorption isotherms of ethylene and n-butane fitted well with Langmuir equation. The prepared samples owned better adsorption capacity for n-butane than commercial activated carbon. Isosteric heats of adsorptions at different coverage were calculated through Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Micropore filling effect was explained in a thermodynamic way.

  2. Entropy, Order Parameters, and Complexity: Incorporating the last 50 years into the statistical mechanics curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, James

    2007-03-01

    The purview of statistical mechanics has grown rapidly in the past decades, with nonequilibrium extensions and applications to dynamical systems, molecular biology and bioinformatics, complex systems and networks, digital communication and information theory, and econophysics and other social sciences. It is our responsibility to join these new insights to the old wisdom in the field, and to distill the key ideas for the next generation. We should include (a) Shannon entropy, data compression, and reversible computation, (b) chaotic motion, ergodicity and the KAM theorem, and renormalization-group treatments of the onset of chaos, (c) molecular motors and hidden Markov models for analyzing genomic data. We should make statistical mechanics useful and comprehensible to those outside of physics, eschewing applications (Clausius-Clapeyron equations, cp vs. cv) and methods (quantum mechanics) accessible and interesting only to condensed-matter physicists and physical chemists. See Entropy, Order Parameters, and Complexity (http://www.physics.cornell.edu/sethna/StatMech/), OUP, 2006.

  3. The microstructure and thermomechanical behavior of Ti50Ni47Fe2.5Nd0.5 shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a study of a novel Ti50Ni47Fe2.5Nd0.5 shape memory alloy by EPMA, E-R analysis and tensile tests. Structural characterization shows the alloy consists of TiNiFe matrix, Nd3Ni and Ti2Ni intermetallic compounds with Fe solute. The latter two phases are well distributed in the matrix. Compared with Ti50Ni47.5Fe2.5 alloys without rare earth Nd, the novel alloy does not change the two-stage martensitic transformation behavior, however, characteristic temperatures increase rapidly. The critical stress needed for inducing martensitic transformation is near linear relationship with the increasing of the testing temperature above Ms, which is in good agreement with Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The novel alloy exhibits an improved shape memory effect as a consequence of precipitation strengthening and the maximum recoverable strain attains to 7.8%.

  4. Phase diagram of the mixed state of Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8 single crystals: first order phase transition at the irreversibility line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoriza, H.; Goffman, M. F.; Arribére, A.; de la Cruz, F.

    1994-12-01

    Magnetization and susceptibility measurements show a first order phase transition in the magnetic flux structure at the irreversibility line of Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8 single crystals, in the field range 0 < H < 360 Oe. The resistivity in the c direction drops six orders of magnitude in less that 0.1 K, and there is a discontinuous change in the magnetization at the same temperature. The change in magnetization together with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation gives a variation of entropy of 0.06k B per vortex layer, at the transition. Above 360 Oe the H-T phase diagram is determined by the laminar nature of superconductivity and the irreversibility line is frequency dependent.

  5. Thermochemical study of 2,5-dimethyl-3-furancarboxylic acid, 4,5-dimethyl-2-furaldehyde, and 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylfuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Amaral, Luisa M.P.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    The standard (p{sup o} = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous state, at T = 298.15 K, for 2,5-dimethyl-3-furancarboxylic acid, 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylfuran, and 4,5-dimethyl-2-furaldehyde were derived from the values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the condensed phase, and the standard molar enthalpies of phase transition from the condensed to the gaseous state. The values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds in the condensed phases were calculated from the measurements of the standard massic energies of combustion obtained by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The enthalpies of vaporization/sublimation were measured by Calvet high temperature microcalorimetry. For 2,5-dimethyl-3-furancarboxylic acid the standard enthalpy of sublimation was also calculated, by the application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, to the temperature dependence of the vapor pressures measured by the Knudsen effusion technique. (table)

  6. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on closed-loop phase behavior of block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure (P) on closed-loop phase behavior of deuterated polystyrene-block-poly(n-pentyl methacrylate) copolymers [dPS-PnPMA] was investigated by using small-angle neutron scattering and birefringence. For PLDOT) at 175 deg. C, and then an upper order-to-disorder transition temperature (TUODT) at 255 deg. C. With increasing pressure both TLDOT and TUODT were markedly changed, where dTLDOT/dP was 725 deg. C/kbar and dTUODT/dP was -725 deg. C/kbar. These are consistent with predictions by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation using measured values of the volume and enthalpy changes of both transitions. The large pressure coefficients imply that the closed-loop phase behavior observed for PS-PnPMA is an entropic-driven phase transition

  7. Three years (2008-2010) of measurements of atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at Station Nord, North East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Skov, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been measured for the first time at Station Nord, North-East Greenland, from 2008 to 2010. The data obtained are reported here. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), endosulfan I and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds...... detected in the atmosphere, followed by p,p'-DDE and dieldrin. Chlordane isomers and related compounds (trans- and cis-chlordanes, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, trans-and cis-nonachlor) were also detected. Atmospheric concentrations of the investigated compounds were correlated with temperature using...... the Clausius-Clapeyron equation in order to obtain information about their transport properties. The correlation between atmospheric concentrations and temperature was not significant for endosulfan I, gamma-HCH and p,p'-DDT, which indicates that direct transport from direct sources is the dominating...

  8. Ageneral approach to first order phase transitions and the anomalous behavior of coexisting phases in the magnetic case.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, S.; de Campos, A.; Coelho, A. A.; Alves, C. S.; Ren, Y.; Garcia, F.; Brown, D. E.; da Silva, L. M.; Magnus, A.; Carvalho, G.; Gandra, G. C.; dos Santos, A. O.; Cardoso, L. P.; von Ranke, P. J.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. Federal de Sao Paulo; Unv. Estadual de Champinas; Univ. Estadual de Maringa Lab. Nacional de Luz Sincrotron; Northern Univ.; Univ. de Estado do Rio de Janerio

    2009-01-01

    First order phase transitions for materials with exotic properties are usually believed to happen at fixed values of the intensive parameters (such as pressure, temperature, etc.) characterizing their properties. It is also considered that the extensive properties of the phases (such as entropy, volume, etc.) have discontinuities at the transition point, but that for each phase the intensive parameters remain constant during the transition. These features are a hallmark for systems described by two thermodynamic degrees of freedom. In this work it is shown that first order phase transitions must be understood in the broader framework of thermodynamic systems described by three or more degrees of freedom. This means that the transitions occur along intervals of the intensive parameters, that the properties of the phases coexisting during the transition may show peculiar behaviors characteristic of each system, and that a generalized Clausius-Clapeyron equation must be obeyed. These features for the magnetic case are confirmed, and it is shown that experimental calorimetric data agree well with the magnetic Clausius-Clapeyron equation for MnAs. An estimate for the point in the temperature-field plane where the first order magnetic transition turns to a second order one is obtained (the critical parameters) for MnAs and Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} compounds. Anomalous behavior of the volumes of the coexisting phases during the magnetic first order transition is measured, and it is shown that the anomalies for the individual phases are hidden in the behavior of the global properties as the volume.

  9. Scaling of precipitation extremes with temperature in the French Mediterranean region: What explains the hook shape?

    OpenAIRE

    Drobinski, Philippe; Alonzo, Bastien; Bastin, Sophie; Da Silva, Nicolas; Muller, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    International audience Expected changes to future extreme precipitation remain a key uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change. Extreme precipitation has been proposed to scale with the precipitable water content in the atmosphere. Assuming constant relative humidity, this implies an increase of precipitation extremes at a rate of about 7% °C−1 globally as indicated by the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Increases faster and slower than Clausius-Clapeyron have also been rep...

  10. Cubic Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of 16th century, mathematicians found it easy to solve equations of the first degree(linear equations, involving x) and of the second degree(quadratic equatiorts, involving x2). Equations of the third degree(cubic equations, involving x3)defeated them.

  11. Scaling of precipitation extremes with temperature in the French Mediterranean region: What explains the hook shape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobinski, P.; Alonzo, B.; Bastin, S.; Silva, N. Da; Muller, C.

    2016-04-01

    Expected changes to future extreme precipitation remain a key uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change. Extreme precipitation has been proposed to scale with the precipitable water content in the atmosphere. Assuming constant relative humidity, this implies an increase of precipitation extremes at a rate of about 7% °C-1 globally as indicated by the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Increases faster and slower than Clausius-Clapeyron have also been reported. In this work, we examine the scaling between precipitation extremes and temperature in the present climate using simulations and measurements from surface weather stations collected in the frame of the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX programs in Southern France. Of particular interest are departures from the Clausius-Clapeyron thermodynamic expectation, their spatial and temporal distribution, and their origin. Looking at the scaling of precipitation extreme with temperature, two regimes emerge which form a hook shape: one at low temperatures (cooler than around 15°C) with rates of increase close to the Clausius-Clapeyron rate and one at high temperatures (warmer than about 15°C) with sub-Clausius-Clapeyron rates and most often negative rates. On average, the region of focus does not seem to exhibit super Clausius-Clapeyron behavior except at some stations, in contrast to earlier studies. Many factors can contribute to departure from Clausius-Clapeyron scaling: time and spatial averaging, choice of scaling temperature (surface versus condensation level), and precipitation efficiency and vertical velocity in updrafts that are not necessarily constant with temperature. But most importantly, the dynamical contribution of orography to precipitation in the fall over this area during the so-called "Cevenoles" events, explains the hook shape of the scaling of precipitation extremes.

  12. String equation from field equation

    CERN Document Server

    Gurovich, V T

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the string equation can be obtain from field equations. Such work is performed to scalar field. The equation obtained in nonrelativistic limit describes the nonlinear string. Such string has the effective elasticity connencted with the local string curvature. Some examples of the movement such nonlinear elastic string are considered.

  13. Integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct but related approaches hold the solutions to many mathematical problems--the forms of expression known as differential and integral equations. The method employed by the integral equation approach specifically includes the boundary conditions, which confers a valuable advantage. In addition, the integral equation approach leads naturally to the solution of the problem--under suitable conditions--in the form of an infinite series.Geared toward upper-level undergraduate students, this text focuses chiefly upon linear integral equations. It begins with a straightforward account, acco

  14. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, FG

    2012-01-01

    Based on his extensive experience as an educator, F. G. Tricomi wrote this practical and concise teaching text to offer a clear idea of the problems and methods of the theory of differential equations. The treatment is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and addresses only questions that can be resolved with rigor and simplicity.Starting with a consideration of the existence and uniqueness theorem, the text advances to the behavior of the characteristics of a first-order equation, boundary problems for second-order linear equations, asymptotic methods, and differential

  15. Relationship between carbon microstructure, adsorption energy and hydrogen adsorption capacity at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various microporous materials such as activated carbons, nano-tubes, synthetic microporous carbons as well as metal organic framework materials are being considered for hydrogen storage applications by means of physical adsorption. To develop materials of practical significance for hydrogen storage it is important to understand the relationships between pore sizes, adsorption energies and adsorption capacities. The pore size distribution (PSD) characterization is traditionally obtained from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at 77 K. However, a portion of the pores accessible to H2 may not be accessible to N2 at this temperature. Therefore, it was recently proposed to use the DFT analysis of H2 adsorption isotherms to characterize pore structure of materials considered for hydrogen storage applications. In present work, adsorption isotherms of H2 and N2 at cryogenic temperatures are used for the characterization of carbon materials. Adsorption measurements were performed with Autosorb 1 MP (Quantachrome Instruments, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA). As an example, Fig 1 compares PSDs calculated for the activated carbon sample (F400, Calgon Carbon) using combined H2 and N2 data, and using N2 isotherm only. The nitrogen derived PSD does not include certain amount of micropores which are accessible to H2 but not to N2 molecules. Obviously, the difference in the calculated PSDs by the two methods will depend on the actual content of small micropores in a given sample. Carbon adsorption properties can also be characterized by the isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, related to the adsorption energy and dependent on the carbon pore/surface structure. Fig 2 shows Qst data calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation from H2 isotherms measured at 77 K and 87 K for the carbon molecular sieve CMS 5A (Takeda), oxidized single wall nano-tubes (SWNT), and graphitized carbon black (Supelco). The Qst values decrease with increasing pore sizes. The highest Qst is

  16. Thermodynamic properties of HFO-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Higashi, Yukihiro [Department of Mechanical Systems and Design Engineering, Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Iino, Chuodai, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    Measurements of the thermodynamic properties of HFO-1234yf were conducted. The critical temperature T{sub C}, critical density {rho}{sub C}, and critical pressure P{sub C}, were measured by the visual observation of the meniscus disappearance, and were determined to be 367.85 {+-} 0.01 K, 478 {+-} 3 kg/m{sup 3}, and 3382 {+-} 3 kPa, respectively. Vapor pressures were measured by a batch-type calorimeter with a metal-bellows in the temperature range from 310 K to 360 K and correlated by the Wagner-type equation. Surface tensions were measured by the differential capillary-rise method in the temperature range from 273 K to 340 K and correlated by the van der-Waals type equation. The acentric factor was determined to be 0.280 with the vapor pressure correlation. Based on the critical parameters and acentric factor, saturated vapor and liquid densities were estimated by the Peng-Robinson equation and the Hankinson-Thomson equation, respectively. The heat of vaporization was also calculated from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. (author)

  17. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hochstadt, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Modern approach to differential equations presents subject in terms of ideas and concepts rather than special cases and tricks which traditional courses emphasized. No prerequisites needed other than a good calculus course. Certain concepts from linear algebra used throughout. Problem section at end of each chapter.

  18. Beautiful equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljamaa, Panu; Jacobs, J. Richard; Chris; JamesHyman; Halma, Matthew; EricNolan; Coxon, Paul

    2014-07-01

    In reply to a Physics World infographic (part of which is given above) about a study showing that Euler's equation was deemed most beautiful by a group of mathematicians who had been hooked up to a functional magnetic-resonance image (fMRI) machine while viewing mathematical expressions (14 May, http://ow.ly/xHUFi).

  19. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production Estudo do mecanismo entálpico-entrópico de sorção da água de sementes de laranja (C. sinensis cv. Brasileira, para a utilização de resíduos agroindustriais como uma possível fonte de produção de óleo vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.As sementes de laranja são resíduos promissores da agroindústria com um alto potencial de aplicação na produção de óleo vegetal. A relação entre o conteúdo de umidade de equilíbrio e a atividade de água fornece informações úteis para seu processamento e armazenamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o mecanismo entalpia-entropia de sorção da água de sementes de laranja (C. sinensis cv. Brasileiros em função do teor de umidade. Para isso, isotermas de dessorção das sementes de laranja foram determinados em cinco níveis de temperaturas (30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 ºC em um intervalo de umidade de equilíbrio (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. e atividade de água de 0,02-0,756. Modelos teóricos e empíricos foram usados para a modelagem das isotermas de dessorção. A solução analítica da equação de Clausius-Clapeyron foi proposta para calcular o calor isostérico de sorção, a entropia diferencial e a energia livre de Gibbs através do modelo de Oswin quando o

  20. USINT, High Temperature Heat and Mass Transfer on Concrete Surfaces in LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: USINT was developed to model the thermal response of concrete to very high heating rates such as might occur from sodium spills on concrete surfaces in a breeder reactor. The major phenomena treated are conductive energy transport; chemical decomposition of concrete; and two-phase, three-component heat and mass transfer of the decomposition products: steam, liquid water, and carbon dioxide. The USINT model provides for porosity to increase as water and carbon-dioxide are formed from the concrete. The concrete is treated generally as divided into two basic regions, wet and dry. In the wet region, steam, carbon-dioxide, and liquid water may co-exist, but in the dry region, there is no liquid water. There is also the possibility of a third region in which there is only liquid water and no gases. 2 - Method of solution: The finite difference representations of the partial differential equations include several models for Darcy's two-phase flow. The equations for energy and mass transfer of water and carbon-dioxide are solved by a general implicit procedure that contains the Crank-Nicolson approximation. A modified Clausius-Clapeyron equation is used as the equation of state in the wet region. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 150 times for experimental temperature histories, 150 times for experimental pressure histories, 150 times for experimental water release, 20 thermal conductivities, 5 locations for experimental temperature histories, 4 locations for experimental pressure histories

  1. Analysis on two-phase flow behavior for natural circulation system in 5 MW nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was carried out on a test loop HRTL-5 simulating the geometry and system design of the 5 MW Nuclear heating reactor, while the analysis was based on a one-dimensional two-phase flow drift model with conservation equations for mass, steam, energy and momentum. Clausius-Clapeyron equation was used for the calculation of flashing front in the riser. A set of ordinary differential equation, describing the behavior of two-phase flow in the natural circulation system, was derived through integration of the above conservation equations in subcooled boiling region, bulk boiling region in the heated section and in the riser. the method of time-domain was used for the calculation. The results show that, firstly, subcooled boiling in the heated section and void flashing in the riser have significant influence on the distribution of the void fraction, mass flow rate and stability of the system, especially at lower pressure; secondly, in a wide range of two-phase flow conditions, only subcooled boiling occurs in the heated section. The propagation behavior of flow oscillation was also studied. Calculated results agree with experimental data well at the 5 MW nuclear reactor conditions

  2. Marcus equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-21

    In the late 1950s to early 1960s Rudolph A. Marcus developed a theory for treating the rates of outer-sphere electron-transfer reactions. Outer-sphere reactions are reactions in which an electron is transferred from a donor to an acceptor without any chemical bonds being made or broken. (Electron-transfer reactions in which bonds are made or broken are referred to as inner-sphere reactions.) Marcus derived several very useful expressions, one of which has come to be known as the Marcus cross-relation or, more simply, as the Marcus equation. It is widely used for correlating and predicting electron-transfer rates. For his contributions to the understanding of electron-transfer reactions, Marcus received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This paper discusses the development and use of the Marcus equation. Topics include self-exchange reactions; net electron-transfer reactions; Marcus cross-relation; and proton, hydride, atom and group transfers.

  3. Soil temperature effect in calculating attenuation and retardation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraiba, Lourival Costa; Spadotto, Claudio Aparecido

    2002-09-01

    The effect of annual variation of daily average soil temperature, at different depths, in calculating pesticides ranking indexes retardation factor and attenuation factor is presented. The retardation factor and attenuation factor are two site-specific pesticide numbers, frequently used as screening indicator indexes for pesticide groundwater contamination potential. Generally, in the calculation of these two factors are not included the soil temperature effect on the parameters involved in its calculation. It is well known that the soil temperature affects the pesticide degradation rate, water-air partition coefficient and water-soil partition coefficient. These three parameters are components of the retardation factor and attenuation factor and contribute to determine the pesticide behavior in the environment. The Arrhenius equation, van't Hoff equation and Clausius-Clapeyron equation are used in this work for estimating the soil temperature effect on the pesticide degradation rate, water-air partition coefficient and soil-water partition coefficient, respectively. These dependence relationships, between results of calculating attenuation and retardation factors and the soil temperature at different depths, can aid to understand the potential pesticide groundwater contamination on different weather conditions. Numerical results will be presented with pesticides atrazine and lindane in a soil profile with 20 degrees C constant temperature, minimum and maximum surface temperatures varying and spreading in the soil profile between -5 and 30 degrees C and between 15 and 45 degrees C. PMID:12222785

  4. Melt Flow and Heat Transfer in Laser Drilling

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Youqing; Zhang, Yuwen

    2016-01-01

    During the laser drilling process the recoil pressure drives melt flow and affects the heat transfer and material removal rate. To get a more realistic picture of the melt flow, a series of differential equations are formulated here that govern the process from pre-heating to melting and evaporation. In particular, the Navier-Stokes equation governing the melt flow is solved with the use of the boundary layer theory and integral methods. Heat conduction in solid is investigated by using the classical method with the corrections that reflect the change in boundary condition from the constant heat flux to Stefan condition. The dependence of saturation temperature on the vapor pressure is taken into account by using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Both constantly rising radial velocity profiles and rising-fall velocity profiles are considered. The proposed approach is compared with existing ones. In spite of the assumed varying velocity profiles, the proposed model predicts that the drilling hole profiles are v...

  5. Integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, Francesco Giacomo

    1957-01-01

    This classic text on integral equations by the late Professor F. G. Tricomi, of the Mathematics Faculty of the University of Turin, Italy, presents an authoritative, well-written treatment of the subject at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. To render the book accessible to as wide an audience as possible, the author has kept the mathematical knowledge required on the part of the reader to a minimum; a solid foundation in differential and integral calculus, together with some knowledge of the theory of functions is sufficient. The book is divided into four chapters, with two useful

  6. Martensitic phase transformation in shape-memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isothermal studies are described of the shape-recovery phenomenon, stress-strain behavior, electrical resistivity and thermo-electric power associated with the martensite-parent phase reaction in the Ni-Ti shape-memory alloys. The energy-balance equation that links the reaction kinetics with the strain energy change during the cooling-deforming and heating cycle is analyzed. The strain range in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation satisfactorily describes this reaction is determined. A large change in the Young's modulus of the specimen is found to be associated with the M → P reaction. A hysteresis loop in the resistivity-temperature plot is found and related to the anomaly in the athermal resistivity changes during cyclic M → P → M transformation. An explanation for the resistivity anomaly is offered. The M structure is found to be electrically negative relative to the P structure. A thermal emf of greater than or equal to 0.12 mV is found at the M-P interface

  7. Structural and thermodynamic signatures of marine microlayer surfactant films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelski, Stanislaw J.; Kogut, Anna D.

    2003-06-01

    Natural surface film experiments in inland waters and shallow offshore regions of the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas were carried out in the time period 1990-1999 under calm sea conditions using a novel device for sampling and force-area studies. The sampler-Langmuir trough-Wilhelmy filter paper plate system 'cuts out' an undisturbed film-covered sea area to perform π-A studies without any initial physico-chemical sample processing. The limiting specific area A lim (2.68-31.57 nm 2/molecule) and mean molecular mass M w (0.65-9.7 kDa) of microlayer surfactants were determined from the 2D virial equation of state applied to the isotherms. Enthalpy ΔH and entropy ΔS t of the 2D first-order phase transitions were evaluated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation applied to the isotherms. Miscibility of film components and film structure evolution is expressed by the scaling exponent y adopting the 2D polymer film scaling theory. The stress-relaxation measurements revealed a two-step relaxation process at the interface with characteristic times τ 1=1.1-2.8 and τ 2=5.6-25.6 seconds suggesting the presence of diffusion-controlled and structural organisation relaxation phenomena. The obtained results suggest that natural films are a complex mixture of biomolecules covering a wide range of solubilities, surface activity and molecular masses with an apparent structural organisation exhibiting a spatial and temporal variability.

  8. Experimental investigation on activated carbon-ethanol pair for solar powered adsorption cooling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawy, I.I. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga-koen 6-1, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura (Egypt); Saha, B.B.; Koyama, S. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga-koen 6-1, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); He, J.; Ng, K.C.; Yap, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore)

    2008-12-15

    Adsorption equilibrium uptake of ethanol onto a highly porous activated carbon based adsorbent, namely Maxsorb III, has been experimentally investigated using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) unit over adsorption temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 C. The Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) equation has been used to correlate the experimental data. Isosteric heat of adsorption is also estimated by using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Employing a thermodynamically equilibrium model, the performance of the ideal adsorption cooling cycle has also been studied and compared to that of activated carbon fiber (ACF)-ethanol pair. Experimental results show that Maxsorb III can adsorb up to 1.2 kg of ethanol per kilogram of adsorbent. Theoretical calculations show that, the Maxsorb III-ethanol adsorption cycle can achieve a specific cooling effect of about 420 kJ kg{sup -1} at an evaporator temperature of 7 C along with a heat source of temperature 80 C and thus the pair is recommended for solar cooling applications. (author)

  9. Laser-solid interaction and dynamics of the laser-ablated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid transformations through the liquid and vapor phases induced by laser-solid interactions are described by the authors' thermal model with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to determine the vaporization temperature under different surface pressure condition. Hydrodynamic behavior of the vapor during and after ablation is described by gas dynamic equations. These two models are coupled. Modeling results show that lower background pressure results lower laser energy density threshold for vaporization. The ablation rate and the amount of materials removed are proportional to the laser energy density above its threshold. The authors also demonstrate a dynamic source effect that accelerates the unsteady expansion of laser-ablated material in the direction perpendicular to the solid. A dynamic partial ionization effect is studied as well. A self-similar theory shows that the maximum expansion velocity is proportional to csα, where 1 - α is the slope of the velocity profile. Numerical hydrodynamic modeling is in good agreement with the theory. With these effects, α is reduced. Therefore, the expansion front velocity is significantly higher than that from conventional models. The results are consistent with experiments. They further study how the plume propagates in high background gas condition. Under appropriate conditions, the plume is slowed down, separates with the background, is backward moving, and hits the solid surface. Then, it splits into two parts when it rebounds from the surface. The results from the modeling will be compared with experimental observations where possible

  10. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.

  11. Carbon dioxide captured by multi-walled carbon nanotube and activated charcoal: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili Soodabeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available this study, the equilibrium adsorption of CO2 on activated charcoal (AC and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT were investigated. Experiments were performed at temperature range of 298-318 K and pressures up to 40 bars. The obtained results indicated that the equilibrium uptakes of CO2 by both adsorbents increased with increasing pressure and decreasing temperature. In spite of lower specific surface area, the maximum amount of CO2 uptake achieved by MWCNT at 298K and 40 bars were twice of CO2 capture by AC (15 mmol.g-1 compared to 7.93 mmol.g-1. The higher CO2 captured by MWCNT can be attributed to its higher pore volume and specific structure of MWCN T such as hollowness and light mass which had greater influence than specific surface area. The experimental data were analyzed by means of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. Following a simple acidic treatment procedure increased marginally CO2 capture by MWCNT over entire range of pressure, while for AC this effect appeared at higher pressures. Small values of isosteric heat of adsorption were evaluated based on Clausius-Clapeyron equation showed the physical nature of adsorption mechanism. The high amount of CO2 capture by MWCNT renders it as a promising carrier for practical applications such as gas separation.

  12. Adsorbed Methane Film Properties in Nanoporous Carbon Monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Yuchoong; Chada, Nagaraju; Beckner, Matthew; Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Carbon briquetting can increase methane storage capacity by reducing the useless void volume resulting in a better packing density. It is a robust and efficient space-filling form for an adsorbed natural gas vehicle storage tank. To optimize methane storage capacity, we studied three fabrication process parameters: carbon-to-binder ratio, compaction temperature, and pyrolysis temperature. We found that carbon-to-binder ratio and pyrolysis temperature both have large influences on monolith uptakes. We have been able to optimize these parameters for high methane storage. All monolith uptakes (up to 260 bar) were measured by a custom-built, volumetric, reservoir-type instrument. The saturated film density and the film thickness was determined using linear extrapolation on the high pressure excess adsorption isotherms. The saturated film density was also determined using the monolayer Ono-Kondo model. Film densities ranged from ca. 0.32 g/cm3 - 0.37 g/cm3.The Ono-Kondo model also determines the binding energy of methane. Binding energies were also determined from isosteric heats calculated from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and compared with the Ono-Kondo model method. Binding energies from Ono-Kondo were ca. 7.8 kJ/mol - 10 kJ/mol. Work funded by California Energy Commission Contract #500-08-022.

  13. Adsorption properties of a natural zeolite-water pair for use in adsorption cooling cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solmus, ismail; Yamali, Cemil; Baker, Derek; Caglar, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Kaftanoglu, Bilgin [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Atilim University, 06836 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    The equilibrium adsorption capacity of water on a natural zeolite has been experimentally determined at different zeolite temperatures and water vapor pressures for use in an adsorption cooling system. The Dubinin-Astakhov adsorption equilibrium model is fitted to experimental data with an acceptable error limit. Separate correlations are obtained for adsorption and desorption processes as well as a single correlation to model both processes. The isosteric heat of adsorption of water on zeolite has been calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation as a function of adsorption capacity. The cyclic adsorption capacity swing for different condenser, evaporator and adsorbent temperatures is compared with that for the following adsorbent-refrigerant pairs: activated carbon-methanol; silica gel-water; and, zeolite 13X-water. Experimental results show that the maximum adsorption capacity of natural zeolite is nearly 0.12 kg{sub w}/kg{sub ad} for zeolite temperatures and water vapor pressures in the range 40-150 C and 0.87-7.38 kPa. (author)

  14. Experimental thermochemical study of 3-acetyl-2-methyl-5-phenylthiophene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The standard (p{sup 0}=0.1MPa) massic energy of combustion, in oxygen, of the crystalline 3-acetyl-2-methyl-5-phenylthiophene was measured, at T = 298.15 K, by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry, from which the standard molar enthalpy of formation, in the condensed phase, was calculated as DELTA{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(cr)=-(104.3+-3.1)kJ.mol{sup -1}. The corresponding standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, DELTA{sub cr}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup 0}=(108.9+-0.4)kJ.mol{sup -1}, was derived by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, from the temperature dependence of the vapour pressures of this compound, measured by the Knudsen effusion mass-loss technique. From the results presented above, the standard molar enthalpy of formation, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, was derived, DELTA{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(g)=(4.6+-3.1)kJ.mol{sup -1}. This value, in conjunction with the literature values of the experimental enthalpies of formation of thiophene, 2-methylthiophene, and 3-acetylthiophene, was used to predict the enthalpic increment due to the introduction of a phenyl group in the position 2- of the thiophene ring. The calculated increment was compared with the corresponding ones in benzene and pyridine derivatives.

  15. Experimental thermochemical study of two chlorodinitroaniline isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687 P-4169-007 (Portugal); Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D.M.C.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Ferreira, Ana I.M.C. Lobo; Galvao, Tiago L.P. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687 P-4169-007 (Portugal)

    2010-04-15

    The standard (p{sup 0}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of 2-chloro-4,6-dinitroaniline and 4-chloro-2,6-dinitroaniline, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the combination of the values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, and of the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at the same temperature. The standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, were derived from the standard massic energies of combustion, in oxygen, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation were calculated, by the application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, to the vapour pressures at several temperatures, measured by Knudsen effusion technique. The values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation of 2-chloro-4,6-dinitroaniline and 4-chloro-2,6-dinitroaniline, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, are discussed in terms of enthalpic increments, and the enthalpy of isomerization between the two compounds is compared with the same parameter for two isomers of chloronitroaniline, studied in previous works.

  16. Enthalpies of combustion, vapour pressures, and enthalpies of sublimation of the 1,5- and 1,8-diaminonaphthalenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 (Portugal); Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Ferreira, Cristiana M.A.; Barros, Delfina C.B.; Reis, Joana A.C.; Costa, Jose C.S.; Calvinho, Maria Miguel G.; Rocha, Sonia I.A.; Pinto, Sonia P.; Freire, Sonia S.L.; Almeida, Suzete M.; Guimaraes, Vanessa S.; Almeida, Vasco N.M. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 (Portugal)

    2010-03-15

    The standard (p{sup 0} = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline state, of 1,5-diaminonaphthalene and 1,8-diaminonaphthalene were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry. The Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique was used to measure the dependence of the vapour pressure of the solid isomers of diaminonaphthalene with the temperature, from which the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation were derived using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Combining these two experimental values, the gas-phase standard molar enthalpies of formation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived and compared with those estimated using two different empirical methods of DELTA{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(g) estimation: the Cox scheme and the Benson's Group Method. Moreover, the standard (p{sup 0} = 0.1 MPa) molar entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived for the two diaminonaphthalene isomers.

  17. Thermochemical study of the 2,5-dibromonitrobenzene isomer: An approach of the energetic study for the other dibromonitrobenzene isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 (Portugal)], E-mail: risilva@fc.up.pt; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Rocha, Ines M. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 (Portugal)

    2009-11-15

    The standard (p{sup 0}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation, of the 2,5-dibromonitrobenzene, in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, was derived from the standard massic energy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. The Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique was used to measure the vapour pressures of the crystal as a function of the temperature and applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation of the compound, at T = 298.15 K, was calculated. The combination of the values of the standard molar enthalpy of formation, in the crystalline phase, and the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation of the dibromonitrobenzene isomer, allowed the calculation of the standard (p{sup 0}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K. Additionally, this value was estimated by employing two different methodologies. One based on the conventional Cox Scheme and another one, much more accurate, based on the values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation of 2- and 3-bromonitrobenzene already determined experimentally. Once the best approach was found, it was applied in the estimation of the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the other five isomers.

  18. Experimental thermochemical study of 2,5- and 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroanilines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: risilva@fc.up.pt; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D.M.C.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Galvao, Tiago L.P. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-10-15

    The standard (p{sup o} = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of 2,5- and 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroanilines, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the combination of the values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, and the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, of each compound, at the same temperature. The standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard massic energies of combustion of the two isomers, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation were calculated, by application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, to the vapour pressures at several temperatures measured by Knudsen effusion technique. The values of the standard (p = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of 2,5- and 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroanilines, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, were compared with those estimated by the Cox scheme.

  19. Experimental thermochemical study of 4,5-dichloro-2-nitroaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D.M.C. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: risilva@fc.up.pt; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Galvao, Tiago L.P. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-11-15

    The standard (p{sup 0}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of 4,5-dichloro-2-nitroaniline, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, was derived from the combination of the values of the standard molar enthalpy of formation, in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, and the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, at the same temperature. The standard molar enthalpy of formation, in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, was derived as -(99.7 {+-} 1.6) kJ . mol{sup -1} from the standard massic energy of combustion, in oxygen, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpy of sublimation was calculated, (109.4 {+-} 0.9) kJ . mol{sup -1} by the application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, to the vapour pressures measured at several temperatures by Knudsen effusion technique. The standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous phase, of the six dichloro-2-nitroaniline isomers and of the four dichloro-4-nitroaniline isomers were estimated by the Cox Scheme and by the Domalski and Hearing group additivity method and compared with the available experimental values. For the Domalski and Hearing group additivity method four new correction terms were derived.

  20. Adsorption of volatile organic compounds in porous metal-organic frameworks functionalized by polyoxometalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functionalization of porous metal-organic frameworks (Cu3(BTC)2) was achieved by incorporating Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs), and further optimized via alkali metal ion-exchange. In addition to thermal gravimetric analysis, IR, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and powder X-ray diffraction, the adsorption properties were characterized by N2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) adsorption measurements, including short-chain alcohols (C<4), cyclohexane, benzene, and toluene. The adsorption enthalpies estimated by the modified Clausius-Clapeyron equation provided insight into the impact of POMs and alkali metal cations on the adsorption of VOCs. The introduction of POMs not only improved the stability, but also brought the increase of adsorption capacity by strengthening the interaction with gas molecules. Furthermore, the exchanged alkali metal cations acted as active sites to interact with adsorbates and enhanced the adsorption of VOCs. - Graphical Abstract: The adsorption behavior of volatile organic compounds in porous metal-organic frameworks functionalized by polyoxometalates has been systematically evaluated. Highlights: → Functionalization of MOFs was achieved by incorporating Keggin-type POMs. → Introduction of POMs improved the thermal stability and adsorption capacity. → Alkali metal ion-exchange modified the inclusion state and also enhanced the adsorption. → Adsorption enthalpies were estimated to study the impact of POMs and alkali metal cations.

  1. Effect of variation of magnetic field on laser ablation depth of copper and aluminum targets in air atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khwairakpam Shantakumar; Sharma, Ashwini Kumar

    2016-05-01

    We report on the effect of transverse magnetic field on laser ablation of copper and aluminum targets both experimentally and numerically. The ablation depth is found to increase with magnetic field from 0 to 0.3 T and decreases at a higher magnetic field (0.5 T). It is demonstrated that the nanosecond laser ablation is mainly due to melt ejection and it solely depends on the thermo-physical parameters of the material. The increase in ablation depth with magnetic field is attributed to the increase in heat transfer from the plasma to the target, vapor pressure, and shock pressure. The ablation due to melt ejection is also calculated using vapor pressure through simulation and compared with the experimentally measured depth. In the presence of magnetic field, we introduce the magnetic pressure in Clausius-Clapeyron vapor pressure equation to account for the combined effect of magnetic field and atmospheric pressure on the vapor pressure of plasma. The ratio of calculated ablation depth at 0.3 T with respect to the absence of magnetic field is close to the corresponding experimental depth ratios indicating that the laser ablation modeling in the present work is validated. As the magnetic field increases, we observed the scattered mass at the center and around the crater. The size of deposited mass at the center is found to decrease at higher magnetic field which is attributed to breaking of large droplets into smaller ones due to increase in instability at higher magnetic field.

  2. Pressure Induced Phase Transformation of Pb(Zr(0.95)Ti(0.05))O(3) Based Ceramics: Grain Size Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUTTLE,BRUCE A.; VOIGT,JAMES A.; SCOFIELD,TIMOTHY W.; ASELAGE,TERRENCE L.; RODRIGUEZ,MARK A.; YANG,PIN; ZEUCH,DAVID H.; OLSON,WALTER R.; SIPOLA,DIANA L.

    1999-12-21

    A substantial decrease in hydrostatic ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) transformation pressure was measured for Pb(Zr{sub 0.949}Ti{sub 0.051}){sub 0.989}Nb{sub 0.0182}O{sub 3} ceramics with decreasing grain size. The 150 MPa decrease in hydrostatic FE to AFE transformation pressure over the grain size range of 8.5 {micro}m to 0.7{micro}m was shown to be consistent with enhanced internal stress with decreasing grain size. Further, the Curie Point decreased and the dielectric constant measured at 25 C increased with decreasing grain size. All three properties: dielectric constant magnitude, Curie point shift and FE to AFE phase transformation pressure were shown to be semi-quantitatively consistent with internal stress differences on the order of 100 MPa. Calculations of Curie point shifts from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, using internal stress levels derived from the hydrostatic depoling characteristics, were consistent with measured values.

  3. Correlation vs. Causation: The Effects of Ultrasonic Melt Treatment on Cast Metal Grain Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Ferguson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in ultrasonic treatment of liquid metal has waxed and waned for nearly 80 years. A review of several experiments representative of ultrasonic cavitation treatment of Al and Mg alloys shows that the theoretical mechanisms thought to be responsible for grain refinement are (1 cavitation-induced increase in melting temperature predicted by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and (2 cavitation-induced wetting of otherwise unwetted insoluble particles. Neither of these theoretical mechanisms can be directly confirmed by experiment, and though they remain speculative, the available literature generally assumes that one or the other or both mechanisms are active. However, grain size is known to depend on temperature of the liquid, temperature of the mold, and cooling rate of the entire system. From the reviewed experiments, it is difficult to isolate temperature and cooling rate effects on grain size from the theoretical effects. Ultrasonic treatments of Al-A356 were carried out to isolate such effects, and though it was found that ultrasound produced significant grain refinement, the treatments also significantly chilled the liquid and thereby reduced the pouring temperature. The grain sizes attained closely correlated with pouring temperature suggesting that ultrasonic grain refinement is predominantly a result of heat removal by the horn and ultrasonic stirring.

  4. Phase equilibria and structural species in NdCl3-NaCl, NdCl3-CaCl2, PrCl3-NaCl, and PrCl3-CaCl2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that equilibrium phase diagrams for the systems NdCl3---CaCl2 and NdCl3---NaCl were determined by differential thermal analysis. A simple eutectic was observed at 59 ± 1 mol% CaCl2 and 600 degrees ± 2 degrees C in the NdCl3---CaCl2 system. A compound NaCl · 3NdCl3 which melts incongruently at 545 degrees ± 5 degrees C to NdCl3 and a liquid containing approximately 47 mol% NaCl, and a eutectic at 68 mol% NaCl and 439 degrees ± 2 degrees C were found in the NdCl3---NaCl system. On the basis of agreements between the activities calculated by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and Temkin's model using the present data for the NdCl3---CaCl2 system and the literature data for the PrCl3---CaCl2 system, the melts in the former system consist of Nd3+, Ca2+, and Cl- ions and in the latter system of Pr3+, Ca2+, and Cl- ions. The above approach indicates the presence of Na+, Cl-, and NdCl4- in the NdCl3-rich melts in the NdCl3--NaCl system

  5. Reversible Storage of Hydrogen and Natural Gas in Nanospace-Engineered Activated Carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Beckner, Matt; Rash, Tyler; Yu, Ping; Suppes, Galen; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    An overview is given of the development of advanced nanoporous carbons as storage materials for natural gas (methane) and molecular hydrogen in on-board fuel tanks for next-generation clean automobiles. High specific surface areas, porosities, and sub-nm/supra-nm pore volumes are quantitatively selected by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process. Tunable bimodal pore-size distributions of sub-nm and supra-nm pores are established by subcritical nitrogen adsorption. Optimal pore structures for gravimetric and volumetric gas storage, respectively, are presented. Methane and hydrogen adsorption isotherms up to 250 bar on monolithic and powdered activated carbons are reported and validated, using several gravimetric and volumetric instruments. Current best gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are: 256 g CH4/kg carbon and 132 g CH4/liter carbon at 293 K and 35 bar; 26, 44, and 107 g H2/kg carbon at 303, 194, and 77 K respectively and 100 bar. Adsorbed film density, specific surface area, and binding energy are analyzed separately using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Langmuir model, and lattice gas models.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  7. Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 7th Symposium on differential geometry and differential equations (DD7) held at the Nankai Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin, China, in 1986. Most of the contributions are original research papers on topics including elliptic equations, hyperbolic equations, evolution equations, non-linear equations from differential geometry and mechanics, micro-local analysis.

  8. Difference equations by differential equation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hydon, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Most well-known solution techniques for differential equations exploit symmetry in some form. Systematic methods have been developed for finding and using symmetries, first integrals and conservation laws of a given differential equation. Here the author explains how to extend these powerful methods to difference equations, greatly increasing the range of solvable problems. Beginning with an introduction to elementary solution methods, the book gives readers a clear explanation of exact techniques for ordinary and partial difference equations. The informal presentation is suitable for anyone who is familiar with standard differential equation methods. No prior knowledge of difference equations or symmetry is assumed. The author uses worked examples to help readers grasp new concepts easily. There are 120 exercises of varying difficulty and suggestions for further reading. The book goes to the cutting edge of research; its many new ideas and methods make it a valuable reference for researchers in the field.

  9. Random diophantine equations, I

    OpenAIRE

    Brüdern, Jörg; Dietmann, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    We consider additive diophantine equations of degree $k$ in $s$ variables and establish that whenever $s\\ge 3k+2$ then almost all such equations satisfy the Hasse principle. The equations that are soluble form a set of positive density, and among the soluble ones almost all equations admit a small solution. Our bound for the smallest solution is nearly best possible.

  10. The Generalized Jacobi Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Jacobi equation in pseudo-Riemannian geometry determines the linearized geodesic flow. The linearization ignores the relative velocity of the geodesics. The generalized Jacobi equation takes the relative velocity into account; that is, when the geodesics are neighboring but their relative velocity is arbitrary the corresponding geodesic deviation equation is the generalized Jacobi equation. The Hamiltonian structure of this nonlinear equation is analyzed in this paper. The tidal accelerat...

  11. AX-TNT, Super Prompt Critical Excursions in Spherical Geometry, Thermohydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: AX-TNT solves: (a) the coupled hydrodynamic, thermodynamic and neutronic equations which describe a spherical, super-prompt critical reactor system during an excursion. (b) the coupled equations of motion, and ideal gas equation of state for the detonation of a spherical charge in a gas. 2 - Method of solution: (a) As in the AX1 code the Sn neutronics section of the code calculates the inverse period and the relative power distribution. The inverse period and power distribution are used for calculating the power level and for assigning the energy added to a given region. During short time intervals hydrodynamic and thermodynamic calculations determine the acceleration, velocity, position, density, pressure, internal energy, kinetic energy and temperature of individual regions or mass points. Code tests send the problem to additional thermodynamic-hydrodynamic calculations or to neutronics calculations as the problem progresses. Several different equations of state and combinations of equations of state are used in the hydrodynamic-thermodynamic section of the code, namely - the linear, Clausius-Clapeyron, and ideal gas equations of state. (b) The neutronics section of the AX-TNT code is entirely bypassed. An ideal gas equation of state is used in conjunction with the Von Neumann and Richtmyer viscous pressure in the hydrodynamics -thermodynamics sections of the code, to trace the blast wave resulting from the detonation of a spherical charge. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of energy groups 7; maximum number of mass points 320; maximum number of substances + mixtures 8; the effects of delayed neutrons and heat transfer are completely neglected

  12. The Modified Magnetohydrodynamical Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EvangelosChaliasos

    2003-01-01

    After finding the really self-consistent electromagnetic equations for a plasma, we proceed in a similar fashion to find how the magnetohydrodynamical equations have to be modified accordingly. Substantially this is done by replacing the "Lorentz" force equation by the correct (in our case) force equation. Formally we have to use the vector potential instead of the magnetic field intensity. The appearance of the formulae presented is the one of classical vector analysis. We thus find a set of eight equations in eight unknowns, as previously known concerning the traditional MHD equations.

  13. On the Raychaudhuri equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    George F R Ellis

    2007-07-01

    The Raychaudhuri equation is central to the understanding of gravitational attraction in astrophysics and cosmology, and in particular underlies the famous singularity theorems of general relativity theory. This paper reviews the derivation of the equation, and its significance in cosmology.

  14. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

  15. Testing Price Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Ray C. Fair

    2007-01-01

    How inflation and unemployment are related in both the short run and long run is perhaps the key question in macroeconomics. This paper tests various price equations using quarterly U.S. data from 1952 to the present. Issues treated are the following. 1) Estimating price and wage equations in which wages affect prices and vice versa versus estimating "reduced form" price equations with no wage explanatory variables. 2) Estimating price equations in (log) level terms, first difference (i.e., i...

  16. New unified evolution equation

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jyh-Liong; Li, Hsiang-nan

    1998-01-01

    We propose a new unified evolution equation for parton distribution functions appropriate for both large and small Bjorken variables $x$, which is an improved version of the Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini equation. In this new equation the cancellation of soft divergences between virtual and real gluon emissions is explicit without introducing infrared cutoffs, next-to-leading contributions to the Sudakov resummation can be included systematically. It is shown that the new equation reduc...

  17. Universality of KPZ equation

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of energy solutions of the KPZ equation. Under minimal assumptions, we prove that the density fluctuations of one-dimensional, weakly asymmetric, conservative particle systems with respect to the stationary states are given by energy solutions of the KPZ equation. As a consequence, we prove that the Cole-Hofp solutions are also energy solutions of the KPZ equation.

  18. Diophantine equations and identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Baica

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The general diophantine equations of the second and third degree are far from being totally solved. The equations considered in this paper are    i  x2−my2=±1 ii  x3+my3+m2z3−3mxyz=1iii  Some fifth degree diopantine equations

  19. The Modified Magnetohydrodynamical Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelos Chaliasos

    2003-01-01

    After finding the really self-consistent electromagnetic equations for a plasma, we proceed in a similarfashion to find how the magnetohydrodynamical equations have to be modified accordingly. Substantially this is doneby replacing the "Lorentz" force equation by the correct (in our case) force equation. Formally we have to use the vectorpotential instead of the magnetic field intensity. The appearance of the formulae presented is the one of classical vectoranalysis. We thus find a set of eight equations in eight unknowns, as previously known concerning the traditional MHDequations.

  20. Analysis on flow characteristic of nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was carried out on the test loop HRTL-5, which simulates the geometry and system design of a 5 MW Nuclear heating reactor. The analysis was based on a one-dimensional two-phase flow drift model with conservation equations for mass, steam mass, energy and momentum. Clausius-Clapeyron equation was used for the calculation of flashing front in the riser. A set of ordinary equation, which describes the behavior of two-phase flow in the natural circulation system, was derived through integration of the above conservation equations in subcooled boiling region, bulk boiling region in the heated section and in the riser. The method of time-domain was used for the calculation. Both static and dynamic results are presented. System pressure, inlet subcooling and heat flux are varied as input parameters. The results show that, firstly, subcooled boiling in the heated section and void flashing in the riser have significant influence on the distribution of the void fraction, mass flow rate and stability of the system, especially at lower pressure, secondly, in a wide range of two-phase flow conditions, only subcooled boiling occurs in the heated section. For the designed two-phase regime operation of the 5 MW nuclear heating reactor, the temperature at the core exit has not reaches its saturation value. Thirdly, the mechanism of two-phase flow oscillation, namely, 'zero-pressure-drop', is described. In the wide range of inlet subcooling (0 K<ΔT<28 K) there exists three regions for system flow condition, namely, (1) stable two-phase flow, (2) bulk and subcooled boiling unstable flow, (3) subcooled boiling and single phase stable flow. The response of mass flow rate, after a small disturbance in the heat flux, is showed in the above inlet subcooling range, and based on it the instability map of the system is given through experiment and calculation. (3 refs., 9 figs.)

  1. Thermal hydraulic modeling of a natural circulation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was carried out on the test loop HRTL-5, which simulates the geometry and system design of a 5 MW nuclear heating reactor. The analysis was based on a one-dimensional two-phase flow drift model with conservation equations for mass, steam, energy and momentum. Clausius-Clapeyron equation was used for the calculation of flashing front in the riser. A set of ordinary equations, which describes the behavior of two-phase flow in the natural circulation system, was derived through integration of the above conservation equations for the subcooled boiling region, bulk boiling region in the heated section and for the riser. The method of time-domain was used for the calculation. Both static and dynamic results are presented. System pressure, inlet subcooling and heat flux are varied as input parameters. The results show that subcooled boiling in the heated section and void flashing in the riser have significant influence on the distribution of the void fraction, mass flow rate and flow instability of the system, especially at low pressure. The response of mass flow rate, after a small disturbance in the heat flux is shown, and based on it the instability map of the system is given through experiment and calculation. There exists three regions in the instability map of the investigated natural circulation system, namely, the stable two-phase flow region, the unstable bulk and subcooled boiling flow region and the stable subcooled boiling and single phase flow region. The mechanism of two-phase flow oscillation is interpreted. (orig.)

  2. Thermal hydraulic modeling of a natural circulation loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S. Y.; Wu, X. X.; Zhang, Y. J.; Jia, H. J.

    The experiment was carried out on the test loop HRTL-5, which simulates the geometry and system design of a 5MW nuclear heating reactor. The analysis was based on a one-dimensional two-phase flow drift model with conservation equations for mass, steam, energy and momentum. Clausius-Clapeyron equation was used for the calculation of flashing front in the riser. A set of ordinary equations, which describes the behavior of two-phase flow in the natural circulation system, was derived through integration of the above conservation equations for the subcooled boiling region, bulk boiling region in the heated section and for the riser. The method of time-domain was used for the calculation. Both static and dynamic results are presented. System pressure, inlet subcooling and heat flux are varied as input parameters. The results show that subcooled boiling in the heated section and void flashing in the riser have significant influence on the distribution of the void fraction, mass flow rate and flow instability of the system, especially at low pressure. The response of mass flow rate, after a small disturbance in the heat flux is shown, and based on it the instability map of the system is given through experiment and calculation. There exists three regions in the instability map of the investigated natural circulation system, namely, the stable two-phase flow region, the unstable bulk and subcooled boiling flow region and the stable subcooled boiling and single phase flow region. The mechanism of two-phase flow oscillation is interpreted.

  3. Experimental analysis on thermohydraulic characteristic of nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was carried out on the test loop HRTL-5, which simulates the geometry and system design of a 5 MW Nuclear heating reactor. The analysis was based on a one-dimensional two-phase flow drift model with conservation equations for mass, steam, energy and momentum. Clausius-Clapeyron equation was used for the calculation of flashing front in the riser. A set of ordinary equation, which describes the behavior of two-phase flow in the natural circulation system, was derived through integration of the above conservation equations in subcooled boiling region, bulk boiling region in the heated section and in the riser. The method of time-domain was used for the calculation. Both static and dynamic results are presented. System pressure, inlet subcooling and heat flux are varied as input parameters. The results show that, firstly, subcooled boiling in the heated section and void flashing in the riser have significant influence on the distribution of the void fraction mass flow rate and stability of the system, especially at lower pressure; secondly, in a wide range of two-phase flow conditions, only subcooled boiling occurs in the heated section. For the designed two-phase regime operation of the 5 MW nuclear heating reactor, the temperature at the core exit does not reach its situation value. Thirdly, the mechanism of two-phase flow oscillation, namely, 'zero-pressure-drop', is described. In the wide range of inlet subcooling (0K<ΔT<28 K) there exists three regions for system flow condition, namely, stable two-phase flow, bulk and subcooled boiling unstable flow and subcooled boiling and single phase stable flow. The response of mass flow rate, after a small disturbance in the heat flux, are shown in the above inlet subcooling range, and based on it the instability map of the system are given through experiment and calculation

  4. On separable Pauli equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We classify (1+3)-dimensional Pauli equations for a spin-(1/2) particle interacting with the electro-magnetic field, that are solvable by the method of separation of variables. As a result, we obtain the 11 classes of vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field A(t,x(vector sign))=(A0(t,x(vector sign)), A(vector sign)(t,x(vector sign))) providing separability of the corresponding Pauli equations. It is established, in particular, that the necessary condition for the Pauli equation to be separable into second-order matrix ordinary differential equations is its equivalence to the system of two uncoupled Schroedinger equations. In addition, the magnetic field has to be independent of spatial variables. We prove that coordinate systems and the vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field providing the separability of the corresponding Pauli equations coincide with those for the Schroedinger equations. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm for constructing all coordinate systems providing the separability of Pauli equation with a fixed vector-potential of the electro-magnetic field is developed. Finally, we describe all vector-potentials A(t,x(vector sign)) that (a) provide the separability of Pauli equation, (b) satisfy vacuum Maxwell equations without currents, and (c) describe non-zero magnetic field

  5. Functional equations with causal operators

    CERN Document Server

    Corduneanu, C

    2003-01-01

    Functional equations encompass most of the equations used in applied science and engineering: ordinary differential equations, integral equations of the Volterra type, equations with delayed argument, and integro-differential equations of the Volterra type. The basic theory of functional equations includes functional differential equations with causal operators. Functional Equations with Causal Operators explains the connection between equations with causal operators and the classical types of functional equations encountered by mathematicians and engineers. It details the fundamentals of linear equations and stability theory and provides several applications and examples.

  6. Differential equations for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The fun and easy way to understand and solve complex equations Many of the fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, biology, and economics can be formulated as differential equations. This plain-English guide explores the many applications of this mathematical tool and shows how differential equations can help us understand the world around us. Differential Equations For Dummies is the perfect companion for a college differential equations course and is an ideal supplemental resource for other calculus classes as well as science and engineering courses. It offers step-by-step techniques, practical tips, numerous exercises, and clear, concise examples to help readers improve their differential equation-solving skills and boost their test scores.

  7. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  8. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Volpert, Vitaly

    If we had to formulate in one sentence what this book is about it might be "How partial differential equations can help to understand heat explosion, tumor growth or evolution of biological species". These and many other applications are described by reaction-diffusion equations. The theory of reaction-diffusion equations appeared in the first half of the last century. In the present time, it is widely used in population dynamics, chemical physics, biomedical modelling. The purpose of this book is to present the mathematical theory of reaction-diffusion equations in the context of their numerous applications. We will go from the general mathematical theory to specific equations and then to their applications. Mathematical anaylsis of reaction-diffusion equations will be based on the theory of Fredholm operators presented in the first volume. Existence, stability and bifurcations of solutions will be studied for bounded domains and in the case of travelling waves. The classical theory of reaction-diffusion equ...

  9. Fundamental Equation of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experience of the great recession of 2008 has renewed one of the oldest debates in economics: whether economics could ever become a scientific discipline like physics. This paper proves that economics is truly a branch of physics by establishing for the first time a fundamental equation of economics (FEOE), which is similar to many fundamental equations governing other subfields of physics, for example, Maxwell’s Equations for electromagnetism. From recently established physics laws of...

  10. Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    Initial-value ordinary differential equation solution via variable order Adams method (SIVA/DIVA) package is collection of subroutines for solution of nonstiff ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single-precision and double-precision arithmetic. Requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable-order Adams predictor/ corrector methods. Option for direct integration of second-order equations makes integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  11. Differential equations I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Differential Equations I covers first- and second-order equations, series solutions, higher-order linear equations, and the Laplace transform.

  12. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Pontryagin, Lev Semenovich

    1962-01-01

    Ordinary Differential Equations presents the study of the system of ordinary differential equations and its applications to engineering. The book is designed to serve as a first course in differential equations. Importance is given to the linear equation with constant coefficients; stability theory; use of matrices and linear algebra; and the introduction to the Lyapunov theory. Engineering problems such as the Watt regulator for a steam engine and the vacuum-tube circuit are also presented. Engineers, mathematicians, and engineering students will find the book invaluable.

  13. On separable Pauli equations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhalij, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    We classify (1+3)-dimensional Pauli equations for a spin-1/2 particle interacting with the electro-magnetic field, that are solvable by the method of separation of variables. As a result, we obtain the eleven classes of vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field A(t,x) providing separability of the corresponding Pauli equations. It is established, in particular, that the necessary condition for the Pauli equation to be separable into second-order matrix ordinary differential equations is...

  14. A new evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new evolution equation is proposed for the gluon density relevant (GLR) for the region of small xB. It generalizes the GLR equation and allows deeper penetration in dense parton systems than the GLR equation does. This generalization consists of taking shadowing effects more comprehensively into account by including multi gluon correlations, and allowing for an arbitrary initial gluon distribution in a hadron. We solve the new equation for fixed αs. It is found that the effects of multi gluon correlations on the deep-inelastic structure function are small. (author) 15 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Linear Equations: Equivalence = Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratta, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The ability to solve linear equations sets students up for success in many areas of mathematics and other disciplines requiring formula manipulations. There are many reasons why solving linear equations is a challenging skill for students to master. One major barrier for students is the inability to interpret the equals sign as anything other than…

  16. Gauge invariant flow equation

    CERN Document Server

    Wetterich, C

    2016-01-01

    We propose a gauge invariant flow equation for Yang-Mills theories and quantum gravity that only involves one macroscopic gauge field or metric. It is based on a projection on physical and gauge fluctuations, corresponding to a particular gauge fixing. The freedom in the precise choice of the macroscopic field can be exploited in order to keep the flow equation simple.

  17. Braneworld flow equations

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Erandy; Liddle, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    We generalize the flow equations approach to inflationary model building to the Randall–Sundrum Type II braneworld scenario. As the flow equations are quite insensitive to the expansion dynamics, we find results similar to, though not identical to, those found in the standard cosmology.

  18. On the Diophantine equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, N. M.; Sapar, S. H.; Mohd Atan, K. A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses an integral solution (a, b, c) of the Diophantine equations x3n+y3n = 2z2n for n ≥ 2 and it is found that the integral solution of these equation are of the form a = b = t2, c = t3 for any integers t.

  19. Some classical Diophantine equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Bokarev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to find common solutions complete some Diophantine equations of the second degree with three variables, traced some patterns, suggest a common approach, which being elementary, however, lead to a solution of such equations. Using arithmetic functions allowed to write down the solutions in a single formula with no restrictions on the parameters used.

  20. Applied singular integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, B N

    2011-01-01

    The book is devoted to varieties of linear singular integral equations, with special emphasis on their methods of solution. It introduces the singular integral equations and their applications to researchers as well as graduate students of this fascinating and growing branch of applied mathematics.

  1. Alternative equations of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown, trough a new formalism, that the quantum fluctuation effects of the gravitational field in Einstein's equations are analogs to the effects of a continuum medium in Maxwell's Electrodynamics. Following, a real example of the applications of these equations is studied. Qunatum fluctuations effects as perturbation sources in Minkowski and Friedmann Universes are examined. (L.C.)

  2. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm's law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation ∇ · j = 0

  3. The relativistic Pauli equation

    CERN Document Server

    Delphenich, David

    2012-01-01

    After discussing the way that C2 and the algebra of complex 2x2 matrices can be used for the representation of both non-relativistic rotations and Lorentz transformations, we show that Dirac bispinors can be more advantageously represented as 2x2 complex matrices. One can then give the Dirac equation a form for such matrix-valued wave functions that no longer necessitates the introduction of gamma matrices or a choice for their representation. The minimally-coupled Dirac equation for a charged spinning particle in an external electromagnetic field then implies a second order equation in the matrix-valued wave functions that is of Klein-Gordon type and represents the relativistic analogue of the Pauli equation. We conclude by presenting the Lagrangian form for the relativistic Pauli equation.

  4. The generalized Jacobi equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jacobi equation in pseudo-Riemannian geometry determines the linearized geodesic flow. The linearization ignores the relative velocity of the geodesics. The generalized Jacobi equation takes the relative velocity into account; that is, when the geodesics are neighbouring but their relative velocity is arbitrary the corresponding geodesic deviation equation is the generalized Jacobi equation. The Hamiltonian structure of this nonlinear equation is analysed in this paper. The tidal accelerations for test particles in the field of a plane gravitational wave and the exterior field of a rotating mass are investigated. In the latter case, the existence of an attractor of uniform relative radial motion with speed 2-1/2c ∼ 0.7c is pointed out. The astrophysical implication of this result for the terminal speed of a relativistic jet is briefly explored

  5. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2004-01-01

    This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t...

  6. Extended MHD equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct use of enlarged subsets of mathematically exact equations of change in moments of the velocity distribution function, each equation corresponding to one of the macroscopic variables to be retained, produces extended MHD models. The first relevant level of closure provides 'ten moment' equations in the density ρ, velocity v, scalar pressure p, and the traceless component of the pressure tensor t. The next 'thirteen moment' level also includes the thermal flux vector q, and further extended MHD models could be developed by including even higher level basic equations of change. Explicit invariant forms for the tensor t and the heat flux vector defining q follow from their respective basic equations of change. Except in the neighbourhood of a magnetic null, in magnetised plasma these forms may be resolved into known sums of their parallel, cross (or transverse) and perpendicular components. Parallel viscosity in an electron-ion plasma is specifically discussed. (author)

  7. The effect of chemical treatment on adsorption of natural gas by multi-walled carbon nanotubes: Sorption equilibria and thermodynamic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delavar M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adsorption of methane as the main constituent of natural gas was firstly studied on the pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and then purification and chemical treatments of MWCNTs was performed to enhance the natural gas adsorption capacity. MWCNTs were chemically treated using different methods in this research. The results revealed that chemical treatment of the MWCNTs in presence of H2SO4/HNO3 acidic mixture in 3:1 volume ratio, enhanced considerably natural gas adsorption capacity (an optimal up to 45 mmol/g at temperature of 298.15 K and the pressure of 50 bar compared to the pristine MWCNTs (about 27 mmol/g at the same operating conditions. This effect can be attributed to the opening of the nanotubes caps with a major alteration in its structural properties due to chemical treatment. The experimental data of adsorption were almost equally well described by Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips equations to determine the model isotherms. The best fit was obtained by the Sips model isotherm with the r-squared value near to unity. Furthermore, using the experimental data obtained in different temperatures the isosteric heat of natural gas adsorption onto pristine MWCNTs was also calculated in the interested range of pressures and temperatures using the thermodynamic-based Clausius-Clapeyron equation from the Sips isotherm model. The results revealed an energetically heterogeneous surface of MWCNTs in natural gas adsorption. Also the natural gas adsorption process was kinetically studied through pseudo-second order and intra-particle diffusion models which indicated the intra-particular diffusion is rate limiting step in adsorption of methane on MWCNTs.

  8. Experimental study of water desorption isotherms and thin-layer convective drying kinetics of bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghnimi, Thouraya; Hassini, Lamine; Bagane, Mohamed

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the desorption isotherms and the drying kinetics of bay laurel leaves (Laurus Nobilis L.). The desorption isotherms were performed at three temperature levels: 50, 60 and 70 °C and at water activity ranging from 0.057 to 0.88 using the statistic gravimetric method. Five sorption models were used to fit desorption experimental isotherm data. It was found that Kuhn model offers the best fitting of experimental moisture isotherms in the mentioned investigated ranges of temperature and water activity. The Net isosteric heat of water desorption was evaluated using The Clausius-Clapeyron equation and was then best correlated to equilibrium moisture content by the empirical Tsami's equation. Thin layer convective drying curves of bay laurel leaves were obtained for temperatures of 45, 50, 60 and 70 °C, relative humidity of 5, 15, 30 and 45 % and air velocities of 1, 1.5 and 2 m/s. A non linear regression procedure of Levenberg-Marquardt was used to fit drying curves with five semi empirical mathematical models available in the literature, The R2 and χ2 were used to evaluate the goodness of fit of models to data. Based on the experimental drying curves the drying characteristic curve (DCC) has been established and fitted with a third degree polynomial function. It was found that the Midilli Kucuk model was the best semi-empirical model describing thin layer drying kinetics of bay laurel leaves. The bay laurel leaves effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were also identified.

  9. Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations are derived from a systematic Hamiltonian theory. The derivation employs Lie transforms and a noncanonical perturbation theory first used by Littlejohn for the simpler problem of asymptotically small gyroradius. For definiteness, we emphasize the limit of electrostatic fluctuations in slab geometry; however, there is a straight-forward generalization to arbitrary field geometry and electromagnetic perturbations. An energy invariant for the nonlinear system is derived, and various of its limits are considered. The weak turbulence theory of the equations is examined. In particular, the wave kinetic equation of Galeev and Sagdeev is derived from an asystematic truncation of the equations, implying that this equation fails to consider all gyrokinetic effects. The equations are simplified for the case of small but finite gyroradius and put in a form suitable for efficient computer simulation. Although it is possible to derive the Terry-Horton and Hasegawa-Mima equations as limiting cases of our theory, several new nonlinear terms absent from conventional theories appear and are discussed

  10. Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubin, D.H.E.; Krommes, J.A.; Oberman, C.; Lee, W.W.

    1983-03-01

    Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations are derived from a systematic Hamiltonian theory. The derivation employs Lie transforms and a noncanonical perturbation theory first used by Littlejohn for the simpler problem of asymptotically small gyroradius. For definiteness, we emphasize the limit of electrostatic fluctuations in slab geometry; however, there is a straight-forward generalization to arbitrary field geometry and electromagnetic perturbations. An energy invariant for the nonlinear system is derived, and various of its limits are considered. The weak turbulence theory of the equations is examined. In particular, the wave kinetic equation of Galeev and Sagdeev is derived from an asystematic truncation of the equations, implying that this equation fails to consider all gyrokinetic effects. The equations are simplified for the case of small but finite gyroradius and put in a form suitable for efficient computer simulation. Although it is possible to derive the Terry-Horton and Hasegawa-Mima equations as limiting cases of our theory, several new nonlinear terms absent from conventional theories appear and are discussed.

  11. Thermomechanics of swelling unsaturated porous media. Compacted bentonite clay in spent fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A barrier of compacted bentonite clay is planned to be used in geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In addition to providing mechanical stability to the waste containers the barrier is supposed to prevent or delay the movement of groundwater and the consequential transport of radionuclides from the repository. Fluid flow, phase changes, mechanical behavior of the buffer, rock, and the containers, and the heat produced by the radioactive waste constitute a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) system. The objective of the thesis is to model the coupled THM behaviour of the bentonite buffer. For this purpose a general thermomechanical and mixture theoretical model is derived and applied to the fully coupled THM description of swelling compacted bentonite. The particular form of the free energy of the system is chosen to take into account interactions of the mixture components, namely, mixing of the gaseous components (water vapor and air) and adsorption and swelling interactions between the liquid water and the solid skeleton. The mechanical part of the model is limited to reversible behavior within the limit of small strains. Numerical implementation is done with the multi-purpose finite element method software ELMER. The model is applied to various coupled experiments: two kinds of laboratory scale tests for Febex bentonite, larger scale mock-up and in-situ tests for Febex bentonite, and to three kinds of laboratory scale experiments for MX-80 bentonite. In addition, a brief consideration of the difference of the large scale Febex experiments and the real disposal situation is done by incorporating more realistic temperature evolutions of the containers. The inclusion of the mixing interaction yields Clausius-Clapeyron equations which are valid both for the total pressure (i.e. the boiling pressure) and for the partial pressure of saturated vapor. Additionally, together with an appropriate dissipation function the mixing interaction yields a common form of

  12. Standardized Referente Evapotranspiration Equation

    OpenAIRE

    M.D. Mundo–Molina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper is presented a discussion on the necessity to standardize the Penman–Monteith equations in order to estimate ETo. The proposal is to define an accuracy and standarize equation based in Penman–Monteith. The automated weather station named CIANO (27° 22 ' 144 North latitude and 109" 55' west longitude) it was selected tomake comparisons. The compared equations we re: a) CIANO weat her station, b) Penman–Monteith ASCE (PMA), Penman–Monteith FAO 56 (PM FAO 56), Penman–Monteith estan...

  13. Stochastic Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A derivation of Belavkin's stochastic Schroedinger equations is given using quantum filtering theory. We study an open system in contact with its environment, the electromagnetic field. Continuous observation of the field yields information on the system: it is possible to keep track in real time of the best estimate of the system's quantum state given the observations made. This estimate satisfies a stochastic Schroedinger equation, which can be derived from the quantum stochastic differential equation for the interaction picture evolution of system and field together. Throughout the paper we focus on the basic example of resonance fluorescence

  14. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  15. Uncertain differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the basic concepts of and latest findings in the area of differential equations with uncertain factors. It covers the analytic method and numerical method for solving uncertain differential equations, as well as their applications in the field of finance. Furthermore, the book provides a number of new potential research directions for uncertain differential equation. It will be of interest to researchers, engineers and students in the fields of mathematics, information science, operations research, industrial engineering, computer science, artificial intelligence, automation, economics, and management science.

  16. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2008-01-01

    This three-part treatment of partial differential equations focuses on elliptic and evolution equations. Largely self-contained, it concludes with a series of independent topics directly related to the methods and results of the preceding sections that helps introduce readers to advanced topics for further study. Geared toward graduate and postgraduate students of mathematics, this volume also constitutes a valuable reference for mathematicians and mathematical theorists.Starting with the theory of elliptic equations and the solution of the Dirichlet problem, the text develops the theory of we

  17. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  18. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Richard K

    1982-01-01

    Ordinary Differential Equations is an outgrowth of courses taught for a number of years at Iowa State University in the mathematics and the electrical engineering departments. It is intended as a text for a first graduate course in differential equations for students in mathematics, engineering, and the sciences. Although differential equations is an old, traditional, and well-established subject, the diverse backgrounds and interests of the students in a typical modern-day course cause problems in the selection and method of presentation of material. In order to compensate for this diversity,

  19. Differential equations problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    Arterburn, David R

    2012-01-01

    REA's Problem Solvers is a series of useful, practical, and informative study guides. Each title in the series is complete step-by-step solution guide. The Differential Equations Problem Solver enables students to solve difficult problems by showing them step-by-step solutions to Differential Equations problems. The Problem Solvers cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced and make excellent review books and textbook companions. They're perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.The Differential Equations Problem Solver is the perfect resource for any class, any exam, and

  20. Modern introduction to differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ricardo, Henry J

    2009-01-01

    A Modern Introduction to Differential Equations, Second Edition, provides an introduction to the basic concepts of differential equations. The book begins by introducing the basic concepts of differential equations, focusing on the analytical, graphical, and numerical aspects of first-order equations, including slope fields and phase lines. The discussions then cover methods of solving second-order homogeneous and nonhomogeneous linear equations with constant coefficients; systems of linear differential equations; the Laplace transform and its applications to the solution of differential equat

  1. A Comparison of IRT Equating and Beta 4 Equating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-In; Brennan, Robert; Kolen, Michael

    Four equating methods were compared using four equating criteria: first-order equity (FOE), second-order equity (SOE), conditional mean squared error (CMSE) difference, and the equipercentile equating property. The four methods were: (1) three parameter logistic (3PL) model true score equating; (2) 3PL observed score equating; (3) beta 4 true…

  2. Nonlinear differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics

  3. Exciton laser rate equations

    OpenAIRE

    Garkavenko A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The rate equations of the exciton laser in the system of interacting excitons have been obtained and the inverted population conditions and generation have been derived. The possibility of creating radically new gamma-ray laser has been shown.

  4. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  5. Diophantine Equations and Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Martin

    Unless otherwise stated, we’ll work with the natural numbers: N = \\{0,1,2,3, dots\\}. Consider a Diophantine equation F(a1,a2,...,an,x1,x2,...,xm) = 0 with parameters a1,a2,...,an and unknowns x1,x2,...,xm For such a given equation, it is usual to ask: For which values of the parameters does the equation have a solution in the unknowns? In other words, find the set: \\{ mid exists x_1,ldots,x_m [F(a_1,ldots,x_1,ldots)=0] \\} Inverting this, we think of the equation F = 0 furnishing a definition of this set, and we distinguish three classes: a set is called Diophantine if it has such a definition in which F is a polynomial with integer coefficients. We write \\cal D for the class of Diophantine sets.

  6. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs.  Emphasis is placed on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than on formal theory. The concise treatment of the subject is maintained in this third edition covering all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. In this third edition, text remains intimately tied to applications in heat transfer, wave motion, biological systems, and a variety other topics in pure and applied science. The text offers flexibility to instructors who, for example, may wish to insert topics from biology or numerical methods at any time in the course. The exposition is presented in a friendly, easy-to-read, style, with mathematical ideas motivated from physical problems. Many exercises and worked e...

  7. Hedin Equations for Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Linscheid, A.; Essenberger, F.

    2015-01-01

    We generalize Hedin equations to a system of superconducting electrons coupled with a system of phonons. The electrons are described by an electronic Pauli Hamiltonian which includes the Coulomb interaction among electrons and an external vector and scalar potential. We derive the continuity equation in the presence of the superconducting condensate and point out how to cast vertex corrections in the form of a non-local effective interaction that can be used to describe both fluctuations of s...

  8. Resistive ballooning mode equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, G.; Nelson, D. B.

    1978-10-01

    A second-order ordinary differential equation on each flux surface is derived for the high mode number limit of resistive MHD ballooning modes in tokamaks with arbitrary cross section, aspect ratio, and shear. The equation is structurally similar to that used to study ideal MHD ballooning modes computationally. The model used in this paper indicates that all tokamak plasmas are unstable, with growth rate proportional to resistivity when the pressure gradient is less than the critical value needed for ideal MHD stability.

  9. Relativistic Guiding Center Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R. B. [PPPL; Gobbin, M. [Euratom-ENEA Association

    2014-10-01

    In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.

  10. SIMULTANEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION COMPUTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, D.M.; Meeks, L.A.; Palmer, J.P.

    1960-05-10

    A description is given for an electronic simulator for a system of simultaneous differential equations, including nonlinear equations. As a specific example, a homogeneous nuclear reactor system including a reactor fluid, heat exchanger, and a steam boiler may be simulated, with the nonlinearity resulting from a consideration of temperature effects taken into account. The simulator includes three operational amplifiers, a multiplier, appropriate potential sources, and interconnecting R-C networks.

  11. Thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of methane-carbon dioxide mixed hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Kneafsey, Timothy J; Rees, Emily V L

    2011-06-30

    Replacement of methane with carbon dioxide in hydrate has been proposed as a strategy for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and/or production of methane (CH(4)) from natural hydrate deposits. This replacement strategy requires a better understanding of the thermodynamic characteristics of binary mixtures of CH(4) and CO(2) hydrate (CH(4)-CO(2) mixed hydrates), as well as thermophysical property changes during gas exchange. This study explores the thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of CH(4)-CO(2) mixed hydrates. We prepared CH(4)-CO(2) mixed hydrate samples from two different, well-defined gas mixtures. During thermal dissociation of a CH(4)-CO(2) mixed hydrate sample, gas samples from the head space were periodically collected and analyzed using gas chromatography. The changes in CH(4)-CO(2) compositions in both the vapor phase and hydrate phase during dissociation were estimated based on the gas chromatography measurements. It was found that the CO(2) concentration in the vapor phase became richer during dissociation because the initial hydrate composition contained relatively more CO(2) than the vapor phase. The composition change in the vapor phase during hydrate dissociation affected the dissociation pressure and temperature; the richer CO(2) in the vapor phase led to a lower dissociation pressure. Furthermore, the increase in CO(2) concentration in the vapor phase enriched the hydrate in CO(2). The dissociation enthalpy of the CH(4)-CO(2) mixed hydrate was computed by fitting the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the pressure-temperature (PT) trace of a dissociation test. It was observed that the dissociation enthalpy of the CH(4)-CO(2) mixed hydrate lays between the limiting values of pure CH(4) hydrate and CO(2) hydrate, increasing with the CO(2) fraction in the hydrate phase. PMID:21604671

  12. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of 3'- and 4'-nitroacetophenones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Amaral, Luisa M.P.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: The standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the condensed phase, of 3'- and 4'-nitroacetophenones have been determined by combustion calorimetry. The vapor pressures of the crystalline 3'- and 4'-nitroacetophenones were measured as function of temperature by the Knudsen effusion mass loss technique. The standard molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs functions of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were calculated for both compounds. - Abstract: The standard (p{sup o} = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the condensed phase, of 3'- and 4'-nitroacetophenones, presented in this work, were obtained from measurements of their combustion energies, at T = 298.15 K, using a static bomb calorimeter. The vapor pressures of the two crystalline 3'- and 4'-nitroacetophenones were measured as a function of temperature by the Knudsen effusion mass loss technique. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The standard molar enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs functions of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were calculated for the two compounds. The experimental values obtained were used to calculate the standard molar enthalpies of formation of 3'- and 4'-nitroacetophenones, in the gaseous phase, as {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(g)=-(99.4{+-}1.6)kJ{center_dot}mol{sup -1} and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(g)=-(99.1{+-}1.7)kJ{center_dot}mol{sup -1}, respectively, and these derived values are analyzed in terms of structural enthalpic increments.

  13. Thermochemical study of some dichloroacetophenone isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Amaral, Luisa M.P.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    The standard (p{sup 0}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the condensed phase, {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(cr,l), for 2',4'-, 2',5'-, and 3',4'-dichloroacetophenones were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, {Delta}{sub c}U{sub m}{sup 0} in oxygen, to yield CO{sub 2}(g) and HCl . 600H{sub 2}O(l), at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of vapourization or sublimation, {Delta}{sub cr,l}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup 0}, of these compounds, at T = 298.15 K were determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. For the 3',4'-dichoroacetophenone, the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, was derived by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, from the temperature dependence of the vapour pressures of this compound, measured by the Knudsen effusion technique. From the values of {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(cr,l) and {Delta}{sub cr,l}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup 0} the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three isomers, in the gaseous phase, {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(g), at T = 298.15 K were derived and compared with the same parameters estimated by the Cox Scheme. (table)

  14. Thermodynamic study of 1,2,3-triphenylbenzene and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.; Lima, Luis M. Spencer S. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The energetic study of 1,2,3-triphenylbenzene (1,2,3-TPhB) and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (1,3,5-TPhB) isomers was carried out by making use of the mini-bomb combustion calorimetry and Knudsen mass-loss effusion techniques. The mini-bomb combustion calorimetry technique was used to derive the standard (p{sup o} = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state from the measured standard molar energies of combustion for both isomers. The Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique was used to measure the dependence with the temperature of the vapour pressure of crystalline 1,2,3-TPhB, which allowed the derivation of the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, by application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The sublimation study of 1,3,5-TPhB had been performed previously. From the combination of data obtained by both techniques, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous state, for both isomers, at T = 298.15 K, were calculated. The results indicate a higher stability of the 1,3,5-TPhB isomer relative to 1,2,3-TPhB, similarly to the terphenyls. Nevertheless, the 1,2,3-TPhB isomer is not as energetically destabilized as one might expect, supporting the existence of a pi-pi displacive stacking interaction between both pairs of outer phenyl rings. The volatility difference between the two isomers is ruled by the enthalpy of sublimation. The volatility of the 1,2,3-TPhB is two orders of magnitude higher than the 1,3,5-TPhB isomer, at T = 298.15 K.

  15. Experimental study on the thermochemistry of 3-nitrobenzophenone, 4-nitrobenzophenone and 3,3'-dinitrobenzophenone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Amaral, Luisa M.P.F.; Ortiz, Rodrigo V. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: Standard molar enthalpies of formation of 3- and 4-nitrobenzophenones and of the 3,3'-dinitrobenzophenone, in the crystalline state, were determined, at the temperature T = 298.15 K. Vapour pressures of 3- and 4- nitrobenzophenones as function of temperature were measured by the Knudsen effusion technique. Enthalpies of sublimation of 3- and 4-nitrobenzophenones and of the 3,3'-dinitrobenzophenone were derived. The derived standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous state are analyzed in terms of structural enthalpic increments. - Abstract: The standard (p{sup o} = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of combustion, {Delta}{sub c}H{sub m}{sup 0}, for the 3- and 4-nitrobenzophenones and for the 3,3'-dinitrobenzophenone, in the crystalline state, were determined, at the temperature T = 298.15 K, using a static bomb combustion calorimeter. For these compounds, the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, {Delta}{sub cr}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup 0}, at T = 298.15 K, were determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. For the 3- and 4-nitrobenzophenones the vapour pressures as function of temperature were measured by the Knudsen effusion technique and the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, {Delta}{sub cr}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup 0}, at T = 298.15 K, were derived by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The results are as follows: (table) These values were used to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds in their condensed and gaseous phases, respectively. For 3- and 4-nitrobenzophenones, the standard (p{sup o} = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs functions of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived. The derived standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous state are analysed in terms of structural enthalpic increments.

  16. Vapor Pressure of Hexamethylene Triperoxide Diamine (HMTD) Estimated Using Secondary Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aernecke, Matthew J; Mendum, Ted; Geurtsen, Geoff; Ostrinskaya, Alla; Kunz, Roderick R

    2015-11-25

    A rapid method for vapor pressure measurement was developed and used to derive the vapor pressure curve of the thermally labile peroxide-based explosive hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) over the temperature range from 28 to 80 °C. This method uses a controlled flow of vapor from a solid-phase HMTD source that is presented to an ambient-pressure-ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a secondary-electrospray-ionization (SESI) source. The subpart-per-trillion sensitivity of this system enables direct detection of HMTD vapor through an intact [M + H](+) ion in real time at temperatures near 20 °C. By calibrating this method using vapor sources of cocaine and heroin, which have known pressure-temperature (P-T) curves, the temperature dependence of HMTD vapor was determined, and a Clausius-Clapeyron plot of ln[P (Pa)] vs 1/[T (K)] yielded a straight line with the expression ln[P (Pa)] = {(-11091 ± 356) × 1/[T (K)]} + 25 ± 1 (error limits are the standard error of the regression analysis). From this equation, the sublimation enthalpy of HMTD was estimated to be 92 ± 3 kJ/mol, which compares well with the theoretical estimate of 95 kJ/mol, and the vapor pressure at 20 °C was estimated to be ∼60 parts per trillion by volume, which is within a factor of 2 of previous theoretical estimates. Thus, this method provides not only the first direct experimental determination of HMTD vapor pressure but also a rapid, near-real-time capability to quantitatively measure low-vapor-pressure compounds, which will be useful for aiding in the development of training aids for bomb-sniffing canines. PMID:26505487

  17. Functional Equations and Fourier Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dilian

    2010-01-01

    By exploring the relations among functional equations, harmonic analysis and representation theory, we give a unified and very accessible approach to solve three important functional equations -- the d'Alembert equation, the Wilson equation, and the d'Alembert long equation, on compact groups.

  18. Scaling Equation for Invariant Measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-Kuo; FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da; REN Kui

    2003-01-01

    An iterated function system (IFS) is constructed. It is shown that the invariant measure of IFS satisfies the same equation as scaling equation for wavelet transform (WT). Obviously, IFS and scaling equation of WT both have contraction mapping principle.

  19. Integral equations and computation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volterra's Integral Equations and Fredholm's Integral Equations of the second kind are discussed. Computational problems are found in the derivations and the computations. The theorem of the solution of the Fredholm's Integral Equation is discussed in detail. (author)

  20. Transport equation solving methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method

  1. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenspan, Donald

    2000-01-01

    Designed for use in a one-semester course by seniors and beginning graduate students, this rigorous presentation explores practical methods of solving differential equations, plus the unifying theory underlying the mathematical superstructure. Topics include basic concepts, Fourier series, second-order partial differential equations, wave equation, potential equation, heat equation, approximate solution of partial differential equations, and more. Exercises appear at the ends of most chapters. 1961 edition.

  2. Unified derivation of evolution equations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hsiang-nan

    1998-01-01

    We derive the evolution equations of parton distribution functions appropriate in different kinematic regions in a unified and simple way using the resummation technique. They include the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equation for large momentum transfer $Q$, the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov equation for a small Bjorken variable $x$, and the Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini equation which embodies the above two equations. The relation among these equations is explored, and p...

  3. The Equations of Magnetoquasigeostrophy

    CERN Document Server

    Umurhan, O M

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics contained in magnetized layers of exoplanet atmospheres are important to understand in order to characterize what observational signatures they may provide for future observations. It is important to develop a framework to begin studying and learning the physical processes possible under those conditions and what, if any, features contained in them may be observed in future observation missions. The aims of this study is to formally derive, from scaling arguments, a manageable reduced set of equations for analysis, i.e. a magnetic formulation of the equations of quasigeostrophy appropriate for a multi-layer atmosphere. The main goal is to provide a simpler theoretical platform to explore the dynamics possible within confined magnetized layers of exoplanet atmospheres. We primarily use scaling arguments to derive the reduced equations of "magnetoquasigeostrophy" which assumes dynamics to take place in an atmospheric layer which is vertically thin compared to its horizontal scales. The derived equa...

  4. Boussinesq evolution equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Schaffer, H.; Madsen, Per A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the possibility of using methods and ideas from time domain Boussinesq formulations in the corresponding frequency domain formulations. We term such frequency domain models "evolution equations". First, we demonstrate that the numerical efficiency of the deterministic...... Boussinesq evolution equations of Madsen and Sorensen [Madsen, P.A., Sorensen, O.R., 1993. Bound waves and triad interactions in shallow water. Ocean Eng. 20 359-388] can be improved by using Fast Fourier Transforms to evaluate the nonlinear terms. For a practical example of irregular waves propagating over...... a submerged bar, it is demonstrated that evolution equations utilising FFT can be solved around 100 times faster than the corresponding time domain model. Use of FFT provides an efficient bridge between the frequency domain and the time domain. We utilise this by adapting the surface roller model...

  5. Quadratic Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu

    2015-01-01

    This monograph treats the classical theory of quadratic Diophantine equations and guides the reader through the last two decades of computational techniques and progress in the area. These new techniques combined with the latest increases in computational power shed new light on important open problems. The authors motivate the study of quadratic Diophantine equations with excellent examples, open problems, and applications. Moreover, the exposition aptly demonstrates many applications of results and techniques from the study of Pell-type equations to other problems in number theory. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers. It challenges the reader to apply not only specific techniques and strategies, but also to employ methods and tools from other areas of mathematics, such as algebra and analysis.

  6. Equations of mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, A N

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical physics plays an important role in the study of many physical processes - hydrodynamics, elasticity, and electrodynamics, to name just a few. Because of the enormous range and variety of problems dealt with by mathematical physics, this thorough advanced-undergraduate or graduate-level text considers only those problems leading to partial differential equations. The authors - two well-known Russian mathematicians - have focused on typical physical processes and the principal types of equations deailing with them. Special attention is paid throughout to mathematical formulation, ri

  7. Mirce Functionability Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Jezdimir Knezevic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientific principles and concepts expressed through the laws, equations and formulas are the bedrock for the prediction of the deign-in functionality performance of any engineering creation. However, there is no equivalent when the in-service functionability performance predictions have to be made. Hence, Mirce Mechanics has been created at the MIRCE Akademy to fulfil the roll. The main purpose of this paper is to present the development and application of Mirce Functionability Equation which is the bedrock for the prediction of the functionability performance of maintainable systems.

  8. Obtaining Maxwell's equations heuristically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Gerhard; Weissbarth, Jürgen; Grossmann, Frank; Schmidt, Rüdiger

    2013-02-01

    Starting from the experimental fact that a moving charge experiences the Lorentz force and applying the fundamental principles of simplicity (first order derivatives only) and linearity (superposition principle), we show that the structure of the microscopic Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic fields can be deduced heuristically by using the transformation properties of the fields under space inversion and time reversal. Using the experimental facts of charge conservation and that electromagnetic waves propagate with the speed of light, together with Galilean invariance of the Lorentz force, allows us to finalize Maxwell's equations and to introduce arbitrary electrodynamics units naturally.

  9. Generalized estimating equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hardin, James W

    2002-01-01

    Although powerful and flexible, the method of generalized linear models (GLM) is limited in its ability to accurately deal with longitudinal and clustered data. Developed specifically to accommodate these data types, the method of Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) extends the GLM algorithm to accommodate the correlated data encountered in health research, social science, biology, and other related fields.Generalized Estimating Equations provides the first complete treatment of GEE methodology in all of its variations. After introducing the subject and reviewing GLM, the authors examine th

  10. ON A FUNCTIONAL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Yi

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author derives a functional equation η(s)=[(π/4)s-1/2√2/πг(1-s)sin(πs/2)]η(1-s) of the analytic function η(s) which is defined by η(s)=1-s-3-s-5-s+7-s…for complex variable s with Re s>1, and is defined by analytic continuation for other values of s. The author proves (1) by Ramanujan identity (see [1], [3]). Her method provides a new derivation of the functional equation of Riemann zeta function by using Poisson summation formula.

  11. Kepler Equation solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1995-01-01

    Kepler's Equation is solved over the entire range of elliptic motion by a fifth-order refinement of the solution of a cubic equation. This method is not iterative, and requires only four transcendental function evaluations: a square root, a cube root, and two trigonometric functions. The maximum relative error of the algorithm is less than one part in 10(exp 18), exceeding the capability of double-precision computer arithmetic. Roundoff errors in double-precision implementation of the algorithm are addressed, and procedures to avoid them are developed.

  12. Symplectic Dirac Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Amorim, R G G; Silva, Edilberto O

    2015-01-01

    Symplectic unitary representations for the Poincar\\'{e} group are studied. The formalism is based on the noncommutative structure of the star-product, and using group theory approach as a guide, a consistent physical theory in phase space is constructed. The state of a quantum mechanics system is described by a quasi-probability amplitude that is in association with the Wigner function. As a result, the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are derived in phase space. As an application, we study the Dirac equation with electromagnetic interaction in phase space.

  13. The relativistic Pauli equation

    OpenAIRE

    Delphenich, David

    2012-01-01

    After discussing the way that C2 and the algebra of complex 2x2 matrices can be used for the representation of both non-relativistic rotations and Lorentz transformations, we show that Dirac bispinors can be more advantageously represented as 2x2 complex matrices. One can then give the Dirac equation a form for such matrix-valued wave functions that no longer necessitates the introduction of gamma matrices or a choice for their representation. The minimally-coupled Dirac equation for a charge...

  14. Solving Diophantine Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Cira, Octavian; Smarandache, Florentin

    2016-01-01

    In this book a multitude of Diophantine equations and their partial or complete solutions are presented. How should we solve, for example, the equation {\\eta}({\\pi}(x)) = {\\pi}({\\eta}(x)), where {\\eta} is the Smarandache function and {\\pi} is Riemann function of counting the number of primes up to x, in the set of natural numbers? If an analytical method is not available, an idea would be to recall the empirical search for solutions. We establish a domain of searching for the solutions and th...

  15. The Statistical Drake Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    We provide the statistical generalization of the Drake equation. From a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake equation is now turned into the product of seven positive random variables. We call this "the Statistical Drake Equation". The mathematical consequences of this transformation are then derived. The proof of our results is based on the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) of Statistics. In loose terms, the CLT states that the sum of any number of independent random variables, each of which may be ARBITRARILY distributed, approaches a Gaussian (i.e. normal) random variable. This is called the Lyapunov Form of the CLT, or the Lindeberg Form of the CLT, depending on the mathematical constraints assumed on the third moments of the various probability distributions. In conclusion, we show that: The new random variable N, yielding the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy, follows the LOGNORMAL distribution. Then, as a consequence, the mean value of this lognormal distribution is the ordinary N in the Drake equation. The standard deviation, mode, and all the moments of this lognormal N are also found. The seven factors in the ordinary Drake equation now become seven positive random variables. The probability distribution of each random variable may be ARBITRARY. The CLT in the so-called Lyapunov or Lindeberg forms (that both do not assume the factors to be identically distributed) allows for that. In other words, the CLT "translates" into our statistical Drake equation by allowing an arbitrary probability distribution for each factor. This is both physically realistic and practically very useful, of course. An application of our statistical Drake equation then follows. The (average) DISTANCE between any two neighboring and communicating civilizations in the Galaxy may be shown to be inversely proportional to the cubic root of N. Then, in our approach, this distance becomes a new random variable. We derive the relevant probability density

  16. Comparison of Kernel Equating and Item Response Theory Equating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The kernel method of test equating is a unified approach to test equating with some advantages over traditional equating methods. Therefore, it is important to evaluate in a comprehensive way the usefulness and appropriateness of the Kernel equating (KE) method, as well as its advantages and disadvantages compared with several popular item…

  17. On difference Riccati equations and second order linear difference equations

    OpenAIRE

    Ishizaki, Katsuya

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we treat difference Riccati equations and second order linear difference equations in the complex plane. We give surveys of basic properties of these equations which are analogues in the differential case. We are concerned with the growth and value distributions of transcendental meromorphic solutions of these equations. Some examples are given.

  18. Test equating methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers in the psychology and statistical communities have paid increasing attention to test equating as issues of using multiple test forms have arisen and in response to criticisms of traditional testing techniques This book provides a practically oriented introduction to test equating which both discusses the most frequently used equating methodologies and covers many of the practical issues involved The main themes are - the purpose of equating - distinguishing between equating and related methodologies - the importance of test equating to test development and quality control - the differences between equating properties, equating designs, and equating methods - equating error, and the underlying statistical assumptions for equating The authors are acknowledged experts in the field, and the book is based on numerous courses and seminars they have presented As a result, educators, psychometricians, professionals in measurement, statisticians, and students coming to the subject for...

  19. Variation principle of piezothermoelastic bodies, canonical equation and homogeneous equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-hong; ZHANG Hui-ming

    2007-01-01

    Combining the symplectic variations theory, the homogeneous control equation and isoparametric element homogeneous formulations for piezothermoelastic hybrid laminates problems were deduced. Firstly, based on the generalized Hamilton variation principle, the non-homogeneous Hamilton canonical equation for piezothermoelastic bodies was derived. Then the symplectic relationship of variations in the thermal equilibrium formulations and gradient equations was considered, and the non-homogeneous canonical equation was transformed to homogeneous control equation for solving independently the coupling problem of piezothermoelastic bodies by the incensement of dimensions of the canonical equation. For the convenience of deriving Hamilton isoparametric element formulations with four nodes, one can consider the temperature gradient equation as constitutive relation and reconstruct new variation principle. The homogeneous equation simplifies greatly the solution programs which are often performed to solve nonhomogeneous equation and second order differential equation on the thermal equilibrium and gradient relationship.

  20. Standardized Referente Evapotranspiration Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Mundo–Molina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a discussion on the necessity to standardize the Penman–Monteith equations in order to estimate ETo. The proposal is to define an accuracy and standarize equation based in Penman–Monteith. The automated weather station named CIANO (27° 22 ' 144 North latitude and 109" 55' west longitude it was selected tomake comparisons. The compared equations we re: a CIANO weat her station, b Penman–Monteith ASCE (PMA, Penman–Monteith FAO 56 (PM FAO 56, Penman–Monteith estandarizado ASCE (PM Std. ASCE. The results were: a There are important differences between PMA and CIANO weather station. The differences are attributed to the nonstandardization of the equation CIANO weather station, b The coefficient of correlation between both methods was of 0,92, with a standard deviation of 1,63 mm, an average quadratic error of 0,60 mm and one efficiency in the estimation of ETo with respect to the method pattern of 87%.

  1. Calculus & ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Pearson, David

    1995-01-01

    Professor Pearson's book starts with an introduction to the area and an explanation of the most commonly used functions. It then moves on through differentiation, special functions, derivatives, integrals and onto full differential equations. As with other books in the series the emphasis is on using worked examples and tutorial-based problem solving to gain the confidence of students.

  2. Energy master equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1995-01-01

    energies chosen randomly according to a Gaussian. The random-walk model is here derived from Newton's laws by making a number of simplifying assumptions. In the second part of the paper an approximate low-temperature description of energy fluctuations in the random-walk model—the energy master equation...

  3. The Equation of Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Do Minh

    1999-01-01

    We research the natural causality of the Universe. We find that the equation of causality provides very good results on physics. That is our first endeavour and success in describing a quantitative expression of the law of causality. Hence, our theoretical point suggests ideas to build other laws including the law of the Universe's evolution.

  4. Stochastic nonlinear beam equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzezniak, Z.; Maslowski, Bohdan; Seidler, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2005), s. 119-149. ISSN 0178-8051 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/1197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stochastic beam equation * stability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.896, year: 2005

  5. On rough differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Lejay, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the Ito map, that is the map that gives the solution of a differential equation controlled by a rough path of finite p-variation with p in [2,3) is locally Lipschitz continuous in all its arguments and could be extended to vector fields that have only a linear growth.

  6. Exciton laser rate equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garkavenko A. S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The rate equations of the exciton laser in the system of interacting excitons have been obtained and the inverted population conditions and generation have been derived. The possibility of creating radically new gamma-ray laser has been shown.

  7. On the Breit Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Kasari, Hikoya; Yamaguchi, Yoshio

    2001-01-01

    Contrary to the conventional belief, it was shown that the Breit equation has the eigenvalues for bound states of two oppositely charged Dirac particles interacting through the (static) Coulomb potential. All eigenvalues reduced to those of the Sch\\"odinger case in the non-relativistic limit.

  8. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics

  9. Modelling by Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaachoua, Hamid; Saglam, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to show the close relation between physics and mathematics taking into account especially the theory of differential equations. By analysing the problems posed by scientists in the seventeenth century, we note that physics is very important for the emergence of this theory. Taking into account this analysis, we show the…

  10. Do Differential Equations Swing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    One of the units of in a standard differential equations course is a discussion of the oscillatory motion of a spring and the associated material on forcing functions and resonance. During the presentation on practical resonance, the instructor may tell students that it is similar to when they take their siblings to the playground and help them on…

  11. Kinetic equation of sociodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Володимир Олександрович Касьянов

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to build a theory of social dynamics, similar to the kinetic theory of gases. In general, given model is hybrid because off static mechanics ideas. In particular, Boltsman equation, Jaynes’s principle of entropy optimality have been applied to preference distribution of first and second type.

  12. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pol, J.C. van de

    2000-01-01

    We incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tautology checkin

  13. Kinetic equation of sociodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Олександрович Касьянов

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to build a theory of social dynamics, similar to the kinetic theory of gases. In general, given model is hybrid because off static mechanics ideas. In particular, Boltsman equation, Jaynes’s principle of entropy optimality have been applied to preference distribution of first and second type.

  14. Dunkl Hyperbolic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Mejjaoli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and study the Dunkl symmetric systems. We prove the well-posedness results for the Cauchy problem for these systems. Eventually we describe the finite speed of it. Next the semi-linear Dunkl-wave equations are also studied.

  15. Nuclear equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present part of our (direct or indirect) knwoledge of the equation of state of nuclear matter in a density-temperature domain for which nucleonic effects are dominant (densities smaller than 2-4 times the saturation density and temperatures smaller than 10-20 MeV). The lectures are divided into three parts corresponding, respectiveley, to direct studies close to the saturation, to the astrophysical case and to the studies involving heavy-ion collisions. In chapter one, after a brief introduction to the concept of equation of state, we discuss the saturation property of nuclear matter. The notion of incompressibility modulus is also introduced and its value is discussed in detail. Nuclear matter calculations trying to reproduce saturation from a nucleon-nucleon interaction are also briefly presented. In chapter two we study the equation of state in the astrophysical context. The role of the nuclear component is discussed in detail for the final phase of the collapse of supernovae cores. A brief presentation of calculations of dense matter constituting neutron stars is also given. Chapter three is devoted to heavy-ion collisions below 500-600 MeV per nucleon. After a brief presentation of both theoretical and experimental frameworks, we focus on three particular aspects which could have a link with the nuclear matter equation of state: the formation of intermediate mass fragments, flow effects and subthreshold particle production

  16. RPA equations and the instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter equation

    CERN Document Server

    Resag, J

    1993-01-01

    We give a derivation of the particle-hole RPA equations for an interacting multi-fermion system by applying the instantaneous approximation to the amputated two-fermion propagator of the system. In relativistic field theory the same approximation leads from the fermion-antifermion Bethe-Salpeter equation to the Salpeter equation. We show that RPA equations and Salpeter equation are indeed equivalent.

  17. Lie Symmetries of Ishimori Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xu-Xia

    2013-01-01

    The Ishimori equation is one of the most important (2+1)-dimensional integrable models,which is an integrable generalization of (1+1)-dimensional classical continuous Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin equations.Based on importance of Lie symmetries in analysis of differential equations,in this paper,we derive Lie symmetries for the Ishimori equation by Hirota's direct method.

  18. Lectures on partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovsky, I G

    1992-01-01

    Graduate-level exposition by noted Russian mathematician offers rigorous, transparent, highly readable coverage of classification of equations, hyperbolic equations, elliptic equations and parabolic equations. Wealth of commentary and insight invaluable for deepening understanding of problems considered in text. Translated from the Russian by A. Shenitzer.

  19. Anticipated backward stochastic differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Shige; Yang, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss new types of differential equations which we call anticipated backward stochastic differential equations (anticipated BSDEs). In these equations the generator includes not only the values of solutions of the present but also the future. We show that these anticipated BSDEs have unique solutions, a comparison theorem for their solutions, and a duality between them and stochastic differential delay equations.

  20. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian N

    2006-01-01

    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  1. ISOTERMAS DE ADSORCIÓN DE BIOPLÁSTICOS DE HARINA DE YUCA MOLDEADOS POR COMPRESIÓN ISOTERMAS DE ADSORÇÃO DE FARINHA DE MANDIOCA BIOPLÁSTICOS MOLDADAS POR COMPRESSÃO ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA FLOUR BIOPLASTICS COMPRESSION MOLDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA P NAVIA

    2011-06-01

    C para a variedade MBRA 383, enquanto o modelo de GAB foi a 35°C por MBRA 383. Calor isostérico de sorção diminuiu com o aumento do teor de umidade de equilíbrio foi encontrado um valor máximo de 87 kJ/mol e 78 kJ/mol, e mínima de 44,6 kJ/mol e 44,5 kJ/mol em amostras preparadas com o CM 7951-5 e MBRA 383, respectivamente.Water adsorption and isosteric heat were evaluated in biopolymers made from flour of two varieties of cassava (CM 7951-5 and MBRA 383, fique dust and glycerol by compression molding technique. The adsorption isotherms of polymeric samples were performed at 15,25, and 35°C in a water activity range of 0.12 to 0.98, using a gravimetric method. The adsorption experimental data were adjusted using the GAB, Caurie, Oswin, Smith, Henderson and Peleg models. The sorption isosteric heat (Qst was determined with Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The results showed that the Peleg model was adjusted appropriately to experimental values of adsorption at 15, 25 and 35°C in the samples prepared with the variety CM 7951-5 and 15 and 25°C for the variety MBRA 383, while the GAB model was at 35°C for MBRA 383. Isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increase in equilibrium moisture content finding the maximum in 87Kj/mol and 78 Kj/mol, and minimum in 44.6 Kj/mol and 44.5 Kj/mol in samples made with CM 7951-5y MBRA 383 respectively.

  2. Stochastic differential equations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2006-01-01

    This text develops the theory of systems of stochastic differential equations, and it presents applications in probability, partial differential equations, and stochastic control problems. Originally published in two volumes, it combines a book of basic theory and selected topics with a book of applications.The first part explores Markov processes and Brownian motion; the stochastic integral and stochastic differential equations; elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations and their relations to stochastic differential equations; the Cameron-Martin-Girsanov theorem; and asymptotic es

  3. Chaos in Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y. Charles

    2009-01-01

    This is a survey on Chaos in Partial Differential Equations. First we classify soliton equations into three categories: 1. (1+1)-dimensional soliton equations, 2. soliton lattices, 3. (1+n)-dimensional soliton equations (n greater than 1). A systematic program has been established by the author and collaborators, for proving the existence of chaos in soliton equations under perturbations. For each category, we pick a representative to present the results. Then we review some initial results o...

  4. Classical Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The author had initiated a revision and translation of "Classical Diophantine Equations" prior to his death. Given the rapid advances in transcendence theory and diophantine approximation over recent years, one might fear that the present work, originally published in Russian in 1982, is mostly superseded. That is not so. A certain amount of updating had been prepared by the author himself before his untimely death. Some further revision was prepared by close colleagues. The first seven chapters provide a detailed, virtually exhaustive, discussion of the theory of lower bounds for linear forms in the logarithms of algebraic numbers and its applications to obtaining upper bounds for solutions to the eponymous classical diophantine equations. The detail may seem stark--- the author fears that the reader may react much as does the tourist on first seeing the centre Pompidou; notwithstanding that, Sprind zuk maintainsa pleasant and chatty approach, full of wise and interesting remarks. His emphases well warrant, ...

  5. Multinomial diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, Ariel; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-01

    We describe a new, microscopic model for diffusion that captures diffusion induced fluctuations at scales where the concept of concentration gives way to discrete particles. We show that in the limit as the number of particles N→∞, our model is equivalent to the classical stochastic diffusion equation (SDE). We test our new model and the SDE against Langevin dynamics in numerical simulations, and show that our model successfully reproduces the correct ensemble statistics, while the classical model fails.

  6. Differential equations with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Abell, Martha L

    2004-01-01

    The Third Edition of the Differential Equations with Mathematica integrates new applications from a variety of fields,especially biology, physics, and engineering. The new handbook is also completely compatible with recent versions of Mathematica and is a perfect introduction for Mathematica beginners.* Focuses on the most often used features of Mathematica for the beginning Mathematica user* New applications from a variety of fields, including engineering, biology, and physics* All applications were completed using recent versions of Mathematica

  7. The open boundary equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Diederen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new equation describing the hydrodynamics in infinitely long tidal channels (i.e., no reflection under the influence of oceanic forcing. The proposed equation is a simple relationship between partial derivatives of water level and velocity. It is formally derived for a progressive wave in a frictionless, prismatic, tidal channel with a horizontal bed. Assessment of a large number of numerical simulations, where an open boundary condition is posed at a certain distance landward, suggests that it can also be considered accurate in the more natural case of converging estuaries with nonlinear friction and a bed slope. The equation follows from the open boundary condition and is therefore a part of the problem formulation for an infinite tidal channel. This finding provides a practical tool for evaluating tidal wave dynamics, by reconstructing the temporal variation of the velocity based on local observations of the water level, providing a fully local open boundary condition and allowing for local friction calibration.

  8. Information Equation of State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Gough

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Landauer’s principle is applied to information in the universe. Once stars began forming there was a constant information energy density as the increasing proportion of matter at high stellar temperatures exactly compensated for the expanding universe. The information equation of state was close to the dark energy value, w = -1, for a wide range of redshifts, 10 > z > 0.8, over one half of cosmic time. A reasonable universe information bit content of only 1087 bits is sufficient for information energy to account for all dark energy. A time varying equation of state with a direct link between dark energy and matter, and linked to star formation in particular, is clearly relevant to the cosmic coincidence problem. In answering the ‘Why now?’ question we wonder ‘What next?’ as we expect the information equation of state to tend towards w = 0 in the future.c

  9. Maxwell Equations as the One Photon Quantum Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell equations (Faraday and Ampere-Maxwell laws) can be presented as a three component equation in a way similar to the two component neutrino equation. However, in this case, the electric and magnetic Gauss's laws can not be derived from first principles. We have shown how all Maxwell equations can be derived simultaneously from first principles, similar to those which have been used to derive the Dirac relativistic electron equation. We have 'also- shown that equations for massless particles, derived by Dirac in 1936, lead to the same result. The complex wave function, being a linear combination of the electric and magnetic fields, is a locally measurable quantity. Therefore Maxwell equations should be used as a guideline for proper interpretations of quantum equations

  10. Equations of the mixed type

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsadze, A V

    1963-01-01

    Equations of the Mixed Type compiles a series of lectures on certain fundamental questions in the theory of equations of mixed type. This book investigates the series of problems concerning linear partial differential equations of the second order in two variables, and possessing the property that the type of the equation changes either on the boundary of or inside the considered domain. Topics covered include general remarks on linear partial differential equations of mixed type; study of the solutions of second order hyperbolic equations with initial conditions given along the lines of parab

  11. Telegrapher's equation for light derived from the transport equation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoenders, Bernhard J.; Graaff, R.

    2005-01-01

    Shortcomings of diffusion theory when applied to turbid media such as biological tissue makes the development of more accurate equations desirable. Several authors developed telegrapher's equations in the well known P-1 approximation. The method used in this paper is different: it is based on the asymptotic evaluation of the solutions of the equation of radiative transport with respect to place and time for all values of the albedo. Various coefficients for the telegrapher's equations were de...

  12. Entropy: From Thermodynamics to Hydrology

    OpenAIRE

    Demetris Koutsoyiannis

    2014-01-01

    Some known results from statistical thermophysics as well as from hydrology are revisited from a different perspective trying: (a) to unify the notion of entropy in thermodynamic and statistical/stochastic approaches of complex hydrological systems and (b) to show the power of entropy and the principle of maximum entropy in inference, both deductive and inductive. The capability for deductive reasoning is illustrated by deriving the law of phase change transition of water (Clausius-Clapeyron)...

  13. Converting fractional differential equations into partial differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    He Ji-Huan; Li Zheng-Biao

    2012-01-01

    A transform is suggested in this paper to convert fractional differential equations with the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative into partial differential equations, and it is concluded that the fractional order in fractional differential equations is equivalent to the fractal dimension.

  14. Dimensional Equations of Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Entropy is a quantity which is of great importance in physics and chemistry. The concept comes out of thermodynamics, proposed by Rudolf Clausius in his analysis of Carnot cycle and linked by Ludwig Boltzmann to the number of specific ways in which a physical system may be arranged. Any physics classroom, in its task of learning physics, has therefore to face this crucial concept. As we will show in this paper, the lectures can be enriched by discussing dimensional equations linked to the entropy of some physical systems.

  15. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  16. Stochastic Geometric Wave Equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzezniak, Z.; Ondreját, Martin

    Cham: Springer, 2015, s. 157-188. (Progress in Probability. 68). ISBN 978-3-0348-0908-5. ISSN 1050-6977. [Stochastic analysis and applications at the Centre Interfacultaire Bernoulli, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. Lausanne (CH), 09.01.2012-29.6.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Stochastic wave equation * Riemannian manifold * homogeneous space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/ondrejat-0447803.pdf

  17. The nonlinear fragmentation equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the kinetics of nonlinear irreversible fragmentation. Here, fragmentation is induced by interactions/collisions between pairs of particles and modelled by general classes of interaction kernels, for several types of breakage models. We construct initial value and scaling solutions of the fragmentation equations, and apply the 'non-vanishing mass flux' criterion for the occurrence of shattering transitions. These properties enable us to determine the phase diagram for the occurrence of shattering states and of scaling states in the phase space of model parameters. (fast track communication)

  18. Elliptic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang; Ion, PDF

    2010-01-01

    The book offers a simultaneous presentation of the theory and of the numerical treatment of elliptic problems. The author starts with a discussion of the Laplace equation in the classical formulation and its discretisation by finite differences and deals with topics of gradually increasing complexity in the following chapters. He introduces the variational formulation of boundary value problems together with the necessary background from functional analysis and describes the finite element method including the most important error estimates. A more advanced chapter leads the reader into the th

  19. Dimensional Equations of Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Entropy is a quantity which is of great importance in physics and chemistry. The concept comes out of thermodynamics, proposed by Rudolf Clausius in his analysis of Carnot cycle and linked by Ludwig Boltzmann to the number of specific ways in which a physical system may be arranged. Any physics classroom, in its task of learning physics, has therefore to face this crucial concept. As we will show in this paper, the lectures can be enriched by discussing dimensional equations linked to the ent...

  20. Matlab differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Differential Equations introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to giving an introduct

  1. Young's equation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Lasse

    2016-04-01

    Young's construction for a contact angle at a three-phase intersection forms the basis of all fields of science that involve wetting and capillary action. We find compelling evidence from recent experimental results on the deformation of a soft solid at the contact line, and displacement of an elastic wire immersed in a liquid, that Young's equation can only be interpreted by surface energies, and not as a balance of surface tensions. It follows that the a priori variable in finding equilibrium is not the position of the contact line, but the contact angle. This finding provides the explanation for the pinning of a contact line. PMID:26940644

  2. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...... actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives action systems the power to model real-time clocks and continuous evolutions within hybrid systems....

  3. Conservational PDF Equations of Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2010-01-01

    Recently we have revisited the traditional probability density function (PDF) equations for the velocity and species in turbulent incompressible flows. They are all unclosed due to the appearance of various conditional means which are modeled empirically. However, we have observed that it is possible to establish a closed velocity PDF equation and a closed joint velocity and species PDF equation through conditions derived from the integral form of the Navier-Stokes equations. Although, in theory, the resulted PDF equations are neither general nor unique, they nevertheless lead to the exact transport equations for the first moment as well as all higher order moments. We refer these PDF equations as the conservational PDF equations. This observation is worth further exploration for its validity and CFD application

  4. Program Transformation by Solving Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鸿

    1991-01-01

    Based on the theory of orthogonal program expansion[8-10],the paper proposes a method to transform programs by solving program equations.By the method,transformation goals are expressed in program equations,and achieved by solving these equations.Although such equations are usually too complicated to be solved directly,the orthogonal expansion of programs makes it possible to reduce such equations into systems of equations only containing simple constructors of programs.Then,the solutions of such equations can be derived by a system of solving and simplifying rules,and algebraic laws of programs.The paper discusses the methods to simplify and solve equations and gives some examples.

  5. On Certain Dual Integral Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Pathak

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual integral equations involving H-Functions have been solved by using the theory of Mellin transforms. The proof is analogous to that of Busbridge on solutions of dual integral equations involving Bessel functions.

  6. The Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monograph treats most of the usual material to be found in texts on the Dirac equation such as the basic formalism of quantum mechanics, representations of Dirac matrices, covariant realization of the Dirac equation, interpretation of negative energies, Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, Klein's paradox, spherically symmetric interactions and a treatment of the relativistic hydrogen atom, etc., and also provides excellent additional treatments of a variety of other relevant topics. The monograph contains an extensive treatment of the Lorentz and Poincare groups and their representations. The author discusses in depth Lie algebaic and projective representations, covering groups, and Mackey's theory and Wigner's realization of induced representations. A careful classification of external fields with respect to their behavior under Poincare transformations is supplemented by a basic account of self-adjointness and spectral properties of Dirac operators. A state-of-the-art treatment of relativistic scattering theory based on a time-dependent approach originally due to Enss is presented. An excellent introduction to quantum electrodynamics in external fields is provided. Various appendices containing further details, notes on each chapter commenting on the history involved and referring to original research papers and further developments in the literature, and a bibliography covering all relevant monographs and over 500 articles on the subject, complete this text. This book should satisfy the needs of a wide audience, ranging from graduate students in theoretical physics and mathematics to researchers interested in mathematical physics

  7. Functional equations for Feynman integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New types of equations for Feynman integrals are found. It is shown that Feynman integrals satisfy functional equations connecting integrals with different kinematics. A regular method is proposed for obtaining such relations. The derivation of functional equations for one-loop two-, three- and four-point functions with arbitrary masses and external momenta is given. It is demonstrated that functional equations can be used for the analytic continuation of Feynman integrals to different kinematic domains

  8. Growth Equation with Conservation Law

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritsen, Kent Baekgaard

    1995-01-01

    A growth equation with a generalized conservation law characterized by an integral kernel is introduced. The equation contains the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang, Sun-Guo-Grant, and Molecular-Beam Epitaxy growth equations as special cases and allows for a unified investigation of growth equations. From a dynamic renormalization-group analysis critical exponents and universality classes are determined for growth models with a conservation law.

  9. Successfully Transitioning to Linear Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Connie; Smith, Wendy M.

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) asks students in as early as fourth grade to solve word problems using equations with variables. Equations studied at this level generate a single solution, such as the equation x + 10 = 25. For students in fifth grade, the Common Core standard for algebraic thinking expects them to…

  10. Hyperbolic Methods for Einstein's Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Reula Oscar

    1998-01-01

    I review evolutionary aspects of general relativity, in particular those related to the hyperbolic character of the field equations and to the applications or consequences that this property entails. I look at several approaches to obtaining symmetric hyperbolic systems of equations out of Einstein's equations by either removing some gauge freedoms from them, or by considering certain linear combinations of a subset of them.

  11. An Extented Wave Action Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左其华

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Navier-Stokes equation, an average wave energy equation and a generalized wave action conservation equation are presented in this paper. The turbulence effects on water particle velocity ui and wave surface elavation ξ as well as energy dissipation are included. Some simplified forms are also given.

  12. The Schroedinger equation and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galilei invariance of the Schroedinger equation requires linearization of the operator by the introduction of anticommuting matrices as coefficients of the linear form. In an external field this leads directly to the Pauli equation, the non-relativistic limit of Dirac's equation. An overview of the complete argument that defines spin as a non-relativistic concept is presented. 9 refs

  13. Resonantly coupled nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A differential matrix eigenvalue problem is used to generate systems of nonlinear evolution equations. They model triad, multitriad, self-modal, and quartet wave interactions. A nonlinear string equation is also recovered as a special case. A continuum limit of the eigenvalue problem and associated evolution equations are discussed. The initial value solution requires an investigation of the corresponding inverse-scattering problem. (auth)

  14. Solving Nonlinear Coupled Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, L.; David, J.

    1986-01-01

    Harmonic balance method developed to obtain approximate steady-state solutions for nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. Method usable with transfer matrices commonly used to analyze shaft systems. Solution to nonlinear equation, with periodic forcing function represented as sum of series similar to Fourier series but with form of terms suggested by equation itself.

  15. Solution of Finite Element Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    An important step in solving any problem by the finite element method is the solution of the global equations. Numerical solution of linear equations is a subject covered in most courses in numerical analysis. However, the equations encountered in most finite element applications have some special...

  16. Quadratic bundle and nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is aimed at giving an exhaustive description of the nonlinear evolution equations (NLEE), connected with the quadratic bundle (the spectral parameter lambda, which enters quadratically into the equations) and at describing Hamiltonian structure of these equations. The equations are solved through the inverse scattering method (ISM). The basic formulae for the scattering problem are given. The spectral expansion of the integrodifferential operator is used so that its eigenfunctions are the squared solutions of the equation. By using the notions of Hamiltonian structure hierarchy and gauge transformations it is shown how to single out physically interesting NLEE

  17. Generalized Klein-Kramers equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Kwok Sau

    2012-12-01

    A generalized Klein-Kramers equation for a particle interacting with an external field is proposed. The equation generalizes the fractional Klein-Kramers equation introduced by Barkai and Silbey [J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 3866 (2000), 10.1021/jp993491m]. Besides, the generalized Klein-Kramers equation can also recover the integro-differential Klein-Kramers equation for continuous-time random walk; this means that it can describe the subdiffusive and superdiffusive regimes in the long-time limit. Moreover, analytic solutions for first two moments both in velocity and displacement (for force-free case) are obtained, and their dynamic behaviors are investigated.

  18. The anti-Einstein equations

    OpenAIRE

    Chaliasos, Evangelos

    2006-01-01

    As we know, from the Einstein equations the vanishing of the four-divergence of the energy-momentum tensor follows. This is the case because the four-divergence of the Einstein tensor vanishes identically. Inversely, we find that from the vanishing of the four-divergence of the energy-momentum tensor not only the Einstein equations follow. Besides, the so-named anti-Einstein equations follow. These equations must be considered as complementary to the Einstein equations. And while from the Ein...

  19. A generalized advection dispersion equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-02-01

    This paper examines a possible effect of uncertainties, variability or heterogeneity of any dynamic system when being included in its evolution rule; the notion is illustrated with the advection dispersion equation, which describes the groundwater pollution model. An uncertain derivative is defined; some properties of the operator are presented. The operator is used to generalize the advection dispersion equation. The generalized equation differs from the standard equation in four properties. The generalized equation is solved via the variational iteration technique. Some illustrative figures are presented.

  20. Reduction of infinite dimensional equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongding Li

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the general Legendre transformation to show the infinite dimensional integrable equations can be reduced to a finite dimensional integrable Hamiltonian system on an invariant set under the flow of the integrable equations. Then we obtain the periodic or quasi-periodic solution of the equation. This generalizes the results of Lax and Novikov regarding the periodic or quasi-periodic solution of the KdV equation to the general case of isospectral Hamiltonian integrable equation. And finally, we discuss the AKNS hierarchy as a special example.

  1. Integral equations and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M

    2007-01-01

    For many years, the subject of functional equations has held a prominent place in the attention of mathematicians. In more recent years this attention has been directed to a particular kind of functional equation, an integral equation, wherein the unknown function occurs under the integral sign. The study of this kind of equation is sometimes referred to as the inversion of a definite integral. While scientists and engineers can already choose from a number of books on integral equations, this new book encompasses recent developments including some preliminary backgrounds of formulations of in

  2. Discovering evolution equations with applications

    CERN Document Server

    McKibben, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Most existing books on evolution equations tend either to cover a particular class of equations in too much depth for beginners or focus on a very specific research direction. Thus, the field can be daunting for newcomers to the field who need access to preliminary material and behind-the-scenes detail. Taking an applications-oriented, conversational approach, Discovering Evolution Equations with Applications: Volume 2-Stochastic Equations provides an introductory understanding of stochastic evolution equations. The text begins with hands-on introductions to the essentials of real and stochast

  3. $\\Lambda$ Scattering Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    The CHY representation of scattering amplitudes is based on integrals over the moduli space of a punctured sphere. We replace the punctured sphere by a double-cover version. The resulting scattering equations depend on a parameter $\\Lambda$ controlling the opening of a branch cut. The new representation of scattering amplitudes possesses an enhanced redundancy which can be used to fix, modulo branches, the location of four punctures while promoting $\\Lambda$ to a variable. Via residue theorems we show how CHY formulas break up into sums of products of smaller (off-shell) ones times a propagator. This leads to a powerful way of evaluating CHY integrals of generic rational functions, which we call the $\\Lambda$ algorithm.

  4. Elliptic scattering equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cardona, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Recently the CHY approach has been extended to one loop level using elliptic functions and modular forms over a Jacobian variety. Due to the difficulty in manipulating these kind of functions, we propose an alternative prescription that is totally algebraic. This new proposal is based on an elliptic algebraic curve embedded in a $\\mathbb{C}P^2$ space. We show that for the simplest integrand, namely the ${\\rm n-gon}$, our proposal indeed reproduces the expected result. By using the recently formulated $\\Lambda-$algorithm, we found a novel recurrence relation expansion in terms of tree level off-shell amplitudes. Our results connect nicely with recent results on the one-loop formulation of the scattering equations. In addition, this new proposal can be easily stretched out to hyperelliptic curves in order to compute higher genus.

  5. Scaling of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Langtangen, Hans Petter

    2016-01-01

    The book serves both as a reference for various scaled models with corresponding dimensionless numbers, and as a resource for learning the art of scaling. A special feature of the book is the emphasis on how to create software for scaled models, based on existing software for unscaled models. Scaling (or non-dimensionalization) is a mathematical technique that greatly simplifies the setting of input parameters in numerical simulations. Moreover, scaling enhances the understanding of how different physical processes interact in a differential equation model. Compared to the existing literature, where the topic of scaling is frequently encountered, but very often in only a brief and shallow setting, the present book gives much more thorough explanations of how to reason about finding the right scales. This process is highly problem dependent, and therefore the book features a lot of worked examples, from very simple ODEs to systems of PDEs, especially from fluid mechanics. The text is easily accessible and exam...

  6. Comparison between characteristics of mild slope equations and Boussinesq equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Boussinesq-type equations and mild-slope equations are compared in terms of their basic forms and characteristics. It is concluded that linear mild-slope equations on dispersion relation are better than non-linear Boussinesq equations. In addition, Berkhoff experiments are computed and compared by the two models, and agreement between model results and available experimental data is found to be quite reasonable, which demonstrates the two models' capacity to simulate wave transformation. However they can deal with different physical processes respectively, and they have their own characteristics.

  7. JWL Equation of State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The JWL equation of state (EOS) is frequently used for the products (and sometimes reactants) of a high explosive (HE). Here we review and systematically derive important properties. The JWL EOS is of the Mie-Grueneisen form with a constant Grueneisen coefficient and a constants specific heat. It is thermodynamically consistent to specify the temperature at a reference state. However, increasing the reference state temperature restricts the EOS domain in the (V, e)-plane of phase space. The restrictions are due to the conditions that P ≥ 0, T ≥ 0, and the isothermal bulk modulus is positive. Typically, this limits the low temperature regime in expansion. The domain restrictions can result in the P-T equilibrium EOS of a partly burned HE failing to have a solution in some cases. For application to HE, the heat of detonation is discussed. Example JWL parameters for an HE, both products and reactions, are used to illustrate the restrictions on the domain of the EOS.

  8. Differential equations methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a variety of techniques for solving ordinary differential equations analytically and features a wealth of examples. Focusing on the modeling of real-world phenomena, it begins with a basic introduction to differential equations, followed by linear and nonlinear first order equations and a detailed treatment of the second order linear equations. After presenting solution methods for the Laplace transform and power series, it lastly presents systems of equations and offers an introduction to the stability theory. To help readers practice the theory covered, two types of exercises are provided: those that illustrate the general theory, and others designed to expand on the text material. Detailed solutions to all the exercises are included. The book is excellently suited for use as a textbook for an undergraduate class (of all disciplines) in ordinary differential equations. .

  9. Spinor wave equation of photon

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Si-Qi; Wang, Jing; Li, Hong; Fan, Xi-Hui; Li, Jing-Wu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give the spinor wave equations of free and unfree photon, which are the differential equation of space-time one order. For the free photon, the spinor wave equations are covariant, and the spinors $\\psi$ are corresponding to the the reducibility representations $D^{10}+D^{01}$ and $D^{10}+D^{01}+D^{1/2 1/2}$ of the proper Lorentz group.

  10. Quaternion Dirac Equation and Supersymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Rawat, Seema; Negi, O. P. S.

    2007-01-01

    Quaternion Dirac equation has been analyzed and its supersymetrization has been discussed consistently. It has been shown that the quaternion Dirac equation automatically describes the spin structure with its spin up and spin down components of two component quaternion Dirac spinors associated with positive and negative energies. It has also been shown that the supersymmetrization of quaternion Dirac equation works well for different cases associated with zero mass, non zero mass, scalar pote...

  11. Differential Equations for Algebraic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bostan, Alin; Chyzak, Frédéric; Salvy, Bruno; Lecerf, Grégoire; Schost, Éric

    2007-01-01

    It is classical that univariate algebraic functions satisfy linear differential equations with polynomial coefficients. Linear recurrences follow for the coefficients of their power series expansions. We show that the linear differential equation of minimal order has coefficients whose degree is cubic in the degree of the function. We also show that there exists a linear differential equation of order linear in the degree whose coefficients are only of quadratic degree. Furthermore, we prove ...

  12. Perturbed linear rough differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Coutin, Laure; Lejay, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    We study linear rough differential equations and we solve perturbed linear rough differential equation using the Duhamel principle. These results provide us with the key technical point to study the regularity of the differential of the Itô map in a subsequent article. Also, the notion of linear rough differential equations leads to consider multiplicative functionals with values in Banach algebra more general than tensor algebra and to consider extensions of classical results such as the Mag...

  13. THE ERMAKOV EQUATION: A COMMENTARY

    OpenAIRE

    P.G.L. Leach; Andriopoulos, K.

    2008-01-01

    We present a short history of the Ermakov Equation with an emphasis on its discovery by theWest and the subsequent boost to research into invariants for nonlinear systems although recognizing some of the significant developments in the East. We present the modern context of the Ermakov Equation in the algebraic and singularity theory of ordinary differential equations and applications to more divers fields. The reader is referred to the previous article (Appl. Anal. Discrete Math., 2 (2008), ...

  14. Hyperbolic Methods for Einstein's Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reula Oscar

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available I review evolutionary aspects of general relativity, in particular those related to the hyperbolic character of the field equations and to the applications or consequences that this property entails. I look at several approaches to obtaining symmetric hyperbolic systems of equations out of Einstein's equations by either removing some gauge freedoms from them, or by considering certain linear combinations of a subset of them.

  15. Two-component Dirac equation

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Da-Wei; Pyshkin, P. V.; Yu, Ting; Lin, Hai-Qing; You, J. Q.; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2016-01-01

    We provide an alternative approach to relativistic dynamics based on the Feshbach projection technique. Instead of directly studying the Dirac equation, we derive a two-component equation for the upper spinor. This approach allows one to investigate the underlying physics in a different perspective. For particles with small mass such as the neutrino, the leading order equation has a Hermitian effective Hamiltonian, implying there is no leakage between the upper and lower spinors. In the weak ...

  16. The generalized Airy diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. Cholewinski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of a generalized Airy diffusion equation and an associated nonlinear partial differential equation are obtained. Trigonometric type functions are derived for a third order generalized radial Euler type operator. An associated complex variable theory and generalized Cauchy-Euler equations are obtained. Further, it is shown that the Airy expansions can be mapped onto the Bessel Calculus of Bochner, Cholewinski and Haimo.

  17. Introduction to ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rabenstein, Albert L

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations is a 12-chapter text that describes useful elementary methods of finding solutions using ordinary differential equations. This book starts with an introduction to the properties and complex variable of linear differential equations. Considerable chapters covered topics that are of particular interest in applications, including Laplace transforms, eigenvalue problems, special functions, Fourier series, and boundary-value problems of mathematical physics. Other chapters are devoted to some topics that are not directly concerned with finding solutio

  18. Equation with the many fathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    1984-01-01

    In this essay I discuss the origin and early development of the first relativistic wave equation, known as the Klein-Gordon equation. In 1926 several physicists, among them Klein, Fock, Schrödinger, and de Broglie, announced this equation as a candidate for a relativistic generalization of the us...... electrodynamics. Although this ambitious attempt attracted some interest in 1926, its impact on the mainstream of development in quantum mechanics was virtually nil....

  19. Temporal Fokker-Planck Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, Jean Pierre; Lutsko, James F.

    2016-01-01

    The temporal Fokker-Plank equation [{\\it J. Stat. Phys.}, {\\bf 3/4}, 527 (2003)] or propagation-dispersion equation was derived to describe diffusive processes with temporal dispersion rather than spatial dispersion as in classical diffusion. %\\cite{boon-grosfils-lutsko}. We present two generalizations of the temporal Fokker-Plank equation for the first passage distribution function $f_j(r,t)$ of a particle moving on a substrate with time delays $\\tau_j$. Both generalizations follow from the ...

  20. A modified electromagnetic wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to find an alternative to the usual electromagnetic wave equation: that is, we want to find a different equation with the same solutions. The final goal is to solve electromagnetic problems with iterative methods. The curl curl operator that appears in the electromagnetic wave equation is difficult to invert numerically, and this cannot be done iteratively. The addition of a higher order term that emphasizes the diagonal terms in the operator may help the solution of the problem, and the new equation should be solvable by an iterative algorithm. The additional mode is suppressed by suitable boundary conditions. (author) 5 figs., 9 refs

  1. Correct Linearization of Einstein's Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Regularly Einstein's equations can be reduced to a wave form (linearly dependent from the second derivatives of the space metric in the absence of gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. As shown here, the origin of the problem is that one uses the general covariant theory of measurement. Here the wave form of Einstein's equations is obtained in the terms of Zelmanov's chronometric invariants (physically observable projections on the observer's time line and spatial section. The obtained equations depend on solely the second derivatives even if gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. The correct linearization proves: the Einstein equations are completely compatible with weak waves of the metric.

  2. Diffusion equations and turbulent transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One scrutinized transport equations differing essentially in form from the classical diffusion one. Description of diffusion under strong nonequilibrium and turbulence involved application of equations that took account of transport nonlocality and memory effects. One analyzed ways to derive the mentioned equations starting from quasi-linear approximation and up to equations with fractional derivatives. One points out the generality of the applied theoretical concepts in spite of the essential difference of the exact physical problems. One demonstrated the way of application of the theoretical and probabilistic ideas

  3. Diffusion equations and turbulent transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion equations are considered that differ substantially in structure from classical ones. A description of diffusion under strongly nonequilibrium conditions in a highly turbulent plasma requires the use of equations that take into account memory effects and the nonlocal nature of transport. Different methods are developed for constructing such equations, ranging from those in the quasilinear approximation to those with fractional derivatives. It is emphasized that the theoretical concepts underlying the equations proposed are common for a very wide variety of specific physical problems. The ways of applying theoretical probabilistic ideas are demonstrated

  4. Electronic representation of wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veigend, Petr; Kunovský, Jiří; Kocina, Filip; Nečasová, Gabriela; Šátek, Václav; Valenta, Václav

    2016-06-01

    The Taylor series method for solving differential equations represents a non-traditional way of a numerical solution. Even though this method is not much preferred in the literature, experimental calculations done at the Department of Intelligent Systems of the Faculty of Information Technology of TU Brno have verified that the accuracy and stability of the Taylor series method exceeds the currently used algorithms for numerically solving differential equations. This paper deals with solution of Telegraph equation using modelling of a series small pieces of the wire. Corresponding differential equations are solved by the Modern Taylor Series Method.

  5. ON A CORRELATION BETWEEN DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTIC EQUATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Boro M. Piperevski

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to derive the dependence of the nature of a solution of a class of differential equations of n-th order with polynomial coefficients on the solutions of the corresponding characteristic algebraic equation of n-th degree.

  6. Tippe Top Equations and Equations for the Related Mechanical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rutstam, Nils

    2012-01-01

    The equations of motion for the rolling and gliding Tippe Top (TT) are nonintegrable and difficult to analyze. The only existing arguments about TT inversion are based on analysis of stability of asymptotic solutions and the LaSalle type theorem. They do not explain the dynamics of inversion. To approach this problem we review and analyze here the equations of motion for the rolling and gliding TT in three equivalent forms, each one providing different bits of information about motion of TT. They lead to the main equation for the TT, which describes well the oscillatory character of motion of the symmetry axis $\\mathbf{\\hat{3}}$ during the inversion. We show also that the equations of motion of TT give rise to equations of motion for two other simpler mechanical systems: the gliding heavy symmetric top and the gliding eccentric cylinder. These systems can be of aid in understanding the dynamics of the inverting TT.

  7. Tippe Top Equations and Equations for the Related Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Rutstam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The equations of motion for the rolling and gliding Tippe Top (TT are nonintegrable and difficult to analyze. The only existing arguments about TT inversion are based on analysis of stability of asymptotic solutions and the LaSalle type theorem. They do not explain the dynamics of inversion. To approach this problem we review and analyze here the equations of motion for the rolling and gliding TT in three equivalent forms, each one providing different bits of information about motion of TT. They lead to the main equation for the TT, which describes well the oscillatory character of motion of the symmetry axis 3ˆ during the inversion. We show also that the equations of motion of TT give rise to equations of motion for two other simpler mechanical systems: the gliding heavy symmetric top and the gliding eccentric cylinder. These systems can be of aid in understanding the dynamics of the inverting TT.

  8. On asymptotics for difference equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafei, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis a class of nonlinear oscillator equations is studied. Asymptotic approximations of first integrals for nonlinear difference equations are constructed by using the recently developed perturbation method based on invariance vectors. The asymptotic approximations of the solutions of the

  9. Solving equations by topological methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Górniewicz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we survey most important results from topological fixed point theory which can be directly applied to differential equations. Some new formulations are presented. We believe that our article will be useful for analysts applying topological fixed point theory in nonlinear analysis and in differential equations.

  10. Solving equations by topological methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lech Górniewicz

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we survey most important results from topological fixed point theory which can be directly applied to differential equations. Some new formulations are presented. We believe that our article will be useful for analysts applying topological fixed point theory in nonlinear analysis and in differential equations.

  11. Partial Completion of Equational Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永强; 林凯; 陆朝俊

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the notion of partial completion of equational theories is proposed, which is a procedure to construct a confluent term rewriting system from an equational theory without requirement of termination condition. A partial completion algorithm is presented with a brief description of its application in a program development system.

  12. Differential equations a concise course

    CERN Document Server

    Bear, H S

    2011-01-01

    Concise introduction for undergraduates includes, among other topics, a survey of first order equations, discussions of complex-valued solutions, linear differential operators, inverse operators and variation of parameters method, the Laplace transform, Picard's existence theorem, and an exploration of various interpretations of systems of equations. Numerous clearly stated theorems and proofs, examples, and problems followed by solutions.

  13. Differential equations and moving frames

    OpenAIRE

    Abib, Odinette Renée

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to study the relationship between differential equations, Pfaffian systems and geometric structures, via the method of moving frames of E.Cartan. We show a local structure theorem. The Lie algebra aspects differential equations is studied too.

  14. Enclosing Solutions of Integral Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; NA NA NA Caprani, Ole; Stauning, Ole

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for enclosing the solution of an integral equation. It is assumed that a solution exists and that the corresponding integral operator T is a contraction near y. When solving the integral equation by iteration we obtain a result which is normally different from y because of...

  15. Solutions to Arithmetic Convolution Equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Glöckner, H.; Lucht, L.G.; Porubský, Štefan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 6 (2007), s. 1619-1629. ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/04/0381 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : arithmetic functions * Dirichlet convolution * polynomial equations * analytic equations * topological algebras * holomorphic functional calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.520, year: 2007

  16. Non-relativistic BUU equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boltzmann-Uhlenbeck (BUU) equation, which is the time evolution of the wigner function of the single particle Green's function, is dervied by using the closed-time Green's function approach. The quantum mechanical approximation in derving the BUU equation is discussed

  17. Phenomenological equations for reacting fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonlocal phenomenological equation is introduced for a multicomponent fluid where chemical or nuclear reactions are taking place. The reciprocity between the nonlocal linear-coefficients is examined closely. An approximation reduces the nonlocal equation to the ordinary phenomenological relation with correction terms which show clearly a coupling of the reaction with the diffusion and the thermal conduction in an isotropic system. (auth.)

  18. Uncertainty of empirical correlation equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.; Lovell-Smith, J. W.; Saunders, P.; Seitz, S.

    2016-08-01

    The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) has published a set of empirical reference equations of state, forming the basis of the 2010 Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS-10), from which all thermodynamic properties of seawater, ice, and humid air can be derived in a thermodynamically consistent manner. For each of the equations of state, the parameters have been found by simultaneously fitting equations for a range of different derived quantities using large sets of measurements of these quantities. In some cases, uncertainties in these fitted equations have been assigned based on the uncertainties of the measurement results. However, because uncertainties in the parameter values have not been determined, it is not possible to estimate the uncertainty in many of the useful quantities that can be calculated using the parameters. In this paper we demonstrate how the method of generalised least squares (GLS), in which the covariance of the input data is propagated into the values calculated by the fitted equation, and in particular into the covariance matrix of the fitted parameters, can be applied to one of the TEOS-10 equations of state, namely IAPWS-95 for fluid pure water. Using the calculated parameter covariance matrix, we provide some preliminary estimates of the uncertainties in derived quantities, namely the second and third virial coefficients for water. We recommend further investigation of the GLS method for use as a standard method for calculating and propagating the uncertainties of values computed from empirical equations.

  19. Saturation and linear transport equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutak, K.

    2009-03-15

    We show that the GBW saturation model provides an exact solution to the one dimensional linear transport equation. We also show that it is motivated by the BK equation considered in the saturated regime when the diffusion and the splitting term in the diffusive approximation are balanced by the nonlinear term. (orig.)

  20. Saturation and linear transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the GBW saturation model provides an exact solution to the one dimensional linear transport equation. We also show that it is motivated by the BK equation considered in the saturated regime when the diffusion and the splitting term in the diffusive approximation are balanced by the nonlinear term. (orig.)

  1. A search on Dirac equation

    OpenAIRE

    Kocak, M.; Gonul, B.

    2007-01-01

    The solutions, in terms of orthogonal polynomials, of Dirac equation with analytically solvable potentials are investigated within a novel formalism by transforming the relativistic equation into a Schrodinger like one. Earlier results are discussed in a unified framework and certain solutions of a large class of potentials are given.

  2. Wigner transforms and Liouville equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent works concerning the semi-classical limit (h barred tending to zero) of the Quantum Mechanics linear and non linear models or equations, are presented. The non linear case is corresponding to mean field (or self consistent) models and gives, at the limit, the Vlasov equations of the Classical Statistical Mechanics. 48 refs

  3. Singularity: Raychaudhuri equation once again

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naresh Dadhich

    2007-07-01

    I first recount Raychaudhuri's deep involvement with the singularity problem in general relativity. I then argue that precisely the same situation has arisen today in loop quantum cosmology as obtained when Raychaudhuri discovered his celebrated equation. We thus need a new analogue of the Raychaudhuri equation in quantum gravity.

  4. Nonlinear evolution equations and the Painleve test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a survey is given of new results of the Painleve test and nonlinear evolution equations where ordinary- and partial-differential equations are considered. The authors study the semiclassical Haynes-Cumming model, the energy-eigenvalue-level-motion equation, the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation and the self-dual Yang-Mills equation

  5. Conservation Laws of Differential Equations in Finance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Mao-Chang; MEI Feng-Xiang; SHANG Mei

    2005-01-01

    Conservation laws of some differential equations in fiance are studied in this paper. This method does not involve the use or existence of a variational principle. As an alternative, linearize the given equation and find adjoint equation of the linearized equation, the conservation laws can be constructed directly from the symmetries and adjoint symmetries of the associated linearized equation and its adjoint equation.

  6. Integrability of equations for soliton's eigenfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigenfunctions of the auxiliary linear problems for the soliton equations obey the nonlinear evolution equations. It is shown that these eigenfunction equations are integrable by the inverse spectral transform method. Eigenfunction equations are also the generating equations. Several (1+1) and (2+1) dimensional eigenfunction equations and their properties are considered. 11 refs

  7. Conservation laws of semidiscrete canonical Hamiltonian equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many evolution partial differential equations which can be cast into Hamiltonian form. Conservation laws of these equations are related to one-parameter Hamiltonian symmetries admitted by the PDEs. The same result holds for semidiscrete Hamiltonian equations. In this paper we consider semidiscrete canonical Hamiltonian equations. Using symmetries, we find conservation laws for the semidiscretized nonlinear wave equation and Schroedinger equation. (author)

  8. Conservation Laws of Differential Equations in Finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conservation laws of some differential equations in fiance are studied in this paper. This method does not involve the use or existence of a variational principle. As an alternative, linearize the given equation and find adjoint equation of the linearized equation, the conservation laws can be constructed directly from the symmetries and adjoint symmetries of the associated linearized equation and its adjoint equation.

  9. Transport Equations for Oscillating Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunfan

    2013-01-01

    We derive a suite of generalized Boltzmann equations, based on the density-matrix formalism, that incorporates the physics of neutrino oscillations for two- and three-flavor oscillations, matter refraction, and self-refraction. The resulting equations are straightforward extensions of the classical transport equations that nevertheless contain the full physics of quantum oscillation phenomena. In this way, our broadened formalism provides a bridge between the familiar neutrino transport algorithms employed by supernova modelers and the more quantum-heavy approaches frequently employed to illuminate the various neutrino oscillation effects. We also provide the corresponding angular-moment versions of this generalized equation set. Our goal is to make it easier for astrophysicists to address oscillation phenomena in a language with which they are familiar. The equations we derive are simple and practical, and are intended to facilitate progress concerning oscillation phenomena in the context of core-collapse su...

  10. Determining dynamical equations is hard

    CERN Document Server

    Cubitt, Toby S; Wolf, Michael M

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of any physical system is governed by its underlying dynamical equations--the differential equations describing how the system evolves with time--and much of physics is ultimately concerned with discovering these dynamical equations and understanding their consequences. At the end of the day, any such dynamical law is identified by making measurements at different times, and computing the dynamical equation consistent with the acquired data. In this work, we show that, remarkably, this process is a provably computationally intractable problem (technically, it is NP-hard). That is, even for a moderately complex system, no matter how accurately we have specified the data, discovering its dynamical equations can take an infeasibly long time (unless P=NP). As such, we find a complexity-theoretic solution to both the quantum and the classical embedding problems; the classical version is a long-standing open problem, dating from 1937, which we finally lay to rest.

  11. Nominal Logic with Equations Only

    CERN Document Server

    Clouston, Ranald

    2011-01-01

    Many formal systems, particularly in computer science, may be captured by equations modulated by side conditions asserting the "freshness of names"; these can be reasoned about with Nominal Equational Logic (NEL). Like most logics of this sort NEL employs this notion of freshness as a first class logical connective. However, this can become inconvenient when attempting to translate results from standard equational logic to the nominal setting. This paper presents proof rules for a logic whose only connectives are equations, which we call Nominal Equation-only Logic (NEoL). We prove that NEoL is just as expressive as NEL. We then give a simple description of equality in the empty NEoL-theory, then extend that result to describe freshness in the empty NEL-theory.

  12. Generalizing the cosmic energy equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We generalize the cosmic energy equation to the case when massive particles interact via a modified gravitational potential of the form φ(a,r), which is allowed to explicitly depend upon the cosmological time through the expansion factor a(t). Using the nonrelativistic approximation for particle dynamics, we derive the equation for the cosmological expansion which has the form of the Friedmann equation with a renormalized gravitational constant. The generalized Layzer-Irvine cosmic energy equation and the associated cosmic virial theorem are applied to some recently proposed modifications of the Newtonian gravitational interaction between dark-matter particles. We also draw attention to the possibility that the cosmic energy equation may be used to probe the expansion history of the universe thereby throwing light on the nature of dark matter and dark energy.

  13. Some Variations on Maxwell's Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ascoli, G A; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Goldin, Gerald A.

    2006-01-01

    In the first sections of this article, we discuss two variations on Maxwell's equations that have been introduced in earlier work---a class of nonlinear Maxwell theories with well-defined Galilean limits (and correspondingly generalized Yang-Mills equations), and a linear modification motivated by the coupling of the electromagnetic potential with a certain nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In the final section, revisiting an old idea of Lorentz, we write Maxwell's equations for a theory in which the electrostatic force of repulsion between like charges differs fundamentally in magnitude from the electrostatic force of attraction between unlike charges. We elaborate on Lorentz' description by means of electric and magnetic field strengths, whose governing equations separate into two fully relativistic Maxwell systems---one describing ordinary electromagnetism, and the other describing a universally attractive or repulsive long-range force. If such a force cannot be ruled out {\\it a priori\\/} by known physical ...

  14. Stochastic differential equations, backward SDEs, partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Pardoux, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    This research monograph presents results to researchers in stochastic calculus, forward and backward stochastic differential equations, connections between diffusion processes and second order partial differential equations (PDEs), and financial mathematics. It pays special attention to the relations between SDEs/BSDEs and second order PDEs under minimal regularity assumptions, and also extends those results to equations with multivalued coefficients. The authors present in particular the theory of reflected SDEs in the above mentioned framework and include exercises at the end of each chapter. Stochastic calculus and stochastic differential equations (SDEs) were first introduced by K. Itô in the 1940s, in order to construct the path of diffusion processes (which are continuous time Markov processes with continuous trajectories taking their values in a finite dimensional vector space or manifold), which had been studied from a more analytic point of view by Kolmogorov in the 1930s. Since then, this topic has...

  15. Higher derivative gravity: field equation as the equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Ramit; Mohd, Arif

    2016-01-01

    One of the striking features of general relativity is that the Einstein equation is implied by the Clausius relation imposed on a small patch of locally constructed causal horizon. Extension of this thermodynamic derivation of the field equation to more general theories of gravity has been attempted many times in the last two decades. In particular, equations of motion for minimally coupled higher curvature theories of gravity, but without the derivatives of curvature, have previously been derived using a thermodynamic reasoning. In that derivation the horizon slices were endowed with an entropy density whose form resembles that of the Noether charge for diffeomorphisms, and was dubbed the Noetheresque entropy. In this paper, we propose a new entropy density, closely related to the Noetheresque form, such that the field equation of any diffeomorphism invariant metric theory of gravity can be derived by imposing the Clausius relation on a small patch of local causal horizon.

  16. Higher derivative gravity: Field equation as the equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ramit; Liberati, Stefano; Mohd, Arif

    2016-08-01

    One of the striking features of general relativity is that the Einstein equation is implied by the Clausius relation imposed on a small patch of locally constructed causal horizon. The extension of this thermodynamic derivation of the field equation to more general theories of gravity has been attempted many times in the last two decades. In particular, equations of motion for minimally coupled higher-curvature theories of gravity, but without the derivatives of curvature, have previously been derived using a thermodynamic reasoning. In that derivation the horizon slices were endowed with an entropy density whose form resembles that of the Noether charge for diffeomorphisms, and was dubbed the Noetheresque entropy. In this paper, we propose a new entropy density, closely related to the Noetheresque form, such that the field equation of any diffeomorphism-invariant metric theory of gravity can be derived by imposing the Clausius relation on a small patch of local causal horizon.

  17. Extended Trial Equation Method for Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepreel, Khaled A.; Nofal, Taher A.

    2015-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to use the extended trial equation method to construct a series of some new solutions for some nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) in mathematical physics. We will construct the solutions in many different functions such as hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, Jacobi elliptic function solutions, and rational functional solutions for the nonlinear PDEs when the balance number is a real number via the Zhiber-Shabat nonlinear differential equation. The balance number of this method is not constant as we shown in other methods, but it is changed by changing the trial equation derivative definition. This method allowed us to construct many new types of solutions. It is shown by using the Maple software package that all obtained solutions satisfy the original PDEs.

  18. Soliton equations and Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, L A

    2002-01-01

    The theory of soliton equations and integrable systems has developed rapidly during the last 30 years with numerous applications in mechanics and physics. For a long time, books in this field have not been written but the flood of papers was overwhelming: many hundreds, maybe thousands of them. All this output followed one single work by Gardner, Green, Kruskal, and Mizura on the Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV), which had seemed to be merely an unassuming equation of mathematical physics describing waves in shallow water. Besides its obvious practical use, this theory is attractive also becau

  19. Galois theory of difference equations

    CERN Document Server

    Put, Marius

    1997-01-01

    This book lays the algebraic foundations of a Galois theory of linear difference equations and shows its relationship to the analytic problem of finding meromorphic functions asymptotic to formal solutions of difference equations. Classically, this latter question was attacked by Birkhoff and Tritzinsky and the present work corrects and greatly generalizes their contributions. In addition results are presented concerning the inverse problem in Galois theory, effective computation of Galois groups, algebraic properties of sequences, phenomena in positive characteristics, and q-difference equations. The book is aimed at advanced graduate researchers and researchers.

  20. Equational theories of tropical sernirings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Esik, Zoltan; Ingolfsdottir, Anna

    2003-01-01

    of these commutative idempotent weak semirings, the paper offers characterizations of the equations that hold in them, decidability results for their equational theories, explicit descriptions of the free algebras in the varieties they generate, and relative axiomatization results. Udgivelsesdato......This paper studies the equational theories of various exotic semirings presented in the literature. Exotic semirings are semirings whose underlying carrier set is some subset of the set of real numbers equipped with binary operations of minimum or maximum as sum, and addition as product. Two prime...

  1. Lectures on ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hurewicz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Hailed by The American Mathematical Monthly as ""a rigorous and lively introduction,"" this text explores a topic of perennial interest in mathematics. The author, a distinguished mathematician and formulator of the Hurewicz theorem, presents a clear and lucid treatment that emphasizes geometric methods. Topics include first-order scalar and vector equations, basic properties of linear vector equations, and two-dimensional nonlinear autonomous systems. Suitable for senior mathematics students, the text begins with an examination of differential equations of the first order in one unknown funct

  2. THE ERMAKOV EQUATION: A COMMENTARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. L. Leach

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a short history of the Ermakov Equation with an emphasis on its discovery by theWest and the subsequent boost to research into invariants for nonlinear systems although recognizing some of the significant developments in the East. We present the modern context of the Ermakov Equation in the algebraic and singularity theory of ordinary differential equations and applications to more divers fields. The reader is referred to the previous article (Appl. Anal. Discrete Math., 2 (2008, 123–145 for an English translation of Ermakov’s original paper.

  3. Loop equations from differential systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, Bertrand; Marchal, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    To any differential system $d\\Psi=\\Phi\\Psi$ where $\\Psi$ belongs to a Lie group (a fiber of a principal bundle) and $\\Phi$ is a Lie algebra $\\mathfrak g$ valued 1-form on a Riemann surface $\\Sigma$, is associated an infinite sequence of "correlators" $W_n$ that are symmetric $n$-forms on $\\Sigma^n$. The goal of this article is to prove that these correlators always satisfy "loop equations", the same equations satisfied by correlation functions in random matrix models, or the same equations as Virasoro or W-algebra constraints in CFT.

  4. Integral equation methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Volakis, John

    2012-01-01

    This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the mo

  5. Direct 'delay' reductions of the Toda equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new direct method of obtaining reductions of the Toda equation is described. We find a canonical and complete class of all possible reductions under certain assumptions. The resulting equations are ordinary differential-difference equations, sometimes referred to as delay-differential equations. The representative equation of this class is hypothesized to be a new version of one of the classical Painleve equations. The Lax pair associated with this equation is obtained, also by reduction. (fast track communication)

  6. Direct "Delay" Reductions of the Toda Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Nalini

    2008-01-01

    A new direct method of obtaining reductions of the Toda equation is described. We find a canonical and complete class of all possible reductions under certain assumptions. The resulting equations are ordinary differential-difference equations, sometimes referred to as delay-differential equations. The representative equation of this class is hypothesized to be a new version of one of the classical Painlev\\'e equations. The Lax pair associated to this equation is obtained, also by reduction.

  7. Integral Transform Approach to Generalized Tricomi Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Yagdjian, Karen

    2014-01-01

    We present some integral transform that allows to obtain solutions of the generalized Tricomi equation from solutions of a simpler equation. We used in [13,14],[41]-[46] the particular version of this transform in order to investigate in a unified way several equations such as the linear and semilinear Tricomi equations, Gellerstedt equation, the wave equation in Einstein-de Sitter spacetime, the wave and the Klein-Gordon equations in the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes.

  8. Symmetry Analysis of Telegraph Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Nadjafikhah, Mehdi; Hejazi, Seyed Reza

    2010-01-01

    Lie symmetry group method is applied to study the Telegraph equation. The symmetry group and its optimal system are given, and group invariant solutions associated to the symmetries are obtained. Finally the structure of the Lie algebra symmetries is determined.

  9. Overdetermined Systems of Linear Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth

    1990-01-01

    Explored is an overdetermined system of linear equations to find an appropriate least squares solution. A geometrical interpretation of this solution is given. Included is a least squares point discussion. (KR)

  10. Correct Linearization of Einstein's Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Routinely, Einstein’s equations are be reduced to a wave form (linearly independent of the second derivatives of the space metric in the absence of gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel’s symbols. As shown herein, the origin of the problem is the use of the general covariant theory of measurement. Herein the wave form of Einstein’s equations is obtained in terms of Zelmanov’s chronometric invariants (physically observable projections on the observer’s time line and spatial section. The equations so obtained depend solely upon the second derivatives, even for gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel’s symbols. The correct linearization proves that the Einstein equations are completely compatible with weak waves of the metric.

  11. Spin equation and its solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrov, V G; Baldiotti, M C; Levin, A D

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to study in detail the so-called spin equation (SE) and present both the methods of generating new solution and a new set of exact solutions. We recall that the SE with a real external field can be treated as a reduction of the Pauli equation to the (0+1)-dimensional case. Two-level systems can be described by an SE with a particular form of the external field. In this article, we also consider associated equations that are equivalent or (in one way or another) related to the SE. We describe the general solution of the SE and solve the inverse problem for this equation. We construct the evolution operator for the SE and consider methods of generating new sets of exact solutions. Finally, we find a new set of exact solutions of the SE.

  12. Solving Differential Equations in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although R is still predominantly applied for statistical analysis and graphical representation, it is rapidly becoming more suitable for mathematical computing. One of the fields where considerable progress has been made recently is the solution of differential equations. Here w...

  13. Diophantine approximations and Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Wolfgang M

    1991-01-01

    "This book by a leading researcher and masterly expositor of the subject studies diophantine approximations to algebraic numbers and their applications to diophantine equations. The methods are classical, and the results stressed can be obtained without much background in algebraic geometry. In particular, Thue equations, norm form equations and S-unit equations, with emphasis on recent explicit bounds on the number of solutions, are included. The book will be useful for graduate students and researchers." (L'Enseignement Mathematique) "The rich Bibliography includes more than hundred references. The book is easy to read, it may be a useful piece of reading not only for experts but for students as well." Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum

  14. Geophysical interpretation using integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Eskola, L

    1992-01-01

    Along with the general development of numerical methods in pure and applied to apply integral equations to geophysical modelling has sciences, the ability improved considerably within the last thirty years or so. This is due to the successful derivation of integral equations that are applicable to the modelling of complex structures, and efficient numerical algorithms for their solution. A significant stimulus for this development has been the advent of fast digital computers. The purpose of this book is to give an idea of the principles by which boundary-value problems describing geophysical models can be converted into integral equations. The end results are the integral formulas and integral equations that form the theoretical framework for practical applications. The details of mathematical analysis have been kept to a minimum. Numerical algorithms are discussed only in connection with some illustrative examples involving well-documented numerical modelling results. The reader is assu­ med to have a back...

  15. Improved beam propagation method equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichelatti, E; Pozzi, G

    1998-01-01

    Improved beam propagation method (BPM) equations are derived for the general case of arbitrary refractive-index spatial distributions. It is shown that in the paraxial approximation the discrete equations admit an analytical solution for the propagation of a paraxial spherical wave, which converges to the analytical solution of the paraxial Helmholtz equation. The generalized Kirchhoff-Fresnel diffraction integral between the object and the image planes can be derived, with its coefficients expressed in terms of the standard ABCD matrix. This result allows the substitution, in the case of an unaberrated system, of the many numerical steps with a single analytical step. We compared the predictions of the standard and improved BPM equations by considering the cases of a Maxwell fish-eye and of a Luneburg lens. PMID:18268554

  16. Scattering Equations and KLT Orthogonality

    OpenAIRE

    Cachazo, Freddy; He, Song; Yuan, Ellis Ye

    2013-01-01

    Several recent developments point to the fact that rational maps from n-punctured spheres to the null cone of D dimensional momentum space provide a natural language for describing the scattering of massless particles in D dimensions. In this note we identify and study equations relating the kinematic invariants and the puncture locations, which we call the scattering equations. We provide an inductive algorithm in the number of particles for their solutions and prove a remarkable property wh...

  17. Half-linear dynamic equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agarwal, R. P.; Bohner, Martin; Řehák, Pavel

    Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003 - (Agarwal, R.; O´Regan, D.), s. 1-56 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/0079; GA ČR(CZ) GP201/01/P041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : dynamic equation s * time scales * half-linear equation s Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. On solving periodic Riccati equations

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Numerically reliable algorithms to compute the periodic non-negative definite stabilizing solutions of the periodic differential Riccati equation (PRDE) and discrete-time periodic Riccati equation (DPRE) are proposed. For the numerical solution of PRDEs, a new multiple shooting-type algorithm is developed to compute the periodic solutions in an arbitrary number of time moments within one period by employing suitable discretizations of the continuous-time problems. In contrast to single shooti...

  19. Stochastic Geometric Partial Differential Equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzezniak, Z.; Goldys, B.; Ondreját, Martin

    1. Singapore : World Scientific Publishing Company, 2011 - (Zhao, H.; Truman, A.), s. 1-32 ISBN 978-981-4360-91-3. - (Interdisciplinary Mathematical Sciences. 12) R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0752 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic geometric * partial differential equations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/ondrejat-stochastic geometric partial differential equations. pdf

  20. Hidden Statistics of Schroedinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Work was carried out in determination of the mathematical origin of randomness in quantum mechanics and creating a hidden statistics of Schr dinger equation; i.e., to expose the transitional stochastic process as a "bridge" to the quantum world. The governing equations of hidden statistics would preserve such properties of quantum physics as superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods.

  1. Hydrodynamic equations for granular mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Garzo, V.; Dufty, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Many features of granular media can be modeled by a fluid of hard spheres with inelastic collisions. Under rapid flow conditions, the macroscopic behavior of grains can be described through hydrodynamic equations accounting for dissipation among the interacting particles. A basis for the derivation of hydrodynamic equations and explicit expressions appearing in them is provided by the Boltzmann kinetic theory conveniently modified to account for inelastic binary collisions. The goal of this r...

  2. Boltzmann equation and hydrodynamic fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangeli, Matteo; Kröger, Martin; Ottinger, Hans Christian

    2009-11-01

    We apply the method of invariant manifolds to derive equations of generalized hydrodynamics from the linearized Boltzmann equation and determine exact transport coefficients, obeying Green-Kubo formulas. Numerical calculations are performed in the special case of Maxwell molecules. We investigate, through the comparison with experimental data and former approaches, the spectrum of density fluctuations and address the regime of finite Knudsen numbers and finite frequencies hydrodynamics. PMID:20364972

  3. Boltzmann equation and hydrodynamic fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Colangeli, M.; Kroger, M.; Ottinger, H. C.

    2009-01-01

    We apply the method of invariant manifolds to derive equations of generalized hydrodynamics from the linearized Boltzmann equation and determine exact transport coefficients, obeying Green-Kubo formulas. Numerical calculations are performed in the special case of Maxwell molecules. We investigate, through the comparison with experimental data and former approaches, the spectrum of density fluctuations and address the regime of finite Knudsen numbers and finite frequencies hydrodynamics.

  4. A New Unified Evolution Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jyh-Liong

    1998-01-01

    WE propose a new unified evolution equation for parton distribution functions appropriate for both large and small Bjorken x. Compared with the Ciafaloni- Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini equation, the cancellation of soft poles between virtual and real gluon emissions is made explicitly without introducing infrared cutoffs, next-to-leading contributions to the Sudakov resummation can be included systematically, and the scales of the running coupling constants are determined unambiguously.

  5. Wave equations for pulse propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity. The memo discusses various ways of characterizing the polarization characteristics of plane waves, that is, of parameterizing a transverse unit vector, such as the Jones vector, the Stokes vector, and the Poincare sphere. It discusses the connection between macroscopically defined quantities, such as the intensity or, more generally, the Stokes parameters, and microscopic field amplitudes. The material presented here is a portion of a more extensive treatment of propagation to be presented separately. The equations presented here have been described in various books and articles. They are collected here as a summary and review of theory needed when treating pulse propagation

  6. Computational partial differential equations using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jichun

    2008-01-01

    Brief Overview of Partial Differential Equations The parabolic equations The wave equations The elliptic equations Differential equations in broader areasA quick review of numerical methods for PDEsFinite Difference Methods for Parabolic Equations Introduction Theoretical issues: stability, consistence, and convergence 1-D parabolic equations2-D and 3-D parabolic equationsNumerical examples with MATLAB codesFinite Difference Methods for Hyperbolic Equations IntroductionSome basic difference schemes Dissipation and dispersion errors Extensions to conservation lawsThe second-order hyperbolic PDE

  7. Equationally Compact Acts : Coproducts / Peeter Normak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normak, Peeter

    1998-01-01

    In this article equational compactness of acts and its generalizations are discussed. As equational compactness does not carry over to coproducts a slight generalization of c-equational campactness is introduced. It is proved that a coproduct of acts is c-equationally compact if and only if all components are c-equationally campact

  8. Exact solutions of the generalized Bretherton equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A., E-mail: nakudr@gmail.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Research Nuclear University, MEPHI, 31 Kashirskoe Shosse, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sinelshchikov, Dmitry I.; Demina, Maria V. [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Research Nuclear University, MEPHI, 31 Kashirskoe Shosse, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-14

    The generalized Bretherton equation is studied. The Baecklund transformations between traveling wave solutions of the generalized Bretherton equation and solutions of polynomial ordinary differential equation are constructed. The classification problem for meromorphic solutions of the latter equation is discussed. Several new families of exact solutions for the generalized Brethenton equation are given.

  9. Exact results for the Boltzmann equation and Smoluchowski's coagulation equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost no analytical solutions have been found for realistic intermolecular forces, largely due to the complicated structure of the collision term which calls for the construction of simplified models, in which as many physical properties are maintained as possible. In the first three chapters of this thesis such model Boltzmann equations are studied. Only spatially homogeneous gases with isotropic distribution functions are considered. Chapter I considers transition kernels, chapter II persistent scattering models and chapter III very hard particles. The second part of this dissertation deals with Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for the size distribution function in a coagulating system, with chapters devoted to the following topics: kinetics of gelation and universality, coagulation equations with gelation and exactly soluble models of nucleation. (Auth./C.F.)

  10. Non-linear constitutive equations for gravitoelectromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Duplij, Steven; Di Grezia, Elisabetta; Esposito, Giampiero; Kotvytskiy, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies non-linear constitutive equations for gravitoelectromagnetism. Eventually, the problem is solved of finding, for a given particular solution of the gravity-Maxwell equations, the exact form of the corresponding non-linear constitutive equations.

  11. Linear integral equations and soliton systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is presented of classical integrable dynamical systems in one temporal and one spatial dimension. The direct linearizations are given of several nonlinear partial differential equations, for example the Korteweg-de Vries equation, the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation, the sine-Gordon equation, the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, and the equation of motion for the isotropic Heisenberg spin chain; the author also discusses several relations between these equations. The Baecklund transformations of these partial differential equations are treated on the basis of a singular transformation of the measure (or equivalently of the plane-wave factor) occurring in the corresponding linear integral equations, and the Baecklund transformations are used to derive the direct linearization of a chain of so-called modified partial differential equations. Finally it is shown that the singular linear integral equations lead in a natural way to the direct linearizations of various nonlinear difference-difference equations. (Auth.)

  12. Multi-Time Equations, Classical and Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Petrat, Sören

    2013-01-01

    Multi-time equations are evolution equations involving several time variables, one for each particle. Such equations have been considered for the purpose of making theories manifestly Lorentz invariant. We compare their status and significance in classical and quantum physics.

  13. ON THE EQUIVALENCE OF THE ABEL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article uses the reflecting function of Mironenko to study some complicated differential equations which are equivalent to the Abel equation. The results are applied to discuss the behavior of solutions of these complicated differential equations.

  14. First-order partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Hyun-Ku; Amundson, Neal R

    2001-01-01

    This first volume of a highly regarded two-volume text is fully usable on its own. After going over some of the preliminaries, the authors discuss mathematical models that yield first-order partial differential equations; motivations, classifications, and some methods of solution; linear and semilinear equations; chromatographic equations with finite rate expressions; homogeneous and nonhomogeneous quasilinear equations; formation and propagation of shocks; conservation equations, weak solutions, and shock layers; nonlinear equations; and variational problems. Exercises appear at the end of mo

  15. Exponential function approach to parabolic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chin-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    This volume is on initial-boundary value problems for parabolic partial differential equations of second order. It rewrites the problems as abstract Cauchy problems or evolution equations, and then solves them by the technique of elementary difference equations. Because of this, the volume assumes less background and provides an easy approach for readers to understand. Contents:Existence Theorems for Cauchy ProblemsExistence Theorems for Evolution Equations (I)Linear Autonomous Parabolic EquationsNonlinear Autonomous Parabolic EquationsLinea

  16. How to obtain the covariant form of Maxwell's equations from the continuity equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, Jose A [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa, 02200, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Mexico D. F. 01210 (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    The covariant Maxwell equations are derived from the continuity equation for the electric charge. This result provides an axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations in which charge conservation is emphasized as the fundamental axiom underlying these equations.

  17. Students' understanding of quadratic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jonathan; Robles, Izraim; Martínez-Planell, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Action-Process-Object-Schema theory (APOS) was applied to study student understanding of quadratic equations in one variable. This required proposing a detailed conjecture (called a genetic decomposition) of mental constructions students may do to understand quadratic equations. The genetic decomposition which was proposed can contribute to help students achieve an understanding of quadratic equations with improved interrelation of ideas and more flexible application of solution methods. Semi-structured interviews with eight beginning undergraduate students explored which of the mental constructions conjectured in the genetic decomposition students could do, and which they had difficulty doing. Two of the mental constructions that form part of the genetic decomposition are highlighted and corresponding further data were obtained from the written work of 121 undergraduate science and engineering students taking a multivariable calculus course. The results suggest the importance of explicitly considering these two highlighted mental constructions.

  18. Scattering Equations and KLT Orthogonality

    CERN Document Server

    Cachazo, Freddy; Yuan, Ellis Ye

    2013-01-01

    Several recent developments point to the fact that rational maps from n-punctured spheres to the null cone of D dimensional momentum space provide a natural language for describing the scattering of massless particles in D dimensions. In this note we identify and study equations relating the kinematic invariants and the puncture locations, which we call the scattering equations. We provide an inductive algorithm in the number of particles for their solutions and prove a remarkable property which we call KLT Orthogonality. In a nutshell, KLT orthogonality means that "Parke-Taylor" vectors constructed from the solutions to the scattering equations are mutually orthogonal with respect to the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) bilinear form. We end with comments on possible connections to gauge theory and gravity amplitudes in any dimension and to the high-energy limit of string theory amplitudes.

  19. Random equations in nilpotent groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gilman, Robert; Romankov, Vitalii

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study satisfiability of random equations in an infinite finitely generated nilpotent group G. We show that the set SAT(G,k) of all equations in k > 1 variables over G which are satisfiable in G has an intermediate asymptotic density in the space of all equations in k variables over G. When G is a free abelian group of finite rank, we compute this density precisely; otherwise we give some non-trivial upper and lower bounds. For k = 1 the set SAT(G,k) is negligible. Usually the asymptotic densities of interesting sets in groups are either zero or one. The results of this paper provide new examples of algebraically significant sets of intermediate asymptotic density.

  20. Stability Analysis of Ecomorphodynamic Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bärenbold, Fabian; Perona, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Although riparian vegetation is present in or along many water courses of the world, its active role resulting from the interaction with flow and sediment processes has only recently become an active field of research. Especially, the role of vegetation in the process of river pattern formation has been explored and demonstrated mostly experimentally and numerically until now. In the present work, we shed light on this subject by performing a linear stability analysis on a simple model for riverbed vegetation dynamics coupled with the set of classical river morphodynamic equations. The vegetation model only accounts for logistic growth, local positive feedback through seeding and resprouting, and mortality by means of uprooting through flow shear stress. Due to the simplicity of the model, we can transform the set of equations into an eigenvalue problem and assess the stability of the linearized equations when slightly perturbated away from a spatially homogeneous solution. If we couple vegetation dynamics wi...

  1. Confidence interval in Kirsch equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Khodabin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rocks at depth are affected by stresses resulting from the weight of the overlying strata and tectonic stresses. When a tunnel is excavated in this rock, the stress field is locally disordered and radial, tangential and shear stresses are induced in the rock around the tunnel. Knowledge of the magnitudes and directions of these induced stresses is essential. Since the measuring of specific gravity and depth are inevitably affected by environmental noise, we consider a random version of P2 in Kirsch equations. By doing this, we define random version of the Kirsch equations. Then we introduce an algorithm to calculate confidence intervals for the Kirsch parameters. Finally we use Alborz tunnel characteristics for creating these confidence intervals as a case study. The results show that the proposed amounts of radial, tangential and shear stresses lie in desired range. Keywords: Kirsch equations; Confidence interval; confidence level; Alborz tunnel; normal distribution.

  2. Quantum corrections for Boltzmann equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.; Levy; PETER

    2008-01-01

    We present the lowest order quantum correction to the semiclassical Boltzmann distribution function,and the equation satisfied by this correction is given. Our equation for the quantum correction is obtained from the conventional quantum Boltzmann equation by explicitly expressing the Planck constant in the gradient approximation,and the quantum Wigner distribution function is expanded in pow-ers of Planck constant,too. The negative quantum correlation in the Wigner dis-tribution function which is just the quantum correction terms is naturally singled out,thus obviating the need for the Husimi’s coarse grain averaging that is usually done to remove the negative quantum part of the Wigner distribution function. We also discuss the classical limit of quantum thermodynamic entropy in the above framework.

  3. The respiratory system in equations

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The book proposes an introduction to the mathematical modeling of the respiratory system. A detailed introduction on the physiological aspects makes it accessible to a large audience without any prior knowledge on the lung. Different levels of description are proposed, from the lumped models with a small number of parameters (Ordinary Differential Equations), up to infinite dimensional models based on Partial Differential Equations. Besides these two types of differential equations, two chapters are dedicated to resistive networks, and to the way they can be used to investigate the dependence of the resistance of the lung upon geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis of the various models is provided, together with state-of-the-art techniques to compute approximate solutions, allowing comparisons with experimental measurements. The book contains several exercises, most of which are accessible to advanced undergraduate students.

  4. Introductory course on differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gorain, Ganesh C

    2014-01-01

    Introductory Course on DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS provides an excellent exposition of the fundamentals of ordinary and partial differential equations and is ideally suited for a first course of undergraduate students of mathematics, physics and engineering. The aim of this book is to present the elementary theories of differential equations in the forms suitable for use of those students whose main interest in the subject are based on simple mathematical ideas. KEY FEATURES: Discusses the subject in a systematic manner without sacrificing mathematical rigour. A variety of exercises drill the students in problem solving in view of the mathematical theories explained in the book. Worked out examples illustrated according to the theories developed in the book with possible alternatives. Exhaustive collection of problems and the simplicity of presentation differentiate this book from several others. Material contained will help teachers as well as aspiring students of different competitive examinations.

  5. Dynamics of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, C Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on the dynamics of partial differential equations that deal with closely related topics but can be read independently. Wayne reviews recent results on the global dynamics of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. This system exhibits stable vortex solutions: the topic of Wayne's contribution is how solutions that start from arbitrary initial conditions evolve towards stable vortices. Weinstein considers the dynamics of localized states in nonlinear Schrodinger and Gross-Pitaevskii equations that describe many optical and quantum systems. In this contribution, Weinstein reviews recent bifurcations results of solitary waves, their linear and nonlinear stability properties, and results about radiation damping where waves lose energy through radiation.   The articles, written independently, are combined into one volume to showcase the tools of dynamical systems theory at work in explaining qualitative phenomena associated with two classes of partial differential equ...

  6. On Reducing a System of Equations to a Single Equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, G.S.; Shparlinski, I.E.

    2004-01-01

    For a system of polynomial equations over Q;p; we present an efficient construction of a single polynomial of quite small degree whose zero set over Q;p; coincides with the zero set over Q;p; of the original system. We also show that the polynomial has some other attractive features such as low...

  7. Partial differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Colton, David

    2004-01-01

    Intended for a college senior or first-year graduate-level course in partial differential equations, this text offers students in mathematics, engineering, and the applied sciences a solid foundation for advanced studies in mathematics. Classical topics presented in a modern context include coverage of integral equations and basic scattering theory. This complete and accessible treatment includes a variety of examples of inverse problems arising from improperly posed applications. Exercises at the ends of chapters, many with answers, offer a clear progression in developing an understanding of

  8. Group analysis of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ovsiannikov, L V

    1982-01-01

    Group Analysis of Differential Equations provides a systematic exposition of the theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras and its application to creating algorithms for solving the problems of the group analysis of differential equations.This text is organized into eight chapters. Chapters I to III describe the one-parameter group with its tangential field of vectors. The nonstandard treatment of the Banach Lie groups is reviewed in Chapter IV, including a discussion of the complete theory of Lie group transformations. Chapters V and VI cover the construction of partial solution classes for the g

  9. Differential equations and mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, DS; Sleeman, BD

    2009-01-01

    ""… Much progress by these authors and others over the past quarter century in modeling biological and other scientific phenomena make this differential equations textbook more valuable and better motivated than ever. … The writing is clear, though the modeling is not oversimplified. Overall, this book should convince math majors how demanding math modeling needs to be and biologists that taking another course in differential equations will be worthwhile. The coauthors deserve congratulations as well as course adoptions.""-SIAM Review, Sept. 2010, Vol. 52, No. 3""… Where this text stands out i

  10. Radar equations for modern radar

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, David K

    2012-01-01

    Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

  11. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  12. Quantum Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Haegeman, Jutho; Stojevic, Vid; Cirac, J Ignacio; Osborne, Tobias J; Verstraete, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a non-commutative generalization of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for one-dimensional quantum field theories. This generalization is obtained by applying the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle to the variational manifold of continuous matrix product states. This allows for a full quantum description of the many body system including entanglement and correlations and thus extends significantly beyond the usual mean-field description of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is known to fail for one-dimensional systems.

  13. Applied analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cârj, Ovidiu

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains refereed research articles written by experts in the field of applied analysis, differential equations and related topics. Well-known leading mathematicians worldwide and prominent young scientists cover a diverse range of topics, including the most exciting recent developments. A broad range of topics of recent interest are treated: existence, uniqueness, viability, asymptotic stability, viscosity solutions, controllability and numerical analysis for ODE, PDE and stochastic equations. The scope of the book is wide, ranging from pure mathematics to various applied fields such as classical mechanics, biomedicine, and population dynamics.

  14. Geometric approach to soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of nonlinear equations that can be solved in terms of nxn scattering problem is investigated. A systematic geometric method of exploiting conservation laws and related equations, the so-called prolongation structure, is worked out. The nxn problem is reduced to nsub(n-1)x(n-1) problems and finally to 2x2 problems, which have been comprehensively investigated recently by the author. A general method of deriving the infinite numbers of polynomial conservation laws for an nxn problem is presented. The cases of 3x3 and 2x2 problems are discussed explicitly. (Auth.)

  15. Fundamentals of equations of state

    CERN Document Server

    Eliezer, Shalom; Hora, Heinrich

    2002-01-01

    The equation of state was originally developed for ideal gases, and proved central to the development of early molecular and atomic physics. Increasingly sophisticated equations of state have been developed to take into account molecular interactions, quantization, relativistic effects, etc. Extreme conditions of matter are encountered both in nature and in the laboratory, for example in the centres of stars, in relativistic collisions of heavy nuclei, in inertial confinement fusion (where a temperature of 10 9 K and a pressure exceeding a billion atmospheres can be achieved). A sound knowledg

  16. Stability theory of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bellman, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this was the first English-language text to offer detailed coverage of boundedness, stability, and asymptotic behavior of linear and nonlinear differential equations. It remains a classic guide, featuring material from original research papers, including the author's own studies.The linear equation with constant and almost-constant coefficients receives in-depth attention that includes aspects of matrix theory. No previous acquaintance with the theory is necessary, since author Richard Bellman derives the results in matrix theory from

  17. On a nonhomogeneous Burgers' equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Xiaqi(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Hopf, E., The partial differential equation ut + uux = μuxx, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 1950, 3: 201-230.[2]Ding, X. Q. , Luo, P. Z. , Generalized expansions in Hilbert space, Acta Mathematica Scientia, 1999, 19(3): 241 250.[3]Titchmarsh, E., Introduction to the Theory of Fourier Integrals, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1948.[4]Ladyzhenskaya, O. A., Solonnikov, V. A., Ural' ceva, N. N., Linear and Quasilinear Equations of Parabolic Type,Translations of Mathematical Monographs, Vol. 23, American Mathematical Society, 1968.

  18. Modular equations and lattice sums

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Mathew; Yuttanan, Boonrod

    2010-01-01

    We highlight modular equations discovered by Somos and Ramanujan, and use them to prove new relations between lattice sums and hypergeometric functions. We also discuss progress towards solving Boyd's Mahler measure conjectures, and we conjecture a new formula for $L(E,2)$ of conductor 17 elliptic curves.

  19. Lithium equation-of-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1977, Dave Young published an equation-of-state (EOS) for lithium. This EOS was used by Lew Glenn in his AFTON calculations of the HYLIFE inertial-fusion-reactor hydrodynamics. In this paper, I summarize Young's development of the EOS and demonstrate a computer program (MATHSY) that plots isotherms, isentropes and constant energy lines on a P-V diagram

  20. Quaternionic Monge-Ampere equations

    OpenAIRE

    Alesker, Semyon

    2002-01-01

    The main result of this paper is the existence and uniqueness of solution of the Dirichlet problem for quaternionic Monge-Ampere equations in quaternionic strictly pseudoconvex bounded domains in H^n. We continue the study of the theory of plurisubharmonic functions of quaternionic variables started by the author at [2].

  1. Non Monotone Stochastic Evolution Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth L. Kuttler; Li, Ji

    2013-01-01

    An approach to stochastic evolution equations based on a simple generalization of known embedding theorems is presented. It allows for the inclusion of problems which have nonlinear non monotone operators. This is used to discuss the existence of strong solutions to a stochastic Navier Stokes problem in dimension less than four.

  2. Convexity, Differential Equations, and Games

    OpenAIRE

    Flåm, Sjur Didrik

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of noncooperative games increasingly recognize Nash equilibrium as a limiting outcome of players‘ repeated interaction. This note, while sharing that view, illustrates and advocates combined use of convex optimization and differential equations, the purpose being to render equilibrium both plausible and stable.

  3. Sonar equations for planetary exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, Michael A; Leighton, Timothy G

    2016-08-01

    The set of formulations commonly known as "the sonar equations" have for many decades been used to quantify the performance of sonar systems in terms of their ability to detect and localize objects submerged in seawater. The efficacy of the sonar equations, with individual terms evaluated in decibels, is well established in Earth's oceans. The sonar equations have been used in the past for missions to other planets and moons in the solar system, for which they are shown to be less suitable. While it would be preferable to undertake high-fidelity acoustical calculations to support planning, execution, and interpretation of acoustic data from planetary probes, to avoid possible errors for planned missions to such extraterrestrial bodies in future, doing so requires awareness of the pitfalls pointed out in this paper. There is a need to reexamine the assumptions, practices, and calibrations that work well for Earth to ensure that the sonar equations can be accurately applied in combination with the decibel to extraterrestrial scenarios. Examples are given for icy oceans such as exist on Europa and Ganymede, Titan's hydrocarbon lakes, and for the gaseous atmospheres of (for example) Jupiter and Venus. PMID:27586766

  4. Pendulum Motion and Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Thomas F.; King, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    A common example of real-world motion that can be modeled by a differential equation, and one easily understood by the student, is the simple pendulum. Simplifying assumptions are necessary for closed-form solutions to exist, and frequently there is little discussion of the impact if those assumptions are not met. This article presents a…

  5. Conservation laws and kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the conservation of a magnitude in a kinetic process can be stated at two different levels (microscopic and macroscopic) determining non-equivalent conditions on the associated transition probabilities. These conditions and related examples are explicitly given in the case of the Boltzmann equation. (author). 5 refs

  6. Stability of Functional Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lemm, Jeffrey M

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the structure and stability properties of solutions of functional differential equations. Numerous examples of applications (such as feedback systrems with aftereffect, two-reflector antennae, nuclear reactors, mathematical models in immunology, viscoelastic bodies, aeroautoelastic phenomena and so on) are considered in detail. The development is illustrated by numerous figures and tables.

  7. Stochastic dynamic equations on general time scales

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Bohner; Olexandr M. Stanzhytskyi; Anastasiia O. Bratochkina

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we construct stochastic integral and stochastic differential equations on general time scales. We call these equations stochastic dynamic equations. We provide the existence and uniqueness theorem for solutions of stochastic dynamic equations. The crucial tool of our construction is a result about a connection between the time scales Lebesgue integral and the Lebesgue integral in the common sense.

  8. Exact Vacuum Solutions to the Einstein Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents a framework for getting a series of exact vacuum solutions to the Einstein equation. This procedure of resolution is based on a canonical form of the metric. According to this procedure, the Einstein equation can be reduced to some 2-dimensional Laplace-like equations or rotation and divergence equations,which are much convenient for the resolution.

  9. Functional Equations and Inequalities with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kannappan, Palaniappan

    2009-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive study of the classical topic of functional equations. This monograph explores different aspects of functional equations and their applications to related topics, such as differential equations, integral equations, the Laplace transformation, the calculus of finite differences, and many other basic tools in analysis.

  10. On Backward Stochstic Partial Differential Equations.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    We prove an existence and uniqueness result for a general class of backward stochastic partial differential equations. This is a type of equations which appear as adjoint equations in the maximum principle approach to optimal control of systems described by stochastic partial differential equations.

  11. Algebraic entropy for differential-delay equations

    OpenAIRE

    Viallet, Claude M.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the definition of algebraic entropy to a class of differential-delay equations. The vanishing of the entropy, as a structural property of an equation, signals its integrability. We suggest a simple way to produce differential-delay equations with vanishing entropy from known integrable differential-difference equations.

  12. The AGL equation from the dipole picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AGL equation includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the double logarithmic approximation (DLA) limit, leading to a unitarized gluon distribution in the small x regime. This equation was originally obtained using the Glauber-Mueller approach. We demonstrate in this paper that the AGL equation and, consequently, the GLR equation, can also be obtained from the dipole picture in the double logarithmic limit, using an evolution equation, recently proposed, which includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the leading logarithmic approximation. Our conclusion is that the AGL equation is a good candidate for a unitarized evolution equation at small x in the DLA limit

  13. Thermoviscous Model Equations in Nonlinear Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Rønne

    solutions of the basic equations from which the wave equations are derived. A straightforward weakly nonlinear equation is the most accurate for shock modeling. A higher order wave equation is the most accurate for modeling of smooth disturbances. Investigations of the linear stability properties of......Four nonlinear acoustical wave equations that apply to both perfect gasses and arbitrary fluids with a quadratic equation of state are studied. Shock and rarefaction wave solutions to the equations are studied. In order to assess the accuracy of the wave equations, their solutions are compared to...... solutions to the wave equations, reveal that the solutions may become unstable. Such instabilities are not found in the basic equations. Interacting shocks and standing shocks are investigated....

  14. More conservative governing equations in RELAP5: Derivation of equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The “non-conservative” numerical approximation is used in current versions of RELAP5. • Mass and energy errors increase for some transients due to non-conservativism. • This paper shows the derivation of a numerical approach to eliminate the mass error. • The second article (Fu et al., 2015) shows the (strategic) solution for the approach. - Abstract: The design and analysis of the thermal/hydraulic systems in nuclear power plants necessitate system codes that can be used in the analysis of steady state and transient conditions. RELAP5 is one of the most commonly used system codes in nuclear organizations. RELAP5 is based on a two-fluid, non-equilibrium, non-homogeneous, hydrodynamic model for the transient simulation of the two-phase system behavior. This model includes six governing equations to describe the mass, energy, and momentum of the two fluids. The “non-conservative” numerical approximation form (which is the current version of RELAP5 code) is obtained through the manipulation of selected derivative terms in the equations including the linearization of the product terms in the time derivatives of the equations. In the non-conservative technique, the truncation errors introduced in the linearization process can produce mass and energy errors for some classes of transients during time advancements, either resulting in (a) automatic reduction of time steps used in the advancement of the equations and increased run times or (b) the growth of unacceptably large errors in the transient results. To eliminate these difficulties, an optional numerical approach has been introduced in RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD4.0. This approach uses a more consistent set of “conservative” numerical approximations to solve non-linearized mass and energy governing equations. The RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD4.0 code, being developed as part of the international Severe Core Damage Analysis Package (SCDAP) Development and Training Program (SDTP), is the first version of

  15. Dual Isomonodromic Problems and Whitham Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, Kanehisa

    1997-01-01

    The author's recent results on an asymptotic description of the Schlesinger equation are generalized to the JMMS equation. As in the case of the Schlesinger equation, the JMMS equation is reformulated to include a small parameter $\\epsilon$. By the method of multiscale analysis, the isomonodromic problem is approximated by slow modulations of an isospectral problem. A modulation equation of this slow dynamics is proposed, and shown to possess a number of properties similar to the Seiberg- Wit...

  16. Integrable (2k)-Dimensional Hitchin Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, R S

    2016-01-01

    This letter describes a completely-integrable system of Yang-Mills-Higgs equations which generalizes the Hitchin equations on a Riemann surface to arbitrary k-dimensional complex manifolds. The system arises as a dimensional reduction of a set of integrable Yang-Mills equations in 4k real dimensions. Our integrable system implies other generalizations such as the Simpson equations and the non-abelian Seiberg-Witten equations. Some simple solutions in the k=2 case are described.

  17. The Pauli equation in scale relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Celerier, Marie-Noelle; Nottale, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    In standard quantum mechanics, it is not possible to directly extend the Schrodinger equation to spinors, so the Pauli equation must be derived from the Dirac equation by taking its non-relativistic limit. Hence, it predicts the existence of an intrinsic magnetic moment for the electron and gives its correct value. In the scale relativity framework, the Schrodinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations have been derived from first principles as geodesics equations of a non-differentiable and cont...

  18. Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics an explanation

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, David W

    2012-01-01

    Maxwell's Equations of Electrodynamics: An Explanation is a concise discussion of Maxwell's four equations of electrodynamics - the fundamental theory of electricity, magnetism, and light. It guides readers step-by-step through the vector calculus and development of each equation. Pictures and diagrams illustrate what the equations mean in basic terms. The book not only provides a fundamental description of our universe but also explains how these equations predict the fact that light is better described as "electromagnetic radiation."

  19. Techniques for solving Boolean equation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Keinänen, Misa

    2006-01-01

    Boolean equation systems are ordered sequences of Boolean equations decorated with least and greatest fixpoint operators. Boolean equation systems provide a useful framework for formal verification because various specification and verification problems, for instance, μ-calculus model checking can be represented as the problem of solving Boolean equation systems. The general problem of solving a Boolean equation system is a computationally hard task, and no polynomial time solution technique ...

  20. Thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of methane-carbon dioxide mixed hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, T.H.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.

    2011-02-15

    Replacement of methane with carbon dioxide in hydrate has been proposed as a strategy for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and/or production of methane (CH{sub 4}) from natural hydrate deposits. This replacement strategy requires a better understanding of the thermodynamic characteristics of binary mixtures of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} hydrate (CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrates), as well as thermophysical property changes during gas exchange. This study explores the thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrates. We prepared CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate samples from two different, well-defined gas mixtures. During thermal dissociation of a CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate sample, gas samples from the head space were periodically collected and analyzed using gas chromatography. The changes in CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} compositions in both the vapor phase and hydrate phase during dissociation were estimated based on the gas chromatography measurements. It was found that the CO{sub 2} concentration in the vapor phase became richer during dissociation because the initial hydrate composition contained relatively more CO{sub 2} than the vapor phase. The composition change in the vapor phase during hydrate dissociation affected the dissociation pressure and temperature; the richer CO{sub 2} in the vapor phase led to a lower dissociation pressure. Furthermore, the increase in CO{sub 2} concentration in the vapor phase enriched the hydrate in CO{sub 2}. The dissociation enthalpy of the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate was computed by fitting the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the pressure-temperature (PT) trace of a dissociation test. It was observed that the dissociation enthalpy of the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate lays between the limiting values of pure CH{sub 4} hydrate and CO{sub 2} hydrate, increasing with the CO{sub 2} fraction in the hydrate phase.

  1. Numerical Solution of Parabolic Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerby, Ole

    These lecture notes are designed for a one-semester course on finite-difference methods for parabolic equations. These equations which traditionally are used for describing diffusion and heat-conduction problems in Geology, Physics, and Chemistry have recently found applications in Finance Theory....... Among the special features of this book can be mentioned the presentation of a practical approach to reliable estimates of the global error, including warning signals if the reliability is questionable. The technique is generally applicable for estimating the discretization error in numerical...... expense. Problems in two space dimensions are effectively handled using the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) technique. We present a systematic way of incorporating inhomogeneous terms and derivative boundary conditions in ADI methods as well as mixed derivative terms....

  2. Algebrization of Nonautonomous Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aracelia Alcorta-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a planar system of nonautonomous ordinary differential equations, dw/dt=F(t,w, conditions are given for the existence of an associative commutative unital algebra A with unit e and a function H:Ω⊂R2×R2→R2 on an open set Ω such that F(t,w=H(te,w and the maps H1(τ=H(τ,ξ and H2(ξ=H(τ,ξ are Lorch differentiable with respect to A for all (τ,ξ∈Ω, where τ and ξ represent variables in A. Under these conditions the solutions ξ(τ of the differential equation dξ/dτ=H(τ,ξ over A define solutions (x(t,y(t=ξ(te of the planar system.

  3. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove that the solutions of the nonlocal problem converge to the solution of the higher order problem with the right-hand side given by powers of the Laplacian when the kernel J is rescaled in an appropriate way. Moreover, we prove that solutions to both equations have the same asymptotic decay rate as t goes to infinity. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

  4. Differential Equations of Ideal Memristors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Biolek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ideal memristor is a resistor with a memory, which adds dynamics to its behavior. The most usual characteristics describing this dynamics are the constitutive relation (i.e. the relation between flux and charge, or Parameter-vs-state- map (PSM, mostly represented by the memristance-to-charge dependence. One of the so far unheeded tools for memristor description is its differential equation (DEM, composed exclusively of instantaneous values of voltage, current, and their derivatives. The article derives a general form of DEM that holds for any ideal memristor and shows that it is always a nonlinear equation of the first order; the PSM forms are found for memristors which are governed by DEMs of the Bernoulli and the Riccati types; a classification of memristors according to the type of their dynamics with respect to voltage and current is carried out.

  5. The equations icons of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bais, Sander

    2005-01-01

    For thousands of years mankind has tried to understand nature. Exploring the world on all scales with instruments of ever more ingenuity, we have been able to unravel some of the great mysteries that surround us. While collecting an overwhelming multitude of observational facts, we discovered fundamental laws that govern the structure and evolution of physical reality. We know that nature speaks to us in the language of mathematics. In this language most of our basic understanding of the physical world can be expressed in an unambiguous and concise way. The most artificial language turns out to be the most natural of all. The laws of nature correspond to equations. These equations are the icons of knowledge that mark crucial turning points in our thinking about the world we happen to live in. They form the symbolic representation of most of what we know, and as such constitute an important and robust part of our culture.

  6. Sensitivity for the Smoluchowski equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailleul, I F, E-mail: i.bailleul@statslab.cam.ac.uk [Statistical Laboratory, DPMMS, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-17

    This paper investigates the question of sensitivity of the solutions {mu}{sup {lambda}}{sub t} of the Smoluchowski equation on R{sub +}* with respect to the parameters {lambda} in the interaction kernel K{sup {lambda}}. It is proved that {mu}{sup {lambda}}{sub t} is a C{sup 1} function of (t, {lambda}) with values in a good space of measures under the hypotheses K{sup {lambda}}(x, y) {<=} {psi}(x) {psi}(y), for some sub-linear function {psi}, and {integral}{psi}{sup 4+{epsilon}}(x) {mu}{sub 0}(dx) < {infinity}, and that the derivative is the unique solution of a related equation.

  7. Handbook of structural equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyle, Rick H

    2012-01-01

    The first comprehensive structural equation modeling (SEM) handbook, this accessible volume presents both the mechanics of SEM and specific SEM strategies and applications. The editor, contributors, and editorial advisory board are leading methodologists who have organized the book to move from simpler material to more statistically complex modeling approaches. Sections cover the foundations of SEM; statistical underpinnings, from assumptions to model modifications; steps in implementation, from data preparation through writing the SEM report; and basic and advanced applications, inclu

  8. Lagrange-Poincare field equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, David C P; Holm, Darryl D; Ratiu, Tudor S

    2009-01-01

    The Lagrange-Poincare equations of classical mechanics are cast into a field theoretic context together with their associated constrained variational principle. An integrability/reconstruction condition is established that relates solutions of the original problem with those of the reduced problem. The Kelvin-Noether theorem is formulated in this context. Applications to the isoperimetric problem, the Skyrme model for meson interaction, metamorphosis image dynamics, and molecular strands illustrate various aspects of the theory.

  9. Some Applications of Fractional Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Weitzner, H.; Zaslavsky, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    We present two observations related to theapplication of linear (LFE) and nonlinear fractional equations (NFE). First, we give the comparison and estimates of the role of the fractional derivative term to the normal diffusion term in a LFE. The transition of the solution from normal to anomalous transport is demonstrated and the dominant role of the power tails in the long time asymptotics is shown. Second, wave propagation or kinetics in a nonlinear media with fractal properties is considere...

  10. Eigenwavelets of the Wave equation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    We study a class of localized solutions of the wave equation, called eigenwavelets, obtained by extending its fundamental solutions to complex spacetime in the sense of hyperfunctions. The imaginary spacetime variables y, which form a timelike vector, act as scale parameters generalizing the scale variable of wavelets in one dimension. They determine the shape of the wavelets in spacetime, making them pulsed beams that can be focused as tightly as desired around a single ray by letting y appr...

  11. Riccati Equations and their Solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Vladimír

    Control System Advanced Methods. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2011 - (Lewine, W.), s. 14.1-14.21. (Electrical Engineering Handbook). ISBN 978-1-4200-7366-9 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Riccati equation * optimal control * solution Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/TR/kucera-0436431.pdf

  12. Generalized bootstrap for estimating equations

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Snigdhansu; Bose, Arup

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a generalized bootstrap technique for estimators obtained by solving estimating equations. Some special cases of this generalized bootstrap are the classical bootstrap of Efron, the delete-d jackknife and variations of the Bayesian bootstrap. The use of the proposed technique is discussed in some examples. Distributional consistency of the method is established and an asymptotic representation of the resampling variance estimator is obtained.

  13. Instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a systematic algebraic and numerical investigation of the instantaneous Beth-Salpeter equation. Emphasis is placed on confining interaction kernels of the Lorentz scalar, time component vector, and full vector-types. We explore the stability of the solutions and Regge behavior for each of these interactions, and conclude that only time component vector confinement leads to normal Regge structure and stable solutions for all quark masses

  14. Equation of State Project Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-11

    A general overview of the Equation of State (EOS) Project will be presented. The goal is to provide the audience with an introduction of what our more advanced methods entail (DFT, QMD, etc.. ) and how these models are being utilized to better constrain the thermodynamic models. These models substantially reduce our regions of interpolation between the various thermodynamic limits. I will also present a variety example of recent EOS work.

  15. Wave equations in higher dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Shi-Hai

    2011-01-01

    Higher dimensional theories have attracted much attention because they make it possible to reduce much of physics in a concise, elegant fashion that unifies the two great theories of the 20th century: Quantum Theory and Relativity. This book provides an elementary description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions at an advanced level so as to put all current mathematical and physical concepts and techniques at the reader’s disposal. A comprehensive description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions and their broad range of applications in quantum mechanics is provided, which complements the traditional coverage found in the existing quantum mechanics textbooks and gives scientists a fresh outlook on quantum systems in all branches of physics. In Parts I and II the basic properties of the SO(n) group are reviewed and basic theories and techniques related to wave equations in higher dimensions are introduced. Parts III and IV cover important quantum systems in the framework of non-relativisti...

  16. The complex chemical Langevin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical Langevin equation (CLE) is a popular simulation method to probe the stochastic dynamics of chemical systems. The CLE’s main disadvantage is its break down in finite time due to the problem of evaluating square roots of negative quantities whenever the molecule numbers become sufficiently small. We show that this issue is not a numerical integration problem, rather in many systems it is intrinsic to all representations of the CLE. Various methods of correcting the CLE have been proposed which avoid its break down. We show that these methods introduce undesirable artefacts in the CLE’s predictions. In particular, for unimolecular systems, these correction methods lead to CLE predictions for the mean concentrations and variance of fluctuations which disagree with those of the chemical master equation. We show that, by extending the domain of the CLE to complex space, break down is eliminated, and the CLE’s accuracy for unimolecular systems is restored. Although the molecule numbers are generally complex, we show that the “complex CLE” predicts real-valued quantities for the mean concentrations, the moments of intrinsic noise, power spectra, and first passage times, hence admitting a physical interpretation. It is also shown to provide a more accurate approximation of the chemical master equation of simple biochemical circuits involving bimolecular reactions than the various corrected forms of the real-valued CLE, the linear-noise approximation and a commonly used two moment-closure approximation

  17. Torsion Effects and LLG Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Cristine N; Neto, J A Helayël

    2016-01-01

    Based on the non-relativistic regime of the Dirac equation coupled to a torsion pseudo-vector, we study the dynamics of magnetization and how it is affected by the presence of torsion. We consider that torsion interacting terms in Dirac equation appear in two ways one of these is thhrough the covariant derivative considering the spin connection and gauge magnetic field and the other is through a non-minimal spin torsion coupling. We show within this framework, that it is possible to obtain the most general Landau, Lifshitz and Gilbert (LLG) equation including the torsion effects, where we refer to torsion as a geometric field playing an important role in the spin coupling process. We show that the torsion terms can give us two important landscapes in the magnetization dynamics: one of them related with damping and the other related with the screw dislocation that give us a global effect like a helix damping sharped. These terms are responsible for changes in the magnetization precession dynamics.

  18. Effective Schroedinger equations on submanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the time dependent Schroedinger equation is considered on a Riemannian manifold A with a potential that localizes a certain class of states close to a fixed submanifold C, the constraint manifold. When the potential is scaled in the directions normal to C by a small parameter epsilon, the solutions concentrate in an epsilon-neighborhood of the submanifold. An effective Schroedinger equation on the submanifold C is derived and it is shown that its solutions, suitably lifted to A, approximate the solutions of the original equation on A up to errors of order ε3 vertical stroke t vertical stroke at time t. Furthermore, it is proved that, under reasonable conditions, the eigenvalues of the corresponding Hamiltonians below a certain energy coincide upto errors of order ε3. These results holds in the situation where tangential and normal energies are of the same order, and where exchange between normal and tangential energies occurs. In earlier results tangential energies were assumed to be small compared to normal energies, and rather restrictive assumptions were needed, to ensure that the separation of energies is maintained during the time evolution. The most important consequence of this thesis is that now constraining potentials that change their shape along the submanifold can be treated, which is the typical situation in applications like molecular dynamics and quantum waveguides.

  19. Effective Schroedinger equations on submanifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachsmuth, Jakob

    2010-02-11

    In this thesis the time dependent Schroedinger equation is considered on a Riemannian manifold A with a potential that localizes a certain class of states close to a fixed submanifold C, the constraint manifold. When the potential is scaled in the directions normal to C by a small parameter epsilon, the solutions concentrate in an epsilon-neighborhood of the submanifold. An effective Schroedinger equation on the submanifold C is derived and it is shown that its solutions, suitably lifted to A, approximate the solutions of the original equation on A up to errors of order {epsilon}{sup 3} vertical stroke t vertical stroke at time t. Furthermore, it is proved that, under reasonable conditions, the eigenvalues of the corresponding Hamiltonians below a certain energy coincide upto errors of order {epsilon}{sup 3}. These results holds in the situation where tangential and normal energies are of the same order, and where exchange between normal and tangential energies occurs. In earlier results tangential energies were assumed to be small compared to normal energies, and rather restrictive assumptions were needed, to ensure that the separation of energies is maintained during the time evolution. The most important consequence of this thesis is that now constraining potentials that change their shape along the submanifold can be treated, which is the typical situation in applications like molecular dynamics and quantum waveguides.

  20. Dynamical equations and approximation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integral equations approach to the three-body problem, decisively stimulated by Faddeev's formulation, provides the most powerful tool for studying the internal structure of this system. An essential step towards a detailed understanding of composite particle dynamics has been done in this way. The search for adequate extensions to the general N-body situation therefore represented, and still represents a natural challenge. For various reasons this transition is non-trivial and non-unique. Emphasizing different aspects of the three-body theory, different generalizations have been found. In particular, it was the concept of connectedness of the (iterated) integral kernel which allows for an arbitrary number of formulations, many of them being presumably only mathematically correct, but physically rather unsatisfactory. Therefore, the present status of the N-body theory is reviewed in a less technical way. Starting from the basic, physically convincing definitions of scattering states, the defining equations are replaced by more appropriate matrix relations. This is done in a reversible way, thus preserving in every step the original structure and information. In order to be as close as possible to the basic definitions, all relations are first derived for scattering states or half-on-shell transition amplitudes. The ambiguity in going over to corresponding operator identities (fully off-shell equations) is demonstrated. (Auth.)

  1. Neutron star equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental information concerning the equation of state in neutron stars is lacking, because of the necessary extrapolations in both density and neutron excess from the nearly symmetric nuclear matter observed in nuclei. However, the combination of new developments in the theory of neutron star structure and in astronomical observations provides important constraints. From a theoretical perspective, it is argued that the extrapolation in neutron excess is more crucial for neutron star structure than is the density extrapolation. For example, the radius of neutron stars is primarily a function of the pressure of matter in the vicinity of nuclear matter density, which is essentially determined by the isospin properties of dense matter. In the absence of extreme softening in the dense matter equation of state, a measurement of the radius of a neutron star more accurate than about 1 km will usefully constrain the equation of state. In addition, the moment of inertial and the binding energy of neutron stars are nearly universal functions of the star's compactness. The potential constraints that can be deduced from observations of thermal emission from young neutron stars, neutrinos from newly born neutron stars, Quasi-Periodic Oscillations from X-ray emitting neutron stars in binaries, and glitches from pulsars are discussed

  2. ADVANCED WAVE-EQUATION MIGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. HUANG; M. C. FEHLER

    2000-12-01

    Wave-equation migration methods can more accurately account for complex wave phenomena than ray-tracing-based Kirchhoff methods that are based on the high-frequency asymptotic approximation of waves. With steadily increasing speed of massively parallel computers, wave-equation migration methods are becoming more and more feasible and attractive for imaging complex 3D structures. We present an overview of several efficient and accurate wave-equation-based migration methods that we have recently developed. The methods are implemented in the frequency-space and frequency-wavenumber domains and hence they are called dual-domain methods. In the methods, we make use of different approximate solutions of the scalar-wave equation in heterogeneous media to recursively downward continue wavefields. The approximations used within each extrapolation interval include the Born, quasi-Born, and Rytov approximations. In one of our dual-domain methods, we use an optimized expansion of the square-root operator in the one-way wave equation to minimize the phase error for a given model. This leads to a globally optimized Fourier finite-difference method that is a hybrid split-step Fourier and finite-difference scheme. Migration examples demonstrate that our dual-domain migration methods provide more accurate images than those obtained using the split-step Fourier scheme. The Born-based, quasi-Born-based, and Rytov-based methods are suitable for imaging complex structures whose lateral variations are moderate, such as the Marmousi model. For this model, the computational cost of the Born-based method is almost the same as the split-step Fourier scheme, while other methods takes approximately 15-50% more computational time. The globally optimized Fourier finite-difference method significantly improves the accuracy of the split-step Fourier method for imaging structures having strong lateral velocity variations, such as the SEG/EAGE salt model, at an approximately 30% greater

  3. Estimation of saturation and coherence effects in the KGBJS equation - a non-linear CCFM equation

    CERN Document Server

    Deak, Michal

    2012-01-01

    We solve the modified non-linear extension of the CCFM equation - KGBJS equation - numerically for certain initial conditions and compare the resulting gluon Green functions with those obtained from solving the original CCFM equation and the BFKL and BK equations for the same initial conditions. We improve the low transversal momentum behaviour of the KGBJS equation by a small modification.

  4. Kinetic equations for an unstable plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we establish the plasma kinetic equations starting from the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy of equations. We demonstrate that relations existing between correlation functions may help to justify the truncation of the hierarchy. Then we obtain the kinetic equations of a stable or unstable plasma. They do not reduce to an equation for the one-body distribution function, but generally involve two coupled equations for the one-body distribution function and the spectral density of the fluctuating electric field. We study limiting cases where the Balescu-Lenard equation, the quasi-linear theory, the Pines-Schrieffer equations and the equations of weak turbulence in the random phase approximation are recovered. At last we generalise the H-theorem for the system of equations and we define conditions for irreversible behaviour. (authors)

  5. Gibbs adsorption and the compressibility equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach for deriving the equation of state is developed. It is shown that the integral in the compressibility equation is identical to the isotherm for Gibbs adsorption in radial coordinates. The Henry, Langmuir, and Frumkin adsorption isotherms are converted into equations of state. It is shown that using Henry's law gives an expression for the second virial coefficient that is identical to the result from statistical mechanics. Using the Langmuir isotherm leads to a new analytic expression for the hard-sphere equation of state which can be explicit in either pressure or density. The Frumkin isotherm results in a new equation of state for the square-well potential fluid. Conversely, new adsorption isotherms can be derived from equations of state using the compressibility equation. It is shown that the van der Waals equation gives an adsorption isotherm equation that describes both polymolecular adsorption and the unusual adsorption behavior observed for supercritical fluids. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. From Newton's Equation to Fractional Diffusion and Wave Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez Luis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus represents a natural instrument to model nonlocal (or long-range dependence phenomena either in space or time. The processes that involve different space and time scales appear in a wide range of contexts, from physics and chemistry to biology and engineering. In many of these problems, the dynamics of the system can be formulated in terms of fractional differential equations which include the nonlocal effects either in space or time. We give a brief, nonexhaustive, panoramic view of the mathematical tools associated with fractional calculus as well as a description of some fields where either it is applied or could be potentially applied.

  7. Handbook of differential equations stationary partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Chipot, Michel

    2006-01-01

    This handbook is volume III in a series devoted to stationary partial differential quations. Similarly as volumes I and II, it is a collection of self contained state-of-the-art surveys written by well known experts in the field. The topics covered by this handbook include singular and higher order equations, problems near critically, problems with anisotropic nonlinearities, dam problem, T-convergence and Schauder-type estimates. These surveys will be useful for both beginners and experts and speed up the progress of corresponding (rapidly developing and fascinating) areas of mathematics. Ke

  8. Partial differential equations of mathematical physics and integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, Ronald B

    1996-01-01

    This book was written to help mathematics students and those in the physical sciences learn modern mathematical techniques for setting up and analyzing problems. The mathematics used is rigorous, but not overwhelming, while the authors carefully model physical situations, emphasizing feedback among a beginning model, physical experiments, mathematical predictions, and the subsequent refinement and reevaluation of the physical model itself. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of various physical problems and equations that play a central role in applications. The following chapters take up the t

  9. International Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrohe, Elmar; Seiler, Jörg; Walker, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This volume covers the latest research on elliptic and parabolic equations and originates from the international Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations, held September 10-12, 2013 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover. It represents a collection of refereed research papers and survey articles written by eminent scientist on advances in different fields of elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations, including singular Riemannian manifolds, spectral analysis on manifolds, nonlinear dispersive equations, Brownian motion and kernel estimates, Euler equations, porous medium type equations, pseudodifferential calculus, free boundary problems, and bifurcation analysis.

  10. Mathematical physics with partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkwood, James

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Physics with Partial Differential Equations is for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students taking a course on mathematical physics taught out of math departments. The text presents some of the most important topics and methods of mathematical physics. The premise is to study in detail the three most important partial differential equations in the field - the heat equation, the wave equation, and Laplace's equation. The most common techniques of solving such equations are developed in this book, including Green's functions, the Fourier transform

  11. Partial differential equations for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Farlow, Stanley J

    1993-01-01

    Most physical phenomena, whether in the domain of fluid dynamics, electricity, magnetism, mechanics, optics, or heat flow, can be described in general by partial differential equations. Indeed, such equations are crucial to mathematical physics. Although simplifications can be made that reduce these equations to ordinary differential equations, nevertheless the complete description of physical systems resides in the general area of partial differential equations.This highly useful text shows the reader how to formulate a partial differential equation from the physical problem (constructing th

  12. On the Inclusion of Difference Equation Problems and Z Transform Methods in Sophomore Differential Equation Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, I started covering difference equations and z transform methods in my introductory differential equations course. This allowed my students to extend the "classical" methods for (ordinary differential equation) ODE's to discrete time problems arising in many applications.

  13. BMN Correlators by Loop Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Eynard, B.; Kristjansen, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the BMN approach to N=4 SYM a large class of correlators of interest are expressible in terms of expectation values of traces of words in a zero-dimensional Gaussian complex matrix model. We develop a loop-equation based, analytic strategy for evaluating such expectation values to any order in the genus expansion. We reproduce the expectation values which were needed for the calculation of the one-loop, genus one correction to the anomalous dimension of BMN-operators and which were earlier...

  14. PICARD ITERATION FOR NONSMOOTH EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-bai Sheng; Hui-fu Xu

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the generalized Newton method, approximate Newton methods, and splitting methods for solving nonsmooth equations from Picard iteration viewpoint. It is proved that the radius of the weak Jacobian (RGJ) of Picard iteration function is equal to its least Lipschitz constant. Linear convergence or superlinear convergence results can be obtained provided that RGJ of the Picard iteration function at a solution point is less than one or equal to zero. As for applications, it is pointed out that the approximate Newton methods, the generalized Newton method for piecewise C1problems and splitting methods can be explained uniformly with the same viewpoint.

  15. Young’s equation revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Lasse

    2016-04-01

    Young’s construction for a contact angle at a three-phase intersection forms the basis of all fields of science that involve wetting and capillary action. We find compelling evidence from recent experimental results on the deformation of a soft solid at the contact line, and displacement of an elastic wire immersed in a liquid, that Young’s equation can only be interpreted by surface energies, and not as a balance of surface tensions. It follows that the a priori variable in finding equilibrium is not the position of the contact line, but the contact angle. This finding provides the explanation for the pinning of a contact line.

  16. Sensitivity of rough differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Coutin, Laure; Lejay, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In the context of rough paths theory, we study the regularity of the Itô map with respect to the starting point, the coefficients and perturbation of the driving rough paths. In particular, we show that the Itô mapis differentiable with a Hölder or Lipschitz continuousderivatives under general hypotheses. With respect to the current literatureon the subject, our proof relies on perturbation of linearRough Differential Equations, and the Hölder regularity of the Itô map is established.

  17. Introduction to Piecewise Differentiable Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Scholtes, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    This brief provides an elementary introduction to the theory of piecewise differentiable functions with an emphasis on differentiable equations. In the first chapter, two sample problems are used to motivate the study of this theory. The presentation is then developed using two basic tools for the analysis of piecewise differentiable functions: the Bouligand derivative as the non smooth analogue of the classical derivative concept and the theory of piecewise affine functions as the combinatorial tool for the study of this approximation function. In the end, the results are combined to develop

  18. Advanced lab on Fresnel equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova-Mayor, Anna; Gimbal, Scott

    2015-11-01

    This experimental and theoretical exercise is designed to promote students' understanding of polarization and thin-film coatings for the practical case of a scanning protected-metal coated mirror. We present results obtained with a laboratory scanner and a polarimeter and propose an affordable and student-friendly experimental arrangement for the undergraduate laboratory. This experiment will allow students to apply basic knowledge of the polarization of light and thin-film coatings, develop hands-on skills with the use of phase retarders, apply the Fresnel equations for metallic coating with complex index of refraction, and compute the polarization state of the reflected light.

  19. Experimental determination of circuit equations

    CERN Document Server

    Shulman, Jason; Widjaja, Matthew; Gunaratne, Gemunu H

    2013-01-01

    Kirchhoff's laws offer a general, straightforward approach to circuit analysis. Unfortunately, use of the laws becomes impractical for all but the simplest of circuits. This work presents a novel method of analyzing direct current resistor circuits. It is based on an approach developed to model complex networks, making it appropriate for use on large, complicated circuits. It is unique in that it is not an analytic method. It is based on experiment, yet the approach produces the same circuit equations obtained by more traditional means.

  20. BMN correlators by loop equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the BMN approach to N=4 SYM a large class of correlators of interest are expressible in terms of expectation values of traces of words in a zero-dimensional gaussian complex matrix model. We develop a loop-equation based, analytic strategy for evaluating such expectation values to any order in the genus expansion. We reproduce the expectation values which were needed for the calculation of the one-loop, genus one correction to the anomalous dimension of BMN-operators and which were earlier obtained by combinatorial means. Furthermore, we present the expectation values needed for the calculation of the one-loop, genus two correction. (author)

  1. Ising models and soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several new results for the critical point of correlation functions of the Hirota equation are derived within the two-dimensional Ising model. The recent success of the conformal-invariance approach in the determination of a critical two-spin correration function is analyzed. The two-spin correlation function is predicted to be rotationally invariant and to decay with a power law in this approach. In the approach suggested here systematic corrections due to the underlying lattice breaking the rotational invariance are obtained

  2. On the connection of the quadratic Lienard equation with an equation for the elliptic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay A.; Sinelshchikov, Dmitry I.

    2015-07-01

    The quadratic Lienard equation is widely used in many applications. A connection between this equation and a linear second-order differential equation has been discussed. Here we show that the whole family of quadratic Lienard equations can be transformed into an equation for the elliptic functions. We demonstrate that this connection can be useful for finding explicit forms of general solutions of the quadratic Lienard equation. We provide several examples of application of our approach.

  3. Asymptotic-group analysis of algebraic equations

    OpenAIRE

    Shamrovskii, A. D.; I. V. Andrianov; J. Awrejcewicz

    2004-01-01

    Both the method of asymptotic analysis and the theory of extension group are applied to study the Descates equation. The proposed algorithm allows to obtain various variants of simplification and can be easily generalized to their algebraic and differential equations.

  4. Linear superposition solutions to nonlinear wave equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yu

    2012-01-01

    The solutions to a linear wave equation can satisfy the principle of superposition,i.e.,the linear superposition of two or more known solutions is still a solution of the linear wave equation.We show in this article that many nonlinear wave equations possess exact traveling wave solutions involving hyperbolic,triangle,and exponential functions,and the suitable linear combinations of these known solutions can also constitute linear superposition solutions to some nonlinear wave equations with special structural characteristics.The linear superposition solutions to the generalized KdV equation K(2,2,1),the Oliver water wave equation,and the k(n,n) equation are given.The structure characteristic of the nonlinear wave equations having linear superposition solutions is analyzed,and the reason why the solutions with the forms of hyperbolic,triangle,and exponential functions can form the linear superposition solutions is also discussed.

  5. Simultaneous Independent Linear Equations and Goldbach Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Linggen, Song

    2007-01-01

    It was verified that if Goldbach conjecture was a fault, the number of simultaneous independent linear equations educed from this assumption would be unreasonably at least one more than the number of unknowns involved in these equations.

  6. The Spin-2 Equation on Minkowski Background

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Florian; Frauendiener, Jörg; Whale, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The linearised general conformal field equations in their first and second order form are used to study the behaviour of the spin-2 zero-rest-mass equation on Minkowski background in the vicinity of space-like infinity.

  7. Hydrodynamic Equations for Microscopic Phase Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimenko, V. I.; Shtyk, V. O.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution equations for the generalized microscopic phase densities are introduced. The evolution equations of average values of microscopic phase densities are derived and a solution of the initial-value problem of the obtained hydrodynamic type hierarchy is constructed.

  8. On oscillatory solutions of certain difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Grzegorczyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some difference equations with deviating arguments are discussed in the context of the oscillation problem. The aim of this paper is to present the sufficient conditions for oscillation of solutions of the equations discussed.

  9. On oscillatory solutions of certain difference equations

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Grzegorczyk; Jarosław Werbowski

    2006-01-01

    Some difference equations with deviating arguments are discussed in the context of the oscillation problem. The aim of this paper is to present the sufficient conditions for oscillation of solutions of the equations discussed.

  10. OSCILLATION CRITERIA FOR FORCED SUPERLINEAR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using Riccati transformation techniques,some oscillation criteria for the forced second-order superlinear difference equations are established.These criteria are dis- crete analogues of the criteria for differential equations proposed by Yan.

  11. Fractional Complex Transform for Fractional Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zheng-Biao; He, Ji-Huan

    2010-01-01

    Fractional complex transform is proposed to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations, so that all analytical methods devoted to advanced calculus can be easily applied to fractional calculus. Two examples are given.

  12. A new class of variational equation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Applying an analysis method to a group of multivariable equations, a new class of variational equations are proved. This method is more concise and more direct than the others. This result can be applied to some stochastic control models.

  13. Exact Solutions to Short Pulse Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zun-Tao; ZHENG Ming-Hua; LIU Shi-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, dependent and independent variable transformations are introduced to solve the short pulse equation. It is shown that different kinds of solutions can be obtained to the short pulse equation.

  14. Exact Solutions to Degasperis-Procesi Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lin-Na; FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Kuo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,dependent and independent variable transformations are introduced to solve the Degasperis-Procesi equation.It is shown that different kinds of solutions can be obtained to the Degasperis-Procesi equation.

  15. Introduction to linear algebra and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1986-01-01

    Excellent introductory text focuses on complex numbers, determinants, orthonormal bases, symmetric and hermitian matrices, first order non-linear equations, linear differential equations, Laplace transforms, Bessel functions, more. Includes 48 black-and-white illustrations. Exercises with solutions. Index.

  16. An axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations

    CERN Document Server

    Heras, José A

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests an axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations. The basis of this approach is a theorem formulated for two sets of functions localized in space and time. If each set satisfies a continuity equation then the theorem provides an integral representation for each function. A corollary of this theorem yields Maxwell's equations with magnetic monopoles. It is pointed out that the causality principle and the conservation of electric and magnetic charges are the most fundamental physical axioms underlying these equations. Another application of the corollary yields Maxwell's equations in material media. The theorem is also formulated in the Minkowski space-time and applied to obtain the covariant form of Maxwell's equations with magnetic monopoles and the covariant form of Maxwell's equations in material media. The approach makes use of the infinite-space Green function of the wave equation and is therefore suitable for an advanced course in electrodynamics.

  17. Solving Equations of Multibody Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Lim, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Darts++ is a computer program for solving the equations of motion of a multibody system or of a multibody model of a dynamic system. It is intended especially for use in dynamical simulations performed in designing and analyzing, and developing software for the control of, complex mechanical systems. Darts++ is based on the Spatial-Operator- Algebra formulation for multibody dynamics. This software reads a description of a multibody system from a model data file, then constructs and implements an efficient algorithm that solves the dynamical equations of the system. The efficiency and, hence, the computational speed is sufficient to make Darts++ suitable for use in realtime closed-loop simulations. Darts++ features an object-oriented software architecture that enables reconfiguration of system topology at run time; in contrast, in related prior software, system topology is fixed during initialization. Darts++ provides an interface to scripting languages, including Tcl and Python, that enable the user to configure and interact with simulation objects at run time.

  18. Langevin Equation for DNA Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grych, David; Copperman, Jeremy; Guenza, Marina

    Under physiological conditions, DNA oligomers can contain well-ordered helical regions and also flexible single-stranded regions. We describe the site-specific motion of DNA with a modified Rouse-Zimm Langevin equation formalism that describes DNA as a coarse-grained polymeric chain with global structure and local flexibility. The approach has successfully described the protein dynamics in solution and has been extended to nucleic acids. Our approach provides diffusive mode analytical solutions for the dynamics of global rotational diffusion and internal motion. The internal DNA dynamics present a rich energy landscape that accounts for an interior where hydrogen bonds and base-stacking determine structure and experience limited solvent exposure. We have implemented several models incorporating different coarse-grained sites with anisotropic rotation, energy barrier crossing, and local friction coefficients that include a unique internal viscosity and our models reproduce dynamics predicted by atomistic simulations. The models reproduce bond autocorrelation along the sequence as compared to that directly calculated from atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The Langevin equation approach captures the essence of DNA dynamics without a cumbersome atomistic representation.

  19. Quantization of Equations of Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kochan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Classical Newton-Lagrange equations of motion represent the fundamental physical law of mechanics. Their traditional Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian precursors when available are essential in the context of quantization. However, there are situations that lack Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian settings. This paper discusses a description of classical dynamics and presents some irresponsible speculations about its quantization by introducing a certain canonical two-form ?. By its construction ? embodies kinetic energy and forces acting within the system (not their potential. A new type of variational principle employing differential two-form ? is introduced. Variation is performed over “umbilical surfaces“ instead of system histories. It provides correct Newton-Lagrange equations of motion. The quantization is inspired by the Feynman path integral approach. The quintessence is to rearrange it into an “umbilical world-sheet“ functional integral in accordance with the proposed variational principle. In the case of potential-generated forces, the new approach reduces to the standard quantum mechanics. As an example, Quantum Mechanics with friction is analyzed in detail. 

  20. Solutions manual to accompany Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

  1. Homogenization of ordinary and linear transport equations

    OpenAIRE

    Peirone, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    The homogenization of first order ordinary differential equations in $\\mathbb{R}^N$ and associated linear transport equations are studied. We prove the equivalence between $G$-convergence and strong $G$-convergence for the ordinary equations. We give a sufficient condition, which is also necessary in the autonomous case, for the weak homogenization of the linear transport equations. This condition is satisfied when div$_x f=0$.

  2. Partial differential equations of mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sobolev, S L

    1964-01-01

    Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics emphasizes the study of second-order partial differential equations of mathematical physics, which is deemed as the foundation of investigations into waves, heat conduction, hydrodynamics, and other physical problems. The book discusses in detail a wide spectrum of topics related to partial differential equations, such as the theories of sets and of Lebesgue integration, integral equations, Green's function, and the proof of the Fourier method. Theoretical physicists, experimental physicists, mathematicians engaged in pure and applied math

  3. Some Aspects of Extended Kinetic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the pathway model of Mathai introduced in 2005 [Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 396, 317–328] we extend the standard kinetic equations. Connection of the extended kinetic equation with fractional calculus operator is established. The solution of the general form of the fractional kinetic equation is obtained through Laplace transform. The results for the standard kinetic equation are obtained as the limiting case.

  4. Loewner equations in multiply connected domains

    OpenAIRE

    Böhm, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The first goal of this thesis is to generalize Loewner's famous differential equation to multiply connected domains. The resulting differential equations are known as Komatu--Loewner differential equations. We discuss Komatu--Loewner equations for canonical domains (circular slit disks, circular slit annuli and parallel slit half-planes). Additionally, we give a generalisation to several slits and discuss parametrisations that lead to constant coefficients. Moreover, we compare Komatu--Loewne...

  5. Perturbative linearization of reaction-diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop perturbative expansions to obtain solutions for the initial-value problems of two important reaction-diffusion systems, namely the Fisher equation and the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. The starting point of our expansion is the corresponding singular-perturbation solution. This approach transforms the solution of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations into the solution of a hierarchy of linear equations. Our numerical results demonstrate that this hierarchy rapidly converges to the exact solution

  6. Comparison of properties of solutions of differential equations and recurrence equations with the same characteristic equation (on example of third order linear equations with constant coefficients)

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosław Mikołajski; Ewa Schmeidel

    2006-01-01

    Third order linear homogeneous differential and recurrence equations with constant coefficients are considered. We take the both equations with the same characteristic equation. We show that these equations (differential and recurrence) can have solutions with different properties concerning oscillation and boundedness. Especially the numbers of suitable types of solutions taken out from fundamental sets are presented. We give conditions under which the asymptotic properties considered are th...

  7. Nonlinear SCHRÖDINGER-PAULI Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wei Khim; Parwani, Rajesh R.

    2011-11-01

    We obtain novel nonlinear Schrüdinger-Pauli equations through a formal non-relativistic limit of appropriately constructed nonlinear Dirac equations. This procedure automatically provides a physical regularisation of potential singularities brought forward by the nonlinear terms and suggests how to regularise previous equations studied in the literature. The enhancement of contributions coming from the regularised singularities suggests that the obtained equations might be useful for future precision tests of quantum nonlinearity.

  8. Weierstrass solutions for dissipative BBM equation

    OpenAIRE

    Mancas, Stefan C.; Spradlin, Greg; Khanal, Harihar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the effect of a small dissipation on waves is included to find exact solutions to the modified BBM equation. Using Lyapunov functions and dynamical systems theory, we prove that when viscosity is added to the BBM equation, in certain regions there still exist bounded traveling wave solutions in the form of solitary waves, periodic, and elliptic functions. By using the canonical form of Abel equation, the polynomial Appell invariant make the equation integrable in terms of Weiers...

  9. Notes on the infinity Laplace equation

    CERN Document Server

    Lindqvist, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This BCAM SpringerBriefs is a treaty of the Infinity-Laplace Equation, which has inherited many features from the ordinary Laplace Equation, and is based on lectures by the author. The Infinity.Laplace Equation has delightful counterparts to the Dirichlet integral, the mean value property, the Brownian motion, Harnack's inequality, and so on. This "fully non-linear" equation has applications to image processing and to mass transfer problems, and it provides optimal Lipschitz extensions of boundary values.

  10. BOUNDARY CONTROL OF MKDV-BURGERS EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Li-xin; ZHAO Zhi-feng; WANG Jing-feng

    2006-01-01

    The boundary control of MKdV-Burgers equation was considered by feedback control on the domain [0,1]. The existence of the solution of MKdV-Burgers equation with the feedback control law was proved. On the base, priori estimates for the solution was given. At last, the existence of the weak solution of MKdV-Burgers equation was proved and the global-exponential and asymptotic stability of the solution of MKdV-Burgers equation was given.

  11. Soliton Equations with Self-Consistent Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2014-01-01

    We consider some soliton equations with self-consistent sources. A brief review of main SESCS is presented. In particular we construct the Heisenberg ferromagneic equation with self-consistent sources (HFESCS) which is integrable. The corresponding Lax representation is presented. Some properties of HFESCS are analyzed. The relation between soliton equations with self-consistent potentials and soliton equations with self-consistent sources is studied.

  12. Kinetic equation for a dense soliton gas

    OpenAIRE

    El, G. A.; Kamchatnov, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a general method to derive kinetic equations for dense soliton gases in physical systems described by integrable nonlinear wave equations. The kinetic equation describes evolution of the spectral distribution function of solitons due to soliton-soliton collisions. Owing to complete integrability of the soliton equations, only pairwise soliton interactions contribute to the solution and the evolution reduces to a transport of the eigenvalues of the associated spectral problem with t...

  13. Onsager equations and time dependent neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion of neutrons following an abrupt, localized temperature fluctuation can be conducted in the framework of Onsager-type transport equations. Considering Onsager equations as a generalized Fick's law, time-dependent particle and energy 'generalized diffusion equations' can be obtained. Aim of the present paper is to obtain the time-dependent diffusion Onsager-type equations for the diffusion of neutrons and to apply them to simple trial cases to gain a feeling for their behaviour. (author)

  14. Some Aspects of Extended Kinetic Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Dilip Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the pathway model of Mathai introduced in 2005 [Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 396, 317–328] we extend the standard kinetic equations. Connection of the extended kinetic equation with fractional calculus operator is established. The solution of the general form of the fractional kinetic equation is obtained through Laplace transform. The results for the standard kinetic equation are obtained as the limiting case.

  15. Some constant solutions to Zamolodchikov's tetrahedron equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hietarinta, Jarmo

    1992-01-01

    In this letter we present constant solutions to the tetrahedron equations proposed by Zamolodchikov. In general, from a given solution of the Yang-Baxter equation there are two ways to construct solutions to the tetrahedron equation. There are also other kinds of solutions. We present some two-dimensional solutions that were obtained by directly solving the equations using either an upper triangular or Zamolodchikov's ansatz.

  16. Introduction to differential equations with dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    Many textbooks on differential equations are written to be interesting to the teacher rather than the student. Introduction to Differential Equations with Dynamical Systems is directed toward students. This concise and up-to-date textbook addresses the challenges that undergraduate mathematics, engineering, and science students experience during a first course on differential equations. And, while covering all the standard parts of the subject, the book emphasizes linear constant coefficient equations and applications, including the topics essential to engineering students. Stephen Cam

  17. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuan-Liu; ZHANG Shun-Li; QU Chang-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  18. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuan-Liu; Zhang, Shun-Li; Qu, Chang-Zheng

    2007-06-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  19. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  20. The Modified Enskog Equation for Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Ernst, M.H.

    1973-01-01

    In a previous paper it was shown that a modified form of the Enskog equation, applied to mixtures of hard spheres, should be considered as the correct extension of the usual Enskog equation to the case of mixtures. The main argument was that the modified Enskog equation leads to linear transport coe

  1. Errors in equations for galaxy rotation speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Kenneth F.

    2003-01-01

    Shown are the errors and difficulties of the equations used for galaxy rotation speeds in the book "Galactic Dynamics" (Binney and Tremaine). A usable and accurate set of equations is then presented. The new equations allow easy determination of galaxy mass distribution from the rotation profile with no need for dark matter or any knowledge of galaxy surface light.

  2. TWO PROBLEMS OF HERMITE ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaug Feirain

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates some Hermite elliptic equations in a modified Sobolev space introduced by X. Ding [2]. First, the author shows the existence of a ground state solution of semilinear Hermite elliptic equation. Second, the author studies the eigenvalue problem of linear Hermite elliptic equation in a bounded or unbounded domain.

  3. Some Functional Equations Originating from Number Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soon-Mo Jung; Jae-Hyeong Bae

    2003-05-01

    We will introduce new functional equations (3) and (4) which are strongly related to well-known formulae (1) and (2) of number theory, and investigate the solutions of the equations. Moreover, we will also study some stability problems of those equations.

  4. Multi component equations of state for electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yi; Thomsen, Kaj; de Hemptinne, Jean-Charles

    2007-01-01

    Four equations of state have been implemented and evaluated for multi component electrolyte solutions at 298.15K and 1 bar. The equations contain terms accounting for short-range and long-range interactions in electrolyte solutions. Short range interactions are described by one of the three equat...

  5. Equations of state for light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equations of state for light water were developed, based on the tables of Keenan and Keyes. Equations are presented, describing the specific volume, internal energy, enthalpy and entropy of saturated steam, superheated vapor and subcooled liquid as a function of pressure and temperature. For each property, several equations are shown, with different precisions and different degress of complexity. (Author)

  6. A new analogue of Gauss' functional equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistocles M. Rassias

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Gauss established a theory on the functional equation (Gauss' functional equation f(a+b2,ab=f(a,b  (a,b>0, where f:R+×R+→R is an unknown function of the above equation.

  7. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  8. The Schrodinger equation and negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, S

    2008-01-01

    We present a nonrelativistic wave equation for the electron in (3+1)-dimensions which includes negative-energy eigenstates. We solve this equation for three well-known instances, reobtaining the corresponding Pauli equation (but including negative-energy eigenstates) in each case.

  9. Some new modular equations and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinhee; Sim, Hyo Seob

    2006-07-01

    Ramanujan derived 23 beautiful eta-function identities, which are certain types of modular equations. We found more than 70 of certain types of modular equations by using Garvan's Maple q-series package. In this paper, we prove some new modular equations which we found by employing the theory of modular form and we give some applications for them.

  10. Multicomponent nonisothermal nucleation. 1. Kinetic equation

    OpenAIRE

    Kurasov, Victor

    1999-01-01

    The first part of the theory for the multicomponent nonisothermal nucleation is presented. On the base of analysis of the elementary acts of interation between an embryo and environment the kinetic equation is derived. This equation will be solved later and gives the nucleation rate for nonisothermal nucleation in the system with many condensating components. The orders of operators in this equation are estimated.

  11. Differential Galois Theory of Linear Difference Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, Charlotte; Singer, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a Galois theory of difference equations designed to measure the differential dependencies among solutions of linear difference equations. With this we are able to reprove Hoelder's Theorem that the Gamma function satisfies no polynomial differential equation and are able to give general results that imply, for example, that no differential relationship holds among solutions of certain classes of q-hypergeometric functions.

  12. Difference Galois theory of linear differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Di Vizio, Lucia; Hardouin, Charlotte; Wibmer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We develop a Galois theory for linear differential equations equipped with the action of an endomorphism. This theory is aimed at studying the difference algebraic relations among the solutions of a linear differential equation. The Galois groups here are linear difference algebraic groups, i.e., matrix groups defined by algebraic difference equations.

  13. Non RG logarithms via RG equations

    OpenAIRE

    Malyshev, Dmitry

    2004-01-01

    We compute complete leading logarithms in $\\Phi^4$ theory with the help of Connes and Kreimer RG equations. These equations are defined in the Lie algebra dual to the Hopf algebra of graphs. The results are compared with calculations in parquet approximation. An interpretation of the new RG equations is discussed.

  14. Invalidity of the spectral Fokker-Planck equation forCauchy noise driven Langevin equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The standard Langevin equation is a first order stochastic differential equation where the driving noise term is a Brownian motion. The marginal probability density is a solution to a linear partial differential equation called the Fokker-Planck equation. If the Brownian motion is replaced by so......-called alpha-stable noise (or Levy noise) the Fokker-Planck equation no longer exists as a partial differential equation for the probability density because the property of finite variance is lost. In stead it has been attempted to formulate an equation for the characteristic function (the Fourier transform......) corresponding to the density function. This equation is frequently called the spectral Fokker-Planck equation. This paper raises doubt about the validity of the spectral Fokker/Planck equation in its standard formulation. The equation can be solved with respect to stationary solutions in the particular case...

  15. Dual Isomonodromic Problems and Whitham Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Takasaki, K

    1997-01-01

    The author's recent results on an asymptotic description of the Schlesinger equation are generalized to the JMMS equation. As in the case of the Schlesinger equation, the JMMS equation is reformulated to include a small parameter $\\epsilon$. By the method of multiscale analysis, the isomonodromic problem is approximated by slow modulations of an isospectral problem. A modulation equation of this slow dynamics is proposed, and shown to possess a number of properties similar to the Seiberg- Witten solutions of low energy supersymmetric gauge theories.

  16. Binomial moment equations for stochastic reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzel, Baruch; Biham, Ofer

    2011-04-15

    A highly efficient formulation of moment equations for stochastic reaction networks is introduced. It is based on a set of binomial moments that capture the combinatorics of the reaction processes. The resulting set of equations can be easily truncated to include moments up to any desired order. The number of equations is dramatically reduced compared to the master equation. This formulation enables the simulation of complex reaction networks, involving a large number of reactive species much beyond the feasibility limit of any existing method. It provides an equation-based paradigm to the analysis of stochastic networks, complementing the commonly used Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:21568538

  17. The Dirac equation and its solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dirac equation is of fundamental importance for relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. In relativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac equation is referred to as one-particle wave equation of motion for electron in an external electromagnetic field. In quantum electrodynamics, exact solutions of this equation are needed to treat the interaction between the electron and the external field exactly. In particular, all propagators of a particle, i.e., the various Green's functions, are constructed in a certain way by using exact solutions of the Dirac equation.

  18. On physical equation of porous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors offer simple-to-use physical equations of porous body in the framework of the associated law of flow. The equations meet the conditions of cylindrical type flow known in the theory of porous body plasticity. The equations offered are compared with the physical equations meeting the conditions of elliptical type flow. They were applied in modeling the process of press titanium sponge. Together with the physical equations offered, the mathematical tools and the experimental procedure to model the processes of pressing the non-compacted raw material blanks are proposed too

  19. The Dirac equation and its solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrov, Vladislav G

    2014-01-01

    Dirac equations are of fundamental importance for relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. In relativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac equation is referred to as one-particle wave equation of motion for electron in an external electromagnetic field. In quantum electrodynamics, exact solutions of this equation are needed to treat the interaction between the electron and the external field exactly.In particular, all propagators of a particle, i.e., the various Green's functions, are constructed in a certain way by using exact solutions of the Dirac equation.

  20. Quadratic field equations on the brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that four-dimensional vacuum Einstein solutions simply embedded in five dimensions obey the Gauss-Bonnet-Einstein field equations: Gab+ αGBab + δ55abαexp[-2χ/√α]GB4 = 0 and the Pauli-Einstein equations Gab - 3αPab/5 = 0, and the Bach-Einstein equations Bab = 0. General equations are calculated for which these and similar results follow. It is briefly argued that such field equations could be significant on large distance scales.

  1. First integrals of difference Hamiltonian equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, the well-known Noether's identity, which represents the connection between symmetries and first integrals of Euler-Lagrange equations, is rewritten in terms of the Hamiltonian function. This approach, based on the Hamiltonian identity, provides a simple and clear way to find first integrals of canonical Hamiltonian equations without integration. A discrete analog of the Hamiltonian identity is developed. It leads to a connection between symmetries and first integrals of difference Hamiltonian equations that can be used to conserve the structural properties of Hamiltonian equations under discretizaton. The results are illustrated by a number of examples for both continuous and difference Hamiltonian equations.

  2. Some Recent Advances in Partial Difference Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Petropoulou, Eugenia N

    2010-01-01

    Lately there is an increasing interest in partial difference equations demonstrated by the enormous amount of research papers devoted to them. The initial reason for this increasing interest was the development of computers and the area of numerical analysis, where partial difference equations arise naturally when discretizing a partial differential equation. The aim of this e-book is to provide some recent advances in the field of partial difference equations. Applications of partial difference equations in numerical analysis and systems theory are also presented. This e-book will be of use t

  3. The Numerical Approximation of Functional Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Venturi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental importance of functional differential equations has been recognized in many areas of mathematical physics, such as fluid dynamics (Hopf characteristic functional equations), quantum field theory (Schwinger-Dyson equations) and statistical physics (equations for generating functionals and effective action methods). However, no effective numerical method has yet been developed to compute their solution. The purpose of this manuscript is to fill this gap, and provide a new perspective on the problem of numerical approximation of nonlinear functionals and functional differential equations. The proposed methods will be described and demonstrated in various examples.

  4. Equation of state of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new, wide-range equation of state (EOS) has been constructed for Be. The composite theoretical model incorporates ionization equilibrium and condensed-matter and multiphase physics. It also satisfies all thermodynamic equilibrium constraints. The theoretical EOS has been compared with all available high-pressure and high-temperature Be data, and satisfactory agreement is generally achieved. The most interesting feature is the theoretical prediction of melting at just below 220 GPa (2 Mb), indicating an extremely wide pressure range for solid Be. A striking feature is the appearance of shell-structure effects in physical-process paths: 2 large loops appear on the principal Hugoniot and the behavior of release isentropes from rho = rho0 is significantly affected

  5. Model Equations: "Black Box" Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    Black box reconstruction is both the most difficult and the most tempting modelling problem when any prior information about an appropriate model structure is lacking. An intriguing thing is that a model capable of reproducing an observed behaviour or predicting further evolution should be obtained only from an observed time series, i.e. "from nothing" at first sight. Chances for a success are not large. Even more so, a "good" model would become a valuable tool to characterise an object and understand its dynamics. Lack of prior information causes one to utilise universal model structures, e.g. artificial neural networks, radial basis functions and algebraic polynomials are included in the right-hand sides of dynamical model equations. Such models are often multi-dimensional and involve quite many free parameters.

  6. The equations of medieval cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Buonanno, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    In Dantean cosmography the Universe is described as a series of concentric spheres with all the known planets embedded in their rotation motion, the Earth located at the centre and Lucifer at the centre of the Earth. Beyond these "celestial spheres", Dante represents the "angelic choirs" as other nine spheres surrounding God. The rotation velocity increases with decreasing distance from God, that is with increasing Power (Virtu'). We show that, adding Power as an additional fourth dimension to space, the modern equations governing the expansion of a closed Universe (i. e. with the density parameter \\Omega_0>1) in the space-time, can be applied to the medieval Universe as imaged by Dante in his Divine Comedy. In this representation the Cosmos acquires a unique description and Lucifer is not located at the centre of the hyperspheres.

  7. The equations of medieval cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Roberto; Quercellini, Claudia

    2009-04-01

    In Dantean cosmography the Universe is described as a series of concentric spheres with all the known planets embedded in their rotation motion, the Earth located at the centre and Lucifer at the centre of the Earth. Beyond these "celestial spheres", Dante represents the "angelic choirs" as other nine spheres surrounding God. The rotation velocity increases with decreasing distance from God, that is with increasing Power (Virtù). We show that, adding Power as an additional fourth dimension to space, the modern equations governing the expansion of a closed Universe (i.e. with the density parameter Ω0 > 1) in the space-time, can be applied to the medieval Universe as imaged by Dante in his Divine Comedy. In this representation, the Cosmos acquires a unique description and Lucifer is not located at the centre of the hyperspheres.

  8. An introduction to differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ladde, Anil G

    2012-01-01

    This is a twenty-first century book designed to meet the challenges of understanding and solving interdisciplinary problems. The book creatively incorporates "cutting-edge" research ideas and techniques at the undergraduate level. The book also is a unique research resource for undergraduate/graduate students and interdisciplinary researchers. It emphasizes and exhibits the importance of conceptual understandings and its symbiotic relationship in the problem solving process. The book is proactive in preparing for the modeling of dynamic processes in various disciplines. It introduces a "break-down-the problem" type of approach in a way that creates "fun" and "excitement". The book presents many learning tools like "step-by-step procedures (critical thinking)", the concept of "math" being a language, applied examples from diverse fields, frequent recaps, flowcharts and exercises. Uniquely, this book introduces an innovative and unified method of solving nonlinear scalar differential equations. This is called ...

  9. Stochastic integration and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Protter, Philip E

    2003-01-01

    It has been 15 years since the first edition of Stochastic Integration and Differential Equations, A New Approach appeared, and in those years many other texts on the same subject have been published, often with connections to applications, especially mathematical finance. Yet in spite of the apparent simplicity of approach, none of these books has used the functional analytic method of presenting semimartingales and stochastic integration. Thus a 2nd edition seems worthwhile and timely, though it is no longer appropriate to call it "a new approach". The new edition has several significant changes, most prominently the addition of exercises for solution. These are intended to supplement the text, but lemmas needed in a proof are never relegated to the exercises. Many of the exercises have been tested by graduate students at Purdue and Cornell Universities. Chapter 3 has been completely redone, with a new, more intuitive and simultaneously elementary proof of the fundamental Doob-Meyer decomposition theorem, t...

  10. Structural equation modeling in epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Denise Alves Ferreira Amorim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation modeling (SEM is an important statistical tool for evaluating complex relations in several research areas. In epidemiology, the use and discussion of SEM have been limited thus far. This article presents basic principles and concepts in SEM, including an application using epidemiological data analysis from a study on the determinants of cognitive development in young children, considering constructs related to organization of the child's home environment, parenting style, and the child's health status. The relations between the constructs and cognitive development were measured. The results showed a positive association between psychosocial stimulus at home and cognitive development in young children. The article presents the contributions by SEM to epidemiology, highlighting the need for an a priori theoretical model for improving the study of epidemiological questions from a new perspective.

  11. Sobolev gradients and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, John William

    1997-01-01

    A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional is a gradient of that functional taken relative to the underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. Equal emphasis is placed on numerical and theoretical matters. Several concrete applications are made to illustrate the method. These applications include (1) Ginzburg-Landau functionals of superconductivity, (2) problems of transonic flow in which type depends locally on nonlinearities, and (3) minimal surface problems. Sobolev gradient constructions rely on a study of orthogonal projections onto graphs of closed densely defined linear transformations from one Hilbert space to another. These developments use work of Weyl, von Neumann and Beurling.

  12. Inferring Mathematical Equations Using Crowdsourcing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Wasik

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing, understood as outsourcing work to a large network of people in the form of an open call, has been utilized successfully many times, including a very interesting concept involving the implementation of computer games with the objective of solving a scientific problem by employing users to play a game-so-called crowdsourced serious games. Our main objective was to verify whether such an approach could be successfully applied to the discovery of mathematical equations that explain experimental data gathered during the observation of a given dynamic system. Moreover, we wanted to compare it with an approach based on artificial intelligence that uses symbolic regression to find such formulae automatically. To achieve this, we designed and implemented an Internet game in which players attempt to design a spaceship representing an equation that models the observed system. The game was designed while considering that it should be easy to use for people without strong mathematical backgrounds. Moreover, we tried to make use of the collective intelligence observed in crowdsourced systems by enabling many players to collaborate on a single solution. The idea was tested on several hundred players playing almost 10,000 games and conducting a user opinion survey. The results prove that the proposed solution has very high potential. The function generated during weeklong tests was almost as precise as the analytical solution of the model of the system and, up to a certain complexity level of the formulae, it explained data better than the solution generated automatically by Eureqa, the leading software application for the implementation of symbolic regression. Moreover, we observed benefits of using crowdsourcing; the chain of consecutive solutions that led to the best solution was obtained by the continuous collaboration of several players.

  13. Inferring Mathematical Equations Using Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Szymon; Fratczak, Filip; Krzyskow, Jakub; Wulnikowski, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing, understood as outsourcing work to a large network of people in the form of an open call, has been utilized successfully many times, including a very interesting concept involving the implementation of computer games with the objective of solving a scientific problem by employing users to play a game-so-called crowdsourced serious games. Our main objective was to verify whether such an approach could be successfully applied to the discovery of mathematical equations that explain experimental data gathered during the observation of a given dynamic system. Moreover, we wanted to compare it with an approach based on artificial intelligence that uses symbolic regression to find such formulae automatically. To achieve this, we designed and implemented an Internet game in which players attempt to design a spaceship representing an equation that models the observed system. The game was designed while considering that it should be easy to use for people without strong mathematical backgrounds. Moreover, we tried to make use of the collective intelligence observed in crowdsourced systems by enabling many players to collaborate on a single solution. The idea was tested on several hundred players playing almost 10,000 games and conducting a user opinion survey. The results prove that the proposed solution has very high potential. The function generated during weeklong tests was almost as precise as the analytical solution of the model of the system and, up to a certain complexity level of the formulae, it explained data better than the solution generated automatically by Eureqa, the leading software application for the implementation of symbolic regression. Moreover, we observed benefits of using crowdsourcing; the chain of consecutive solutions that led to the best solution was obtained by the continuous collaboration of several players. PMID:26713846

  14. Exact solution to fractional logistic equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J.

    2015-07-01

    The logistic equation is one of the most familiar nonlinear differential equations in the biological and social sciences. Herein we provide an exact solution to an extension of this equation to incorporate memory through the use of fractional derivatives in time. The solution to the fractional logistic equation (FLE) is obtained using the Carleman embedding technique that allows the nonlinear equation to be replaced by an infinite-order set of linear equations, which we then solve exactly. The formal series expansion for the initial value solution of the FLE is shown to be expressed in terms of a series of weighted Mittag-Leffler functions that reduces to the well known analytic solution in the limit where the fractional index for the derivative approaches unity. The numerical integration to the FLE provides an excellent fit to the analytic solution. We propose this approach as a general technique for solving a class of nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  15. 10. Exploring the Conformal Constraint Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butscher, Adrian

    One method of studying the asymptotic structure of spacetime is to apply Penrose's conformal rescaling technique. In this setting, the rescaled Einstein equations for the metric and the conformal factor in the unphysical spacetime degenerate where the conformal factor vanishes, namely at the boundary representing null infinity. This problem can be avoided by means of a technique of H. Friedrich, which replaces the Einstein equations in the unphysical spacetime by an equivalent system of equations which is regular at the boundary. The initial value problem for these equations produces a system of constraint equations known as the conformal constraint equations. This work describes some of the properties of the conformal constraint equations and develops a perturbative method of generating solutions near Euclidean space under certain simplifying assumptions.

  16. A New Route to the Majorana Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart Marsch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest an alternative strategy to derive the complex two-component Majorana equation with a mass term and elucidate the related Lorentz transformation. The Majorana equation is established completely on its own, rather than derived from the chiral Dirac equation. Thereby, use is made of the complex conjugation operator and Pauli spin matrices only. The eigenfunctions of the two-component complex Majorana equation are also calculated. The associated quantum fields are found to describe particles and antiparticles, which have opposite mean helicities and are not their own antiparticles, but correspond to two independent degrees of freedom. The four-component real Dirac equation in its Majorana representation is shown to be the natural outcome of the two-component complex Majorana equation. Both types of equations come in two forms, which correspond to the irreducible left- and right-chiral representations of the Lorentz group.

  17. An Exact Mapping from Navier-Stokes Equation to Schrodinger Equation via Riccati EquationAn Exact Mapping from Navier-Stokes Equation to Schrodinger Equation via Riccati Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Christianto V.; Smarandache F.

    2008-01-01

    In the present article we argue that it is possible to write down Schrodinger representation of Navier-Stokes equation via Riccati equation. The proposed approach, while differs appreciably from other method such as what is proposed by R.M.Kiehn, has an advantage, i.e. it enables us extend further to quaternionic and biquaternionic version of Navier-Stokes equation, for instance via Kravchenko's and Gibbon's route. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this...

  18. Difference equations and cluster algebras I: Poisson bracket for integrable difference equations

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Rei

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the cluster algebraic formulation of the integrable difference equations, the discrete Lotka-Volterra equation and the discrete Liouville equation, from the view point of the general T-system and Y-system. We also study the Poisson structure for the cluster algebra, and give the associated Poisson bracket for the two difference equations.

  19. Application of the trial equation method for solving some nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yusuf Gurefe; Abdullah Sonmezoglu; Emine Misirli

    2011-12-01

    In this paper some exact solutions including soliton solutions for the KdV equation with dual power law nonlinearity and the (, ) equation with generalized evolution are obtained using the trial equation method. Also a more general trial equation method is proposed.

  20. The properties of the first equation of the Vlasov chain of equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelkin, E. E.; Sadovnikov, B. I.; Inozemtseva, N. G.

    2015-05-01

    A derivation of the first Vlasov equation as a well-known Schrödinger equation for the probabilistic description of a system and families of the classic diffusion equations and heat conduction for the deterministic description of physical systems was inferred. A physical meaning of the phase of the wave function which is a scalar potential of the probabilistic flow velocity is demonstrated. Occurrence of the velocity potential vortex component leads to the Pauli equation for one of the spinar components. A scheme for the construction of the Schrödinger equation solution from the Vlasov equation solution and vice-versa is shown. A process of introduction of the potential to the Schrödinger equation and its interpretation are given. The analysis of the potential properties gives us the Maxwell equation, the equation of the kinematic point movement, and the equation for movement of the medium within electromagnetic fields.

  1. Dust levitation about Itokawa's equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-07-01

    levitation about Itokawa, we must include accurate plasma and gravity models. We use a 2D PIC code (described in [8]) to model the plasma environment about Itokawa's equator. The plasma model includes photoemission and shadowing. Thus, we model the plasma environment for various solar incidence angles. The plasma model gives us the 2D electric field components and the plasma potential. We model the gravity field around the equatorial cross-section using an Interior Gravity model [9]. The gravity model is based on the shape model acquired by the Hayabusa mission team and, unlike other models, is quick and accurate close to the surface of the body. Due to the nonspherical shape of Itokawa, the electrostatic force and the gravity may not be collinear. Given our accurate plasma and gravity environments, we are able to simulate the trajectories of dust grains about the equator of Itokawa. When modeling the trajectories of the grains, the current to the grains is calculated using Nitter et al.'s formulation [10] with the plasma sheath parameters provided by our PIC model (i.e., the potential minimum, the potential at the surface, and the sheath type). Additionally, we are able to numerically locate the equilibria about which dust grains may levitate. Interestingly, we observe that equilibria exist for grains up to 20 microns in radius about Itokawa's equator when the Sun is illuminating Itokawa's 'otter tail'. This grain size is significantly larger than the stably levitating grains we observed using our 1D plasma and gravity models. Conclusions and Future Work: The possibility of dust levitation above asteroids has implications both for our understanding of their evolution and for the design of future missions to these bodies. Using detailed gravity and plasma models, we are above to propagate the trajectories of dust particles about Itokawa's equator and identify the equilibria about which these grains will levitate. Using these simulations, we see that grains up to 20 microns

  2. Averaging Theorems for Ordinary Differential Equations and Retarded Functional Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Lakrib, Mustapha; Sari, Tewfik

    2006-01-01

    We prove averaging theorems for ordinary differential equations and retarded functional differential equations. Our assumptions are weaker than those required in the results of the existing literature. Usually, we require that the nonautonomous differential equation and the autonomous averaged equation are locally Lipschitz and that the solutions of both equations exist on some interval. We extend this result to the case of vector fields which are continuous in the spatial variable uniformly ...

  3. New Type of Soliton Equation Described Some Statistical Distributions and Nonlinear Equations Unified Quantum Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yi-Fang

    2009-01-01

    We proposed a new type of soliton equation, whose solutions may describe some statistical distributions, for example, Cauchy distribution, normal distribution and student distribution, etc. The equation possesses two characters. Further, from an extension of this type of equation we may obtain the exponential distribution, and the Fermi-Dirac distribution in quantum statistics. Moreover, by using the method of the soliton-solution, the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation and nonlinear Dirac equat...

  4. The telegraph equation in charged particle transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, T. I.; Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.; Lorencz, K.; Williams, L. L.

    1993-01-01

    We present a new derivation of the telegraph equation which modifies its coefficients. First, an infinite order partial differential equation is obtained for the velocity space solid angle-averaged phase-space distribution of particles which underwent at least a few collisions. It is shown that, in the lowest order asymptotic expansion, this equation simplifies to the well-known diffusion equation. The second-order asymptotic expansion for isotropic small-angle scattering results in a modified telegraph equation with a signal propagation speed of v(5/11) exp 1/2 instead of the usual v/3 exp 1/2. Our derivation of a modified telegraph equation follows from an expansion of the Boltzmann equation in the relevant smallness parameters and not from a truncation of an eigenfunction expansion. This equation is consistent with causality. It is shown that, under steady state conditions in a convecting plasma, the telegraph equation may be regarded as a diffusion equation with a modified transport coefficient, which describes a combination of diffusion and cosmic-ray inertia.

  5. Mathematical aspects of classical nonlinear field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these notes we review some important advances in the mathematical analysis of classical nonlinear field equations. Our particular interest will be devoted to the nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation. Since specifically nonlinear phenomena only become evident in the long-time behavior we are mainly concerned with global results rather than with solutions of these equations for a short time. We start with a thorough discussion of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation and its application to the theory of lasers and its bound states. In the following we study the general question of the existence of solutions of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation and other relativistic wave equations. The next section outlines the importance of the conservation laws which follow from the invariance properties of the equations. Special consideration is given to the Yang-Mills equations. The final section exposes a discussion of scattering theory mainly in the context of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation and summarizes the exciting development in recent years which has taken place in the nonlinear inverse scattering problem. (HJ)

  6. Comportamento higroscópico de partes aéreas de pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina de L. O. C. e Silva; Lênio J. G. de Faria; Cristiane M. L. Costa

    2015-01-01

    Isotermas de dessorção de pimenta-de-macaco foram determinadas pelo método gravimétrico estático nas temperaturas de 35, 45 e 55 ºC, com umidade relativa variando de 5,5-81%. Três modelos matemáticos foram aplicados para analisar os dados experimentais. O modelo de GAB modificado apresentou o melhor ajuste aos dados experimentais. O calor isostérico e a entropia diferencial foram determinados pela aplicação das equações de Clausius-Clapeyron e Gibbs-Helmholtz, respectivamente. O calor isostér...

  7. Stability analysis of ecomorphodynamic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärenbold, F.; Crouzy, B.; Perona, P.

    2016-02-01

    In order to shed light on the influence of riverbed vegetation on river morphodynamics, we perform a linear stability analysis on a minimal model of vegetation dynamics coupled with classical one- and two-dimensional Saint-Venant-Exner equations of morphodynamics. Vegetation is modeled as a density field of rigid, nonsubmerged cylinders and affects flow via a roughness change. Furthermore, vegetation is assumed to develop following a logistic dependence and may be uprooted by flow. First, we perform the stability analysis of the reduced one-dimensional framework. As a result of the competitive interaction between vegetation growth and removal through uprooting, we find a domain in the parameter space where originally straight rivers are unstable toward periodic longitudinal patterns. For realistic values of the sediment transport parameter, the dominant longitudinal wavelength is determined by the parameters of the vegetation model. Bed topography is found to adjust to the spatial pattern fixed by vegetation. Subsequently, the stability analysis is repeated for the two-dimensional framework, where the system may evolve toward alternate or multiple bars. On a fixed bed, we find instability toward alternate bars due to flow-vegetation interaction, but no multiple bars. Both alternate and multiple bars are present on a movable, vegetated bed. Finally, we find that the addition of vegetation to a previously unvegetated riverbed favors instability toward alternate bars and thus the development of a single course rather than braiding.

  8. Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Butcher, John C

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the study of numerical methods for solving ordinary differential equations has seen many new developments. This second edition of the author''s pioneering text is fully revised and updated to acknowledge many of these developments.  It includes a complete treatment of linear multistep methods whilst maintaining its unique and comprehensive emphasis on Runge-Kutta methods and general linear methods. Although the specialist topics are taken to an advanced level, the entry point to the volume as a whole is not especially demanding.  Early chapters provide a wide-ranging introduction to differential equations and difference equations together with a survey of numerical differential equation methods, based on the fundamental Euler method with more sophisticated methods presented as generalizations of Euler. Features of the book includeIntroductory work on differential and difference equations.A comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of solving ordinary differential equations numeri...

  9. Stochastic differential equation model to Prendiville processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granita, E-mail: granitafc@gmail.com [Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Malaysia (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Malaysia (Malaysia); UTM Center for Industrial & Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM) (Malaysia)

    2015-10-22

    The Prendiville process is another variation of the logistic model which assumes linearly decreasing population growth rate. It is a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) taking integer values in the finite interval. The continuous time Markov chain can be approximated by stochastic differential equation (SDE). This paper discusses the stochastic differential equation of Prendiville process. The work started with the forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain of Prendiville process. Then it was formulated in the form of a central-difference approximation. The approximation was then used in Fokker-Planck equation in relation to the stochastic differential equation of the Prendiville process. The explicit solution of the Prendiville process was obtained from the stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the mean and variance function of the Prendiville process could be easily found from the explicit solution.

  10. A state estimation of Liu equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananyev, B. I.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is concerned with state estimation problems for so-called Liu equations. These equations are counterparts of well-known Ito ones and they were introduced by B. Liu under elaboration of his uncertain theory. The Liu equations may be solved backward and they represent a more convenient object for the state estimation problem solution especially for the case when distributions of disturbances are unknown. Using the dynamic programming principle, we derive an equation for the informational set consisting of all states that are compatible with measuring data. Special cases of Liu equations and constraints for disturbances are examined. Among them the linear equations with quadratic constraints are considered in most details. Some examples are also given.

  11. Diffusion phenomenon for linear dissipative wave equations

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we prove the diffusion phenomenon for the linear wave equation. To derive the diffusion phenomenon, a new method is used. In fact, for initial data in some weighted spaces, we prove that for {equation presented} decays with the rate {equation presented} [0,1] faster than that of either u or v, where u is the solution of the linear wave equation with initial data {equation presented} [0,1], and v is the solution of the related heat equation with initial data v 0 = u 0 + u 1. This result improves the result in H. Yang and A. Milani [Bull. Sci. Math. 124 (2000), 415-433] in the sense that, under the above restriction on the initial data, the decay rate given in that paper can be improved by t -γ/2. © European Mathematical Society.

  12. Stochastic differential equation model to Prendiville processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Prendiville process is another variation of the logistic model which assumes linearly decreasing population growth rate. It is a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) taking integer values in the finite interval. The continuous time Markov chain can be approximated by stochastic differential equation (SDE). This paper discusses the stochastic differential equation of Prendiville process. The work started with the forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain of Prendiville process. Then it was formulated in the form of a central-difference approximation. The approximation was then used in Fokker-Planck equation in relation to the stochastic differential equation of the Prendiville process. The explicit solution of the Prendiville process was obtained from the stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the mean and variance function of the Prendiville process could be easily found from the explicit solution

  13. Large lattice fractional Fokker–Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equation of long-range particle drift and diffusion on a 3D physical lattice is suggested. This equation can be considered as a lattice analog of the space-fractional Fokker–Planck equation for continuum. The lattice approach gives a possible microstructural basis for anomalous diffusion in media that are characterized by the non-locality of power law type. In continuum limit the suggested 3D lattice Fokker–Planck equations give fractional Fokker–Planck equations for continuous media with power law non-locality that is described by derivatives of non-integer orders. The consistent derivation of the fractional Fokker–Planck equation is proposed as a new basis to describe space-fractional diffusion processes. (paper)

  14. Fokker–Planck equation on fractal curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Fokker–Planck equation on fractal curves is obtained, starting from Chapmann–Kolmogorov equation on fractal curves. This is done using the recently developed calculus on fractals, which allows one to write differential equations on fractal curves. As an important special case, the diffusion and drift coefficients are obtained, for a suitable transition probability to get the diffusion equation on fractal curves. This equation is of first order in time, and, in space variable it involves derivatives of order α, α being the dimension of the curve. An exact solution of this equation with localized initial condition shows departure from ordinary diffusive behavior due to underlying fractal space in which diffusion is taking place and manifests a subdiffusive behavior. We further point out that the dimension of the fractal path can be estimated from the distribution function

  15. Multigrid method for nonlinear poroelasticity equations

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, P.; Rodrigo, C.; Gaspar, F. J.; Oosterlee, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a nonlinear multigrid method is applied for solving the system of incompressible poroelasticity equations considering nonlinear hydraulic conductivity. For the unsteady problem, an additional artificial term is utilized to stabilize the solutions when the equations are discretized on collocated grids. We employ two nonlinear multigrid methods, i.e. the “full approximation scheme” and “Newton multigrid” for solving the corresponding system of equations arising after discretizati...

  16. Introducing Equational Semantics for Argumentation Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbay, Dov M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides equational semantics for Dung’s argumentation networks. The network nodes get numerical values in [0,1], and are supposed to satisfy certain equations. The solutions to these equations correspond to the “extensions” of the network. This approach is very general and includes the Caminada labelling as a special case, as well as many other so-called network extensions, support systems, higher level attacks, Boolean networks, dependence on time, etc, etc. ...

  17. Equation of state of HE detonation products

    OpenAIRE

    Nadykto B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Computational analysis of steady-state HE detonation parameters is possible if one knows the equation of state of detonation products and thermal energy released at the Jouget point during detonation. There are a number of equations of state of HE detonation products that result from different assumptions concerning detonated material conditions. The paper considers one more version of the equation of state for HE detonation products.

  18. Partial differential equations of parabolic type

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2008-01-01

    This accessible and self-contained treatment provides even readers previously unacquainted with parabolic and elliptic equations with sufficient background to understand research literature. Author Avner Friedman - Director of the Mathematical Biosciences Institute at The Ohio State University - offers a systematic and thorough approach that begins with the main facts of the general theory of second order linear parabolic equations. Subsequent chapters explore asymptotic behavior of solutions, semi-linear equations and free boundary problems, and the extension of results concerning fundamenta

  19. Some remarks on first order wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First order wave equations are presented. Formalizm based on spin projection operators is given and written are the conditions following from the Lorentz invariance and other requirements. Some recently proposed equations and comments on some principles are analysed. The following topics are covered: relativistic invariance, β0-matrix, Harish-Chandra's and Umezawa-Visconti conditions, new s=1/2 equations, space reflections, derivability from lagrangian, definiteness of energy and charge, multiple representations

  20. Estimating Structural Change in Linear Simultaneous Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Weihong; Zhang Yang

    2004-01-01

    Tests and estimation for changes in the coefficients of linear regression models, particularly the analysis of covariance and the Chow tests, are well known to econometricians and are widely used. This paper demonstrates that analogous estimation can also be constructed in simultaneous equation models when equations are estimated by common estimator like OLS, 2SLS and LIML. In the present paper, we discuss the problem of estimating structural changes in equations from a simultaneous structura...